|United States of America||Herbert Hoover (1874-1964)||Mar. 4, 1929||Mar. 4, 1933|
|United Kingdom||Ramsay MacDonald (1866-1937)||June 5, 1929||June 7, 1935|
|United Kingdom||George V (1865-1936)||May 6, 1910||Jan. 20, 1936|
|Soviet Union||Joseph Stalin (1878-1953)||Apr. 3, 1922||Mar. 5, 1953|
|France||Pierre Paul Henri Gaston Doumergue (1863-1937)||June 13, 1924||June 13, 1931|
|Germany||Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934)||May 12, 1925||August 2, 1934|
|Italy||Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)||Oct. 31, 1922||July 25, 1943|
|Spain||Alfonso XIII (1886-1941)||May 17, 1886||Apr. 14, 1931|
|China||Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975)||Oct. 10, 1928||Dec. 15, 1931|
|Canada||William Lyon Mackenzie King (1874-1950)||Sept. 25, 1926||Aug. 6, 1930|
|Japan||Emperor Hirohito (1901-89)||Dec. 25, 1926||Jan. 7, 1989|
|Mexico||Emilio Portes Gil (1890-1978)||Dec. 1, 1928||Feb. 4, 1930|
|Papacy||Pope Pius XI (1857-1939)||Feb. 6, 1922||Feb. 10, 1939|
1930 Chinese Year: Horse. Time Mag. Man of the Year: Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948). World pop.: 2B (a gain of 1B in 130 years); China 410M, India 338M, U.S.S.R. 168M, Germany 64M, Britain 46M; the Japanese pop. increase peaks at 15.3 per thousand (1M per year), declining to 14.4 in 1935, causing Japan's pop. to reach 69.2M in 1935, double that of 1872 (34.8) - time for a little warry war war war? The Fifteenth (15th) (1930) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 122,775,046 (16.1% increase) in a land area of 2,977,128 sq. mi. (41.2 per sq. mi); whites reach 89.8% of the total pop., the highest ever; pop. of Washington, D.C.: 485K; 87% of U.S. farms don't have electricity. This year over 1.3K U.S. banks fail, and unemployment tops 4M; 34M (28% of the pop.) are without any income. By this year there are 2,836 federal prohibition agents, drawing salaries from $2.3K to $2.8K, and feasting on over 500 gangland murders. German unemployment rises to 3M this year, 5.668 in 1931, and 6.28 in 1932, with Adolf Hitler waiting in the wings. The Dust Bowl begins forming as severe dust storms rock U.S. and Canadian prairies (ends 1936-40). Greece is hit hard by the Great Depression, with its exports falling from $125M avg. during the 1920s to $49M in 1933, dipping to only half the value of imports by 1934. In this decade oil production zooms in Venezuela from 1M to 137M barrels a year. World car production: 36M; world film production: 1K (2.5M mi. in length). On Jan. 1 Wafdist Party leader Mustafa al-Nahhas becomes PM of Egypt until June 21, when the king replaces him by Ismail Sidqi (1875-1950) (until 1933) to circumvent the parliament, causing Wafdist protests around the country. On Jan. 1 Pittsburgh defeats Calif. by 47-14 to win the 1930 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 5 the Mapai (Mifleget Poalei Eretz Yisrael) (Workers' Party of the Land of Israel) Party is founded by the merger of Hapoel Hatzair and Ahdut HaAvoda, becoming a member of the Labour and Socialist Internat. (until 1940); in the mid-1930s it is taken over by David Ben-Gurion (David Grun) (1886-1973), making him the de facto leader of the Jewish community (Yishuv) in Palestine. On Jan. 11Advertising Age mag. begins pub. in Chicago, Ill.; in 1980 Henderson Agency of Greenville, S.C. becomes their first Advertising Agency of the Year; in 1999 it pub. The Century of Advertising, listing the top 100 advertising agencies, execs, and campaigns in the 20th cent., with DDB's 1959 Think Small ads for Volkswagen voted the #1 ad campaign of all time. On Jan. 28 after rapid inflation causes him to lose the support of the army, Spanish dictator (since Sept. 15, 1923) gen. Miguel Primo de Rivera (b. 1870) resigns, claiming bad health, then conveniently dies on Mar. 16 in Paris; on Jan. 30 Gen. Damaso Berenguer y Fuste (Dámaso Berenguer y Fusté) (1873-1953) takes power in Spain, becoming PM (until Feb 14, 1931) and attempting a policy of conciliation, granting amnesty, restoring rights, and removing censorship in Sept., earning his regime the nickname "dictablanda" (dictatorship lite); too bad, it only causes students and republicans to agitate more vociferously. Hoover packs the Supreme Court just in time to stifle his ideological opponent FDR, but Charles Evans becomes the liberals' indispensable Hughes? On Feb. 3, 1930 William Howard Taft (b. 1857) resigns for health reasons, then dies on Mar. 8, and on Feb. 13 Glens Falls, N.Y.-born conservative former U.S. Supreme Court justice #62 (1910-16) Charles Evans Hughes (1862-1948), on the bench of the Permanent Court of Internat. Justice at The Hague since 1928 is appointed by Pres. Hoover as U.S. Chief Justice #11 and the 62nd justice, and is confirmed by the Senate by 52-26 on Feb. 13 and sworn-in on Feb. 24 (until June 30, 1941), becoming the oldest to be nominated; on May 20 after Hoover's nomination of John Johnston Parker (1885-1958) of N.C. is defeated by one vote, Philly-born Owen Josephus Roberts (1875-1955) becomes U.S. Supreme Court justice #74 (until July 31, 1945) to fill the vacancy left by Edward T. Sanford (1922-30) (who dies on Mar. 8, the same day as his mentor Taft), leaving the court with nine members; the two new members, along with the other four conservative justices (Willis Van Devanter, James Clark McReynolds, George Sutherland, and Pierce Butler) cause the conservative laissez-faire agenda to reign supreme during FDR's admin., opposing New Deal legislation and overturning 9 of 16 cases that come before it in 1934-6; Hughes becomes a bright spot, supporting some of FDR's liberal measures and giving a 5-4 majority. On Feb. 5 after an assassination attempt early in his campagn last year, Pascual Ortiz Rubio (1877-1963), candidate of the new Nat. Rev. Party (which later becomes the PRI) defeats Jose Vasconcelos of the Anti-Reelection Party and becomes pres. of Mexico (until 1932), with Gen. Calles remaining the real strongman. On Feb. 8 Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) founds the Indochina Communist Party, and drafts a Program for Vietnamese Communists; on Feb. 9 the Yen Bai Insurrection is quickly quashed, and some of its leaders executed; in 1930 the Nghe Tinh Soviet Uprising begins in Nghe An and Ha Tinh Province in C Vietnam, overthrowing the colonial admin. incl. Vietnamese landlords and the mandarinate and setting up a people's repub.; it is quashed by 1931. On Feb. 23 Nazi strongarm squad leader and pimp Horst Wessel (b. 1907), son of a Protestant military chaplain dies five weeks after being shot (Jan. 14) in his Berlin apt. by Commie pimp Albrecht Hoehler (Höhler) (-1933) in revenge for stealing his ho Erna Jaenecke; before he dies, Joseph Goebbels turns him into a Nazi martyr, claiming the Communists killed him; the Horst Wessel Lied (Song), originally "Die Fahne Hock" (Raise the Flag High) (lyrics by Wessel) becomes the Nazi anthem; even better, the what-are-you-waiting-for "Heil Hitler" salute comes into gen. use among party members this year, replacing "God be with you" as a greeting. In Feb. the Egyptian govt. sets high duties on imports to encourage native industry. In Feb. the Castellammarese War in New York City (ends Apr. 15, 1931) begins between the gangs of Marsala, Sicily-born Giuseppe "Joe the Boss" Masseria (1886-1931) and Castellamare del Golfo, Sicily-born Salvatore Maranzano (1886-1931). On Mar. 6 excavation begins on the Empire State Bldg., and construction on Mar. 17. On Mar. 28 the city of Constantinople (ancient Byzantium) in Turkey is renamed Istanbul (modern pop. 7M), and the city of Angora is renamed Ankara (modern pop. 1M) - just like Romeo and Juliet? On Mar. 31 Ras Gugsa Wells is KIA, and on Apr. 2 empress (since 1916) Zewditu I (b. 1876) dies; on Nov. 2 Ras ("Prince") Tafari ("Respected") Makonnen is crowned emperor Hailie Selassie I ("The Might of the Holy Trinity") (Tafari Makonnen Woldemikael) (1892-1975) of Ethiopia, claiming to be a direct descendant of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba; in Jamaica, marijuana-smoking Rastafarians are wowed by his claims plus his status as the only black African monarch of a fully independent state, and declare him their messiah, the Second Coming of Christ the King on Earth; by 1997 there are 1M followers worldwide. In Mar. moderate Socialist Hermann Mueller's govt. is forced from office due to the economic crisis caused by the Great Depression, and on Mar. 30 Heinrich Bruening (Bruning) (Brüning) (1885-1970) becomes German chancellor (until May 30, 1932), going on to tighten credit and roll back wage and salary increases; too bad, increased unemployment makes him highly unpopular and loses his Reichstag support, causing him to invoke Paul von Hindenburg's constitutional powers and establish a presidential govt., which rules via pres. emergency degrees sans consent of the Reichstag, while playing footsie with the rising Nat. Socialist Party, leading to the demise of the Weimar Repub.?; his right-wing coalition govt. is backed by Gen. Kurt von Schleicher (1882-1934), close friend of Hindenburg's son Oskar; there is no more parliamentary govt. in Germany until the downfall of Hitler. On Apr. 3 the Second (2nd) Academy Awards at the Cocoanut Grove Nightclub in the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, Calif. awards the best picture Oscar for 1928-9 to MGM's Broadway Melody, best actor to Warner Baxter for In Old Arizona, best actress to Mary Pickford for Coquette, and best dir. to Frank Lloyd for The Divine Lady; there are seven different films honored in seven categories, a first; Jeanne Eagels (1890-1927) beomes the first posth. nominee for The Letter, but loses to Pickford. On Apr. 6 the Order of Lenin is established in the Soviet Union for services to the regime. On Apr. 6 after walking 200 mi., Mahatma Gandhi defies British monopoly laws and makes his own dandy salt from seawater at Dandi. On Apr. 13 Switzerland appeals to the Permanent Court of Internat. Justice after the French govt. sets up customs stations; on June 7, 1932 the court decides in favor of Switzerland, ordering the customs stations shut down by Jan. 1, 1934 and free zones established. On Apr. 19 the comic strip Joe Palooka, by Hammond Edward "Ham" Fisher (1900-55) debuts, about a "big, good-natured prize fighter who didn't like to fight, a defender of little guys, a gentle knight", with excitable Irish mgr. Knobby Walsh, becoming the most successful sports comic strip; a blonde with a cowlick, he changes his face to fit each reigning world heavyweight boxing champ until black fighter Joe Louis, deciding to keep him white, esp. since he goes out with white babe Ann Howe, whom he marries on June 24, 1949. On Apr. 21 a fire in Ohio State Penitentiary in Columbus kills 320 convicts, becoming Ohio's worst fire (until ?) - call it a custodial error? On Apr. 21 Robert Bridges (b. 1844) dies, and after Rudyard Kipling is passed over, non-college-educated children's novelist (author of "Saltwater Ballads") John Edward Masefield (1878-1967) (active politically in WWI) becomes poet laureate of England, remaining in office longer than anybody since Alfred Lord Tennyson - what a missed chance to speak out about the state of the world? On Apr. 22 the London Naval Treaty on naval disarmament is signed by Britain, the U.S., Japan, France, and Italy; the Japanese ratify it in Oct. after a heated debate in which the ultranationalistic Seiyukai attack PM Osachi Hamaguchi, who is assassinated on Nov. 14 in Tokyo. On Apr. 23 nonviolent Indian Pashtun leader Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1890-1988) AKA "the Frontier Gandhi" is arrested during the salt protests, causing a crowd to gather in the Kissa Khwani (Storytellers) Bazaar in Peshawar, after which British troops open fire and kill 200-250. On Apr. 23 the Folger Shakespeare Library, founded by Standard Oil Co. chmn. Henry Clay Folger (1857-1930) opens in Washington, D.C. at 201 E. Capitol St. S.E.; Folger dies on June 11. On Apr. 30 the Nat. Workmen's Insurance Law is passed in France, insuring 9M workers against sickness, old age, and death, with workers paying 3% of wages and employers an equal amount - pay me or pay the devil? On Apr. 30 the term "public enemy" is coined by Chicago Crime Commission chmn. Frank Joseph Loesch (1852-1944). On May 1 Pres. Herbert Hoover gives a speech to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, with the soundbyte: "While the crash only took place six months ago, I am convinced we have now passed the worst and with continued unity of effort we shall rapidly recover." On May 6 a Sino-Japanese Tariff Agreement is signed in Nanjing in which Japan recognizes Chinese tariff autonomy in return for commercial safeguards and recognition of Japanese loans to former Chinese govt. On May 14 Carlsbad Caverns Nat. Park in SE N.M. is established. On May 15 RN Ellen Church (1904-65) and seven other "sky girl" nurses take off on their maiden Boeing flight from San Francisco to Chicago, becoming the first modern stewardesses, er, flight attendants - coffee, tea or what? On May 17 the Bank for Internat. Settlements is founded to facilitate German reparations for WWI, becoming the world's oldest internat. financial org. and growing into a bank for central banks that's part of the sinister internat. banker OWG conspiracy? On May 22 the French high commissioner imposes a new 1930 Syrian Constitution (until 1950), giving it a unicameral parliament and pres. chosen by parliament but not responsible to it. On May 28 a depression-fueled rev. in Bolivia overthrows pres. (since 1926) Hernando Siles, and Gen. Carlos Blanco Galindo (1882-1946) takes power (until 1931), going on to be a straight arrow who shepherds the govt. while arranging for new elections to be held 7 mo. later. On June 6 despite bitter opposition by the Liberal Party, Romanian Prince Carol returns from exile to Bucharest with the support of PM Julius Maniu, and on June 8 the parliament allows him to crown his young son as king Carol (Charles) II (1893-1953) (until Sept. 6, 1940). On June 14 the Federal Bureau of Narcotics is established within the U.S. Treasury Dept. We're giving everyday people a smoot at hauling to Hooverville? On June 17 the U.S. Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act is signed by Pres. Hoover, raising U.S. tariffs to the highest level in U.S. history (until ?) in an effort to alleviate the Great Depression; too bad, retaliation by foreign govts. reduces U.S. imports and exports, intensifying it. On June 19 Atlanta, Ga. becomes the first U.S. city to make it illegal to play pinball machines. On June 30 the French evacuation of the Rhineland ends. In June the W.K. Kellogg Foundation is founded by breakfast cereal king Will Keith Kellogg (1860-1951), who donates over $60M to it, becoming one of the top 10 philanthropic foundations in the U.S. In the summer the League of Nations appoints a committee to settle the problem of the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem; the Muslims are ruled to have ownership, but the Jews are ruled to have rights to worship and kissee kissee kissee. On July 4 travelling salesman (a New Zealander of half-Indian descent, who claims to be born in Mecca?) Wallace Dodd Fard (1893-?) forms the Lost-Found Nation of Islam in the Wilderness of North America in Detroit, Mich., with the goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of Am. blacks, claiming that they were history ignoramuses about their true African history, which was Muslim, and that they are the lost ancient tribe of Shabazz that goes back 66T years, and that a renegade black scientist named Yakub on the island of Patmos created the pesky white race 6K years ago as a test for the black master race, who are a divine race created by Allah; he mysteriously disappears during summer 1934, and Sandersville, Ga.-born Elijah Muhammad (Elijah Robert Poole) (1897-1975) becomes the new leader on Nov. 22, moving to Chicago, Ill. in 1932, and in 1972 establishing Temple Number Two (Mosque Maryam) as the Nation of Islam HQ - shine yo' shoes, bazz? On July 16 Pres. Hindenburg authorizes by decree a budget bill that the Reichstag rejected, causing him to dissolve it. On July 16 Trans World Airlines (TWA) (originally Transcontinental and Western Air) (T&WA) is created via the forced merger of Western Air Express (founded 1925 by Charles Lindbergh et al.) and Transcontinental Air Transport (founded 1928 by Clement Melville Keys) by U.S. postmaster gen. Walter Folger Brown to service airmail contracts, with the slogan "The airline run by flyers"; in 1939 Howard Hughes acquires control; on Dec. 1, 2001 it merges with Am. Airlines. On July 21 the U.S. Congress creates the U.S. Veterans Admin.. On July 21 Maxim Maximovich Litvinov (1876-1951) (a Jew from Bialystok, Poland, real name Meir Wallach Finkelstein) becomes foreign minister of the Soviet Union (until May 3 1939), going on to get the U.S. to recognize it in 1933, and becoming friends with Harpo Marx - so he can pull strings? In July Russian economist Nikolai Kondratiev (1892-1938) is arrested and railroaded as a "kulak professor" to an 8-year prison term at Suzdal (near Moscow), where he is allowed to correspond and write books; on Sept. 17, 1938 he is given a second trial, sentenced to ten more years with no communication with the outside world, then summarily shot by firing squad - thanks for the memory of candle light and wine? On Aug. 6 recently appointed (in Apr.) N.Y. state supeme court associate justice Joseph Force "Good Time Joe" Crater (b. 1889) mysteriously vanishes after leaving a restaurant on West 45th St. in New York City, bringing to light his connections with organized crime and Tammany Hall, helping bring it down; he is declared dead in absentia on June 6, 1939 - have you met the new neighbors? On Aug. 7 Conservative Party leader (since 1927) Richard Bedford Bennett (1870-1947) (a descendant of immigrants from Conn.) becomes PM #11 of Canada (until Oct. 23, 1935), going on to become known as as an utter failure. On Aug. 7 two black men, Abram "Abe" Smith (19) and Thomas "Tommy" Shipp (19) are lynched in Marion, Ind. for the Aug. 6 murder of white man Claude Deeter (b. 1907) and the rape of his white companion Mary Bell; a third black man, James Cameron (1914-2006) escapes after Bell tells the crowd he's innocent of the murder and she wasn't raped, and after serving four years for accessory to murder later founds the America's Black Holocaust Museum (ABHM) in Milwaukee, Wisc. in 1988; a famous photo is taken of the lynched men hanging from a tree while a white crowd mills around; on Oct. 19, 2003 a Reconciliation Day is proclaimed, attended by 400. On Aug. 16 after a revolt against pres. Horacio Vasquez led by Rafael Estrella takes over Santo Domingo, and May 16 elections give him 95% of the vote, U.S. Marine-trained Dominican Rep. army Sgt. Rafael Leonidas (Leonides) Trujillo y Molina (1891-1961) overthrows him and establishes a 1-party dictatorship that lasts 31 years (until May 30, 1961), gaining the nickname "El Jefe" (The Boss), with the motto "God and Trujillo", renaming capital city Santo Domingo to Ciudad Trujillo (until 1961). In Aug. anti-monarchist groups in Spain sign the Pact of San Sebastian demanding a republic and declaring their unity. In Aug. Figueres, Catalonia, Spain-born surrealist artist Salvador Dali (Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domčnech, Marquis of Dalí de Púbol) (1904-89) paints The Persistence of Memory (AKA Melting Watches), putting him on the map as a leader of modern art. On Sept. 2-3 French pilot Capt. Dieudonne Costes (1892-1973) and mechanic Maurice Bellonte (1896-1984) fly Question Mark, a Hispano-powered Breguet biplane from Le Bourget Field to Valley Stream, Long Island in 37 hours 18.5 min., becoming the first E-W nonstop transatlantic flight. On Sept. 3 The Hollywood Reporter begins pub. by Nashville, Tenn.-born William Richard "Billy" Wilkerson (1890-1962), becoming Hollywood's first daily entertainment trade newspaper; Wilkerson goes on to found the Cafe Trocadero in 1934, and the Flamingo Hotel in 1945, and discover Lana Turner in Jan. 1937. On Sept. 6 a military coup in Argentina forces pres. Hipolito Irigoyen from office, and replaces him with retired Gen. Jose Felix Benito de Uriburu y Uriburu (1868-1932), who becomes Argentina's first de facto pres. (until Feb. 20, 1932). On Sept. 8 the comic strip Blondie by debuts. On Sept. 14 the world economic crisis helps the Nazi Party do well in the 1930 German elections, taking votes from the center parties and placing #2 with 18.3% of the vote (6,409,600 votes), up 8x from 1929; the Nazis now hold 107 seats in the Reichstag, up from 12 in 1929; the Socialists retain 143 seats, and the Communists get 4.5M votes and 77 seats; Adolf Hitler is kept from his seat in the Reichstag because of his Austrian nationality. In Sept. the Church of St. Francis of Assisi at 135 West 31st St. in New York City opens a bread line, becoming the oldest continuously-operating bread line in the U.S. (until ?). On Oct. 1 (Yom Kippur) Hassidic rabbi Moshe Segal (1904-85) blows the shofar (ram's horn) at the Kosel (Kotel) HaMaaravi (Western Wall) in Jerusalem in violation of British law (allegedly to avoid offending Arab Muslims), and is arrested, which doesn't stop others from doing it every year until the end of British occupation in 1947 - we're baack? On Oct. 1-8 the Philadelphia Athletics (AL) defeat the St. Louis Cardinals (NL) 4-2 to win the Twenty-Seventh (27th) (1930) World Series; on Oct. 4 Slovakian-born Athletics pitcher John "Jack" Quinn (Picus) (Pajkos) (1883-1946) becomes the oldest pitcher in the WS (47 years, 91 days) (until ?); during the regular season he becomes the oldest player to hit a homer in the ML (until ?); too bad, the Great Depression causes owner Connie Mack to split up the team, or they would have been a dynasty? On Oct. 5 Britain'a biggest dirigible R-101 crashes in Beauvais, France, killing 49. On Oct. 12 an attempt is made on the life of "Legs" Diamond in Manhattan, N.Y., but he survives with five bullets in his chest and forehead - none in his diamond legs? On Oct. 20 Painted Dreams debuts on WGN Radio in Chicago, Ill., becoming the first soap opera, created by Dayton, Ohio schoolteacher Irna Phillips (1901-73), who becomes "the Mother of U.S. Soap Operas", and goes on to create or co-create "Guiding Light" (1937), "The Road of Life" (1937), "Young Dr. Malone" (1939), "The Brighter Day" (1948), "These Are My Children (1949), "As the World Turns" (1956), "The Edge of Night" (1956), "Another World" (1964), "Our Private World" (1965), "Days of Our Lives" (1965), and "Love is a Many Splendored Thing" (1967). On Oct. 21 the Passfield White Paper on Palestine suggests that Jewish immigration be halted, causing a Zionist outcry, resulting in a letter from British PM Ramsay MacDonald on Feb. 13, 1931 to Chaim Weizmann easing the restrictions. On Oct. 22 Egypt imposes a new 1930 Egyptian Constitution, weakening the Wafdist Party's control over the parliament, causing protests. The U.S. Airmail Act stimulates large-scale airplane passenger service in the U.S.; the first transcontinental all-air service between New York and Los Angeles begins on Oct. 25 by TWA (Transcontinental and Western Air); the trip takes 36 hours and incl. an overnight stop in Kansas City, Mo. In Oct. W.H. Nott, a land surveyor from Johannesburg reports finding the 12-ton 10-ft. x 3-ft. Mbozi Meteorite in Marengi Hill in the Mbozi district of S Tanzania; later exploration reveals that it had been discovered previously and a trench dug around it, and it is never moved; the 8th largest meteorite ever found, 90% iron and 9% nickel. On Nov. 3 Getulio Dornelles Vargas (1883-1954) of the Labor Party seizes power in Brazil (until 1945). On Nov. 5 the Third (3rd) Academy Awards at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles (the only time two ceremonies are held the same year, to standardize the interval between awards) (first to make sound films eligible in all categories) awards the best picture Oscar for 1929-30 to Universal's All Quiet on the Western Front along with best dir. to Lewis Milestone, best actor to George Arliss for Disraeli, and best actress to Norma Shearer for The Divorcee; Frances Marion becomes the first female to win an Oscar for best adapted screenplay for The Big House. On Nov. 5 Joe Masseria ally Alfred Manfredi "Al" Mineo (b. 1880) is murdered in the garden of his apt. bldg. on Pelham Pkwy. in Bronx, N.Y., after which Francesco "Frank" "Don Ciccio" "Wacky" Scalice (1893-1957) becomes head of his crime family, switching allegiance to Maranzano until his Sept. 10, 1931 murder, when he is forced by Lucky Luciano to resign in favor of Vincent "Vince the Executioner" Mangano (Vincenzo Giovanni Mangano) (1888-1951) (until 1951). On Nov. 14 Japanese PM Hamaguchi is shot by an assassin in Tokyo. On Nov. 25 an earthquake in Shizuoka, Japan kills 187. In Nov. white activist Jesse Daniel Ames (1883-1972) of Tex. founds the Assoc. of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching (until 1942), telling white men that they don't need to have their "virtue" protected by brutal murder, and that it isn't chivalrous of them, getting 40K women to sign a pledge against lynching, causing a public outcry leading to a decrease in lynchings. On Dec. 2 U.S. Pres. Hoover appoints the Commission for Unemployment Relief, and blames the Great Depression on the overproduction of zinc in his 1930 State of the Union Address. On Dec. 4 the Vatican approves the new Calendar Rhythm Method of birth control - the original calendar spread? On Dec. 8 after world headlines proclaim that Stalin has been assassinated, Time mag. scoops them by pub. an interview by their journalist Eugene Lyons (1898-1985) with him, where he begins by asking him, "Stalin, may I quote you to the effect that you have not been assassinated?"; he becomes only the 6th foreigner to get an interview with Stalin since he took power in 1927, incl. Walter Duranty, George Bernard Shaw, Emil Ludwig, Henri Barbusse, and H.G. Wells. On Dec. 11 after a record heat wave in Feb. (75 F on Feb. 25), followed by a record cold snap in Nov. (-29 F on Nov. 7), the Bank of the U.S. in New York City closes its doors. On Dec. 12 the last Allied troops leave the Saar. On Dec. 12-13 Spanish rebels take the border town of Jaca; a gen. strike in support of the rev. is called on Dec. 16; thousands sign a rev. manifesto on Dec. 20. On Dec. 13 Bautillo Palma succeeds Lazaro Chacon as pres. of Guatemala, then on Dec. 16 is overthrown by Gen. Manuel Orellana, but the U.S. fails to recognize him, causing him to resign from the head banana chair, and Jose Maria Reina Andrade (1860-1947) becomes acting pres. (until Feb. 14, 1931). On Dec. 29 Fred P. Newton swims a record 1,826 mi. down the Mississippi River from Ford Dam, Minn. to New Orleans, La. On Dec. 31 the encyclical Casti Connubii by Pope Pius XI castigates religiously-mixed marriages and divorce. It's the end of the world as we know it and I feel fine? In Dec. La. Gov. Huey P. Long wins a U.S. Senate seat, where he continues to rule La. from Washington D.C., proposing the redistribution of the nation's wealth as the cure for the Great Depression. Roman Catholic Fascist Heimwehr (Home Guard) units are established in Austria under prince Ernst Rudiger (Rüdiger) Camillo Starhemberg (1899-1956), descendant of the 1683 Siege of Vienna hero with the same name (1638-1701). Chinese Nationalists embark on an attempt to get rid of Mao's Red Army. France recognizes the independence of Syria, subject to the League of Nations mandate. White-run Southern Rhodesia passes the Land Apportionment Act of 1930, excluding 99% of blacks from land ownership, causing grudges that will eventually lead to war. Peruvian dictator (since 1919) Augusto Leguia y Salcedo is ousted by a leftist group, and replaced by Luis Sanchez Cerro (1889-1933) (until 1933), continuing political repression of Indians to make gringos rich; meanwhile the pro-Indian Am. Popular Rev. Alliance (APRA) begins its rise. Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquess of Neghelli (1882-1955) becomes cmdr. of Italian forces in Libya until 1934, gov. of Italian Somaliland in 1935, viceroy of Ethiopia in 1936, and honorary gov. of Italian East Africa in 1938. The Dunning Tariff in Canada, sponsored by Charles Avery Dunning (1885-1958) gives preferential treatment to the U.K. Transjordan organizes the Desert Patrol (Desert) Mobile Force of 3K mechanized soldiers made up of Bedouin recruits under British cmdr. Sir John Bagot Glubb (1897-1986) AKA Glubb Pasha; Abdallah's regime is now secure as during the next two years it finishes demarcating its borders with Syria and Iraq. Venezuelan dictator (since 1908) Juan Vicente Gomez appoints his biggest critic, novelist Romulo Gallegos to the Senate in an effort to gain the goodwill of his fans, but he never shows up and moves to the U.S. next year, tendering his resignation. The Youth Hostels Assoc. is founded on Apr. 10 in Britain. The Soviets found the steel mill town of Magnitogorsk (Russ. "magnet mountain city") in the southern Urals - magnet city? After decades of British encouragement of Indian immigration to Burma, the All-Burma Student Movement under Aung San (1915-47) and U Nu (1907-95) begins anti-Indian pro-independence agitation. The three Round Table Conferences (1930-2) are held between the British viceroy and Indian leaders to discuss its dominion status. Heinrich Himmler persuades Adolf Hitler to let him run the Schutzstaffel (SS) ("protection squadron") (originally Saalschutz or hall protection) as a separate org., launching a recruitment campaign that builds its ranks from less than 300 to 10K next year; only "racially elite" young Nordic males are accepted; "Like a nursery gardener trying to reproduce a good old strain which has been adulterated and debased, we started from the principles of plant selection and then proceeded quite unashamedly to weed out the men whom we did not think we could use for the build-up of the SS"; Himmler sets up a Reich SS Leadership School at Wewelsburg Castle. A Memorial Plaque to Gavrilo Princip is erected at the street corner in Sarajavo where he assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 28 (June 15 Old Style), 1914, precipitating WWI, with Winston Churchill writing the soundbyte in his 1932 book "The Unknown War": "Princip died in prison, and a monument erected in recent years by his fellow-countrymen records his infamy and their own"; Herr Hitler calls Princip a "Slavic fanatic", but welcomes the assassination of the archduke because he was "the most mortal enemy of Austrian-Germanism" and "patron of Austria's Slavicization", promoting Trialism, a plan to elevate Slavs to equal status with Germans and Hungarians; on Apr. 19, 1941, four days after occupying Sarajevo, the Nazis remove the plaque in a big ceremony and send it to Hitler as a birthday gift on his personal train Amerika in Monichkirchen, Austria, after which it is housed in the Zeughaus military museum in Berlin; too bad, it is destroyed by Allied bombing in 1945, and in 1953 the Commie regime of Yugoslavia erects a new one, along with Princip's alleged footprints where he did the deed; in 1992 Bosnian Muslims demolish them, and in 2004 after the Bosnian civil war another plaque sans footprints is erected. The U.S. Federal Bureau of Prisons is established in Washington, D.C. as a subdiv. of the U.S. Dept. of Justice to administer the federal prison system consisting of 11 prisons, which expands by the end of the year to 14 prisons with 13K inmates, and by 1940 to 24 prisons with 24,360 inmates. In this decade City College of New York (CCNY) (founded 1847) becomes known as the Poor Man's Harvard, educating a generation of Jewish intellectuals shut out of elite private colleges, generating 10 Nobel Prize Winners et al. In this decade the Stockholm School of Economics is founded to oppose the Austrian School of Economics, based on the works of Knut Wicksell; members incl. Gunnar Myrdal and Bertil Ohlin. In this decade the Second Folk Revival (first in 1890) begins in Britain, leading to the Am. folk music revival in the 1950s, going global in the 1960s and 1970s. In this decade after introducing the first affordable refrigerator in the late 1920s, the Gen. Electric (GE) Co. enters the consumer appliance business, introducing washing machines, air conditioners, mixers, and vacuum cleaners; in 1932 it introduces the first electric dishwasher along with consumer financing of personal appliances. After Roman Catholic Jesuit Father Daniel Aloysius Lord (1888-1955) presents it to him, cute, innocent, decent-looking bat-eared former U.S. postmaster gen. (1921-2) and Harding campaign mgr. William Harrison "Will" Hays (1879-1954), head of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of Am. (later the Motion Picture Assoc. of Am.) since 1922 establishes the Motion Picture Production (Hays) Code (Code of Decency) for Hollywood films, which rules for four decades (until 1967), banning nudity, sex acts, or "pointed profanity", along with criticism of religion, law, or letting the bad guy win; "My eyes nearly popped out when I read it - this was the very thing I had been looking for" (Hays); too bad, it doesn't stop Hollyweird from filming what they want, only making them pass a cutting room censorship process that sometimes slips, causing the Roman Catholic Nat. (Catholic) Legion of Decency to be formed in 1933 by Cincinnati archbishop John T. McNicholas to label films as taboo for good Roman Catholics, only making them more popular?; it begins to be enforced seriously in 1934, then abandoned in 1968 in favor of the MPAA Film Rating System - cuminating in Deep Throat? Judge Augustus Noble Hand (1869-1954) of the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals (cousin of Judge Learned Hand) overturns the conviction of Am. birth control activist Mary Ware Coffin Dennett for distributing the pamphlet The Sex Side of Life, setting the precedent that intent must be taken into account when evaluating obscenity; in 1936 her case and others by Margaret Sanger et al. lead to the U.S. Court of Appeals ruling in U.S. v. One Package of Japanese Pessaries, overturning the prohibition of physicians from prescribing contraceptives and distributing contraceptive info., causing the Am. Medical Assoc. (AMA) in 1937 to adopt contraception as a regular medical service and begin teaching it in medical schools. overturning the prohibition of physicians from prescribing contraceptives and distributing contraceptive info., causing the Am. Medical Assoc. (AMA) in 1937 to adopt contraception as a regular medical service and begin teaching it in medical schools. Am. railroad magnate and Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center benefactor Edward Stephen Harkness (1874-1940) gives Ł2M to Stanley Baldwin "for the benefit of Britain", founding the Pilgrim Trust. The Turksib Railroad connecting Turkestan and Siberia opens. The Bank for Internat. Settlements in Switzerland is founded by the Rothschild family, becoming their first world bank. Am. physician Herbert Spencer Dickey (1876-1947), who spent 25 years in the tropics and always washes his fruit with potassium permanganate leads an expedition which finds the source of the Orinoco River on the slopes of the Sierra Parima in SE Venezuela in July after 400 years of white presence, then warns against expeditions to South Am. as insincere sporting trips and an excuse to get away from their wives. English Protestant missionary Gladys Aylward (1902-70) spends her life savings to travel to Yuncheng, Shanxi Province, China, where she founds the Inn of the Eight Happinesses (turned into the Inn of the Six Happiness in the 1958 Ingrid Bergman film); in 1938 after Japanese forces invade she leads 94 children to safety over the mountains. The Whitney Museum of Am. Art in New York City is founded by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney (1875-1942). After emigrating from India in 1923, Swami Prabhavananda (1893-1976) founds the Vedanta Society of Southern Calif. in Hollywood, Calif. The first Muslim mosque is built in Pittsburgh, Penn. Vaginas shouldn't be allowed to fly themselves? Anne Morrow Lindbergh (1906-2001) becomes the first U.S. woman to get a glider pilot's license; meanwhile Amy Johnson (1903-41) of England obtains a pilot's license and flies solo from London to Australia in 19.5 days, setting a world's record for solo flight from London to India (6 days). Olympic Airlines is founded in Greece. The first bingo game for charity is held in a church in Wilkes-Barre, Penn. The cigarette industry produces 123B cigarettes in the U.S. this year. Ivory Soap adopts the slogan "kind to everything it touches - 99-44/100% pure - it floats". Fire Ants are let loose in the U.S. at Mobile, Ala. by ships from South Am. sometime during this decade (probably 1933-1945). A picture telegraphy service begins operation between Britain and Germany. Marion King Hubbert (1903-89) of Columbia U. et al. found the Technocracy Movement in the U.S., blaming economists and politicians for the Great Depression, and advocating rule by engineers and scientists. By this year the Golden Age of Radio begins in the U.S. (ends 1962), with a few acts incl. Bob Hope, George Burns, and Gracie Allen making graceful transitions, while most vaudeville acts go kaput; Jack Benny (Benjamin Kubelsky) (1894-1974) debuts on the "Ed Sullivan Show" in 1932, then becomes a radio star; Richard Bernard "Red" Skelton (1913-97) holds out until 1937 before going to radio and becoming a star. In this decade the Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibus) crosses the Atlantic from Africa and gains a foothold in South Am., arriving in Fla. in the 1950s, then N as far as Canada, becoming "the only Old World bird in history to establish residence on the mainland of the Americas without human aid" (Roger Tory Peterson). Kibbutz Na'an near Rehovot, Israel is founded, becoming the first kibbutz established by Jews born in Eretz Israel. The E.F.A. Reinisch Rose Garden in Topeka, Kan. opens in June. The World Calendar Assoc. begins promoting the World Calendar, created by Elisabeth Achelis of Brooklyn, N.Y.; too bad, after almost getting the U.N. to adopt it in 1955, the U.S. blocks it, and the assoc. dissolves in 1956. In this decade Guiana-born French poet Leon-Gontran Damas (1912-78) et al. found the Marxist Negritude lit.-cultural movement in Paris, dissing French colonialism and promoting a common black African racial identity. Trotsky is banned in Boston - which only makes it hotter? Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby (1903-77) starts singing with the Gus Arnheim Band at the Cocoanut Grove Room in the Ambassador Hotel on Wilshire Blvd. in Los Angeles, Calif., getting his voice broadcast all over Calif., making him popular. The word "whodunit" is coined by D. Gordon in Am. News of Books. In this decade Charles Lindbergh funds the rocket researches of Robert Goddard. In this decade the Cambridge Five (Four) ring of English spies who all graduated from Cambridge U. is recruited by the Soviets, incl. "Spy of the Cent." Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby (1912-88) (code name Stanley) (recuited by Arnold Deutsch), Donald Duart Maclean (1913-83) (code name Homer), Guy Francis De Moncy Burgess (1911-63) (code name Hicks, Little Girl) (alcoholic open gay), Anthony Frederick Blunt (1907-83) (code name Johnson) (closet gay), and possibly John Cairncross (1913-95) and/or Michael Whitney Straight (1916-2004). The New York World suspends pub., and is combined with the Evening Telegram into the New York World-Telegram. Henry Robinson Luce (1898-1967), in sole control of Time Inc. founds the lavish business monthly mag. Fortune, and launches The March of Time, a 20-min. radio news program and movie newsreel (until 1951), written and produced by Louis de Rochemont (1899-1978) et al.; Luce later divorces his 1st wife Lila to marry divorced playwright Clare Boothe (1903-87) (Nov. 23, 1935), and becomes more involved in public affairs. The photoflash bulb becomes popular. Am. Roman Catholic priest Fulton John Sheen (1895-1979) launches his nat. radio show "The Catholic Hour", becoming known for his anti-Communist stance. The Goldwyn Girls, a musical stock co. of female dancers is founded by Samuel Goldwyn, incl. Lucille Ball, Virginia Bruce, Paulette Goddard, Betty Grable, Virginia Grey, June Kirby, Virginia Mayo, Joi Lansing, Barbara Pepper, Marjorie Reynolds, Pat Sheehan, Ann Sothern, Larri Thomas, and Jane Wyman; they first appear in "Whoopee!" (1930); they last appear in "Guys and Dolls" (1955) as the Hot Box Girls. The radio program Death Valley Days, created by Ruth Woodman debuts (until 1945), sponsored by Pacific Coast Borax Co., known for its 20 Mule Team Borax and Boraxo; it runs on TV in 1952-75 in syndication. In this decade Fiat Co. of Turin, Italy begins manufacturing the cute, gas-sparing, easy-parking chick-magnet Fiat 500 (cinquecento) car, which is produced until 1997, then resumed in 2006. Brooklyn College is founded in Brooklyn, N.Y. via a merger of Hunter College (for women) and the City College of New York (for men), becoming the first public coed liberal arts college in New York City, becoming known as "the poor man's Harvard" for its low tuition and capable faculty; alumni incl. Barbara Boxer, Shirley Chisholm, Michael Cunningham, Alan M. Dershowitz, Allen Ginsberg, Abraham Maslow, Frank McCourt, and Bernie Sanders. Am. anthropologist Leslie Alvin White (1900-75) is hired by the U. of Mich., going on to found its anthropology dept., rebelling against Franz Boas and proposing a model of universal cultural evolution, which views culture as driven by technology, becoming ever-more complex while consuming ever-more energy, proposing the formula "P=ET" (degree of cultural development in terms of product produced is the product of energy consumed per capita per year times the effiency of energy utilization), with the soundbyte: "Man as an animal species, and consequently culture as a whole, is dependent upon the material, mechanical means of adjustment to the natural environment." The Econometric Society is founded on Dec. 29 in Cleveland, Ohio by Ragnar Frisch, Joseph Alois Schumpeter et al., founding the journal Econometrica in 1933. Jerome Irving Rodale (Cohen) (1898-1971), son of a Jewish grocer from New York City to Emmaus, Penn. and founds an electrical equipment biz, which he uses the profits from to found Rodale Press, which goes on to pub. Organic Farming and Gardening in 1942 and Prevention Mag. in 1950, founding the organic (pesticide-free) food movement, eschewing caffeine, white sugar, and nicotine, and promoting nutritional supplements to create a virtual religion of Nature; too bad, Rodale has a heart attack on the Dick Cavett Show in 1971 at age 72 after bragging that he would live to 100, stinking up his whole enterprise to the medical establishment, although his fan base never wanes. "Babbitt" author (Harry) Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951) becomes the first American to win a Nobel prize for Lit. Pablo Casals, Alfred Cortot, and Jacques Thibaud form a trio (until 1935). Adolf von Harnack dies, and German physicist Max Planck becomes head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in Germany (the core of Germany's scientific research brain trust). Newton, Kan.-born Guy Ballard (1878-1939) visits Mount Shasta, Calif., and allegedly meets St. Germain, who makes him and his wife Edna Anne Wheeler Ballard (1886-1971) his "sole accredited messengers", after which they found the I AM New Age religious movement in Chicago, Ill. (named after the ancient Sanskrit mantra "So Ham", meaning "I Am That I Am"), which gains 1M followers by 1938; too bad, the U.S. govt. moves in on their racket and gets them convicted of mail fraud, but the conviction is overturned, which doesn't phase them, and they get another conviction, until the U.S. Supreme Court rules in 1944 in the landmark case U.S. v. Ballard that people can't be made to prove their religious beliefs in a court of law; after Guy dies his true believers claim he became the Ascended Master Godfre, who in previous incarnations was George Washington and Richard Lionheart; Edna becomes Ascended Lady Master Lotus (Ray King) AKA Benjamin Franklin, Elizabeth I of England, and Joan of Arc - top results glove fry, a very golf, fargo levy, valley frog? Japanese New Thought leader Masaharu Taniguchi (1893-1985) begins pub. the "nondenominational truth movement magazine" Seicho-no-ie ("Home of infinite life, wisdom, and abundance"), which grows into a movement that is suppressed until the end of WWII. The Irish govt. establishes the Irish Sweepstakes (originally Irish Free State Hospitals' Sweepstakes), based on four well-known horse races each year to raise money for Irish hospitals; drawings are held at the Royal Dublin Society in Ballsbridge; by 1997 it earns Ł135M for the hospitals and pays Ł265M in prizes; it is liquidated in Mar. 1987. Jewish-Am. fashion designer Mollie Parnis (1902-92) opens a shop in Paris with her hubby Leon Livingston, growing into a multimillion dollar biz frequented by the wives of several U.S. presidents. Dutch Neo-plasticist painter Theo van Doesburg (1883-1931) proposes replacing the term "abstract art" with "concrete art", with the soundbyte: "A work of art does not derive from Nature but is an autonomous reality" - it works or it's free? The Cub Scouts of Am. are founded for boys ages 9-11, changed to 8-10 in 1949; the three ranks of Wolf, Bear, and Lion all belong to the fictional Webelos tribe, symbolized by the Arrow of Light. In this decade new Christmas season music without a religious theme becomes popular in the U.S. In this decade Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) (founded Sept. 18, 1927), and the Nat. Broadcasting Co. (NBC) (founded 1926), consisting of the Red Network and Blue Network begin experimental TV broadcasts. In this decade African-Am. lesbian blues singer Gladys Bentley (1907-60) headlines the Ubangi Club in Harlem, N.Y., wearing a tuxedo and top hat while flirting with the women in the audience. In this decade Kiwi-born British cartoonist David Low (1891-1963) introduces Colonel Blimp in Lord Beaverbrook's London Evening Standard, a parody of jingoistic Englishmen, fond of taking Turkish baths and saying "Gad, Sir". English actress Peggy Ashcroft (1907-91) debuts in her first Shakespeare role as Desdemona to Paul Robeson's Othello - the dream team? The BBC Symphony Orchestra is formed, with Sir Adrian Cedric Boult (1889-1983) as dir. Swedish tenor Jussi Bjorling (Björling) (1911-60) debuts with the Royal Swedish Opera in Stockholm as Don Ottavio in "Don Giovanni", and goes on to become an opera star, debuting in Carnegie Hall in 1937, and the Metropolitan Opera as Rodolfo in "La Boheme" in 1938, where he becomes a main singer through the 1950s. Greek-born photographic memory whiz kid Dimitri Mitropoulos (1896-1960) plays the solo part of Sergi Prokofiev's "Piano Concerto No. 3", wowing the audience by conducting the orchestra from the keyboard. The Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst. (WHOI) is founded in Woods Hole, Mass.; meanwhile 20-y.-o. Jacques Cousteau (b. 1910) joins the French Naval Academy; in 1936 he begins diving using goggles. The Davidians (Davidian Seventh Day Adventists) (AKA The Shepherd's Rod), founded by Bulgarian-born Victor Tasho Houteff (1885-1955) split off from the Seventh Day Adventist Church; in 1955 the Branch Davidians (AKA The Branch) spit, er, split off from them. Crossley Inc. pioneers the first formal radio ratings system. Am. sculptor Malvina Hoffman (1887-1966), a student of Auguste Rodin begins sculpting life-size statues of human cultural groups for the Field Museum of Nat. History in Chicago, Ill., which are set up in the Hall of Man, causing her to be called "the greatest American artist you've never heard of"; too bad, in the 1960s some PC police label the sculptures as racist, and they are scattered through the museum. Jean-Baptiste Troisgros and his wife Marie, founders of the Troisgros Family found the Hotel-Restaurant des Platanes in Roanne (90km W of Lyon), France, which is renamed Hotel Moderne in 1935; in 1957 they change the name to Les Freres Troisgros, with their sons Jean Troisgros and Pierre Troisgros (1928-) taking over the cooking; in 1968 they earn their 3rd Michelin star, with food critic Christian Millau calling it "the best restaurant in the world"; Pierre's son Michel Troisgros (1958-) carries on, while his other son Claude Troisgros becomes a big chef in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Nevers, Burgundy, France-born Guy Savoy (1953-) apprentices with the Troisgros brothers, opening his own restaurant in Rue Duret in Paris in 1980, which receives two Michelin stars in 1985, opening a sister restaurant in Las Vegas, Nev. French fashion designer Madame Alix Gres (Grés) (1903-93) becomes a hit with elegant draped (not tailored) dresses. Arthur Bryant's Barbeque in Kansas City, Mo. opens (until ?), attracting celebs incl. Pres. Truman and getting called the best restaurant in the world by Calvin Trillin of the New Yorker. Meadow Gold Dixie Cups, Dixie Cups (invented 1907) containing Meadow Gold ice cream with pics of Hollywood stars, sports figures, singers etc. on the lid are introduced (until 1954). Snickers brand candy bar, named after a family horse is introduced by the Mars Co.; it goes on to sponsor The Howdy Doody Show in 1949-52. In this decade Swing Street, 52nd St. in Manhattan between 5th Ave. and 6th Ave. becomes a jazz mecca. In this decade Skid Row in Los Angeles (3rd St. to 7th St., Main St. to Alameda St.) becomes home to 10K homeless et al. In this decade Muscle Beach in Santa Monica, Calif. just S of the pier becomes popular for weightlifters and gymnasts. In this decade jelly beans become part of U.S. Easter celebrations because they resemble eggs; for the same reason they are manufactured in spring colors and hardly incl. any black (licorice). Ocean Spray brand cranberries begin to be marketed in the U.S. After founding the Yo-yo Manufacturing Co. in Santa Barbara, Caif. in 1928 to manufacture a native toy, Filipino immigrant Pedro Flores sells out to Duncan Toys Co., founded in 1929 in Middlefield, Ohio by Kansas City, Mo.-born Donald F. Duncan Sr. (1892-1971), founder of the Good Humor ice cream truck line, turning them into a fad; in 1965 the trademark is ruled to have become generic; Duncan later sells parking meters; in 1968 it is acquired by Flambeau Inc.; Duncan's birthday of June 6 becomes Nat. Yo-Yo Day in the U.S. Sports: In this decade Matsutaro Shoriki (1885-1969), pub. of Yomiuri Shinbun introduces Am. baseball to Japan, where the diminutive stature of the players and Japanese spirit of cooperation lead to their own brand of the game; in 1934 he lets the Am. All-Star Team play his All-Star Team in Jingu Stadium, causing right-wingers to attempt to asssassinate him with a sword, giving him a 16-in. scar. On Feb. 12 Jenny Hoverson Kelleher of Madison, Wisc. bowls the first WIBC-approved perfect 300 bowling game at The Plaza Tavern in Madison, Wisc.; on Mar. 4 Mrs. Charles Fahning bowls another 300 game in Buffalo, N.Y. On Mar. 1-Apr. 7 the 1930 ABC Nat. Tournament sees Larry Shotwell (1904-76) of Covington, Ky. win the singles title with a record 3-game total of 774 (first over 750 to win), which stands until 1951. On Mar. 28-29 the 1929 Stanley Cup Finals (first Finals with two U.S.-based teams)see the Boston Bruins defeat the New York Rangers 2-0, becoming their first title. On Apr. 1-3 the 1930 Stanley Cup Finals see the Montreal Canadiens defeat the Boston Bruins 2-0, becoming their 3rd title. On May 2 the first prof. baseball night game sees a Western League (minors) team in Des Moines, Iowa host a team from Wichita, Kan., raising attendance from 600 to 12K, causing all minor league teams to follow suit to try to stay in business. On May 30 the 1930 (18th) Indianapolis 500 is won by pole position winner Richard William "Billy" Arnold (1905-76), who leads the last 198 laps, setting a record (until ?), becoming the first to complete the race in under five hours without a relief driver. On June 12 Max Schmeling (1905-2005) of Germany defeats Jack Sharkey in New York City on (80K attendance, $750K gate) in round 4 to become world heavyweight boxing champ #11 (until 1932) - something about this great white hope is schmelling? Scottish soccer player Alexander Wilson "Alex" James (1901-53) leads Arsenal to its first First Div. Championship, going on to become a top British star until his 1937 retirement. Uruguay wins the 1st FIFA World Cup of Soccer, held in Uruguay, defeating Argentina 4-2 in the final. Babe Ruth draws a salary of $80K a year this year and next; when asked why he should make more than the pres. of the U.S., he replies "He didn't have as good a season as me." It don't mean a thing if you ain't got that swing? Sean Connery's and Scotland's big hero comes from the U.S.? Atlanta-born Georgia Inst. of Tech. and Harvard grad. Robert Tyre "Bobby" Jones Jr. (1902-71), "greatest golfer of all time" becomes the only golfer to win the U.S. and British Open, and amateur tournaments (Grand Slam of Golf) in the same year; he then retires from golf at age 27 having won the U.S. open in 1923, 1926, 1929 and 1930, the U.S. nat. amateur in 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, and 1930, the British open in 1926, 1927 and 1930, and the British nat. amateur in 1930; he then goes on to appear in several movies and become vice-pres. of A.G. Spalding and Bros.; meanwhile Tommy Armour wins the PGA title. Bill Tilden and "Little Miss Poker Face" Helen Wills Moody (Helen Newington Wills Roark) (1905-98) win the Wimbledon singles tennis titles. Gallant Fox (1927-54) becomes the 2nd horse to win horse racing's Triple Crown (first in 1919) (jockey Earle Sande). A horse owned by super-rich Aga Khan III (1877-1957) of Karachi wins the English Derby; his horses also win in 1935, 1936, and 1948. Sir Donald George Bradman scores 334 runs for Australia in the Leeds Test Match. Adolph Frederick Rupp (1901-77) becomes head basketball coach for the U. of Ky. (until 1972), retiring with 876 wins and a 0.822 winning percentage. All rope and chicken wire around the edges of a basketball court are banned, ending the caged era. The Dixie Conference is formed by the 9-member Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Assoc. (SIAA), who all resign in 1932; the first conference championship (1931) is won by the U. of Chattanooga, who also wins the last championship in 1941, when it dissolves because of WWII; in 1948 it is relaunched, emphasizing purely amateur rules for athletes; the first conference championship (1948) is won by Florida State U.; the last (1954) is won by Millsaps College; in 1963 the Dixie Intercollegiate Athletic Conference is founded as a member of the NAIA, switching in 1973 to NCAA Div. 3; on June 30, 2003 it is renamed the USA South Athletic Conference; in 1965 the U. of N.C. Charlotte (49ers) joins, winning the conference title in 1969-70. The Japanese Basketball Assoc. (JBA) is founded in Tokyo as the governing body of basketball in Japan, joining FIBA - the shorty leagues? In this decade the Minature Golf craze begins in the U.S. Architecture: In this decade Bang Kwang Central Prison 7 mi. N of Bangkok, Thailand is founded, becoming known as "the Bangkok Hilton" and "the Big Tiger" (for eating men alive), becoming known for cruel and harsh conditions, poor food and sanitation, vermin, use of leg irons, etc., making it the world's worst prison? On Apr. 3 Prince Edward Theatre on Old Compton St. N of Leicester Square in Westerminster, West End, London opens with a performance of the musical "Rio Rita"; Josephine Baker makes her London debut there. On May 27 the 77-story 1,046-ft. (318.9m) Chrysler Bldg. at 405 Lexington Ave. (42nd St. and Lexington Ave.) in New York City is completed, designed by Brooklyn, N.Y.-born architect William van Alen (1883-1954), becoming a prime example of plush art deco, right down to the elevator doors, and is one of the first skyscrapers to carry stainless steel on its exterior, becoming the tallest brick bldg. on Earth, the tallest bldg. in the world until 1931, after which it becomes the 2nd tallest until 2007. Milton, Mass.-born architect Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller (1895-1983) introduces the Dymaxion House (dyamic + maximum + tension), designed to be easily assembled on site from mass-produced kits, and be suitable for any environment. Pawtucket, R.I.-born architect Raymond Mathewson Hood (1881-1934) designs the McGraw-Hill Bldg. (Daily News Bldg.) in Manhattan, N.Y. Thomas Whittemore (1875-1950) begins cleaning the Byzantine mosaics at the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (until 1934). Nobel Prizes: Peace: Lutheran Archbishop Lars Olof Jonathan "Nathan" Soderblom (Söderblom) (1866-1931) (Sweden); Lit.: Harry Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951) (U.S.) (first American); Physics: Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888-1970) (India) [Raman Effect]; Chem.: Hans Fischer (1881-1945) (Germany); Med.: Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) (U.S.) [blood typing]. Inventions: In this decade Play-Doh modeling compound, made of flour, water, salt, boric acid, and mineral oil is invented by Noah McVicker of Kutol Products of Cincinnati, Ohio to clean coal residue from wallpaper; in 1956 his nephew Joe McVicker founds Rainbow Crafts Co. to market it as a child's toy, reaching $3M yearly sales by 1958; in 1965 it receives a patent, and Gen. Mills acquires the rights for $3M, marketing it via their subsidiary Kenner Products, which merges with Rainbow Crafts in 1971 until both are acquired by Tonka Corp. in 1987; in 1991 Hasbro acquires the rights; in 1996 gold and silver colors are added for the 40th anniv. On Apr. 6 James Alexander Dewar (1897-1985) of Continental Bakeries in River Forest near Chicago, Ill. invents Twinkies brand snack cakes to utilize strawberry shortcake pans that otherwise lay idle after the strawberry season; after the initial formulation proves to have a short shelf life, it is reformulated, causing it to contain so many artificial ingredients and preservatives (polysorbate-60, red no. 40, yellow no. 5) that it's rumored it have a 25-year shelf life even out of the package; Joe Traxler (1931-) works at the Hostess Bakery in Seattle, Wash. making Twinkies from 1959 until Aug. 20, 1959. Otis Barton of the U.S. designs the Bathysphere, making the first dive with Am. scientist Charles William Beebe (1877-1962); in 1934 Beebe descends 3,028 ft. into the ocean off Bermuda - and emerges transformed into a squid? Max Factor invents lip gloss. Hoover Co. introduces the Hoover Dustette, the first handheld vacuum cleaner. Am. industrial designer Henry Dreyfus (1904-72) wins a competition to design the sleek Western Electric 302 tabletop telephone for Bell Labs, going on to become a top industrial designer for Bell Labs, the Hoover Co., Westclox et al., co-founding the Society of Industrial Designers in 1944. Hoover Co. markets the first plastic vacuum cleaner, later adding headlights to high-end models. On Sept. 8 3M Co. of the U.S. ships its first sample of Scotch Cellophone Tape, invented by African-Am. physician Charles Richard Drew (1904-50) to a Chicago firm that wraps bakery goods; to cut costs stingy 3M applies adhesive only to the edges of the tape, causing a St. Paul, Minn. auto dealer to attribute it to stingy Scotch bosses; in 1944 kilt-wearing Scotty McTape first appears, followed by the plaid design in 1945. Eugene J. Houdry (1892-1962) of France develops the Houdry Catalytic Cracking System for petroleum (1930-5) for Sun Oil's Marcus Hook refinery in Penn., becoming the first commercially viable process. Am. chemist Thomas Midgley Jr. (1889-1944) of GM invents non-toxic, non-explosive Freon (dichlorodifluoromethane), a chlorinated fluorocarbon (CFC); too bad, it causes a little problem with the ozone layer when it is released into the atmosphere, which takes decades to recognize and deal with. RCA is forced by the U.S. Congress to share its patent on the Superheterodyne Radio, which totally killed the market for the super-regenerative types that require fiddling with multiple knobs to change stations; Motorola introduces the first commercial car radio, an add-on (aftermarket) superheterodyne designed by William Powell "Bill" Lear (1902-78), the profits from which help him found Lear Developments to produce aerospace electronics, incl. radio direction finders and autopilots. German chemist Walter Julius Reppe (1892-1969) makes artificial fabrics from acetylene. Estonian-born German optician Bernhard Woldemar Schmidt (1879-1935) builds the first coma-free 14-in. wide field-of-view Schmidt Mirror Telescope for the Hamburg Observatory. Jean (Eugenia) Rosenthal (1912-69) pioneers the concept of Theatrical Stage Lighting. GM sales exec Carl Smith gets an idea from the chef on the Southern Pacific Railroad to make biscuits from a premixed bag of ingredients, introducing "wife-saver" Bisquick mix next year. William Hermanson of Boston, Mass. patents the heat-sealed paper fiber tea bag. Dutch-born physicist Fritz Zernike (1888-1966) of the U. of Groningen in Germany invents the Phase Contrast Microscope, making possible detailed study of living cells by biologists, winning him the 1953 Nobel Physics Prize. Owen Nacker (1883-1959) of Cadillac develops the perfectly-balanced V-16 Engine; in 1936 he develops the Cadillac V-8 Engine, which is so smooth and powerful that production of the Cadillac V-12 is discontinued. Science: In Sept. Am. nuclear scientists Ernest Orlando Lawrence (1901-58) and Niels E. Edlefson of the U. of Calif. pub. the idea behind the Cyclotron (magnetic resonance accelerator); next year Lawrence and his student Milton Stanley Livingston (1905-86) build the first (80 Kev) working model at the U. of Calif. Philly-born psychologist Edwin Garrigues "Gary" Boring (1886-1968) pub. a discussion of the perceptually ambiguous Boring Figure. Indian astrophysicist Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (AKA Chandra) (1910-95) (paternal nephew of C.V. Raman) calculates the Chandrasekhar Limit of 1.44 solar masses for the max. mass of a white dwarf star that can collapse into a neutron star or black hole after a supernova. English mathematician-geophysicist Sydney Chapman (1888-1970) describes the photochemical mechanisms underlying the Earth's ozone layer; early in this decade he and his student V.C.A. Ferraro predict the existence of the magnetosphere. Peter Debye uses X-rays to investigate molecular structure. Arthur S. Eddington crashes his head into the problem of unifying gen. relativity and quantum theory - it's an ink blot world and Rohrschach Test, you try the best you can? Biologist Ronald Fisher proposes that the more complex a plant or animal is, the more difficulty it will have in adapting to environmental changes; evidence to the contrary is found in 2010 by Jianzhi "George Zhang et al. of the U. of Mich. via the genetic phenomenon of pleiotropy, where a single gene affects more than one trait. Dutch-Am. biologist Cornelius Van Niel works out the process of photosynthesis in green algae, proving that CO2 and water are converted in the presence of sunlight to chemical energy along with waste O2. Am. biochemist John Howard Northrop (1891-1987) crystallizes the enzyme pepsin, and shows that it is a protein; he does the same with trypsin in 1932, and chymotrypsin in 1935; it is later found that all enzymes are proteins, and he wins the 1946 Nobel Chem. Prize for it. Polish-born Isidor Isaac Rabi (1898-1988) of Columbia U. begins work on the atomic and molecular beam magnetic resonance method for observing radio frequency spectra, based on the binding of protons in nuclei, for which he receives the 1944 Nobel Physics Prize. South African microbiologist Max Theiler (1899-1972) joins the Rockefeller Foundation, and goes on to develop a yellow fever vaccine called 17D, and is awarded a Nobel Prize in 1951. Am. chemist Ernest Henry Volwiler (1893-1992) et al. of Abbott Laboratories discover the short-acting barbituate Pentobarbital, which becomes a favorite for execution of convicts; on Mar. 8, 1934 after being discovered by Volwiler et al., physician Ralph M. Waters begins clinical tests of the fast-acting gen. anesthetic Sodium Thiopental (Pentothal), which becomes the anesthetic of choice to initiate surgery, as well as a "truth serum" and legal injection. Hans Zinsser (1878-1940) et al. of Harvard U. develop a typhus vaccine, and in 1940 devises a method for producing it in quantity. Nonfiction: James Truslow Adams (1878-1949), The Adams Family; the U.S. pres. family, to which he is not related, but everybody kept asking, so? Alfred Adler (1870-1937), The Inferiority Complex (Technik der Individualpsychologie). C.F. Andrews (ed.), Mahatma Gandhi: His Own Story. Herbert Asbury (1889-1963), Ye Olde Fire Laddies; history of the New York City Fire Dept. Harry Elmer Barnes (1889-1968), World Politics in Modern Civilization: The Contributions of Nationalism, Capitalism, Imperialism and Militarism to Human Culture and International Anarchy; The Story of Punishment: A Record of Man's Inhumanity to Man. Sir Gavin Rylands de Beer (1899-1972), Embryology and Evolution (Embryos and Ancestors); clandestine evolution in more detail, incl. a refutation of the recapitulation theory of Ernest Haeckel. Andrei Bely (1880-1934), At the Border of Two Centuries (autobio.); followed by The Beginning of the Century (1933), Between Two Revolutions (1934). Theodore Besterman (1904-76), Some Modern Mediums. Edwyn Bevan (1870-1943), Jerusalen Under the High Priests: Five Lectures on the Period Between Nehemiah and the New Testament; The Hope of a World to Come Underlying Judaism and Christianity. Augustine Birrell (1850-1933), Et Cetera. Wilhelm von Bode (1845-1929), Mein Leben (2 vols.) (autobio.) (posth.). Gamaliel Bradford (1863-1932), Daughters of Eve; bios of Catherine the Great, George Sand, Sarah Bernhardt, Madame Guyon et al. Louis Dembitz Brandeis (1865-1941), The Social and Economic Views of Mr. Justice Brandeis. Robert Briffault (1874-1948), Rational Evolution. Crane Brinton (1898-1968), The Jacobins: An Essay in the New History; a study of the political radicals of the French Rev. Charles Dunbar Broad (1887-1971), Five Types of Ethical Theory. Richard E. Byrd (1888-1957), Little America. Sir Edmund Kerchever Chambers (1866-1954), William Shakespeare: A Study of Facts and Problems (2 vols.). Winston Churchill (1874-1965), Roving Commission: My Early Life (Oct. 20); ch. 9 contains the soundbyte "Bartlett's Familiar Quotations is an admirable work, and I studied it intently", which ends up in guess where. Georges Clemenceau (1841-1929), The Grandeur and Misery of Victory (posth); "The Marne and Verdun will ever remain among the greatest feats of war. Yet mutual butchery cannot be the chief preoccupation of life. The glory of civilization is that it enables us, occasionally, to live an almost normal life. The Armistice is the interval between the fall and rise of the curtain." R.G. Collingwood (1889-1943), Archaeology of Roman Britain. Harry Craddock (of the Savoy Hotel), The Savoy Cocktail Book; the Bible of mixology. Ely Culbertson (1891-), Contract Bridge Blue Book; explains his Culbertson System of Contract Bridge, pissing-off the bridge world, causing him to play champion Sidney Lenz at 5-1 odds and win in 1931-2, making him a superstar. Jonathan Worth Daniels (1902-81), Clash of Angels. John Dewey (1859-1952), Individualism Old and New. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902-84), The Principles of Quantum Mechanics. Elizabeth Donnan (1883-1955), Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America (4 vols.) (1930-5). Carl Van Doren (1885-1950), Swift. Georges Duhamel (1884-1966), Scenes de la Vie Future (America, the Menace); a warning against the U.S.-driven machine age. Albert Einstein (1879-1955), About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures; Religion and Science. Havelock Ellis (1859-1939), Fountain of Life. Sir William Empson (1906-84), Seven Types of Ambiguity. Louis Fischer (1896-1970), The Soviets in World Affairs. Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962), The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection; proves that superior genes have a significant selective advantage? - hence racemixing is no sweat? Ford Madox Ford (1873-1939), The English Novel. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), Civilization and Its Discontents (Das Unbehagen in der Kultur) (The Uneasiness in Culture); Eros and Thanatos in each human psyche project into society as a whole? Manuel Gamio (1883-1930), Mexican Immigration to the United States - if only he could guess? Richard Bartlett Gregg (1885-1974), Ganhiji's Satyagraha, or Non-Violent Resistance. Grock the Clown (Adrian Wettach) (1880-1959), I Like to Live (autobio.). Eric Haarmann (1882-1945), Theory of Oscillation. Elie Halevy (1870-1937), The World Crisis of 1914-18. Edith Hamilton (1867-1963), The Greek Way; "The Greeks remain unsurpassed in every region of thought and beauty they entered". Werner Heisenberg (1901-76), The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory. Walter Best Hesseltine (1902-63), Civil War Prisons (first book). Alex Hrdlicka (1869-1943), The Skeletal Remains of Early Man; the bible of anthropology? Sir Muhammad Iqbal (1877-1938), The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam; attempts to formulate the concept of Ijtihad, independent juristic interpretation to bypass cents. of mullahs and permit the creation of a modern secular Muslim state, resulting in the 1947 creation of Pakistan. Henry James (1879-1947), Charles W. Eliot, President of Harvard, 1869-1926 (2 vols.) (Pulitzer Prize). Sir James Jeans (1877-1946), The Mysterious Universe. Charles S. Johnson (1893-1956), The Negro in American Civilization. James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938), Black Manhattan. Peggy Hopkins Joyce (1893-1957), Men, Marriage and Me (autobio.); "True love was a heavy diamond bracelet, preferably one that arrived with its price tag intact." Helen Keller (1880-1968), Midstream - My Later Life (autobio.). T.D. Kendrick, A History of the Vikings. John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946), Treatise on Money (2 vols); supports the theory of the credit cycle of Swedish economist Knut Wicksell (1851-1926). G. Wilson Knight (1897-1985), The Wheel of Fire; Shakespeare's "Timon of Athens" transcends all of his other tragedies? Harold Laski (1893-1950), Liberty in the Modern State. F.R. Leavis, Mass Civilization and Minority Culture. Theodor Lessing (1872-1933), Jewish Self-Hatred (Der Judische Selbsthass); nails it on the head about there being so many Jewish intellectuals who promote anti-Semitism. Thomas Mann (1875-1955), Die Forderung des Tages. John Masefield (1878-1967), The Wanderer of Liverpool. Maurice Materlinck, La Vie des Fourmis. Shailer Mathews (1863-1941), The Atonement and the Social Process. Margaret Mead (1901-78), Growing Up in New Guinea. Gaston B. Means, The Strange Death of a President; the Duchess-did-it-to-Harding theory? H.L. Mencken (1880-1956), Treatise on the Gods - my snorkel got bigger now that I've gotten older? Robert A. Millikan (1868-1953), Science and the New Civilization. Paul Morand (1888-1976), New York. Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976), Tercentennial History of Harvard University (5 vols.) (1930-6). Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976), Henry Steele Commager (1902-98), The Growth of the American Republic (2 vols.); pisses-off the NAACP, which pressures them into censoring portions of it; the 7th ed. (1980) adds author William Edward Leuchtenburg (1922-). Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964), Das Natzenbuch: A Natural History of the National Socialist Movement and Nationalism in General; calls nationalism "one of the greatest, possibly greatest danger to the further development of the human race". Charles Kay Ogden (1889-1957), Basic English: A General Introduction with Rules and Grammar; a proposed internat. language with just 850-1.5K words. William Lyon Phelps (1865-1943), Essays on Things. John Cowper Powys (1872-1963), In Defence of Sensuality (essays). Llewlyn Powys (1884-1939), An Hour on Christianity; The Pathetic Fallacy. Isthiaq Husain Qureshi, The Religion of Peace; first use to mean Islam, which is known for Muhammad's soundbyte "Aslim taslam" (surrender and/or convert to Islam and you will be safe)? Otto Rank (1884-1939), Psychology and the Soul. Alfred Rosenberg (1893-1946), The Myth of the 20th Century; pro-Nazi. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), The Conquest of Happiness. Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), James Chadwick (1891-1974), and Charles Drummond Ellis (1895-1980), Radiations from Radioactive Substances. Siegfried Sassoon (1886-1967), Memoirs of an Infantry Officer (autobio.). Moritz Schlick (1882-1936), Problems of Ethics; shocks the Vienna Circle by trying to graft ethics into logical positivism. Bernadotte Everly Schmitt (1886-1969), The Coming of the War, 1914 (2 vols.) (Pulitzer Prize) (George Beer Prize); refutes Sidney Fay's 1928 "The Origin of the World War", heaping blame on Germany for starting WWI, forming the Orthodox School with Luigi Albertini and Pierre Renouvin, which fights the Revisionist School of Fay, Harry Elmer Barnes et al. until Fritz Fischer's "Griff nach der Weltmacht" (1961) settles it in favor of the Orthodox School. Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965), The Mysticism of Paul the Apostle. William Buehler Seabrook (1884-1945), Jungle Ways. Edwin Robert Anderson Seligman (1861-1939) (ed.), Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (15 vols.). Abba Hillel Silver (1893-1963), Religion in the Changing World. George R. Stewart (1895-1980), The Technique of English Verse. Genevieve Taggard (1894-1948), The Life and Mind of Emily Dickinson. George Macaulay Trevelyan (1876-1962), England Under Queen Anne (3 vols.) (1930-4); his magnum opus, which picks up where Thomas Macaulay's "History of England" leaves off, incl. Blenheim (1930), Ramillies and the Union with Scotland (1932), The Peace and the Protestant Succession (1934). Leon Trotsky (1879-1940), My Life: An Attempt at an Autobiography; written in exile in Turkey; The History of the Russian Revolution; coins the word "racist" - you mean nobody even thought of it until now? Alec Waugh (1898-1981), The Coloured Countries; Hot Countries; She Said. Owen Wister (1860-1938), Roosevelt: The Story of a Friendship, 1880-1919. Leonard Woolley (1880-1960), Digging Up the Past. Maj. Francis Yeats-Brown (1886-1944), The Lives of a Bengal Lancer (autobio.); filmed in 1935. Music: Paul Abraham (1892-1960), Victoria and Her Hussar (Leipzig). Fred E. Ahlert (1892-1953) and Roy Turk (1892-1934), Walkin' My Baby Back Home. Eugen d'Albert (1864-1932), Die Witwe von Ephesos (opera). Gene Autry (1907-98) and Jimmy Long, That Silver-Haired Daddy of Mine. Sir Granville Bantock (1868-1946), Oriental Rhapsody for Brass. Bela Bartok (1881-1945), Cantata Profana, Op. 94 (The Nine Splendid Stags); a father is teaching his nine sons how to hunt when they turn into nine stags, and he almost kills them before discovering it, but when they return home he tells them that their life is now in the forest; claims it expresses his personal credo. Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953), Overture to a Picaresque Comedy. Ralph Benatzky (1884-1957), Im Weissen Rossel (The White Horse Inn) (opera); Meine Schwester und Ich (opera) (Berlin). Rhythm Boys, Three Little Words; from the filom "Amos and Andy". Henri Busser (1872-1973), Rhapsodie Armenienne (opera). Hoagy Carmichael (1899-1981) and Stuart Graham Steven Gorrell (1901-63), Lazy River; Georgia On My Mind Sept. 15); becomes the official state song of Ga. in 1979. Henry Dixon Cowell (1897-1965), Tiger; inspired by the William Blake poem. Bing Crosby (1903-77) and the Paul Whiteman Orchestra, Song of the Dawn. Cliff Edwards (1895-1971), I'll See You in My Dreams. Duke Ellington (1899-1974), Mood Indigo (Dreamy Blues) (Oct. 17); music by Duke Ellington (1899-1974) and Barney Bigard (1906-80), with lyrics by Irving Mills; his first tune especially for microphone (radio) transmission; features inverted registers for clarinet, trumpet and trombone. Ruth Etting (1896-1978), Ten Cents a Dance; Exactly Like You. George Gershwin (1898-1937), I Got Rhythm. Percy Aldridge Grainger (1882-1961), Tribute to Foster. Johnny Green (1908-89), Body and Soul. Howard Hanson (1896-1981), Symphony No. 2 ("Romantic") (Nov. 28); incl. Interlochen Theme (used at the end of the 1979 Ridley Scott film "Alien"). High Hatters, Sing You Sinners. Paul Hindemith (1895-1963), Concerto for Viola and Chamber Orchestra, Op. 48. Arthur Honegger (1892-1955), Les Aventures du Roi Pausole (opera) (Paris). Jacques Ibert (1890-1962), Divertissement; incidental music for Eugene Labiche's play "Un Chapeau de Paille d'Italie" (The Italian Straw Hat). Leos Janacek (1854-1928), From the House of the Dead (opera) (Brno) (posth.). Isham Jones (1894-1956) and His Orchestra, Stardust; What's the Use?; Feeling That Way; Trav'lin' All Alone; Miss Hannah. Emmerich Kalman (1882-1953), Das Veilchen vom Montmartre (A Kiss in Spring) (operetta) (Vienna). Bert Kalmar (1884-1947) and Harry Ruby (1895-1974), Three Little Words; their biggest hit. Zoltan Kodaly (1882-1967), Marosszék Dances. Ernst Krenek (1900-91), Das Leben des Orest (opera) (Leipzig). Douglas Moore (1893-1969), Greek Games (ballet). Walter Piston (1894-1976), Sonata for Flute and Piano. Jimmie Rodgers (1897-1933), Blue Yodel No. 8 (Mule Skinner Blues) (July 11); Blue Yodel No. 9 (July 16). Amadeo Roldan (1900-39), Ritmica No. 5; first Western classical music written specifically for percussion ensemble. Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951), Von Heute auf Morgen (opera) (Frankfurt). Roger Sessions (1896-1985), Piano Sonato No. 1. Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-75), May the First. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Symphony of Psalms. Robert Elisabeth Stolz and Ralph Benatzky (1884-1957), The White Horse Inn (operetta). The Vikings, Bye Bye Blues; written by Fred Hamm, Dave Bennett, Bert Lown, and Chauncey Gray. Harry Warren (1893-1981), Mort Dixon (1892-1956), and Joe Young (1889-1939), Cheerful Little Earful; featured in Billy Rose's "Sweet and Low". Kurt Weill (1900-50), Der Jasager (students' opera). Kurt Weill (1900-50) and Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956), The Decline and Fall of the City of Mahagonny (Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny) (opera) (Mar. 9) (Leipzig); incl. The Whisky Song; "I tell you, you must die, I tell you, I tell you" (later recorded by Jim Morrison as "Alabama Song (Whisky Bar)". Vincent Youmans (1898-1946), Time on My Hands. Movies: Luis Bunuel's L'Age d'Or, Bunuel's first full-length film (co-scripted by Salvador Dali) debuts in Paris in Dec., and its attacks on bourgeois society so outrage right-wingers that they attack the theater for six days, causing 120K francs worth of damage, and the movie is not shown publicly again for over 35 years. A most remarkable man who coulda been a contender against Hitler? Lewis Milestone's All Quiet on the Western Front (B&W) (Apr. 21) (Universal Pictures), written by Maxwell Anderson based on the 1929 novel by flamboyant-living, Lancia convertible driver Erich Maria Remarque (later called "the king of Hollywood") stars Lew Ayres as Paul Baumer, Louis Wolheim as Kat Katczinsky, John Wray as Himmelstoss, Arnold Lucy as Prof. Kantorek, and Slim Summerville as Tjaden; the final scene shows Paul reaching out to touch a butterfly before he is killed by a sniper; after she is replaced by Beryl Mercer as Paul's mother for making previewers laugh, ZaSu Pitts goes into B-comedy, defining the fretful, flustered, worrisome spinster, and often teaming with Thelma Todd; features 2K+ extras on battlefields set up on a 930-acre ranch in Irvine, Calif., and costs Universal Pictures $1.25M, but is a major hit, and Photoplay names it picture of the year; Variety tells the League of Nations to "buy up the master-print, reproduce it in every language, to be shown to every nation every year until the word 'war' is taken out of the dictionaries"; it pisses-off the Nazis so much that they ban it in Germany (until 1952); Remarque is forced to leave Germany, and is stripped of German citizenship in June 1938; it is rereleased in the U.S. in 1939 following the German invasion of Poland, right before which Remarque escapes the Gestapo, travels the backroads through France, sails on a Panamanian passport aboard the Queen Mary, and arrives in New York City as a lit. celeb, and predicts WWII, touting FDR as the world's only hope and becoming a conscientious objector. Victor Heerman's Animal Crackers (Aug. 28), the 2nd of 13 Marx Brothers comedies stars Groucho (as Capt. Geoffrey T. Spauling, based on a real army officer arrested a few years earlier for selling cocaine in Hollywood), Chico (signor Emanuel Ravelli), Harpo (The Prof.) and Zeppo (Horatio Jamison), along with Lillian Roth (Arabella Rittenhouse) and Margaret Dumont (Mrs. Rittenhouse), and Robert Grieg, who plays Hives the Butler; becomes a classic for lines such as "You go Uruguay and I'll go mine", "One morning I shot an elephant in my pajamas. How he got into my pajamas I'll never know", "Africa is God's country - and He can have it"; "Ever since I met you, I've swept you off my feet"; "You mind if I don't smoke?"; "There's always one thing I've always wanted to do before I quit: retire"; Margaret Dumont (Daisy Juliette Baker) (1882-1965), granddaughter of "Br'er Rabbit" author Joel Chandler Harris is the usual butt of the jokes, becoming known as the "fifth Marx brother"; Groucho sings Hooray for Captain Spaulding, which later (1950s) becomes the theme of his TV show "You Bet Your Life"; censors cut the line "I think I'll try and make her". Clarence Brown's Anna Christie (Feb. 21), Garbo's first talkie, is advertised with the slogan "Garbo talks"; based on an Eugene O'Neill play, she plays an ex-ho who finds love with sailor Charles Bickford; her first line is: "Gimme visky, ginger ale on the side. And don't be stingy, baby." Max Fleischer's Betty Boop cartoons debut with "Dizzy Dishes" on Aug. 9. George W. Hill's The Big House (June 14), written by Frances Marion (Marion Benson Owens) (1888-1973) (a woman, not John Wayne), about a prison breakout stars Wallace Beery (1885-1949) as violent career criminal Machine Gun Butch Schmidt, becoming his sound film breakthrough and making him the world's highest paid actor within two years; also features Robert Montgomery as Kent Marlowe, Chester Morris as John Morgan, Lewis Stone as warden James Adams, and Leila Hyams as Kent's sister Anne Marlowe. Raoul Walsh's The Big Trail (Nov. 1) becomes John Wayne's first Western; in future Westerns he always uses the six-gun from this film. Josef von Sternberg's The Blue Angel (Apr. 1) (first major German sound film) makes a star of Marlene Dietrich (1901-92), who first sings her signature song Falling in Love Again (Can't Help It) by Friedrich Hollaender (1896-1976), causing her to be discovered by Hollywood, forming Marlene's Sewing Circle of lesbian lovers incl. Claudette Colbert, Lili Damita et al., and wearing "man drag" offscreen, causing a nat. vogue for women to wear slacks; also stars Hans Philipp August Albers (1891-1960) (#1 male movie star in Germany in 1930-45) as big-mouth strongman Mazeppa, and features obese Berlin-born German-Jewish actor Kurt Gerron (1897-1944), famous for singing "Mack the Knife" in Bertolt Brecht's "Threepenny Opera"; too bad, after the war begins he is captured by the Nazis in Amsterdam and sent to the Theresienstadt Ghetto in Czech., where he is forced to make the 1944 Nazi propaganda film The Fuhrer Gives a City to the Jews, after which he is sent to Auschwitz and murdered? (he said send me some Academy Awards, not send me to Auschwitz?); Dietrich's Austrian-born Jewish Svengali Josef (Jonas) (von) Sternberg (1894-1969) goes on to incl. a scene of Dietrich in man drag in each of their films, causing Vanity Fair to comment: "Sternberg traded his open style for fancy plan, chiefly upon the legs in silk, and buttocks in lace, of Dietrich, of whom he has made a paramount slut. By his own token, Sternberg is a man of meditation as well as a man of action: but instead of contemplating the navel of Buddha, his umbilical perseverance is fixed on the navel of Venus", after which his wife Risa Royce Sternberg files for divorce, blaming Dietrich for "alienating the affections of my husband"; after she loses him, Dietrich mutters to some cameramen who are lighting her improperly, "Where are you, Joe?" Robert Z. Leonard's The Divorcee (Apr. 19), based on the novel "Ex-Wife" by Ursula Parrott stars Chester Morris as a hubby who cheats on his wife Norma Shearer (1902-83), who decides to "settle the account" by cheating with Robert Montgomery; Joan Crawford never forgives her for stealing the part; Shearer becomes a feminist pioneer for making it acceptable to be a non-virgin single onscreen?; she decides to cut down her film exposure, saving herself for her hubby (head of MGM since 1924) Irving Thalberg's top projects. Andre Charlot's, Jack Hulbert's, Alfred Hitchcock's, and Paul Murray's Elstree Calling ("A Cine-Radio Review") (British Internat. Pictures) stars Teddy Brown, Tommy Handley, Jack Hulbert, Anna May Wong et al., becoming Britain's answer to the lavish Hollywood musical film reviews incl. "Hollywood Revue of 1929" (1929) and "Hollywood on Parade" (1930), becoming the first film to directly mention television; too bad, it can't afford Yankee Technicolor, lamely trying to imitate it with the Pathecolor process which uses stencils to color selected areas of B&W prints. John Francis Dillon's The Girl of the Golden West, based on the David Belasco play stars Ann Harding and Harry Bannister. Monte Brice's The Golf Specialist stars W.C. Fields as J. Effington Bellweather, who teaches a young babe how to swing. Richard Eichberg's Der Griefer (Draufganger) makes daredevil German actor Hans Albers (1891-1960) the #1 movie star in Germany (until 1945). Jack Raymond's The Great Game (British Council Films) becomes the first major British film about British football (soccer), starring Dicky Brown as player John Batten of the Manningford F.C., becoming the first credited film appearance of Huyton, Lancashire-born Sir Reginald Carey "Rex" Harrison (1908-90) as George. Howard Hughes' Hell's Angels (Nov. 15), a WWI aviation flick on which aviation-loving studio owner Hughes spends $3.8M and loses a bundle making a star of blonde bombshell Jean Harlow (Harlean Harlow Carpenter) (1911-37) (who replaced Swedish actress Greta Nissen when sound was added); wins an Oscar for best cinematography; Hughes fires dirs. Howard Hawks and Luther Reed to put himself in the dir.'s chair, takes three years to make it, costing three pilots their lives, and has the B&W film tinted and 2-colored to keep up with the Joneses. Alfred Hitchcock's Juno and the Paycock (June 29), based on the 1924 Sean O'Casey Dublin Trilogy play set in the slums of Dublin during the Irish Civil War of 1922-3 stars Barry Fitzgerald as the Orator, Edward Chapman as loafing boozing Capt. Jack Boyle, and Sara Algood as his wife Juno, who him a "paycock", i.e., peacock for his uselessness. David Butler's Just Imagine (Nov. 23) stars El Brendel as Single O, Maureen O'Sullivan as LN-18, John Garrick as J-21, and Marjorie White as D-6 in 1980 New York City, which is filled with 250-story bldgs. connected by suspension bridges and elevated roads, and personal airplanes with hover mode. John Murray Anderson's King of Jazz (Apr. 19) stars Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, and features the Rhythm Boys, incl. Harry Lillis "Bing" Crosby (Scan. "by the cross") (1903-77), who changed his first name to Bing after the comic strip "The Bingville Bugle". Mervyn LeRoy's Little Caesar (Jan. 9) (Warner Bros.), based on the 1929 W.R. Burnett novel, the grandfather of the modern gangster film is the breakthrough role for Romanian-born Edward Goldenberg Robinson (1893-1973) as small-time gangster Caesar Enrico "Rico" Bandello, who utters the immortal soundbyte "Mother of mercy, is this the end of Rico?"; first film by Chicago, Ill.-born Warner Bros. production head Harold Brent "Hal" Wallis (1898-1986), husband (since 1927) of actress Louise Fazenda, followed in 1966-86 by Martha Hyer, who quits in 1944 after clashing with Jack Warner over "Casablanca", going independent and hiring Ayn Rand, Lillian Hellman et al. as screenwriters, scoring hits with Dean Martin-Jerry Lewis comedies and Elvis Presley movies, along with True Grit (1969) and Rooster Cogburn (1975). Ernst Lubitsch's Monte Carlo (Aug. 27), based on the Booth Tarkington novel is another big hit musical starring Jeanette MacDonald as Countess Vera von Conti, who needs to marry Prince Otto von Seibenheim (Claud Allister) for dough, and ends up hooking up with Count Rudolph Falliere (Jack Buchanan), who posed as Rudy the hairdresser to see if she really loves him not his dough; ZaSu Pitts plays Bertha. Alfred Hitchcock's B&W Murder! (July 31) (British Internat. Pictures) (Wardour Films), based on the novel-play "Enter Sir John" by Clemence Dane and Helen Simpson, starring Norah Baring as traveling stage actress Diana Baring, who is accused of murdering fellow actress Edna Druce, and is convicted after lone holdout juror Sir John Menier (Herbert Marshall) flops, after which he turns detective and discovers the real murderer Handell Fane (Esme Percy). Ludwig Berger's Playboy of Paris (Oct. 31), based on the 1911 play "The Little Cafe" by Tristan Bernard is a comedy film starring Maurice Chavalier and O.P. Heggie, becoming the film debut of no-not-John-Wayne Frances Marion Dee (1909-2004). G.W. Pabst's Prix de Beaute (Beauté) (Miss Europe) (silent) (Aug. 21), filmed in France stars Louise Brooks as beauty contestant Lucienne Garnier in an adult film with a shocking ending. Edward Sloman's Puttin' on the Ritz (Mar. 1) stars Harry Richman (Harold Reichman) (1895-1972) as Harry Raymond, who dresses up for the Ritz Hotel in London and sings the hit Harry Berlin song Puttin' on the Ritz, which is later parodied by Gene Wilder and Peter Boyle in "Young Frankenstein" (1974); too bad, the flick exposes Richman's lack of talent, tanking his career (which doesn't stop him from becoming a famous aviator and nightclub host), and Fred Astaire does his number right in "Blue Skies" (1946); "A songwriter drinks and goes blind - after seeing this you'll want to do the same" (Leonard Maltin). George Cukor's and Cyril Gardner's The Royal Family of Broadway (Dec. 22), based on the 1927 play by Edna Ferber and George S. Kaufman about the Barrymore family is the breakthrough role for Fredric March (Ernst Frederick McIntyre Bickel) (1897-1975), who plays Tony Cavendish. John B. Blystone's Tol'able David (Nov. 15) (Columbia), a remake of the 1921 silent film stars newcomer Richard "Dick" Cromwell (LeRoy Melvin Radabaugh) (1910-60) as David Kinemon after he wins an audition over thousands of hopefuls, and Harry Cohn gives him his screen name and a $75/week salary; Joan Peers plays his babe Esther Hatburn, Noah Beery plays Luke Hatburn, Henry B. Walthall plays Amos Hatburn, and John Carradine (under alias Peter Richmond) plays Buzzard Hatburn; the film debut of Greenwich Village, N.Y.-born ("the Voice") ("Bard of the Boulevard") John (Richmond Reed) Carradine (1906-88) (AKA John Peter Richmond), who got his nose broken in jail, creating "the look that would become world famous", and started out as a set designer for Cecil B. DeMille, later doing voiceovers with his trademark baritone voice. Jack Conway's The Unholy Three, a remake of the silent 1925 hit stars Lon Chaney Sr. in his only talking picture, where he quells rumors that he is a mute by using five different voices, playing a ventriloquist scam artist who sees an innocent man accused of his crimes and uses his skills to help him; he dies before it is released. John Ford's Up the River (Oct. 12) (Fox) stars Spencer Bonaventure Tracy (1900-67) in his feature film debut as convict St. Louis, and Humphrey DeForest Bogart (1899-1957) in his feature film debut as fellow convict Steve, becoming their only film together. John G. Adolfi's Sinners' Holiday (Oct. 11), based on a play by Marie Baumer stars Grant Withers, and is the film debut of James "Jimmy" Cagney (1899-1986). G.W. Pabst's Westfront 1918 (May 23), based on the Ernst Johannsen novel is Pabst's first talkie. Thornton Freeland's Whoopee! (Sept. 30) (Samuel Goldwyn Productions) (United Artists), based on the 1928 Ziegfield stage show based on the 1923 play "The Nervous Wreck" by Owen Davis makes a star of Eddie "Banjo Eyes" Cantor (Edward Israel Iskowitz) (1892-1964) as Henry Williams, who sings Makin' Whoopee; features the Goldwyn Girls, incl. Virginia Bruce, Claire Dodd, Paulette Goddard, Betty Grable, and Ann Sothern; does $2.655M box office on a $1.3M budget. Art: Max Beckmann (1884-1950), Self-Portrait with Saxophone. Georges Braque (1882-1963), The Blue Mandolin Charles Bunnell, Trees and More Trees. Max Ernst (1891-1976), Loplop Introduces a Young Girl; Loplop Introduces Loplop. M.C. Escher (1898-1972), Castrovalva (lithograph); begins a career making drawings that are physically impossible but but but? John D. Graham (1886-1961), Ikon of the Modern Age. Chaim Gross, Offspring (sculpture). George Grosz (1893-1959), Cold Buffet. Philip Guston (1913-80), Mother and Child. Edward Hopper (1882-1967), Early Sunday Morning. Rene Magritte (1898-1967), The Key of Dreams. Henri Matisse (1869-1954), Tiare (Tiaré). Frank Mechau (1902-46), Rodeo-Pickup Man. Henry Moore (1898-1986), Reclining Woman (sculpture); based on Chac Mool figures from Chichen Itza. Georgia O'Keeffe (1887-1986), Apple Blossoms, Dark Mesa with Pink Sky; Ranchos Church, New Mexico (1930-1). Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), Seated Bather; portrays his wife as a sea monster? Norman Rockwell (1894-1978), Girl Running with Wet Canvas. Edward Wadsworth (1889-1949), Composition (cubist). Grant Wood (1891-1942), American Gothic; 30" x 35" oil on beaver board, modelled by dentist Byron McKeeby of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and Wood's sister Nan, immortalizing the town of Eldon, Iowa 50 mi. SE of Des Moines and its Gothic farmhouses; wins the bronze medal in the 43rd Annual Exhibition of Am. Paintings and Sculpture of the Art Inst. of Chicago, and they purchase it for $300; Iowans immediately hate it? Plays: Maxwell Anderson (1888-1959), Elizabeth the Queen. Aleksei Arbuzov (1908-86), Rank (first play). Philip Barry (1896-1949), Hotel Universe. Vicki Baum (1888-1960) and William A. Drake (1899-1965), Grand Hotel (Nat. Theater, New York) (Nov. 13) (444 perf.); based on Baum's 1929 novel "Menschem im Hotel", launching the Grand Hotel genre of dramas that follow the activities of many people in a large busy place; filmed in 1932; launches the career of Colo.-born producer Herman E. Shumlin (1898-1979), who becomes known for producing the plays of Lillian Hellman (1905-84). Sem Benelli (1877-1949), Fiorenza; L'Amore dei Tre Re (The Love of the Three Kings); started as a libretto in 1909. Rudolf Besier (1878-1942), The Baretts of Wimpole Street (last play); about the courtship of Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Robert Browning; filmed in 1934 starring Katharine Cornell. Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956), The Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny. Marc Connelly (1890-1980), The Green Pastures (Pulitzer Prize); based on Roark Bradford's 1928 novel "Ol' Man Adam an' His Chillun". Noel Coward (1899-1973), Private Lives (comedy of manners) (King's Theatre, Edinburgh) (Aug. 18) (Phoenix Theatre, London) (Sept. 24) (Times Square Theatre, New York) (Jan. 27, 1931); written in two weeks; a divorced couple honeymoons with their new spouses in a hotel, discovering that they are staying in adjacent rooms; stars Coward, Gertrude Lawrence, Laurence Olivier, and Adrianne Allan; debut of the Phoenix Theatre on Charing Cross Rd. in Camden, London (cap. 1,012), which also debuts Coward's "Tonight at 8:30" (1936) (co-starring Gertrude Lawrence) and "Quadrille" (1952). Bruno Frank (1878-1945), Storm in a Teacup (Sturm im Wasserglas) (romantic comedy); filmed in 1937 starring Vivien Leigh and Rex Harrison. George Gershwin (1898-1937), Ira Gershwin (1896-1983), Guy Bolton (1884-1979), and John McGowan (1894-1977), Girl Crazy (musical) (Oct. 14) (Alvin Theatre, New York) (272 perf.); dir. by Alexander Leftwich; makes a star of Ginger Rogers (1911-95), who sings Embraceable You, and Ethel Merman (1908-84) (stage debut), who sings I Got Rhythm, Sam and Delilah, and Boy! What Love Has Done to Me!; Fred Astaire helps with choreography; the opening night orchestra incl. Jimmy Dorsey, Benny Goodman, Gene Krupa, and Glenn Miller, conducted by George Gershwin; Danny Churchill (Allen Kearns) is sent to Custerville, Ariz. to manage the family ranch and give up alcohol and fast women, but he turns it into a dude ranch, importing Broadway showgirls and hiring Frisco Kate Forthergill (Merman) as an entertainer, falling for local postal clerk Molly Gray (Rogers); Willie Howard plays Gieber Goldfarb; filmed in 1932 starring Wheeler and Woolsey, and in 1943 starring Judy Garland (who combines the roles of Merman and Rogers) and Mickey Rooney. Michel de Ghelderode (1898-1962), Atlantique; Celui qui Vendait de la Corde de Pendu; Godelieve; Le Menage de Caroline; The Sleep of Reason. Susan Glaspell (1882-1948), Alison's House (Pulitzer Prize). Moss Hart (1904-61) and George S. Kaufman (1889-1961), Once in a Lifetime; the mother of all Hollywood satires? Lew Leslie, Lew Leslie's Internat. Review stars Harry Richman and Gertrude Lawrence; features the song On the Sunny Side of the Street, composed by Jimmy McHugh with lyrics by Dorothy Fields; "Pick yourself up, dust yourself, off; start all over again." Edgar Lee Masters (1868-1950), Gettysburg, Manila, Acoma: Three Plays. W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965), The Breadwinner (London). A.A. Milne (1882-1956), Michael and Mary (comedy). Marcel Pagnol (1895-1974), Topaze. Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936), Come Tu Me Vuoi. Lennox Robinson (1886-1958), Ever the Twain. Richard Rodgers (1902-79), Lorenz Hart (1895-1943), and Benn W. Levy (1900-73), Ever Green (Adelphi Theatre, London) (Dec. 3); based on the life of music hall star Marie Lloyd and her daughter; stars Jessie Margaret Matthews (1907-81) as both, along with Sonnie Hale (1902-59), who marries Matthews in 1931; filmed in 1934 as "Evergreen" starring Matthews. William Bolitho Ryall (1891-1930), Overture (New York) (Dec.). Arthur Schwartz (1900-84) and Howard Dietz (1896-1983), Three's a Crowd (Selwyn Theater, New York) (Oct. 15) (272 perf.); stars Clifton Webb, Fred Allen, and Libby Holman, who sings the hit Something to Remember You By. Robert Emmet Sherwood (1896-1955), Waterloo Bridge (Fulton Theatre, New York) (Jan. 6) (64 perf.); Am. chorus girl Myra Deauville is stuck in London 1917, turning to prostitution, picking up johns on the you know what, and meets Canadian soldier Roy Cronin, who proposes and names her as the beneficiary of his life insurance, putting her in a moral dilemma; filmed in 1931 and 1940, and in 1956 as "Gaby". Robert Cedric Sherriff (1896-1975), Badger's Green. John Wexley, The Last Mile (Sam H. Harris Theater, New York) (285 perf.); produced by Herman Shumlin; death row inmates at Keystone State Penn. stage a jailbreak, are foiled, and Eddie Werner (George Leach) surrenders, only to be gunned down. Thornton Wilder (1897-1975), The Woman of Andros; based on Roman writer Terence's play "Andria". Poetry: Lascelles Abercrombie (1881-1938), The Sale of St. Thomas; Collected Poems. Conrad Aiken (1889-1973), Selected Poems (Pulitzer Prize). Richard Aldington (1892-1962), A Dream in the Luxembourg. Jorge Carrera Andrade (1903-), Boletines de Mar y Tierra. Louis Aragon (1897-1982), Persecute Persecuteur (1930-1). W.H. Auden (1907-73), Poems; makes his rep as enfant terrible of English poetry? Samuel Beckett (1906-89), Whoroscope (debut). Stephen Vincent Benet (1898-1943), The Litter of Rose Leaves. Rene Char (1907-88), Artie. Paul Claudel (1868-1955), Le Soulier de Satin. Hart Crane (1899-1932), To the Brooklyn Bridge; his masterpiece? Gunter Eich (1907-72), Gedichte (Poems) (debut). T.S. Eliot (1888-1965), Ash Wednesday; his first long poem writen after his June 29, 1927 conversion to Anglicanism, about how Anglo-Catholic religion is the answer to life's problems; "Because I do not hope to turn again/ Because I do not hope; Because I do not hope to turn/ Desiring this man's gift and that man's scope/ I no longer strive towards such things." Harry Emerson Fosdick (1878-1969), God of Grace and God of Glory; "Save us from weak resignation,/ To the evil we deplore,/ Let the search for Thy salvation,/ Be our glory evermore./ Grant us wisdom, grant us courage,/ Serving Thee Whom we adore,/ Serving Thee Whom we adore." Robert Frost (1874-1963), Collected Poems (Pulitzer Prize). Robert Ranke Graves (1895-1985), Ten Poems More. Horace Gregory (1898-1982), Chelsea Rooming House. Stanley Kunitz (1905-2006), Intellectual Things (debut). Eric Linklater (1899-1974), A Dragon Laughed & Other Poems (debut). Louis Untermeyer (1885-1977), Blue Rhine-Black Forest. Charles Vildrac (1882-1971), La Brouille. Novels: Michael Arlen (1895-1956), Babes in the Wood (short stories); The Ancient Sin and Other Stories. Sholem Asch (1880-1957), The Mother. Miguel Angel Asturias (1899-1974), Legends of Guatemala. Francisco Ayala (1906-2009), Hunter at Dawn (Cazador en el Alba); avant-garde. Margaret Ayer Barnes, Years of Grace (Pulitzer Prize). Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), Imperial Palace. Pierre Benoit (1886-1962), The Midnight Sun (Le Soleil de Minuit). Phyllis Eleanor Bentley (1894-1977), Trio. Earl Derr Biggers (1884-1933), Charlie Chan Carries On; Charlie Chan #5. George A. Birmingham (1865-1950), Wild Justice. James Boyd (1888-1944), Long Hunt; the Am. Western frontier. Roark Bradford (1896-1948), Ol' King David an' the Philistine Boys. Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973), East Wind, West Wind. Ivan Bunin (1870-1953), The Life of Arsenyev and Lika (trilogy) (1933-5). W.R. Burnett (1899-1982), Iron Man; filmed in 1931, 1937, 1951; Saint Johnson; filmed in 1932, and in 1953 as "Law and Order". James Branch Cabell (1879-1958), Some of Us. Erskine Caldwell (1903-87), Poor Fool. Josef Capek (1887-1945), The Shadow of the Fern. John Dickson Carr (1906-77), It Walks by Night (first novel); detective Henri Bencolin. Leslie Charteris (1907-93), Enter the Saint; so much better than the 1928 novel that he begins calling it the start of the Saint series. Gabriel Chevallier (1895-1969), La Peur (Fear) (first novel). Agatha Christie (1890-1976), The Mysterious Mr. Quin (short stories) (Apr. 14); Giant's Bread (Apr.); pub. under alias Mary Westmacott (#1); The Murder at the Vicarage (Oct.); who killed odious Col. Protheroe?; introduces Harris Tweed-loving elderly spinster amateur sleuth Miss Jane Marple, who lives in the village of St. Mary Mead and whose small maid is named Gwen; her nephew Raymond West is a writer; the first appearance of Miss Marple was in the Dec. 1927 short story "The Tuesday Night Club", which later becomes chap. 1 of "The Thirteen Problems" (1932); also introduces vicar Leonard Clement and his wife Griselda. Maurice Dekobra, Tigres Parfumes. Olav Duun (1876-1939), The People of Juvick (6 vols.); incl. "The Trough of the Waves", "The Blind Man", "The Big Wedding", "Odin in Fairyland", "Odin Grows Up", "Storm". Mircea Eliade (1907-86), Isabel and the Devil's Waters. John Erskine (1879-1951), Cinderella's Daughter, and Other Sequels and Consequences. William Faulkner (1897-1962), A Rose for Emily (Apr. 30); his first nat.-pub. short story, about eccentric spinster Emily Grierson and her Yankee lover Homer Barron, whom she poisons with arsenic and sleeps with for 40 years; based on a woman who lived in Rowan Oak before Faulkner; As I Lay Dying; features a sketch of a coffin as part of the text. Lion Feuchtwanger (1884-1958), Success (Erfolg); the 1919 Munich Rev. leads to the rise and fall of the Nazi Party; makes him a target of the Nazi regime. Pamela Frankau (1908-67), She and I. Jean Giono (1895-1970), Naissance de L'Odyssee; Regain. Michael Gold, Jews Without Money; "Great news, Katie! The 20th century is coming next Thursday night!"; "Whatever it is, it probably means more trouble for the Jews." H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925), Belshazzar (posth.). Dashiell Hammett (1894-1961), The Maltese Falcon (Feb. 14); written in a couple of days in San Francisco, where he lived since 1921; "Sam Spade's jaw was long and bony, his chin a jutting V under the more flexible V of his mouth" (first line); Burritt Alley, where Miles Archer is murdered is one block away from Monroe St., one of the 8-10 places he lived; on Dec. 6, 1994 the Maltese Falcon statue is auctioned for $398,590; on Nov. 25, 2013 it is auctioned to Las Vegas hotel magnate Steve Wynn for $4.1M. Sir Alan Patrick Herbert (1890-1971), The Water Gipsies. Joseph Hergesheimer (1880-1954), The Party Dress. Hermann Hesse (1877-1962), Narcissus and Goldmund (Narziss und Goldmund); spiritual vs. mundane life; written after marrying wife #2 Ninon Dolbin. Langston Hughes (1902-67), Not Without Laughter (first novel). Aldous Huxley (1894-1963), Brief Candles (short stories). Nunnally Johnson (1897-1977), There Ought to Be a Law (short stories). Carolyn Keene (Mildred Wirt Benson) (1905-2002), The Secret of the Old Clock; first novel in the ever-popular Nancy Drew series; first 26 illustrated by Russell H. Tandy; starts out with blonde hair, cloche hat, skirt suit, and heels; by the late 1950s her hair becomes "titian"; 55 sequels through 1979, then Grosset & Dunlap sells out to Simon & Schuster, and another 119 are pub. by 2007; the series shows her changing fashion styles in jumps, incl. the young prof. look in the 1940s, the June Cleaver look with neckties in the 1950s, jeans in 1956, yellow dress and bag and painted fingernails in 1961, red flip hair in the 1970s, the polo-shorts tomboy look in the 1980s with occasional frilly Gunne Sax outfit, crop tops and bouncy blond hair in the 1990s, plaids, penny loafers, and headbands in the 2007 film; pub. by Harriet Stratemeyer Adams (1892-1982), who also writes for this series and also the Hardy Boys, revising them in the 1950s-60s to remove stereotypes and bring them up to date. John Knittel (1891-1970), Midnight People (Abd-el-Kader). D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930), The Virgin and the Gypsy. Rosamond Lehmann (1901-90), A Note in Music. Leonid Leonov (1899-1994), Soviet River; has to crank out lit. about how great the Five-Year Plan is to stay out of the Gulag?; Stories About Unusual Peasants. Meyer Levin (1905-81), Frankie and Johnny. Wyndham Lewis (1882-1957), The Apes of God; satirizes the London lit. scene. Norman Lindsay (1879-1969), Redhead (Every Mother's Son). Wiliam John Locke (1863-1930), The Town of Tombarel; The Shorn Lamb. Rose Macaulay (1881-1958), Staying with Relations. Denis Mackail (1892-1971), The Young Livingstones; The Square Circle. Andre Malraux (1901-76), The Royal Way; Cambodia. Claude McKay (1889-1948), Banjo. Thomas Mann (1875-1955), Mario und der Zauberer. Bruce Marshall (1899-1987), The Rough House: A Possibility; Children of This Earth. Francis Van Wyck Mason (1901-78), Seeds of Murder (first novel). W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965), Cakes and Ale; satire of novelists Hugh Walpole (Alroy Kear) and Thomas Hardy (Edward Driffield); Edward's barmaid first wife Rosie is based on Maugham's only lover (unknown) "Nan". Andre Maurois (1885-1967), Byron; Fattypuffs and Thinifers; children's book; The Next Chapter: The War Against the Moon. William Babington Maxwell (1866-1938), To What Green Altar? William McFee (1881-1966), North of Suez. Anold Munk (-1957), The Little Engine That Could; pub under the alias Watty Piper, based on the 1910 story "The Pony Engine" by Mary C. Jacobs, about a small engine who has to pull a long train over a mountain, uttering the soundbyte "I think I can"; becomes a giant children's hit. Robert Musil (1880-1942), Der Mann Ohne Eigenschaften (The Man Without Qualities) (1930-42); a pun on the expression "Mann mit Eigenschaften" (self-made man); a 3-vol. novel of ideas about mathematician Ulrich, set during the last days of the Austrian-Hungarian monarchy; starts it in 1921 and dies without finishing it after working on it daily and letting his finances and family go to the Devil, feeling bitter that Thomas Mann achieved financial success and he didn't, even though he gets nominated for a Nobel Prize. Vladimir Nabokov (1899-1977), The Luzhin Defense; Eavesdropper. Charles Gilman Norris (1881-1945), Seed: A Novel of Birth Control. Patrick O'Brian (1914-2000), Caesar (first novel); causes critics to label him "the Boy Thoreau". Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), The Million Pound Deposit; The Lion and the Lamb; Slane's Lost Shots (short stories). Martha Ostenso (1900-63), The Waters Under the Earth. Charles Fulton Oursler (1893-1952), The Great Jasper. Dorothy Parker (1893-1967), Laments for the Living (short stories). John Dos Passos (1896-1970), The 42nd Parallel; vol. 1 of the U.S.A. Trilogy (1930-6), about the disintegration of U.S. culture in the early 1900s. Elliot Harold Paul (1891-1958), The Governor of Massachusetts. Katherine Anne Porter (1890-1980), Flowering Judas (short stories) (debut). Dawn Powell (1896-1965), Dance Night. Llewelyn Powys (1884-1939), Apples Be Ripe. J.B. Priestley (1894-1984), Angel Pavement. V.S. Pritchett (1900-97), The Spanish Virgin and Other Stories; establishes his rep. in England. Mary Roberts Rinehart (1876-1958), The Door; alleged source of the cliched phrase "the butler did it". Elizabeth Madox Roberts (1881-1941), The Great Meadow. Kenneth Lewis Roberts (1885-1957), Arundel; first in the Chronicles of Arundel U.S. historical novel series; causes the name Arundel to be used for a Maine town. Alice Grant Rosman (1882-1961), The Young and Secret. Joseph Roth (1894-1939), Job. Rafael Sabatini (1875-1950), The King's Minion. Vita Sackville-West (1892-1962), The Edwardians. Dorothy L. Sayers (1893-1957), Strong Poison; Lord Peter Wimsey #5; he meets detective novelist Harriet Vane, whom he saves from a murder charge to marry. Robert Cedric Sherriff (1896-1975), Journey's End; based on his 1928 play about trench life in WWI. Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), The Tales of Mynheer Amayat; The Chank Shell: A Tropical Romance of Love and Treasure (The Island of Lost Women). Olaf Stapledon (1886-1950), Last and First Men; future history of 18 successive species of humanity, incl. descriptions of genetic engineering and terraforming; launches his sci-fi writing career. Miguel de Unamuno (1864-1936), Saint Emmanuel the Good, Martyr (last novel). Sigrid Undset (1882-1949), The Burning Bush. Hugh Seymour Walpole (1884-1941), The Herries Chronicle (1930-3). Frank Waters (1902-95), Fever Pitch (Lizard Woman) (first novel). Alec Waugh (1898-1981), "Sir!", She Said. Evelyn Waugh (1903-66), Vile Bodies; London's smart set. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), The Autocracy of Mr. Parham. Ethel Lina White (1876-1944), The Eternal Journey. Stewart Edward White (1873-1946), The Long Rifle; first in the Andy Burnett Saga (1932, 1933, 1942); young Penn. farm boy escapes his mean father with Daniel Boone's rifle, is mentored by mountain man Joe Crane, and settles in Calif. Laura Ingalls Wilder (1867-1957), Little House in the Big Woods; first in a series about her picturesque life in the Big Woods of Wisc., Injun territory in Kan., and Walnut Grove, Minn. with parents Charles Philip Ingalls (1836-1902) and Caroline Lake Quiner Ingalls (1839-1924), and sisters Mary Amelia Ingalls (1865-1928) (who goes blind), Caroline Celestia "Carrie" Ingalls Swanzey (1870-1946), and Grace Pearl Ingalls Dow (1877-1941); sells 41M copies in the U.S., plus versions in 40 languages, causing her to crank out seven sequels by 1943, and an 8th pub. posth. in 1971; the Michael Landon TV series debuts in 1974. Henry Williamson (1895-1977), The Patriot's Progress. Jack Williamson (1908-2006) and Miles J. Breuer (1889-1945), The Girl from Mars. Harold Bell Wright (1872-1944), Exit. Philip Wylie (1902-71), Gladiator; a scientist invents an "alkaline free-radical" serum to give the proportionate strength and leaping ability of an ant to humans, and uses it on his son Hugo Danner; inspires the Superman comic book char.? Births: Sudanese pres.(1969-85) Gen. Gaafar (Jaafar) Muhammad (Mohammed) an-Nimeiry (Nimeiri) (d. 2009) on Jan. 1 in Wad Nubawi Omdurman. English "Dr. Stephen Falken in WarGames" actor John Wood on Jan. 1 in Derbyshire; educated at Jesus College, Oxford U. Canadian playwright Marcel Dube (Dubé) (d. 2016) on Jan. 3 in Montreal, Quebec; educated at College Sainte-Marie. Am. "Mancuso, FBI" actor Robert Loggia on Jan. 3 in Staten Island, N.Y. Am. "Boss Jefferson Davis Hogg in The Dukes of Hazzard" actor Sorrell Booke (d. 1994) on Jan. 4 in Buffalo, N.Y.; educated at Columbia U., and Yale U.; speaks five languages. Am. football hall-of-fame coach (Baltimore Colts, Miami Dolphins) Donald Francis "Don" Shula on Jan. 4 in Grand River, Ohio. Spanish king (1975-) Juan Carlos I on Jan. 5 in Rome, Italy; husband of Sophia of Greece and Denmark (1938-); father of Felipe, Prince of Asturias (1968-). Am. "Mel Sharples in Alice", "Jojo Krako in Star Trek" actor Victor "Vic" Tayback (d. 1990) on Jan. 6 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Syrian immigrant parents. Am. "There Goes My Everything" country musician Jack Henry "the Jolly Green Giant" Greene on Jan. 7 in Maryville, Tenn. Australian "The Time Machine", "The Birds" actor Rodney Sturt "Rod" Taylor on Jan. 11 in Lidcombe, Sydney; great-great grandnephew of Capt. Charles Sturt (1795-1869); emigrates to the U.S. in 1954. Canadian hockey defenseman Miles Gilbert "Tim" Horton (d. 1974) on Jan. 12 in Cochrane, Ont.; co-founder of Tim Horton's restaurant chain; English father, Irish mother. Am. "Baby, the Rain Must Fall" singer Glenn Robertson Yarbrough (Limeliters) on Jan. 12 in Milwaukee, Wisc.; educated at St. John's College. Am. "All My Friends Are Gonna Be Strangers" country singer-songwriter Liz Anderson (Elizabeth Jane Haaby) on Jan. 13 in Roseau, Minn.; mother of Lynn Anderson (1947-). U.S. vice-adm. William Porter "Bill" Lawrence (d. 2005) on Jan. 13 in Nashville, Tenn.; father of Wendy B. Lawrence (1959-). Am. "Lillian in Doc Hollywood", "Esther Clavin in Cheers" actress Frances Hussey Sternhagen on Jan. 13 in Washington, D.C.; educated at Vassar College. Am. neoconservative writer (Jewish) Norman B. Podhoretz on Jan. 16 in Brownsville, Brookly, N.Y.; Polish Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Columbia U., and Cambridge U.; husband of Midge Decter (1927-); father of John Podhoretz (1961-). Am. "Honkytonk Man" novelist Clarence Lawson "Clancy" Carlile (d. 1998) on Jan. 18 in Okla.; half-Cherokee. Am. "Melanie Daniels in The Birds" actress Nathalie Kay "Tippi" Hedren on Jan. 19 in New Ulm, Minn.; Swedish-Norwegian-German ancestry; Swedish "Tupsa" = little girl; mother of Melanie Griffith (1957-). Am. astronaut Edwin Eugene "Buzz" Aldrin Jr. on Jan. 20 in Montclair, N.J.; legally changes first name to Buzz (his sister's way of pronouncing brother) in 1982. Czech Marxist poet-philosopher Egon Bondy (Zbynek Fiser) (d. 2007) (Plastic People of the Universe) on Jan. 20 in Prague. Am. astronaut William Reid Pogue on Jan. 23 in Okemah, Okla.; educated at Okla. State U. West Indian "Pantomime", "Dream on Monkey Mountain" poet-playwright Sir Derek Alton Walcott on Jan. 23 in Castries, St. Lucia; 1992 Nobel Lit. Prize. Am. abstract artist (Jewish) Ruth Kligman (d. 2010) on Jan. 25 in Newark, N.J.; E European Jewish immigrant ancestors; educated at NYU; lover of Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning. Swedish Lindbeck Commission economist Assar Lindbeck on Jan. 26 in Umea. Am. "Ain't No Love in the Heart of the City" singer (black) ("Lion of the Blues") Robert Calvin "Bobby Blue" Bland (d. 2013) on Jan. 27 in Rosemark, Tenn. Am. "Popeye Doyle in The French Connection", "Crimson Tide", "Lex Luthor in Superman" actor Eugene Allen "Gene" Hackman on Jan. 30 in San Bernardino, Calif.; joins the U.S. Marines at age 16. Japanese graphic design artist Ikko Tanaka (d. 2002) on Jan. 31 in Nara City. Am. 6'5" basketball player (white) (Boston Celtics #18, 1955-64) James "Jungle Jim" "Loscy" Loscutoff Jr. on Feb. 4 in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at the U. of Oregon. Am. "Baby Doll", "Sweet Bird of Youth" actor-dir. Elmore Rual "Rip" Torn Jr. on Feb. 6 in Temple, Tex.; first cousin of Sissy Spacek (1949-); husband (1955-61) of Anne Wedgeworth (1934-), (1963-87) of Geraldine Page (1924-87)), and (1989-) Amy Wright (1950-). Am. "Carlos Ramirez in The Flying Nun" actor Alejandro Rey (d. 1987) on Feb. 8 in Buenos Aires, Argentina; emigrates to the U.S. in 1960. Am. Worldwide Church of God leader (1986-2003) Garner Ted Armstrong (d. 2003) on Feb. 9 in Portland, Ore.; son of Herbert W. Armstrong (1892-1986). English ballet dancer-actor (gay) John Gilpin (d. 1983) on Feb. 10 in Southsea, Hampshire; lover of Anton Dolin (1904-83). Am. "Gifford Rogers in Titanic", "Bud Corliss in A Kiss Before Dying" actor Robert John Wagner Jr. on Feb. 10 in Detroit, Mich.; husband of Natalie Wood (1938-81) and (1990-) Jill St. John (1940-). U.S. Sen. (R/D-Penn.) (1981-2011) (Jewish) Arlen J. Specter (d. 2012) on Feb. 12 in Wichita, Kan.; of Ukrainian Jewish descent; educated at the U. of Okla., U. of Penn., and Yale U. Am. Austrian School economist (Jewish) Israel Meir Kirzner (Yisroel Mayer Kirzner) on Feb. 13 in London, England; educated at Brooklyn College, and NYU; student of Ludwig von Mises. Am. pres. assassin (Christian-to-Jewish convert) Sara Jane Moore (nee Kahn) on Feb. 15 in Charleston, W. Va.; German immigrant paternal grandparents. Bulgarian Olympic basketball player-official Artenik Arabadjian on Feb. 16 in Haskovo. Am. corporate turnaround specialist Victor Henry Palmieri on Feb. 16 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Stanford U.; political enemy of Richard Nixon, and U.S. ambassador at large for Jimmy Carter. Am. "Birdman of Alcatraz", "The Manchurian Candidate", "Seven Days in May" film dir. John Michael Frankenheimer (d. 2002) on Feb. 19 in Malba, N.Y.; German-born Jewish father, Irish-Am. Roman Catholic mother; educated at Williams College. Am. "Personality and Assessment" psychologist (Jewish) Walter Mischel on Feb. 22 in Vienna, Austria; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938; educated at Ohio State U. Am. "voice of Maria in West Side Story", "voice of Eliza in My Fair Lady Hollywood ghost singer ("the Voice of Hollywood") ("the Ghostess with the Mostess") Marni Nixon (Margaret McEathron) on Feb. 22 in Altadena, Calif. Anglo-Am. "Sporting with Amaryllis" novelist-poet Paul West on Feb. 23 in Eckington, Derbyshire;educated at Oxford U. and Columbia U.; becomes U.S. citizen in 1971. British art expert Sister Wendy Beckett on Feb. 25 in South Africa; raised in Edinburgh, Scotland; educated at St. Anne's College, Oxford U. Am. "Woman of the Year", "Charade", "1776", "Charade", "Father Goose", "Titanic" screenwriter (Jewish) Peter Hess Stone (d. 2003) on Feb. 27 in Los Angeles, Calif.; son of John Stone (Saul Strumwasser) (1888-1961); educated at Yale U. Am. "Clara Varner in The Long, Hot Summer", "Eve White in The Three Faces of Eve" actress Joanne Gignilliat Trimmier Woodward on Feb. 27 in Thomasville, Ga.; wife (1958-2008) of Paul Newman (1925-2008); father of Elinor "Nell" Teresa Newman (1959-), Melissa "Lissy" Stewart (1961-), and Claire "Clea" Olivia Newman (1965-). Am. physicist Leon N. (Neil?) (Nathan?) Cooper on Feb. 28 in New York City; educated at Bronx H.S. of Science, and Columbia U.; 1972 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. "Happy Haynes in McHale's Navy", "Murray Slaughter in The Mary Tyler Moore Show", "Capt. Merrill Stubing in The Love Boat" actor Gavin MacLeod (Allan George See) on Feb. 28 in Mount Kisco, N.Y.; Chippewa (Ojibwa) father; names himself after a cerebral palsy victim in a TV drama and his Ithaca drama coach Beatrice MacLeod. Am. "Charlie Anderson in Shenandoah" actor John Collum on Mar. 2 in Knoxville, Tenn.; father of J.D. Cullum (1966-); not to be confused with actor John K. Collum (1926-62). English photographer Antony Charles Robert Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon, Baron Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon (d. 2017) on Mar. 7 in London; husband (1960-78) of Princess Margaret (1930-2002). Am. chemist Stanley Lloyd Miller (d. 2007) on Mar. 7 in Oakland, Calif.; educated at the U. of Calif., and U. of Chicago; collaborator of Harold C. Urey (1893-1981). Am. free jazz alto saxophonist (black) Randolph Denard Ornette Coleman (d. 2015) on Mar. 9 in Fort Worth, Tex. Am. psychiatrist Arnold M. Cooper (d. 2011) on Mar. 9 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; grows up in Roselle, N.J.; educated at Columbia U., the U. of Utah, and Harvard U. Am. opera conductor Thomas Schippers (d. 1977) on Mar. 9 in Portage, Mich.; of Dutch ancestry; educated at Juilliard School. Am. 6'9" basketball player (white) (Milwaukee Hawks #12, 1952) (Philadelphia Warriors #24, 1952-3) (Baltimore Bullets #24, 1953-4) Mark Cecil Workman (d. 1983) on Mar. 10 in Logan, W.V.; grows up in Charleston, W. V.; educated at W. Va. U. Am. auto racer Troy Ruttman (d. 1997) on Mar. 11 in Mooreland, Okla. Russian physicist-politician Zhores Ivanovich Alferov on Mar. 15 in Vitebsk, Belorussia; 2000 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. chemist (Jewish) Martin Karplus on Mar. 15 in Vienna, Austria; grandson of Johann Paul Karplus (1866-1936); brother of Robert Karplus (1927-90); educated at harvard U., and Cal Tech; 2013 Nobel Chem. Prize. Am. astronaut James Irwin on Mar. 17 in Pittsburgh, Penn. Am. football player (black) (first black QB in the NFL) Willie Thrower (d. 2002) on Mar. 20 in New Kensington (near Pittsburgh), Penn. Bahamian Liberal PM (1967-92) (first black) ("the Black Moses") Sir Lynden Oscar Pindling (d. 2000) on Mar. 22 in Nassau; longest elected leader in the Western Hemisphere; educated at King's College, U. of London. Am. 700 Club TV evangelist Marion Gordon "Pat" Robertson on Mar. 22 in Lexington, Va.; son of U.S. Absalom William Robertson (1887-1971). Am. "A Little Night Music", "Sweeney Todd", "West Side Story" composer-lyricist (Jewish) (gay) Stephen Joshua Sondheim on Mar. 22 in New York City; educated at Williams College; student of Oscar Hammerstein II; collaborator of Harold Prince (1928-) and John Weidman (1946-). Central African Repub. (CAR) pres. #1 (1960-6) and pres. #3 (1979-81) (black) (Ngbaka) David Dacko (d. 2003) on Mar. 24 in Bouchia (near Mbaiki), Lobaye, Ubangi-Shari; diestant cousin of Jean-Bedel Bokassa. Am. "Bullitt", "The Sand Pebbles", "Papillon" ultra-cool actor ("The King of Cool") (Roman Catholic) (lefty) Terence Steven "Steve" McQueen (d. 1980) on Mar. 24 in Indianapolis, Ind.; joins the Marines at age 17; husband (1956-72) of Neile Adams (1936-) and (1973-8) Ali MacGraw (1938-). Am. "Mothman Prophecies" New Age writer John Alva Keel (Alva John Kiehle) (d. 2009) on Mar. 25 in Hornell, N.Y. Am. "The Happy Birthday of Death" Beat poet Gregory Nunzio Corso (d. 2001) on Mar. 26 in New York City. Am. "Zelda" writer Nancy Milford on Mar. 26 in Dearborn, Mich.; educated at the U. of Mich. and Columbia U. U.S. Supreme Court justice (first woman) (1981-2005) Sandra Day O'Connor on Mar. 26 near Duncan, Ariz.; educated at Stanford U. Maritius pres. (1983-95) Sir Anerood Jugnauth on Mar. 29 in La Caverne, Vacoas Phoenix. Am. "Gomez Addams in The Addams Family" actor John Allen Astin on Mar. 30 in Baltimore, Md.; educated at Johns Hopkins U.; husband of (1956-72) Suzanne Hahn and (1972-85) Patty Duke; father of Sean Astin (1971-) and Mackenzie Astin (1973-). Am. "The Hollywood Squares" actor-TV personality Peter Marshall (Ralph Pierre LaCock) on Mar. 30 in Huntington, W. Va.; brother of Joanne Dru (1922-96) German Christian Dem. chancellor (1982-8) (Roman Catholic) ("Architect of German Reunification") Helmut Josef Michael Kohl on Apr. 3 in Ludwigshafen am Rhein. British "Manuel in Fawlty Towers" actor (Jewish) Andrew (Andreas Siegfried) Sachs on Apr. 7 in Berlin, Germany; emigrates to Britain in 1938. Am. "The Shrinking Lonesome Sestina", "Of History and Hope" poet Stanley Miller Williams (d. 2015) on Apr. 8 in Hoxie, Ark.; educated at Ark. State U., and U. of Ark.; father of Lucinda Williams (1953-). French jazz pianist-composer and actor Claude Bolling on Apr. 10 in Cannes. Am. Church of Satan founder (Jewish?) Anton Szandor LaVey (Howard Stanton Levey) (d. 1997) on Apr. 11 in Chicago, Ill. Australian runner-politician John Michael Landy on Apr. 12 in Melbourne; #2 after Roger Bannister to break the 4 min. mile (June 21, 1954). Am. white supremacist serial killer Joseph Paul Franklin on Apr. 13 in Mobile, Ala. Am. "Francis of Assisi", "A Rage to Live", "Escape from the Planet of the Apes" actor Bradford Dillman on Apr. 14 in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at Yale U.; husband (1963-) of Suzy Parker (1932-2003). Am. "Caligula in The Robe" actor (drug addict) Jay Robinson (d. 2013) on Apr. 14 in New York City. Am. jazz flautist (Jewish) Herbie Mann (Herbert Jay Solomon) (d. 2003) on Apr. 16 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Kiwi "voice of the Emperor in The Emperor Strikes Back" actor Clive Selsby Revill on Apr. 18 in Wellington. Am. "Goodbye, Columbus" dir. Larry Peerce on Apr. 19 in Bronx, N.Y.; son of Jan Peerce (1904-84). Swiss-German artist (founder of biodegradable art) Karl Dietrich "Dieter" Roth (d. 1998) on Apr. 21 in Hannover; AKA Dieter Rot for his sculptures and pictures made with rotten food. Am. Tyson Foods CEO Donald John "Don" Tyson (d. 2011) on Apr. 21 in Olathe, Kan.; son of John W. Tyson (1906-67); father of John H. Tyson (1953-); educated at the U. of Ark. Am. "Donna Harris in Sanford and Son" actress (black) Lynn Hamilton on Apr. 25 in Yazoo City, Miss. Am. "Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice" actor-dir.-writer (Jewish) Paul Mazursky on Apr. 25 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. "A Mother's Kisses" novelist-playwright-screenwriter (Jewish) Bruce Jay Friedman on Apr. 26 in Bronx, N.Y. U.S. Repub. treasury secy. #67 (1985-8) and secy. of state #61 (1989-92) James Addison Baker III on Apr. 28 in Houston, Tex.; educated at Prinetcon U. and UTA. Am. "Morticia Addams in The Addams Family" actress Carolyn Sue Jones (d. 1983) on Apr. 28 in Amarillo, Tex. Am. hall-of-fame bowler Harry Monroe "Tiger" Smith on Apr. 29 in Burton (near Cleveland), Ohio. Canadian "The Flying Nun", "The Partridge Family", "Bridget Loves Bernie", "Love on a Rooftop" playwright-screenwriter Bernard Slade on May 2 in St. Catharines, Ont. Am. opera soprano (Jewish) Roberta Peters (Peterman) on May 4 in Bronx, N.Y. Am. comedian (Jewish) Totie Fields (Sophie Feldman) (d. 1978) on May 7 in Hartford, Conn. Am. "Turtle Island" poet and environmental activist ("Poet Laureate of Deep Ecology") Gary Snyder on May 8 in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at Reed College, and Indiana U. Am. physicist George Elwood Smith on May 10 in White Plains, N.Y.; educated at the U. of Penn., and the U. of Chicago; 2009 Nobel Physics prize. Am. sportscaster Pat Summerall on May 10 in Lake City, Fla. Dutch computer scientist Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (d. 2002) on May 11 in Rotterdam; educated at the U. of Amsterdam. Am. "The Rabbi of Lud" novelist (Jewish) Stanley Elkin (d. 1995) on May 11 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at the U. of Ill. Italian archeologist Emmanuel Anati on May 14 in Florence; educated at Harvard U. and the Sorbonne. Am. painter-sculptor Jasper Johns Jr. on May 15 in Augusta, Ga.; grows up in Allendale, S.C. U.S. Sen. (R-N.H.) (1980-93) Warren Bruce Rudman on May 18 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Syracuse U. and Boston College. Am. "A Raisin in the Sun" writer-dramatist (black) Lorraine Vivian Hansberry (d. 1965) on May 19 in Chicago, Ill.; daughter of Carl Augustus Hansberry (1895-1946); wife of Robert Nemiroff. Am. "The Bell Curve" psychologist Richard J. Herrnstein (d. 1994) on May 20 in New York City; educated at Harvard U. Australian Liberal PM #22 (1975-83) John Malcolm Fraser (d. 2015) on May 21 in Toorak, Victoria; educated at Magdalen College, Oxford U. Am. hall-of-fame bowler Glenn Richard Allison on May 22 in Whittier, Calif. English jazz trumpeter Kenneth Daniel "Kenny" Ball (Kenny Ball and His Jazzmen) on May 22 in Ilfod, Essex. Venezuelan-Am. sculptor Maria Sol "Marisol" Escobar on May 22 in Paris. Am. politician (Jewish) (gay) Harvey Bernard Milk (d. 1978) on May 22 in Woodmere, N.Y.; first gay to be elected to public office in Calif.; Lithuanian Jewish immigrant parents. Am. painter Richard Anuszkiewicz on May 23 in Erie, Penn. Am. molecular biologist Matthew Stanley Meselson on May 24 in Denver, Colo.; educated at the U. of Chicago and Caltech. Am. "The Sot-Weed Factor", "The End of the Road" novelist John Simmons Barth on May 27 in Cambridge, Md.; grandson of 19th cent. German immigrants; educated at Johns Hopkins U. Am. Drake Equation astronomer-astrophysicist Frank Donald Drake on May 28 in Chicago, Ill. educated at Cornell U. English "Salad Days" composer Julian Penkivil Slade (d. 2006) on May 28 in London; educated at Eton College, and Trinity College, Cambridge U.; collaborator of Dorothy Reynolds (1913-77). Am. Minimalist painter Robert Ryman on May 30 in Nashville, Tenn.; father of Cordy Ryman (1971-). Am. economist Harold Demsetz on May 31 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill., and Northwestern U. Am. "Man With No Name", "Dirty Harry" actor-dir. Clint Eastwood on May 31 in San Francisco, Calif. - "Old West action" scrambled? English "Breaker Morant", "Robert McCall in The Equalizer" actor Edward Albert Arthur Woodward (d. 2009) on June 1 in Croydon, Surrey; educated at Kingston College. Am. astronaut Charles "Pete" Conrad Jr. (d. 1999) on June 2 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Princeton U. Am. "The Mists of Avalon" novelist (bi) Marion Eleanor Zimmer Bradley (d. 1999) on June 3 in Albany, N.Y.; educated at Hardin-Simmons U. Israeli mathematician (Jewish) Robert John (Yisrael) Aumann on June 8 in Frankfurt am Main, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938; educated at CCNY and MIT; 2005 Nobel Econ. Prize. U.S. Rep. (D-N.Y.) 1971-) (black) (Freemason) Charles Bernard "Charlie" Rangel on June 11 in Harlem, N.Y.; educasted at NYU, and St. John's U. French "Martine Berthier in A Day to Remember" actress Odile Versois (Etiennette de Poliakoff-Baydaroff) (d. 1980) on June 15 in Paris; Russian immigrant parents; sister of Marina Vlady (1938-). English cricketer John Brian "George" Statham (d. 2000) on June 17 in Denton, Manchester. Am. "Gloria" actress Virginia Cathryn "Gena" Rowlands on June 19 in Madison, Wisc.; wife (1954-) of John Cassavetes (1929-89); mother of Nick Cassavetes (1959-). Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Petrovich Aryukhin (d. 1998) on June 22 in Pershutino, Moscow. Am. "Yes Mr. Peters" country singer Roy Frank Drusky Jr. (d. 2004) on June 22 in Atlanta, Ga.; educated at Emory U. Am. 7'0" basketball player (black) (New York Knicks #24, 1955-6), (Minneapolis Lakers #14, 1956-7) (Detroit Pistons #23, 1957-63), Walter F. Dukes (d. 2001) on June 23 in Rochester, N.Y.; educated at Seton Hall U. Am. astronaut Donn Fulton Eisele (d. 1987) on June 23 in Columbus, Ohio. Am. business exec and Reform Party pres. candidate Henry Ross Perot on June 27 in Texarkana, Tex.; educated at Texarkana Junior College, and the U.S. Naval Academy. Irish-Am. biologist William Cecil Campbell on June 28 in Derry, County Londonderry, Northern Ireland; educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and U. of Wisc.; 2015 Nobel Med. Prize. Belgian chef Baron Pierre Romeyer (Romeijer) on June 28 in Brussels. Am. "Rosemary's Baby", "Love Story", "The Godfather", "Chinatown" movie producer (Jewish) Robert Evans (Robert J. Shapera) on June 29 in New York City; husband (1969-72) of Ali MacGraw, (1977-8) Phyllis George, and (9 days in 1998) Catherine Oxenberg. Am. "Intellectuals and Society" Chicago School economist and conservative political philosophy (black) Thomas Sowell on June 30 in Gastonia, N.C.; grows up in Harlem, N.Y.; educated at Stuyvestand H.S., Harvard U., Columbia U., and the U. of Chicago; student of George Stigler (1911-91). Syrian "Mohammad, Messenger of God" producer-dir. Moustapha Akkad (d. 2005) on July 1 in Aleppo. Am. jazz clarinetist Pete Fountain (Pierre Dewey LaFontaine Jr.) on July 3 in New Orleans, La. Austrian conductor Carlos (Karl Ludwig) Kleiber (d. 2004) on July 3 in Berlin; son of Austrian conductor Erich Kleiber (1890-1956) and Ruth Goodrich. Am. New York Yankees owner (1973-2008) ("the Boss") ("Manager George") George Michael "the Boss" Steinbrenner III (d. 2010) on July 4 in Bay Village, Ohio; German descent father, Irish immigrant mother; educated at Williams College, and Ohio State U. Am. "Japan as Number One" writer (on Japan and China) (Jewish) Ezra Feivel Vogel on July 11 in Delaware, Ohio; educated at Harvard U. Am. "Cape Fear" actress-singer Polly Bergen (Nellie Paulina Burgin) on July 14 in Knoxville, Tenn. French postmodern philosopher (Jewish) (Philosophical Deconstructionism founder) Jacques (Jackie Élie) Derrida) (d. 2004) (dawn) on July 15 in El Biar (near Algiers), Algeria; Sephardic Jewish parents; given name is Jackie; expelled from school in 1942 by Vichy bureaucrats implementing anti-Semitic quotas. Am. "Altaira in Forbidden Planet", "Honey West" actress Anne Lloyd Francis (d. 2011) on July 16 in Ossining, N.Y. Am. 6'2" Dream Team hall-of-fame basketball coach (Detroit Pistons, 1983-) Charles Jerome "Chuck" Daly (d. 2009) on July 20 in St. Marys, Penn.; educated at Bloomsburg U. of Penn. Am. historian William H. Goetzmann (d. 2010) on July 20 in Wash.; grows up in St. Paul, Minn.; educated at Yale U. Anglo-Am. "Truly Scrupmptious in Chitty Chitty Bang Bang" actress-singer Sally Ann Howes on July 20 in St. John's Wood, London, England. Am. golfer Gene Alec "the Machine" Littler on July 21 in San Diego, Calif. English "Are You Being Served?" actor-screenwriter Jeremy Lloyd on July 22 in Danbury, Essex. Am. Dem. politician (Roman Catholic) (mayor #56 of New Orleans, 1970-8) Maurice Edwin "Moon" Landrieu on July 23 in New Orleans, La.; father of Mitch Landrieu (1960-); educated at Loyal U. Canadian contralto Maureen Forrester on July 25 in Montreal, Quebec. English "Molly Bloom in Ulysses" actress Mary Barbara Jefford on July 26 in Plymstock, Dvon. British Social Dem. MP Shirley Williams, Baroness Williams of Crosby (Shirley Vivien Teresa Brittain Catlin) on July 27; daughter of George Catlin (1896-1979) and Vera Brittain (1893-1970); educated at Somerville College, Oxford U. and Columbia U. Am. lit. critic (Jewish) Harold Bloom on July 30 in South Bronx, N.Y.; educated at Cornell U., Pembroke College, Cambridge U., and Yale U. Am. jazz clarinetist Pete Fountain (Pierre Dewey LaFontaine Jr.) on July 30 in New Orleans, La. English "Oliver!" composer (Jewish) Lionel Bart (Begleiter) (d. 1999) on Aug. 1 in Stepney, London; Galician Jewish immigrant parents. Trinidadian 6'6" "Live and Let Die", "Annie", "Uncola" actor-dancer (black) Geoffrey Holder on Aug. 1 (Aug. 20?) in Port-of-Spain. Iranian Shiite grand ayatollah Ali al-Husayni al-Sistani on Aug. 4 in Mashhad. Am. astronaut (first man on the Moon) (Eagle Scout) Neil Alden Armstrong (d. 2012) on Aug. 5 in Wapakonetka, Ohio; educated at Purdue U.; learns to fly at age 16. Am. "Stonewall" playwright-historian-activist (gay) Martin Bauml Duberman on Aug. 6. Am. jazz singer-actress (black) Abbey Lincoln (Anna Marie Woolridge) on Aug. 6 in Chicago, Ill.; grows up in Calvin Center, Mich.; wife (1962-70) of Max Roach (1924-2007). Am. vice-pres. wife Joan Adams Mondale on Aug. 8 in Eugene, Ore.; wife of Walter F. Mondale. Am. "switchboard operator in A Very Special Favor" actress Nita Talbot (Anita Sokol) on Aug. 8 in New York City. English "Sacred Hunter" historical novelist Barry Unsworth (d. 2012) on Aug. 3 in Wingate, Durham; educated at the U. of Manchester. Am. "The Money Game" economist Adam Smith (George Jerome Goodman) on Aug. 10 in St. Louis, Mo.; educated at Harvard U., and Oxford U. Am. businessman-activist (Jewish) George Soros (Gyorgy Schwartz) on Aug. 12 in Budapest, Hungary; native Esperanto speaker; emigrates to England in 1947 and the U.S. in 1956; "Soros" means "will soar" in Esperanto; father of Jonathan Soros - the original beware the power of the Schwartz? Am. Hawaiian "Tiny Bubbles" singer Don Ho (Donald Tai Loy Ho) (d. 2007) on Aug. 13 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Am. baseball hall-of-fame player-mgr. (Baltimore Orioles, 1968-82, 1985-6) Earl Sidney Weaver (d. 2013) on Aug. 14 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. "Rocket 88" R&B singer (black) Jackie Brenston (d. 1979) on Aug. 15 in Clarksdale, Miss. Am. "white guy Kelly Robinson in I Spy" actor Robert Martin Culp (d. 2010) on Aug. 16 in Oakland, Calif. Am. 6'1" football hall-of-fame WR-RB (New York Giants) and sportscaster Francis Newton "Frank" Gifford (d. 2015) on Aug. 16 in Santa Monica, Calif.; educated at USC; husband (1986-) of Kathie Lee Gifford (1953-). Am. "The Six Million Dollar Man", "Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan" writer-producer (Jewish) harve Bennett (Fischman) (d. 2015) on Aug. 17 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at UCLA. English poet laureate (1984-98) Edward James "Ted" Hughes (d. 1998) on Aug. 17 in Mytholmroyd, West Yorkshire; husband (1956-63) of Sylvia Plath (1932-63). Am. "Conrad Birdie in Bye Bye Birdie" actor Jesse Pearson (d. 1979) on Aug. 18 in Okla. Irish-Am. "Angela's Ashes" writer (Roman Catholic) Francis "Frank" McCourt (d. 2009) on Aug. 19 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; brother of Malachy Gerard McCourt (1931-); raised in Limerick, Ireland; educated at New York U., and Brooklyn College; spends ages 4-18 in Ireland with a derelict alcoholic father and clueless mother, suffering starvation and disease and getting kicked around, making him into an artist? Am. historian Nikkie R. Keddie on Aug. 20 in Brooklyn, N.Y. British princess Margaret Rose Windsor, Countess of Snowdon (d. 2002) on Aug. 21 in Glamis Castle, Angus, Scotland; daughter of George I and Queen Mother Eliabeth; sister of Elizabeth I (1926-); granddaughter of the earl and countess of Strathmore. Am. actress Vera Miles (Vera June Ralston) on Aug. 23 in Boise City, Okla. Scottish "007 James Bond" actor-producer ("Sexiest Man of the Century" - People mag.) Sir Thomas Sean Connery on Aug. 25 in Fountainbridge, Edinburgh; Roman Catholic Irish factory worker-lorry driver father and Protestant charwoman mother; husband (1962-73) of Diane Cilento (1933-); places 3rd in the 1950 Mr. Universe contest; knighted in 2000; never loses his Scottish accent no matter the role? English "Battery Sgt. Maj. Williams in It Ain't Half Hot Mum" actor Windsor Davies on Aug. 28 in Canning Town, West Ham. Am. "Run for Your Life" actor Ben Gazzara (Biagio Anthony Gazzarra) (d. 2012) on Aug. 28 in New York City; Sicilian descent Italian immigrant parents; educated at CCNY. Am. billionaire investor ("the sage/oracle of Omaha") Warren Edward Buffett on Aug. 30 in Omaha, Neb.; educated at Wharton School, and Columbia U. Australian wine promoter ("Godfather of the Australian Wine Industry") Leonard Paul "Len" Evans (d. 2006) on Aug. 31 in Felixstowe, England; Welsh parents; emigrates to New Zealand in 1953, and Australia in 1955. Am. "Lawrence Welk" ragtime pianist Dudley "Big Tiny" Little Jr. on Aug. 31 in Worthington, Minn. Am. 6'5" basketball player (white) (Boston Celtics #29, 1956-9) Louis C. "Lou" Tsioropoulos on Aug. 31 in Lynn, Mass.; educated at the U. of Ky. Indian astrophysicist Jagadish Chandra "J.C." Bhattacharyya (d. 2012) on Sept. 1 in Calcutta. Belgian king #5 (1951-93) Baudouin (Baldwin) (Boudewijn) I (d. 1993) on Sept. 7 in Laeken; eldest son of Leopold III (1901-83) and 1st wife Astrid of Sweden (1905-35); brother of Albert II (1934-); husband (1960-93) of Fabiola (1928-2014). Am. "Saxophone Colossus", "Tenor Madness" jazz tenor saxophonist (black) Theodore Walter "Sonny" Rollins on Sept. 7 in New York City. Am. "Mary Campbell in Soap" actress Cathryn Lee Damon (d. 1987) on Sept. 11 in Seattle, Wash. Australian "The Liberal Mind" political philosopher Kenneth Robert Minogue (d. 2013) on Sept. 11 in New Zealand. Japanese chemist Akira Suzuki on Sept. 12 in Mukawa, hokkaido; 2010 Nobel Chem. Prize. Am. economist (Jewish) Hirsh Zvi Griliches (d. 1999) on Sept. 12 in Kaunas, Lithuania; emigrates to Palestine in 1947, and the U.S. in ?; educated at UCB, and the U. of Chicago. Am. "The Closing of the American Mind" philosopher (gay) Allan David Bloom on Sept. 14 in Indianapolis, Ind.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. "Olson Johnson in Blazing Saddles", "The Big Lebowski" actor David William "Dave" Huddleston on Sept. 17 in Vinton, Va. Am. astronaut (founder of Inst. of Noetic Sciences) Edgar Dean "Ed" Mitchell (d. 2016) on Sept. 17 in Hereford, Tex.; educated at Carnegie Inst. of Technology. Am. astronaut and USAF Lt. Gen. Thomas Patten "Tom" Stafford on Sept. 17 in Weatherford, Okla. Am. "Adam's babe Laura Dayton in Bonanza" actress Jacqueline Katherine "Kathie" Browne (d. 2003) on Sept. 19 in San Luis Obispo, Calif.; wife (1969-2003) of Darren McGavin (1922-2006). Am. architect Stanley Tigerman on Sept. 20 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at MIT and Yale U. Am. "Why Don't You Believe Me?" pop singer Joni James (Giovanna Carmella "Joan" Babbo) on Sept. 22 in Chicago, Ill.; sells 100M+ records. Am. "Rainy Day in Georgia" soul singer (black) ("the Genius") ("Brother Ray") Ray Charles (Robinson) (d. 2004) on Sept. 23 in Albany, N.Y.; grows up in Greenville, Fla.; goes blind at age 6; fathers 12 children by seven different women; first to combine R&B with gospel, turning gospel into devil sex music? Am. "Ulysses S. Grant" historian William Shield McFeely on Sept. 25 in New York City; educated at Amherst College, and Yale U.; student of C. Vann Woodward (1908-99). Am. "Dirty Dan", "A Boy Named Sue" poet-singer-songwriter and children's writer (Jewish) Sheldon Alan "Uncle Shelby" Silverstein (d. 1999) on Sept. 25 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Oren Trask in Working Girl" actor Philip Michael Bosco on Sept. 26 in Jersey City, N.J. German tenor Fritz Wunderlich (d. 1966) on Sept. 26 in Kusel, Rhineland-Palatinate. Am. economist ("Father of Rational Expectations") John Fraser Muth (d. 2005) on Sept. 27 in ?; educated at Carnegie Mellon U. Am. floppy disk inventor Alan F. Shugart (d. 2006) on Sept. 27 in Los Angeles, Calif. English "Inspector Morse" crime novelist Norman Colin Dexter on Sept. 29 in Stamford, Lincolnshire. Irish "King Arthur", "Oliver Cromwell", "A Man Called Horse", "Prof. Albus Dumbledore in Harry Potter" actor Richard St. John Harris (d. 2002) on Oct. 1 in Limerick City; educated at Crescent College (Jesuit); TB contracted in his teens nixes his rugby career. Am. ambassador to Israel (1977-85) Samuel Winfield Lewis (d. 2014) on Oct. 1; educated at Yale U., and Johns Hopkins U. German economist Reinhard Selten on Oct. 5 in Breslau (Wroclaw), Lower Silesia (Poland); 1994 Nobel Econ. Prize. Syrian PM (1970-71) and pres. (1971-2000) (Alawite) Hafez al-Assad (d. 2000) on Oct. 6 in Qardaha, Latakia; father of Bashar al-Assad (1965-). Am. "Ted Underhill in Fletch" actor (bi) William Traylor (d. 1989) on Oct. 8 in Kirksville, Mo. Am. Orthodox rabbi-philosopher (Jewish) Isadore (Yitzchak) (Isaac) Asher Twersky (d. 1997) on Oct. 9 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Boston Latin School, and Harvard U.; son-in-law of Joseph B. Soloveitchik (1903-93). French chemist Yves Chauvin on Oct. 10; 2005 Nobel Chem. Prize. English "The Birthday Party", "The Homecoming", "Betrayal"" playwright Harold Pinter (d. 2008) on Oct. 10 in Hackney, London; husband (1956-80) of Vivien Merchant, and (1980-2008) Lady Antonia Fraser. Am. Esalen Inst. co-founder (Gestalt Practice founder) (Jewish) Richard "Dick" Price (d. 1985) on Oct. 12 in Chicago, Ill.; Lithuanian Jewish immigrant father; educated at Stanford U. Am. "Barefootin'" R&B singer (black) Robert Parker on Oct. 14 in New Orleans, La. Am. futurist-transhumanist (vegetarian) FM-2030 (Fereidoun M. Esfandiary) (d. 2000) on Oct. 15 in Brussels, Belgium; son of an Iranian diplomat; names himself after the year 2030, which he thinks he will see. Am. "The Gang That Couldn't Shoot Straight" journalist-novelist James Earle "Jimmy" Breslin (d. 2017) on Oct. 17 in Jamaica, Queens, N.Y. U.S. Repub. defense secy. (1987-9) Frank Charles Carlucci III on Oct. 18 in Scranton, Penn.; educated at Princeton U. and Harvard U. Am. Post Keynesian economist Paul Davidson on Oct. 23 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Brooklyn College, CUNY, and the U. of Penn.; student of Sidney Weintraub (1914-83). Am. "Chantilly Lace" rocker-DJ ("The Big Bopper") Jiles Perry "Jape" "J.P." Richardson Jr. (d. 1959) on Oct. 24 in Sabine Pass, Tex. Soviet cosmonaut Pavel Romanovich Popovich (d. 2009) on Oct. 25 in Uzyn, Kiev; first ethnic Ukrainian in space. Am. Atkins Diet cardiologist Robert Coleman Atkins (d. 2003) on Oct. 30 in Columbus, Ohio; educated at the U. of MIch. Canadian "The Wars" novelist-playwright (gay) Timothy Irving Frederick "Tiffy" Findley (d. 2002) on Oct. 30 in Toronto, Ont. Am. "Dr. Sevrin in Star Trek" actor George Vincent "Skip" Homeier on Oct. 30 in Chicago, Ill. Am. 6'7" basketball player (white) (Fort Wayne Pistons #17, 1952-5) (Rochester/Cincinnati Royals #5, 1955-8) Don "Monk" Meineke (d. 2013) on Oct. 30 in Dayton, Ohio; educated at the U. of Dayton; Am. astronaut Maj. Gen. Michael Collins on Oct. 31 in Rome, Italy. Am. "The Dining Room", "Love Letters" playwright-novelist A.R. (Albert Ramsdell) Gurney Jr. on Nov. 1 in Buffalo, N.Y.; educated at Williams College, and Yale U. Am. Christian (Presbyterian) minister Dennis James "Jim" Kennedy (d. 2007) on Nov. 3 in Augusta, Ga.; starts out an Arthur Murray dance instructor then gets converted over the radio. Am. "Fried Green Tomatoes" actress Lois Smith (Lois Arlene Humbert) on Nov. 3 in Topeka, Kan. Canadian "Aunt Lil in Dallas" actress Kate Daphne Reid on Nov. 4 in London, England. Am. "Marie Barone in Everybody Loves Raymond" actress (Jewish) Doris May Roberts (nee Meltzer) on Nov. 4 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. "The Hoax" novelist-writer Clifford Michael Irving on Nov. 5 in New York City; educated at Cornell U. German leftist historian Hans Mommsen on Nov. 5 in Marburg; son of Wilhelm Mommsen (1892-1966); great-grandson of Theodor Mommsen (1817-1903); brother of Wolfgang Mommsen (1930-2004); educated at the U. of Heidelberg, U. of Tubingen, and U. of Marburg. Am. law prof. (black) (first tenured African-Am. law prof. at Harvard Law School) Derrick Albert Bell Jr. (d. 2011) on Nov. 6 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Duquesne U., and U. of Pittsburgh. Am. sportscaster Charlie Jones on Nov. 9 in Ft. Smith, Ark. Am. country musician Walter Louis "Hank" Garland (d. 2004) on Nov. 11 in Cowpens, S.c. Am. "Big Girls Don't Cry", "Let's Hang On!" musician-songwriter and record producer (gay) Robert Stanley "Bob" Crewe (d. 2014) (The Four Seasons) on Nov. 12 in Newark, N.J.; grows up in Belleville, N.J.; collaborator of Bob Gaudio (1942-). English "Empire of the Sun", "Crash" novelist James Graham "J.G." Ballard (d. 2009) on Nov. 15 in Shanghai, China. Am. "Grady Wilson in Sanford and Son" actor (black) Whitman Blount Mayo (d. 2001) on Nov. 15 in New York City. Am. football player-coach Harland Svare on Nov. 15 in Clarksville, Minn.; youngest NFL head coach (1962, Los Angeles Rams). Nigerian "Things Fall Apart", "Arrow of God" novelist-poet (black) Albert Chinualumogu "Chinua" Achebe (d. 2013) on Nov. 16 in Ogidi; Evangelical Protestant parents; raised in Ogidi. Am. dancer-producer (gay) Joseph "Joe" Cino (d. 1967) on Nov. 16 in Buffalo, N.Y.; Sicilian immigrant parents. Am. Olympic gold medal decathlete and Repub. politician Robert Bruce "Bob" Mathias (d. 2006) on Nov. 17 in Tulare, Calif. Am. economist Arthur Stanley Goldberger (d. 2009) on Nov. 20. Am. "An Economic Theory of Democracy" economist Anthony Downs on Nov. 21 in Evanston, Ill.; educated at Carleton College, and Stanford U. Am. astronaut Owen Kay Garriott on Nov. 22; father of Robert Garriott (1956-) and Richard Garriott (1961-); educated at the U. of Okla., and Stanford U. U.S. Repub. labor secy. #18 (1985-7) William Emerson "Bill" Brock III on Nov. 23 in Chattanooga, Tenn. Am. Watergate conspirator and radio talk show host George Gordon Liddy on Nov. 30 in Hoboken, N.J.; educated at Fordham U.; grows up in a pro-Hitler German-Am. community; FBI agent in 1957-62; unsuccessfully prosecutes Timothy Leary in 1966, then engages in debates with him in the 1980s; serves 4.5 years for masterminding the 1972 Watergate burglary. Am. 6'2" basketball player-coach (white) (Rochester Royals #14, 1955-8) Richard Joseph "Richie" Regan (d. 2002) on Nov. 30 in Newark, N.J.; educated at Seton Hall u> English "Born Free", "From Russia with Love" singer Matt Monro (Terence Edward Parsons) (d. 1985) on Dec. 1 in Shoreditch, London. Am. "Human Capital" economist Gary Stanley Becker on Dec. 2 in Pottsville, Penn.; educated at Princeton U., and the U. of Chicago; 1992 Nobel Econ. Prize. French-Swiss New Wave "Breathless" film dir. Jean-Luc Godard on Dec. 3 in Paris. Am. "The Historian as Detective" historian Robin W. Winks (d. 2003) on Dec. 5 in Ind.; educated at the U. of Colo., Victoria U., and Johns Hopkins U. Zambian PM (1978-81) (black) Daniel Muchiwa Lisulo (d. 2000) on Dec. 6 in Mongu. Austrian-Swiss "Hans Rolfe in Judgment at Nuremberg" actor (Roman Catholic) Maximilian Schell on Dec. 8 in Vienna; brother of Maria Schell (1926-2005). Am. actor-writer-dir. (Jewish) Buck Henry (Zuckerman) on Dec. 9 in New York City. Am. 6'11 basketball player (black) (Baltimore Bullets #25, 1953-4) (New York Knicks #19, 1954-60) (Los Angeles Lakers #14, 1960-2) Raymond Darlington "Ray" Felix (d. 1991) on Dec. 10 in New York City; educated at Long Island U. Am. "Daniel Christie in Far and Away", "Father Cavanaugh in Rudy" actor Robert Prosky (Robert Jozef Porzuczek) (d. 2008) on Dec. 13 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Temple U. Irish "The Country Girls" novelist Edna O'Brien on Dec. 15 in Tuamgraney, County Clare. Am. "Penthouse" mag. publisher Robert "Bob" Guccione on Dec. 17 in Brooklyn, N.Y. German "Peter Helfgott in Shine" actor Armin Mueller-Stahl on Dec. 17 in Tilsit, East Prussia. Am. 6'2" basketball hall-of-fame player-coach (white) (Fort Wayne/Detroit Pistons #7, 1956-62) (Baltimore/Washington Bullets, 1966-73, 1980-6) (Philadelphia 76ers, 1973-7) (San Diego Clippers, 198-80) (Los Angeles Clippers, 1987-9) Eugene William "Gene" Shue on Dec. 18 in Baltimore, Md.; educated at the U. of Md. Am. Subway co-founder Peter Buck on Dec. 19 in South Portland, Maine; educasted at Bowdoing College, and Columbia U. Am. choreographer (gay) (co-founder of the Joffrey Ballet) Robert Joffrey (Anver Bey Abdullah Jaffa Khan) (d. 1988) on Dec. 24 in Seattle, Wash.; Afghan Pashtun father, Italian mother; collaborator of Gerald Arpino (1923-2008). Am. jazz drummer (black) ("Mr. Taste") Edmund Leonard "Ed" Thigpen (d. 2010) (Oscar Peterson Trio) on Dec. 28 in Chicago, Ill.; raised in Los Angeles, Calif. Saudi crown prince (Muslim) Sultan bin Abdul-Aziz Al-Said (d. 2011) on Dec. 30 in Riyadh; 15th son of King Abdul-Aziz (1876-1953) and Princess Hassa Al-Sudairi (1910-2003). English surgeon Sir Roy York Calne on Dec. 30; knighted in 1986. Chinese chemist (female) (discoverer of artemisinin) Tu Youyou on Dec. 30 in Ningbo, Zhejiang; educated at Peking U.; 2015 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. "Stand and Deliver" educator Jaime Alfonso Escalante Gutierrez (d. 2010) on Dec. 31 in Cochabamba, Bolivia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1964; educated at CSULA. Am. "Mule Skinner", "Waterboy", "Jack of Diamonds", "Buked and Scorned" folk-blues singer-songwriter-actress-activist (black) ("Queen of American Folk Music") ("Voice of the Civil Rights Movement") Odetta (Holmes Felious Gordon) (d. 2008) on Dec. 31 in Birmingham, Ala. Am. astronaut Edward Higgins White II (d. 1967) in San Antonio, Tex.; educated at the U. of Mich. Am. economist Edwin Mansfield (d. 1997) on ? in ?. Japanese-Am physicist Bunji Sakita (d. 2002) in Toyama Prefecture; educated at Kanazawa U, Nagoya U., and the U. of Rochester. Cuban rev. leader Vilma Espin Guillois (d. 2007) on ?; wife of Fidel Castro's brother Raul Castro. English "Sloan and Crosby", "Henrietta Who" crime novelist Catherine Aird (Kinn Hamilton McIntosh) on ? in Huddersfield, Yorkshire. Canadian "TekWar: TekLords" dir.-producer (Jewish) George Bloomfield on ? in Montreal, Quebec; cousin of M. Charles Cohen; uncle of Maury Chaykin (1949-). Am. scholar (Jewish) Richard Anderson Falk on ? in ?; educated at the U. of Penn., Yal e U., and Harvard U. Iranian Shiite Muslim grand ayatollah Mohammad Ishaq al-Fayyad (al-Fayad) on ? in Jaghori, Ghazni, Afghanistan. Cuban-Am. "Fefu and Her Friends" playwright Maria Irene Fornes on ? in Havana, Cuba; emigrates to the U.S. in 1945. English "Holy Blood, Holy Grail" writer-actor Henry Lincoln (Soskin) on ? in London. English psychologist Richard Lynn on ? in Bristol; educated at King's College, Cambridge U. Am. anti-Communist singer Janet Greene (nee Marcum) on ? in Hamilton, Ohio. Am. "The Better Angels" novelist Charles McCarry on ? in Berkshires, Mass. Am. Esalen Inst. co-founder Michael Murphy on ? in Salinas, Calif.; Irish father, Basque mother; educated at Stanford U. Am. evolutionary economist Richard R. Nelson on ? in New York City. Jamaican saxophonist (black) Saxa (Lionel Augustus Martin) (The English Beat) on ? in Kingston. Deaths: German Richard Wagner's 2nd wife Cosima Wagner (b. 1837) on Apr. 1 in Bayreuth. Am. sculptor Edward V. Valentine (b. 1838). Spanish soldier-statesman Valeriano Weyler (b. 1838) on Oct. 20 in Madrid. English poet laureate (1913-30) Robert Seymour Bridges (b. 1844) on Apr. 21. Am. publisher George Haven Putnam (b. 1844) on Feb. 27. Russian artist Ilya Yefimovich Repin (b. 1844) on Sept. 29 in Kuokkala, Finland. Hungarian violinist-teacher Leopold Auer (b. 1845) on July 15 in Loschwitz, Dresden, Germany. English-born Am. frontiersman Richard W. "Deadwood Dick" Clarke (b. 1845); buried alongside Calamity Jane (1852-1903) in Mount Moriah Cemetery in Deadwood, S.D. German economist Karl Bucher (b. 1847) on Nov. 12 in Leipzig. Am. psychologist-logician Christine Ladd-Franklin (b. 1847) on Mar. 5. British PM (1902-5) Arthur James, 1st earl of Balfour (b. 1848): "A religion that is small enough for our understanding would not be large enough for our needs." German gen. Friedrich von Bernhardi (b. 1849) on Dec. 11. French dramatist-novelist Georges de Porto-Riche (b. 1849) on Sept. 5 in Paris. German surgeon Ludwig Rehn (b. 1849) on May 29; namesake of the Ludwig Rehn Prize (1973). German WWI grand Adm. Alfred von Tirpitz (b. 1849) on Mar. 6. English Buckingham Palace architect Sir Aston Webb (b. 1849) on Aug. 21. German chemist Rainer Ludwig Claisen (b. 1851) on Jan. 5 in Godesberg am Rhein (near Bonn). German theologian Adolf von Harnack (b. 1851). Armenian leader Boghos Nubar Pasha (b. 1851) on Aug. 25 in Paris. Am. writer Mary Eleanor Wilkins Freeman (b. 1852) on Mar. 13. British knighted rabbi Sir Hermann Gollancz (b. 1852). U.S. Army chief of staff (1917) Tasker Howard Bliss (b. 1853) on Nov. 9 in Washington, D.C. French bicycling pioneer Paul de Vivie (Velocio) (b. 1853) on Feb. 27 in St. Etienne (hit by a tram while walking his bike across the road). British Sanskrit scholar Arthur MacDonnell (b. 1854). Canadian businessman-diplomat Peter Charles Larkin (b. 1855) on Feb. 3 in London, England. Dutch novelist-painter Jacobus van Looy (b. 1855) on Feb. 24 in Haarlem. Am. poet-critic-educator George Edward Woodberry (b. 1855): "To feel that one has a place in life solves half the problem of contentment." Am. industrialist Daniel Guggenheim (b. 1856) on Sept. 28. Syrian leader Mar'i Pasha Al Mallah (b. 1856) in Aleppo. Am. Vaudeville impresario Edward Franklin Albee II (b. 1857) on Mar. 11 in Palm Beach, Fla. French-born Belgian paleontologist Louis Dollo (b. 1857) on Apr. 19 in Brussels. Am. Folger's Shakespeare Library founder Henry Clay Folger (b. 1857) on June 11. French Gen. Paul Leblois (b. 1857) on Aug. 28 in Val-de-Grace, Paris. U.S. Repub. pres. #27 (1909-13) and chief justice #10 (1921-30) William Howard Taft (b. 1857) on Mar. 8 in Washington, D.C. English journalist-histoian Lucien Wolf (b. 1857). Dutch beriberi physician Christiaan Eijkman (b. 1858) on Nov. 5 in Utrecht; 1929 Nobel Medicine Prize. British Gen. Horace Smith-Dorrien (b. 1858) on Aug. 12 in Chippenham, Wiltshire. Am. White Sox owner Charles Comiskey (b. 1859) on Oct. 26. Scottish "Sherlock Holmes" novelist Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (b. 1859) on July 7 in Crowborough, England (heart attack); last words: "You are wonderful" (to his wife); dies after English private investigator Sherlock Holmes (b. ?) on Jan. 6 in Crowborough, Sussex; dies in his home called Windlesham, where he retired to raise bees. Am. theatrical magnate Abraham Lincoln Erlanger (b. 1859) on Mar. 7 in Manhattan, N.Y. Turkish statesman Ahmed Riza (b. 1859) on Feb. 26 in Istanbul. German composer Alexander von Fielitz (b. 1860). Am. electrical inventor-manufacturer Elmo Ambrose Sperry (b. 1860) on June 16 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. "Great White Chief" govt. official James K. Vardaman (b. 1861) on June 25. Norwegian Arctic explorer Fridtjof Nansen (b. 1861) on May 13; 1922 Nobel Peace Prize. German economist Silvio Gesell (b. 1862) on Mar. 11 in Oranienburg. Swedish opthalmologist Allvar Gullstrand (b. 1862) on July 28 in Stockholm; 1911 Nobel Med. Prize. British Gen. Sir Bryan Mahon (b. 1862) on Sept. 29 in Dublin, Ireland. Am. children's pulp fiction publisher Capt. Edward L. Stratemeyer (b. 1862) on May 10 in Newark, N.J.; pub. 1.3K titles which sold 500M copies; "As oil had its Rockefeller, literature had its Stratemeyer." (Fortune mag.) German mathematician Eduard Study (b. 1862) on Jan. 6 in Bonn. Dutch-born Am. editor-writer Edward William Bok (b. 1863) on Jan. 9 in Lake Wales, Fla. Scottish engineer (TV pioneer) Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton (b. 1863) on Feb. 19. Guyana-born English writer William John Locke (b. 1863) on May 15 in Paris. British scholar-educator Sir Israel Gollancz (b. 1864). Am. historian Ephraim Douglass Adams (b. 1865) on Sept. 1 in Stanford, Calif. Am. Shakespearean scholar Horace Howard Furness Jr. (b. 1865). U.S. Supreme court justice #72 (1923-30) Edward Terry Sanford (b. 1923) on Mar. 8 in Washington, D.C. (uremic poisoning after a tooth extraction); dies a few hours before chief justice William Howard Taft. U.S. Nat. Park Service dir. #1 (1916-29) Stephen Tyng Mather (b. 1867) on Jan. 22 in Brookline, Mass. Sicilian-born Am. Mafia boss Giuseppe Morello (b. 1867) on Aug. 15 in East Harlem, N.Y. (murdered) (by Buster from Chicago or Joseph Valachi). Am. Fruehauf Co. founder August Charles Fruehauf (b. 1868). Am. cartoonist Frank McKinney "Kin" Hubbard (b. 1868) on Dec. 26 in Indianapolis, Ind. British industrialist Alfred Mond (b. 1868) on Dec. 27 in London. Am. Progressivist writer Herbert David Croly (b. 1869) on May 17 in Santa Barbara, Calif. French gen. Giulio Douhet (b. 1869) on Feb. 15. Am. detective story writer Melville D. Post (b. 1869). Austrian organic chemist Fritz Pregl (b. 1869) on Dec. 13 in Graz; 1923 Nobel Chem. Prize. Am. mining magnate William Boyce Thompson (b. 1869) on June 27 (pneumonia). Am. historian Claude Halstead Van Tyne (b. 1869) on Mar. 21 in Ann Arbor, Mich. German opera composer Siegfried Wagner (b. 1869) on June 6; composes 19 operas, more than his daddy, all duds? Spanish dictator (1923-30) Miguel Primo de Rivera (b. 1870) on Mar. 16 in Paris, France (diabetes). British MP Lt. Col. Sir John Norton-Griffiths, 1st Baronet (b. 1871) on Sept. 27 in Mickleham Church, Surrey. Russian explorer Vladimir Arsenyev (b. 1872) on Sept. 4 in Vladivostok; his wife Margarita is arrested in 1937 as a spy and executed in 1937 after a 10-min. trial; his daughter Natalya is arrested in Apr. 1941 and sentenced to a gulag. British statesman F.E. Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead (b. 1872) on Sept. 30 in Grosvenor Gardens, London. Russian-born Australian artist George Lambert (b. 1873) on May 28. German painter Otto Mueller (b. 1874) on Sept. 24 in Breslau. Am. cartoonist Clare A. Briggs (b. 1875) on Jan. 3 in New York City. Czech soprano Emmy Destinn (b. 1876) on Jan. 28 in Ceske Budejovice (Budweis) (stroke). Am. automobile manufacturer Harry C. Stutz (b. 1876) on ? in Indianapolis, Ind. Ethiopian empress (1916-30) Zewditu I (b. 1876) on Apr. 3 Am. aviation pioneer Glenn Curtiss (b. 1878) on July 23. Am. "After You've Gone" lyricist Henry Creamer (b. 1879) on Oct. 14 in New York City. Am. Negro Leagues founder Andrew Rube Foster (b. 1879) on Dec. 9 in Kankakee, Ill.; dies in an insane asylum. Am. Mafia boss Al Mineo (b. 1880) on Nov. 5 in Bronx, N.Y. (murdered). Am. silent film actor Tom Santschi (b. 1880) on Apr. 9 in Los Angeles, Calif. German "Pangaea" geophysicist Alfred Lothar Wegener (b. 1880). English actor Milton Sills (b. 1882) on Sept. 15. Am. "Man of a Thousand Faces" actor Lon Chaney Sr. (b. 1883) on Aug. 26 in Los Angeles, Calif. (lung cancer). English writer D.H. Lawrence (b. 1885) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to the ever-horny god Pan?) on Mar. 2 at age 44 in Vence, France - the sex-crazed die young? Am. country musician G.B. Grayson (b. 1887) on Aug. 16 in Johnson County, Tenn. (automobile accident). Am. judge Joseph Force Crater (b. 1889) on Aug. 6 in New York City (dissapears); declared dead on June 6, 1939. South African journalist William Bolitho Ryall (b. 1891) on June 2: "The mere idea of marriage, as a strong possibility, if not always nowadays a reasonable likelihood, existing to weaken the will by distracting its straight aim in the life of practically every young girl, is the simple secret of their confessed inferiority in men's pursuits and professions today"; "General jackdaw culture, very litle more than a collection of charming miscomprehensions, untargeted enthusiasms, and a general habit of skimming." Am. aviation pioneer Chance M. Vought (b. 1890) on July 25 (septicemia). Anglo-Am. novelist Romer Wilson (b. 1891). Am. silent film actress Mabel Normand (b. 1892) on Feb. 23 in Monrovia, Calif. Russian poet Vladimir Mayakovsky (b. 1894); commits suicide because his poetic gift was being wasted by the Soviet regime, as hinted in his 1930 poem At the Top of My Voice. English mathematician-economist Frank Plumpton Ramsey (b. 1903) on Jan. 19 in London (jaundice). German Nazi hero Horst Wessel (b. 1907) on Feb. 23 in Berlin (assassinated).
1931 Chinese Year: Sheep. Time Mag. Man of the Year: Pierre Laval (1883-1945). Speaking of sheep, by this year the Japanese own 40% of the Chinese textile industry, and 80% of all Japanese foreign investment is in China (Manchuria and Shanghai), amounting to one-third of all foreign investments there. A collapse of Austria's Credit-Anstalt causes a financial crisis in C Europe, and the Heimwehr attempts a failed coup. The U.S. wheat harvest reaches 250M bushels after two decades of overplanting on the Am. prairie; by the end of the year 13M of 16M cultivated acres in Okla. are seriously eroded. On Jan. 1 Alabama defeats Washington State by 24-0 to win the 1931 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 3 French coloratura soprano Lily Pons (1898-1976) debuts at the Met as Lucia in Donizetti's "Lucia di Lammermoor", becoming an instant star, appearing 300x in 10 roles by 1960. On Jan. 9 Evelyn "Bobbi" Trout (1906-2003) and washed-up silent film actress Edna Mae Cooper (1900-86) return to Los Angeles, Calif. in their monoplane after flying a continuous 122 hours 50 min. On Jan. 26 French pres. (since 1924) Gaston Doumergue resigns, and Aristide Brand is passed over for pres. after he estranges the right with his efforts at internat. conciliation, and on Jan. 27 Paul Doumer (1857-1932) (former gov.-gen. of French Indochina) becomes pres. (until May 7, 1932), with Pierre Laval (1883-1945) as PM #101 (until Feb. 20, 1932); meanwhile the French economy's 1926-30 boom ends as the Great Depression hits, causing high tariffs and quotas to be passed, and the creation of domestic cartels; the downswing lasts until 1935, with the recovery slower than most other countries. Spain becomes a happy family for awhile? On Feb. 8 Spanish king (since May 17, 1902) Alfonso XIII (1886-1941) announces a restoration of the constitution, and sets elections for Mar.; on Feb. 14 Gen. Damaso Berenguer resigns; on Apr. 12 municipal elections result in an overwhelming V for the Repubs.; Repub. leader Niceto Alcala (Alcalá) Zamora y Torres (1877-1949) calls for the king's abdication; on Apr. 14 Alfonso XIII leaves Spain without abdicating, saying he wants to wait for the expression of popular sentiment; on Apr. 14 the Second Spanish Repub. is proclaimed in Eibar, Barcelona, and San Sebastien with Zamora as provisional pres.-PM; on June 28 elections give the Repub.-Socialist coalition a huge majority in the new unicameral Cortes; on Nov. 12 the assembly declares the king guilty of high treason and forbids his return to Spain, confiscating his royal property; in Oct. Zamora resigns in protest against extreme anticlerical legislation; on Dec. 9 the 1931 Spanish Constitution is adopted, completely separating church and state and nationalizing church property (confiscating $500M worth by next year), as well as giving the govt. power to nationalize public utilities, socialize estates, and expropriate private property; Zamora is elected pres. #1 (until 1936), and Manuel Azana (Azańa) Diaz (1880-1940) becomes PM #55 (until Sept. 6, 1933); too bad that free spending causes deflation and economic depression? On Feb. 14 Gen. Jorge Ubico Castaneda (1878-1946) becomes dictator of Guatemala (until July 4, 1944), licking the banana of the United Fruit Co. while keeping the coffee economy flowing with slave Indian labor. On Feb. 16 anti-Communist Pehr "Old Man Pete" Evind Svinhufvud ("swine-head") (1869-1944) (of Swedish ancestry) is elected pres. of Finland (until 1937), taking office on Mar. 1 and going on to squelch the fascist Lapua movement. On Mar. 1 popular engineer Arturo Araujo (Araújo) (1878-1967), backed by Augustin Farabundo Marti (1893-1932), founder of El Salvador's Communist Party is elected pres. of El Salvador, bucking the 30-40 wealthy families who control the country, but on Dec. 2 a military coup led by kooky vice-pres. Gen. Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez (1882-1966) ousts him, and Martinez becomes pres. (until 1944), going on to get laws passed keeping Africans out of the country, and demonstrating his belief in occultism by having colored lights hung around San Salvador to cure smallpox, and his belief in reincarnation with the soundbyte: "It is a greater crime to kill an ant than a man, because the man is reincarnated, while an ant dies forever" - let me shake your hand? On Mar. 3 Pres. Hoover officially designates The Star-Spangled Banner (written in 1814 by Francis Scott Key to music from "Anacreon in Heaven") as the official U.S. nat. anthem.; the last stanza contains the soundbyte "And this be our motto: 'In God is our Trust'"; too bad "the land of the free and the home of the brave" then attempts to institute "etiquette" rules, such as standing at respectful attention, removing hats, placing right hand over heart, etc., which threaten to make America the land of the robots? On Mar. 5 Daniel Salamanca Urey (1869-1935), who started out a Liberal, helped found the Repub. Party, split with them during the Bautista Saavedra era after WWI and founds the Genine Repubs., then forms a coalition with Liberals is elected pres. #38 of Bolivia (until 1934), with learn-everywhere-leapster Liberal Jose Luis Tejada Sorzano (1882-1938) as vice-pres.; Salamanca immediately institutes an austerity program, outlaws unions, and clamps down on dissent, reviving the pissing war with Paraguay as a diversion. On Mar. 17 Ireland hosts its first St. Patrick's Day Parade in Dublin. On Mar. 19 after a bill is introduced by rep. Phil Metschan Tobin (1901-76), Nevada Gov. Fred B. Balzar signs a measure legalizing casino gambling. On Mar. 26 the Pleasant Hills School Bus Tragedy happens in E Colo. near the Kan. border when a school bus with 20 children is trapped for 33 hours in ditch in a blizzard, and three children freeze to death, plus two more after rescue; meanwhile bus driver Carl Miller tries to go for help and freezes to death 3 mi. away in a field. On Mar. 31 TWA Flight 599 en route from Kansas City, Mo. to Los Angeles, Calif. crashes in the prairie in Chase County, Ky., killing Notre Dame U. football coach Knute Rockne and seven others; after the accident is traced to structural failure caused by wood rot, all Fokker aircraft in the U.S. are grounded, resulting in extensive improvements in airplane and airline safety, and the demise of wood-structured aircraft. Oh What Fun It Is To Ride in a One-Horse Open Sleigh? White American poontang is protected by the White Racial Honor Police, who are taken on by the real Atticus Finch? In Mar. the Scottsboro Boys, nine black youths ages 13-20 are arrested in a freight train in Scottsboro, Ala., and charged with raping two young white women who had shared the same boxcar, after which the white supremacist system railroads the banana-eating ape nigger bucks to death sentences even though the sacred cow white women are found to be hos, doctors testify that no rape occurred, and one of them later recants; after the Communist Party's Internat. Labor Defense takes charge defending them and brings in non-Communist Romanian-born Jewish-Am. atty. Samuel Simon Leibowitz (1893-1978), he faces death threats and has to be guarded by the Nat. Guard at the trial, and is stunned by a guilty verdict in 1933, calling it "the act of spitting on the tomb of Abraham Lincoln", vowing to defend them "until Hell freezes over", getting the U.S. Supreme Court to overturn their convictions twice, which dooms them more back in racist Ala., and all they get is new trials, at which they are reconvicted, one of them three more times in a row; in 1948 Haywood Patterson escapes, three more are paroled in 1943, 1946 and 1950, and the rest get reduced but long sentences; on Oct. 25, 1976, last known survivor Clarence Norris is pardoned; on Nov. 22, 2013 Ala. grants three of them a posth. pardon - lock up them white women lovers until their juices dry up? In Mar. the Cherry Blossom Society (Sakurakai) of ultra-rightist army officers, led by Lt. Col. Kingoro Hashimoto (1890-1957) (the cherry blossom is an emblem of self-sacrifice) tries an unsuccessful coup in Tokyo. On Apr. 15 the Castellammarese War (begun Feb. 1930) ends with the murder of Sicilian-born crime boss (capo di capi) Giuseppe "Joe the Boss" Masseria (b. 1886) in a Coney Island restaurant, ending the Castellammarese War (begun Feb. 1930); two weeks later Sicilian-born Salvatore "Sal" "Mustache Pete" "Little Caesar" Maranzano (b. 1868) convenes a meeting of several hundred Mafiosi in Upstate N.Y. and promotes himself to boss of bosses (capo di tutti capi), with a grandiose plan for a Mafia Commission and an org. of the New York Mafia into Five Families; he then meets with Al Capone and other non-New York mob bosses in Wappingers Falls, N.Y.; too bad, his insistence on modelling his org. after the ancient Roman Empire and comparing himself to Caesar backfires, and on Sept. 10 after being found out planning the murder of Lucky Luciano et al. he is murdered in his Manhattan office by Luciano's gangsters claiming to be IRS agents; on Oct. 17 Chicago mob boss Alphonse "Al" "Scarface" Capone (1899-1947) (who appeared on the cover of the Mar. 24, 1930 issue of Time mag.) is convicted, and on Oct. 24 is sentenced to a then-unprecedented 11 years in prison for federal income tax evasion on an estimated annual income of $20M, and housed in Alcatraz from Aug. 1934 to Nov. 1939, leaving Charles "Lucky" Luciano (1897-1962) and Joseph (Giuseppe) "Joe Bananas" Bonanno (1905-2002) in charge, who reorganize the Five Families and abolish the position of boss of bosses; meanwhile "Untouchable" G-man Eliot Ness (1903-57) gets a promotion - keep your hands off my dingaling? On Apr. 17 Sears, Roebuck & Co. founds Allstate Insurance Co. in Northfield, Ill., selling auto insurance through the Sears catalog; in 1950 gen. sales mgr. Davis W. Ellis coins the slogan "You're in good hands with Allstate"; in 1985 it establishes offices outside Sears stores; in June 1993 20% of the co. is sold to the public; in June 1995 Sears spins off the rest to its stockholders; in 2003 actor Dennis Hastert becomes the spokesman, with the slogan "That's Allstate's stand"; in 2010 actor Dean Winters launches the Mayhem Campaign. On Apr. 19 King Carol II appoints super-prolific (1.25K vols., 25K articles in many Euro languages) anti-Semitic historian-playwright-poet Nicolae Iorga (Jorga) (1871-1940) as PM of Romania (until 1937), heading a coalition cabinet while attempting to make himself dictator of an increasingly anti-Semitic fascist govt. In Apr. Minseito leader Reijiro Wakatsuki (1866-1949) becomes PM of Japan, but his govt. falls, and on Dec. 13 a new one is formed by Inukai Tsuyoshi (1855-1932), with Gen. Araki Sadao (1877-1966) as war minister, which lasts until May 15, 1932. On May 1 Pres. Hoover recognizes Saudi Arabia. On May 14 the Adalen Shootings (Riots) sees Swedish troops fire on peaceful paper mill labor protesters in Adalen, Sweden, killing five. On May 15 Pope Pius XI issues the encyclical Quadragesimo Anno, a 40-year update (supplement) to the 1891 encyclical "Rerum Novarum", calling for fairer distribution of wealth while condemning godless Communism and Socialism. On May 18 after Yetta Stromberg (b. 1910), a teacher at the Communist Pioneer Summer Camp is arrested for engaging in a daily ceremony pledging allegiance to "the workers' red flag, and the cause for which it stands, one aim throughout our lives, freedom for the working class", the U.S. Supreme (Hughes) Court rules 7-2 in Stromberg v. Calif. to declare a 1919 Calif. statute banning red flags unconstitutional as symbolic speech or "expresive conduct", becoming one of the first cases extending the 14th Amendment to force the First Amendment on the states. On May 27 Swiss-Belgian scientist Auguste Piccard (1884-1962) and his asst. Charles Knipfer ascend in a balloon from Augsburg, Germany, reaching a height of 51,793 ft. in a 17-hour flight, landing on a glacier near Innsbruck, Austria, becoming the first human flight into the stratosphere; temps of -76 F are recorded; next year he tries again, reaching 55,577 ft. In May the People's Party, formed by King Fouad I's puppet PM Isma'il Sidqi wins rigged parliamentary elections in Egypt, pissing-off the Wafdist Party even more. In May the Assoc. of the Algerian Ulama is founded by Abd al-Hamid Ben Badis to purge Islam of the corruptions of the Sufis. On June 1 the U.S. (Hughes) Court rules 5-4 in Near v. Minn. that prior restraints on publication are unconstitutional violations of the First Amendment via the 14th Amendment, becoming the court's "first great press case" (Anthony Lewis). On June 8 the body of 25-y.-o. Manhattan socialite Starr Faithfull (b. 1906) is found on the shore of Long Beach, N.Y.; the case is never solved. On June 23 Van Zandt County, Tex.-born aviator Wiley Post (1898-1935) (who wears a patch over his left eye, which he lost in a 1926 oilfield accident), and Tasmanian-born Harold Charles Gatty (1903-57) take off from Roosevelt Field, Long Island on the first round-the-world flight in the single-engine plane Winnie Mae (Lockheed Model 5C Vega), and return on July 1 after travelling 15,474 mi. in 8 days 15 hours 51 min. and making 14 stops in Newfoundland, England, Germany, the Soviet Union, Alaska, Alberta, and Cleveland, shattering Hugo Eckener's icky 1929 Graf Zeppelin record of 21 days; the reception rivals Lindbergh's, and they lunch at the White House on July 6 and get a ticker-tape parade in New York City on July 7. In June Brooklyn, N.Y.-born bank robber William "Slick Willie" Sutton (1901-80) (prefers the name Bill) is captured and given a 30-year sentence, but escapes on Dec. 11, 1932, going on to rob a total of 100 banks before his Feb. 1952 capture. In June Joseph Stalin announces that he's doing away with equal wages to stop heavy labor turnover, with the soundbyte: "The difference between skilled and unskilled labor would exist even under socialism, even after classes had been abolished, and that only under Communism would this difference disappear... Under socialism wages must be paid according to work performance and not according to needs." On July 26 Chilean dictator (since 1927) Gen. Carlos Ibanez del Campo flees for exile, allowing ex-pres. Arturo Alessandri to make a comeback. The Catholic Church of the 3rd Millennium C.E. is born in the U.S.? On July 26 at an assembly in Columbus, Ohio (birthplace of founder Pastor Charles Russell), the Internat. Bible Students (Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society) change their name to Jehovah's Witnesses (Isaiah 43:10), proclaiming the near approach of Armageddon (Rev. 16:16), and claiming they are Jehovah's only org. on Earth, and that followers of all other religions, Christian or otherwise will become bird food (Rev. 19:17-21) after Jehovah destroys them with an army of angels led by Jesus Christ (Rev. 19:11-16), while they won't have to lift a finger and will be protected like in the days of the Passover in Egypt; their 12-member board of dirs. now teaches that the current "generation" is the special 144K-member "anointed" class (Rev. 7:4), entitled to a disembodied life in heaven with Jesus and the angels after Armageddon, compared to future members that they will make, who are the "other sheep class" (John 10:16, Rev. 7:9), and who will remain fleshly creatures on Earth in a worldwide Garden of Eden with eternal life; for the next several decades, the 1931 crop of young door-knocking "anointed" couples, believing that the Big A will come at any moment, refuse to have children, and end up as old childless geezers with sore knuckles by the end of the cent., while all members are told to refrain from saluting the flag of any nation, saying a pledge of allegiance, joining the military or holding public office; meanwhile the tons of JW lit. has a thang about the portrayal of Jesus Christ, starting out as a beardless man hanging on a cross, then on a stake with no crossbar, then finally showing him with a beard, and finally as an impossible white Caucasian Marlboro Man lookalike in his earthly life, and during Armageddon as an old stern white man with white hair and beard (Rev. 1:13-14). In July Denmark and Norway dispute the sovereignty of East Greenland. On Aug. 8 the helium-filled dirigible USS Akron (ZRS-4) is launched by the First Lady at a ceremony attended by 150K, becoming the first flying aircraft carrier, carrying F9C Sparrowhawk fighter planes; too bad, a thunderstorm off the coast of N.J. on Apr. 4, 1933 causes it to crash, killing 73 of 76 passengers and crew, becoming the largest loss of life an an airship crash (until ?). On Aug. 18 after a long dispute over Manchuria, the Japanese invade China's NE provinces, and on Sept. 18 seize Mukden (Shenyang) and other key sites in S Manchuria - WWII really begins here? In Aug. French PM Pierre Laval visits Washington, D.C. and negotiates a moratorium on the French war debt to the U.S. with Pres. Hoover. On Sept. 3 King Alexander I of Yugoslavia proclaims termination of his 1929 dictatorship and proclaims a new 1931 Yugslavian Constitution granting limited parliamentary govt. where he's still the big cheese, causing the many cat-fighting opposition groups to boycott the parliamentary elections - if there's anything that you want, if there's anything I can do? On Sept. 6 Scandinavian PMs meet to discuss economic problems. On Sept. 9 Mexico joins the League of Nations. On Sept. 10 govt. cutbacks in the face of the Great Depression cause riots in London and Glasgow; on Sept. 15 sailors in Invergordon mutiny over pay cuts. On Sept. 13 "Banjo Eyes" Eddie Cantor (1892-1964) joins the Sun. evening Chase and Sanborn Hour on NBC-Radio, replacing Maurice Chevalier, making him a nat. star, and his Romanian-born gag writer David Freedman (1898-1936) into "the captain of comedy"; too bad, he is ahead of his time in denouncing Nazism, causing some sponsors to drop him until WWII proves him right. On Sept. 15-16 the British Navy anchored at Invergordon in Comarty Firth, Scotland mutinies after 25% pay cuts imposed by the Labour govt. of Ramsay MacDonald, causing half of the navy to go on strike. On Sept. 18 Adolf Hitler's 23-y.-o. sweet young thing half-niece Angelika Maria "Geli" Raubal (b. 1908), who lived with him and whom he was in love with kills herself in her bedroom at midnight with one of his Walther 6.35 revolvers wrapped in a damp face towel; he goes nonlinear, refusing to be held responsible, believing her suicide was an act of noble heroism, and using it as an excuse to turn off his morality completely, indifferent to mass murder, above good and evil? - freed by Catwoman to be Bad Batman at last? By Sept. the U.S. and France own 75% of the world's gold; on Sept. 21 the British Commonwealth (except Canada), followed by several other countries go off the gold standard (Japan in Dec.); the British pound sterling falls from $4.86 to $3.49. On Oct. 1-10 the St. Louis Cardinals (NL) defeat the Philadelphia Athletics (AL) 4-3 to win the Twenty-Eighth (28th) (1931) World Series. On Oct. 4-5 Hugh Herndon and Clyde Pangborn take off from Sabishiro Beach, Japan, drop their landing gear, and fly 4,860 mi. to near Wenatchee, Wash. in 41 hours, 13 min. in the first nonstop transpacific flight. On Oct. 4 the comic strip Dick Tracy (originally Plainclothes Tracy) by Chester Gould (1900-85) debuts (until 1977); "The nation that controls magnetism will control the universe" - you'll have to come downtown with me? On Oct. 27 the British gen. election gives the nat. govt. 554 seats (incl. 470 Conservative, 13 Nat. Labour, 68 Liberal and Liberal Nat.) and the opposition only 56 (52 Labour, 4 Lloyd George Liberals), and Ramsay MacDonald forms his 2nd nat. govt. (until 1931), selling out the Labour Party to form a coalition with the Conservatives, making Neville Chamberlain chancellor of the exchequer while Stanley Baldwin holds real power as lord pres.; Labour Party founder MacDonald ends up being reviled by labor ever since, with Clement Attlee calling it "the greatest betrayal in the political history of the country". On Oct. 31 Afghanistan promulgates a new 1931 Afghan Constitution, establishing a bicameral legislature consisting of an elected lower house and royally-appointed upper house, with all executive powers vested in the king, who has veto power; Islam is the official established religion. In Nov. Mrs. Hattie Wyatt Caraway (1878-1950), who was appointed to succeed her deceased husband earlier in the year becomes the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate (D-Ark.); she takes her seat next Jan. 12, and is reelected 2x (until Jan. 1945); in 1933 she becomes the first woman to chair a Senate committee, and in 1943 becomes the first Senate presiding officer. On Nov. 11 Pres. Herbert Hoover dedicates the District of Columbia War Memorial to commemorate D.C. citizens who served in WWI. On Nov. 18 the Fourth (4th) Academy Awards give the best picture Oscar for 1930-1 to RKO Radio's Cimarron (first Western to win), best actor to Lionel Barrymore for A Free Soul, best actress to Marie Dressler for Min and Bill, and best dir. to Norman Taurog for Skippy (youngest until ?). On Dec. 11 the Statute of Westminster is passed, giving formal recognition to the autonomy of the dominions of the British Empire as worked out in the 1926 Imperial Conference, and chartering the British Commonwealth of Nations, consisting of the U.K., Australia, Canada, Irish Free State (until 1949), Newfoundland (until 1949), New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa (until 1961); India and Pakistan join in 1947 (Pakistan quits in 1972), followed by Ceylon (1948), Ghana (1957), Nigeria (1960), Cyprus (1961), Sierra Leone (1961), Jamaica (1962), Trinidad and Tobago (1962), Uganda (1962), Western Samoa (1962), Kenya (1963), Malaysia (1963), Malawi (1964), Malta (1964), Tanzania (1964), Zambia (1964), Gambia (1965), Singapore (1965), Barbados (1966), Botswana (1966), Guyana (1966), Lesotho (1966), Mauritius (1968), Nauru (1968), Swaziland (1968), Tonga (1970), and Fiji (1970); laws of the U.K. do not apply to any dominion unless it so requests - and we will cater any event? On Dec. 12 Winston Churchill, in New York City to recoup some of his personal financial losses from the stock market collapse is struck by a passing car at 30 mph on Fifth Ave. as he exits a taxi; "I do not understand why I was not broken like an eggshell or squashed like a gooseberry". On Dec. 19 elections in Australia oust the Labor Party for the new United Australia Party, led by Joseph Aloysius Lyons (1879-1939) formed by dissident Labour party members along with the remnant of the WWI Nationalist Party; next Jan. 6 Lyons becomes PM #10 of Australia (until Apr. 7, 1939). On Dec. 25 New York's Metropolitan Opera broadcasts an entire opera on radio for the first time, Hansel and Gretel (1893) by Englebert Humperdinck; on Dec. 23, 1943 it becomes the first opera broadcast in its entirety on TV on WRGB-TV, Schenectady, N.Y. On Dec. 25 Hollywood actor Henry Fonda (1905-82) marries his first wife and co-star Margaret Brooke Sullavan (1909-1960) (until 1933); she ends up commiting suicide by OD after four marriages. In Dec. Adolf Hitler appoints Nazi Party financier Wilhelm Karl Keppler (1882-1960) as Nazi Party economics adviser, followed in July 1933 by Reich Commissioner for Economic Affairs; next year he founds the Keppler Circle (Circle of Friends of the Economy) (Freundeskreis der Wirtschaft, which goes on to donate 1M marks to Heinrich Himmler by 1944. In Dec. unemployment in Germany reaches the 5M mark. Cyprus revolts against British rule, pissing them off and causing them to begin constructing mosques in order to strengthen the Turkish identity of the Muslim pop. Vera Brabazon Ponsonby, Earl of Beesborough (1880-1956) becomes gov.-gen. of Canada (until 1935), becoming the first appointed solely on the advice of the newly-independent Canadian govt., going on to revive the amateur Dominion Drama Festival. Former Liberal MP (1900) and gov.-gen. of Canada (1926-31) Freeman Freeman-Thomas (1866-1941) is created earl of Willingdon, and appointed viceroy of India (until 1936), improving conditions; in 1936 he is created marquess. After giving Hitler funds in 1929 to campaign against the Versailles Treaty, German millionaire (dir. of Krupp's) Alfred Hugenberg (1865-1951) begins financially backing the 800K-man Nazi Party, and other fatcats incl. Emil Kirdorf (1847-1938), Friedrich "Fritz" Thyssen (1873-1971), and Baron Kurt von Schroder (1889-1966) follow his example; in 1934 after he puts his German Nat. Party's 3M votes at his disposal, giving him a majority in the Reichstag, becoming minister of economics and agriculture in return, Hitler casts Hugenberg aside. Roast then blend, or blend then roast? Gen. Plutarco Calles becomes Mexican minister of war. The 3K leftist rev. forces of Augusto Cesar Sandino resume their attacks against the U.S.-backed Nicaraguan govt. (until 1933) - not Andino, that's Honduras? Emperor Selassie grants a constitution which creates a parliament with an appointed senate and an elected chamber of deputies, but leaves him with basic control. Liberal Party head Gabriel Terra (1873-1942) becomes pres. of Uruguay (until 1938), and after experimenting with state-subsidized replacement of imports with ingrown industries funded with livestock exports and getting into conflict with the nat. admin. council, he begins making dictator noises, requesting that the constitution be amended to give him wider powers. German radical pacifist Carl von Ossietzky (1889-1938) is convicted of high treason for pub. details of Germany's violations of the Treaty of Verailles by rebuilding the Luftwaffe and training pilots in the Soviet Union, and ends up in Esterwegen Concentration Camp; when he is awarded the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize, the Nazis refuse to let him travel to Sweden to receive it, after which he soon dies of TB. The 5K-member Irgun Tsva'i-Leumi (Heb. "Nat. Military Org.") (AKA Etzel) is founded by radical elements of the Zionist Haganah paramilitary org. (until Sept. 1948) to use violence and terrorism to promote Jewish immigration to Palestine and retaliate against Arabs. The Internat. Colonial Exhibition is held in Paris, featuring a reconstruction of Cambodia's Angkor Wat. King George V accepts the two-millionth British telephone for use at Buckingham Palace - now that it's been thoroughly tested? Brazil's Nat. Coffee Dept. begins destroying surplus stocks. Mass Muslim uprisings against tyrannical Hindu rule in Kashmir by the Dogra regime are crushed like dogs by Kashmir ruler Maharaja Hari Singh. Hitler lookalike-not Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley, 6th Baronet (1896-1930), former WWI flier and MP leaves the British Labour Party to form the British Union of Fascists (AKA Blackshirts), speaking to mass meetings by 1934 while waving a lame lightning bolt emblem that looks like it belongs on a kid's toy?; Prince David Windsor (later Edward VIII) is friends with him, and secretly supports their aims, causing British Conservative leader Stanley Baldwin et al. to go nonlinear and plot to oust him? The U.S. Davis-Bacon Act, sponsored by U.S. Sen. James John "Puddler Jim" Davis (1873-1947) (R-Penn.) (former U.S. labor secy.) and U.S. Rep. Robert Low Bacon (1884-1938) (R-N.Y.) requires workers on federal construction contracts to receive prevailing local wages and benefits, encouraging local workers to be hired by employers instead of shipping in black, er, lower-paid workers from the South; it is not a Jim Crow law per se, but just started as one and they got lucky? The U.S. Repatriation Program ships 2M "temporary" workers back to Mexico; too bad, 1M had been born in the U.S.; the U.S. Senate doesn't apologize until 2005. The Bonn Agreement helps the Old Catholics and the Anglicans establish communion. The bankruptcy of the German Danatbank leads to a closure of all German banks; U.S. Pres. Hoover proposes a one-year moratorium on German reparations and war debts. New Delhi (modern pop. 260K) becomes the new capital of India. British MP (since 1929) Sir Herbert Louis Samuel (1870-1963) becomes the first Jew to lead a major British political party, the Liberal Party (until 1935). Japan declares the Akita dog breed a nat. treasure. Austrian explorer Sir George Hubert Wilkins (1888-1958) captains the submarine Nautilus, making it to lat. 82 deg. 15 min. under the Arctic Ocean, making a transarctic survey of the N arctic region with Am. explorer Lincoln Ellsworth (1880-1951), who is awarded a special medal by the U.S. Congress - now that it's real, there's one thing he didn't see? The Benguella-Katanga Railroad is completed, becoming the first trans-African railroad line, running 2,949 mi. from Benguela in Portuguese Mozambique to Beira in Portuguese Angola, and running through the copper ore town of Elisabethville in Belgian Congo. The Walters Art Gallery is founded in Baltimore, Md. by a father-son team of idle rich art collectors. Italian #1 writer Ignazio Silone (1900-78), who left the Italian Communist Party in 1930 to join the Socialist Party is forced into exile, living in Germany, Switzerland, and elsewhere in Europe until 1944. The Soviets hold the 2nd Internat. Congress for the History of Science, led by Nikolai Bukharin and Boris Hessen, which gives a Marxist twist to the work of I saac Newton et al., wowing British crystallographer John Desmond Bernal (1901-71) et al., who become enthuastic Soviet Union backers and bring it back home to the West. Friedrich Schmiedl starts the first postal rocket-mail service in Austria; it lasts until Mar. 16, 1933. The first bank in Afghanistan opens, reorganizing next year under the name Afghan Nat. Bank. The U.S. Bill of Rights is finally considered binding on the states after the U.S. Supreme (Hughes) Court in Near v. Minnesota rules by 5-4 a state law unconstitutional on First Amendment grounds (as applied to the states by the Fourteenth Amendment), and that prior restraints on publication are unconstitutional, making it the first great press case? A ban is put on the hunting of right (baleen) whales. Oil is discovered in Saudi Arabia by explorers looking for water. 18-y.-o. James Riddle "Jimmy" Hoffa (1913-75) (born in Brazil, Ind.) launches his career as a labor organizer by organizing a strike at a Detroit, Mich. grocery warehouse where he works, along with future Teamsters vice-pres. Robert Holmes (1911-2006). William Morrow (b. ?) dies, and Denver, Colo.-born Francis Thayer Hobson (1897-1967) buys control of William Morrow & Co., making big profits from the Perry Mason novel series of Erle Stanley Gardner. Am. crooner Bing Crosby (1903-77) has his first top 40 recording hits with Out Of Nowhere and Just One More Chance. Double features become a popular way for the unemployed in America to occupy time. Shepperton Studios (originally Sound Film Producing & Recording Studios) is founded in Shepperton, Surrey, England by Scottish businessman Norman Loudon, going on to produce "Reunion" (1932), "Colonel Blood" (1934), "Lest We Forget" (1934), "Youthful Folly" (1934), "Designing Women" (1934), "Radio Pirates" (1935), and "Rolling Home" (1935); in 1941 the govt. uses it for sugar storage and to manufacture decoy aircraft for the Middle East; in 1945 it is acquired by Sir Alexander Korda; in Jan. 1955 it is put under new mgt. under the name British Lion Films Ltd., going on to produce "I'm All Right Jack" (1959), "The Guns of Navarone" (1961), "Dr. Strangelove" (1964), and "Oliver!" (1968). Indian guru Meher Baba ("compassionate father") (1894-1969) (real name Merwan Sheriar Irani), who was turned on by Muslim holy woman Hazrat Babajan in Pune at age 19, assembled the "five perfect masters", picked Upasni Maharj for seven years of spiritual training, then began a code of silence in 1925 begins visiting the West to gather new sucker, er followers, finally declaring himself the Avatar (incarnation of God) on Feb. 10, 1954. Am. psychic Edgar Cayce (1877-1945) founds the Assoc. for Research and Enlightenment in Virginia Beach, Va. After attending an Internat. New Thought Alliance meeting in London in 1914, Irish-born Emmet Fox (1886-1951) emigrates to the U.S., and in 1931 becomes minister of the Divine Science Church of the Healing Christ in New York City, holding weekly services for up to 5.5K. The League of Ulema (Arab. "learned") (men learned in Muslim Sharia) is formed in Algeria. Gambling is legalized in Las Vegas, Nev., turning Fremont St. into a gambler's paradise ("Lost Wages"). The (Mafia) Commission is founded to replace the Boss of All Bosses (Capi di Tutti Capi) by the Five Families of New York City (Bonanno, Colombo, Gambino, Genovese, Lucchese), the boss of the Chicago Outfit, and the boss of the Buffalo Family; it holds its last meeting in Nov. 1985. Am. Baltimore Sun cartoonist Edmund Duffy (1899-1962), known for his anti-lynching and anti-KKK cartoons wins the first of three Pulitzer Prizes. Millbrook School in Dutchess County, N.Y. is founded by Princeton U. and Cambridge U. grad Edward Pulling as a coed prep school, with the motto "Non Sibi Sed Cunt", er, "Non Sibi Sed Cunctis" (not for one's self but for all"). The Group Theatre, a New York City theater collective is formed by Harold Edgar Clurman (1901-80), Cheryl Crawford (1902-86), and Ukrainian-born Lee Strasberg (Israel Strassberg) (1901-82), going on to produce plays by Clifford Odets, Irwin Shaw et al. until 1941; the 1935 season becomes known as the Season of Group Theater. Sally Bowles sings in the Kit Kat Club in Berlin, as later portrayed by Liza Minnelli in the 1972 film "Caberet". British composer Edward Elgar becomes a baronet. Olivier Messiaen (1908-92) is appointed organist at the Church of La Trinite in Paris, and keeps the job for life while cranking out weird Western classical music filled with ancient Greek, Hindu, and Japanese melodies mixed with devout Roman Catholic themes. Russian-Jewish mezzo-soprano Jennie Tourel (Davidovich) (1900-73) debuts at the Opera Russe in Paris. The British Kinematograph, Sound and Television Society is founded in London, England to serve the British film industry. Dutch elm disease fungus (Ophiostoma ulmi) is introduced into the U.S. on elm logs shipped from France to Cleveland, Ohio, killing 77M trees by the early 1980s. Oakland automobiles change their name to Pontiac; internal sun visors appear. The left-leaning New Statesman of London is amalgamated with The Nation and Athenaeum under ed. Kingsley Martin (1897-1969) (until 1960), becoming New Statesman and Nation. A homing pigeon flies from Arras, France to Saigon, Vietnam in 24 days. London, England-born guru Paul Brunton (1898-1981) visits India, meeting with guru Sri Ramana Maharshi (1879-1950), whom he introduces to the West, popularizing the doctrine of Mentalism along with the Overself; "You cannot transcend the Overself and touch Mind without sacrificing all that is human." Kellyville, Tex.-born singing cowboy (since 1926) Carl Stuart Hamblen (1908-89) debuts his radio show in Los Angeles, Calif., becoming the most popular on the West Coast; too bad, alcoholism almost derails his career until he gets converted by up-and-coming evangelist Billy Graham in 1949, and starts "The Cowboy Church of the Air" (ends 1952), becoming Graham's turning point as he brings along his big audience. 17-y.-o. Dorothy Lamour (1914-96) wins the Miss New Orleans title, after which she moves with her mother to Chicago, Ill., where she makes $17 a week as an elevator operator at the Marshall Field dept. store on State St., after which she tries out for the nat. radio show "The Yeast Foamers", sponsored by Fleischmann's Yeast, and ends up singing at the El Morocco Club at 1 5th Ave. in New York City, where she meets Louis B. Mayer and gets a contract with Paramount in 1935. Mexican artist Diego Rivera (b. 1886) holds a 1-man retrospective exhibit at New York City's Museum of Modern Art, drawing 57K viewers. Habima Theater permanently settles in Tel Aviv. The Royal Ballet in London is founded by Irish-born Ninette de Valois (1898-2001), promoting ballet in Britain along with the Rambert Dance Co. (founded 1926). New York City lesbian poet-playwright Mercedes de Acosta (1893-1968) begins an affair with Greta Garbo, which lasts until next year, after which Acosta pants after her unsuccessfully for years while tongues wag, causing her to have letters to her sealed until 10 years after her death. Clairol Co. is founded by a chemist and his wife to sell a hair coloring product they found during travels in France; after launching Miss Clairol Hair Color Bath, with the slogan "Does she... or doesn't she?", hair coloring catches on with U.S. women. Alka-Seltzer effervescent antacid and pain reliever tablets are introduced by the Dr. Miles Medicine Co. of Elkhart, Ind., developed by head chemist Maurice Treneer; in 1951 the Speedy (original name Sparky) char. is introduced along with the tagline "Speedy Relief", appearing in TV commercials in 1954-64 singing "Relief is just a swallow away"; in the early 1960s they double sales by airing ads showing two tablets dropping into a glass of water instead of the usual one; in 1978 Speedy begins singing "Plop, plop, fizz, fizz, oh what a relief it is", voiced by Dick Beals and written by Tom Dawes, ex-member of The Cyrcle; in 1978 it is acquired by Bayer. Sports: Om Mar. 26 (Mar. 23?) "Boy Wonder" Leo Bentley (1912-) bowls three straight 300 games (36 straight strikes) at Cooke's Recreation in Lorain, Ohio for the first time ever; too bad, it's not officially sanctioned by the ABC; he wins 75 cents for it when his opponent Steve Bosco only bowls 784; it takes until 1997 and seven more unsanctioned perfect triplicates for a sanctioned one to be bowled. On Apr. 1 pitcher Virne Beatrice "Jackie" Mitchell (1913-87) of the Class AA minor league Chattanooga Lookouts becomes the first (only) female to strike out Babe Ruth in an exhibition game against the New York Yankees in Chattanooga, Tenn., who utters the soundbyte: "I don't know what's going to happen if they begin to let women in baseball. Of course, they will never make good. Why? Because they are too delicate. It would kill them to play ball every day"; she also strikes out Lou Gehrig in succession; a few days later ML baseball commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis voids her contracts and bans women from baseball, calling it "too strenuous"; after barnstorming with the House of David, she retires in 1937, then refuses to come out of retirement for the All-Am. Girls Prof. Baseball League in 1943. On Apr. 3-14 the 1931 Stanley Cup Finals see the Montreal Canadiens defeat the Chicago Black Hawks (first Finals appearance) 3-2, becoming the 2nd NHL 2-peat. On May 30 the 1931 (19th) Indianapolis 500 is won by Indianapolis native Louis F. Schneider (1901-42), who leads the last 34 laps accompanied by riding mechanic Jigger Johnson after Billy Arnold leads in laps 7-62 until his rear axle breaks, spins in turn 4, is hit by another car, and goes over the outside wall, with one of his wheels bouncing across Georgetown Rd. and killing 12-y.-o. Wilbur C. Brink, who is playing in his yard. On July 15 the Chocolate-Bass Super-Featherweight Bout sanctioned by the Nat. Boxing Assoc. sees Eligio Sardinas AKA Kid Chocolate of Cuba defeat Benny Bass of the U.S., becoming Cuba's first boxing champ. Joseph Vincent "Marse Joe" McCarthy (1887-1978) becomes the mgr. of the New York Yankees "Bronx Bombers" (until 1946), going on to win seven World Series (1932, 1936-9, 1941, 1943) and a record 1,460 managerial wins; he moves to the Boston Red Sox in 1948-50, and retires with a record .615 all-time winning percentage. Lefty pitcher Robert Moses "Lefty" Grove (1900-75) of the Philadelphia Athletics starts the season 13-1, becoming the first in the live-ball era; next year lefty pitcher Vernon Louis "Lefty" Gomez (1908-89) of the New York Yankees does ditto. The Bledisoe Cup is donated by Charles Bathurst, 1st Viscount Bledisoe (1867-1958), gov.-gen. #4 of New Zealand (1930-5) for the rugby contest between the Australian Wallabies and New Zealand All Blacks nat. teams. Amy Johnson sets a world record for solo flight from London to Tokyo of 10.5 days. Sidney Wood (1911-) of the U.S. and Cilly Aussem (1909-63) of Germany win the Wimbledon tennis singles titles (first German woman), and Henry Ellsworth Vines Jr. (1911-94) of the U.S. wins the U.S. Open men's singles title this year and next, going pro in 1934 and becoming #1 in 1932-7; Helen Wills Moody wins the U.S. Open women's singles title. Francis Ouimet wins the U.S. Golf Assoc. amateur title, and William John "Billy" Burke (Burkowski) (1902-72) wins the U.S. Open in its longest playoff (until ?); Tommy Armour wins the 1931 British Golf Open, and Thomas Daniel "Tom" Creavy (1911-79) wins the PGA title. Twenty Grand (1928-48) (jockey C. Kurtsinger) wins the Belmont Stakes and Kentucky Derby. At the end of the 1930-1 season the first NHL All-Star Team is named. Franz Schmid (1905-92) and his brother Toni Schmid (1909-32) climb the N face of the Matterhorn for the first time, and are awarded a gold medal for mountaineering next year at the Los Angeles Olympics 75 days after Toni is killed in a climbing accident on May 16, becoming the first posth.-awarded Olympic medal (until ?). A basketball tournament in Peking, China attracts 70K fans over three nights. Architecture: On May 1 the 1,472-ft.-tall (1,250 ft. tall) Empire State Bldg. at 350 Fifth Ave. in New York City opens, designed by Brooklyn, N.Y.-born architect William Frederick Lamb (1893-1952), becoming the world's tallest bldg. (Eiffel Tower = 984.5 ft.); the stairway has 1,576 steps; it has 60K tons of steel beams, 3M sq. ft. of wire mesh, 70K cubic yards of concrete, 10M bricks, 5 acres of windows, and 2M sq. ft. of office space, which can accommodate 15K people; the upper 30 stories are lit with hi-intensity floodlights visible for 50 mi., which are turned off in the spring and fall to prevent migrating birds from flying into it. On Oct. 24 N.Y. gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicates the George Washington Bridge (begun Oct. 1927), designed by Swiss-born civil engineer Othmar Hermann Ammann (1879-1965), spanning the Hudson River between W. 178th St. in Manhattan and Ft. Lee, N.J., becoming the world's longest suspension bridge (until ?), carrying up to 100M vehicles/year; its two support towers rise 604 ft. above the water, and the bridge is supported on four 36-in. diam. cables; thrifty Swiss Ammann brings the bridge in ahead of schedule and under budget, and goes on to design the Bayonne Bridge (opened Nov. 15, 1931), Triborough Bridge (opened July 11, 1936), and Bronx-Whitestone Bridge (opened Apr. 29, 1939). Attica Correctional Facility in Attica, N.Y. opens, housing the most dangerous criminals, with a tear gas system installed to quell riots, which doesn't stop a big one in 1971. Haneda Airport in Tokyo, Japan opens; in 1945 the U.S. occupies it and renames it Haneda Army Air Base; it gets its first passenger terminal in 1955, and becomes an internat. airport in 1963. Construction begins on the Moscow Metro (completed 1935). The I.G. Farben Bldg. in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, designed by Hans Poelzig (1869-1936) is completed, later becoming the HQ of Allied forces under U.S. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower in Mar. 1945, and remaining in U.S. hands until 1995. The 5-star pink limestone King David Hotel in Jerusalem opens. The Art Deco Rockefeller Center in New York City is begun (finished 1947); Colonial Sand and Stone, founded by Italian-born Generoso Pope (Papa) (1891-1950) provides the you know what for this along with Radio City Music Hall, the Empire State Bldg., the George Washington Bridge, and the original Yankee Stadium. The Nagoya Mosque in Japan is built by Indian Muslim immigrants, followed by the Kobe Mosque in 1935, and the Tokyo Mosque in 1938, built by Tatar Muslim immigrants from Russia; the Tokyo Mosque is rebuilt in 2000. Industrialist Robert Ilg builds a replica of the Leaning Tower of Pisa outside Chicago, Ill. and lives in it for several years. The Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City at 301 Park Ave. (largest and tallest on Earth), designed by architects Schultze and Weaver opens, featuring its own railway platform as part of Grand Central Terminal, with an elevator large enough for FDR's car; Spanish-born Am. bandleader Xavier Cugat (1900-90) and his orchestra open the hotel, and stay there 16 years. Ferdinand Porsche (1857-1952) founds Porsche GmbH in Stuggart, Germany. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Jane Addams (1860-1935) and Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947) (U.S.); Lit.: Erik Axel Karlfeldt (1864-1931) (Sweden) (posth.) (he allegedly refused it in 1918 or 1919); Physics: no award; Chem.: Carl Bosch (1874-1940) and Friedrich Karl Rudolf Bergius (1884-1949) (Germany) [high pressure chem.]; Med.: Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883-1970) (Germany) [effect of oxygen on cancer]. Inventions: On June 27 Ukrainian-born Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (1889-1972) files U.S. patent 1,994,488 for the technology behind the helicopter. Brooklyn, N.Y.-born Allen Balcom DuMont (Du Mont) (1901-65) invents a long-lasting cathode-ray tube (CRT) for use in TV sets, and the Magic Eye Tube in 1932, selling the first commercially practical all-electronic TV set, the Model 180 in June 1938, becoming the first millionaire in the TV business. After the ban on German powered aircraft is partially lifted in 1925, the Delta I, designed by Munich, Germany-born aerodynamics pioneer Alexander Martin Lippisch (1894-1976) becomes the first tailless delta wing aircraft to fly, causing four more models to be built by 1939. The Electric Guitar is invented for jazz musicians by George Delmetia Beauchamp (1899-1941), who founds the Ro-Pat-In (Electro-Patent-Instrument) Co. in Los Angeles, Calif. along with Swiss-born Adolph Rickenbacker (1886-1976) and Paul Barth; Rickenbacker invents the Frying Pan (Pancake) Guitar, made of cast aluminum, first produced in 1932, and discontinued in 1939 after 2.7K are made; the first solid body Spanish style electric guitar is made by Vivi-Tone in 1934, followed by the Electro Spanish, made of Bakelite and marketed by Rickenbacker in 1935 after they change the co. name to Rickenbacker Electro Stringed Instrument Co. Karl Foster (Forster) invents the Foster Slug, a shotgun slug designed to be fired through a smooth bore shotgun barrel, originally used for deer hunting in the Depression, becoming known as "American slugs", and later adopted by police agencies. The coin-operated Pinball Machine is invented by Automatic Industries, and called the Whiffle Board - life is good between world wars? Am. composer Henry Dixon Cowell (1897-1965) invents the Rhythmicon (Polyrhythmophone), the first electronic rhythm machine. After Charles Stark Draper inspires him, MIT engineer Harold Eugene "Doc" Edgerton (1903-90) invents Strobe Photography. In 1931 John Haven "Jack" Emerson (1906-97) invents an oxygen tent, along with an improved iron lung, causing Drinker to sue him, backfiring and causing his patents to be declared invalid. Roman Catholic priest Rev. Julius Arthur Nieuwland (1878-1936) of Notre Dame U. invents a process for producing Neoprene (polychloroprene), the first synthetic rubber, used for wet suits and fishing boots - love dolls for priests on the way? Harry Ferdinand Olson (1901-82) of RCA develops the RCA 44 Series Ribbon Microphone, which is adopted by CBS. Schick Inc. of the U.S. markets the first Handheld Electric Razor. The first full-scale (30 ft. x 60 ft.) Wind Tunnel is built in Langley Research Center in Va. John B. Sparks creates the Histomap, a colorful timeline going back 4K years. ? Spicer and ? Dufay invent a natural color photography process. The Cord Sportsman Model 8/10 is introduced, becoming the first vehicle with hideaway headlights (hand-cranked). Science: On Feb. 18 the existence of the 9th solar system planet Pluto is confirmed by Streator, Ill.-born astronomer Clyde William Tombaugh (1906-97) at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Ariz., using a telescope made out of parts from a cream separator and an old Buick, becoming the first U.S. citizen to discover a planet; it is named by 11-y.-o. Venetia Katharine Douglas Burney (1918-2009) of England, granddaughter of Falconer Madan, brother of English chemist Henry George Madan, who named Deimos and Phobos, and gleefully accepted by Tombaugh because it starts with the initials of astronomer Percival Lowell, who predicted its existence; Mickey Mouse's dog (bloodhound) Pluto debuts in the Disney cartoon The Chain Gang (voice of Jim MacDonald) (he is called Rover in his first two cartoons, and Tombaugh's 11-y.-o. son suggests the name); at 70% rock and 30% ice, and seven solar system moons bigger, is it a planet or a comet of the Kuyper Belt?; the discovery of a planet named after the god of death and the underworld at the time of the rise of the dictators Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini, and Hirohito is no accident? In June after being castrated in 1922, Dora Richter (born Rudolph Richter) (b. 1891) of Berlin, Germany becomes the first transgender woman to undergo a vaginoplasty by Dr. Levy-Lenz and Dr. Gohrbrandt in Germany; meanwhile "the Einstein of Sex" Magnus Hirschfeld (1868-1935), who performs sex reassignment surgery on Danish painter Lili Elbe (Einar Magnus Andreas Wegener) (1882-1931) in Dresden, who dies of cardiac arrest and organ rejection on Sept. 13 Dresden, Germany from an unsuccessful uterine transplant. The chemical element alabamine (#85) is claimed to be discovered by Alabama Polytechnic Inst. scientists; during WWII it is prepared synthetically by bombarding bismuth with alpha particles, and shown to be unstable and incapable of existing in Nature, and given the name Astatine (Gr. "unstable" + ine) (At). Montezuma, Ind.-born psychologist Gordon Willard Allport (1897-1967) et al. pub. the Allport-Vernon-Lindzey Study of Values, which defines six major value types: theoretical (discovery of truth), economic (what is most useful), aesthetic (form, beauty, and harmony), social (seeking love of people), political (power), and religious (unity). Am. mathematician George David Birkhoff (1884-1944) proposes the Ergodic Theorem, that an individual particle will go through all the states seen in an infinite pop. at an instant in time. After improving his high pressure apparatus, Am. physicist Percy Williams Bridgman (1882-1961) of Harvard U. pioneers research on materials at high pressures (100K atm.). Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (1903-95) of Germany isolates Androsterone, the first crystalline male hormone, later discovered to be a pheromone - Adolph's butt hunt? Okla.-born physicist-engineer Karl Guthe Jansky (1905-50) builds a radio telescope on a farm in N.J. out of aerials and old car wheels, calling it his merry-go-round, using it at first to investigate static in long-distance radio; in Aug. he discovers radio astronomy as the hisses reach a peak four min. earlier each day, matching the period of the Earth's rotation with respect to the stars, causing him to conclude that he is receiving cosmic radio waves. Moscow-born Swiss chemist Paul Karrer (1889-1971) of the U. of Zurich isolates Vitamin A, found in carrots - what's up, Doc? Indian librarian Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan (1892-1972) pub. the Five Laws of Library Science: books are for use, every reader his book, every book its reader, save the reader's time, and the library is a growing organism. Am. physical chemist Harold Clayton Urey (1893-1981) discovers the hydrogen isotope Deuterium (Gk. "deuteros" = second) (heavy hydrogen, incl. a neutron in the nucleus), winning him the 1934 Nobel Chem. Prize. James Truslow Adams (1878-1949), The Epic of America; coins the term "American Dream", defining it as "that dream of a land in which life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with opportunity for each according to ability or achievement. It is a difficult dream for the European upper classes to interpret adequately, and too many of us ourselves have grown weary and mistrustful of it. It is not a dream of motor cars and high wages merely, but a dream of social order in which each man and each woman shall be able to attain to the fullest stature of which they are innately capable, and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of the fortuitous circumstances of birth or position." Frederick Lewis Allen (1890-1954), Only Yesterday: An Informal History of the 1920s; describes U.S. pres. Harding as "superbly handsome. His face and carriage had a Washington nobility and dignity, his eyes were benign; he photographed well and the pictures of him in the rotogravure sections won him affection and respect. And he was the friendliest man who ever had entered the White House"; "Business itself was regarded with a new veneration. Once it had been considered less dignified and distinguished than the learned professions, but now people thought they praised a clergyman highly when they called him a good business man." Norman Angell (1872-1967) and Harold Wright (1872-1944), Can Governments Cure Unemployment? Jacques Bainville (1879-1936), Napoleon. Harry Elmer Barnes (1889-1968), Battling the Crime Wave: Applying Sense and Science to the Repression of Crime. Clive Bell (1881-1964), An Account of French Painting. Samuel Flagg Bemis (1891-1973), The Hussey-Cumberland Mission and American Independence. Edwyn Bevan (1870-1943), The Poems of Leonidas of Tarentum. Baron Napoleon-Eugene Beyens (1855-1934), Two Years in Berlin (autobio.). Marc Bloch (1886-1944), French Rural History: An Essay on Its Basic Characteristics (Les caractčres originaux de l'histoire rurale française). William Bolitho (1891-1930), Camera Obscura (posth.). Gamaliel Bradford (1863-1932), The Quick and the Dead. Robert Briffault (1874-1948), Sin and Sex. Charles Dunbar Broad (1887-1971), War Thoughts in Peace Time. Sir Herbert Butterfield (1900-79), The Whig Interpretation of History; about historiography from the Protestant progressive 19th cent. gentleman viewpoint, which picks and chooses facts to claim a successful march to ever-greater liberty and enlightenment, ending with modern liberal democracy and constitutional govt. (monarchy), which after the Great War of 1914 ends up kaput, with the term Whigism becoming as a joke word, later contrasted with Toryism, which "rests on doubt in human nature" (A.J.P. Taylor); "... the tendency of many historians to write on the side of Protestants and Whigs, to praise revolutions provided they have been successful, to emphasize certain principles of progress in the past and to produce a story which is the ratification if not the glorification of the present"; makes him a star among historians; "[History is] the very servant of the servants of God, the drudge of all the drudges"; "Very strange bridges are used to make the passage from one state of things to another; we may lose sight of them in our surveys of general history, but their discovery is the glory of historical research. History is not the study of origins; rather it is the analysis of all the mediations by which the past was turned into our present"; he disses Lord John Action's statement that "history is the arbiter of controversy, the monarch of all the surveys", with the soundbyte that history is "the very servant of the servants of God, the drudge of all the drudges." Kenneth Burke (1897-1993), Counter-Statement. Sir Malcolm Campbell (1885-1948), Speed. E.H. Carr (1892-1983), Dostoevsky (1882-1881): A New Biography. Alfonso Caso y Andrade (1896-1970), Explorations of Monte Alban (3 vols.) (1931-7); his discovery of Tomb Seven in Monte Alban in Oaxaca, causing him to declare the Mixteca the "mother culture of Mesoamerica". Merle Eugene Curti (1897-1996), Bryan and World Peace. Christopher Henry Dawson (1889-1970), Christianity and the New Age. John Dewey (1859-1952), Philosophy and Civilization. Eckart Kehr (1902-33), Schlachtflottenbau und Parteipolitik 1894-1901: Versuch eines Querschnitts durch die innenpolitischen, sozialen und ideologischen Voraussetzungen des deutschen Imperialismus (Battle Fleet Construction and Party Politics in Germany, 1894-1901: A Cross-Section of the Political, Social and Ideological Preconditions of German Imperialism); his doctoral thesis, breaking with his teacher Friedrich Meineke and showing how the dominant German historicism that considers foreign policy and heroic personalities as the dominant force in the life of the German state is moose hockey, because it's really about economics and class struggle like Marx said, causing him to become known as the enfante terrible of German historians during the Weimar Repub.; too bad, he dies in 1933 of a heart attack after pub only 16 more essays, and its arrogant tone and factual errors keep it from being accepted until the 1960s-1970s, when Hans Ulrich Wehler et al. revive it to create the Bielefield School of social history. Richard T. Ely (1854-1943), Hard Times: The Way In and the Way Out. Vladimir Fock (1898-1974), Foundations of Quantum Mechanics; first Soviet textbook on quantum mechanics, managing to get around Marxist objections to relativity theory to save his neck. Charles Hoy Fort (1874-1932), Lo!; coins the term "teleportation". David Freedman (1898-1936), Phantom Fame. Leo Frobenius (1873-1938), Erythraa: Lander und Zeiten des Heiligen Konigsmordes. Manuel Gamio, The Mexican Immigrant: His Life Story. Arthur Eric Rowton Gill (1882-1940), An Essay on Typography; by the inventor of Gill Sans and Perpetua. Kurt Godel (1906-78), On Formally Undecidable Propositions in 'Principia Mathematica' and Related Systems I; a paper showing that in any axiomatic mathematical system there are propositions that cannot be proved or disproved within the axioms of the system, because a Godel numbering scheme can be devised which allows the proposition to be constructed that "This theorem is false", which is like when Capt. Kirk talks the computer into blowing itself up?; the paper proves to be so good that he decides against a "II". Emma Goldman (1869-1940), Living My Life (autobio.). Frank Harris (1856-1931), The Life of George Bernard Shaw. Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1992), Prices and Production; traces business cycles to inflationary credit expansion by central banks that result in artificially low interest rates, causing capital misallocation; "The past instability of the market economy is the consequence of the exclusion of the most important regulator of the market mechanism, money, from itself being regulated by the market process." Earnest Albert Hooton (1887-1954), Up from the Ape; the physical differences of the negro from other races, incl. ratio of arm length to leg length in the fetus, distinguishing True Negro, African Negro, Oceanic Negro et al.; he later writes: "The negro race is phylogenetically a closer approach to primitive man than the white race", using physical anthropology to establish racial stereotypes incl. the athleticism and criminality of blacks, using mathematically rigorous race typology criteria. Herbert Hoover (1874-1964), A Boyhood in Iowa (autobio.). Harold Hotelling (1895-1973), The Economics of Exhaustible Resources; proposes Hotelling's Rule, that the most socially and economically profitable extraction path of a non-renewable resource is one along which the price of the resource, determined by the marginal net revenue from its sale, increases at the rate of interest. Aldous Huxley (1894-1963), Music at Night. Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940), Prevention and Treatment of Progressive Paralysis by Malaria Inoculation. Sir James Jeans (1877-1946), The Stars in Their Courses. Gareth Jones (1905-35), Experiences in Russia, 1931; his summer 1931 tour of the Soviet Union wth H.J. Heinz II, first exposing the Ukrainian Famine of 1932-3, becoming the first to use the word "starve" to describe collectivisation of agriculture. Richard Kahn (1905-89), The Relation of Home Investment to Unemployment; proposes the principle of the Multiplier, an increase in net national output after an increase in aggregate expenditure (govt. spending). Lucien Levy-Bruhl (1857-1939), Le Surnaturel et la Nature dans la Mentalite Primitive (Primitives and the Supernatural). Wyndham Lewis (1882-1957), Hitler; praises him as a "man of peace" victimized by Commie street thugs, making him unpopular with liberals. Robert Morrison MacIver (1882-1970), Society; popular sociology textbook. Sir Compton Mackenzie (1883-1972), Athenian Memories. Edgar Lee Masters (1868-1950), Lincoln the Man; Clarence Darrow's law partner in 1903-8 demythologizes Abraham Lincoln as a tool of bankers wanting a new Bank of the U.S., "that political system which doles favors to the strong in order to win and keep their adherence to the government", and advocates "a people taxed to make profits for enterprises that cannot stand alone", who trampled the Constitution to declare war and run it like a dictator, setting a dangerous precedent; the Whig Party led by Lincoln's mentor Henry Clay "had no platform to announce because its principles were plunder and nothing else"; "The political history of America has been written for the most part by those who were unfriendly to the theory of a confederated republic, or who did not understand it. It has been written by devotees of the protective principle [tariff], by centralists, and to a large degree by New England"; "For in six weeks he was to inaugurate a war without the American people having anything to say about it. He was to call for and send troops into the South, and thus stir that psychology of hate and fear from which a people cannot extricate themselves, though knowing and saying that the war was started by usurpation. Did he mean that he would bow to the American people when the law was laid down by their courts, through which alone the law be interpreted as the Constitutional voice of the people? No, he did not mean that; because when Taney decided that Lincoln had no power to suspend the writ of habeas corpus, Lincoln flouted and trampled the decision of the court"; "The War between the States demonstrated that salvation is not of the Jews, but of the Greeks. The World War added to this proof; for Wilson did many things that Lincoln did, and with Lincoln as authority for doing them. Perhaps it will happen again that a few men, deciding what is a cause of war, and what is necessary to its successful prosecution, may, as Lincoln and Wilson did, seal the lips of discussion and shackle the press; but no less the ideal of a just state, which has founds itself in reason and in free speech, will remain." Shailer Mathews (1863-1941), The Growth of the Idea of God. Emile Meyerson, The Way of Thinking. Joseph Needham (1900-95), The Great Amphibium: Four Lectures on the Position of Religion in a World Dominated by Science. Otto Neurath (1882-1945), Empirical Sociology. Roy Franklin Nichols (1896-1973), Franklin Pierce: Young Hickory of the Granite Hills; 2nd ed. 1958; attempts to revive his reputation by blaming his lack of leadership on his son Benny's tragic death 2 mo. before the inauguration, and portraying his cabinet as able administrators. Boris Pasternak (1890-1960), Safe Conduct (autobio.). Gen. John J. Pershing (1860-1948), My Experiences in the World War (2 vols.) (autobio.). Max Planck (1858-1947), Positivism and the Real Outside World. Wiley Post (1898-1935) and Harold Gatty (1903-57), Around the World in Eight Days; intro. by Will Rogers. Llewelyn Powys (1884-1939), A Pagan's Pilgrimage; Impassioned Clay. Henry Fowles Pringle (1897-1958), Theodore Roosevelt: A Biography (Pulitzer Prize); portrays him as a blustering politician who never grew up, while disguising his ignorance of the final decade of his life. Vance Randolph (1892-1980), The Ozarks; begins a career of documenting the weird backward folklore of the Am. Ozark people. Agnes Repplier (1855-1950), To Think of Tea!; Times and Tendencies. Adm. Sir Herbert William Richmond (1871-1946), The Navy in India, 1763-1783; Economy and Naval Security: A Plea for the Examination of the Problem of the Reduction in the Cost of Naval Armaments on the Lines of Strategy and Policy. Irma S. Rombauer (1877-1962), Irma Starkloff Rombauer (1877-1962); self-pub., starting slow (3K copies) until Bobbs-Merrill Co. picks it up, after which it sells 18M copies; in a country sliding into the Depression, the title is a keeper; daughter Marion Rombauer Becker takes over in 1951. Dr. William Rose (ed.), An Outline of Modern Knowledge. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), The Scientific Outlook. Margaret Sanger (1879-1966), My Fight for Birth Control (autobio.). Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965), Out of My Life and Thought (autobio.); The Forest Hospital at Lambarene (autobio.). Francis Butler Simkins (1897-1966) and Robert Hilliard Woody, South Carolina During Reconstruction (Dunning Prize); the first revisionist work on Reconstruction, breaking with the Dunning School that paints Reconstruction as a raping of the South by the North; "We forgo the temptation of following in the footsteps of historians who have interpreted the period as only a glamorous but tragic melodrama of political intrigue"; "Does not hesitate to give a fair account of the Negroes and of some of their work" (W.E.B. Du Bois); "With refreshing freedom from prejudice and special pleading, the authors picture honest, unselfish carpetbaggers, respectable, well-meaning scalawags, and Negroes with intelligence and political ability." (Howard K. Beale) Paul Siple (1908-68), A Boy Scout with Byrd. Oswald Spengler (1880-1936), Mankind and Technics (Technology): A Contribution to a Philosophy of Life; how hi-tech and industrialism threaten Western culture because the "colored races" might get it and use the advanced weapons against whitey; "Optimism is cowardice." Lincoln Steffens (1866-1936), The Autobiography of Lincoln Steffens; after making the 1921 comment "I have seen the future and it works" in regard to the Soviet Union, he becomes disillusioned with Communism - and hopes his book knocks the steffens out of Stalinism? Lytton Strachey (1880-1932), Portraits in Miniature. Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949), Human Learning; claims that the ability to learn doesn't decline until age 35, after which it declines at the rate of 1% per year. Ferdinand Tonnies (1855-1936), Einfuhrung in die Soziologie. Jean Toomer (1894-1967), Aphorisms. Arnold Joseph Toynbee (1889-1975), A Journey to China, or Things Which Are Seen. Miguel de Unamuno (1864-1936), The Agony of Christianity; placed on the Roman Catholic Prohibited Books List, making it more popular? Freda Utley (1898-1978), Lancashire and the Far East; internat. competition in the cotton trades. Paul Valery (1875-1945), Regards sur le Monde Actuel. Walter Prescott Webb (1888-1963), The Great Plains: A Study in Institutions and Environment; his doctoral thesis; proposes his version of the Great Frontier Thesis, that "the Great Plains environment... constitutes a geographic unity whose influences have been so powerful as to put a characteristic mark upon everything that survives within its borders", citing the 6-shooter, barbed wire, and the windmill as essential to its settlement; claims that the 98th meridian constitutes an "institutional fault", with "practically every institution that was carried across it... either broken and remade or else greatly altered"; hailed as one of the top contributions to Am. history since WWI by the Social Science Research Council in 1939. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), What Shall We Do with Our Lives?; Work, Wealth and the Happiness of Mankind; the need for a World Encyclopedia as "the central ganglion... of the collective human brain" - the Wellsopedia? Edmund Wilson (1895-1972), Axel's Castle: A Study in the Imaginative Literature of 1870-1930; popular survey of Symbolists incl. W.B. Yeats (1865-1939), T.S. Eliot (1888-1965), Marcel Proust (1871-1922), James Joyce (1882-1941), and Gertrude Stein (1874-1946). Herbert Osborne Yardley (1889-1958), The American Black Chamber; internat. bestseller about his years at MI-8 (1917-29), where he broke Japanese codes for the U.S.; too bad, he gives away secrets and pisses-off the U.S. govt., which can't prosecute him because of a loophole, causing a new federal law to be passed in 1933 (closing the barn door after the horse gets out); no longer able to work in the U.S. govt., he writes novels and books on poker. Solly Zuckerman (1904-93), The Social Life of Monkeys and Apes. Music: Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953), Symphony No. 4; The Tale the Pine Trees Knew; Red Autumn (for two pianos). Eubie Blake and His Orchestra, Little Girl (June 3). The Boswell Sisters, When I Take My Sugar to Tea; Connee Boswell (1907-76). Cab Calloway (1907-94) and His Orchestra, Minnie the Moocher; sells 1M copies; "Hi De Hi De Hi De Hi"; turned into a Betty Boop Cartoon, which ends up getting banned for suggesting interracial sex? John Alden Carpenter (1876-1951), Patterns. Bing Crosby (1903-77), Stardust; I'm Through With Love; Just a Gigolo; Nevertheless (by Bert Kalmar and Harry Ruby). George Dyson, The Canterbury Pilgrims (oratorio). Edward Elgar (1857-1934), Nursery Suite. Ruth Etting (1896-1978), Out of Nowhere. Harry Lawrence Freeman (1869-1954), Leah Kleschna; after the play by C.M.S. McClellan; Uzziah (opera). George Gershwin (1898-1937), George S. Kaufman (1889-1961) and Morrie Ryskind (1895-1985), Of Thee I Sing (musical) (New York) (Pulitzer Prize); William Gaxton plays U.S. pres. John P. Wintergreen, and Victor Moore plays vice-pres. Alexander Throttlebottom. Edwin Franko Goldman (1878-1956), Boy Scouts of America; Onward-Upward. Ferde Grofe (1892-1972), The Grand Canyon Suite (Studebaker Theatre, Chicago) (Nov.); incl. Sunrise, Painted Desert, On the Trail, Sunset, Cloudburst. Alois Haba (1893-1973), Matka (Mother) (opera) (Munich). Ray Henderson (1896-1970), The Thrill is Gone. Ray Henderson (1896-1970), Buddy G. DeSylva (1895-1950), and Lew Brown (1893-1958), Life is Just a Bowl of Cherries. Paul Hindemith (1895-1963), Das Unaufhorliche (oratorio). Isham Jones (1894-1956), You're Just a Dream Come True (becomes his theme song); I Wouldn't Change You for the World. Gian Francesco Malipiero (1882-1973), Torneo Notturno (Munich). Ray Noble (1903-78) and His Orchestra, featuring Al Bowlly (1899-1941), Goodnight, Sweetheart (Feb. 19); Time On My Hands (Feb. 19); Guilty (Dec. 2); Bowlly invents crooning and becomes the first modern pop star despite having to hide behind a bandleader on the record labels. Hans Pfitzner (1869-1949), Das Herz (opera) (Berlin, Munich). Harry Roy and His Orchestra, My Girl's Pussy. Kate Smith (1907-86), That's Why Darkies Were Born; "The Headstrongs married the Armstrongs, and that's why"; When the Moon Comes Over the Mountain; written by Howard E. Johnson and Harry M. Woods (1896-1970). Paul Robeson (1898-1976), That's Why Darkies Were Born. George R. Stewart (1895-1980), Bret Harte: Argonaut and Exile. William Grant Still (1895-1978), Afro-American Symphony. Edgar Varese (1883-1965), Ionisation (for two percussion groups). William Turner Walton (1902-83), Belshazzar's Feast (oratorio). Harry Warren (1893-1981), Mort Dixon (1892-1956), and Billy Rose (1899-1966), I Found a Million Dollar Baby in a Five and Ten Cent Store. Harry Warren (1893-1981), Mort Dixon (1892-1956), and Joe Young (1889-1939), You're My Everything.; featured in Ed Wynn's "The Laugh Parade" (1931). Egon Wellesz (1885-1974), Die Bachantinnen (opera) (Vienna). Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari (1876-1948), La Vedova Scaltra (comic opera) (Rome). Movies: Bud Pollard's Alice in Wonderland (Sept. 30), based on the Lewis Carroll novel stars Ruth Gilbert as Alice. Frank Borzage's Bad Girl (Aug. 13), based on a novel by "sob sister" Vina Delmar about life between world wars stars Sally Eilers as Dorothy Haley and James Dunn as Eddie Collins. Hobart Henley's The Bad Sister (Mar. 29), based on the 1913 Booth Tarkington novel "The Flirt" stars Conrad Nagel, Sidney Fox, Humphrey Bogart, and ZaSu Pitts, and is the film debut of Ruth Elizabeth "Bette" Davis (1908-89), who immediately gets relegated by studio execs to B-movies; in one scene she has to change a diaper and sees male genitals for the first time in her life, turning red?; she attends the debut in San Bernardino, Calif. with her mother, and leaves crying? King Vidor's The Champ (Nov. 21), written by Frances Marion is a tear-jerker about a washed-up boxer (Wallace Beery) and his devoted son (Jackie Cooper), and is the first of three Beery-Cooper flicks, incl. "Treasure Island". Hamilton MacFadden's Charlie Chan Carries On (Apr. 12), based on the Earl Derr Biggers novels stars Swedish actor Warner Oland (Johann Werner Ohland) (1879-1938). Wesley Ruggles' Cimarron (Jan. 26), based on the 1929 Edna Ferber novel stars Richard Dix and Irene Dunne as Kan. newspaperman Yancey and wife Sabra Cravat, who move to Okla. during the 1893 land rush, and print the Okla. Wigwam until he deserts her; costs $1.5M and requires 5K extras; becomes the first Western to win a Best Picture Oscar. Charlie Chaplin's City Lights (Jan. 30) is Chaplin's last silent film; the Little Tramp falls in love with a blind flower girl (Virginia Cherrill) and helps her get money for a sight-restoration operation, forming a turbulent friendship with an alcoholic millionaire (Harry Myers); Florence Lee plays her grandmother; former Keystone Cop Hank Mann plays Chaplin's boxing opponent; does $5M box office on a $1.5M budget. Leo Mittler's The Concert (Das Konzert) (Nov. 9) (Paramount Pictures) is a German comedy film based on Hermann Bahr's 1909 play, starring Olga Tschechowa as Maria Heink, Oskar Karlweis as Dr. Jura, and Ursula Grabley as Delfine. Erik Charell's Congress Dances (Der Kongress Tanzt) (Sept. 29) stars Lilian Harvey, Conrad Veidt, Willy Fritsch, and Adele Sandrock in a German musical (say again?) set in old Vienna, in which she sings Das Gibt's Nur Einmal, which becomes her theme song. Howard Hawks' The Criminal Code, based on the Martin Flavin play stars Walter Huston as Mark Brady, Phillips Holmes as Robert Graham, Constance Cummings as Mary Brady, Boris Karloff as Ned Galloway, and Ethel Wales as Katie Ryan. Rouben Mamoulian's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Dec. 31), based on the 1886 Robert Louis Stevenson novella stars Fredric March. Tod Browning's Dracula (Feb. 12) (Universal Pictures), based on the 1898 Bram Stoker novel launches Hungarian-born Bela Lugosi (1882-1957) into film immortality, with trademark accent and the immortal soundbyte: "Listen to them, children of the night - what music they make"; also makes a star of dir. Tod Browning (Charles Albert Browning Jr.) (1880-1962); too bad, all of the Dracula stuff is censored by the govt. of Transylvania (Romania) until 1992. Mervyn LeRoy's Five Star Finale (Sept. 26), written by former Emma Goldman associate Louis Weitzenkorn stars Edward G. Robinson as New York Gazette city editor Joseph W. Randall, who digs up a 20-y.-o. case about happily-married mother Nancy Vorhees Townsend (Frances Starr) killing her lover, driving her to suicide. James Whale's Frankenstein (Nov. 21) (Universal Pictures), based on the 1818 Mary Wollstonecraft Shelly novel and dir. by gay sockhusker James Whale (1889-1957) (sperm whale?) makes a monster star of English actor Boris Karloff (1887-1969) (makeup by Jack Pierce); English actor Colin Clive (1900-37) (descendant of Baron Robert Clive, founder of the British Indian Empire) plays Dr. Henry Frankenstein (in the novel it was Dr. Victor Frankenstein); Am. actor Dwight Frye (1899-1943) ("the Man with the Thousand-Watt Stare") plays hunchbacked lab asst. Fritz; does $12M box office on a $262K budget; "The monster was the best friend I ever had" (Karloff); "It's alive! It's alive!" (Clive); "When I was nine I played the demon king in Cinderella and it launched me on a long and happy life of being a monster" (Karloff); "His eyes mirrored the suffering we needed" (producer Carl Laemmle Jr.); "His face fascinated me. I made drawings of his head, adding sharp bony ridges where I imagined the skull might have joined" (James Whale); Frankenstein sideshows become the rage in the U.K. and U.S. Lewis Milestone's The Front Page, based on the Hecht-MacArthur play stars Adolphe Menjou and Pat O'Brien, who makes his film debut. Leontine Sagan's Girls in Uniform (Maedchen in Uniform), a German talkie about lesbian sex between a schoolgirl and her teacher also criticizes militarism; it is banned in the U.S., and in 1933 the Nazis exile Sagan for it - does it turn you on, does it? Berthold Bartosch's The Idea, based on woodcuts by Frans Masereel with a score by Arthur Honegger about a nude woman representing the revolutionary idea that lives on despite condemnation by the powers that be is the first serious tragic poetic animation? Clarence Brown's Inspiration (Jan. 31), based on the 1884 Alphonse Daudet novel "Sappho" stars Greta Garbo, and Robert Montgomery (1904-81) (father of "Samantha in Bewitched" actress Elizabeth Montgomery), launching his star career. Mack Sennett's I Surrender Dear is a 20-min. musical comedy starring Bing Crosby, who is paid $750, and ends up doing five more, getting chased by lions, dunked in water tanks, and baked in quick-rising dough. G.W. Pabst's Kameradschaft, based on the 1906 Courrieres mining disaster is a talkie about trapped German and French miners forgetting their nat. feuds in order to survive. Leontine Sagan's Madchen (Mädchen) in Uniform (Nov. 27), based on the play "Gestern und Heute" by Christa Winsloe is the first sympathetic onscreen portrayal of lesbians. Rene Clair's Le Million is a comedy-musical about the search for a winning lottery ticket in Paris. Fritz Lang's M (May 11), Lang's first talkie (his favorite) makes a star of Czech-born Jewish actor Peter Lorre (1904-64) as serial child murderer Peter Kurten "the Vampire of Dusseldorf", who is brought to rough justice by Berlin's criminal underworld; monocled German dir. Lang throws Lorre down a flight of stairs in the final scene to make him look more battered; Lorre moves to Hollywood in 1935, where he becomes typecast as a foreigner. Norman McLeod's Monkey Business (Sept. 19), the Marx Brothers' 3rd film, co-written by Brooklyn-born Sidney Joseph Perelman (1904-79) features funny lines incl. "Look at me: I worked my way up from nothing to a state of extreme poverty"; "Do you suppose I could buy back my introduction to you?" Howard Higgin's The Painted Desert (Mar. 7) is the first major film role of big-eared William Clark Gable (1901-60), who plays villain Rance Brett opposite good guy William Boyd (as Bill Boyd/Holbrook); Gable bursts into film this year, appearing in Harry Beaumont's Dance, Fools, Dance (Feb. 21), Harry Beaumont's Laughing Sinners (May 30) (MGM), based on the play "Torch Song" by Kenyon Nicholson stars Joan Crawford as Ivy Stevens, who falls for prissy salesman Howard Palmer (Neil Hamilton), then tries to commit suicide after he leaves her, causing Carl Loomis (Clark Gable) (2nd of eight Crawford-Gable films) to talk her into joining the Salvation Army, after which he comes back and she falls for him again; does $765K box office on a $338K budget; Hamilton is billed above Gable, and is ready to grow a mustache and make it permanent, when too bad, he allegedly insults a studio bigshot, and is banned from A-level films, causing his career to spiral downward, eventually making a comeback with TV, culminating in the plum role of Comissioner Gordon in all 120 episodes of "Batman". Clarence Brown's A Free Soul (June 20), and William Wellman's Night Nurse (Aug. 8), Robert Z. Leonard's Susan Lenox: Her Fall and Rise (Oct. 10) (with Greta Garbo), and Clarence Brown's Possessed (Nov. 21) (with Joan Crawford). Frank Capra's Platinum Blonde (Oct. 31) stars Clark Gable, and solidifies actress Jean Harlow (1911-37) as America's new sex symbol. William A. Wellman's The Public Enemy (Apr. 23) (Warner Bros.), based on the novel "Beer and Blood: Enemies of the Public" by Kubec Glasmon and John Bright is the 7th film and breakthrough role for former vaudeville dancer-comedian James Cagney (1899-1986) (known for his athletic moves and for revealing a "touch of the gutter" while using his face and hands) as gangster Tom Powers, youngest of three brothers incl. Matt (Edward Woods) (middle) and Mike (Donald Cook) (oldest); Cagney pushes a grapefruit into co-star Mae Clarke's face at the breakfast table, becoming a famous scene; Woods was cast as Tom and Cagney as Matt until Darryl F. Zanuck saw the dailies and switched them, although they forget to switch their childhood counterparts; also stars Jean Harlow as Gwen Allen, Joan Blondell as Mamie, Leslie Fenton as Nails Nathan (based on real-life gangster Samuel "Nails" Morton), Beryl Mercer as Ma Powers, Robert Emmett O'Connor as Paddy Ryan, and Murray Kinnell as Putty Nose; starts with a disclaimer that exposing how organized crime operates is a public service; "I ain't so tough" (Cagney at the end). Maurice Elvey's Sally in Our Alley (July) (Associated Talking Pictures) is the film debut of Gracie Fields (Grace Stansfield) (1898-1979), who sings Henry Carey's 1725 Sally in Our Alley, making her a British film star. George W. Hill's The Secret Six (Apr. 18) stars Ralph Bellamy as a bootlegger who recruits Wallace Beery to join his gang, which is masterminded by crooked criminal lawyer Lewis Stone, until Berry takes it over and grows fat, after which a secret group of six masked businessmen rat him out and get him sent to the chair with the help of newspapermen Clark Gable and Johnny Mack Brown; meanwhile Jean Harlow proves she can act as she is torn between her love of Brown and financial dependence on her boss Beery; first of six movies she makes with Clark Gable for MGM, ending with "Saratoga" in 1937, released 1 mo. after her untimely blonde bombshell death. Edgar Selwyn's The Sin of Madelon Claudet (Oct. 24) (MGM), written by Charles MacArthur and Ben Hecht based on the play "The Lullaby" by Edward Knoblock stars Helen Hayes as a wrongly imprisoned high society woman who becomes a thief and ho to put her illegitimate son Lawrence (Robert Young) through medical school. Norman Taurog's Skippy (Apr. 5) (Paramount Pictures), based on the comic strip by Percy Crosby stars Taurog's 9-y.-o. nephew John "Jackie" Cooper Jr. (1922-2011), who becomes the youngest person to be nominated for a best actor Oscar (until ?); his brother Robert Coogan plays his friend Sooky, who stars in the 1931 sequel; the film becomes the first nominated for a best picture Oscar that's based on a comic or graphic novel (until ?). Ernst Lubitsch's The Smiling Lieutenant (Aug. 31), based on the novel "Nux der Prinzgemahl" by Hans Muller stars Maurice Chevalier, Claudette Colbert, and Miriam Hopkins in a love triangle. Jack Raymond's The Speckled Band (Mar. 5) (British and Dominions Film Corp.), the first sound version of the Arthur Conan Doyle story stars Canadian-born Raymond Hart Massey (1896-1983) as Sherlock Holmes, and Athole Stewart as Dr. Watson. Robert Flaherty's and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau's Tabu: A Story of the South Seas, filmed in Tahiti is a quasi-documentary about a female pearl diver whom the gods have declared taboo to all men; Flaherty walks out in mid-production, and on Mar. 31 Murnau dies in a car crash in Santa Barbara, Calif. a week before its debut, but it gets a Best Cinematography Oscar. G.W. Pabst's The Threepenny Opera (Drei Dreigroschenoper) (L'Opera de Quat'Sous) (Beggar's Opera) (Feb. 19), based on the 1928 Bertolt Brecht-John Gay "Beggar's Opera" stars Rudolf Forster as Mack the Knife, Carola Neher as Polly, and Fritz Rasp as daddy Peachum. Nick Grinde's This Modern Age (Aug. 29) stars Joan Crawford as Valentine "Val Winters, and Pauline Frederick as her mother Diane "Di" Winters, meeting for the 1st time in ages in Paris. Art: Max Beckmann (1884-1950), Still Life with Studio Window. Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), The Breakfast Room. Constantin Brancusi (1876-1957), Mlle. Pognany (sculpture). Marc Chagall (1887-1985), The Trick-Riders. E.E. Cummings (1894-1961), CIOPW; drawings and paintings using charcoal, ink, oil, pencil, and watercolor. Salvador Dali (1904-89), The Persistence of Memory (AKA Melting Watches); puts him on the map as a leader of modern art; Birth of Liquid Desires (1931-2). Otto Dix (1891-1969), Girls. A. Drury, Sir Joshua Reynolds (statue) (Burlington House, London). Jacob Epstein (1880-1959), Genesis. Max Ernst (1891-1976), Human Form. Lyonel Feininger (1871-1956), Market Church. Edward Hopper (1882-1967), Route 6, Eastham. Paul Klee (1879-1940), The Ghost Vanishes. Henri Matisse (1869-1954), The Dance (murals) (Barnes Foundation, Merion, Penn.). Rene Magritte (1898-1967), Mental Arithmetic. Paul Nash (1889-1946), Cinetic (abstract). Georgia O'Keeffe (1887-1986), Cow's Skull: Red, White, and Blue. Jose Clemente Orozco (1883-1949), Murals at the New School for Social Research in New York City. Plays: Jean Anouilh (1910-87), L'Hermine (The Ermine) (first play); a flop. Philip Barry (1896-1949), Tomorrow and Tomorrow. James Bridie (1888-1951), The Anatomist (London). Phil Charig (1902-60), Stand Up and Sing (musical) (London Hippodrome, West End, London) (Mar. 5) (604 perf.); stars Jack Buchanan, and former dancer Anna Neagle (Florence Marjorie Robertson) (1904-86), who is discovered there by film dir. Herbert Wilcox, rising to the most popular star in Britain in 1949. Agatha Christie (1890-1976), Chimneys. Noel Coward (1899-1973), Cavalcade (Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, London) (Oct. 13) (405 perf.); produced by Sir Charles Blake Cochran; super-expensive production about the Edwardian Marryot family in 1900-29 against a historical backdrop; stars Edward Sinclair and Mary Clare as the Marryot parents; its patriotic theme helps the Conservative Party in the gen. election win the middle class vote; George V and Queen Mary attend the performance on election night and receive Coward in the royal box; Coward utters the soundbyte that he "came to scoff, remained to pray"; filmed in 1933. Roger Martin du Gard (1881-1958), Un Taciturne. George Gershwin (1898-1937), Ira Gershwin (1896-1983), George S. Kaufman (1889-1961), and Morrie Ryskind (1895-1985), Of Thee I Sing (musical) (Music Box Theatre, New York) (Dec. 26) (441 perf.); John P. Wintergreen (William Gaxton) runs for U.S. on the "love platform", then falls for sexretary Mary Turner (Lois Moran), who woos him with corn muffins, causing him to dump beauty queen Diana Devereux (Grace Brinkley); Victor Moore plays vice-pres. Alexander Throttlebottom; first musical to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama. Michel de Ghelderode (1898-1962), Liar's Club; Red Magic; The Star Thief. Langston Hughes (1902-67) and Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960), Mule Bone. Malcolm Muggeridge (1903-90), Three Flats (first play). Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953), Mourning Becomes Electra (Guild Theatre, New York) (Oct. 26) (150 perf.); three plays based on Aeschylus' "Oresteia", incl. "Homecoming", "The Hunted", "The Haunted"; Brig. Gen. Ezra Mannon (Agamemnon), Christine (Clytemnestra), Orin (Orestes), Lavinia (Electra), Adam Brant (Aegisthus). John Osborne (1929-94), Inadmissible Evidence. Elmer Rice (1892-1967), The Left Bank; Counsellor-at-Law. Lynn Riggs (1899-1954), Green Grow the Lilacs (Jan. 26) (Theatre Guild, New York) (64 perf.); set in Okla. Territory; basis of the 1943 play "Oklahoma!"; stars Franchot Tone as Curly, Richard Hale as Jud, and June Walker as Laurey; Lee Strasberg has a small part. Dodie Smith (1896-1990), Autumn Crocus (first play) (London); stars Fay Compton and Francis Lederer; after it is discovered that he is a toy buyer at Heal and Son's furniture store in London, a newspaper headline reds "Shopgirl Writes Play". Poetry: Stephen Vincent Benet (1898-1943), Ballads and Poems; incl. American Names; "Bury my heart at wounded knee". Arna Bontemps (1902-73), God Sends Sunday. Pieter Cornelis Boutens (1870-1943), Bezonnen Verzen. Rene Char (1907-88), L'Action de la Justice est Eteinte. George Dillon (1906-68), The Flowering Stone (Pulitzer Prize). Kahlil Gibran (1883-1931), The Earth Gods. Robert Ranke Graves (1895-1985), Poems 1926-1930; To Whom Else? Langston Hughes (1902-67), The Negro Mother and Other Dramatic Recitations; Dear Lovely Death. Aldous Huxley (1894-1963), The Cicadas. Robert Underwood Johnson (1853-1937), Poems of Fifty Years. John Frederick Lehmann (1907-87), A Garden Revisited (debut). Edgar Lee Masters (1868-1950), Godbey: A Dramatic Poem; sequel to "Jack Kelso" (1920). Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950), Fatal Interview. Elizabeth Cutter Morrow (1873-1955), Quatrains for My Daughter. Pablo Neruda (1904-73), Residence on Earth (1931, 1935). Dorothy Parker (1893-1967), Death and Taxes. Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935), Matthias at the Door; The Glory of the Nightingales; Selected Poems. Armand Salacrou (1899-1989), La Vie en Rose. Giorgos Seferis (1900-71), Strofi (Strophe) (debut). Arthur Symons (1865-1945), Jezebel Mort, and Other Poems. Giuseppe Ungaretti (1888-1970), The Joy (L'Allegria). Virginia Woolf (1882-1941), The Waves; a "playpoem". Novels: Shmuel Yosef Agnon (1888-1970), The Bridal Canopy (Hachnasat Kalla). Richard Aldington (1892-1962), The Colonel's Daughter. Jorge Amado (1912-2001), O Pais do Carnaval (first novel). Michael Arlen (1895-1956), Men Dislike Women. Andrei Bely (1880-1934), Masks; 3rd in his Moscow Trilogy (begun 1926). Enoch Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), Venus Rising from the Sea. Georges Bernanos (1888-1948), La Grande Peur des Bien-pensants. Johan Bojer (1872-1959), The Everlasting Struggle. Kay Boyle (1902-92), Plagued by the Nightingale (first novel); Wedding Day and Other Stories (short stories). Roark Bradford (1896-1948), John Henry; a super-powerful black man dies during a contest between his sledge hammer and a steam-driven one; dramatized in 1940 with music by Jacques Wolfe - I can't decide if this is racist or just flattering? Jean de Brunhoff (1899-1937), Babar the Elephant (Histoire de Babar: Le Petit Elephant); English trans. by A.A. Milne "The Story of Babar" pub. in 1933; invented by Jean's wife Cecile for her children; a young elephant sees his mother killed by a hunter and escapes to the big city, taking to wearing a green English suit before returning to bring the benefits of civilization to his fellow elephants, getting appointed king and marrying his cousin Queen Celeste; followed by six sequels by 1937, after which his Paris-born son Laurent de Brunhoff (1925-) carries on with 45+ more sequels starting in 1946 with "Babar's Cousin: That Rascal Arthur". John Buchan (1875-1940), The Blanket of the Dark. Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973), The Good Earth (Pulitzer Prize); bestseller; Wang Lung tests his wife O-Lan by getting a concubine. W.R. Burnett (1899-1982), The Silver Eagle. Robert Cantwell (1908-78), Laugh and Lie Down (first novel). John Dickson Carr (1906-77), Castle Skull; The Lost Gallows; more Henri Bencolin. Willa Cather (1873-1947), Shadows on the Rock; 17th cent. Quebec in the time of bishop Francois Xavier de Laval-Montmorency. Agatha Christie (1890-1976), The Sittaford Mystery (The Murder at Hazlemoore) (Sept. 7). Ivy Compton-Burnett (1884-1969), Men and Wives. James Gould Cozzens (1903-78), S.S. San Pedro; A Farewell to Cuba; Total Stranger. A.J. Cronin (1896-1981), Hatter's Castle (first novel); written in 3 mo. after giving up a medical career in London; makes him an instant star. Countee Cullen (1903-46), One Way to Heaven (first novel). Theodore Dreiser (1874-1945), Tragic America. Hans Fallada (1893-1947), Farmers, Functionaries, and Fireworks (Bauern, Bonzen und Bomben). Oliver La Farge (1901-63), Sparks Fly Upward. Jessie Redmon Fauset (1882-1961), The Chinaberry Tree: A Novel of American Life. William Faulkner (1897-1962), Sanctuary. Pamela Frankau (1908-67), Born at Sea; Letter from a Modern Daughter to Her Mother; The Devil We Know. Carlo Emilio Gadda (1893-1973), La Madonna dei Filosofi (The Philosophers' Madonna) (first novel). Jean Giono (1895-), Le Grand Troupeau; the horrors of WWI. Susan Glaspell (1882-1948), Ambrose Holt and Family. Catherine Gordon (1895-1981), Penhally. Kristmann Gudmundsson, Den bla kyst. Dashiell Hammett (1894-1961), The Glass Key (Apr. 24); last of his five novels. James Hilton (1900-54), And Now Goodbye. Sigurd Hoel (1890-1960), One Day in October. Fannie Hurst (1889-1968), Back Street; romance novel starring adultery and death? Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960), Hoodoo in America. Molly Keane (1905-96), Mad Puppetstown. Sophie Kerr (1880-1965), In for a Penny. John Lambourne, The Kingdom That Was. Halldor Kiljan Laxness (1902-98), Salka Valka (2 vols.) (1931-2). Meyer Levin (1905-81), Yehuda. H.P. Lovecraft (1890-1937), At the Mountains of Madness. Curzio Malaparte (1898-1957), Tecnica del Colpo di Stato; criticizes Hitler and Mussolini, getting him kicked out of the Fascist Party and sent to exile on the island of Lipari from 1933-8 then jailed for most of WWII. Bruce Marshall (1899-1987), Father Malachy's Miracle; Benedictine monk argues with Episcopalian rector about miracles, then proves his point by moving a dance hall from Glasgow onto Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth, which backfires on him. Francis Van Wyck Mason (1901-78), Captain Nemesis; The Vesper Service Murders; Fort Terror Murders. W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965), First Person Singular. Andre Maurois (1885-1967), Turgenev. William McFee (1881-1966), Sailors of Fortune. A.A. Milne (1882-1956), Two People. Naomi Mitchison (1897-1999), The Corn King and the Spring Queen. George Moore (1852-1933), Aphrodite in Aulis. Robert Nathan (1894-1985), The Orchard. Kate O'Brien (1897-1974), Without My Cloak (first novel). Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), Gangster's Glory (Inspector Dickens Retires); Up the Ladder of Gold; Simple Peter Cradd.; Sinners Beware (short stories). Martha Ostenso (1900-63), Prologue to Love. John Dos Passos (1896-1970), Panama. David Pinski (1872-1959), The Generations of Noah Edon. Ellery Queen, The Dutch Shoe Mystery. Alja Rachmanova, Students, Love, Tcheka, and Death. Erich Maria Remarque (1898-1970), The Road Back. Henry Handel Richardson (1870-1946), Two Studies (short stories). Elizabeth Madox Roberts (1881-1941), A Buried Treasure. Kenneth Lewis Roberts (1881-1941), The Lively Lady. Alice Grant Rosman (1882-1961), The Sixth Journey. Joseph Roth (1894-1939), Radetzky March. Rafael Sabatini (1875-1950), Scaramouche the Kingmaker; sequel to "Scaramouche" (1921); Captain Blood Returns (The Chronicles of Captain Blood). Vita Sackville-West (1892-1962), All Passion Spent; elderly Lady Slane goes bohemian. Dorothy L. Sayers (1893-1957), Five Red Herrings (Suspicious Characters); Lord Peter Wimsey #6; painter Sandy Campbell is killed by somebody who paints in his style. Robert Cedric Sherriff (1896-1975), The Fortnight in September. Robert Emmet Sherwood (1896-1955), Reunion in Vienna. Mikhail A. Sholokhov (1905-84), Virgin Soil Upturned; the Soviet agricultural crisis. Frans Emil Sillanpaa (1888-1964), The Maid Silja. Georges Simenon (1903-89), Pietr-le-Letton; introduces Commissaire Maigret, which is such a big hit that he writes 74 more novels and 28 short stories featuring him. Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), Pacific Gold. T.S. Stribling (1881-1965), The Forge; first of the Vaiden Family Trilogy, about Miltiades Vaiden, incl. "The Store", "The Unfinished Cathedral"; set in Florence, Ala. during Reconstruction. Junichiro Tanizaki (1886-1965), Arrowroot; a man's parents die when he is young, causing him to search for his maternal roots in 1910 in Tokyo and Osaka. Angela Thirkell (1890-1961), Three Houses (first novel). James Thurber (1894-1961), The Owl in the Attic and Other Perpexities. Hugh Seymour Walpole (1884-1941), Judith Paris. Jakob Wassermann (1873-1934), Etzel Andergast; #2 in trilogy. Alec Waugh (1898-1981), Most Women; So Lovers Dream. Nathanael West (1903-40), The Dream Life of Balso Snell (first novel). Ethel Lina White (1876-1944), Put Out the Light (Sinister Light); launches her career as one of the top mystery thriller novelists in England. Arnold Zweig (1887-1968), Young Woman of 1914. Carl Zuckmayer (1896-1977), Der Hauptmann von Kopenick. Births: Japanese PM #48 (1989-91) Toshiki Kaifu on Jan. 2 in Nagoya; educated at Chuo U., and Waseda U. Syrian writer Zakaria Tamer (Zakariya Tamir) on Jan. 2 in Damascus. Japanese "Iron Chef" chef Rokusaburo Michiba on Jan. 3 in Kaga, Ishikawa Prefecture. Am. "Boo Radley in To Kill a Mockingbird", "Tom Hagen in The Godfather", "LTC Bill Kilgore in Apocalypse Now", "Capt. Augustus Gus McCrae in Lonesome Dove" actor (Christian Scientist) Robert Selden Duvall on Jan. 5 in San Diego, Calif.; descendant of Gen. Robert E. Lee (1807-70). Am. dancer-choreographer (black) Alvin Ailey Jr. (d. 1989) on Jan. 5 in Rogers, Tex. Am. "Ragtime", "Billy Bathgate" novelist (Jewish) Edgar Lawrence Doctorow on Jan. 6 in New York City; of Russian Jewish descent; educated at Bronx H.S. of Science, and Columbia U. Am. rock impresario (Jewish) Bill Graham (Wolodia "Wolfgang" Grajonca) (d. 1991) on Jan. 8 in Berlin, Germany; of Russian Jewish descent. Am. "Sheriff Clay Hollister in Tombstone Territory" actor Patrick Douglas "Pat" Conway (d. 1981) on Jan. 9 in Los Angeles, Calif.; son of Jack Conway (1887-1952) Am. actor-dir. Charles Nelson Reilly (d. 2007) on Jan. 13 in South Bronx, N.Y.; only child of Irish Catholic father and Swedish Lutheran mother; known for ascots, oversize spectacles, and double-entendres. Am. "Rebecca Boone in Daniel Boone", "Lou Mallory in The Rifleman" actress (redhead) Patricia Blair on Jan. 15 in Ft. Worth, Tex.; grows up in Dallas. Am. illustrator Bob Gill on Jan. 17 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at CCNY. Am. "Darth Vader's voice in Star Wars", "Jack Johnson in The Great White Hope", "Lt. Lothar Zogg in Dr. Strangelove", "Terence Mann in Field of Dreams" "Adm. James Greer in The Hunt for Red October" actor (black) James Earl Jones on Jan. 17 in Arkabutla, Miss.; educated at the U. of Mich.; husband (1968-72) of Julienne Marie, and (1982-2016) Cecilia Hart. English "No Sex Please, We're British" playwright-actor Anthony Marriott (d. 2014) on Jan. 17 in London. Am. 6'4" basketball player (white) (Philadelphia Warriors #16, 1952-3) ("the Owl without a Vowel") William P. "Bill" Mlkvy on Jan. 19 in Palmerton, Penn.; educated at Temple U. Am. physicist (Jewish) David Morris Lee on Jan. 20 in Rye, N.Y.; Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Harvard U., and the U. of Conn.; 1996 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. "Days of Sorrow and Pain" biographer-journalist Leonard S. Baker (d. 1984)on Jan. 24 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at the U. of Pittsburgh. Am. "The Love Bug" actor Dean Carroll Jones (d. 2015) on Jan. 25 in Decatur (near Huntsville), Ala.; educated at Asbury U. Am. actor Richard Bakalyan (d. 2015) on Jan. 29 in Watertown, Mass.; Armenian immigrant father, Canadian mother; friend of Bobby Darin. South Korean pres. #11, #12 (1980-8) Chun Doo-hwan on Jan. 31 in Yulgok-myeon, Hapcheon, Suth Gyeongsang. Canadian "MacNeil/Lehrer NewsHour" journalist Robert Breckenridge Ware MacNeil on Jan. 19 in Montreal; raised in Halifax; educated at Carleton U. Am. "Chain Gang", "Wonderful World" R&B singer (black) (pioneer of soul music) Samuel Dale "Sam" Cooke (Cook) (d. 1964) on Jan. 22 in Clarksdale, Miss.; grows up in Chicago, Ill. Canadian "The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz" playwright (Jewish) Mordecai Richler (d. 2001) on Jan. 27 in Montreal, Quebec; writes about the poor St. Urbain St. neighborhood of Montreal. Am. "The Frontiersman" historical novelist-playwright Allan W. Eckert on Jan. 30 in Buffalo, N.Y. English "What Kind of Fool Am I?", "The Candy Man", "Goldfinger" composer-lyricist Leslie Bricusse on Jan. 31; collaborator of Anthony Newley (1931-99). Am. baseball hall-of-fame player (black) (SS/1B) (Cubs #14) ("Bingo to Bango to Bilko") Ernest "Ernie" "Mr. Cub" Banks on Jan. 31 in Dallas, Tex.; first black player on the Chicago Cubs. Australian writer Shirley Hazzard on Jan. 30 in Sydney; diplomat father. Russian pres. #1 (1991-9) Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (d. 2007) on Feb. 1 in Butka, Sverdlovsk (Ekaterinburg). Am. rock photographer Barry Feinstein (d. 2011) on Feb. 4 in Philadelphia, Penn. Argentine pres. (1974-6) Isabel (Maria Estela Martinez Cartas) Peron on Feb. 4 in La Rioja; 2nd wife of Juan Peron (1895-1974). Am. sex symbol actress Mamie Van Doren (Joan Lucille Olander) on Feb. 6 in Rowena, S.D.; wife (1955-61) of Ray Anthony (1922-); mother names her after Joan Crawford; stage name comes from Mamie Eisenhower and the Van Doren brain men. Am. "Jim Stark in Rebel Without a Cause", "Giant", East of Eden" actor-idol (bi) James Byron "Jimmy" Dean (d. 1955) on Feb. 8 in Marion, Ind.; not to be confused with singer Jimmy Dean (1928-2010); mother dies at age 9, and he is raised by a Quaker farmer uncle and aunt in Fairmont, Ind. Austrian playwright-novelist Nicolaas Thomas Bernhard (d. 1989) on Feb. 9 in Heerlen, Netherlands. Am. Minimalist sculptor Robert Morris on Feb. 9 in Kansas City, Mo. Am. Christian televangelist ("the Walking Bible") Jack Leo Van Impe on Feb. 9 in Troy, Mich.; husband of Rexella Van Impe; "Black holes fulfill all the technical requirements to be the location of Hell." English long distance runner Douglas Alistair Gordon Pirie (d. 1991) on Feb. 10 in Leeds. Am. economist Burton A. Weisbrod on Feb. 13 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill., and Northwestern U. Canadian hockey player Bernie "Boom Boom" Geoffrion on Feb. 14 in Montreal. Am. "Porter Ricks in Flipper" actor Brian Kelly (d. 2005) on Feb. 14 in Detroit, Mich.; son of Mich. gov. Harry Kelly (1895-1971); educated at the U. of Notre Dame, and U. of Mich. English "Limelight", "Lady Marchmain in Brideshead Revisisted" actress (Jewish) Patricia Claire Bloom on Feb. 15 in Finchley, North London. English "Kate", "Howard Hughes" writer-poet-ed. (gay) Charles Higham (d. 2012) on Feb. 18 in London; partner of Richard V. Palafox (-2010). Am. "Beloved" novelist (black) Toni Morrison (Chloe Ardelia Wofford) on Feb. 18 in Lorain, Ohio; educated at Howard U. and Cornell U. Am. historian Robert Sobel (d. 1999) on Feb. 19 in Bronx, N.Y.; educated at CCNY and NYU; not to be confused with Robert D. Sobel, who defeated Bobby Fischer at chess in Montreal in 1956. Am. Pop Art artist Tom Wesselmann (d. 2004) on Feb. 23 in Cincinnati, Ohio. English film critic (in Canada) (gay) (Marxist) Robert Paul "Robin" Wood (d. 2009)> on Feb. 23 in London, England. Italian "Corrado Junior Soprano in The Sopranos" actor-singer Dominic Chianese on Feb. 24 in Bronx, N.Y. Am. "Sgt. Sam Troy in The Rat Patrol" actor Christopher John George (d. 1983) on Feb. 25 in Royal Oak, Mich.; husband (1970-83) of Lynda Day George (1944-). Russian pianist Lazar Naumovich Berman (d. 2005) on Feb. 26 in Leningrad. Am. "Evans-Novak Political Report" conservative journalist (Jewish) ("the Prince of Darkness" - from his scowl) Robert David Sanders Novak (d. 2009) on Feb. 26 in Joliet, Ill.; of Ukrainian and Lithuanian Jewish descent; educated at the U. of Ill.; collaborator of Rowland Evans Jr. (1921-2001); converts to Roman Catholicism in 1998. Am. college hall-of-fame basketball coach (U. of N.C, 1961-97) Dean Edwards Smith (d. 2015) on Feb. 28 in Emporia, Kan. Soviet Communist Party gen. secy. (1985-91) and pres. (1990-1) Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev on Mar. 2 in Privolnoye (near Stavropol), Privolnoye, Russia; paternal grandfather got 9 years in a gulag for hoarding grain; first and only gen. secy. born after the October Rev.; educated at Moscow State U. (law degree). Am. "The Bonfire of the Vanities" novelist ("Amanuensis of the Zeitgeist") Thomas Kinnerly "Tom" Wolfe Jr. on Mar. 2 in Richmond, Va.; born 31 years after the other author Thomas Wolfe (1900-38) in N.C.; educated at Washington and Lee U.; coiner of the terms "Me Generation", "good old boy". Am. folk singer (gay) (drug addict) Paul Clayton (Paul Clayton Worthingham) (d. 1967) on Mar. 3 in New Bedford, Mass. Am. "Slim Sherman in Laramie" actor John Smith (Robert Errol Van Orden) (d. 1995) on Mar. 6 in Los Angeles, Calif.; changes his name to become the only John Smith in Hollywood. Am. "A Sense of Where You Are" writer John Angus McPhee on Mar. 8 in Princeton, N.J.; educated at Princeton U., and Cambridge U. Am. Yoga teacher Roy Eugene Davis on Mar. 9 in Leavittsburg, Ohio. Australian-Am. media mogul (Jewish?) Keith Rupert Murdoch on Mar. 11 in Melbourne, Victoria; son of Sir Keith Arthur Murdoch (1885-1952) and (Jewish?) Elisabeth Joy Greene (1909-). Am. mezzo-soprano Rosalind Elias on Mar. 13 in Lowell, Mass. Am. "Sea of Love" singer-songwritr Phil Phillips (John Phillip Baptiste) on Mar. 14 in Lake Charles, La. Am. "Capt. Barney Miller in Barney Miller" actor (Jewish) Hal Linden (Harold Lipshitz) on Mar. 20 in Bronx, N.Y. Am. physicist Burton Richter on Mar. 22 in New York City; educated at MIT; 1976 Nobel Physics Prize. Canadian "Capt. Kirk on Star Trek", "T.J. Hooker" actor-writer (Jewish) William Alan Shatner on Mar. 22 in Montreal. Am. jazz drummer Stephen Paul Motian (d. 2011) on Mar. 25 in Philadelphia, Penn.; grows up in Providence, R.I. Am. record producer (black) Thomas Blanchard "Tom" Wilson Jr. (d. 1978) on Mar. 25 in Waco, Tex.; educated at Fisk U., and Harvard U. Am. "Spock in Star Trek" actor-dir. (Jewish) Leonard Simon Nimoy (d. 2015) on Mar. 26 in Boston, Mass. Soviet cosmonaut Alexei (Aleksei) Aleksandrovich Gubarev on Mar. 29 in Gvardeitsi. German "The Deputy" playwright Rolf Hochhuth on Apr. 1 in Eschwege. Am. TV-film writer (gay) William Edwin "Bill" Bast (d. 2015) on Apr. 3 in Milwaukee, Wisc.; educated at the U. of Wisc.; UCLA roomate of James Dean; partner of Paul Huson (1942-). Am. folk musician Gilbert Lee "Gill" Robbins (d. 2011) (The Highwaymen) on Apr. 3 in Spokane, Wash.; educated at UCLA. Am. country singer-songwriter-producer "Cowboy Jack" Henderson Clement on Apr. 5 in Memphis, Tenn. Am. writer-pyschologist (Jewish convert to Hindu) (bi) Baba Ram Dass (Richard Alpert) on Apr. 6 in Newton, Mass.; educated at Tufts U., Wesleyan U., and Stanford U. Am. "SSgt. Ivan Kinch Kinchloe in Hogan's Heroes" actor (black) Ivan Nathaniel Dixon III (d. 2008) on Apr. 6 in Harlem, N.Y. Am. postmodernist writer Donald Barthelme (d. 1989) on Apr. 7 in Philadelphia, Penn.; brother of Frederick Barthelme (1943-) and Steven Barthelme (1947-). Am. actor and U.S. ambassador (to Mexico) (1981-86) John Gavin (John Anthony Golenor Pablos) on Apr. 8 in Los Angeles, Calif.; Irish-Am. father, Mexican mother; educated at Stanford U. Canadian New Brunswick PM (1970-87) Richard Bennett Hatfield (d. 1991) on Apr. 9 in Hartland, N.B. Guinea-Bissau pres. #1 (1974-80) (black) Luis Severino de Almeida Cabral (d. 2009) on Apr. 11 in Bissau. Am. New Age writer Dolores Cannon on Apr. 15 in St. Louis, Mo. Swedish poet ("the Robert Frost of Sweden") Tomas Transtromer (Tranströmer) on Apr. 15 in Stockholm; 2011 Nobel Lit. Prize. Am. "Poems from Prison" poet (black) Etheridge Knight (d. 1991) on Apr. 19 in Corinth, Miss.; husband of Sonia Sanchez (1934-). Am. football player Alexander "Alex" "Red" Webster on Apr. 19 in Kearny, N.J.; not to be confused with rock bassist Alex Webster (1969-). Canadian Nova Scotia PM (1978-) John Maclellan Buchanan on Apr. 22 in Sydney, Novia Scotia. Am. "Movement in Squares" Op Art painter Bridget Louise Riley on Apr. 24 in Norwood, London; educated at Royal College of Art. Scottish skiffle singer-songwriter ("the King of Skiffle") Anthony James "Lonnie" Donegan (d. 2002) on Apr. 29 in Bridgeton, Glasgow; Scottish father, Irish mother. Am. folk singer-songwriter Peter (Oliver Albee) La Farge on Apr. 30 in New York City; son of Oliver La Farge (1901-63). Am. baseball hall-of-fame outfielder (black) (New York/San Francisco Giants #24, 1951-2, 1954-72) (New York Mets, 1972-3) ("the Say Hey Kid") William Howard "Willie" Mays Jr. on May 6 in Westfield, Ala. Am. "Music! Music! Music!" pop singer Theresa (Teresa) Brewer (d. 2007) on May 7 in Toledo, Ohio. Am. astronaut Vance DeVoe Brand on May 9 in Longmont, Colo.; educated at the U. of Colo. Am. real estate mogul (Jewish) Larry A. Silverstein on May 30 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at NYU. Am. Peoples Temple Flavor Aid slurping religious mass-murderer James Warren "Jim" Jones (d. 1978) on May 31 in Crete, Ind.; educated at Butler U. Am. composer Alvin Lucier on May 14 in Nashua, N.H.; educated at Yale U. and Brandeis U. U.S. HEW secy. #12 (1977-9) Joseph Anthony Califano Jr. on May 15; educated at Harvard U. Am. golfer Ken Venturi on May 15 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. composer Donald Martino (d. 2005) on May 16 in Plainfield, N.J. Am. Heaven's Gate cult leader Marshall Herff "Bo" "Do" Applewhite Jr. (d. 1997) on May 17 in Spur, Tex. Am. "J. Pierpont Finch in How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying" actor Robert Morse on May 18 in Newton, Mass. Am. "The Vision" Christian evangelist David Ray Wilkerson (d. 1931) on May 19 in Hammond, Ind. Canadian "Ben Caldwell in Judd for the Defense" actor Stephen Young (Levy) on May 19 in Toronto. French "Lebel in The Day of the Jackal", "Sir Hugo Drax in Moonraker" actor Michel (Michael) Lonsdale on May 24 in Paris; English father, French mother. Am. "A Garden of Sand" novelist Earl Thompson (d. 1978) on May 24 in Wichita, Kan.; educated at Columbia U. Soviet cosmonaut Georgi Mikhailovich Grechko on May 25 in Leningrad. Am. "Baby Doll", "The Carpetbaggers" actress Carroll Baker on May 28 in Johnstown, Penn.; of Polish descent. Am. "Joshua Gone Barbados" folk musician Eric Von Schmidt (d. 2007) on May 28 in Bridgeport, Conn. Am. physicist John Robert Schrieffer on May 31 in Oak Park, Ill.; educated at MIT; 1972 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. mezzo-soprano Shirley (Carter) Verrett on May 31 in New Orleans, La. Am. pool player "Fast" Eddie Parker (d. 2001) on June 2 in Springfield, Mo.; played by Paul Newman in "The Hustler" (1961). Cuban pres. Raul Modesto Castro Ruz on June 3 in Biran, Oriente province; younger brother of Fidel Castro (1926-2016); husband of Vilma Espin Guillois (1930-2007). Australian biologist (Jewish) Sir Gustav Victor Joseph Nossal on June 4 in Bad Ischl, Austria; emigrates to Australia in 1939; educated at Sydney U.; knighted in 1977. French "Lola", "The Umbrellas of Cherbourg" New Wave dir. Jacques Demy (d. 1990) on June 5 in Pontchateau, Pays-de-la-Loire. English "Joy Adamson in Born Free" actress-activist Virginia Anne McKenna on June 7 in Marylebone, London; wife (1954) of Denholm Elliott, and (1957-94) Bill Travers. English "The List of Adrian Messenger" actress Dana Wynter (Dagmar Winter) on June 8 in Berlin, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1953. Am. comedian-actor (Jewish) Jackie Mason (Jacob Moshe Maza) on June 9 in Sheboygan, Wisc.; educated at CCNY. Am. actor Joe Santos (Joseph Minieri) on June 9 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; cousin of Joseph W. Sarno (1921-). Brazilian bossa nova singer-songwriter-musician Joao Gilberto Prado Pereira de Oliveira on June 10 in Juazeiro, Bahia; husband (1959-65) of Astrud Gilberto (1940-). Am. "The Best of Everything" novelist (Jewish) Rona Jaffe (d. 2005) on June 12 in New York City. Am. "Helter Skelter" writer Curt Marsena "Curt" Gentry (d 2014) on June 13 in Lamar, Colo. Am. "Florence Johnston in The Jeffersons" actress (black) Marla Gibbs on June 14 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Shotgun" R&B singer-saxophonist (black) Junior (Jr.) Walker (Autry DeWalt Mixon Jr.) (d. 1995) (All Stars) on June 14 in Blytheville, Ark. Am. poet George Edwin Starbuck (d. 1996) on June 15 in Columbus, Ohio; educated at Caltech and Harvard U. Am. "Moonstruck" actress Olympia Dukakis on June 20 in Lowell, Mass.; parents are Greek immigrants; cousin of Michael Dukakis (1933-). Am. "Stinger in Top Gun", "Mr. Strickland in Back to the Future" actor (bald) James Tolkan on June 20 in Calumet, Mich. Am. prof. golfer William Earl "Billy" "Buffalo Bill" Casper Jr. (d. 2015) on June 24 in San Diego, Calif. English "The Outsider" novelist-writer Colin Henry Wilson on June 26 in Leicester. Canadian Seagram Co. Ltd. chmn. Charles Rosner Bronfman on June 27 in Montreal, Quebec; chmn. of the Montreal Expos. Dutch physicist Martinus Justinus Godefriedus Veltman on June 27 in Waalwijk; educated at Utrecht U.; 1999 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. auto racer ("the Last American Hero") Robert Glenn "Junior" Johnson Jr. on June 28 in Wilkes County, N.C. French "An American in Pari" actress-dancer Leslie Claire Margaret Caron on July 1 in Boulogne-Billancourt; French father, American mother; "I'm not a ballerina, I'm a hoofer." Czech transpersonal psychologist Stanislav Grof on July 1 in Prague. Am. Arhoolie Records founder Christian Alexander Maria "Chris" Strachwitz on July 1 in Gross Reichenau, Lower Silesia, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1947. Irish "Messala in Ben-Hur" actor Stephen Boyd (William Millar) (d. 1977) on July 4 in Glengormley, Northern Ireland; discovered by Michael Redgrave while working as a hotel doorman. English "The Leather Boys" actor Donal Donnelly on July 6 in Bradford, West Yorkshire; raised in Dublin. Am. "Tess in Touched by an Angel" actress-singer (black) Della Reese (Delloreese Patricia Early) on July 6 in Detroit, Mich.; of African-Cherokee descent. Am. journalist-writer Haynes Bonner Johnson on July 7 in New York City; son of Malcolm Johnson (1904-76); educated at the U. of Mo. and U. of Wisc. Am. "Monday Night Football" ABC-TV exec Roone Arledge (d. 2002) on July 8 in Forest Hills, N.Y. Am. "The Rebel" actor (bi?) Nick Adams (Nicholas Aloysius Adamshock) (d. 1968) on July 10 in Nanticoke, Penn.; friend of James Dean and Elvis Presley. Am. "Hello, Dolly!", "Mame", "La Cage aux Folles" composer-lyricist (gay) Gerald "Jerry" Herman on July 10 in New York City; educated at the U. of Miami. Am. harness racer Del Insko on July 10 in Amboy, Minn. Canadian "The Bear Came Over the Mountain" short story writer (black) Alice Ann Munro (nee Laidlaw) on July 10 in Wingham, Ont.; likes to set stories in Huron County, Ont. Am. "Little Bitty Pretty One" singer (black) Thurston Theodore Harris (d. 1990) (Lamplighters) on July 11 in Indianapolis, Ind. Am. "Young Love", "Mr. Stewart in Grease 2" singer-actor (gay) Tab Hunter (Arthur Andrew Kelm on July 11 in New York City; abusive Jewish father, German Roman Catholic immigrant mother surnamed Gellen, who divorce a few years after his birth, after which mother takes him to Calif.; starts out as a figure skater; Warner Bros.' top-grossing star in 1955-9; takes until the 21st cent. to come out of the closet? Am. 6'3" hall-of-fame basketball player-coach (white) (Boston Celtics #23, 1954-64) Frank Vernon Ramsey Jr. on July 13 in Corydon, Ky.; educated at the U. of Ky. Am. "Raise the Titanic!" novelist and marine archeologist Clive Eric Cussler on July 15 in Aurora, Ill.; educated at SUNY. English "The Stepdaughter" novelist (alcoholic) Lady Caroline Maureen Blackwood (Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood) (d. 1996) on July 16 in Knightsbridge, London; wife (1953-8) of Lucian Freud (1922-), (1959-72) Israel Citkowitz (1909-74), and (1972-7) Robert Lowell (1917-77) ("a mermaid who dines upon the bones of her winded lovers"); mother of Eugenia Blackwood (1963-) and Ivana Blackwood (1966-). Am. 6'4" basketball player (white) (Fort Wayne/Detroit Pistons #14, 1955-62) Charles E. "Chuck" Noble (d. 2011) on July 24; educated at the U. of Louisville. German physicist Peter Armbruster on July 25 in Dachau, Bavaria; co-discoverer of elements #107-#112 with Gottfried Munzenberg (1940-). Am. "Doug Phillips in The Time Tunnel", "Brent Maverick in Maverick", "Stuart Brooks in The Young and the Restless" actor Robert Colbert on July 26 in Long Beach, Calif. Am. baseball player (2B) (black) Toni Stone (Marcenia Lyle Alberga) (d. 1996) on July 27 in St. Paul, Minn.; first woman to play as a regular on a men's big league team, the Indianapolis Clowns of the Negro League (1953). Am. "Stacey Petrie in The Dick Van Dyke Show" actor Jerry Van Dyke on July 27 in Danville, Ill.; brother of Dick Van Dyke (1925-). Am. "Our Gang" child actor Darryl Gerard Hickman on July 28 in Hollywood, Calif.; brother of Dwayne Hickman (1934-). Am. tennis coach Nicholas James "Nick" Bollettieri on July 31 in Pelham, N.Y. Am. jazz composer-musician (black) Kenneth Earl "Kenny" Burrell on July 31 in Detroit, Mich. Nigerian pres. (1974-87) Gen. Am. folk singer Ramblin' Jack Elliott (Elliot Charles Adnopoz) on Aug. 1 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Seyni Kountche (Kountché) (d. 1987) on July 1 in Fandou. Am. "Ziggy" cartoonist Tom Wilson on Aug. 1 in Waco, Tex.; father of Tom Wilson II (1959-). Pakistani army CIC (1988-1991) (Sunni Muslim) gen. Mirza Aslam Beg on Aug. 2 in Azamgarh. English "Elvis the Musical" producer-musician-artist Jack Good on Aug. 7 in Greenford, London; educated at Oxford U. English mathematical physicist Sir Roger Penrose on Aug. 8 in Colchester, Essex; son of Lionel Penrose (1898-1972); brother of Oliver Penrose (1929-) and Jonathan Penrose (1933-); educated at Univ. College London, and St. John's College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 1994. Am. "Billy Jack" actor-dir.-writer-politician Tom Laughlin on Aug. 10 in Milwaukee, Wisc.; husband (1954-) of Delores Taylor (1939-). Am. "Marathon Man", "The Princess Bride", "Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid", "Last Action Hero" novelist-playwright-screenwriter (Jewish) William Goldman on Aug. 12 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Columbia U. Am. "Pursuits of Happiness" historian Jack Philip Greene on Aug. 12 in Lafayette, Ind.; educated at Duke U. Am. "Lawrence Welk" singer Joe Feeney (d. 2008) on Aug. 14 in Grand Island, Neb.; father of 10 children incl. Chris Feeney. Am. chemist Richard Fred Heck on Aug. 15 in Springfield, Mass.; educated at UCLA; 2010 Nobel Chem. Prize. Am. singer Edye Gorme (Edith Gormezano) on Aug. 16 in Bronx, N.Y.; wife of Steve Lawrence (1935-). Am. tennis player Marion Anthony "Tony" Trabert on Aug. 16 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Am. sports promoter (Jewish) ("the guy whom Evel Knievel beat with a baseball bat") Sheldon Arthur "Shelly" Saltman on Aug. 17 in Boston, Mass.; Russian and Ukrainian immigrant parents. Am. "Scott Carey in The Incredible Shrinking Man' actor John Grant Williams on Aug. 18 in New York City; Scottish father, Irish mother; educated at Queens College, U. of Ill., and CCNY; cousin of Mary Garden (1874-1967); starts out as an opera singer. Am. 4'11" #1 jockey William Lee "Willie" Shoemaker (d. 2003) on Aug. 19 in Fabens, Tex.; paralyzed in a drunk driving accident on Apr. 8, 1991. French transsexual actress Coccinelle (Fr. "ladybug") (Jacques Charles Dufresnoy) (d. 2006) on Aug. 23 in Paris. Am. microbiologist Hamilton Othanel Smith on Aug. 23; educated at the U. of Ill., UCB, and Johns Hopkins U.; 1978 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. TV host ("the hardest working man in show business") Regis Francis Xavier Philbin on Aug. 25 in New York City; named after Manhattan Jesuit Regis H.S.; Irish-Italian father, Albanian Arberesh mother; educated at Notre Dame U. Am. Korean War hero Col. Ola Lee Mize (d. 2014) on Aug. 28 in Marshall County, Ala. Am. astronaut John Leonard "Jack" Swigert Jr. (d. 1982) on Aug. 30 in Denver, Colo.; educated at the U. of Colo. Canadian 6'3" hockey hall-of-fame player ("Le Gros Bill") Joseph Jean Arthur Beliveau (Béliveau) (d. 2014) on Aug. 31 in Three Rivers, Quebec. Am. country singer Boxcar Willie (Lecil Travis Martin) (d. 1999) on Sept. 1 in Ellis County, Tex. U.S. Sen. (R-Wyo.) (1979-97) Alan Kooi Simpson on Sept. 2 in Denver, Colo.; grows up in Cody, Wyo. Am. "Boston Strangler" serial killer Albert Henry DeSalvo (d. 1973) on Sept. 3 in Chelsea, Mass. Am. "Ensign Nellie Forbush in South Pacific" actress-singer-dancer Mitzi Gaynor (Francesca Marlene de Czanyi von Gerber) on Sept. 4 in Chicago, Ill. Am. Jesuit Roman Catholic priest Anthony "Tony" de Mello (d. 1987) on Sept. 4 in Bombay, India. German historian Hans-Ulrich Wehler (d. 2014) on Sept. 11 in Freudenberg, Westphalia; educated at the U. of Cologne, U. of Bonn, and Ohio U.; student of Theodor Scheider (1908-84). English "Sam Musabini in Chariots of Fire", "Ash in Alien", "Father Vito Cornelius in The Fifth Element", "Bilbo Baggins in the Lord of the Rings" actor Sir Ian Holm (Cuthbert) on Sept. 12 in Goodmayes, Essex; Scottish parents. Am. "He Stopped Loving Her Today" country singer (alcoholic) ("Rolls-Royce of Country Singers") George Glenn "Possum" "No Show" "Thumper" Jones (d. 2013) on Sept. 12 in Saratoga, Tex.; "The second best white male singer" (Frank Sinatra); husband (1969-75) of Tammy Wynette. Am. "pig-riding hillbilly in Deliverance" actor Bill McKinney on Sept. 12 in Chattanooga, Tenn. Am. "Cinnamon in Mission: Impossible" actress (Jewish) Barbara Bain on Sept. 13 in Chicago, Ill.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Ill. wife (1957-93) of Martin Landau (1928-2017). Am. "Funnyhouse of a Negro" playwright (black) Adrienne Kennedy on Sept. 13 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Columbia U. Am. "Mrs. Robinson" actress Anne Bancroft (Anna Maria Louisa Italiano) (d. 2005) on Sept. 17 in New York City; singing debut at age two; wife (1956-) of Mel Brooks. Am. "Rainy Night in Georgia" R&B singer-songwriter (black) Brook Benton (Benjamin Franklin Peay) (d. 1988) on Sept. 19 in Lugoff (near Camden), S.C. Am. actor-writer-politician Malachy Gerard McCourt on Sept. 20 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; raised in Limerick, Ireland; brother of Frank McCourt (1930-2009). English "The Fat Woman's Joke" feminist novelist Fay Weldon (Franklin Birkinshaw) on Sept. 22 in Alvechurch, Worcestershire. Am. folk artist (Jewish) Malcah (Heb. "queen") Zeldis on Sept. 22 in Bronx, N.Y.; grows up in Detroit, Mich. Ghanaian pres. #6 (1972-8) (black) Gen. Ignatius Kutu Acheampong (d. 1979) on Sept. 23 in Gold Coast. Am. physicist James Watson Cronin (d. 2016) on Sept. 29 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. "J.R. Ewing in Dallas", "Maj. Anthony Nelson in I Dream of Jeannie" actor Larry Martin Hagman (d. 2012 on Sept. 21 in Ft. Worth, Tex.; son of Mary Martin (1913-90). Am. "Why Don't You Believe Me?" pop singer Joni James (Giovanna Carmella Babbo) on Sept. 22 in Chicago, Ill.; first American to record at Abbey Road Studios in London. English "What Kind of Fool Am I?", "Goldfinger" actor-singer-songwriter (Jewish) (bi) (lefty) ("the male British Edith Piaf") Anthony George Newley (d. 1999) on Sept. 24 in London; collaborator of Leslie Bricusse (1931-). Am. sportswriter (Jewish) Richard J. "Dick" Schaap (d. 2001) on Sept. 27 in Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.; educated at Cornell U. Am. "Sgt. Leann Pepper Anderson in Police Woman" actress Angie Dickinson (Angeline Brown) on Sept. 30 in Kulm, N.D. Canadian 5'11" hockey hall-of-fame goalie (Detroit Red Wings, Chicago Blackhawks, St. Louis Blues) Glenn Henry "Mr. Goalie" Hall on Oct. 3 in Humboldt, Sask. Am. leptin scientist Douglas L. Coleman on Oct. 6; educated at McMaster U., and the U. of Wisc. Am. astrophysicist Riccardo Giacconi on Oct. 6 in Genoa, Italy; 2002 Nobel Physics Prize. South African cleric and anti-apartheid activist Anglican archbishop (black) Desmond Mpilo Tutu on Oct. 7 in Klerksdorp, Transvaal; 1984 Nobel Peace Prize. Am. musician (black) Lionel Frederick "Freddy" Cole on Oct. 15; brother of Nat King Cole (1919-65). U.S. deputy secy. of state #6 (1981-2), nat. security advisor #12 (1982-3), and secy. of the interior #44 (1983-5) (Roman Catholic) William Patrick Clark Jr. on Oct. 23 in Oxnard, Calif.; educated at Stanford U. and Loyola U. Am. atty. Charles Wendell "Chuck" Colson (d. 2012) on Oct. 31 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Brown U., and George Washington U.; special counsel to Pres. Nixon in 1969-73. English "The Spy Who Came in from the Cold", "Smiley's People" novelist John le Carre (Carré) (David John Moore Cornwell) on Oct. 19 in Poole, Dorset; half-brother of Charlotte Cornwell (1949-); educated at Eton College, and Oxford U. Am. baseball hall-of-fame player (RF, CF, 1B) (New York Yankees #7) ("Oklahoma's Pride") ("the Mick") Mickey Charles Mantle (d. 1995) on Oct. 20 in Spavinaw, Okla.; named after Philadelphia Athletics catcher Gordon "Mickey" Cochrane by his zinc miner father; rejected from military service because of bad knees; his dad dies at age 39 from Hodgkin's Disease, and his grandfather and uncle from ditto before age 45, causing him to become a fast-living swinger? English historian Hugh Swynnerton Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton on Oct. 21 in Windsor; educated at Queen's College, Cambridge U. and the Sorbonne. Am. baseball hall-of-fame pitcher and Repub. politician James Paul David "Jim" Bunning on Oct. 23 in Southgate, Ky. Egyptian "The Hidden Face of Eve", "God Dies by the Nile" feminist physician-writer-activist ("the Simone Beauvoir of the Arab World") Nawal El Saadawi on Oct. 27 in Kafr Tahla. Am. "Hymie in Get Smart" actor Richard "Dick" Gauthier on Oct. 30 in Culver City, Calif.; of French-Canadian descent; husband of Barbara Stuart. Am. CBS journalist-anchorman Dan Rather on Oct. 31 in Wharton, Tex. English "Fanlight Fanny" singer Clinton Ford (Ian George Stopford Harrison) on Nov. 4 in Salford, Lancashire. Am. musician-producer (black) Ike Wister Turner (d. 2007) (Ike Turner (1931-2007) and Tina Turner) on Nov. 5 in Clarksdale, Miss.; collaborator of Tina Turner (1939-); converts to Judaism in 1994. English auto racer Peter John Collins (d. 1958) on Nov. 6 in Kidderminster, Worcestershire. Am. "Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?", "The Graduate", "Catch-22", "Working Girl", "Postcards from the Edge", "The Birdcage" dir.-writer-producer (Jewish) Mike Nichols (Mikhail Igor Peschkowsky) (d. 2014) on Nov. 6 in Berlin, Germany; of German-Russian Jewish descent; emigrates to the U.S. in 1938; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. "Crusader Rabbit" conservative writer-producer-actor G. Edward Griffin on Nov. 7 in Detroit, Mich.; educated at the U. of Mich. Canadian-Am. CBS-TV journalist (Jewish) Morley Safer (d. 2016) on Nov. 8 in Toronto, Ont.; educated at the U. of Western Ont. Am. baseball outfielder-mgr.-exec (lefty) Dorrel Norman Elvert "Whitey" Herzog on Nov. 9 in New Athens, Ill. Am. Dem. politician Norman Yoshio Mineta on Nov. 12 in San Jose, Calif.; sent to a Japanese internment camp in Wyo. with his family in WWII; first Asian-Am. mayor of San Jose (1971-5); first Asian-Am. U.S. cabinet secy. (commerce, 2000); educated at UCB. Kenyan pres. #3 (2002-13) (black) Mwai Kibaki (Emilio Stanley) on Nov. 15 in Gatuyaini; educated at Makerere U., and London School of Economics. Am. folk singer-songwriter Samuel Robert "Bob" Gibson (d. 1996) on Nov. 16 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; not to be confused with baseball player Bob Gibson (1935-). Am. blues guitarist Hubert Sumlin (Howlin' Wolf) on Nov. 16 in Greenwood, Miss. Am. "Patsy Ferrara in NYPD Blue" actor Brad Sullivan on Nov. 18 in Chicago, Ill. Australian composer Malcolm Benjamin Graham Christopher Williamson (d. 2003) on Nov. 21 in Sydney; first non-Brit to hold the post of Master of the Queen's Music (1975-2003). Am. "Buck Coulter in The Travels of Jamie McPheeters" actor Michael Witney (Whitney Michael Armstrong) (d. 1983) on Nov. 21 in New York city. Am. musician Tommy Allsup on Nov. 24 in Owasso, Okla. Am. "Work Song" jazz trumpeter (black) Nathaniel "Nat" Adderley (d. 2000) on Nov. 25 in Tampa, Fla.; brother of Cannonball Adderley (1928-75); grows up in Tallahassee, Fla. Argentine activist Adolfo Perez Esquivel on Nov. 26 in Buenos Aires; 1980 Nobel Peace Prize. Am. "Bus Stop", "Peyton Place" actress Hope Lange on Nov. 28 in Redding Ridge, Conn. Am. "Gen. Harlan Bull Fullbright in The A-Team" actor Jack Lee Ging on Nov. 30 in Alva, Okla. Am. football coach ("The Genius") (San Francisco 49ers, 1979-88) William Ernest "Bill" Walsh (d. 2007) on Nov. 30 in Los Angeles, Calif. father of the West Coast Offense. Am. sociologist Kai Theodor Erikson on Dec. 2 in Vienna, Austria; son of Erik Erikson (1902-94); educated at the U. of Chicago. U.S. conservative Repub. atty.-gen. #75 (1985-8) Edwin "Ed" Meese III on Dec. 2 in Oakland, Calif.; educated at Yale U.; board member of the Am. Civil Rights Union, which fights the ACLU. Am. singer Mary Margaret "Jaye P." Morgan on Dec. 3 in Mancos, Colo. Am. "Rocky Top" bluegrass singer Bobby Osborne (Osborne Brothers) on Dec. 7 in Leslie County, Ky.; brother of Sonny Osborne (1937-). Am. 6'4" basketball player-coach (white) (St. Louis Hawks #6, 1956-66) Clifford Oldham "Cliff" "Li'l Abner" Hagen on Dec. 9 in Owensboro, Ky.; educated at the U. of Ky. Puerto Rican actress Rita Moreno (Rosita Dolores Alverio) on Dec. 11 in Humacao. Am. 6'4" basketball player (white) (Philadelphia Warriors #7, 1953-60) Ernest Joseph "Ernie" Beck on Dec. 11 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at the U. of Penn. Indian "sex guru" Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (Osho) (d. 1990) on Dec. 11 in Kuchwada, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh; emigrates to the U.S. in 1981. Canadian "Reuben Kincaid in The Partridge Family" actor Dave Madden on Dec. 17 in Sarnia, Ont.; raised in Terre Haute, Ind. Am. "Lawrence Welk" clarinetist Henry Falcon Cuesta (d. 2003) on Dec. 23. Am. "Pvt./Cpl. Duke Slater in Gomer Pyle, USMC" actor Ronald Ralph "Ronnie" Schell on Dec. 23 in Richmond, Calif. Austrian-Am. "Alphabetical Africa" novelist (Jewish) Walter Abish on Dec. 24 in Vienna; emigrates to the U.S. in 1957. Am. "Dan Kearny and Associates" "DKA Files" novelist Joseph Nicholas "Joe" Gores on Dec. 25 in Rochester, Minn. Am. rockabilly guitarist Winfield Scott "Scotty" Moore III on Dec. 27 near Gadsden, Tenn.; backs Elvis Presley in his early years. in his early years. Am. "Tod Stiles in Route 66", "Peter Joseph Pete Malloy in Adam-12" actor Martin Sam Milner (d. 2015) on Dec. 28 in Detroit, Mich. Canadian "Reuben Kincaid in The Partridge Family" actor Dave Madden on Dec. 17 in Sarnia, Ont.; raised in Terre Haute, Ind. Am. "The End of the World" country-pop singer Skeeter Davis (Mary Francis Penick) (d. 2004) on Dec. 30 in Dry Ridge, Ky. Palestinian poet (Muslim) Taha Muhammad Ali (d. 2011) on ? in Saffuriyya, Galilee. South African psychiatrist (Marxist) (coiner of the term "anti-psychiatry") David Graham Cooper (d. 1986) on ? in Cape Town. Am. baseball player (Los Angeles Dodgers) Charles Abraham "Chuck" Essegian Jr. on ? in ?. British "Life in the English Country House" architectural historian Mark Girouard on ? in ?. Bolivian New Age psychologist Oscar Ichazo on ? in ?. Am. "Blowback: The Sorrows of an Empire" writer Chalmers Ashby Johnson on ? in Phoenix, Ariz.; educated at UCB; coins the term "developmental state". Swiss chess master Victor Korchnoi on ? in the Soviet Union; emigrates to Switzerland in 1976. French "Is Paris Burning?" writer Dominique Lapierre on ? in Chatelaillon, Charent-Maritime; collaborator of Larry Collins (1929-2005). Syrian political leader Haitham al-Maleh on ?. Japanese cell biologist Yoshio Masui on ? in Kyoto; educated at Kyoto U. Malaysian Muslim spiritual leader Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat on ? in Pulau Melaka; educated at Al-Azhar U. Am. engineer (compact disc inventor) James T. Russell on ? in Bremerton, Wash.; educated at Reed College. Am. poet Judith Viorst on ? in Newark, N.J. Israeli computer scientist (Jewish) Jacob Ziv on ? in Tiberias, Palestine; educated at MIT. Deaths: Indian guru Hazrat Babajan (b. 1806) on Sept. 18 in Char Bawdi, Pune; dies under her favorite neem tree. Am. "Miner's Angel" Mary Harris "Mother" Jones (b. 1830) on Nov. 30 in Silver Spring, Md.: "Pray for the dead and fight like Hell for the living." Am. theatrical producer David Belasco (b. 1833). French "The Crowd" sociologist Gustave Le Bon (b. 1841) on Dec. 13. French PM #9 (1883, 1906-13) Armand Fallieres (b. 1841) on June 22 in Lannes. Italian painter Giovanni Boldini (b. 1842) on July 11 in Paris. Am. Trappist monk Brother Joseph (Ira Dutton) (b. 1843) in Honolulu. Czech novelist Antal Stasek (b. 1843). Am. educator John William Burgess (b. 1844). Am. Unity Church co-founder Myrtle Fillmore (b. 1845) on Oct. 6. Am. "Borax King" Francis Marion Smith (b. 1846) on Aug. 27 in Oakland, Calif. Am. "Wizard of Menlo Park" inventor Thomas Alva Edison (b. 1847) on Oct. 18 in West Orange, N.J. (diabetes); his last breath is sealed in a test tube and placed in the Henry Ford Museum; received a U.S. record 1,093 patents; between the time of Samuel Morse in 1840 and 1900 7M U.S. patents are granted, most of them crap, but the few good ones (such as many of his) can be very good: "Genius is 1% inspiration and 99% perspiration"; "Time is really the only capital that any human being has, and the one thing that he can't afford to lose"; "Opportunity is missed by most people because it is dressed in overalls and looks like work." Am. Cosmopolitan Mag. pub. John Brisben Walker (b. 1847) on July 7 in Brooklyn, N.Y. German chemist Otto Wallach (b. 1847) on Feb. 26 in Gottingen; 1910 Nobel Chem. Prize. Canadian-born Hollywood founder H.J. Whitley (b. 1847) on June 3 near Hollywood, Calif. Scottish Egyptologist Colin Campbell (b. 1848). Scottish tea king Sir Thomas Lipton (b. 1848) on Oct. 2 in London. German-born Am. Macy's dept. store founder Nathan Straus (b. 1848) on Jan. 11 in New York City. Am. Lincoln Memorial sculptor Daniel Chester French (b. 1850) on Oct. 7 in Stockbridge, Mass. Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck (b. 1851) on Jan. 1 in Gorssel: "Everything is everywhere, the environment decides." Am. Dewey Decimal System librarian Melvil Dewey (b. 1851) on Dec. 26 in Lake Placid, Fla. French composer Vincent d'Indy (b. 1851) on Dec. 2 in Paris. Am. educator-naturalist David Starr Jordan (b. 1851) on Sept. 19. Am. Biblical scholar George Foot Moore (b. 1851) on May 16 in Cambridge, Mass. Am. Southern Baptist leader James Milton Carroll (b. 1858) on Jan. 10 in Fort Worth, Tex.; leaves The Trail of Blood: Following the Christians Down through the Centuries; or, The History of Baptist Churches from the Time of Christ, Their Founder, to the Present Day. English-born Am. engraver Timothy Cole (b. 1852) on May 17 in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. French caricaturist Jean-Louis Forain (b. 1852). French WWI Marshal Joseph Joffre (b. 1852) on Jan. 3 in Paris - short hair, long mustachios, creamy white complexion, that Gallic stare under that funny French cap? German-born Am. physicist Albert A. Michelson (b. 1852) on May 9 in Pasadena, Calif. English novelist Hall Caine (b. 1853) on Aug. 31. Am. temperance leader Anna Adams Gordon (b. 1853) on June 15 in Castile, N.Y. German Ganser Syndrome psychiatrist Sigbert Ganser (b. 1853) on Jan. 4 in Dresden, Saxony Japanese bacteriologist Kitasato Shibasaburo (b. 1853) on June 13. Turkish-born Arab emir-sharif of Mecca (1908-7) Hussein bin Ali (b. 1854) on June 4 in Amman, Jordan. Irish-born Am. author-editor Frank Harris (b. 1854). English steam turbine inventor Sir Charles Algernon Parsons (b. 1854) on Feb. 11. English archeologist Stanley Lane-Poole (b. 1854) on Dec. 29. Am. "Pledge of Allegiance" writer Francis Julius Bellamy (b. 1855) on Aug. 28 in Rome, N.Y. Australian microbiologist Sir David Bruce (b. 1855) on Nov. 27. French automobile manufacturer Alexandre Darracq (b. 1855) in Monte Carlo, Monaco. Italian PM #17 (1905) Tommaso Tittoni (b. 1855) on Feb. 7. Am. caborundum inventor Edward Goodrich Acheson (b. 1856) on July 6 in New York City. Am. historian Edward Perkins Channing (b. 1856) on Jan. 7. Am. Pianola inventor Edwin Votey (b. 1856) on Jan. 21 in Summit, N.J. Am. physician Daniel Hale Williams (b. 1856) on Aug. 4 in Idlewild, Mich. (stroke). Uruguayan poet Juan Zorrila (b. 1857) on Nov. 3 in Montevideo. Australian actress Nellie Stewart (b. 1858) on June 20. Belgian violonist Eugene Ysaye (b. 1858) on May 12 in Liege. French writer Henry Gauthier-Villars (b. 1859) on Jan. 12 in Paris; his funeral at Montparnasse cemetery is attended by 3K. English nurse Kate Marsden (b. 1859) on May 26 in London. Irish poet-novelist Katharine Tynan (b. 1859) on Apr. 2 in Kensal Green, London. French Gen. Henri Mathias Berthelot (b. 1861) on Jan. 29 in Paris. British Gen. Gerald James Cuthbert (b. 1861) on Feb. 1. Australian operatic soprano Dame Nellie "Peach" Melba (b. 1861) on Feb. 23 in Sydney. Irish poet-novelist Katharine Tynan (b. 1861) on Apr. 2 in Wimbledon, London. German painter Lesser ury (b. 1861) on Oct. 18 in Berlin. Austrian gen. Klaudius Freiherr Czibulka von Buchland (b. 1862) on Apr. 18. Austrian minister-pres. (1917-18) Ernst Seidler von Feuchtenegg (b. 1862) on Jan. 23 in Vienna. Austrian playwright-novelist Arthur Schnitzler (b. 1862) on Oct. 21. Am. anti-lynching crusader Ida B. Wells-Barnett (b. 1862) on Mar. 25 in Chicago, Ill. British adm. Sir Athur Henry Limpus (b. 1863) on Nov. 3 in Alassio, Italy. Am. baseball AL founder Ban Johnson (b. 1864) on Mar. 28. Swedish author Erik Axel Karlfeldt (b. 1864) on Apr. 8; 1931 Nobel Lit. Prize. English dramatist Michael Morton (b. 1864) on Jan. 11. Australian gen. Sir John Monash (b. 1865) on Oct. 8 in Melbourne, Victoria; 300K line his funeral route where his body lies in state in Parliament House; a univ. is named for him, and his image is put on the $100 bill. Danish composer Carl Nielsen (b. 1865) on Oct. 3 in Copenhagen. Swedish ecclesiastical historian archbishop Nathan Soderblom (b. 1866) on July 12; 1930 Nobel Peace Prize. English novelist Enoch Arnold Bennett (b. 1867) on Mar. 27 in London (typhoid). Am. climatologist Robert DeCourcy Ward (b. 1867) on Nov. 12 in Cambridge, Mass. Sicilian-born Am. crime boss Salvatore Maranzano (b. 1868) on Sept. 10 in Manhattan, N.Y. (murdered). Cuban bacteriologist Aristides Agramonte (b. 1868) on Aug. 19 in New Orleans, La. U.S. Rep. (R-Ohio) (1903-31) Nicholas Longworth IV (b. 1869) on Apr. 9. Am. actor Tyrone Power Sr. (b. 1869) on Dec. 23 in Los Angeles, Calif. (heart attack). Am. historian Allen Johnson (b. 1870). English automobile-aircraft engine manufacturer Montague Stanley Napier (b. 1870) on Jan. 22 in Cannes, France. Ashanti king (1888-1931) Prempeh I (b. 1870) on May 12. Am.-born English mountaineer Edward Arthur FitzGerald (b. 1871) on Jan. 2 in London. German gyrocompass co-inventor Hermann Anschutz-Kaempfe (b. 1872). Am. statesman Dwight W. Morrow (b. 1873). Am. movie producer Charles O. Baumann (b. 1874) on July 18 in New York City. German chancellor (1920, 1928-30) Hermann Mueller (b. 1876) on Mar. 20. Norwegian-born Am. "Giants in the Earth" novelist Ole Edvart Rolvaag (b. 1876) on Nov. 5. Am. jazz pioneer Buddy Bolden (b. 1877) on Nov. 4 in Jackson, La. Czech poet V. Dyck (b. 1877). Am. banker-philanthropist Mortimer L. Schiff (b. 1877) on June 4. Irish portraitist Sir William Orpen (b. 1878) on Sept. 29 in London. Am. poet Vachel Lindsay (b. 1879) on Dec. 5. Sicilian-born Am. crime boss Joe Masseria (b. 1879) on Apr. 15 in Coney Island, N.Y. (murdered) - killed by tax collector Lucky Luciano German "Goethe" poet-scholar Friedrich Gundolf (b. 1880) on July 12 (cancer); in 1933 the Nazis ban his works. Danish transgender celeb Lili Elbe (b. 1882) on Dec. 13 in Dresden, Germany. Dutch De Stijl artist Theo van Doesburg (b. 1883) on Mar. 7 in Davos. Lebanese-Am. poet Kahlil Gibran (b. 1883) on Apr. 10 in New York City (cirrhosis of the liver and TB); buried in Bsharri, Lebanon. Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova (b. 1881) on Jan. 23 in the Netherlands (pneumonia caused by walking the length of a train after a derailment near The Hague while scantily-clad); last words: "Get my swan costume ready". Am. cosmetics queen A'Lelia Walker (b. 1885) on Aug. 17 in Long Branch, N.J. (cerebral hemorrhage). Silician-born Am. mob boss Giuseppe "Joe the Boss" Masseriia (b. 1886) on Apr. 15 in Coney Island, N.Y. (murdered by Vito Genovese, Joe Adonis, Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel, and Albert Anastasia). German film dir. Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau (b. 1888) on Mar. 11 in Santa Barbara, Calif. (car crash); dies a week before the debut of his film "Tabu"; rumors spread that he was giving a beejay to his handsome 14-y.-o. Filipino driver Garcia Stevenson in his Packard, causing the crash; only 11 people attend his funeral, incl. Greta Garbo, but not incl. his stars Janet Gaynor and Charlie Farrell; Greta Garbo commissions a death mask of him, which she keeps on her desk in Hollywood. Norwegian-born Am. football player-coach Knute Rockne (b. 1888) on Mar. 31 (airplane crash). Chinese poet Hsu Chi-mo (b. 1896) - the good die young? Am. gangster Legs Diamond (b. 1897) on Dec. 18 in Albany, N.Y. (murdered) (by men working for Dutch Schultz?) (by Albany police on orders of Dem. Party chmn. Dan O'Connell?) Am. actress Alma Rubens (b. 1897) on Jan. 22 in Los Angeles, Calif. (pnemonia); dies after becoming addicted to morphine in 1924 and battling addiction. Am. jazz player Bix Beiderbecke (b. 1903) on Aug. 6 in Sunnyside, Queens, N.Y. (drinks himself to death) - the good die young?
Chinese Year: Monkey.
Time Mag. Man of the Year: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) (1934, 1941).
Speaking of monkeys, the British declare the Indian Congress illegal and arrest Time Mag. Man of the Year Gandhi.
Unemployment: World: 30M, U.S.: 13.7M, Britain: 2.8M; one out of every four families in the U.S. are on relief; 12M (24%) of the U.S. workforce is unemployed;
5.7K U.S. banks fail this year.
The Europeans agree to reduce Germany's reparation payments by 90% if U.S. will do the same for their war debts.
No rain falls on the Great Plains this year, turning it into a great dust bowl; in Jan. a dust cloud 10K ft. high begins outside Amarillo,
Tex., then blows into the city, causing the pop. to complain that if the sodbusters can't keep their dirt in place, someone should pave it
over or park used cars on it; the storms become permanent for the next decade.
Early in the year the Ukrainian Famine (Holodomor)
in Ukraine, breadbasket of the Soviet Union begins (until 1933), caused by the deliberate policies of hard-as-steel Stalin known as the
Second Five-Year Plan,
really a plan to exterminate the pesky independent kulak class of independent farmers by stealing their food and having them eat the
seed and breeding stock before starving to death; on Mar. 29, 1933 Welsh journalist
Gareth Jones (1905-35)
becomes the first to break the story to the West, causing longtime English Moscow correspondent
Walter Duranty (1884-1957)
to pub. an article two days later in the New York Times titled "Russians hungry but not starving", after which Jones pub.
a rebuttal, causing the Soviet Union to ban him and later get him killed in Mongolia; meanwhile Stalin ass-kisser Duranty is awarded
a Pulitzer Prize in 1932 for his New York Times reports denying the famine, causing many to later call to have it revoked.
On Jan. 1 USC defeats Tulane by 21-12 to win the
1932 Rose Bowl.
On Jan. 7 U.S. secy. of state (1929-33)
Henry Lewis Stimson
(1867-1950) notifies the signatories to the 9-power treaty
of Feb. 4, 1922 that the U.S. will not recognize gains achieved through
force contrary to the Pact of Paris of Aug. 27, 1928; the U.S. Congress
officially passes the
Stimson Doctrine - another
V for Yale U.'s Skull & Bones Society?
On Jan. 21 a 10K-ft.-tall black dust cloud grazes
on the way to Okla., looking like "a range of mountains on the move" with "an edge like steel wool".
On Jan. 22 Communist uprisings among the aboriginal
set to begin in W El Salvador are found out and suppressed by Gen. Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez, killing 4K, followed by
La Matanza (The Massacre),
in which 30K are killed by the govt. for suspected Communist leanings, incl. their leader Augustin Farabundo Marti (b. 1893); to avoid total
extermination, the Pilpil Indians, who were there before the Spanish arrived in 1524 suddenly go Hispanic, adopting the Spanish language
and Western dress, and intermarrying with other groups, until by the end of the cent. pure Indians comprise less than 1% of the pop. - how
do you like your coffee with your bitter bitter pilpil?
On Jan. 23 New York Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt announces his candidacy for the Dem. pres. nomination.
On Jan. 23 the govt. of Spain dissolves the Jesuits (Co. of Jesus), and closes down the Jesuit-run U. of Deusto in Bilbao, turning it into a military base,
hospital, and concentration camp until Oct. 1940.
On Jan. 28 the Shanghai War
begins after five Japanese monks sing Japanese patriotic songs in a Chinese factory in Shanghai, causing a riot during which one of them
is lynched, causing the Japanese to send 1.2K marines and attack the Chinese nationalists under Gen.
Cai Tingkai (1892-1968);
after the Japanese bring in 55K reinforcements the Chinese surrender after 34 days (Mar. 2); 18K civilians are killed and 240K lose their homes.
In Jan. the Jesuit order in Spain is dissolved by the Republican govt.
On Feb. 4-15 the Third (3rd) Winter Olympic Games
are held in Lake Placid, N.Y., with athletes from 17 countries competing in 14 events and three demo events, curling, sled dog race, and women speed skating;
the U.S. participates for the 1st time, and wins 6 golds, 4 silvers, and 2 bronzes (12 total, the most); on Feb. 15 U.S. bobsledder
Eddie Eagan (1898-1967)
becomes the first athlete to win gold in both the Summer and Winter Olympics (1920 boxing gold) (until ?).
On Feb. 7 the Oslo Convention
joins the Scandinavian states (Denmark, Norway, Sweden) with Belgium and the Netherlands in a modest scheme of economic cooperation (ends July 1, 1938).
On Feb. 7 (Sun.) (dawn) a fake attack on Pearl Harbor on Oahu, Hawaii called Fleet Problem 13 is staged by U.S. rear Adm.
Harry Ervin Yarnell (1875-1959),
using storm as a cover at dawn and launching 152 planes from the NE (same as the Japanese did on Dec. 7, 1941),
using flour sacks as bombs, ending in a complete V for the attackers; despite this, the umpires report that
"... it is doubtful if air attacks can be launched against Oahu in the face of strong defensive aviation without subjecting
the attacking carriers to the danger of material damage and consequent great losses in the attack air force."
On Feb. 8 bootlegger Dutch Schultz and/or Hell's Kitchen Irish Mob boss Owney Madden have 23-y.-o. Irish-born mob assassin
Vincent "Mad Dog" Coll (b. 1908)
(known for accidentially shooting 5-y.-o. Michael Vengali on July 28, 1931, causing the mayor of New York City to give him his name,
and making him a wanted fugitive until he was captured, tried, and acquitted in Dec. 1931) murdered at a phone booth at
8th Ave. and 23rd St. in New York City; on Oct. 23, 1935 Schultz is assassinated, and his murderer serves 23 years in priz.
On Feb. 18 a Japanese military puppet regime declares the independence of
(Great Manchu Empire) (until 1945), under puppet (the last Chinese emperor)
Henry Puyi, causing China to call for help to the League of Nations; Manchus
are actually a minority, the majority being Han.
On Feb. 20 former PM (1929-30) Andre Tardieu becomes PM of France again
(until June 3).
On Feb. 22 baseball star pitcher
Walter "the Big Train" Johnson
(1887-1946) throws a silver dollar over the 317-ft. Rappahannock River
in commemoration of the 200th anniv. of George Washington's birthday.
On Feb. 27 after 12K pages of transcripts are submitted by FDR's special
led by investigator Ferdinand J. Pecora (1882-971)
(an immigrant to New York City from Sicily), chief counsel to the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, the
U.S. Glass-Steagall Banking Act
is signed by Pres. Hoover, attempting to prevent another depression by drawing a line between investment and commercial banking, increasing the
amount of credit Federal Reserve Banks can extend, allowing commercial paper to be used as a reserve; repealed in 1999.
On Feb. 27-Mar. 7 the fascist Lapua org. in Finland stages the failed
attempting to crush the Communists; Gen. Kurt Wallenius is arrested, and on Nov. 21 he is convicted along with over 50 Lapua leaders, and the org.
disbanded - if it were only that easy in Germany, Italy and Spain?
On Feb. 29 the Protective Tariff Acts
are passed in Britain, incl. a new corn law guaranteeing British farmers $1 a bushel for homegrown wheat; Britain abandons free trade.
On Mar. 1 20-mo.-old eldest son Charles Augustus Lindbergh Jr. (b. 1930)
is kidnapped from the family home near Hopewell, N.J.; his remains are found on May 12 in a wooded area in Hopewell; some
claim that he really survived and grew to maturity.
On Mar. 2 liberal U.S. Supreme Court justice Oliver Wendell Homes Jr. is replaced by Pres. Hoover with liberal agnostic Jewish Columbia-educated
Benjamin Nathan Cardozo (1870-1938)
as U.S. Supreme Court justice #75 (until July 9, 1938), joining liberal justices
Louis Dembitz Brandeis (1856-1941)
and Harlan Fiske Stone (1872-1946) and becoming known as the
pro-New Deal Three Musketeers,
retaining the 6-3 conservative majority; he is confirmed by a unanimous voice vote in the Senate on Feb. 24 after the deans of the Harvard, Yale, Columbia,
and U. of Chicago law schools endorse him, and justice Harlan Fiske Stone offers to give up his seat for him, becoming Hoover's greatest appointment?;
the Three Musketeers start a war (ends 1937) with the conservative anti-New Deal
incl. justices Pierce Butler (1866-1939)>,
James Clark McReynolds (1862-1946),
Alexander George Sutherland (1862-1942), and
Willis Van Devanter (1859-1941),
with Justice Owen Josephus Roberts (1875-1955) controlling the balance.
On Mar. 3 the XX (20th) (Lame Duck) Amendment
to the U.S. Constitution, sponsored by Repub. "Fighting Liberal" George W. Norris of Neb. is sent to the states by the 72nd Congress, fixing the
terms of the U.S. pres. and vice-pres. as Mar. 4-Jan. 20, and the Congress as Mar. 4-Jan. 3, determining what is to be done when there is no pres.-elect;
too bad, it has a hole allowing Congress to hold lame duck sessions anyway (until ?); it is adopted on Jan. 23, 1933, and takes effect on Oct. 15.
On Mar. 7 French Socialist statesman Aristide Briand (b. 1862) dies unexpectedly, and on May 6 French pres. Paul Doumer (b. 1857)
is shot by Russian emigre Paul Timofeevich Gorguloff (b. 1895),
and dies on May 7 at 4:37 a.m.; on Sept. 14 Gorguloff is beheaded by guillotine in Paris, his last words being "Russia, my mother country"; on Apr. 15
Albert Francois Lebrun (1871-1950)
of the Dem. Alliance is elected pres. #15 of France (until July 10, 1940), and is sworn-in on
May 10; in May elections give the left parties a majority; on June 3 Edouard Herriot becomes
PM for the second time, but resigns in Dec. after the chamber refuses to pay the scheduled
debt installment to the U.S.; five ministries follow in the next 13 mo.,
all trying to balance the budget, control inflation, and keep France on
the gold standard; meanwhile a system of family allowances is created to
aid poor families and bolster the low birth rate (denatalite) (dénatalité).
On Mar. 11 the last known
(East Coast relative of the prairie chicken) dies in Martha's Vineyard,
Mass. at the age of eight - choked on the dust?
On Mar. 12 Swedish billionaire Match King Ivar Kreuger (b. 1880)
commits suicide in Paris after going bankrupt, with $250M in fake
paper assets later discovered, causing the worldwide
becoming the greatest stock fraud until Enron.
On Mar. 13 Paul von Hindenburg fails to win a clear majority in the
election for the German presidency, getting 18,651,497 votes to 11.3M
for Hitler and 4,983,341 for Thalmann (Communist); on Apr. 10 another
election is held, and von Hindenburg is reelected pres. with a clear
majority of 24M votes out of 36M cast- it's time for Hitler to sell
his soul to the Devil?
On Mar. 14 the Congress of Arab Music
holds its first meeting in Cairo, becoming the first effort to codify and preserve the Arab music tradition.
On Mar. 19 the
Sydney Harbour Bridge
in Australia is completed.
On Mar. 25 Rama Varma XVI (b. 1858) dies, and
Sir Sri Rama Varma XVII (Chowarayil Theepeta Thampuran)
(1861-1941) becomes king (maharaja) of Cochin in SW India (until May 23, 1941).
On Apr. 3 the SA and SS are banned in Germany.
On Apr. 9 the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Unknowns)
at Arlington Nat. Cemetery in Washington, D.C. is opened to the public without ceremony; an inscription on the marble crypt
reads "Here Rests in Honored Glory an American Soldier Known But to God"; the marble is supplied by
owner of a Colo. quarry.
On Apr. 13 the Nazi propaganda film
Der Fuehrer (Volk and Fuehrer)
is released, created by Fox Movietone, giving many Germans their first
dose of Hitler and helping the Nazis add 19% to their vote total in
the July 31 parliamentary election, giving them 38%; on Aug. 30 the Fox Movietone film
Hitler's Struggle for Germany
(Hitlers Kampf um Deutschland) is released.
On Apr. 23 the
Shakespeare Memorial Theatre
opens in Stratford-upon-Avon, England on guess who's birthday.
On Apr. 24 the Mass Trespass of Kinder Scouts
sees protesters challenge silly British restrictions on access to public
footpaths, resulting in changes in the law.
On Apr. 30 Adolf Hitler signs a
secret pact with Satan,
giving him absolute rule over Germany and most of Europe in return for surrendering
his soul in 13 years; Allied Forces find the contract in an old trunk in 1945. :)
In Apr. elections in Prussia give a D to the Social Dems., last bastion of the Weimar Repub.,
but since the Nazis and Communists won't form a coalition govt., it remains in office as
a caretaker govt.
On May 2 The Jack Benny Program,
starring miserly violin-playing forever-39-years-old ("Well!")
Jack Benny (Benjamin Kubelsky) (1894-1974)
debuts on NBC Radio, sponsored by Canada Dry Ginger Ale, moving to CBS Radio on Oct. 30, then
moving back to NBC Radio on Mar. 17, 1933, sponsored by Chevrolet, Gen. Tire, Jell-O, Grape Nuts Flakes,
and Lucky Strike cigarettes; it ends on May 22, 1955 after making its CBS-TV debut on Oct. 28, 1950
(until Apr. 16, 1965).
On May 13 the gov. of New South Wales, Australia dismisses Labour Party PM (since 1930)
John Thomas "Jack" Lang
(1876-1975), becoming the first-ever dismissed (until ?).
On May 15 Japanese PM Inukai Tsuyoshi is assassinated in a military coup which is
quickly crushed; a nonpartisan cabinet is formed under Adm. Viscount
(1856-1936), who on May 26 becomes PM #30 (until July 8, 1934),
with Gen. Araki Sadao as war minister and Takahashi Korekiyo as finance minister,
becoming the end of party govt. in prewar Japan.
On May 20 5'0" Engelbert Humperdinck, er, Adollfuss Hitler, er,
(1892-1934) of the conservative Christian Social Party becomes
chancellor #14 of Austria (until July 25, 1934), establishing a system
of Austrofascism and looking to get support from Italy to balance Germany,
calling Nazism too similar to Stalinism and nowhere near as cool as
Italian Fascism, making him a problem to the Nazis, who plan to get him
out of the way with a fifth column.
On May 20 Atchison, Kan.-born freckle cream-using coffee-hating
Amelia Earhart (1897-1937)
takes off from Harbor Grace, Newfoundland for Ireland in a Pratt & Whitney
Wasp-powered Lockheed Vega to become the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic,
and arrives in approx. 15 hours on May 21, becoming the first woman to receive the
Distinguished Flying Cross - no ticker tape parade?
On May 31 Paul von Hindenburg appoints Catholic Center Party head
Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (1879-1969)
as chancellor of Germany on June 1 (until Nov. 17); he soon begins trying to win the support of the Nazi Party by
lifting the ban on the Storm Abteilung (SA) and deposing the Social Dem. Party in Prussia.
In May Misr Air,
the nat. airline of Egypt is founded.
In May-June the 45K-man Bonus Army (Expeditionary Force)
of WWI servicemen marches on Washington, D.C. demanding early payment of bonus certificates they aren't scheduled to receive until 1945
under the 1924 World War Adjusted Compensaction Act; after the bill is defeated in the U.S. Senate and the govt. offers
to pay their expenses to return home and is rebuffed, Pres. Hoover orders federal troops to evict the last 2K from federal property,
a job which Gen. Douglas MacArthur
does with a little too much relish on July 28, costing Hoover politically, after which Congress passes several bonus bills
that are vetoed by him and FDR until 1936; Gen. Smedley Butler later claims the existence of the
Business Plot in July 1934, in which two wealthy industrialists
offer him $30M and 500K troops along with support of the mainstream media to lead a coup against FDR and remove him from office in
favor of a fascist regime, after which he testifies before the House of Reps, after which the
backs him up, but no surprise, the mainstream media slams him, with the New York Times calling Butler's story "a gigantic hoax", after
which FDR cuts a deal with the plotters.
On June 3 German pres. Hindenburg dissolves the Reichstag.
Danger to the left of me, danger to the right, here I am caught in the middle with you?
On June 14-16 the 1932 Repub. Nat. Convention
in Chicago, Ill. renominates Hoover and Curtis despite the Depression making his name a punchline, with terms incl. Hooverville and Hoover Flag
(empty pocket turned inside-out); the party platform incl. reduced govt. spending, a balanced budget, a high tariff, and
maintenance of Prohibition; on June 27-July 2 the 1932 Dem. Nat. Convention
is held in Chicago Ill.; 2-term New York gov. Franklin Delano Roosevelt fails to get the necessary two-thirds majority (770) on the first three ballots
due to holdouts for "Happy Days Are Here Again" conservative Al Smith; on the 4th ballot Calif. Sen.
William Gibbs McAdoo Jr. (1863-1941)
throws his Calif. delegation to Roosevelt, and Texas rep. (lukewarm on the New Deal and an isolationist)
John Nance "Texas Jack" Garner IV, "the Texas Coolidge" (poor speaker) throws his Tex. delegation to Roosevelt in return for being nominated
for the vice-pres. job, which he later compares to "a pitcher of warm spit", and Roosevelt receives 945 to 190 for Smith; Garner backer
William Randolph Hearst is instrumental in getting Garner to switch to Roosevelt because Hearst dislikes Roosevelt but hates Smith more?; on
July 2 FDR flies for 9 hours in a Ford trimotor plane from Albany, N.Y. to Chicago to accept at Chicago Stadium, issuing the soundbyte
"I pledge you, I pledge myself to a New Deal for the American people", introducing his quasi-Socialist
program at the stadium and later that evening on nat. radio; the Dem. Party platform calls for reduced govt. spending and a balanced budget, but is
for lower tariffs and repeal of Prohibition; the campaign slogan is "In Hoover we trusted, now we're busted"; FDR tells an advisor that budding
fascist Huey P. Long is "one of the two most dangerous men in the country", along with Gen. Douglas MacArthur; meanwhile freelance journalist
Albert Jay Nock (1870-1945) leads the intellectual criticism of the New Deal, later
becoming a favorite of William F. Buckley Jr.'s daddy - don't nock it till you try it?
On June 16-July 9 the 1932 Lausanne Conference
reduces German reparations for WWI from $25B to $2B, with strong indications that even this sum won't have to be paid in full by 1961;
too bad, Hitler has been using the Treaty of Versailles to whip up support so long that it's too late for him to change.
On June 22 Congress passes the U.S. Little Lindbergh Law (Federal Kidnapping Act),
giving the death penalty for kidnapping across state lines for ransom with bodily harm, not necessarily murder;
too bad, states get too eager, passing their own versions providing a death penalty for kidnapping with bodily harm within state borders,
allowing corrupt prosecutors to railroad almost anybody up to the greatest golfer on Earth until the U.S. Supreme Court stops it in the 1970s.
On June 24 the bloodless
in Thailand led by the People's Party of
Pridi Banomyong (Phanomyong) (1900-83)
causes the 700-y.-o. absolute monarchy (150 under the Chakri Dynasty) to be replaced by a constitutional one
with universal suffrage; after trying to nationalize the country, Pridi is accused of Communism and goes into voluntary
exile, then returns in 1934, becoming minister of foreign affairs in 1935-7, signing treaties revoking extraterritorial
rights of 12 countries, ending the unequal treaties signed under duress by Rama IV.
In June after Bolivian pres. Daniel Salamanca Urey tries to fire up the dispute with Paraguay over the uninhabited desert
Gran Chaco region as a diversion from the bad economy, and oil is discovered in Bolivia, making the Bolivians think that
Paraguay has some too, causing them to try to set up a military fort in Gran Chaco at Lake Pitiantuta, the
Gran Chaco War
begins (ends 1935) between dual land-starved countries Paraguay and Bolivia, becoming South Am.'s bloodiest 20th cent. war.;
the Chaco Boreal, Bolivia's E lowlands (believed to contain oil reserves) are the target.
In the summer the Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service) des Reichtsfuhrers-SS
is founded by the German Nazi Party, with Reinhard Heydrich as dir. #1 (until 1943), becoming a sister org. to the Gestapo and growing
to 6,482 employees by Feb. 1944; after the war it is declared a criminal org.
On July 1 the Australian Broadcasting Corp. (ABC)
On July 2 German-Am. Jewish MGM studio exec Paul Bern (Levy) (b. 1889)
marries glamorous actress Jean Harlow, then on Sept. 5 commits suicide, found naked and shot in the head in their secluded driveway
on Easton Dr. in Beverly Hills, Calif. with a note saying "Last night was only a comedy", becoming a big scandal for MGM when
she refuses to talk, and his former common-law wife Dorothy Millette (b. 1886)
commits suicide on Sept. 7 by jumping in the Sacramento River after taking her shoes and jacket off; the official story is suicide
because of sexual impotence; mob-connected MGM vice-pres. Edgar Joseph "Eddie" Mannix (1891-1963)
(who is later implicated in the death of George Reeves but is not charged) becomes a suspect but is never charged; she wouldn't let
the animal perform perverted sex on her so he ended it?; he was impotent, so that's why he ended it?; murdered by Millette?; a studio coverup,
with the suicide note really being an earlier makeup note?
On July 5 studious finance minister (since Apr. 28, 1928)
Antonio (António) de Oliveira Salazar (1889-1970)
is elected PM #100 of Portugal (until Sept. 25, 1968), becoming a dictator who rules with a strong hand along with his elder protege-pres.
Gen. Antonio Oscar Oliveira Salazar de Fragoso Carmona (1869-1951),
founding the anti-Communist pro-Roman Catholic Estado Novo (New State) (ends 1974),
with the motto: "God, Fatherland, and Family", going on to support Gen. Franco in the Spanish Civil War, and stay neutral during WWII; Salazar's
doctrine of Pluricontinentalism
claims that the Portuguese Empire is not a colonial empire but a single nation-stte spread across the continents.
On July 8 the Dow Jones Index bottoms out at 41.22.
On July 8 the 1932 Lausanne Agreement
reduces German reparations for WWI from $25B to $2B, with strong
indications that even this sum won't have to be paid in full by 1961;
too bad, Hitler has been using the Treaty of Versailles to whip up
support so long that it's too late for him to change.
On July 17 Altona Bloody Sunday
sees a shootout between Nazi demonstrators and Communists in Altona, Hamburg, Germany, killing 18; on July 20
after chancellor Franz von Papen sees his chance to replace their foreign-dictated govt. with a nationalist one, the
Prussian Coup (Preussenschlag)
sees German pres. Paul von Hindenburg dismiss the leftist govt. of Prussia under PM (since 1920)
Otto Braun (1872-1955),
with von Papen assuming direct control as Reich commissioner, resulting in a court case, with
Carl Schmitt (1888-1985)
("Crown Jewel of the Nazi Reich") as atty. for Germany, and
Hermann Heller (1891-1933) (a Jew)
as atty. for Prussia; the Prussian govt. loses, ending federalism in the Weimar Repub.;
Braun flees for Switzerland after Hitler becomes chancellor next Jan., and Hermann Goring
becomes PM of Prussia until 1945.
On July 18 Belgium enacts new language regs, making French the admin. language of the Walloon provinces and Flemish
the admin. language of Flanders.
On July 18 the Ouchy Convention
between Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg agrees to gradual reductions of
mutual economic barriers - ouchy, ouchy, slow down?
On July 21-Aug. 21 the
Imperial Economic Conference
in Ottawa, Canada results in seven bilateral treaties with Great Britain,
attempting to stifle any remaining vestiges of free trade in the
British Commonwealth, leading to the resignation on Sept. 28 of the free
trade Liberal members of the cabinet, who form an opposition led by
Sir Herbert Louis Samuel, while the Liberals who stay are led by
Sir John Allsebrook Simon
On July 22 the U.S. Congress passes the
U.S. Federal Home Loan Bank Act
to promote home ownership, establishing the Federal Home Loan Bank System,
the Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB), and 12 Federal Home Loan Banks (FHLB).
On July 27 Hitler gives a speech in the
in Eberswalde, becoming a classic of psychological manipulation, calling
for the elimination of the 30+ other political parties, with the soundbyte
"We are intolerant... We have one goal before us, to fanatically and ruthlessly
shove all these parties into the grave."
On July 30-Aug. 14 the Olympic Flame is inaugurated in the
X (10th) Summer Olympic Games
in Los Angeles, Calif., held smack dab in the middle of the Great Depression, causing less than half of the 1928 participatants to attend, even being
stood up by Pres. Herbert Hoover, becoming the first Olympic Games not attended by the sitting head of the govt. of the host country, which
doesn't stop them from making $1M profit; 1,332 athletes from 37 nations participate in 116 events in 14 sports;
the first Olympic Village is built in the Baldwin Hills (men only); the first use of a victory podium; Jim Thorpe is a press reporter at
the Games; Paavo Nurmi is banned for being a pro; the U.S. wins bronze in field hockey because there are only two other nations competing (India gold, Japan silver);
Thomas Edward "Eddie" Tolan (1908-67) ("the Midnight Express") of the U.S.
wins gold in the 100m and 200m, becoming the first African-Am. world's fastest human;
Stanislawa Walasiewicz (1911-80) of Poland wins gold in the women's 100m, and after her
death it's discovered that she's intersex; Baron
Takeichi Nishi (1902-45) of Japan wins a gold in the equestrian show jumping
individual event on Uranus; "unnatural" (not delicate or feminine) Tex.-born
Mildred Ella "Babe" Didrikson (1911-56) ("the female Babe Ruth")
sets four world records in one afternoon during the Olympic trials, then sets world records in the javelin throw (143' 4") and 80m hurdles (11.7 sec.) for two golds,
then wins a silver in the high jump (nobody's perfect?); she earns All-Am. honors in basketball 1930-2, appears in vaudeville, then takes up golf;
actress-swimmer Eleanor Holm (1913-2004)
wins gold in the 100m backstroke, setting a world record in that plus the 200m backstroke, then despite having not lost a race in seven years, and
being the first female swimmer chosen for three U.S. Olympic teams, she is unceremoniously thrown off the team in 1936 by Avery Brundage after being
caught drinking, shooting craps, and singing in cabarets past the 9 p.m. curfew on the boat trip to Germany, although if a man did it no action would
have been taken?; the publicity makes her a star with the press, and she meets Adolf Hitler and Hermann Goering, who gives her a silver swastika,
which she has later copied in gold with a diamond Star of David inside it after she marries Jewish hubby Billy Rose in 1939;
they divorce in 1954. On July 31 the German Reichstag elections give the Nazis 230 seats, the Socialists 133, Center Party 97, and Communists 89; no majority
is possible since the Nazis and Communists won't cooperate.
On Aug. 7 the Ossuary of Douaumont
in Verdun, France is dedicated by French Pres. Albert Lebrun, containing the bones of
130K unidentified French and German WWI soldiers, along with the graves of 15K identified
French soldiers; the Verdun Trench of Bayonets
is a memorial to a platoon of French soldiers buried alive by artillery, who are later
located by their protruding rifles and bayonets.
On Aug. 10 after being demoted from head of the civil guard to head of customs, toothbrush mustachioed Gen.
Jose Sanjurjo y Sacanell (1872-1936),
a political opponent of Manuel Azana joins the Carlists in the rightist monarchist
in Spain, seizing Seville, but Repub. troops quickly suppress it after it fizzles in Madrid; Sacanell is captured and given a death sentence,
commuted to life imprisonment, after which on Apr. 20, 1934 he is granted amnesty and goes into exile in Estoril, Portugal.
On Aug. 13 Hindenburg rejects Hitler's claim to be appointed German chancellor, and Hitler rejects his offer to become vice-chancellor under Papen.
On Aug. 18 Scottish pilot James Allan "Jim" Mollison (1905-59)
flies a De Havilland Puss Moth from Portmarnock, Ireland to Penfield, New Brunswick, becoming the first transatlantic solo flight in the E-W direction.
In late summer a 200-page memo written by Mikhail Riutin
calling for the removal of Stalin from power is secretly approved by a number of Soviet Communists led by
Nikolai Bukharin (1888-1938);
too bad, when Stalin finds out he neutralizes them by Oct., and goes over the paranoid barrier to enough-talk-let's-get-it-going?
On Sept. 1 after corruption allegations lead to an investigation by the Seabury Commission, resulting in pressure from Gov. Franklin Delano Roosevelt,
New York City mayor (since 1926) (former Tin Pan Alley songwriter)
James John "Jimmy" "Beau James" Walker (1881-1946)
resigns and flees to Europe, then after the heat dies down returns to the U.S. and becomes head of
which he mismanages, causing it to fold in 1948; his life is portrayed in the 1957 film "Beau James" starring Bob Hope based on the bio. by Gene Fowler.
On Sept. 3 Pascual Ortiz Rubio resigns over a difference with Gen. Calles, and on Sept. 4 hand-picked Gen.
Abelardo Lujan Rodriguez (1889-1967)
becomes interim pres. of Mexico (until Nov. 30, 1934).
On Sept. 12 the German Reichstag is dissolved after a no confidence motion passes by 512-42.
On Sept. 14 the Belgium govt. is given extraordinary power to deal with the budget deficits
caused by the worldwide drepression and the cessation of German reparations payments, and it
pressures employers to stabilize failing wages.
On Sept. 16 (Fri.) after her RKO film "Thirteen Cousins" (debuts Oct. 14)
(playing Hazel Cousins) receives poor test screenings, 24-y.-o. Welsh-born blonde-blue actress
Millicent Lilian "Peg" Entwistle (b. 1908),
ex-wife of actor Robert Keith (father of actor Brian Keith) jumps to her death from
the last letter of the white HOLLYWOODLAND sign overlooking Hollywood on Mt. Lee
(built in 1923 to advertise a real estate development);
her suicide note says "I am afraid, I am a coward. I am sorry for everything. If I had done
this a long time ago, it would have saved a lot of pain. P.E."; in 1949 the last four letters
are taken down; on Sept. 20 a letter arrives from the Beverly Hills Playhouse offering her
the lead role in a production in which her char. commits suicide in the final act.
On Sept. 25 elections in Greece are a V for the royalists against the Liberal
Party Venizelists because of the Great Depression, and on Oct. 31 the
in Greece (begun 1909) comes to an end with the resignation of 68-y-o. PM Eleutherios Venizelos (although he tries a couple of short comebacks);
on Nov. 4 Panayotis (Panagis) (Panagiotis) Tsaldaris (1868-1936),
leader of the right-wing People's Party that was thrown out in 1922 becomes PM (until 1933) of a moderate royalist cabinet that
recognizes the 1924 plebiscite establishing the Second Hellenic Repub. in order to shut the Venizelists up; too bad, leaders of the People's Party
are implicated in an assassination attempt against Venizelos and express monarchist opinions, while he officially denies everything.
On Sept. 25 the Catalan Charter of Autonomy
grants Catalonia its own govt. and flag, and recognizes Catalan as the official language; the Catalan parliament meets in Dec.; their
success causes the car door-eared Basques and others to make their own demands.
On Sept. 28-Oct. 2 the New York Yankees (AL) defeat the Chicago Cubs (NL) 4-0 to win the
Twenty-Ninth (29th) World Series;
Yankees mgr. (1930-46) Joseph Vincent "Marse Joe" McCarthy (1887-1978)
goes on to lead them to 4 WS Vs in 1936-9; on Oct. 1 New York Yankee slugger Babe Ruth hits a
off Charles Henry "Charlie" Root (1899-1970)
of the Chicago Cubs at Wrigley Field in the 4th inning of Game 3 after allegedly "calling the shot", pointing to the centerfield
bleachers and doing what he promised after 2 strikes and 2 balls; Ruth's last WS homer (15th, broken by Mickey Mantle with 18);
the called-shot ball is lost, and is estimated to be worth $2M by the end of the cent.
In Sept. the Spanish Repub. govt. begins redistribution of the large estates of the aristocracy, causing the rightists (fascists, Carlists, monarchists) to retrench.
In early Nov. after the surprise resignation of Jimmy Walker, Tammany Hall's candidate
John Patrick O'Brien (1873-1951)
beats acting mayor Joseph V. Mckee by 500K votes, and on Jan. 1 he is sworn-in as mayor #98 of New York City (until Dec. 31, 1933), uttering the soundbyte about who will
be the next police commissioner "I don't know. They haven't told me yet."
On Nov. 6 an election fails to break the deadlock in the German Reichstag after the the Nazis lose 34 seats, giving them 196, and the Communists gain some seats.
First Hoover, then Landon, Wilkie, and Dewey?
On Nov. 8 (Tue.) after a campaign in which Hoover predicts that if his opponent is elected, "grass [would] grow in the streets of a hundred cities,
a thousand towns", and Roosevelt counters that his economic reconstruction program is "from the bottom up and not from the top down,
that puts the faith once more in the forgotten man at the bottom of the economic pyramid", the
1932 U.S. Pres. Election
sees Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945)
win by a landslide, 52.5% of the electorate voting for pres., and FDR receiving 22.8M popular (57.4%) and 472 electoral votes vs. Hoover's 15.8M popular (39.7%)
and paltry 59 electoral votes; the Dems. win control of both houses of Congress, giving FDR a blank check to engage in "bold, persistent experimentation";
the first pres. whose mother votes in the election; Hoover utterssthe soundbyte "I knew from the bitter experience of all public men from Washington on down,
that democracies are fickle and heartless, for democracy is a harsh employer"; the 4 mo. period until FDR takes over leaves lame duck Hoover swinging in the wind
as FDR refuses to let him take joint action in both of their names and risks things getting worse in the short run for long range credit, causing the Dems. to
block Hoover's legislative efforts to alleviate the nation's misery, since by now Hoover's name is mud, with newspapers are already known as "Hoover blankets",
and empty pockets turned inside out as "Hoover flags";
William Zebulon Foster (1886-1961) (white) and
James W. Ford (1893-1957) (black)
become the pres. and vice-pres. candidates for the Communist Party USA, with the slogan "Equal rights for negroes everywhere";
Ford becomes the first U.S. black U.S. pres. candidate.
On Nov. 9 labor strikes in Geneva, Switzerland are crushed by the govt.
On Nov. 11 a ceremony celebrating the signing of the WWI Armistice in
1918 is held in Gen. Foch's railway carriage in the Forest of Compiegne,
with a new monument showing the German eagle being cut down by a sword,
and an inscription saying that the boastings of the German Empire had
been brought low; in 1940 Hitler forces the French to sign his armistice
in the same carriage.
On Nov. 16 after winning by 20K votes and quashing a revolt by
disgruntled former pres. (1919, 1929-33) Vicente Mejia Colindres, former
pres. (1934) Gen.
Tiburcio Carias Andino
(1876-1969) of the Nat. Party becomes pres. of Honduras (until 1949),
going on to become a long-lasting (longest ever in Honduras) dictator,
facing a drop in the banana market combined with Panama and Sigatoka disease,
and pumping up the air force.
On Nov. 17 German chancellor Franz von Papen resigns; on Nov. 24 Hitler rejects the chancellorship with strings attached, demanding everything
or nothing; on Dec. 3 Gen. Kurt von Schleicher (1882-1934)
is appointed chancellor #23 (until Jan. 28, 1933), forming a new cabinet; Austrian-born Hitler receives German citizenship
and Wilhelm Frick appoints him Regierungsrat in Brunswick.
On Nov. 17 the newspaper column Washington Merry-Go-Round,
by Drew Pearson (1897-1969)
debuts in the Washington Herald; he goes on to support FDR and move to the Washington Post in 1941 (until 1969).
On Nov. 18 the Fifth (5th) Academy Awards
awards the best picture Oscar for 1931-2 to MGM's Grand Hotel, best actor to Fredric March for Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
along with Wallace Beery for The Champ, best actress to Helen Hayes for The Sin of Madelon Claudet, and best dir. to
Frank Borzage for Bad Girl; Frances Marion receives an Oscar for best story for The Champ.
In Nov. a banquet is held by the Soviet Communists to celebrate the 15th anniv. of the Bolshevik Rev. of 1917,
and after Stalin orders his teetotaler wife
to drink and she refuses, she runs to her apt., where either Stalin shoots her or she commits suicide after he
rags her out; the official story is acute appendicitis; the death causes him to go paranoid?
A month in which both Einstein and Darwin win?
On Dec. 1 The Jerusalem Post
(The Palestine Post until 1950) is founded in Jerusalem by Ukrainian-born Philly-raised
Gershon Agron (1894-1959), who becomes
mayor of Jerusalem in 1955-9.
On Dec. 5 Albert Einstein is granted a visa by the U.S.
On Dec. 8 Nazi founder Gregor Strasser resigns from all his offices
after Hitler catches him being used by Kurt von Schleicher against him.
On Dec. 13 King Fouad I establishes the
Royal Arabic Language Academy in Egypt.
On Dec. 19 the BBC begins transmitting overseas with its
Empire (World) Service to Australia.
On Dec. 24 former pres. #18 (1920-4)
Arturo Fortunato Alessandri Palma (1868-1950)
is elected pres. #22 of Chile (until Dec. 24, 1938).
On Dec. 25 George V gives the first Christmas Speech
by a British sovereign from Sandringham Palace, becoming the first British monarch to deliver a Christmas day message by radio, from the
BBC's Empire Service on Borough Hill in Daventry.
On Dec. 27 Radio City Music Hall
opens in New York City, owned by Samuel Lionel "Roxy" Rothafel (1882-1936);
the Radio City Rockettes (founded in 1925 in St. Louis, Mo. as the Missouri Rockets)
make their debut, initially called the Roxyettes; African-Am. dancers are not hired until 1987, Jennifer Jones.
On Dec. 29 Ruth Rowland Nichols (1901-60)
(first woman to hold three internat. flying records at the same time, for speed, distance, altitude) is hired by the
N.Y.-New England Airways, becoming the first woman airline pilot, going on to use her fame in humanitarian efforts.
In Dec. the Cimmerian warrior-king Conan the Barbarian,
created by Peaster, Tex.-born Robert Ervin Howard (1906-36) debuts in Weird Tales mag.,
pioneering the sword and sorcery subgenre; too bad, on June 11, 1936 after hearing that his mother entered a terminal coma, momma's boy Howard shoots himself
in the head in his car.
On Oct. 1 Anti-Semitic nationalist war minister Gyula (Julius) Gombos (Gömbös) de Jakfa (1886-1936)
becomes PM of Hungary (until Oct. 6, 1936), forming a new govt. that promotes Hungarian fascism while opposing German Nazi influence in Hungary - Heil Gombos?
Eamon de Valera (1882-1975) is elected pres. of the Irish Free State.
The kingdom of Saudi Arabia
is proclaimed by king Abdul-Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud (Ibn Saud) (1876-1953),
uniting Hejaz and Nejd; a Sunni Wahhabi, he becomes king of a 90% Sunni country, founding a ruling dynasty that tries to keep on top of the masses,
getting off to a fast start by marrying daughters from every tribe and siring 45 sons by multiple wives (never more than four at a time, of course).
Iraq gains independence; too bad, the military uses the chance to begin large-scale massacres of Christian
in retaliation for collaboration with Britain.
More mass uprisings are crushed in Kashmir.
The U.S. Federal Reserve System
is reorganized - like closing the barn door after the horse gallops out?
The Reconstruction Finance Corp.
is established by the U.S. Congress to lend money for rebuilding the U.S. economy, providing
$1.5B by the end of the year.
The Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act,
sponsored by George W. Morris of Neb. and Fiorella La Guardia of N.Y. prohibits the use of court injunctions against strikes,
boycotts, and picketing by labor unions, shoring up the holes chiseled in the Clayton Antitrust Act by the courts.
Brazilian women win the right to vote.
The govt. of Sweden
goes Socialist as the Social Dem. Party comes into power (ends 1976).
Ricardo Jimenez becomes pres. of Costa Rica again (until 1936).
The Japanese occupy Heilungkiang (Hilongjiang)
(Ch. "Black Dragon River"), largest province of Manchuria, making it part of their puppet state of Manchukuo.
Aden is separated from the presidency of Bombay and made a province of India.
The Netherlands passes a
Dutch Blasphemy Law,
barring scorn against any religion; in 1966 they try a novelist for pub. a story about wanting to have sex with God
after he takes the form of a donkey; they don't repeal it until ?
Wisc. enacts the first unemployment insurance law in the U.S.
Socialist Methodist minister and Canadian MP (1921-42)
James Shaver Woodsworth (1874-1942) et al. found the
Co-Operative Commonwealth Federation,
which in 1961 becomes the New Dem. Party; in 1939 he becomes the only Canadian MP to vote against Canada's entry into WWII.
British trade union membership reaches 4.44M.
Ivan Maisky (1884-1975)
becomes Soviet envoy to the U.K. (until 1943), working to patch things up with the Western Allies during WWII - smiling faces
tell lies, and I've got truth?
Scottish labor leader Arthur Henderson (1863-1935)
becomes chmn. of the League of Nations Internat. Disarmament Conference, winning the 1934 Nobel Peace Prize.
The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male
(AKA the Tuskegee Syphilis Study) begins in Tuskegee, Ala. (until 1972), taking 399 mostly illiterate African-Am. sharecroppers
and studying the course of their untreated syphilis without their consent, continuing even after the advent of penicillin in 1947; the
U.S. govt. later pays the survivors $10M, and Pres. Clinton apologizes on May 16, 1997.
This year 127 sound films are made, compared to eight the first year (1929).
Writers in the Soviet Union are mandated by the state to follow the new
lit. style (ends 1990), displaying the steady progress of the Soviet society
towards inevitable shining Socialism in a glowing future Shangri-La where
everybody is saved and has their mind right and eats well and is warm in winter - and
yoo yoo yoo pink Floyd the wall the movie?
Japan begins undercutting prices to conquer world markets.
The Jehovah's Witnesses quit electing deacons for each Kingdom Hall,
and instead begin electing service committees consisting of only those
who go door-to-door; in 1938 they discontinue all elections and instead
require appointments by the central Watchtower org.
A new Washington quarter is issued by the U.S. Mint to commemorate his
The Dneprostroi Dam
on the Dnieper River in the Ukraine opens in Oct., achieving the age-old dream of making it navigable over the rapids above Zaporozhe,
and causing the Dnieper to link the Black and Baltic Seas.
To clear land for cultivation, Italy begins draining the
SE of Rome (finished 1934), which have caused a malaria epidemic ("Roman fever") each summer as far back as 450 C.E.
shallow freshwater lake in N and C Netherlands is cut off from the
Zuider Zee by a dam between North Holland and Friesland, beyond which
is the Wadden Zee then the West Frisian Islands, becoming the largest
lake in W Europe - why don't I feel quite safe?
The world's first blood bank
is established in Leningrad.
Holland creates 20 sq. mi. Flevoland
by building a 20-mi. wall of dykes.
Finland repeals prohibition (begun 1919) after experiencing the same lawlessness as the U.S.
Australia passes the Financial Agreement Enforcement Act,
strengthening the power of the federal govt. vis a vis the states.
Oil is discovered in Bahrain, causing them to increase ties with Britain and rapidly modernize.
An expedition led by aristocratic Hungarian aviator
Laszlo Almasy (László Ede Almásy de Zsadány et Törökszentmiklós) (1895-1951)
begins exploring the Libyan Desert in search of the fabled oasis city of Zerzura
AKA The Oasis of the Birds, becoming the subject of the 1992 Michael Ondaatje novel "The English Patient", in which he is turned from gay to straight.
The 2.3K-acre Internat. Peace Garden,
half in Manitoba and half in N.D. at a point equidistant from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans is dedicated to commemorate friendly
U.S.-Canadian relations, becoming the world's longest unfortified border - 75 years later the U.S. builds a no-beaners-allowed fence
along its Mexican border?
After last being mined during the Abbasid period in 1258, gold reserves are rediscovered in
in Mahd Al-Dhahab (Arab. "cradle of gold") about 230 mi. NE of Medina; in 2007 it mines about 183K tons of ore consisting of
11.1 grams/ton of gold, with a net output of 58,256 oz.
The U.S. Mint begins issuing the Washington Quarter
in honor of the bicentennial of his birth; orginally intended as a 1-year issue, production
resumes in 1934 and continues until 1999, when the 10-year 50 States Quarter Program is introduced.
Aristotle Onassis of Greece buys his first six freight ships.
The Methodist Churches of England reunify.
Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961)
gives a seminar on Kundalini (Sans. "coiled power") Yoga
to the Psychological Club in Zurich, claiming it as a model for the development of higher consciousness, interpreting its symbols in terms
of the process of individuation.
in Reynosa, Tamaulipas, Mexico across the Rio Grande River from McAllen, Tex. signs on,
becoming the first Border Blaster,
aiming its transmissions at the U.S., followed by on Aug. 18 by radio station
(735KHz) (50KW-250KW), located in Ciudad Acuna, Mexico across the border from Del Rio, Tex.;
by 1938 there are 11 border blasters in Mexico, plus one in Windsor, Ont., Canada;
they are used by quack doctors et al. to get around U.S. laws, and also help popularize
country music, with performers incl. Cowboy Sam Nichols, Doye O'Dell, and Walt and Cal Shrum;
in 1962-4 Wolfman Jack broadcasts on XERF-AM, becoming famous before moving in 1965 to
XERB-AM "the Mighty 1090"
in Rosarito Beach, Tijuana, Mexico, which is featured in the 1973 film American Graffiti.
The The Fred Allen Show
(originally The Linit Bath Club Revue, later The Salad Bowl Revue, The Sal Hepatica Revue, The Hour of Smiles,
and Town Hall Tonight) debuts on CBS Radio (later NBC Radio), starring
Fred Allen (John Florence Sullivan) (1894-1956),
and featuring Allen's Alley, becoming the #1 radio show in 1946-7; too bad, the ABC Radio quiz show "Stop the Music"
debuts on May 5, 1949, putting it out of biz before the end of the year.
Stalin orders independent artists' unions closed down.
The U.S. radio drama One Man's Family,
created by Carlton Errol Morse (1901-93)
debuts on Apr. 28 on NBC-Radio, becoming the longest running soap opera, with
3,256 episodes when it ends in 1959.
German-born English philanthropist Robert Mayer (1879-1985),
and English conductor Sir Thomas Beecham (1879-1961),
grandson of Beecham's Pills Co. founder Thomas Beecham (1820-1907)
found the London Philharmonic Orchestra.
The Folger Shakespeare Library
opens in Washington, D.C. (on Apr. 23), founded by Standard Oil of New York chmn.
Henry Clay Folger (1857-1930), who dies on June 11.
Alexander "Sandy" Calder (1898-1976),
who was "shocked" into embracing abstract art after a visit to the studio of Piet Mondrian in Paris in 1930 exhibits his first
in an exhibition organized by Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968)
(who coins the term "mobile"), then stages his first mobile show in the U.S. in May - self-taught, natural charisma, it's a new love?
Am. philanthropist Archer Milton Huntington (1870-1955)
founds the Mariners' Museum
in Newport News, Va., becoming one of the largest of its kind.
RCA severs its ties with GE and Westinghouse.
The BBC (London) takes over responsibility for developing TV from the Baird Co.
London Films Productions
is founded by Hungarian-born Sir Alexander Korda (Sandor Laszlo Kellner) (1893-1956);
in 1936 it is based at Denham Film Studios
in Buckinghamshire near London, going on to produce "Wedding Rehearsal", "The Private Life of Henry VIII" (1933), "Things to Come" (1936),
"Rembrandt" (1936), and "The Four Feathers" (1939); in 1939 it is acquired by Rank and merges with Pinewood Studios to form D&P Studios;
in 1949 it is based in Shepperton, producing "The Third Man" (1949), and "The Sound Barrier" (1952); it goes defunct after
the Jan. 23, 1956 death of Korda.
(originally Revlon Nail Enamel Co.) is founded in New York City with $300 in capital by cosmetics distributor
Charles Haskell Revson (1906-75)
and chemist Charles Lachman
(hence the "l" in the name) to market a new type of nail enamel using pigments instead of dyes,
expanding to dept. and drug stores in 1937, becoming a multimillion-dollar biz in 6 years, offering
a complete manicure line incl. lipstick by 1940, then acquiring Graef & Schmidt cultery co. in
1943 to begin producing manicure and pedicure instruments.
Turin, Italy-born fashion designer Nina Ricci (Maria Adelaide Nielli) (1883-1970)
founds the House of Nina Ricci
fashion house in Paris, going on to stage a stunt in 1945 to revive interest in haute couture by placing 150 dressed-up
mannequins on display in the Louvre, then marketing Coeur de Joie perfume in 1945 and L'Air Du Temps perfume in 1948
(in a bottle with doves on it); in 1964 she introduces a ready-to-wear collection.
The Paris Chamber of Commerce establishes the first
offering prof. training in food service via the Gregoire (Grégoire) School and Ferrandi School, which in 1983 establishes the
Ecole Superieure de Cuisine Francaise (École Supérieure de Cuisine Française)
program; in 1997 they are merged as Ecole Gregoire-Ferrandi (École Grégoire-Ferrandi).
Brother-sister dancing partners Fred Astaire (1899-1987)
and Adele Astaire (1897-1981)
split up after Adele retires to marry Lord
Charles Arthur Francis Cavendish (1905-44);
when Cavendish dies, she weds financier Kingman Douglass (1896-1971).
Greek pianist Gina Bachauer (1913-76)
debuts, going on to give concerts for Allied troops in the Middle East during WWII and become the piano teacher of Princess Irene.
Australian soprano Marjorie Lawrence (1907-79)
debuts as Elisabeth in Richard Wagner's "Tannhauser" in Monte Carlo, followed by the
Metropolitan Opera on Dec. 18, 1935 as Brunnhilde, becoming the first to ride her horse
into the flames in "Gotterdammerung" as Wagner intended; too bad, she contracts polio in 1941,
as portrayed in the 1955 film "Interrupted Melody".
After Fla. does it, New Mexico changes its nickname from "The Sunshine State" to "the Land of Enchantment", putting it on license plates in 1941.
English comedian Archibald Alexander Leach (b. 1904) buys a car and drives from New York City to Hollywood, then signs a contract with Paramount
with the stage name Cary Grant, going on to make 70+ films with the most beautiful actresses of his day.
Cleveland, Ohio-born architect Philip Cortelyou Johnson (1906-2005),
disciple of Prussian architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (Maria Ludwig Michael Mies) (1886-1969)
(who flees Germany to the U.S. in 1937) organizes the first Exhibition of Modern Architecture at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), and pub. the book
International Style: Modern Architecture Since 1922,
helping to introduce Modern(ist) Architecture to the U.S. public, which becomes dominant after WWII,
emphasizing the use of steel, glass, and reinforced concrete, rejecting neoclassical and Beaux-Arts architectural styles;
van der Rohe coins the aphorisms "Less is more" and "God is in the details".
The avant-garde Group Theatre
is founded in London by choreographer Rupert Doone (1903-6)
and painter Robert Medley (1905-94),
producing plays by W.H. Auden, T.S. Eliot, Christopher Ishwerwood, Louis MacNeice and Stephen Spender.
The 1878 550-seat Central City Opera House
in Colo., which closed in 1931, reopens under a new opera assoc., and switches
to drama, staging its first presentation on July 16-23, starring Lillian Gish in "Camille",
then slowly switches back to opera, becoming the only summer company in the U.S.
other than Chautauqua Opera in New York, going all-opera in 1981, attempting to rival
Salzburg, with mixed results - but still pretty good for Yank hicks?
After opening last year with a play that flops, Windmill Theatre
on Great Windmill St. in London begins featuring the nude Windmill Girls, who get around obscenity laws by striking motionless poses,
making them into statues; closes in 1964.
In 1932 Bluebird Records
is founded by RCA Victor to service the budget market, releasing dance music incl. George Hall and His Orchestra,
Artie Shaw, Glenn Miller, Earl Hines, and Shep Fields and his Rippling Rhythm Orchestra,
country artists incl. the Monroe Brothers, the Delmore Brothers, Bradley Kincaid, Jimmie Rodgers, and
the Carter Family, jazz artists incl. Duke Ellington, Jelly Roll Morton, Bennie Moten, and McKinney's Cotton Pickers,
and blues artists (until 1942) incl. Chicago artists Big Bill Broonzy, Tampa Red, Washboard Sam,
Roosevelt Sykes, and Sonny Boy Williamson.
The Zuider Zee drainage project in Holland is completed.
The French ocean liner
is launched, becoming the largest ship afloat until Britain's Queen Elizabeth.
Hughes Aircraft Co.
in Glendale, Calif. is founded by Humble, Tex.-born wacky-wonderful billionaire aerospace and movie mogul (OCD sufferer)
Howard Robart Hughes Jr. (1905-76),
who spends the decade setting multiple world air speed records;
at the start of WWII in 1941 it only has four employees, but by the end it has 80K; in 1948
it creates the Aerospace Group, hiring future TRW founders Simon Ramo and Dean Wooldridge to
manufacture the MA-1 fire control system and AIM-4 Falcon (F-98) air-to-air-missile;
it is acquired in 1985 by Gen. Motors., and by Raytheon in 1997.
Ford Motors (U.K.) of Dagenham, Essex begins marketing the Ford Popular in Britain.
The Museum of Modern Art in New York City holds the show
The International Style: Architecture Since 1922,
produced by Philip C. Johnson et al., introducing modern architecture to the U.S. public, featuring emphasis on volume over mass
(planes rather than solidity), and rejection of symmetry and applied decoration; Frank Lloyd Wright pulls out after not getting top billing.
Chock Full O'Nuts
brand coffee is introduced in New York City by Russian immigrant
William Black (Schwarz) (ca. 1902-89)
based on his 18 shelled nut shops (opened in 1926) turned into lunch counters, offering a cup of coffee for 5 cents; in 1953 the brand is
introduced to supermarkets; in 1957 Black hires former Brooklyn Dodgers star Jackie Robinson as vice-pres. to handle relations with
his 90% African-Am. workforce; in 1999 the co. is acquired for $238M by Sara Lee Corp., who sell it in May 2006 to Massimo Zanetti Beverage USA.
Kansas City, Kan.-born Charles Elmer Doolin (1903-59)
of San Antonio, Tex. founds the Frito Co. in his mother's kitchen with $100 and a corn chip recipe, selling
Fritos brand corn chips for 5 cents a bag, selling about
200 bags a day, making $2 profit; next year they purchase a hammer press, increasing daily production from
10 lbs. to 100 lbs., expanding to in 1934 Houston and moving the HQ to Dallas, introducing
Cheetos brand cheese puffs in 1948, and
Ruffles brand crinkle-cut potato chips ("ruffles have ridges")
in 1958, expanding by 1959 to plants in 18 cities employing 3K to make 40+ products, with $50M/year sales,
and expanding to 48 countries by 1962, introducing the Frito Bandito (voiced by Mel Blanc) in 1967, pissing-off
Herman Warden Lay (1909-82)
founds H.W. Lay & Co. in Nashville, Tenn. to make potato chips, expanding to 25 employees in 1937, introducing
Lay's Potato Chips in 1944; in Sept. 1961 Frito-Lay Co.
is formed from their merger, with $127M yearly sales, mainly from their main products Fritos, Lays, Cheetos,
and Ruffles; in June 8, 1965 it merges with Pepsi-Cola Co., going on to introduce
Doritos in 1966,
Funyuns in 1969,
Munchos in 1971,
Tostitos in Jan. 1978, and
Sun Chips in 1991;
in 1980 they acquire Grandma's Cookies; in 2001 PepsiCo merges with Quaker Oaks Co.
brand peanut butter is introduced by Rosefield Packing Co. Ltd. of Alameda, Calif., owned by
Joseph Louis Rosefield (1882-1958),
who developed a hydrogenation method in 1922 that made mass-production of peanut butter possible and
licensed it to Peter Pan of Chicago in 1923 while selling his own Luncheon Brand in Calif., and suddenly
decides to rename it after the hit 1931 flick "Skippy" starring Jackie Cooper, trademarking the name
next year and pissing-off Percy Lee Crosby (1891-1964),
creator of the "Skippy" comic strip (1923-45), who trademarked the name in 1925 and has Rosenfield's
trademark invalidated next year, which doesn't stop attempts to restore the trademark lasting until ?,
starting with Rosenfield getting his trademark restored in 1947 after Crosby is involuntarily institutionalized
and the 1946 U.S. Lanham Act is passed; in 1955 Best Foods acquires the brand; in 2013 Hormel Foods buys the
brand from Uniliver.
Kansas City, Kan.-born Charles Elmer Doolin (-1959)
of San Antonio, Tex. founds the Frito Co. in his mother's kitchen with $100 and a corn chip recipe, selling
them for 5 cents a bag and selling about 200 bags a day, making $2 profit; next year they purchase a
hammer press, increasing daily production from 10 lbs. to 100 lbs., expanding to Houston and moving the
HQ to Dallas, expanding to plants in 18 cities employing 3K to make 40+ products, with $50M/year sales,
and expanding to 48 countries by 1962, introducing the Frito Bandito (voiced by Mel Blanc) in 1967, pissing-off
Mexican-Am. groups, who get him replaced in 1970 by the Muncha Bunch and W.C. Fritos; meanwhile
Charlotte, N.C.-born Herman Warden Lay (1909-82)
founds H.W. Lay & Co. in Nashville, Tenn. to make potato chips, expanding to 25 employees in 1937, introducing
Lay's Potato Chips in 1944; in Sept. 1961 Frito-Lay Co.
is formed from their merger, with $127M yearly sales, mainly from their main products Fritos, Lays, Cheetos,
and Ruffles; in June 8, 1965 it merges with Pepsi-Cola Co., going on to introduce
Doritos in 1966,
Funyuns in 1969,
Munchos in 1971,
Tostitos in Jan. 1978,
Sun Chips in 1991,
in 1980 they acquire Grandma's Cookies; in 2001 PepsiCo merges with Quaker Oaks Co.
Atkinson Candy Co.
in Lufkin, Tex. is founded by B.E. Atkinson Sr. and his wife Mabel C. Atkinson, going on to make
Chick-O-Stick in the 1950s, along with
Coconut Long Boys, Peanut Butter Bars, Mint Twists, Peanut Brittle et al.; in 2013 it acquires
Slo Poke, Black Cow, and Sophie Mae candies from the Warrell Corp. of Camp Hill, Penn.
of the Hollywood Candy Co. introduces the PayDay
candy bar, consisting of salted peanuts rolled in caramel surrounding a firm nougat center; in
1967 it is acquired by Consolidated Foods, which merges with Sara Lee, and is acquired in 1988
by the Leaf Candy Co., which is acquired in 1996 by the Hershey Co.
The first German automobile-only Autobahn,
designed by Nazi engineer Fritz Todt (1891-1942)
opens between Cologne and Bonn.
The Art Nouveau bronze Queen Alexandra Memorial
on Marlborough Road in London (begun 1926) is completed by Sir Alfred Gilbert, commemorating Queen Alexandra of Denmark.
On Apr. 5 Australian champion Thoroughbred race horse
Phar Lap (b. 1926)
(3rd highest stakes winner on the world at the time) dies after a sudden mysterious illness,
which in 2006 was proved to be arsenic poisoning, probably on the orders of U.S. gangsters;
his heart was found to weigh 13.6 lb., compared to the avg. of 7 lb.
On Apr. 5-9 the 1932 Stanley Cup Finals
see the Toronto Maple Leafs defeat the New York Rangers 3-0, becoming their first title.
On May 30 the 1932 (20th) Indianapolis 500
is won by Frederick William "Fred" Frame (1894-1962)
(who came in 2nd last year) and riding mechanic Jerry Houck with a record avg. speed of 104.144 mph;
starter Billy Arnold takes the lead from pole-sitter Lou Moore on lap 2, then rolls over on lap 60;
the first race with 10-lap (25 mi.) qualifying runs, replacing 4-lap runs.
On June 7 the Bowling Proprietors' Assoc. of Am. (BPAA)
is founded in Arlington, Tex. by U.S. bowling alley owners; their motto is "United We Prosper"; in
1980 the BPAA Hall of Fame is founded.
On June 18 the Federation Internationale de Basketball Amateur (FIBA)
is founded in Mies, Switzerland to govern internat. competition, with James Naismith
as honorary pres. #1 (until 1939), and Leon Bouffard as official pres. #1 (until 1948),
growing to five zones (commissions) with 213 nat. federations; in 1950 they found the
FIBA Basketball World Championship (Cup),
held every four years to compete for the Naismith Trophy.
On June 21 Jack Sharkey (Joseph Paul Zukauskas) (1902-94)
outpoints Max Schmeling in 15 rounds in Long Island, N.Y. to regain the world heavyweight boxing title
(until 1933); Schemeling's Jewish-Am. mgr.
Joe Jacobs (1898-1939)
utters the soundbyte: "We was robbed!"
On Nov. 18 Australia is rocked by the new "bodyline" cricket tactic of the English in Melbourne,
bowling right at the batsman's body in an effort to stop #1 Australian batsman Sir
Donald George "The Don" Bradman (1908-2001) - ra ta ta ta,
boom boom boom boom boom?
On Dec. 8-9 the Southeastern Conference (SEC)
is founded for NCAA Div. 1 college sports teams in the Southern U.S., incl. the U. of Fla., U. of Ga., U. of Ky.,
U. of Mo., U. of S.C., Vanderbilt U., U. of Alabama, U. of Ark., Auburn U., La. State U., U. of Miss., Miss. State U.,
Texas A&M U., Ga. Inst. of Tech., Tulane U., and the U. of the South; in 2013 it founds the
WWI ex-army aviator James Harold "Jimmy" Doolittle (1896-1993)
sets a world speed record for land planes of 252.68 mph.
Max Everitt "Slapsie Maxie" Rosenbloom (1903-76)
wins the light heavyweight boxing title (until 1934), going on to portray a punch-drunk boxer in films.
C.R. Somerville wins the U.S. Golf Assoc. amateur title, and Gene Sarazen wins the U.S. Open.
The U.S. Lawn Tennis Assoc. men's singles title is won by Henry Ellsworth Vines Jr., and the women's title is won by
Helen Hull Jacobs (1908-97) (first of 4 in a row);
Gottfried von Cramm (1909-79)
wins the first of four straight German nat. tennis titles, going on to win the 1933 mixed doubles at Wimbledon, the French Open
in 1934 and 1936, and runner-up at Wimbledon in 1935-7; too bad, the Nazis try to use him as the perfect Aryan symbol, and
he refuses to cooperate, causing them to keep him out of the 1937 French Open, and he is arrested on Mar. 5, 1938 for a gay affair
with Jewish actor-singer Manasse Herbst, who had blackmailed him for $12K and moved to Palestine; he serves 6 mo. until Don Budge et al.
send a protest letter to Hitler to get him released, after which his criminal record gets him barred from Wimbledon and the U.S. Open; he
serves on the Eastern Front in 1941, then wins the German nat. title again in 1948-9.
Henry Wilfred "Bunny" Austin (1906-2000)
shocks the Victorian-recovering public by competing in the Forest Hills golf tournament wearing shorts, starting a trend.
Burgoo King (1929-46)
wins the Preakness and the Kentucky Derby.
British actor Tom Kirby Walls (1883-1949)
wins the Epsom Derby with his 100-6 longshot
April the Fifth (1929-54).
Thomas "Tommy" Hampson (1907-65)
of England breaks the world record in the 800m.
The Boston Braves football team of the NFL is founded by
George Preston Marshall (1896-1969);
next year they change their name to the Boston Redskins, then move to Washington, D.C. in 1937, becoming the
enjoying a monopoly as the only NFL team in the Am. South until 1960;
the first NFL Indoor Playoff Game
sees the Chicago Bears defeat the Portsmouth Spartans 9-0 on Dec. 18 in
front of 11,198 fans indoors at Chicago Stadium on a 80-yard field goal;
Bronislau "Bronko" Nagurski
(1908-90) of Chicago passes to Red Grange for the game's only TD.
Future U.S. pres. Gerald R. Ford plays center for the U. of Mich. Wolverines in their
undefeated nat. championship seasons this year and next, then turns down several pro football
offers to attend Yale Law School.
The first Totalisator (Tote Board)
for parimutuel betting on horses is installed at the Hialeah Park Race Track in Fla.;
the next one is installed next year at Arlington Park in Chicago, Ill.
The San Francisco-Oakland Bay (Golden Gate) Bridge begins construction (finished 1937).
G. Val Myer
in London, becoming the "new Tower of London".
Reginald Johnson designs the imperial mansion in Calif. known as the
for Idaho Sen. (1939-40) David Warren Clark.
Edwin Lutyens designs Metropolitan Cathedral
The new Lambeth Bridge
in C London is completed, with its S end near the Palace of Westminster, and the bridge painted the same red color as the leather benches in the
House of Lords, meant to compare to the Westminster Bridge, which is painted the same green color as the benches in the House of Commons.
on the East River between Queens, N.Y. and Bronx, N.Y. next to the runways of LaGuardia Airport (named after Abraham Rycken, who purchased it in 1664)
opens as a replacement for the Welfare Island (near Roosevelt Island) Jail, with prisoners hauling ashes for landful, enlarging the site
from 100 to 415 acres; it goes on to house 10K inmates and become notorious for neglect and abuse, along with prisoner attacks on staff; in May 2013
it is ranked one of the top-ten worst correctional facilities in the U.S.; in 2015 there are 9,424 assaults, with few murders.
Peace: no award;
Lit.: John Galsworthy (1867-1933) (U.K.);
Physics: Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901-76) (Germany)
[Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle] (he later writes to Max Born and Pascual Jordan that they should have shared the prize);
Chem.: Irving Langmuir (1881-1957) (U.S.)
[surface chemistry] (first Nobel awarded to a scientist not affiliated with a university, Gen. Electric);
Med.: Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (1857-1952) and
Edgar Douglas Adrian (1889-1977) (U.K.) [functions of neurons].
On Mar. 9 Ford Motor Co. produces its first Flathead V-8
engine with a single-block casting, which is publicly unveiled on Mar. 31, and is used in 1932-53 Ford models.
On Mar. 20 the $14K Boeing P-26 "Peashooter"
makes its first flight, becoming the first all-metal production fighter aircraft and first pursuit monoplane
used by the U.S. Army Air Corps; 151 are built by 1956.
On Oct. 7 the Stipa-Caproni (Caproni Stipa) experimental aircraft
with engine and propeller completely enclosed by the fuselage makes its first flight, becoming a stepping-stone to the jet aircraft.
The balloon tire for farm tractors is developed by ?.
BASF of Germany develops the first plastic tapes for tape recorders; they are not marketed until 1950 by Recording Assocs. of the U.S.
The Scotch tape dispenser is invented.
Hoover Co. introduces the Hoover Hedlite,
an optional headlamp for Models 425, 750, and 900; in Mar. it becomes std. equipment on the 750 and 900, and a $5 option on the 425;
"It shows you the dirt you never knew you had"; "It lights where it's going... it's clean where it's gone!"
The German trimotor transport aircraft Junkers Ju 52,
AKA Tante Ju (Auntie Ju) AKA Iron Annie is manufactured (until 1945), being used in WWII and continuing in military and civilian service into the 1980s.
George G. Blaisdell (1895-1978)
of Bradford, Penn. founds the Zippo
brand lighter co. in Bradford, Penn., selling them for a pricey $1.95 each.
August Dvorak (1894-1975)
of the U. of Washington in Seattle (a distant cousin of Czech composer Antonin Dvorak) invents the
which beats the QWERTY keyboard hands down for speed; too bad, it is not accepted (until ?).
Harvard business student Wallace Flint
writes a thesis calling for an "automated grocery store" that uses punched cards to order items.
of Belmont, Mass. files a patent for hydraulic power steering.
Am. chemist Edwin Herbert Land (1909-91)
invents Polaroid Glass,
the first practical synthetic light-polarizing material.
Am. aircraft designer Gerard Freebairn "Jerry" Vultee (1900-38)
of Downey, Calif. designs the Vultee V1
all-metal single-engine 2-pilot high-speed plane, which sets many aviation records, and in 1936 turns it into the 8-passenger
for Am. Airlines, and later into the V-11 U.S. Army Air Corps attack plane;
too bad, Vultee dies in a plane crash in 1938 before he can respond to a call for a 2-engine plane, and in 1943 his co. merges with
Consolidated Aircraft to become Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp. AKA Convair.
1932: The Annus Mirabilis for Nuclear Physics?
A team at Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge U. led by Sir
John Douglas Cockcroft (1897-1967) and
Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (1903-95) invent the
and on Apr. 14 split the atom,
transmuting lithium into helium, winning them the 1951 Nobel Physics Prize;
English physicist Sir James Chadwick (1891-1974) discovers the
opening the road to building an atomic bomb; on Aug. 2 Swedish-Am. physicist
Carl David Anderson (1905-91),
a student of Robert Andrews Millikan (1868-1953)
discovers positrons (positive electrons)
while analyzing cosmic rays, confirming Paul Dirac's 1930 prediction of the existence of matter and winning him the 1936 Nobel Physics Prize.
Chemists Fritz Mietzsch (1896-1958) and
Josef Klarer (1898-1953)
of Bayer Co. in Germany patent Sulfa Drugs (sulfonamides),
the first effective antiobiotic and first bioactivated medicine; too bad, they lose their patent because the active molecule
sulfonilamide was discovered in 1906, causing a boom in usage; a team led by physician
Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk (1895-1964)
of Bayer Co. in Germany discovers Prontosil, the first sulfa drug for treating streptococcal infections, and the first commercial antiobiotic,
winning the 1939 Nobel Med. Prize; English physician Leonard Colebrook (1883-1967)
introduces it as a cure for puerperal fever.
On Feb. 28 Wallace Hume Carothers of DuPont synthesizes
In the spring Hungarian physiologist Albert Szent-Gyorgi (Szent-Györgyi) (1893-1986)
and Am. biochemist Charles Glen King (1896-1988)
of the U.S. independently discover that "hexuronic acid" is really Vitamin C, known for its anti-scorbutic activity; too bad, only Szent-Gyorgi gets
the credit and the 1937 Nobel Prize.
discovers the principle of Time-Spaced Repetition
to improve memory.
The Cordoba Catalogue
(begun 1892) lists 613,993 stars on the southern firmament.
Minneapolis, Minn.-born Am. archeologist Carl William Blegen (1887-1971)
of the U. of Cincinnati begins excavating in Troy, following in 1939 at the site of the Palace of Nestor in Pylos, Greece
(destroyed by fire ca. 1200 B.C.E.), discovering the archive room filled with Linear B script, revealing the best-preserved
Bronze Age (Age of Homer) palace on the Greek mainland; further digs
an intertwining of Greek Mycenean and Minoan culture.
Lascelles Abercrombie (1881-1938), Poetry, Its Music and Meaning.
Sir Harold Acton (1904-94), The Last Medici.
James Truslow Adams (1878-1949), The March of Democracy (2 vols.) (1932-3).
Alexander Alekhine (1892-1946), On the Way to the World Championship.
Roy Chapman Andrews (1884-1960),
The New Conquest of Central Asia: A Narrative of the Exploration of the Central Asiatic Expeditions in Mongolia and China.
David Anrias, Through the Eyes of the Masters: Meditations and Portraits
(London); "When a transition takes place from one Age to another, and hence
from one sign to another, certain Adepts who for centuries may have been
preparing for their office by meditation and study, take over the work of
inspiring the new cycle. For nearly two thousand years the earth has been
under the watery sign Pisces ruled by Neptune, the main features of which
have been the establishing of Christianity and the conquest of the ocean.
Now the new cycle has begun, Aquarius, an airy sign, is influencing men's
minds along scientific lines in every direction, especially towards the
conquest of the air."
W.H. Auden (1907-73),
The Orators: An English Study.
Irving Babbitt (1865-1933),
On Being Creative and Other Essays.
Gaston Bachelard (1884-1962),
La Pluralisme Coherent de la Chimie Moderne;
L'Intuition de l'Instant.
Stefan Banach (1892-1945),
Theory of Linear Operations;
first work on the gen. theory of linear-metric space.
Harry Elmer Barnes (1889-1968),
Can Man Be Civilized?;
Prohibition Versus Civilization: Analyzing the Dry Psychosis.
Karl Barth (1886-1968), Christian Dogmatics, Vol. 1.
Henri Bergson (1859-1941),
Les Deux Sources de la morale et de la Religion.
Adolf Berle Jr. (1895-1971) and Gardiner C. Means (1896-1988),
The Modern Corporation and Public Property;
the "new age" of the bureaucratic corporation, with a growing div.
between ownership and management, and the entrepreneurial spirit
replaced by a managerial class that has a different mindset; claims
that U.S. economic power is concentrated in the 200 largest corporations,
which earn 43% of all corporate income; becomes std. work.; 2nd ed.
in 1967; "Justification for the stockholder's existence thus depends
on increasing distribution within the American population. Ideally
the stockholder's position will be impregnable only when every
American family has its fragment of that position and of the wealth
by which the opportunity to develop individuality becomes fully
Edwyn Bevan (1870-1943), Christanity.
Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986), Discussion;
"We (the undivided divinity that operates within us) have dreamed the world. We have dreamed it resistant, mysterious, visible, ubiquitous in space
and firm in time; but we have allowed into its architecture tenuous and eternal interstices of unreason to let us understand that it is false."
Robert Briffault (1874-1948), Breakdown: The Collapse of Traditional Civilization.
V.F. Calverton, The Liberation of American Literature.
Hereward Carrington (1880-1958) and B.M.L. Ernst, Houdini and Conan Doyle;
their war over Spiritualism.
Gustav Cassel (1866-1945), The Crisis of the World's Money System.
Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945),
Philosophy of the Enlightenment;
English trans. 1951; claims that reason's self-realization leads to human liberation,
glossing over the social-political context that produced the ideas.
Feodor Chaliapin (1873-1938), Man and Mask
Stuart Chase (1888-1985),
The New Deal;
coins the term "New Deal".
Merle Eugene Curti (1897-1996),
The Social Ideas of American Educators.
Christopher Henry Dawson (1889-1970),
The Making of Europe: An Introduction to the History of European Unity;
proposes the Old West Theory that the Roman Catholic Church was an essential factor in the rise
of Euro civilization in the Middle Ages ("ages of dawn"), not a gigantic obstacle like the
secular-scientific crowd claims, and that 20th cent. civilization is trying to end all religious
underpinnings, threatening a total collapse, launching a mini-movement that makes fans of T.S. Eliot,
J.R.R. Tolken et al.
Clarence Day (1874-1935), God and My Father.
Bernard DeVoto (1897-1955),
Mark Twain's America.
Herbert Spencer Dickey,
My Jungle Book;
his trip to the Orinoco River, plus why South Am. expeditions are a white man's farce and folly?
Paul Howard Douglas (1892-1976), The Coming of a New Party;
labels the Dem. Party corrupt and the Repub. Party reactionary, and
calls for a new U.S. party similar to the British Labour Party.
Will Durant (1885-1981), On the Meaning of Life.
T.S. Eliot (1888-1965), Selected Essays, 1917-1932.
Lincoln Ellsworth (1880-1951), Search.
Charles Hoy Fort (1874-1932),
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939),
New Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis;
"There are so many more people who believe in the miracles of the Blessed Virgin than in the
existence of the unconscious";
"One might compare the relation of the ego to the id with that between a rider and his horse...
Where id was, there shall ego be."
John Frederick Charles Fuller (1878-1966),
The Dragon's Teeth: A Study of War and Peace;
Lectures on Field Service Regulations III;
glorifies the tank; adopted for study by the gen. staffs of the German, Soviet, and Czech armies.
Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970), Vers l'Armee de Metier
(The Army of the Future); English tr. 1941.
Norman Bel Geddes (1893-1958),
popularizes streamlining, causing it to catch on and become the
design style of the 1930s.
Etienne Gilson (1884-1978),
The Spirit of Medieval Philosophy;
Sir Wilfred Thomason Grenfell, Forty Years for Labrador.
Sir Tyrone Guthrie (1900-71), Theatre Prospect.
J.B.S. Haldane (1892-1964),
The Causes of Evolution.
Edward Frederick Lindley Wood, Lord Halifax (1881-1959),
Edith Hamilton (1867-1963),
The Roman Way.
Carlton Hayes (1882-1964),
A Political and Cultural History of Modern Europe
(2 vols.) (1932, 1936).
Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961),
Death in the Afternoon;
about Brooklyn-born Jewish-Am. matador
Sidney Franklin (Frumkin)
(1903-76); popularizes the term "cajones" (balls); "The bullfight
is not a sport in the Anglo-Saxon sense of the word"; "Bullfighting is the
only art in which the artist is in danger of death and in which the degree of
brilliance in the perf. is left to the fighter's honor";
"About morals, I know only that what is moral is what you feel good after and
what is immoral is what you feel bad after"; "There is no lonelier man in death,
except the suicide, than that man who has lived many years with a good wife and
then outlived her. If two people love each other there can be no happy end to it";
"A serious writer is not to be confused with a solemn writer. A serious writer
may be a hawk or a buzzard or even a pipinjay, but a solemn writer is always a
bloody owl"; "All our words from loose using have lost their edge."
John R. Hicks (1904-89),
The Theory of Wages;
becomes a std. textbook; 2nd ed. 1963.
Harold Hotelling (1895-1973),
Edgeworth's Taxation Paradox and the Nature of Demand and Supply Functions;
proposes Hotelling's Lemma,
that a firm's net supply function is the partial derivative of the
profit function with respect to the price.
Taha Hussein (1889-1973),
El-Ayyam (An Egyptian Childhood)
(autobio.); leader of the Egyptian modernist lit. movement, who got in hot
water in the 1920s for writing "On Pre-Islamic Poetry", questioning
the historicity of the Quran, and claiming that much of traditional Arabic
poetry was faked during ancient times.
Karl Jaspers (1883-1969),
(3 vols.); after empirical science runs out of answers, either sink into
despair or take a leap into Transcendence (faith), confronting one's Existenz
(limitless freedom) and experiencing authentic existence?
Elizabeth Jenkins (1905-2010),
Lady Caroline Lamb.
The Plough Woman: Memoirs of the Pioneer Women of Palestine.
Wilbur Kitchener Jordan (1902-80),
The Development of Religious Toleration in England.
Melanie Klein (1882-1960),
The Psychoanalysis of Children;
applies Freudian techniques to children, emphasizing the play between the
Eros and Thanatos that causes them to grow up, have children, then croak.
Dudley Wright Knox (1877-1960),
The Naval Genius of George Washington;
foreword by Adm. Hilary P. Jones.
David Lawrence (1888-1973),
Beyond the New Deal;
former student of Woodrow Wilson at Princeton U. rejects the New Deal by
differentiating free enterprise and corporatism, with the soundbyte
"Theoretically, corporations are creations of the state".
Paul Felix Lazarsfeld (1901-76) and Hans Zeisel, Die Arbeitslosen von Marienthal;
the social impact of unemployment on the small community of Marienthal; becomes a classic.
Wyndham Lewis (1882-1957), Doom of Youth.
Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart (1887-1970), Memoirs of a British Agent;
internat. bestseller, making him a celeb.
Charles Howard McIlwain (1871-1968),
The Growth of Political Thought in the West: From the Greeks to the End of the Middle Ages.
Sir Compton Mackenzie (1883-1972),
William McDougall (1871-1938), Energies of Man.
Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin (1861-1947),
The Foundations of American Constitutionalism.
Robert Lee Moore (1882-1976),
Foundations of Point Set Theory;
founds the field of point-set topology.
F. Morley, The Society of Nations: Its Organization and Constitutional Development.
Sir Oswald Ernal Mosley (1896-),
The Greater Britain;
"We are treated as a nation of children; every item of social legislation
is designed, not to enable the normal person to live a normal life, but
to prevent the decadent from hurting himself";
"The Fascist principle is Liberty in private, Obligation in public life...
But there is one condition. The State has no room for the drone and the
decadent, who use their leisure to destroy their capacity for public usefulness."
Gunnar Myrdal (1898-1987), Monetary Economics;
proposes the idea that the govt. adjust its budget to slow or speed the economy, later grumbling that John Mayard Keynes got the credit instead of him.
John von Neumann (1903-57), The Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics;
describes operator theory (Neumann algebras), and proves that no "realistic" (hidden-variable) theory can match the predictions of quantum physics; too bad, German mathematician
Grete Hermann (1901-84) finds a flaw in his proof in 1935, which remains unknown for decades.
Allan Nevins (1890-1971),
Grover Cleveland: A Study in Courage
(2 vols.) (Pulitzer Prize).
Pierre van Paassen (1895-1968),
Israel and the Vision of Humanity; a gentile Zionist.
Charles Petrie (1895-1977),
The Jacobite Movement.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980), The Moral Judgment of the Child.
Walter Boughton Pitkin (1878-1953),
Life Begins at Forty;
A Short Introduction to the History of Human Stupidity.
Llewelyn Powys (1884-1939), The Life and Times of Anthony a Wood;
Now That the Gods Are Dead.
Henry Habberley Price (1899-1984), Perception.
Vance Randolph (1892-1980), Ozark Mountain Folks.
Otto Rank (1884-1939), Kunst und Kunstler (Art and Artist).
Maria Rasputin (1898-1977), Rasputin, My Father.
Adm. Sir Herbert William Richmond (1871-1946),
Imperial Defence and Capture at Sea in War.
Lionel Robbins (1898-1984),
An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science;
contains the famous soundbyte:
"Economics is the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses."
Joan Robinson (1903-83),
Economics is Serious Subject: The Apologia of an Economist to the Mathematician, the Scientist and the Plain Man.
Bertrand Russell (1872-1970),
Education and the Social Order;
In Praise of Idleness -
from a guy who pub. a book a year?
Carl Schmitt (1888-1985), The Concept of the Political;
how the state has its own sphere, just like religion and economics, and has a right to distinguish between friends and enemies.
Frederick Soddy (1877-1956), Interpretation of the Atom.
F.M. Stenton, The First Century of English Feudalism.
John Strachey (1901-63), The Coming Struggle for Power.
Bertram Thomas (1892-1950), Arabia Felix;
by an English civil servant who was appointed finance minister by the sultan of Muscat and Oman in 1925-32, and became the first Westerner to cross the
Rub' Al Khali (Empty Quarter) in 1930-1; he mentions the lost city of
Ubar, which is allegedly rediscovered in 1990.
Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959),
Purposive Behavior in Animals and Men;
founds Purposive Behaviorism, breaking ranks with B.F. Skinner by leaving room for learned flexibility via
Frederick Jackson Turner (1861-1932),
The Significance of Sections in American History (Pulitzer Prize).
Sir John W. Wheeler-Bennett (1902-75),
Disarmament And Security Since Locarno 1925–1931; Being The Political And Technical Background of the General Disarmament Conference, 1932.
Robert Sessions Woodworth (1869-1962),
Contemporary Schools of Psychology;
calls them complementary.
Virginia Woolf (1882-1941),
The Common Reader, Second Series.
Eddy Arnold (1918-2008), Somebody Loves You;
written by Peter DeRose (1900-53).
Samuel Barber (1910-81), Overture to the School for Scandal
Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953), Symphony No. 5 in C-sharp minor;
Boswell Sisters, Heebie Jeebies;
Sleepy Time Down South.
Benjamin Britten (1913-76),
Sinfonietta for Chamber Orchestra, Op. 1.
Cab Calloway (1907-94),
"If he said he swam to China, and he sell you South Carolina/ Then you know you're talkin' to the reefer man."
Irving Caesar (1895-1996), Bert Kalmar, Harry Ruby, and Harry Akst,
What a Perfect Combination;
from the musical "The Kid" starring Eddie Cantor.
Russ Carlson Orchestra, Three
On a Match.
Bing Crosby (1903-77), Please;
Some of These Days.
Duke Ellington (1899-1974),
It Don't Mean a Thing
(If It Ain't Got That Swing).
Jean Francaix (1912-97), Scherzo for Piano (debut);
Concertino for Piano and Orchestra.
Jay Gorney (1894-1990) and E.Y. Harburg (1896-1981),
Brother Can You Spare a Dime;
theme song of the Great Depression; Harburg hooks up with Gorney's wife,
causing their partnership to end, after which Gorney marries again and
has daughter Karen Lynn Gorney of "Saturday Night Fever" fame.
Harry Lawrence Freeman (1869-1954), The Slave.
Isham Jones (1894-1956),
Let That Be a Lesson to You;
I Can't Believe It's True;
One Little World Let to Another;
I'll Never Have to Dream Again;
Pretending You Care;
There's Nothing Left to Do But Say Goodbye;
Why Can't This Night Go On Forever?
(his 2nd theme song);
The Wooden Soldier and the China Doll.
Emmerich Kalman (1882-1953), Der Teufelsreiter
Eddie Lang (1902-33) and Carl Kress,
Pickin' My Way.
Olivier Messiaen (1908-92), Theme and Variations;
L'Ascension (The Ascension) (1932-3).
Ray Noble (1903-78) and His Orchestra featuring Al Bowlly (1899-1941),
Lullaby of the Leaves (June 10);
Looking on the Bright Side of Life (Sept. 8);
What More Can I Ask? (Dec. 23).
Eddie Peabody (1902-70),
St. Louis Blues.
Cole Porter (1891-1964),
The Gay Divorcee (New York).
Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953), Piano Concerto No. 5 in G Major, Op. 55.
Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), Piano Concerto in G Major.
Ottorino Respighi (1879-1936), Maria Egiziaca
(triptych); conducts its debut with the New York Philharmonic Orchestra;
Ancient Airs and Dances, Suite No. 3.
Jimmie Rodgers (1897-1933),
Blue Yodel No. 10
Hans Schindler Tanz-Orchester,
So Ein Jagersmann.
Arnold Schonberg (1874-1951), Moses and Aaron, Acts 1-2 (Act 3
Franz Schreker (1878-1934),
Der Schmied von Gent (opera) (Berlin).
Robert Elisabeth Stolz (1880-1975),
Der Verlorene Walzer (operetta).
Oscar Straus (1870-1954),
Eine Frau, die Weiss, Was Sie Will.
H.G. Wells (1866-1946),
The Happiness of Mankind; in the days
when he's still gung-ho on mankind's future.
Henry Koster's The Adventure of Thea Roland
(Dec. 17) is the dir. debut of German-born Jew
Henry Koster (Hermann Kosterlitz) (1905-88),
who after his next film is forced by the Nazis to flee Germany, going on to become a leading dir. in Hollywood.
G.W. Pabst's L'Atlantide
(The Mistress of Atlantis), based on the 1919 Pierre Benoit novel
is filmed in German, English and French versions.
Max Ophuls' The Bartered Bride
(De Verkaufte Braut) is an operetta-style musical.
Frank Tuttle's The Big Broadcast of 1932
(Oct. 14) is the first feature film of George Burns and Gracie Allen, who star
opposite Bing Crosby in his first major film; both acts debut in their own
radio shows on CBS; Burns and Allen appear in 13 more films; Crosby makes 55
full-length films between 1932-71, 23 being top ten box office hits, and is the
top box office draw for five consecutive years, and among the top 10 for 15 years.
Leni Riefenstahl's The Blue Light
(Das Blaue Licht) (Mar. 24) is the dir. debut of former dancer and Arnold Fanck "alpine film" actress
Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl (1902-2003),
about an Italian fairy tale, but Adolf Hitler likes it so much that he meets her in May and recruits her for Nazi films,
and she goes on to become "Hitler's filmmaker" and "world's most famous female film director" - the Nazi dream can be beautiful
for the winning side?
George Cukor's A Bill of Divorcement
(Sept. 30) (RKO), based on the play by Clemence Dane about reaction to a
1920s British law allowing insanity as a grounds for a woman to divorce her hubby
stars John Barrymore as mental hospital escapee Hilary Fairfield, becoming the film debut of
Katharine Houghton Hepburn (1907-2003)
as his wife Sydney Fairfield, a role which she snags after being discovered in the Broadway play "The Warrior's Husband", then demanding a pay raise from
$80 to $1.5K per week plus having John Barrymore and George Cukor at her side, after which Cukor talks David O. Selznick into it;
"Everyone thought I was bold and fearless and even arrogant, but inside I was always quaking"; David Manners plays Sydney's fiancee Kit Humphreys;
Paul Cavanagh plays Meg's fiancee Gray Meredith; silent film star Billie Burke makes her comeback as Sydney's mother
Margaret "Meg" Fairfield, suffering the death of hubby Florenz Ziegfield Jr.
during filming; does $531K box office on a $250K budget.
Jean Renoir's Boudu Saved from Drowning
(Boudu Sauve des Eaux), about a tramp saved by a wealthy man from drowning is remade in 1986 as "Down and Out in Beverly Hills" starring Nick Nolte.
Leslie Pearce's The Dentist
is (Dec. 9) is another W.C. Fields hit.
Michael Curtiz' Doctor X
(Aug. 3) (First Nat. Pictures), based on the 1931 play "The Terror" by Howard W. Comstock and Allen C. Miller stars Lionel Atwill as Dr. Jerry Xavier,
Fay Wray as his daughter Joan Xaver, Lee Tracy as reporter Lee Taylor, and Preston Foster as surgeon slash cannibal monster Dr. Wells.
Clarence Brown's Emma
(Jan. 2) (MGM) stars Marie Dressler as housekeeper Emma, who looks after a houseful of grown spoiled children, and finds that rich inventor father
Frederick Smith (Jean Hersholt) has left her all in his will, causing them to turn on her, except Ronnie, played by Richard Cromwell, Dressler's personal friend
from his days running an art shop in Hollywood, who insists that he be cast;
also stars Myrna Loy as Countess Isabelle "Izzy" Smith Marlin; makes a profit of $898K on $2M box office.
Walt Disney's Flowers and Trees
(July 30), a remake of a B&W film is Disney's first color film, and the first
full-color 3-strip Technicolor film, becoming a big hit and winning the Best Short Subject Cartoons Oscar,
allowing Disney to negotiate an exclusive 3-year deal with Technicolor to have a monopoly
on color animations for their Silly Symphony cartoons.
Tod Browning's Freaks
(Feb. 20), about a love triangle between a dwarf, an aerialist, and a strongman
is so disturbing that it is a box-office flop, wrecking his career and causing him to
finally retire in 1942 and become a recluse in Malibu, Calif.
Edmund Goulding's Grand Hotel
(Sept. 11), based on the Vicki Baum play features an all-star cast in a hotel where
"People come, people go, nothing ever happens" (Lewis Stone); world-weary ballerina
Greta Garbo delivers the immortal soundbyte "I vant to be alone" to John Barrymore.
Mervy LeRoy's The Heart of New York
(Mar. 26) features the comedy team of Smith and Dale as prof. matchmakers
Samson "Sam" Shtrudel and Bernard Schnaps; George Sidney plays mad inventor Mendel Marantz.
Howard Higgin's Hell's House
(Jan. 30), about a reformatory stars Bette Davis as Peggy Gardner, Pat O'Brien as Matt Kelly,
and Junior Durkin as Jimmy Mason, who utters the immortal soundbyte: "Eenie meenie miney mo, catch a nigger by the toe" to make us feel
sympathetic to him back in the 1920s.
Norman Z. MacLeod's Horse Feathers
(Aug. 10) (Paramount) stars the Marx Brothers (Groucho as Prof. Wagsdorff); co-written by
S.J. Perelman; co-stars "Ice Cream Blonde" Thelma Todd (1905-35);
contains the lines:
"Why don't you bore a hole in yourself and let the sap run out?"; "The dean is furious.
He's waxing wroth. - Is Roth out there too? Tell Roth to wax the dean for a while";
"You've got the brain of a 4-year-old boy, and I bet he was glad to get rid of it";
"I'd flog you like a horse but I haven't got a horse"; the movie climaxes with them
winning a football game by taking the ball into the end zone on a horse-drawn garbage wagon.
William A. Seiter's Hot Saturday
(Oct. 28) stars Cary Grant and
Randolph Scott (Crane) (1898-1987),
who end up living in the same house for 12 years of hot Saturdays, causing gay bud rumors.
If I Had a Million
(Dec. 2) is an anthology film directed by eight dirs., about eight people picked out
of the phone book by dying millionaire John Glidden (Richard Bennett) and given you know what;
George Raft plays a forger on the lam who gets it but can't cash the check.
Erle C. Kenton's Island of Lost Souls,
based on the H.G. Wells 1896 novel "The Island of Dr. Moreau" stars Charles Laughton as a mad scientist trying
to make a shipwrecked survivor mate with Lota the Panther Woman (Kathleen Burke, who is chosen from 60K candidates
in a nationwide search) to produce the first manimal; so disturbing it is initially banned in parts of the U.S.
Mervyn LeRoy's I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang
(Nov. 10) (Warner Bros.), written by Howard J. Green and Brown Holmes based
on the autobio. by Robert Elliott Burns stars Paul Muni as wrongfully
convicted chain gang convict Sgt. James Allen, who escapes to Chicago,
sets up a successful construction firm, then is blackmailed by his boarding
house owner Marie Woods (Glenda Farrell) into marrying him, after which he
falls for Helen Vinson, and is betrayed to the authorities when he asks for
a divorce, uttering the parting line: "I steal" in response to Helen's question:
"How do you live?"; Preston Foster plays Pete.
Irving Pichel's and Ernest B. Schoedsack's
The Most Dangerous Game
(Sept. 16), based on the 1924 Richard Connell short stories stars
Joel McCrea as Robert "Bob" Rainsford, a hunter marooned on an island
who is hunted as game by Cossack nobleman Gen. Zaroff (Leslie Banks).
Karl Freund's The Mummy
(Dec. 22) stars Boris Karloff as 4K-y.-o. Im-ho-tep, who comes back to life
after a 1921 archeological dig, and goes after Zita Johann, whom he believes
carries the soul of long-lost mate Princess Anck-es-en-Amon; Freund's debut as dir.
Archie L. Mayo's Night After Night
(Oct. 30), based on the short story "Single Night" by Louis Bromfield is the screen debut
of Mary Jane "Mae" West (1893-1980)
after abandoning Broadway and its censors and getting a $5K a week contract with Paramount,
playing Maudie Triplett (based on Texas Guinan, who is not allowed to act because she's too old),
George Raft (Ranft) (1901-80),
in his first leading role; after insisting on rewriting her scenes to add her trademark brand of risque humor,
Raft comments "She stole everything but the cameras"; "Goodness, what beautiful diamonds you are wearing" (coat check girl);
"Goodness had nothing to do with it, dearie" (Mae West);
by the end of the decade West is the highest paid woman in Hollywood and the entire U.S.;
she once turns a $16K real estate investment into $5M; Raft and West die within two days of each other in 1980 and their corpses
wind up in the same morgue at the same time.
John G. Adolfi's The Man Who Played God
(Feb. 20), based on the 1914 play "The Silent Voice" by Jules Eckert Goodman, who adapted it from a story by Gouverneur Morris stars George Arliss
as lip-reader Montgomery Royale, Violet Heming as his babe Mildred Miller, and bleached blonde Bette Davis as his other babe Grace Blair,
doing so good that Jack Warner signs her to a 5-year $400/week contract, staying with Warner Bros. for 18 years.
Zoltan Korda's and Leontine Sagan's Men of Tomorrow
(London Film Co.) (British Paramount) (British & Dominions Film Corp.), written by Arthur Wimperis and Anthony Gibbs stars Maurice Braddell as Oxford U.
grad Allen Shepherd, who becomes a successful novelist and marries Jane Anderson (Joan Gardner), then freaks when she accepts a teaching job at Oxford U.;
the film debut of Friedrich Robert Donat (1905-58)
as Julian Angell, who gained the nickname "Screen Test Donat" because of his many unsuccessful auditions until he was about to flunk another one for
Alexander Korda before breaking into a great laugh that gets him the job; too bad, he suffers from chronic asthma, appearing in only 20 films.
James Whale's The Old Dark House
(Oct. 20) (Universal Pictures), based on the 1927 J.B. Priestley novel "Benighted" is a horror comedy film about the
haunted Welsh mansion of the Femm family incl. Horace, Rebecca, and Saul, starring Boris Karloff as mute alcoholic butler
Morgan, Malvin Douglas as Roger Penderel, Charles Laughton as Sir William Porterhouse, Lilian Bond as Gladys DuCane Perkins,
Raymond Massey as Philip Waverton, and Gloria Stuart as his wife Margaret; it's a flop in the U.S. but a big hit in England;
Elspeth Dudgeon (billed as John Dudgeon) is the only actor who looks old enough to play the 102-y.-o. Femm family patriarch Sir Roderick Femm.
Roy Mack's Pie, Pie Blackbird
(June 4) (Warner Bros.) stars "Black Garbo"
Nina Mae McKinney (1912-67),
along with the jazz band of Eubie Blake and Noble Sissle, becoming the debut of the sensational tap-dancing
Fayard Nicholas (1914-2006) and Harold Nicholas (1921-2000); incl.
It Takes a Blackbird to Make the Sweetest Pie.
Lewis Milestone's Rain
(Oct. 21) (United Artists), based on the play by John Colton (1887-1946), set in the South Seas
and filmed on Santa Catalina Island stars Joan Crawford as ho Sadie Thompson,
and Walter Huston as conflicted missionary Alfred Davidson, who wants to
reform her while trying to restrain his hormones, and finally takes her,
then commits suicide on the beach; panned by critics and a box office flop.
David's Howard's The Rainbow Trail
(Mar. 3) stars George O'Brien in the first of 12 films with dir. Howard until "Gun Law" in 1938.
Victor Fleming's Red Dust
(Oct. 22), based on a play by Wilson Collison stars Clark Gable and
Jean Harlow, who steam it up on a rubber plantation.
Christy Cabanne's The Red-Haired Alibi
(Oct. 21), based on the Wilson Collison novel introduces super-cute, big-smiling,
precocious, multi-talented, blonde-blue, living doll child prodigy
Shirley Jane Temple (1928-2014),
whose mother always makes sure her hair has 56 curls, after which she takes over the
Hollywood scene, giving depressed Americans a pick-up while rescuing Hollywood financially,
becoming the top U.S. box office draw in 1935-8; in 1934 her daddy George Temple gets vanity
license plate 6T423, 6 standing for her age, T for Temple, and 423 for her birthday.
Howard Hawks' Scarface: The Shame of a Nation
(Apr. 9), written by Ben Hecht based on the 1929 Al Capone novel by Armitage Trail stars
Paul Muni as Antonio "Tony" Camonte, Ann Dvorak as Francesca "Cesca" Camonte, and parts-hair-in-middle
George Raft (Ranf) (1901-80)
as coin-flipping Guino Rinaldo, playing the role so well the public believes he's a real-life gangster,
causing him to become one of the top Hollywood celebs of the decade whether he earned it or not?;
funded by Howard Hughes, it is held back from release by censors because of the suggestion of
incest between Capone and his sister, causing it to be recut by producer Howard Hughes without
Hawks' approval, causing two versions of the film to be released at the same time; Raft goes on
to become a friend of Bugsy Siegel, Meyer Lansky, and other Mafiosi, and give Tallulah Bankhead
a bad case of gonorrhea, causing her to get a hysterectomy and utter the soundbyte "Don't think this has taught me a lesson."
Josef von Sternberg's Shanghai Express
(Feb. 12), based on a story by Harry Hervey stars Marlene Dietrich as Shanghai Lilly,
who reunites with ex-lover Clive Brook aboard a slow-moving train through China, making Hollywood
stars of Dietrich and Sternberg; "It took more than one man to change my name to Shanghai Lily."
Cecil B. De Mille's The Sign of the Cross.
Robert Z. Leonard's Strange Interlude
(Dec. 30), based on the 1928 Eugene O'Neill play stars Norma Shearer as 3-timing Nina Leeds, and Clark Gable as beau Dr. Ned Darrell, real father of
Gordon (Robert Young) after she cheats with him on hubby Sam Evans (Alexander Kirkland).
Archie L. Mayo's Street of Women
(June 4) is the film debut of Calif.-born blonde babe Gloria Stuart (1910-2010).
W.S. Van Dyke's Tarzan the Ape Man
(Mar. 25) (MGM), based on the Edgar Rice Burroughs books makes a star of Romanian-born Olympic swimming champ
Peter John "Johnny" (Janos) (Johann Peter) Weissmuller (Weißmüller)
(1904-84), becoming the first of 12 Tarzan films; Tarzan's distinctive call is
first heard in this film, created by sound recordist Douglas Shearer from an Austrian yodel
sped-up and played backwards; Maureen O'Sullivan plays Jane Parker.
Mervyn LeRoy, Three on a Match
(Oct. 29) stars Joan Blondell as Mary, Bette Davis as Ruth, and Ann Dvorak as Vivian, who is the last to light her cig with the same match, meaning
that she will soon die; after finding out that she is making more money than the little boy who plays her son, Dvorak speaks out, getting suspended
then given increasingly bad scripts.
Ernst Lubitsch's Trouble in Paradise
(Oct. 21) (Paramount Pictures), a romantic comedy from Paramount that slips in before the Production Code and ends up banned in 1935-68 stars
Miriam Hopkins as a beautiful pickpocket, and Herbert Marshall as a master thief, who has to decide between her and perfume manufacturer Kay Francis;
"Marriage is a beautiful mistake which two people make together"; in 1932-6
Kay Francis (1905-68)
becomes a top Warner Bros. star, and one of the highest-paid persons in the U.S. by 1935, co-starring frequently with William Powell, and becoming known
as a clothes horse and for her inability to pronounce the letter r ("Wavishing Kay Fwancis"); too bad, she gets too big for her expensive panties and
ends up getting shuttled to B-movies (programmers).
Mervyn Le Roy's Two Seconds
(May 28) (First Nat. Pictures), based on the Elliott Lester play about how long it takes a condemned prisoner to die in the electric chair stars
Edward G. Robinson as John Allen, and Vivienne Osborne as Shirley Day, and is the film debut of Pitman, N.J.-born good singer
Preston S. Foster (1900-70) as Bud Clark.
Carl Theodor Dreyer's Vampyr (May 6),
based on J. Sheridan Le Fanu's "In a Glass Darkly" stars Nicolas de Gunzbert and Sybille Schmitz.
Alexander Korda's B&W Wedding Rehearsal
(Oct. 1) (London Films), produced by Alexander Korda stars Roland Young as carefree bachelor Reggie, marquis of Buckingham, who is given an ultimatum
by his grandmother the dowager marchioness of Buckminster (Kate Cutler) to get married or lose his allowance; the first pairing of screenwriters
Lajos Biro (Bíró) (Blau) (1880-1948) and
Arthur Harold Wimperis (1874-1953).
George Cukor's What Price Hollywood?
(June 2) (RKO Pathe), based on a story by Adela Rogers St. Johns about the "real" Hollywood
stars Constance Bennett as "America's Pal" Mary Evans, and Lowell Sherman as dir. Max Carey,
who commits suicide after she leaves him for playboy Lonny Borden (Neil Hamilton),
ruining her career; puts Cukor on the A-list of Hollywood dirs.;
does $571K box office on a $416K budget.
Victor Halperin's White Zombie
(July 28) (United Artists), based on William Seabrook's 1929 novel "The Magic Island and set in Haiti stars Bela Lugosi as voodoo master
Murder Legendre in the first feature length zombie film; the sequel is "Revolt of the Zombies" (1936); "With these zombie eyes he rendered
her powerless. With this zombie grip he made her perform his every desire."
Berthold Viertel's and Fred Zinnemann's The Wiser Sex
(Mar. 15) (original title "The Weaker Sex") (Mar. 15) (Paramount Pictures), based on the 1916 Clyde Fitch play
"The Woman in the Case" stars Claudette Colbert, Melvyn Douglas, Lilyan Tashman, Ross Alexander, and William "Stage" Boyd,
becoming the film debut of Niagara Falls, N.Y.-born
Stanislas Pascal Franchot Tone (1905-68),
son of Carborundum Co. pres. Frank Jerome Tone.
Max Beckmann (1884-1950),
Seven Triptychs (1932-50).
Edward Burra (1905-76), The Cafe.
Alberto Giacometti (1901-66),
Woman With Her Throat Cut;
looks like the Martians got her?;
The Palace at 4 A.M. (sculpture).
Eric Gill, Prospero and Ariel (sculpture)
(Broadcasting House, London).
Gaston Lachaise (1882-1935),
Max Liebermann (1847-1935), Professor Sauerbruch;
Ernst Ferdinand Sauerbruch (1875-1951).
Roberto Matta (1911-2002),
W. Nicholson, Black Swans.
Jose Clemente Orozco (1883-1949),
Murals at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire (1932-4).
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), Woman with Book;
Head of a Woman (sculpture).
(The Dream); in Oct. 2006 Am. casino mogul Steve Wynn
agrees to sell it for $139M, then accidentally pokes a hole
in it and decides to keep it, spending $85K to repair it.
Diego Rivera (1886-1957), Rockefeller Center Mural;
when Nelson Rockefeller sees Lenin glorified and Rivera refuses to change
it, he has the entire mural erased, ending Rivera's career in the U.S.
Georges Rouault (1871-1958), Christ Mocked by Soldiers.
Giorgos Seferis (1900-71), The Cistern.
Ben Shan (1898-1969), Sacco and Vanzetti.
Grant Wood (1891-1942), Daughters of the American Revolution.
George Francis Abbott (1887-1995), Lilly Turner.
Marcel Achard (1899-1974), Domino
(Playhouse Theatre, New York) (Aug. 16) (7 perf.); stars Rod La Rocque and Jessie Royce Landis.
John L. Balderston (1889-1954), Red Planet;
filmed in 1952 as "Red Planet Mars".
Philip Barry (1896-1949), The Animal Kingdom.
Samuel Behrman (1893-1973), Brief Moment.
Sem Benelli (1877-1949), Adama ed Eva.
Noel Coward (1899-1973), Design for Living.
Rachel Crothers (1878-1958), When Ladies Meet - are all
her titles gay friendly?
Owen Davis Sr. (1874-1956), The Good Earth;
based on the Pearl Buck novel.
Edna Ferber (1885-1968) and George S. Kaufman (1889-1961),
Dinner at Eight.
Rose Franken (1896-1988), Another Language (debut) (New York)
(453 perf.); stage debut of Dorothy Stickney.
Michel de Ghelerode, The Srrow of Hamlet;
Vie Publique de Pantagleize.
Stella Gibbons, Cold Comfort Farm;
a rustic school of novelists; Aunt Ada Doom saw "something nasty in the woodshed; purple passages are marked with asterisks;
based on "Precious Bane" (1924)?
Maxim Gorky (1868-1936), Yegor Bulychov.
Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946), Before Sunset.
Ben Hecht (1894-1964) and Charles MacArthur (1895-1956),
(Broadhurst Theatre, New York) (Dec. 29) (152 perf.); based on Charles B. Millholland's play "Napoleon of Broadway", inspired by working for
David Belasco; stars Moffat Johnston, Eugenie Leontovich, and William Frawley; stars Moffat Johnston as theater producer Oscar Jaffe, who
travels from Chicago to New York aboard the 20th Century Limited with temperamental actress Lily Garland AKA Mildred Plotka (Eugenie Leontovich),
who left him for Hollywood, giving him the chance of signing her for his new show; also stars William Frawley;
filmed in 1934 by Howard Hawks starring John Barrymore and Carole Lombard; revived on Dec. 24, 1950 at the ANTA Playhouse in New York (233 perf.),
dir. by Jose Ferrer, starring Ferrer as Oscar, and Gloria Swanson as Lily; revive again on Mar. 25, 2004 at the Am. Airlines Theatre in New York (84 perf.),
starring Alec Baldwin and Anne Heche.
John Osborne (1929-94), Inadmissible Evidence.
Marcel Pagnol (1895-1974), Fanny.
Sir Arthur Wing Pinero (1855-1934), A Cold June (comedy).
J.B. Priestley (1894-1984), Dangerous Corner (London).
W.H. Auden (1907-73), The Orators.
Pieter Cornelis Boutens (1870-1943), Honderd Hollandsche Kwatrijnen.
Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956), St. Joan of the Slaughter Houses.
James Bridie (1888-1951), Jonah and the Whale.
Cecil Day-Lewis (1904-72), From Feathers to Iron.
Gunnar Ekelof (1907-68), Sent Pa Jorden (debut).
William Faulkner (1897-1962), This Earth.
Kahlil Gibran (1883-1931), The Wanderer (posth.).
Robert Ranke Graves (1895-1985), Poems 1930-1933.
Daniel Whitehead Hickey, Bright Harbor.
Langston Hughes (1902-67),
The Dream Keeper and Other Poems;
Scottsboro Limited: Four Poems and a Play.
Robinson Jeffers (1887-1962),
Thurso's Landing and Other Poems.
Eugenio Montale (1896-1981),
La Casa dei Doganieri e Altre Poesie.
Boris Pasternak (1890-1960), The Second Birth;
establishes him as the #1 poet in Russia, but too bad, he's not socialist enough
for the govt., so they force him into translating the works of Shakespeare and Goethe.
Laura Elizabeth Howe Richards (1850-1943),
Tirra Lirra: Rhymes Old and New.
Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935), Nicodemus.
Raymond Roussel (1877-1933), Nouvelles Impressions d'Afrique
(New Impressions of Africa).
Charles Vildrac (1882-1971), Le Jardinier de Samos.
William Carlos Williams (1883-1963), The Cod Head.
Elinor Wylie (1885-1928), Collected Poems (posth.);
ed. by hubby William Rose Benet.
Sherwood Anderson (1876-1941),
Samuel Beckett (1906-89),
Dream of Fair to Middling Women;
not pub. until 1992.
Phyllis Eleanor Bentley (1894-1977),
(Mar.); bestseller about the Oldroyds and Bamforths of Annotsfield and the
textile industry in West Riding, Yorkshire, England in 1812, spawning two sequels
("The Rise of Henry Morcar", 1946, and "A Man of His Time", 1966), covering
153 years through the death of Winston Churchill in 1965, becoming the
most popular regional novels since Thomas Hardy and his Wessex.
Earl Derr Biggers (1884-1933),
Keeper of the Keys;
Charlie Chan #6 (last).
Arna Bontemps (1902-73) and Langston Hughes (1902-67),
Popo and Fifina, Children of Haiti.
Kay Boyle (1902-92),
The Year Before Last.
Max Brand (Frederick Schiller Faust) (1892-1944),
a trilogy of Westerns featuring the Montana Kid;
first of 13 novels about drifter gunman Jim Silver and his horse Parade,
who stands guard as his master sleeps.
W.R. Burnett (1899-1982), The Giant Swing;
filmed in 1941 as "Dance Hall".
Erskine Caldwell (1903-87), Tobacco Road
(Jan.); bestseller about hillbilly degeneracy in rural E Ga.; Jeeter Lester, wife Ada and their 17 children, incl. Dude, Ellie
May, and Pearl; 30+-y.-o. Sister Bessie Rice lusts for 16-y.-o. Dude and buys him a new Ford which he wrecks after running over his
grandmother, who is buried while still alive; Dude, Bessie, and Jeeter stay overnight at a whorehouse thinking it's a cheap hotel, and after
being serviced by several men, Bessie exclaims, "I want to go back some time and spend another night at that hotel"; Jeeter burns his land to
"prepare" it for planting cotton, and ends up getting burned to death with his wife while sleeping in their dilapidated shack.
John Dickson Carr (1906-77), Poison in Jest;
The Waxworks Murder (Corpse in the Waxworks);
more Henri Bencolin.
Joyce Cary (1888-1957), Aissa Saved.
Louis-Ferdinand Celine (1894-1961),
1933 Chinese Year: Chicken - the kind you choke? Time Mag. Man of the Year: Hugh Samuel Johnson (1882-1942), head of the Nat. Recovery Admin. (NRA). This is the stormiest year for the U.S. in the 20th cent. (21 storms). There are 9.69M Jews in Europe; by 1946 this is down to 3.712M (72% decrease)? On Jan. 1 the U.S. Marines withdraw from Nicaragua after 20 years (since 1912) after creating a supposedly apolitical Nicaraguan Nat. Guard, run by U.S.-educated Gen. Anastasio Somoza Garcia (1896-1956); liberal leader Juan Sacasa becomes pres. (until 1936). On Jan. 2 USC defeats Pittsburgh by 35-0 to win the 1933 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 2 the comic strip Nancy debuts, created by Earnest Paul "Ernie" Bushmiller Jr. (1905-82), about a chubby precocious 8-y.-o. girl with a red bow in her frizzy helmet hair, niece of flapper Fritzi Ritz; in Jan. 1938 her friend Sluggo Smith is introduced, and Fritzi Ritz and her beau Phil Fumble disappear. Fearless living, or, Is he a saint or a stalker, or, Do I look fat in this? On Jan. 4 a secret meeting hosted by Baron Kurt von Schroeder (1889-1966) between Fritz von Papen and Adolf Hitler, backed by industrialists Gustav Krupp (von Bohlen und Halbach) (1870-1950) and his son Alfried Krupp (von Bohlen und Halbach) (1907-67) brings Hitler to power in Germany after Gen. Kurt von Schleicher fails to conciliate the center and left and Hindenburg rejects a demand for yet another dissolution, and is forced to resign on Jan. 28; on Jan. 30 Hitler is appointed chancellor of Germany and Reichsstathalter of Prussia by Pres. Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934) at the urging of Franz von Papen, who becomes vice-chancellor; Thuringian interior minister (since 1930) Wilhelm Frick (1877-1946) becomes interior minister; gen. (who later becomes the first Field Marshal appointed by Hitler in 1936) Werner von Blomberg (1878-1946) becomes war minister (until 1938), becoming known as the "Rubber Lion" for his slavish devotion to Herr Hitler; Konstantin von Neurath (1873-1956) becomes minister of foreign affairs; Hermann Goering (1893-1946) becomes minister without portfolio (later Prussian PM), going on to get ideas of taking over the army by getting rid of Blomberg; laminated bowling-ball-bald Hans Heinrich Lammers (1879-1962) becomes police chief, soon rising to chief of the Reich Chancellery; non-Nazi nationalists Alfred Hugenberg (1865-1951) and Franz Seldte (1882-1947) are incl., but the Center Party doesn't cooperate; Bavaria's independence ends; Social Dem. leader Ernst Wolf Alexander Oskar von Harnack (1888-1945) (son of Adolf von Harnack) denounces the new govt. as "without goodness or grace", ending up in priz, and executed on Mar. 3, 1945; meanwhile Der Fuehrer (Fuhrer) uses German capitalist money from industrialist Friedrich Flick (1883-1972) et al. to put unemployed men in cool Nazi stormtrooper uniforms and march them around to shut down Jewish competition while his lieutenants Joseph Goebbels et al. run a slick modern propaganda machine spewing hatred and encouraging any and all prejudices against non-party members, who are clearly degenerate misfits not fit to take another breath; a well-coached, slick-dressing and yes, kind of handsome and striking actor waving his hands like a magician or orchestra conductor, he enthralls zombie-like crowds of inferior, er, master races with vague generalities about Der Volk, internat. Jewish banker-backed Communism and the *?!*? Versailles Treaty, and he's especially liked by the ladies for his chaste ascetic lifestyle and the way he kisses poon, er, babies?; the Nazi salute shows everybody how clean they keep their hands, and how they never never masturbate?; Hitler permits 10K Jews a year to emigrate to the British Mandate of Palestine (until 1941); Ireland's anti-Semitic British ambassador Charles Bewley works to keep Ireland closed to fleeing Jewish families; meanwhile former German ambassador (to the U.S.) Count von Bernstorff, who turned pacifist after WWI flees to Switzerland, and Cologne mayor (since 1917) Konrad Adenauer (a devout Roman Catholic who hates Nazis) refuses to shake a local Nazi leader's hand and ends up fleeing to the Maria Laach Abbey for a year, after which it is touch-and-go until Hitler's fall in 1945 - then why did you give him 250 marks? On Jan. 7 WWVA Jamboree debuts in Wheeling, W. Va., becoming the 2nd oldest country music radio show in the U.S. after the Grand Ole Opry., going on to feature Bill Jones and the Rhythm Rogues, Cowboy Loye (Loye Donald Pack), Hugh Cross, Shug Fisher, Frankie More and the Log Cabin Gang, Grandpa Jones, Doc Williams and the Border Riders, Joe Barker and the Chuck Wagon Gang, Harry C. "Big Slim" McAuliffe and the Happy Ranch Gang, Lew Childre, Floyd Tillman, Hank and Slim Newman, Chuck and Don, Handsome Bob and Happy Johnny, Slim Cox and His Flyin' X Roundup, Tex Harrison and the Texas Buckaroos, Gertrude Miller, Mary "Sunflower Calvas, Mary Ann Vestes, Chickie Williams, Shorty Fincher's Prairie Pals, Warren Caplinger, Hawkshaw Hawkins, Reed Dunn "the Singing Mountaineer", the Singing Sailors (Red Sovine and Johnnie Bailes), Millie Wayne, Charlie Monroe and His Kentucky Pardners, Honey and Sonny (Maxine and Nial Davis), Wilma Lee and Stoney Cooper, Red Belcher and the Kentucky Ridge Runners, Lee and Juanita Moore, Don Kidwell, Jimmy Walker, the Sunshine Boys, Mack Jeffers and His Fiddlin' Farmers, Hank Snow "the Yodeling Ranger", Ken Curtis, George Morgan, the Lilly Brothers, the Ritchie Brothers, Roy Scott, the Radio Rangerettes, Gay Schwing and His Gang from the Hills, Sidney "Hardrock" gunter, Joe and Shirley Barker, Doc and Chickie Williams, the Bailey Brothers and Their Happy Valley Boys, Jim and Jesse McReynolds, Hylo Brown, the Osborne Brothers, Bob Gallion, David Houston, Esco Hankins, Mac Wiseman, Buck Owens, Ray Price, Charlie Pride, Tammy Wynette, Kenny Roberts, Freddy Carr, Jimmie Stephens, Darnell Miller, Junior Norman, Kenny Biggs, Elmer Crowe, Gus Thomas, Slim Lehart, Bud Cutright, Jimmy Martin and the Sunny Mountain Boys, Charlie Moore, Bill Napier, Red Smiley and His Bluegrass Cutups, Tater Tate and the Shenandoah Cutups, Frank Necessary and the Stone Mountain Boys, the Blue Ridge Quartet, the Walter Bailes Singers, Dick Curless, Dave Dudley, Patti Powell, and Jerry Brightman; in the 1960s it becomes Jamboree U.S.A.; in 1997 it becomes a news/talk program; in 2009 it becomes the Wheeling Jamboree. On Jan. 8 a radical (anarchist, syndicalist) uprising in Barcelona, Spain spreads to many other large cities incl. Bilbao, Madrid, Saragossa, and Seville before it is suppressed; on Dec. 2 there are more anarchist uprisings in Catalonia and Aragon - you are open and now you are closed? On Jan. 12 a peasant revolt in the Spanish village of Casas Viejas is brutally suppressed, stinking up the govt., and on Apr. 23 municipal elections show a distinct veering to the right. On Jan. 12 the U.S. Congress recognizes the independence of the Philippines. On Jan. 13 the Greek cabinet of Panyotis Tsaldaris is defeated on its financial policy, and on Jan. 16 Venizelos becomes PM again, but is defeated in elections on Mar. 5 after dissolving Parliament, and repub. Gen. Nikolaos Plastiras attempts a coup; on Mar. 10 Tsaldaris becomes PM again (until 1935), with the Venizelists contuing to oppose him. On Jan. 21 the League of Nation rejects Japanese terms for settlement with China, and Japan withdraws from the League after a big speech by diplomat Yosuke Matsuoka (1880-1946). The Lame Duck Amendment is ratified, and guess who's the first lame duck? On Jan. 23 the Twentieth (20th) (XX) (Lame Duck) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, cutting almost 2 mo. off any future lame duck admin.; too bad that it goes into effect on Oct. 15, too late for FDR's first term? On Jan. 24 the Jewish Museum in Berlin, Germany is founded six days before the Nazis officially comie to power, built next to the Neue Synagogue on Oranienburger Strasse, it contains collections of Jewish art and history; it is shut down on Nov. 10, 1938 (Kristallnacht); in 1988 Polish-born Jewish-Am. architect Daniel Libeskind wins a competition to design a new one, which is finished in 1999 and opened to the public on Sept. 9, 2001 - talk about a bad place to house Jewish history? On Jan. 28 as talk of Indian independence set badly with him when he thought of having to be ruled by infidel Hindus his ancestors couldn't conquer, Pakistani Muslim nationalist Choudhry Rahmat Ali (1895-1951) in Cambridge, England pub. Now or Never, calling for the separation of the Muslim nation of Pakistan from India, naming it from the word "pak" in Persian and Urdu, meaning pure, along with P for Punjab, A for Afghania, K for Kashmir, S for Sindh, and tan from Baluchistan; too bad, when it is created, he gets pissed-off at its small size, and that he isn't acknowledged for coining the name, and when he visits Pakistan in Apr. 1948 he is promptly expelled by PM Liaqat Ali Khan, dying broke in Cambridge. On Jan. 30 The Lone Ranger, show, created by Detroit atty. George Washington Trendle (1884-1972) debuts on radio station WXYZ in Detroit, Mich., moving to the Mutual Broadcasting System and NBC's Blue Network (later ABC) (until Sept. 3, 1954), featuring the exploits of masked Texas Ranger Capt. Dan Reid, who starts out chasing the Butch Cavendish Hole in the Wall Gang, then reunites with childhood friend Tonto of the Potawatomi; George Seaton (1911-79), who plays the Lone Ranger invents the cry "Hi-yo Silver" because he can't whistle. On Jan. 30 German Jewish novelist Lion Feuchtwanger (1884-1958), who is being lionized on a speaking tour of the U.S. and is the guest of honor at a dinner hosted by German ambassador Friedrich Wilhelm von Prittwitz und Gaffron (1884-1955) receives the news that Hitler has become German chancellor; the next day Prittwitz resigns and tells him he better not return to Germany; sho' 'nuff, the Nazis ransack his house and destroy his mss., his books are put in the bonfire on May 1, his citizenship is stripped on Aug. 25, and he is designated "enemy of the Nazi state #1"; he moves to Sanary-sur-Mer, France, going on to expose Nazism by shooting lit. peas at them from the sidelines; too bad, he visits the Soviet Union in 1937 and lionizes Stalin and his show trials as great great great before returning to France, getting captured by the Germans in 1940, and escaping Camp des Milles to the forgiving U.S. In Jan. Edouard Daladier (1884-1970) becomes PM of France, but his govt. only lasts 7 mo. In Jan. German ambassador to the Soviet Union (since 1928) Herbert von Dirksen (1882-1955) tells Prince Bernard von Bulow of his concerns that the anti-Communist rhetoric of the Nazis might damage the good state of German-Soviet relations, and he replies: "The National Socialists faced with responsibility are naturally different people and follow a policy other than that which they have previously proclaimed. That's always been so and is the same with all parties"; in May Dirksen meets with Hitler, and tells him that he is allowing relations with the Soviet Union to deteriorate to an unacceptable extent, causing Hitler to inform him that he wants an anti-Soviet understanding with Poland, which Dirksen protests because it implies recognition of the German-Polish border; in Aug. Dirksen is warned by Soviet PM Vyacheslav Molotov that the state of German-Soviet relations would depend on how friendly the Reich chooses to be towards the Soviet Union; no surprise, in Oct. Dirksen is reassigned, becoming the German ambassador to Japan (until 1938). In Jan.-Mar. the Japanese invade Rehe (Jehol), leading to a May 31 truce signed at Tanggu which creates a DMZ in E Hebei province under Japanese domination. On Feb. 6 the 20th "lame duck" Amendment to the U.S. Constitution goes into effect, providing that Congress should convene annually on Jan. 3, and the pres. and vice-pres. are to take office on Jan. 20 after an election. On Feb. 6-7 (night) Lt. Frederic Margraff of the USS Ramapo, while sailing from Manila to San Diego measures a sea wave at 112 ft. (34 m.) high during a 68 knot hurricane, becoming the highest sea wave measured (until ?). On Feb. 9 (Thur.) the Oxford Union Society in England debates the big question "That this House will in no circumstances fight for its King and Country", and after five speakers, topped by pacifist atheist philosopher C.E.M. Joad (1891-1953), the motion passes by 275-153; Joad later flip-flops and backs the fight against Hitler, and converts to Christianity with the help of C.S. Lewis. On Feb. 11 Death Valley Nat. Monument is established by the U.S. govt., growing to 3.3M acres and becoming Death Valley Nat. Park in 1994, the biggest U.S. nat. park. On Feb. 13 fan dancer Blondie Boopadoop marries Dagwood Bumstead (comic strip by Chic Young). On Feb. 14-16 the Little Entente (formed 1920-1 by Czech., Romania, and Yugoslavia) meets in Geneva and drafts an org. pact for Czech. to resist Nazi agitation among its 3M Germans; on Oct. 4 the Sudeten Nat. Socialist (Nazi) Party, led by Konrad Henlein dissolves under govt. order, and reemerges as the Sudetendeutsche Partie, no longer calling for a Nazi state - just working for one? On Feb. 14 all banks in the state of Mich. close, giving warning of an impending U.S. bank crisis. On Feb. 15 an assassination attempt on pres.-elect Franklin Roosevelt is made by unemployed Italian immigrant bricklayer Giuseppe Zangara (b. 1900) in Bayfront Park in Miami, Fla., who takes five shots at FDR with a cheap pistol from 25 ft. away, missing by inches until Miami homemaker Lillian Cross jostles him, causing him to hit five bystanders incl. Chicago mayor (since 1931) Anton Joseph "Tony" Cermak (b. 1873), who dies on Mar. 6; anti-FDR journalist Westbrook Pegler comments that Zangara "hit the wrong man"; Zangara is executed five weeks later on Mar. 20; FDR's hero status helps propel his New Deal through Congress? On Feb. 17 Newsweek mag. begins pub. (until 2012) to compete with Time mag. On Feb. 20 the XXI (21st) (Repeal of Prohibition) amendment to the U.S. Constitution is sent by the 72nd Congress to the states for ratification. On Feb. 25 USS Ranger, the world's first aircraft carrier is launched in Va.; it can handle 75 aircraft. On Feb. 27 the German Reichstag (Wallot Palace) in Berlin (vacant since Dec.) burns and is gutted, and feeble-minded Dutch Communist Marinus van der Lubbe (1909-34) is caught by police in Bismarck Hall naked to the waist, confessing that he did it "as a protest"; Hitler calls it a "sign from heaven" that a Communist rising is beginning, and issues the Decree for the Protection of the People and the State on Feb. 28, getting 5K Communists rounded up, and four party leaders charged with complicity; a court in Leipzig acquits the four party leaders, but convicts van der Lubbe, who is executed next Jan. 10; the world believes the Nazis really did it, but later it is proved that van der Lubbe actually did it alone, and the Nazis only hampered the fire dept.; the Kroll Opera House becomes the new meeting place for the Reichstag until Apr. 26, 1942. On Feb. 28 R.I.-born opera baritone Nelson Ackerman Eddy (1901-67) is substituted at the last minute for diva Lotte Lehmann in a concert in Los Angeles, Calif., resulting in 18 curtain calls and launching his 19-feature film career, which he considers a booster for his concert career. In Feb. the first Brotherhood Day, promoted since 1929 by Roman Catholic priest Hugh W. McMenamin of Denver, Colo. is celebrated; by the 1940s it becomes Brotherhood Week, and in 1978 it becomes Brotherhood/Sisterhood Week, celebrated during the 3rd week of Feb., and sponsored by the Nat. Conference of Christians and Jews. On Mar. 2 (2:30 a.m.) the 8.4 Sanriku Earthquake causes a tsunami, destroying the Sanriku coast of the Tohoku region of Honshu, Japan, killing 3K, injuring 12K and destroying 7K homes. On Mar. 2 the 13K-acre Black Canyon of the Gunnison Nat. Monument 15 mi. E of Montrose, W Colo. is established, followed by Black Canyon of the Gunnison Nat. Park on Oct. 21, 1999; the canyon walls have exposed strata from the Archean Era? FDR begins his Hundred Days as Hitler begins his March Revolution and America begins its Anti-Alcohol Experiment? Sounds like a setup to divert the American public to fact that they're being Socialized? By early Mar. there are 13M unemployed in the U.S., and almost every bank is closed - hurry up Adolf and start a war? On Mar. 4 Hyde Park, N.Y.-born Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) (FDR) (pr. to rhyme with rose, although his 5th cousin Teddy Roosevelt's side of the house pronounces it to rhyme with roof) becomes the 32nd U.S. pres. (until Apr. 12, 1945) in the 43rd U.S. Pres. Inauguration (first disabled pres.) (C student at Harvard U.) (4th N.Y. state gov. after Teddy Roosevelt, Grover Cleveland, and Martin Van Buren, most of any state until ?); Red River County, Tex.-born John Nance "Cactus Jack" Garner IV (1868-1967) becomes the 32nd U.S. vice-pres.; Gen. Douglas MacArthur is the grand marshal of the inaugural parade; First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt Roosevelt (1884-1962) is a cigarette smoker; Stephen Tyree Early (1889-1951) becomes the first White House press secy. (until 1950); Herbert Hoover lives a record 31 years, 231 days after leaving office; FDR's First Inaugural Address announces his Good Neighbor Policy (term coined by Henry Clay) of respect for Latin Am. countries, with the soundbyte: "In the field of world policy I would dedicate this nation to the policy of the good neighbor, the neighbor who resolutely respects himself and, because he does so, respects the rights of others"; Damon Runyon writes the lead article on FDR's inauguration; Penn.-born Repub. railroad freight car manufacturer and coin collector William Hartman Woodin (1868-1934) b ecomes U.S. treasury secy., going on to implement bank holidays and take the U.S. off the gold standard, resigning on Dec. 31 due to poor health; FDR gives his campaign Brain Trust of liberal profs. positions in his admin. to jumpstart the ailing nation's economy by redistributing the wealth, incl. Raymond Charles Moley (1886-1975) (Columbia U. law prof. who invented the term "New Deal", and claims that with FDR capitalism was "saved in eight days", then breaks with him by midyear and becomes a conservative Repub. and bitter foe), Harvard Am. history prof. William Yandell Elliott (1896-1979) (later the mentor of Henry Kissinger), Adolf Augustus Berle Jr. (1895-1971) (pr. like burley), and Rexford Guy Tugwell (1891-1979) (agricultural economist, who is appointed gov. of Puerto Rico in 1941-6); Dem. Nat. Committee chmn. (since 1929) Jouett Shouse (1879-1968), hubby of Filene Dept. Store heiress Catherine Filene Dodd, who supported Alfred E. Smith over FDR, flip-flops and becomes pres. of the Assoc. Against the Prohibition Amendment, hastening the repeal of prohibition later in the year; meanwhile super-educated N.Y. construction czar (since the 1920s) Robert Moses (1888-1981) is given a blank check for construction projects in the New York City area, with 80K people working for him building large numbers of playgrounds and swimming pools, the Triborough Bridge, Brooklyn Battery Bridge et al., then attracting the U.N. to build its HQ in Manhattan instead of Philly, his power continuing through the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, during which time he develops a love affair for highways. On Mar. 6 the (66 + 6 + 1)? 73rd Congress (ends Jan. 3, 1935) (elected with him in Nov. 1932 and not scheduled to meet until this Dec.) begins a special session to deal with the nat. emergency of the Great Depression (a term he prefers to "panic"), beginning his Hundred Days (Mar. 4-June 16) of sweeping alphabet-soup "New Deal" legislation, which forever half-socializes the U.S. (the special session actually lasts 7.5 mo.); Frances Coralie Perkins (1882-1965) becomes the first woman to hold a U.S. cabinet-level position as U.S. labor secy. #4 (until 1945); U.S. Sen. (D-Tenn.) Cordell Hull (1871-1955) (author of the 1913 Federal income tax law) becomes U.S. secy. of state (until 1944), with Sumner Welles (1892-1961) as undersecy. (until 1943); former Progressive Party and Repub. Party thorn-in-the-side liberal Harold LeClair Ickes (1874-1952) becomes secy. of the interior and admin. of public works (until 1946), going on to disburse $3.3B of New Deal public works funds; Iowa State College grad. Henry Agard Wallace (1888-1965), ed. (since 1910) of Wallaces' Farmer (founded 1898) becomes agriculture secy. #11 (until 1940); William Christian Bullitt Jr. (1891-1967) (voted most brilliant in his 1913 Yale U. class) is appointed as the first U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union (until 1936); Claude Gernade Bowers (1878-1958) becomes U.S. ambassador to Spain (until 1939), going on to work to keep the U.S. out of the Spanish Civil War; FDR becomes the right man at the right time as he puts on a big act that he's solving the nation's problems while resisting calls to become a dictator? On Mar. 5 after Centrist leader Ludwig Kaas refuses compromise and the Reichstag is dissolved, new elections result in a record vote count (88.8% of the electorate, 39,343,331 votes), and give the Nazis 43.9% of the vote (17,277,328) and the Nationalists 8%, prompting Hitler to claim a "colossal victory"; the Nazis have 288 seats, the Socialists 120, the Communists (who lose 1M votes) 81 (who are barred from attending), the Centrists 74, the Nationalists 52, and others 23. On Mar. 6-9 after six states declare bank holidays on Mar. 1, and he proclaims a 10-bank holiday on Mar. 5, FDR declares a Nat. Bank Holiday, closing every bank in the U.S. until bank examiners can determine whether they are sound enough to reopen, giving depositors confidence; on Mar. 12 FDR gives his first fireside chat, On the Bank Crisis; on Mar. 13 banks begin to reopen, and most people decide to leave their money in them. On Mar. 10 an earthquake rocks Long Beach, Calif. The first shot of WWII was fired by the Jews? On Mar. 12 the Am. Jewish Congress announces a protest to be held at Madison Square Garden on Mar. 27, along with a Jewish Boycott of German Goods; on Mar. 23 20K Jews protest at New York City Hall; on Mar. 24 the British newspaper Daily Express carries the headline "Judea Declares War on Germany - Jews of All the World Unite - Boycott of German Goods - Mass Demonstration", describing it as a "holy war" against Germany; on Mar. 27 there are simultaneous protest rallies in New York City, Boston, Philly, Cleveland et al.; despite the boycott, many Jews continue to do business with Germany; meanwhile Zionist leaders see their chance in using the Nazi regime as the cause that will turn German Jews into Zionists and cause them to emigrate to Palestine, and Hitler strikes the secret Transfer Agreement with them to transfer German Jews to Palestine; too bad, the British demand that each Jew pay 1K pounds sterling upon arrival in Haifa or other ports in Palestine, causing Zionists to subvert the worldwide Jewish boycott of Germany in order to allow Jewish capital to leave with them via internat. merchandise transactions? On Mar. 12 Sachsenhausen (Oranienburg), the first German Nazi concentration camp opens N of Berlin, followed on Mar. 22 by Dachau concentration camp; homosexuals are identified by pink triangles on their stripey uniforms, Jews by yellow, and vagrants by black; Paragraph 175, which is passed this year making homosexuality a capital crime is left on the books for 24 years after the end of WWII, and many of the pink triangle POWs are kept in prison by the FRG, after which the pink triangle becomes the symbol of the gay movement, and it takes until 2002 for the German govt. to issue an official apology; by 1945 8M-10M are interned in concentration camps, and at least half die? On Mar. 16 the big Nazi V in Germany spooks the Belgian govt. to devote 150M francs to military fortifications along the Meuse River; in Dec. infantry term of services are extended from 7 to 18 mo. On Mar. 17 non-NSDAP member Hjalmar Schacht (1877-1970) (named Horace Greeley at birth, then changed to please a grandmother) becomes pres. of the German Reichsbank (until Jan. 1939), followed by minister of economics next Aug., going on to support public works programs and the "New Plan" to end foreign entanglements in the German economy in Sept. 1934, while financing rearmament via Mefo Bills; too bad, in Aug. 1935 he makes a speech denouncing the anti-Semitism of Julius Streicher, and resigns as economics minister in Nov. 1937, is sacked as Reichsbank pres. in 1939, and ends up getting caught trying to assassinate Hitler and end up in a concentration camp. On Mar. 19 the 1933 Portuguese Constitution is promulgated by Antonio de Oliveira Salazar to bolster his Estado Novo regime, becoming the world's first corporatist constitution, with a corporative chamber representing corps., schools and univs., colonies and municipalities; next constitution in 1976. On Mar. 21 Hitler and Hindenburg pay homage to Frederick the Great at the Potsdam Garrison Church in a ceremony attended by the Crown Prince; the parade is marked by "Hitler's weather", an uncanny luck of bright sunny skies whenever a Nazi ceremony is scheduled? On Mar. 22 the Cullen-Harrison (U.S. Beer-Wine Revenue) Act, sponsored by U.S. Sen. (D-Miss.) (1919-41) Byron Patton "Pat" Harrison (1881-1941) and U.S. Rep. (D-N.Y.) (1919-44) Thomas Henry Cullen (1868-1944) levies a $5 per barrel tax on beer and wine, and leaves states in control of the sale and distribution of liquor, permitting them to limit liquors to 3.2% alcoholic content; the measure stimulates widespread acceptance of FDR's admin. - somehow seems like he's buying the voters off? On Mar. 23 even though the Nazis don't have the two-thirds majority needed for overall rule, Hitler gets the Reichstag to pass the Enabling Act (Law for the Relief of the Distress of the People and the Reich), which gives him supreme dictatorial powers, allowing him to get around the German Constitution whenever he pleases; as soon as Hitler takes power, the Swastika Flag (co-opting an ancient religious symbol, from the Sanksrit for "to be good") is hoisted, all ministers are arrested, and all govt. offices are taken possession of by storm troopers; Paul Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945) is appointed head of the Ministry of Enlightenment and Propaganda, becoming Germany's grand censor; Baldur von Schirach (1907-74) becomes head of the Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend) (founded 1922), turning 10-y.-o. and older Aryans into anti-Semitic supermen soldiers for the Third Reich; all Nazis are released from prison, while all govt. critics are ordered jailed, to be tried in "Sondergerichte" (special Nazi kangaroo courts); rabbi Leo Baeck (1873-1956) becomes pres. of the Reichsvertretung der Deutschen Juden (Nat. Org. of German Jews), an umbrella org. (disbanded 1938). On Mar. 31 the U.S. Congress authorizes the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) AKA Roosevelt's Tree Army to give employment to 3.5M young people, going on to build 125K mi. of roads, 13.1K mi. of foot trails, and 3B trees by 1942; camps incl. Camp Hadley in Madison, Conn. - make-work in the name of the environment beats war? In Mar. Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss assumes quasi-dictatorial powers in Austria, dissolving the parliament; in June he dissolves the Austrian Nat. Socialist Party. In Mar. FDR invites his buddy Harry Lloyd Hopkins (1890-1946) to join his admin. as head of the Federal Emergency Relief Admin. (FERA), later the Civil Works Admin. (CWA), and Works Progress Admin. (WPA), going on to establish the Nat. Youth Admin. (NYA) and the Federal One programs for artists and writers; in May 1940 he moves into the Lincoln Bedroom at the White House, becoming FDR's first counsel for the war, directing the $50B Lend-Lease Program conceived by pro-Soviet Armand Hammer to fund Stalin. In Mar. Hitler's chaffeur-bodyguard Josef "Sepp" Dietrich (1892-1966) hand-picks 120 SS men for the Sonderkommando Berlin, growing to 800 by Nov. 8, when they swear personal allegiance to Hitler on the 10th anniv. of the Munich Beer Hall Putsch, and are given the name Leibstandarte (Bodyguard Regiment) Adolf Hitler (LAH); next Apr. 13 Heinrich Himmler gives them the name Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH); the Waffen-SS is created as the armed wing of the Nazi Schutzstaffel (Protective Squadron), starting with three regiments, growing to 38 divs. during WWII; it is never part of the Wehrmacht. On Apr. 1 in response to the worldwide Jewish boycott of German goods and an order by Hitler on Mar. 28, Nazi Germany begins its Jewish persecution by boycotting all Jewish-owned businesses for one day. On Apr. 4 U.S. dirigible Akron crashes off the N.J. coast, killing 73. One World Government fans watch with glee as the citizens of the U.S. are robbed by their own government, while the citizens of Germany are robbed of brainpower by theirs? On Apr. 5 U.S. Pres. Roosevelt commands all U.S. citizens to surrender their gold to the govt. at just $20.67 an oz. or face a 10-year prison sentence, then later devalues the dollar 40% by raising the price of gold to $35 an oz.; on Apr. 19 the U.S. goes off the gold standard; 445.5K golden Double Eagle coins minted this year are withheld from circulation and melted down, but a handful survive and become some of the most sought-after coins by collectors; on June 5 Congress voids all gold clauses in public and private debts. On Apr. 7 Nazi Germany passes a law banning Jews from civil service jobs (except if they served Germany in WWI), forcing Jewish professors out, ruining Gottingen U.'s math dept. et al., and ending Germany's supremacy in science; when Nazi education minister Bernhard Rust asks David Hilbert "How is mathematics at Gottingen, now that it is free of the Jewish influence?", he replies "There is no mathematics in Gottingen anymore." On Apr. 8 Western Australia, an agricultural state sick of federal taxes votes 2-1 to secede from the Australian Commonwealth, then next Mar. sends a petition to the king asking for secession, but the British Parliament refuses to accept it without approval of the Australian pop. as a whole. On Apr. 9 Peru adopts a new constitution, then in Apr. Pres. Cerro is assassinated, and and is replaced by Gen. Oscar Raimundo Benavides (1876-1945) (until 1939). On Apr. 22 the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei) (Secret State Police) is formed by Hermann Goering in Prussia, later joining the SS; "From its creation in 1933 until its death in May 1945, anyone living in Nazi controlled territory lived in fear of a visit from the Gestapo." (Rupert Butler) On Apr. 29 Croatian Peasant Party leader Vladimir "Vladko" Macek (1879-1964) is convicted of treason against the Yugoslavian govt. for wanting a Croatian state, and sentenced to three years, causing the mad Croatians to vow to get even; he is released after King Alexander's assassination in 1934. On Apr. 30 FDR appoints Ruth Bryan Owen (1885-1954), widow of William Jennings Bryan as the first female ambassador of the U.S., to Denmark (until 1936). In Apr. municipal elections in Spain give the right significant support. In Apr. Pope Pius XI inaugurates a holy year, which receives the endorsement of the U.S. pres. and his official family - after all, good Catholic Adolf Hitler is doing so well and all? In Apr. Adolf Hitler appoints Robert Ley (1890-1945) (a food chemist known for suffering a brain injury in a 1917 airplane crash in France which left him speaking with a stammer and suffering bouts of erratic behavior) as head of the new Deutsche Arbeitsfront (German Labor Front) (DAF), and in Nov. he establishes Strength Through Joy (Kraft durch Freude) (KdF) to bribe working class families with free vacations, entertainment and other perks in exchange for giving up trade unions and wage increases, going on to build the first cruise liners, the Wilhelm Gustloff and the Robert Ley, which take good little Nazies on Mediterranean cruises. In Apr. 1933 German eugenicist Alfred Ploetz (1860-1940) (1895 coiner of the term "racial hygiene" announces that the Nazis under Herr Hitler will finally bring about racial hygiene in the gorgeous Valley of the Sun, and interior minister Wilhelm Frick appoints him to an expert advisory committee, after which he joins the Nazi Party in 1937, flip-flopping on the Jews and finally getting his mind right about the superiority of the Aryan race before dying just in time to avoid seeing it all come unglued - love at 425 degrees? On May 2 all German trade unions (which had already been sacked and their officers arrested) are formally dissolved. On May 3 Nellie Tayloe Ross (1876-1977) (former gov. of Wyo.) beomes the first female dir. of the U.S. Mint, holding the post for 20 years. On May 4 after the Fascists in Finland found the Patriotic Nat. Movement, the govt. forbids political parties and groups to organize militarily. On May 6 the Nazis burn a ton of "Jewish" books, incl. the "smut" library of the Inst. for Sexual Research of Magnus Hirschfeld, "the Einstein of Sex", who ends up in exile in nice little Nice, Italy. On May 6 Ariz. Brewing Co. is founded in Phoenix, Ariz. (pop. 50K) by brothers Martin Fenster and Herman Fenster, who hire Pilsen Brewery brewmaster Oskar Scholz from Pilsen, Czech. as their brewmaster, launching Sunbru brand before selling-out on Apr. 11, 1934 to E.P. Baker of Aztec Brewing Co. in San Diego, Calif., who introduces Apache brand beer in 1934, followed by Elder Brau All Malt Beer in Jan. 1939, which changes its name to Ariz. Apache Beer in Mar. 1942 due to anti-German sentiment, growing from 15K barrels/year in 1942 to 185K barrels/year in 1952, with its flagship brand A-1 (introduced in Jan. 1943) becoming the biggest selling beer in Ariz. until Coors begins taking away their business; on Sept. 29, 1962 they introduce Lancers A-1, growing to 447K barrels/year in 1963, when they introduce Oberheit premium keg beer, which doesn't sell well; on Oct. 8, 1964 the co. is acquired by Carling Brewing Co. On May 7 the 100th anniv. of the birthday of German composer Johannes Brahms (1833-97) sees the Nazis suspect him of being Jewish (real name Abraham?). On May 10 the nationwide Action Against Un-German Spirit series of 34 public book burnings in Germany led by Joseph Goebbels incl. a crowd of 40K in Berlin, with Goebbels uttering the soundbyte: "No to decadence and moral corruption. Yes to decency and morality and state... The soul of the German people can again express itself. These flames not only illuminate the final end of an old era, they also light up the new "; Time mag. calls it a "bibliocaust", and Newsweek mag. calls it "a holocaust of books", becoming one of the first uses of the term holocaust in connection with Nazis; after hearing that her books were among those burned, Hellen Keller writes a Letter to the Student Body of Germany, with the soundbyte: "History has taught you nothing if you think you can kill ideas." On May 10 100K Jews led by WWI Maj. Gen. John Francis O'Ryan demonstrate against Hitler in New York City, with O'Ryan calling Hitler's policies "a challenge to civilization... a challenge to Christianity and its basic teaching... a challenge to the American spirit of fair play"; marchers carry signs reading "Hitler This is Not the Dark Ages" and "Judaism Will Survive Hitlerism"; 50K more march in Chicago, 20K in Philadelphia, and 10K in Cleveland. On May 12 the U.S. Federal Emergency Relief Act is passed, making $500M in emergency relief available to the new Federal Emergency Relief Admin. (FERA). On May 12 the U.S. Agricultural Adjustment Act is passed, providing for the licensing and taxing of farm product processors, and compensating farmers for not planting crops; it is declared unconstitutional on Jan. 6, 1936, causing the U.S. Soil Conservation Act to be passed - don't fence me in? On May 12 Switzerland bans the wearing of Nat. Socialist party uniforms. On May 17 the Associations Law is passed in Republican Spain, abolishing church schools and nationalizing church property, plus other restrictions on the church, causing Pope Pius XI to protest in his encyclical Delectissimi Nobis. On May 18 the U.S. Tenn. Valley Authority (TVA) Act is signed by FDR to provide cheap electric power, flood and erosion control, irrigation, etc. in the Tennessee River (Muscle Shoals) basin, which incl. parts of seven states, becoming the largest public power co. in the U.S.; chief architect is Roland A. Wank (1898-1970), a modernist from Hungary (until 1944). On May 20 Engelbert Dollfuss merges his Austrian Christian Social Party with the Heimwehr and other nationalist-conservative groups to form the Fatherland Front, and cracks down on the Republican Defense League of the Social Dems. (founded 1923); meanwhile in Oct. Nazi sympathizer Rudolf Dertill (1911-) unsuccessfully tries to assassinate him. The Nazis get the nation to work, cleaning up trash, Or, the original Star Drek? On May 20 the Nazis stage a midnight bonfire at the U. of Berlin, burning tens of thousands of "un-German" books by Erich Maria Remarque (1898-1970), Thomas Mann (1875-1955), Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), James Joyce (1882-1941), Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956), Albert Einstein (1879-1955), Maxim Gorky (1868-1936) et al.; they burn Remarque (who, while a true Aryan, is now labelled a Jew by Goebbels) in effigy in the Obernplatz (in front of the Berlin Opera House); the Nazis close the Bauhaus (founded 1919) in Dessau, and the Inst. of Sexual Science (founded 1919) in Berlin; architects Richard Neutra, Rudolph Schindler, Walter Gropius and Mies van de Rohe emigrate to the U.S., either ruining or saving the U.S. with modern Euro architecture. On May 26 Australia assumes authority over about one-third of the Antarctic continent, an area the size of Australia itself - I can see it from my front porch? On May 27 the U.S. Securities Act of 1933 is passed, forcing corporations to provide investors with info. by filing it with the FTC; it is drafted by the "Happy Hotdogs" Thomas Gardiner Corcoran (1900-81), James Mcauley Landis (1899-1964), and Benjamin Victor Cohen (1894-1983) (a prominent Zionist, who with Corcoran are called the Gold Dust Twins and make the cover of Time mag. on Sept. 12, 1938, with Cohen going on write the 1941 Lend-Lease Plan and the 1944 Dumbarton Oaks Agreements), who go on to draft the 1934 Securities Exchange Act, the 1935 Public Utilities Holding Co. Act, and the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act. On May 27 Japan announces it withdrawal from the League of Nations, effective in two years. On May 27 the Century of Progress Internat. Exposition (World's Fair) in Chicago, Ill. opens (until Oct. 31, 1934), featuring a series of 3-D murals by Thomas Hart Benton (1889-1975), which end up on permanent display in Columbus, Ind.; a weight-guessing man on the downtown lakefront is popular, as is fan dancer Sally Rand (1904-79). On May 29 after incorporating the Asir region into Saudi Arabia, and hoping to find oil, King Saud accepts a payment from the Standard Oil. Co. of Calif. of $170K in gold drilling rights for 60 years (later 66 years, until 1999), and merges Esso, Texaco and Mobil to form the Arabian Am. Oil Co. (Aramco). On June 6 after receiving U.S. Patent #1,909,537 on May 16, chemical co. magnate Richard Milton Hollingshead Jr (1900-75) opens the first drive-in movie theater on Adm. Wilson Blvd. at Airport Circle in Pennsauken, N.J.; it has 500 parking spaces and a 40'x50' screen; the first feature is Adolphe Menjou's "Wife Beware"; ad slogan: "The whole family is welcome, regardless of how noisy the children are"; it closes in 1936, but starts a craze. On June 12 the World Monetary and Economic Conference convenes in London (ends July 27) to deal with the Great Depression; Roosevelt torpedoes it with his refusal to agree to currency stabilization based on the gold standard, which the U.S. abandoned on June 5. On June 12 the Biblical Day of the Lord begins, according to English Bible-thumper Arthur E. Ware (1885-1978). On June 12-July 27 the London Monetary and Economic Conference ends in failure, causing Britain to go economically nationalist, promoting a "Buy British" campaign, and setting up an exchange equalization fund to control foreign exchanges, helping a slow recovery along. A mini-666 moment with 6-16-33? On June 16 the U.S. Banking Act of 1933 (Second Glass-Steagall Act) is signed by FDR, prohibiting interest payments for checking accounts, separating commercial and investment banking, and creating the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) (effective Jan. 1, 1934) - it works until 2008, then what happened? On June 16 the U.S. Farm Credit Act is passed. On June 16 the U.S. Emergency Railroad Transportation Act is passed, creating a federal coordinator of transportation. On June 16 the socialistic U.S. Nat. Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) is passed, calling for industry groups to draw up codes of fair competition to be approved by FDR, forcing them to spell out rules of operation, non-competition agreements, production restrictions, and min. prices, setting min. wage scales for men and women despite a 1923 Supreme Court ruling; dir. #1 is former U.S. Brig. Gen. ("Old Iron Pants") Hugh Samuel Johnson (1882-1942) (author of the 1917 U.S. Selective Draft Act), who enforces the new codes so enthusiastically using Mussolini's Fascism as a model that it creates a backlash, causing him to resign in 1934 and become a commentator for the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain; guess what, on May 27, 1935 the Supreme Court rules NIRA unconstitutional, pissing-off FDR, who utters the soundbyte: "The fundamental purposes and principles of the NIRA are sound. To abandon them is unthinkable. It would spell the return to industrial and labor chaos"; it is never replaced (until ?). On June 21 the Egyptian govt. of Isma'il Sidqi resigns, and the king rules without parliament through a council of ministers in the palace (until 1934). On June 26 Kraft Music Hall (originally the Kraft Program) debuts on NBC-radio (until 1971), with host Paul Samuel Whiteman (1890-1967) ("King of Jazz"), followed on Dec. 6, 1935 by Ford Bond, and on Jan. 2, 1936 by Bing Crosby (until May 9, 1946); it switches to TV in 1958. On June 30 the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) is founded in Los Angeles, Calif. by 18 actors incl. Gloria Stuart. In June the first Festival of Nations is held by the Internat. Inst. of Minn. in St. Paul, Minn. to promote multiculturalism. In June the Washington Post (founded 1877), one of the few non-Jewish-owned U.S. newspapers is purchased at a bankruptcy auction by Jewish financier (Federal Reserve chmn. in 1930-3) Eugene Isaac Meyer (1875-1959), and it stays in the family until ?. In June half-black German singer-dancer Hilarius "Lari" Gilges (b. 1909) is kidnapped, tortured, and murdered by the Gestapo and SS, becoming the first Nazi murder in Dusseldorf. On July 6 German boxing champ Max Schmeling marries blonde Czech actress Anny Ondra (Anna Sophia Ondrakova) (1903-87) (who appeared in Alfred Hitchcock's "The Manxman" and "Blackmail" in 1929), and they become Germany's #1 glam couple; Hitler's babe Eva Braun (1912-45) later admits to being jealous of her. On July 10 the first Police Radio System begins operating in Eastchester Township, N.Y. - shouldn't it be June 6, 1933 for apocalyptic reasons? On July 11 all Protestant churches in Germany are amalgamated in the German Evangelical Church. On July 14 the Nazi party is declared Germany's official party, and all other parties are banned; Jewish immigrants from Poland are stripped of German citizenship; forced sterlization is authorized for those found by a Hereditary Health Court to be defective. The more the Church changes the more it stays the same, 1933 edition? On July 20 after negotiations by cardinal (since 1921) Michael von Faulhaber (1869-1952) and cardinal (since 1929) Eugenio Pacelli (1876-1958) (future Pope Pius XII) (fueled by the dissolution of the Catholic Center Party, formed in the days of Bismarck to protect their rights), Eugenio Pacelli for the Vatican and vice-chancellor Franz von Papen for pres. Paul von Hindenburg of Germany sign the Reichskonkordat (Concordat Between the Vatican and Nazi Germany, later becoming one of the worst skeletons in the Vatican's closet; they did it to ensure that the Nazis won't do to them what they are doing to the Jews, or because they secretly want them to get rid of the Jews from Europe for them, and just have to keep from leaving anything incriminating?; "With the concordat we are hanged, without the concordat we are hanged, drawn and quartered" (Faulhaber); "I had to choose between an agreement and the virtual elimination of the Catholic Church in the Reich", "a pistol had been held to my head", and I was negotiating "with the Devil himself" (Pacelli); on Dec. 22 the Catholic bishops of Austria release the statement "The concordat recently concluded between the Holy See and Germany does not mean that the Catholic Church approves of the three fundamental errors of Nazism... race madness... violent anti-Semitism... extreme nationalism"; after Faulhaber utters the soundbyte "Let us not forget that we were saved not by German blood but by the blood of Christ", and speaks out against euthanasia, the Nazis turn on him, but when they invade the Soviet Union in 1941 he supports them since they're fighting godless Communists, and in June 20, 1945 he protests maltreatment of Nazi Party and Wehrmacht members by the Allies; on June 29, 1951 he ordains new priests Georg Ratzinger (1924-) and his brother Joseph Ratzinger (1927-), who later becomes Pope Benedict XVI. On July 15-22 Am. aviator Wiley Post (1898-1925) flies Winnie Mae (a Lockheed Vega) 15,596 mi. solo around the world in 7 days, 18 hours, 49.5 min. (21 hours less than his previous 2-pilot record), using a new radio compass developed by Sperry Gyroscope Co. for the U.S. Army; he is greeted by 50K at Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn, and gets another ticker-tape parade; he did the whole stunt to drum up financial backing for an aeronautical school? - I'm too wiley to share that post with a partner again? On July 16 Damien de Martel arrives in Syria as the new French high commissioner (until Jan. 1939). On July 21 the radio show Town Crier, featuring oft-quoted New York City drama critic (known for calling Los Angeles "seven suburbs in search of a city") Alexander "Aleck" Humphreys Woollcott (1887-1943) debuts on CBS (until Jan. 6, 1938); it opens with a bell ringing and the cry "Hear ye, hear ye!" On July 22 wealthy Tex. oil tycoon Charles Frederick Urschel (1890-1970) is kidnapped in Oklahoma City, Okla. by Memphis, Tenn.-born gangster Machine Gun Kelly (George Francis Barnes Jr.) (1895-1954), who takes him to a farmhouse in Paradise, Tex. and releases him on July 30 after a $200K ransom is paid; too bad, Urschel leaves clues and memorizes details that help the FBI track him down and capture him and his wife Kathryn Kelly on Sept. 26 in Memphis, Tenn., catching him without his Tommy gun, causing him to shout "Don't shoot, G-men!" and telling them, "I've been waiting all night for you" (coining the term "G-men"), after which he is the first person to be charged under the 1932 U.S. Little Lindbergh Law (Federal Kidnapping Act), receiving a life sentence after the first federal criminal trial in the U.S. in which cameras are allowed, the first prosecution in which defendants are transported by airplane, and the first major case solved by the FBI. On Aug. 7 the comic strip Alley Oop by Vincent T. Hamlin debuts. On Aug. 7-11 the Simele Massacre of Assyrians in N Iraq by the Iraq govt. kills 600-3K. On Aug. 27 after an Internat. Jewish Boycott Conference in Amsterdam demands that Germany restore Jews to their positions and they refuse, N.Y. Jewish atty. Samuel Untermeyer (who is elected pres.) pub. a declaration in the New York Times backing a worldwide boycott to destroy their export business in order to make Germany starve, since two-thirds of its food supply is imported and exports pay for it, with the soundbytes "Germany has been converted from a nation of culture into a veritable hell of cruel and savage beasts"; "The Jews are the aristocrats of the world. From time immemorial they have been persecuted and have seen their persecutors come and go. They alone have survived. And so will history repeat itself, but that furnishes no reason why we would permit this reversion of a once great nation to the Dark Ages"; "What we are proposing and have already gone far toward doing, is to prosecute a purely defensive economic boycott that will undermine the Hitler regime and bring the German people to their senses by destroying their export trade on which their very existence depends". On Aug. 30 U. of Chicago historian William Edward Dodd (1869-1940) becomes U.S. ambassador to Germany (until Dec. 29, 1937), soon realizing what the Nazis are doing to the Jews and being completely appalled, failing at all attempts at negotiations and resigning in disgust at being unable to move either them or FDR; "The last pure Jeffersonian to be found in America" (Max Lerner); "a babe-in-the-woods in the dark forests of Berlin." (Charles Callan Tansill) In Aug. Gen. Bakr Sidqi (1890-1937), a Kurdish Arab nationalist orders the Iraqi army to crush Assyrian separatists in Sumail (near Mosul), Iraq, killing 3K civilians and replacing the Iraqi civilian govt. with a military one, becoming the first coup d'etat in the Arab world; in Aug. the Simele Massacre of Christian Assyrians in N Iraq by the Muslim Iraq govt. sees 3K murdered in 63 villages in the Dohuk and Mosul districts, with atrocities incl. raping girls then burning them using Christian Bibles for fuel; now that that's taken care of, on Sept. 8 Faisal I (b. 1883) dies, and his 21-y.-o. pan-Arab nationalist son Ghazi (Arab. "warrior against infidels") I (1912-39) becomes king of Iraq (until Apr. 4, 1939), going on to sympathize with Nazi Germany and claim Kuwait for Iraq. In Aug. Ma Parkins, "America's mother of the air" debuts on WLW-Cincinnati, joining the NBC-Radio network (until 1960), starring abstemious Roman Catholic Virginia Payne (1909-77), who does the part to the end and grows into it. On Sept. 29 a new German law prohibits Jews from owning land. If there's an international Jewish conspiracy, here's where they beat Hitler? In Sept. the Reich Culture Chamber (Reichskulturkammer) is established in Germany, headed by Joseph Goebbels, with the goal of making all German culture "racially pure", and eliminating all that nasty tarty "entartung" (degeneracy) caused by Jewish Bolshevists; after taking a year to decide to chuck all modernism incl. Expressionism, it has 100K pure members by 1935. On Oct. 3-7 the New York Giants (NL) defeat the Washington Senators (AL) 4-1 to win the Thirtieth (30th) World Series; Jimmy Foxx and Chuck Klein become baseball's 4th and 5th players to win baseball's triple crown. On Oct. 5 Southern liberal historian William Edward Dodd (1869-1940), new U.S. ambassador to Germany (1933-7) gives a speech at the Am. Club in Berlin describing the New Deal's effect on the U.S. Constitutional system, with the soundbyte: "It was not revolution as men are prone to say. It was a popular expansion of governmental powers beyond all constitutional grants, and nearly all men everywhere hope the President may succeed; on Oct. 12 he gives a speech to the Am. Chamber of Commerce in Berlin, with Joseph Goebbels and Alfred Rosenberg in attendance, using an analogy based on Roman history to criticize the Nazis as "half-educated statesmen" who adopted the "arbitrary modes" of an ancient tyrant. On Oct. 10 Pres. Roosevelt invites Soviet Pres. Mikhail Kalinin to send an envoy to Washington, D.C. to work out the terms of official U.S. recognition of the Soviet Union, which three previous Repub. admins. and his own State Dept. opposed; on Nov. 7 Soviet foreign minister Maxim Litvinov arrives, and on Nov. 16 the recognition is made official, with a number of terms, incl. religious freedom for Americans resident in the Soviet Union, a Soviet promise to refrain from interfering with the internal affairs of the U.S. and to not allow any org. to reside on its territory with the purpose of overthrowing the political or social order of the U.S.; in return the U.S. cancels all Soviet debts except for $75M (which is never repaid). On Oct. 7 Air France is founded in Paris, France from a merger of Air Orient, Air Union, Compagnie Generale Aeropostale, Compagnie Internationale de Navigation Aerienne, and Societe Generale des Transport Aeriens; on June 26, 1945 it is nationalized; on Dec. 29, 1945 the French govt. gives it management of the entire French air transport network; in 1946 it opens its first air terminal at Les Invalides in Paris, and hires its first flight attendants. On Oct. 12 Indianapolis, Ind.-born bank robber John Herbert Dillinger (1903-34) escapes from a jail in Allen County, Ohio with the help of his gang, killing sheriff Jesse Sarber. On Oct. 14 Germany quits the League of Nations. On Oct. 14 New York Tribune sportswriter Stanley Woodward (1895-1965) coins the term "Ivy" in reference to elite Eastern U.S. colleges, with the soundbyte "A proportion of our eastern ivy colleges are meeting little fellows another Saturday before plunging into the strife and the turmoil"; he later admits to taking it from fellow sportswriter Caswell Adams. Mister Mayonnaise is a little slow sometimes? On Oct. 17 after renouncing his German citizenship, Albert Einstein arrives in the U.S., followed by 60K artists and ? scientists by 1939; on a visit to Palomar Observatory with his 2nd wife Elsa, they are told that the purpose of the equipment is to determine the scope and shape of the Universe, to which Elsa replies "My husband does that on the back of an old envelope." On Oct. 22 Pres. Herbert Hoover gives a campaign speech in Detroit, Mich., with the soundbyte "It can be demonstrated that the tide has turned and that the gigantic forces of depression are today in retreat. Our measures and policies have demonstrated their effectiveness. They have preserved the American people from certain chaos. They have preserved a final fortress of stability in the world." On Oct. 29 Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera (1903-36), son of late Spanish dictator (1923-30) Miguel Primo de Rivera founds a Fascist org. called the Falange Espanola (Spanish Phalanx); it starts out slow. In early Nov. 5'2" Greenwich Village, N.Y.-born Fiorello (It. "Little Flower") Henry (Enrico) La Guardia (1882-1947) beats Tammany Hall to become mayor of New York City, and is sworn-in as mayor #99 on Jan. 1 (until Dec. 31, 1945), going on to become "the Napoleon of New York", using his first 100 days in office to end corruption, replace patronage with merit-based civil service, modernize transportation and parks with the help of New Haven, Conn.-born Yale U., Columbia U., and Oxford U. grad Robert Moses (1888-1981), and restore the city's financial health and end dependence on banks; a Repub. who supports Dem. U.S. pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt, he is given 20% of the entire nat. U.S. Civil Works Admin. (CWA) budget for work relief; he names the lions in front of the N.Y. Public Library "Patience" and "Fortitude". On Nov. 8 king (since Oct. 16, 1929) Mohammed Nadir Shah (b. 1880) is assassinated in revenge for his execution of a political figure last year, and his son Mohammed (Muhammad) Zahir Shah (1914-2007) succeeds him as king of Afghanistan (until July 17, 1973), with his two paternal uncles sharing the position of PM and running the govt., beginning with Mohammad Hashim Khan (1885-1953) (Nov. 14, 1929-May 1946), who continues Nadir Shah's policies, followed in May 1946-Sept. 7, 1953 by Shah Mahmud Khan (1890-1953); meanwhile the king's cousin, exiled king Amanullah unsuccessfully plots to regain the throne from exile in Rome, eventually enlisting German aid - no Ark of the Covenant, no deal? On Nov. 12 Hitler receives 92% of the vote at the gen. election. On Nov. 16 U.S. aviator James Crawford "Jimmie" Angel (1899-1956) flies over 3,212-ft. Angel Falls (highest waterfall on Earth) in Venezuela in his El Rio Caroni monoplane, causing it to be named after him; on Dec. 20, 2009 Venezuelan pres. Hugo Chavez renames it Krepakupai Meru ("waterfall of the deepest place"). On Nov. 16 the U.S. resumes diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union for the first time since the overthrow of Kerensky in 1917, with FDR sending a telegram to Maxim Litvinov expressing that relations will "forever remain normal and friendly" - I'll drink to that? On Nov. 20 at FDR's urging the U.S. recognizes the Soviet Union - FDR out-Nevilled Neville Chamberlain? On Nov. 24 Germany passes a law permitting habitual criminals, homeless, beggars, unemployed, and alcoholics to be sent to concentration camps. In Nov. the Second Spanish Repub. (founded 1931) holds its first elections for the Cortes, and the rightists receive 44% of the seats, causing the leftist reform and land distribution program to begin faltering. In Nov. after joining the Nazi Party on May 1, and enjoying the burning of Jewish "un-German" and "anti-German" books, famed jurist and political thinker Carl Schmitt (1888-1985) is appointed pres. of the Union of National Socialist Jurists by Hermann Goering; too bad, after going on to demand that all traces of Judaism be extirpated from German law, he is expelled from his offices in Dec. 1936 for being a fake Nazi (more of an anti-Hegelian Catholic), and wishy-washy on white racism, although he never repudiates his Nazism. Just in time for Christmas, let the holiday cheer flow? On Dec. 5 Mormon-dominated Utah becomes the 36th state to ratify the Twenty-First (21st) (XXI) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, repealing the 18th Amendment and ending Prohibition (begun Jan. 16, 1920), and the U.S. goes wet, freeing the whole country from being a concentration camp for alcoholics (into being a concentration camp for drivers?); too bad, Prohibition reduces the number of U.S. breweries from 1100 in 1920 to 300 in 1933, which are whittled down to 50 by 1982. On Dec. 8 (Feast of the Immaculate Conception) Bernadette Soubirous of Lourdes (1844-79) is canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. On Dec. 23 the judgment is delivered at the Reichstag Fire Trial, and van der Lubbe is sentenced to death. On Dec. 26 the 1933 Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States is signed by 19 states, capping the Seventh Internat. Conference of Am. States, where FDR and U.S. state secy. Cordell Hull enunciate the Good Neighbor Policy, opposing armed U.S. intervention in inter-Am. affairs; it requires a viable state to have a permanent pop., a defined territory, a govt., and the "capacity to enter into relations with other states", adding "The political existence of the state is independent of recognition by the other states"; article 11 states that military force may not be used to obtain sovereignty; Sophonisba Preston Breckinridge (1866-1948) is the first U.S. female rep to an internat. conference; it becomes operative on Dec. 26, 1934. On Dec. 29 St. Petersburg, Russia-born contralto Irra Petina (1908-2000) makes her Metropolitan Opera debut as Schwertlejte in Wagner's "Die Walkuere", going on to be a hit as Marcellina in Mozart's "The Night of Figaro" and appear in Broadway productions incl. "Song of Norway" (1947), "Magdalena" (1948), "Hit the Trail" (1954), Candide (1957), and Anya (1965), becoming known as "the Floperetta Queen". You have overseas suppliers, they have overseas suppliers? In Dec. Ukrainian-born mystery milionaire promoter Serge Alexandre Stavisky (1886-1934) (who came to Paris in 1900 and became a French citizen in 1914), implicated in a fraudulent bond issue by the municipal pawnshop of Bayonne, France flees arrest and allegedly commits suicide next Jan. 8 in a snowbound Alpine villa in Chamonix when cornered, but might have been murdered by the police, causing Fascists and royalists to raise a stink about a govt. scandal and coverup reminiscent of the Dreyfus case; the case is never solved. In Dec. Princeton-educated James Burnham (1905-87), Dutch-born Rev. Abraham Johannes "A.J. Muste (1885-1967), and Sidney Hook (1902-89) form the Socialist Am. Workers Party (AWP), which calls for "an American approach" to Marxism, going on to pub. Labor Action and lead the successful 1934 Toledo Auto-Lite Strike, which helps launch the United Auto Workers Union; after Stalin's Great Purge wakes them up, Burnham and Hook later go conservative, fighting Communism. The Nazis win the Danzig elections. The Sergeant's Revolt of 1933 in Cuba, led by former stenographer Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar (1901-73) puts Dr. Roman Grau San Martin (1887-1969) in charge as pres. of a rev. govt. backed by students and Communist labor leaders, which only lasts 100 days (until 1934); Antonio Guiteras Holmes (1906-35) becomes war secy. Plutarco Calles's Mexican govt. adopts a Six-Year Plan of unradical socioeconomic legislation, going back on some of the radical reforms promised earlier. Norwegian minister of defense (1931-2) Vidkun Quisling (1887-1945) organizes a Nazi Party in Norway. Upper Volta is partitioned between Niger, Sudan, and Ivory Coast (ends 1947). Gen. Gabriel Terra uses threats of a rev. to seize power in Uruguay (until 1938). After Charles S. Johnson (1893-1956) of Fisk U. suggests it, FDR organizes the Black Cabinet, a cluster of black advisors; he never names a black to his real cabinet. Social Dem. leader Ernst Reuter is sent to a concentration camp by the Nazis, is released, rearrested, released again, and this time flees to England and then Turkey until the end of WWII. Germans in North Schleswig begin agitation in Denmark, but make few Nazi recruits. The Nazis begin banning books, listing 4.1K incl. works on "primitive Darwinism". Dictator Gen. Tiburcio Carias Andino elects himself pres. of Honduras (until 1933). Portugal adopts a new 1931 Portuguese Constitution, written by Antonio de Oliveira, replacing the bicameral Cortes Gerais (founded 1911) with a unicameral nat. assembly. After the repeal of Prohibition, the U.S. Immigration Service is renamed the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), and a review board of eggheads from Princeton U. and Yale U. is established to tame down its Wild West image, firing many inspectors for giving cowboy answers to exams, and mandating that they can no longer draw their weapons until fired upon, causing protests; with far fewer smugglers to go after, they go back to rounding up work-seeking Hispanics, killing diseased Mexican livestock, and cleaning the border like magic until the 1970s, when marijuana and cocaine smugglers put them back into the biz they love, and the title of Border Patrol Inspector is changed to Border Patrol Agent to seem cool like Bond? The Baltic-White Sea Canal is completed at the cost of tens of thousands of Soviet Gulag prisoners' lives. U.S. Adm. Richard E. Byrd begins his Second South Pole Expedition, making Little America his little birdie base again, and spending the winter (Mar.-Aug., 1934) alone in a shack 123 mi. to the S, then exploring Marie Byrd Land and returning to the U.S. in May, 1935. J. Maundy Gregory of the U.K. is charged with trafficking in honors, receiving mucho publicity. Popular Am. columnist Heywood Campbell Broun (1888-1939) founds the Am. Newspaper Guild for editorial employees; they drop the "American" bit in the 1970s. French-speaking Abidjan becomes the capital city of the French colony of Ivory Coast, making use of their new (1931) wharf to rapidly grow, with the 1951 Vridi Canal turning it into a major seaport; in 1983 Yamoussoukro becomes the official political capitol of Cote d'Ivoire, with Abidjan remaining the economic capital. Custodians of China's Forbidden City pack the city's art treasures into 20K boxes and ship them to Taipei, Taiwan to keep them from the Communists. Egypt passes its first labor laws protecting children, teens, and women. Ahmad Husayn forms the Young Egypt Party (Misr al-Fatat) in Cairo to promote Egyptian nationalism; in 1940 it becomes that Nationalist Islamic Party, and fields the Nazi-style hoodlum Green Shirts, causing the rival Wafdist Party to field the Blue Shirts. After becoming appalled by the genocide of 1M+ Armenians by the Ottoman Turks during WWI, along with the rise of the Nazis, Polish Jewish scholar Raphael Lemkin (1900-59) begins a crusade to the League of Nations to give internat. legal protection against ethnically-motivated genocide; too bad, they laugh him off, with one delegate claiming the crimes occur "too seldom to legislate"; he goes on to coin the word "genocide" in 1943 and become instrumental in creating the Dec. 9, 1948 U.N. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (ratified by the U.S. in 1988). The patriarchate of the Syriac Orthodox church moves to Homs, W Syria (ancient Emessa). The Soviet Union reverses its course and begins going socially to the right, starting with criminalizing homosexuality, which is connected with the Nazis. The Catholic Worker Movement is founded in New York City by Peter Maurin (1877-1949) and Dorothy Day (1897-1980); on May 1 they begin pub. The Catholic Worker to champion "the poor, the dispossessed, the exploited". The new Nazi govt. of Germany demands control of the patents and assets of Junkers Aircraft, and when founder Hugo Junkers balks, they take what they want next year and place him under house arrest until his 1935 death. The Warburg Inst. moves from Hamburg to London (incorporated into London U. in 1944). World film production: U.S.: 547, Britain: 169, France: 158, Germany: 127 (1932), Soviet Union: 44. British airplanes fly over Mt. Everest. Avg. winter temp at Spitsbergen in 1931-5: -8.6 deg C; in 1900-15: -17.6 deg C. The first sighting of Nessie, the Loch Ness Monster in Scotland since the year 565 C.E. is recorded - maybe he started the Reichstag Fire? The first drive-in restaurant opens in Camden, N.J. Budweiser begins using Clydesdale horses in promotions. Duke Ellington makes his first tour of Europe. Record producer John Hammond discovers Philly-born jazz vocalist Billie "Lady Day" Holiday (Eleanora Fagan Gough) (1915-59), who releases her first hit What a Little Moonlight Can Do. Russian choreographer George Ballanchine settles in the U.S., and helps (with Lincoln Kirstein) found the School of Am. Ballet, later the Am. Ballet Theatre (1940) and the New York City Ballet. Sergei Prokofiev returns to the Soviet Union after 15 years (1918). They're fleeing Germany to make Lebensraum for Nazi helmet-heads? Bruno Walter leaves Berlin for Vienna. Art in Nazi Germany is declared "gleichgeschaltet", and modernism is suppressed in favor of superficial realism, causing Vassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee to leave Germany for France and Switzerland; meanwhile German sculptor Arno Breker (1900-91) begins making manly nude statues for the Nazis, known for their "mighty momentum and willpower" (Alfred Rosenberg), going on to become the official state sculptor in 1937, complete with 1K assistants; Austrian Josef Thorak (1889-1952) becomes the other official Nazi sculptor, also preferring muscular neoclassical statues. Vienna-born Rudolf Steiner Anthroposophy student Walter Johannes Stein (1891-1957) emigrates to London, pushing theories about Wolfram von Eschenbach's Holy Grail narrative Parzival really being an esoteric document describing man's inner development path. Conductor Fritz Busch and his brother violinist Adolf Busch leave Germany. Converted Jewish chemist (1918 Nobel Chem. Prize winner) Fritz Haber resigns as dir. of the Inst. for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Kaiser Wilhelm Soc. and flees Germany after two other Jewish dept. heads are dismissed under Nazi pressure, while all German scientific research is saddled with new Nazi regs; between this year and 1940 almost one-third of the researchers and dirs. of the society are dismissed on racial or political grounds. The German Air Ministry (Reichsluftfahrtministerium) (RLM) is established to have control of all German aviation activities, implementing a standard system for aircraft designation et al.; meanwhile locomotive manufacturer Henschel and Son of Kassel, Germany sets up an aviation div. in Shchonefeld and Johannisthal, going on to produce the Henschel Hs 121 high-wing monopolane (first flight Jan. 4, 1934), Henschel Hs 122 radial-engine parasol wing recon aircraft (first flight 1935), Henschel Hs 123 single-seat biplane dive bomber (first flight May 8, 1935), Henschel Hs 126 two-seat recon aircraft, and the Henschel Hs 132 jet aircraft, with the pilot in a prone position (first flight 1945); it also manufactures the Panzer II, Tiger I, and Tiger II tanks. The Harvard Society of Fellows is established by outgoing Harvard U. pres. Abbott Lawrence Lowell to break the stranglehold of the German Ph.D., giving selected young scholars a 3-year free ride to study without having to get a Ph.D.; Junior Fellows incl. W.V. Quine (1936), B.F. Skinner (1936), John Bardeen (1938), Paul Samuelson (1940), Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. (43), McGeorge Bundy (1948), Thomas Kuhn (1951), Noam Chomsky (1955), E.O. Wilson (1956), and Marvin Minsky (1957); in 1972 Martha Nussbaum becomes the first female Junior Fellow. Am. economist Alvin Saunders Johnson (1874-1971) founds a fund for non-Nazi intellectuals fleeing Nazi Germany to the U.S., who form the nucleus of the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science of his New School for Social Research in New York City, which becomes known as the "University in Exile". Hitler bans the Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany, causing so many protest telegraphs to be received that they are delivered by the vanload; by 1945 10K JWs are incarcerated, of which 2K die, 2K end up disabled, and 6K return to door-knocking; while in priz they convert many Soviet POWs, who return to the Soviet Union and begin spreading the faith, causing the govt. to force them underground by 1950. Am. conservative writer (student of Woodrow Wilson at Princeton U.) David Lawrence (1888-1973) founds the weekly newspaper "United States News", which in 1948 becomes U.S. News and World Report, reaching 2M circ. by his 1973 death. After being let go by Harper & Bros. publishing co.'s children's dept., Virginia Kirkus (1893-1980) founds Kirkus Bookshop Services, which pub. Kirkus Reviews of pre-pub. books to help booksellers; after becoming a dominant force, she retires in 1962. The British Film Inst. is founded to preserve and promote British films, establishing the Nat. Film Library in 1935, which becomes the Nat. Film Archive in 1955, Nat. Film and Television Archive in 1993, and BFI Nat. Archive in 2006; in 1951-2007 it runs the BFI Southbank (Nat. Film Theatre); on Oct. 16-26, 1953 it holds the first BFI London Film Festival; in spring 1986 it holds the first BFI Flare: London LGBT Film Festival. Superman first appears in the science fiction story "The Reign of the Super-Man" by writer Jerome "Jerry" Siegel (1914-96) and artist Joseph "Joe" Shuster (1914-92), h.s. students in Cleveland, Ohio, who sell the character to Detective Comics (DC Comics) in 1938; the original Superman is a bald telepathic villain bent on dominating the world; Siegel invents the real one in 1934. Am. cartoonist Elmer Simms Campbell (1906-71) begins pub. his "Harem Girls" and other cartoons in Esquire mag., becoming the first African-Am. cartoonist to pub. in nat. distribution slick mags., going on to pub. work in almost every issue unti 1958, plus many other mags. and newspapers; his little joke is that he turns white men on with cartoons of gorgeous white women, even though he's black? The live "easy listening" music of Percy Faith (1908-76) of Canada becomes a hit on Canadian Broadcasting Corp.; in 1940 he moves to the U.S. and continues the hits. The original black, two Jews and a cripple? Chicago, Ill.-born Jewish clarinetist Benjamin David "Benny" Goodman (1909-86) organizes his own integrated jazz trio, which scores bigtime on Aug. 21, 1935 at the Palomar Ballroom in Hollywood, Calif., and by 1936 becomes the most popular jazz group in the U.S., adopting black music to a style that whites go for, initiating the Swing Music Era (ends 1946), and fueling the Jitterbug dance craze; the Benny Goodman Trio features Goodman on clarinet, Eugene Bertram "Gene" Krupa (1909-73) on drums, and light-tapping Theodore Shaw "Teddy" Wilson (1912-86) on piano, who is black, making public performances in front of white audiences a risk, but they chance it and the integrated band is accepted, opening da door for others, starting Ella Fitzgerald in 1936; in Nov. 1936 after John Hammond introduces him, Goodman adds xylophone player Lionel "Leo" "Hamp" Hampton (1908-2002) to make a quartet. Polish-born Artur Rodzinski (1892-1958) becomes conductor of the Cleveland Orchestra (until 1943), followed by the New York Philharmonic (until 1947), becoming a star on CBS Radio, and assembling the NBC Symphony Orchestra for David Sarnoff of RCA in 1937, which he debuts then hands over to Arturo Toscanini. English-born Am. comedian Leslie Townes "Bob" Hope (1903-2003) meets Bronx-raised bar singer Dolores Reade (DeFina) (1909-2011) after seeing her sing "Did You Ever See a Dream Walking" at the Vogue Club in New York City; they marry on Feb. 19, 1934, and end up in the longest star marriage in Hollywood history (until ?). Ottoman Imperial U. (founded 1870) is reorganized as Istanbul U.. Black Mountain College in Asheville, N.C. is founded (until 1957) by John Andrew Rice Jr. (1888-1968), becoming a leading progressive school that stresses the study of art and follows the principles of John Dewey; in 1941 it opens the Lake Eden campus; it later hosts R. Buckminster Fuller's first geodesic dome. English playwright Ashley Dukes (1885-1959) founds the Mercury Theatre in Notting Hill Gate, London, which goes on to stage the first performance of T.S. Eliot's "Murder in the Cathedral" in 1935, becoming the home of Ballet Rambert until 1987, run by his Warsaw, Poland-born wife Dame Marie "Mim" Rambert (Myriam Ramberg) (Cyvia Rambam) (1888-1982). Am. chess master Israel Albert Horowitz (1907-73) (inventor of the Horowitz Defense) founds The Chess Review mag. in Jan., with Isaac Kashdan as ed. #1 (until 1934), followed by Horowitz, becoming the #1 U.S. chess mag. until 1961, when the USCF founds Chess Life, after which they merge in Nov. 1969 to become Chess Life & Review. The Sons of the Pioneers is formed by ex-Del Monte fruit picker Roy Rogers (Leonard Franklin Slye) (1911-98), Bob Nolan (Robert Clarence Nobles) (1908-80), and Vernon Harold Timothy "Tim" Spencer (1908-74), later adding brothers Thomas Hubert "Hugh" Farr (1903-80) and Karl Farr (1909-61), Pat Brady (Robert Ellsworth Patrick Aloysious O'Brady) (1914-72), George Clinton "Shug" Fisher Jr. (1907-84) (1943-6, 1949-53, 1955-9), Ken Carson (Hubert Paul Flatt) (1914-94) (1943), Ken Curtis (Curtis Wain Gates) (1916-91) (son-in-law of dir. John Ford) (1949-53), Lloyd Wilson "Dobbs" "Mr. Pioneer" Perryman (1917-77), Pat Brady, Deuce Spriggens, Tommy Doss, Dale Warren, George Bamby, Rusty Richards, and Luther Nallie; on Aug. 8, 1934 (same day that Bing Crosby has his first session with them) they have their first session with Decca, recording Bob Nolan's Tumbling Tumbleweeds (originally "Tumbling Leaves"), going on to record 32 songs with Decca, , Columbia, and RCA Victor. Dreft, the first synthetic detergent for household use is introduced in the U.S. by P&G, who improve on it in 1946 with Tide. Adolf Hitler offers 500K marks to build the fastest racecar in the world, resulting in the Auto Union D-Type racecar, with a sleek streamlined design, AKA "the Hitler Porsche", which later becomes the Audi brand. Toyota is founded in Tokyo, Japan as a div. of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, producing the A1 and G1 passenger cars in 1935; in 2008 its sales exceed GM's, making it #1 in the world. Collins Radio Co. is founded in Cedar Rapids, Iowa by Arthur Andrew Collins (1909-87) to manufacture AM and shortwave radio equipment, gaining internat. fame by supplying a comm link with the South Pole expedition of Richard E. Byrd. Dreft brand detergent for infant clothing is first marketed. Sports: In Jan. the par-72 7,435-yad Augusta Nat. Golf Club in Augusta, Ga. opens, founded by Bobby Jones and Clifford Roberts; the 10th hole is the hardest; the 11th-12th-13th holes are called the Amen Corner; a second cut (short rough) is installed around the fairways in 1999; in 1956 Pres. Eisenhower hits the tree on the 17th hole several times, causing him to request it to be cut down, which is ignored, causing the tree to become known as the Eisenhower Tree (Pine); too bad, in Feb. 2014 after an ice storm it is cut down; next Mar. 22 it begins hosting the annual Masters Tournament; it takes until 1975 for them to allow blacks to compete, starting with Lee Elder, and until 1990 to admit African-Am. members; women are granted membership in Aug. 2012, starting with Condoleezza Rice and Darla Moore. On Mar. 24 Joe Falcaro is a no-show at an ABA Nat. Match Game championship in Buffalo, N.Y., causing Joe Miller (1900-58) of Buffalo, N.Y. to claim the title (until May 20, 1934). On Apr. 4-13 the 1933 Stanley Cup Finals (first best-of-four Finals Series) see the New York Rangers defeat the Toronto Maple Leafs 3-1, becoming their 2nd title. On May 30 the 1933 (21st) Indianapolis 500 is won by Louis Meyer (2nd win) with an avg. speed of 104.162 mph after Bill Cummings achieves the pole position with a speed of 118.521 mph; the deadliest Indy 500 (until ?), with five drivers killed, becoming the 5th straight year with a fatality. On June 29 in Long Island, N.Y. 6'8" 280-lb. Italian-born boxer Primo Carnera (1906-67), "the Ambling Alp" KOs 201-lb. Jack Sharkey in round 6 to become world heavyweight boxing champ #12 (until 1934). On July 6 the first ML Baseball All-Star Game is played in Comiskey Park as part of the Chicago World's Fair, and the AL defeats the NL 4-2; Babe Ruth hits the first homer of the game; poor hitter Lefty Gomez drives in the game's 1st run, and is the winning pitcher for the AL. On Dec. 17 the Chicago Bears defeat the New York Giants 23-21 in the first NFL Championship Game, becoming the NFL's official start; Red Grange of Chicago tackles Giants wingback Dale Burnett on his way to the winning TD in the game's last play. The Nat. Playing Fields Assoc. is founded in London to protect and preserve you know whats. Frederick J. Perry of England wins the U.S. Lawn Tennis Assoc. singles title, and Helen Hull Jacobs wins the women's title. George T. Dunlap Jr. wins the U.S. Golf Assoc. amateur title, and John George "Johnny" Goodman (1909-70) wins the U.S. Open, becoming the last amateur to win it (until ?). English driver Sir Malcolm Campbell (1885-1948) (knighted 1931) sets an automobile speed record of 272.46 mph. English aviator Amy Johnson (1903-41), accompanied by her husband James Allan Mollison becomes the first woman to make a nonstop transatlantic flight from Wales to the U.S. The Philadelphia Eagles NFL team is created by De Benneville "Bert" Bell (1895-1959) from the defunct Frankford Yellow Jackets (folded in 1931), and named after the eagle insignia of FDR's Nat. Recovery Act. The Pittsburgh Steelers (originally Pittsburgh Pirates) NFL team is founded on July 8 by "the Chief" Arthur Joseph "Art" Rooney (1901-88). A new rule is introduced into basketball requring teams to advance the ball over the half-court line in 10 sec. The All-Am. Soap Box Derby in Akron, Ohio is founded by Myron E. "Scotty" Scott (1907-98), and sponsored by Chevrolet starting in 1935; it admits girls starting in 1972 over Scott's objections, causing Chevy to drop it, and a non-profit org. to take over; Scott names the Corvette for Chevy in 1953. The Stroh's Bowling Team In 1933 the Stroh's Bowling Team is founded in Detroit, Mich. by Stroh Brewery, led by bowling star Joe Norris (1907-2001), with other players incl. Phil Bauman, Johnny Crimmins, Cass Grygier, and Walter Reppenhagen, winning the ABC nat. tournament in 1934, five Nat. Match Game titles in 1934-45, and the the first five World Match Game titles; in 1994 Norris becomes the oldest bowler in ABC history to roll a 300 game. Longacres Racetrack in Renton, Wash. opens, becoming the longest continually operated track on the West Coast until it closes in Sept. 1992; in 1935 it founds the Longacres Mile Handicap. Tokyo Racecourse in Fuchu, Tokyo is built, becoming the #1 Japanese horseracing venue. Architecture: Japanese-Am. sculptor Isamu Noguchi announces plans for a 1-mi.-wide U.S. Monument to the Plough, but it is never built. W. Holden designs the Senate House at the U. of London. The Palace of Nations in Geneva (begun 1929) is finished. Nobel Prizes: Starting this year the most Nobel laureates begin coming from the U.S. rather than Germany - our country's going to hell in a handbasket? Peace: Sir Ralph Norman Angell (1872-1967) (U.K.); Lit.: Ivan Alekeyevich Bunin (1870-1953) (Russia) (first Russian) (detained by the Nazis on his journey to Stockholm and forced to drink a bottle of castor oil to prove he wasn't smuggling jewels); Physics: Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schroedinger (Schrödinger) (1887-1961) (Austria) and Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902-84) (U.K.) [quantum physics]; Chem.: no award; Med.: Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945) (U.S.) [fruit fly chromosome map]. Inventions: On Aug. 11 the twin-boom 8-engine 120-passenger 11-crew 173'11"-wingspan Soviet Kalinin K-7 heavy experimental aircraft makes its first flight, using Soviet-made chrome-molybdenum steel; on toobad, it crashes on Nov. 21, killing all 14 aboard and one on the ground, causing the program to be scrapped amid accusations of sabotage. In fall the Soviet single-engine Bartini Stal-6 experimental fighter makes its first flight, designed by Italian-born Robert Ludvigovich Bartini (Roberto Oros di Bartini) (1897-1974), who emigrated to the Soviet Union in 1923 after turning Commie, and rose to head of amphibious experimental aircraft design in 1928, going on to set a Soviet air speed record. "Mr. Radio" Edwin Howard Armstrong (1890-1954) of the U.S. invents static-free Frequency Modulation (FM) radio broadcasting, which varies the carrier frequency while keeping the amplitude constant; he demonstrates it in 1935; RCA, which is heavily invested in the inferior AM radio technology gives him a hard time? Philo T. Farnsworth of the U.S. develops an electronic TV. The Iconoscope (Gr. "image observer"), the first electronic TV system is invented by Russian-Am. inventor Vladimir Kosma Zworykin (1889-1982) of RCA Victor Co. Dr. Ernest Illy develops the first automatic espresso machine. Denver, Colo. physician Earle Haas (1888-1981) patents the first Tampon with applicator on Sept. 12 (#1,926,900), selling it on Oct. 16 to Gertrude Tenderich (tender itch?) of Denver, Colo. for $32K, who founds the Tampax Co.; in 1935 Kimberly-Clark turns it down for $7.2K; the first deodorant tampon is introduced by Playtex in 1971; the Nat. Assoc. of Broadcasters bans them from TV until 1972. The Marconiphone Co. invents an all-metal radio tube. Frederick J. "Fred" Osius invents the Waring "Miracle Mixer" Blender, and in 1936 gets financing by jazz bandleader Fred Waring (1900-84), introducing it in 1937 for $29.75 retail, changing peoples' eating habits. Steenbergen Co. of Germany introduces Exakta, the first 35mm single-lens reflex (SLR) camera, with a trapezium shape. Fluorescent lamps are introduced for floodlighting and advertising. Windex brand glass cleaning solution is invented by Harry R. Drackett (1885-1948), with a 100% solvent formula that is so flammable it is sold in metal cans; after WWII it is reformulated using surfactants; on Aug. 26, 1969 Melvin E. Stonebraker and Samuel P. Wise receive U.S. patent #3,463,735 for an improved formulation that is cheaper to manufacture and can be sold in glass bottles with a plastic sprayer; in 1989 it is a 5% ammonia solution; too bad, the trademark goes generic. Science: Richard Kuhn (1900-67) and Julius Wagner von Jauregg (1857-1940) of Austria and Albert Szent-Gyorgyi (1893-1986) of Hungary recognize riboflavin as a vitamin (B2). Norwegian economist Ragnar Anton Kittil Frisch (1895-1973), 1926 founder of the discipline of Econometrics coins the distinction between macroeconomics and microeconomics, introduces the Frisch-Waugh (Frisch-Waugh-Lovell) Theorem, and develops the theory of impulse-propagation business cycles, winning him a share of the first-ever Nobel Econ. Prize in 1969. Hungarian-born Am. mathematician John von Neumann (1903-57) (one of the four members of the Inst. of Advanced Study along with Albert Einstein, Kurt Godel, and Erwin Panofsky) solves Hilbert's Fifth Problem, the case of compact groups. Polish-born Tadeusz Reichstein (1897-1996) of Switzerland synthesizes pure Vitamin C from orange juice crystals. Serotonin, AKA enteramine is discovered. The Steinheim Skull is discovered in a gravel pit near Stuttgart, Germany, causing the theory that the Neanderthal Man is in the line of descent of Homo sapiens to be rejected - it just took one? The Los Lunas Decalogue Stone is discovered on Hidden Mt. near Los Lunas, N.M., allegedly containing an abridged vesion of the Hebrew Ten Commandments complete with YHWH tetragrammaton; an obvious fake planted by Mormons to bolster their theories of the Lost Tribes of Israel migration to the Americas? After computing the avg. mass of galaxies inside the Coma galaxy cluster to be 160x what is expected from their luminosity alone, Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky (1898-1974) proposes Dark Matter, which isn't widely accepted until 1998 - too many racial undertones? Nonfiction: James Truslow Adams (1878-1949), Henry Adams. Herbert Sebastian Agar (1897-1980), The People's Choice: From Washington to Harding - A Study in Democracy (Pulitzer Prize). Sir Norman Angell (1872-1967), The Great Illusion; rev. ed. of his 1909 work, claiming that economics won't prevent a world war but that it's a futile way for a nation to enrich itself, gaining him the 1933 Nobel Peace Prize; his idea that integration of the economies of the Euro countries makes war between them futile is adopted after WWI by a deliberate attempt to up the integration to the max. Herbert Asbury (1889-1963), The Barbary Coast: An Informal History of the San Francisco Underworld. Gaston Bachelard (1884-1962), Les Intuitions Atomistiques: Essai de Classification. Ernest William Barnes (1874-1953), Scientific Theory and Religion; English mathematician-scientist turns theologian and pontificates. James Phinney Baxter III (1893-1975), The Introduction of the Ironclad Warship. Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901-72), Theoretical Biology. Edwin Garrigues Boring (1886-1968), The Physical Dimensions of Consciousness; splits with his alter teacher Edward B. Titchener with a monist physicalism perspective. Sir William Henry Bragg (1862-1942), The Universe of Light. James Henry Breasted (1865-1935), The Dawn of Conscience; makes a fan of Sigmund Freud; "It has now become a sinister commonplace in the life of the post-war generation that man has never had any hesitation in applying his increasing mechanical power to the destruction of his own kind. The World War has now demonstrated the appalling possibilities of man's mechanical power of destruction. The only force that can successfully oppose it is the human conscience - something which the younger generation is accustomed to regard as a fixed group of outworn scruples. Everyone knows that man's amazing mechanical power is the product of a long evolution, but it is not commonly realized that this is also true of the social force which we call conscience - although with this important difference: as the oldest known implement-making creature man has been fashioning destructive weapons for possibly a million years, whereas conscience emerged as a social force less than five thousand years ago. One development has far outrun the other; because one is old, while the other has hardly begun and still has infinite possibilities before it. May we not consciously set our hands to the task of further developing this new-born conscience until it becomes a manifestation of good will, strong enough to throttle the surviving savage in us? That task should surely be far less difficult than the one our savage ancestors actually achieved: the creation of a conscience in a world where, in the beginning, none existed." Vera Brittain (1893-1970), Testament of Youth (autobio.); covers the years 1913-25; British WWI nurse tells how WWI impacted the lives of women and the civilian pop. in Britain, and how she struggled to forge an independent career afterwards; "The causes of wars are always falsely represented, its honour dishonest and its glory meretricious." Charles Dunbar Broad (1887-1971), An Examination of McTaggar's Philosophy (2 vols.) (1933, 1938). William Cabell Bruce (1860-1946), Imaginary Conversations with Franklin. Edward Hastings Chamberlin (1899-1967), The Theory of Monopolistic Competition: A Reorientation of the Theory of Value, based on the monopoly theory of Antoine Augustin Cournot and the concept of marginal revenue; he has his class at Harvard U. engage in an experiment to illustrate how prices don't necessarily reach equilibrium, concluding that most market prices are determined by monopolistic and competitive forces, founding Experimental Economics; along with Joan Robinson and Joe Staten Bain, he founds the Structure-Conduct-Performance Paradigm, which is later criticized by game theorists until Paul Krugman rehabilitates it; the start of modern Industrial Org. Economics, which concentrates on industry in general, studying barriers to entry, market concentration and power, and rate of profit. Winston Churchill (1874-1965), Marlborough, His Life and Times (1933-8). Felix Solomon Cohen (1907-53), Ethical Systems and Legal Ideals. R.G. Collingwood (1889-1943), Roman Britain; rev. ed. George Dangerfield (1904-86), Bengal Mutiny: The Story of the Sepoy Rebellion (first book). Christopher Henry Dawson (1889-1970), The Spirit of the Oxford Movement; Enquiries into Religion and Culture. Floyd Dell (1887-1969), Homecoming (autobio.). Tyler Dennett (1883-1949), John Hay: From Poetry to Politics (Pulitzer Prize). Norman Douglas (1868-1953), Looking Back (autobio.). W. Dubislaw, Nature Philosophy. Will Durant (1885-1981), The Tragedy of Russia. Lili Elbe (1882-1931), Man into Woman (autobio.) (posth.). Mircea Eliade (1907-86), The Comparative History of Yoga Techniques. T.S. Eliot (1888-1965), The Use of Poetry and the Use of Criticism. Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber (1869-1952), Judaism-Christendom-Germanism; anti-Nazi. Carroll Lane Fenton (1900-), The World of Fossils. Guglielmo Ferrero (1871-1942), Peace and War. Leo Frobenius (1873-1938), Kulturgeschichte Afrikas: Prolegomena zu Einer Historischen Gestaltlehre. John Frederick Charles Fuller (1878-1966), Grant and Lee: A Study in Personality and Generalship; disses the Lost Cause myth and the deification of Gen. Robert E. Lee. Pyotr Gannushkin (1873-1933), Manifestations of Psychopathies: Statics, Dynamics, and Systematic Aspects (posth.); major work defining psychopathies (personality disorders). Eric Rowland Gill (1882-1940), Beauty Looks after Herself (essays). Romano Guardini, Man and His Faith; forget man and his history, trust to God and His Providence? Eugen Hadamovsky (1904-45), Radio as Means of Political Leadership; pro-Nazi. J.B.S. Haldane (1892-1964), Science and Human Life. Granville Hicks, The Great Tradition: An Interpretation of American Literature. Sidney Hook (1902-89), Towards the Understanding of Karl Marx: A Revolutionary Interpretation. Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952), Hypnosis and Suggestibility: An Experimental Approach; proves that hypnosis is not sleep, founding modern hypnosis research. Am. Humanist Assoc., Humanist Manifesto I; "The time has come for widespread recognition of the radical changes in religious beliefs throughout the modern world... Religious humanists regard the universe as self-existing and not created." Sir James Jeans (1877-1946), The New Background of Science. James Weldon Johnson (1871-1938), Along This Way (autobio.). Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961), Modern Man in Search of a Soul; Psychology and Religion. Jean Jusserand (1855-1932), What Me Befell (autobio.) (posth.). Arthur Kallet (1902-72) and Frederick Schlink, 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs: Dangers in Everyday Foods, Drugs and Cosmetics; "...intended not only to report dangerous and largely unsuspected conditions affecting food, drugs, and cosmetics, but also, so far as possible, to give the consumer some measure of defense against such conditions." Lionel Charles Knights (1906-97), How Many Children Had Lady Macbeth?; satirizes top English Shakespearean scholar Andrew Cecil Bradley (1851-1935) for being over-pedantic. Alfred Korzybski (1879-1950), Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-Aristotelean Systems and General Semantics; describes his new field of General Semantics (Humanology) (Human Engineering), with the motto "The map is not the territory", a dog biscuit tastes yummy if you're told it's baked by grandma, which rejects the black-or-white isolated-object approach and accepts the interdependence and fluidity of Nature, accepting abstractions only as simplifications of what is going on, replacing 2-valued logic with infinite-valued non-elementalistic logic; used by L. Ron Hubbard in his "Dianetics"; in 1938 Korzybski founds the Inst. for General Semantics in Chicago, Ill., which in 1946 moves to Lakeville, Conn. James Laurence Laughlin (1850-1933), The Federal Reserve Act: Its Origins and Problems. Franz Lawaszeck, Technology and Economy in the Third Reich: A Program for Work; calls for an end to capitalism and its replacement by state corporatism, then calls for elimination of coal as fuel and its replacement by hydo and wind power as steps toward a "hydrogen society". Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge (1851-1940), My Philosophy. John Masefield (1878-1967), The Conway: From Her Foundation to the Present Day. Edgar Lee Masters (1868-1950), The Tale of Chicago. Shailer Mathews (1863-1941), Immortality and the Cosmic Process. Elton Mayo (1880-1949), The Human Problems of an Industralized Civilization; the need for workers to belong to a group vs. the need of mgrs. for cost and efficiency. Perry G.E. Miller (1905-63), Orthodoxy in Massachusetts, 1630-1650 (first book). Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973), Epistemological Problems of Economics; "The science of human action that strives for universally valid knowledge is the theoretical system whose hitherto best elaborated branch is economics. In all of its branches this science is a priori, not empirical. Like logic and mathematics, it is not derived from experience; it is prior to experience. It is, as it were, the logic of action and deed." John Moody (1868-1958), The Long Road Home (autobio.); his conversion to Roman Catholicism. Sir James A.H. Murray (1837-1915) (ed.), Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary (with intro. and bibliography); The Shorter Oxford Dictionary (2 vols.). Arthur Cecil Pigou (1877-1959), The Theory of Unemployment; claims that excessive govt. intervention in the labor market along with a minimum wage causes massive unemployment. Bertil Ohlin (1899-1979), Interregional and International Trade; developed with his Stockhom School of Economics teacher Eli Heckscher (1879-1952); proposes the Heckscher-Ohlin Model of Internat. Trade, which claims that countries will export products that use their abundant and cheap factors of production, and import products that use their scarce factors of production - take away, take away this ball and chain? Hermann Oncken (1869-1946), Das Deutsche Reich und die Vorgeschichte des Weltkrieges (2 vols.); history of Germany after 1870; dissed by the Nazis as being too liberal and fair. George Orwell (1903-50), Down and Out in Paris and London (first book); his bohemian life as a struggling writer suffering from poor health and poverty, yoo yoo yoo - what next, Marxism? Charles Petrie (1895-1977), Monarchy; The Stuart Pretenders: A History of the Jacobite Movement; Mussolini. John Cowper Powys (1872-1963), A Philosophy of Solitude. Otto Rank (1884-1939), Modern Education. Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957), Character Analysis; argues that character structures are orgs. of resistance by which people avoid facing their neuroses, and are sustained biologically as body types via unconscious muscular contraction; The Mass Psychology of Fascism; how the rise of Fascism is a symptom of sexual repression. Joan Robinson (1903-83), The Economics of Imperfect Competition; coins the term "monopsony". Alfred Sherwood Romer (1894-1973), Vertebrate Paleontology; proposes the Romer Classification, which lays the foundation for the traditional classification of vertebrates and becomes a std. textbook. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945), Looking Forward (Mar.); his reasons for the Great Depression and his New Deal. Arthur M. Schlesinger Sr. (1888-1965), The Rise of the City, 1878-1898. William Buehler Seabrook (1884-1945), Air Adventure. Rudolf von Sebottendorf (1875-1945), Before Hitler Came: Documents from the Early Days of the National Socialist Movement; the founder of the Thule Society, which spawned the Nazi Party after WWI tells too much, and his book is banned and he is arrested, then escapes to Turkey, working as a double agent for the British in 1942-5? Nathan Soderblom (1866-1931), The Living God (1931 Gifford Lectures). Gertrude Stein (1874-1946), The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (1877-1967); written in six weeks; muses over the disappearance of writer Elliot Harold Paul (1891-1958), a friend of hers and James Joyce who abruptly left Paris for Santa Eulalia, Spain on Ibiza Island after suffering a nervous breakdown until the Spanish Civil War made him return in 1937 - a bird's eye view? Robert Franklin Stroud (1890-1963), Diseases of Canaries; by a solitary confinement prisoner in Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary, who becomes known as "the Birdman of Alcatraz"; followed by "Stroud's Digest on the Diseases of Birds". Charles Sackett Sydnor (1898-1954), Slavery in Mississippi; avoids the temptation for propganda for a balanced perspective, causing African-Am. historian Carter G. Woodson to comment that the author "apparently endeavored to write with restraint and care." Junichiro Tanizaki (1886-1965), In Praise of Shadows. James Thurber (1894-1961), My Life and Hard Times (autobio.); "I suppose that the high-water mark of my youth in Columbus, Ohio, was the night the bed fell on my father." Leon Trotsky (1879-1940), History of the Russian Revolution. Sir John W. Wheeler-Bennett (1902-75), The Wreck of Reparations, Being The Political Background of the Lausanne Agreement, 1932; intro. by Sir Walter Layton. Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947), Adventures of Ideas. Alexander Woollcott (1887-1943), While Rome Burns (Dec. 31) (essays). Stefan Zweig (1881-1942), Marie Antoinette: Portrait of an Average Woman; filmed in 1938. Music: Fred Astaire (1899-1987) and Ginger Rogers (1911-95), Smoke Gets in Your Eyes; from the musical "Roberta". Gene Autry (1907-98), The Last Round-Up; The Life of Jimmie Rodgers; That Silver-Haired Daddy of Mine (with Jimmy Long (5M copies). Sir Granville Bantock (1868-1946), Prometheus Unbound; based on the poem by Percy Bysshe Shelley. Ernest Bloch (1880-1959), Avodath Ha-Kodesh Sacred Service. Aaron Copland (1900-90), The Short Symphony. Henry Dixon Cowell (1897-1965), Six Casual Developments. Bing Crosby (1903-77), Auf Wiedersehen, My Dear; Where the Blue of the Night; Did You Ever See a Dream Walking? Duke Ellington (1899-1974), Sophisticated Lady. Ruth Etting (1896-1978), Dancing in the Moonlight. Florrie Forde (1875-1940), Pack Up Your Troubles/ It's a Long Way to Tipperary. Jean Francaix (1912-97), String Trio; Quatuor a Vents (woodwind quartet); Beach (ballet). Roy Harris (1898-1979), Symphony No. 1. Arthur Honegger (1892-1955), La Belle de Moudon. Andre Jolivet (1905-74), Mana; six parts for piano, each named after objects his teacher Edgard Varese left with him before moving to the U.S. Isham Jones (1894-1956), You've Got Me Crying Again; Old Lace; Something Seems to Tell Me; You're Welcome; Bubbles in the Wine. Jerome Kern (1885-1945), Roberta (New York). Irving King, Try a Little Tenderness. Paul von Klenau (1883-1946), Michael Kohlhaas (opera). Franz Lahar (1870-1948), Giuditta (operetta) (Vienna); incl. Meine Lippen sie Kuessen so Heiss (You Give Me Hot Lips?). Leonide Massine (1896-1979), Les Presages (Présages); the world's first symphonic ballet, based on Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 5, pissing-off musical purists. Pola Negri (1897-1987), Paradis. Ray Noble (1903-78) and His Orchestra featuring Al Bowlly (1899-1941), Hustlin' and Bustlin' for Baby (Mar. 16); Love is the Sweetest Thing; #1 in the U.S. Charlie Palloy, Stormy Weather. Walter Piston (1894-1976), Principles of Harmonic Analysis - or, white men have no rhythm? Peter DeRose (1900-53), Deep Purple; starts out as a piano piece, after which Mitchell Parish adds lyrics in 1938; a favorite of Babe Ruth, who has DeRose perform it at his birthday parties for 10 years; "When the deep purple falls over sleepy garden walls/ And the stars begin to twinkle in the sky/ In the mist of a memory you wander back to me/ Breathing my name with a sigh". Jimmie Rodgers (1897-1933), Blue Yodel No. 12 (May 17); Jimmie Rodgers' Last Blue Yodel (May 18); too bad, he dies on May 26 of TB contracted in 1924. Richard Strauss (1864-1949) and Hugo von Hofmannsthal (1874-1929), Arabella (Sachsisches Staatstheater, Dresden) (July 1); Arabella, her sister Zdenka, their parents Count Waldner and Adelaide, the Fiakermilli, belle of the Coachmen's Ball. Art Tatum (1909-56), Tiger Rag; best piano ever recorded? Rudy Vallee (1901-86), Don't Blame Me (July 7); by Jimmy McHugh and Dorothy Fields, used in the musical "Clowns in Clover". Conrad Veidt (1893-1943), Where the Lighthouse Shines Across the Bay; from the film "F.P.1"; becomes a British hit in 1980. Ethel Waters (1896-1977), Stormy Weather (#1 in the U.S.). Harry Warren (1893-1981) and Al Dubin, We're In the Money; featured in "Gold Diggers of 1933"; lyrics incl. "We're in the money!/ We're in the money!/ We've got a lot of what it takes to get along!/ We're in the money!/ The skies are sunny!/ Ol' Man Depression, you are through, you done us wrong". Victor Young and His Orchestra, Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?; from the Walt Disney cartoon "The Three Little Pigs". Movies: Alfred E. Green's Baby Face (July 1) (Warner Bros.), written by Darryl F. Zanuck under the alias Mark Canfield, about young woman Lily Powers (Barbara Stanwyck) leaving Erie, Penn. for the Big Apple and sleeping to the top using her womanly wiles while quoting Nietzsche; banned by the New York censorship board, causing Warner Bros. to recall it and cut 5 min. to pass the censors, becoming an excuse to impose the 1934 Hays Code; the full-length version is discovered in 2005 in the nitrate vault of Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio. Raoul Walsh's The Bowery (Oct. 7) (20th Cent. Pictures), based on the novel by Michael L. Simmons about the Bowery in the Gay Nineties, "the Livest Mile on the Face of the Globe" stars Wallace Beery as saloon owner Chuck Connors, and George Raft as rival saloon owner Steve Brodie, first man to jump off the Brooklyn Bridge (who gets in a great fight scene with Raft), along with Jackie Cooper as Swipes McGurk, Fay Wray as Lucy Calhoun, and Pert Kelton as Trixie Odbray; the film debut (uncredited) of Jamestown, N.Y.-born Lucille Desiree Ball (1911-89), who is picked to be a Goldwyn Girl this year, and ends up under contract to RKO, where she becomes known as "Queen of the Bs" for her many small parts, moving to MGM after marrying Desi Arnaz in Nov. 1940, and ending up with her own TV show "I Love Lucy" (1951), which rockets her to the top with her own studio Desilu Productions; she dyes her hair red with expensive henna donated by a Saudi sheik. Frank Lloyd's Cavalcade (Jan. 7), based on the 1931 Noel Coward play traces the lives of the British Marryot family from Queen Victoria to the Great Depression. Robert Z. Leonard's Dancing Lady (Nov. 24) is the film debut of Fred Astaire (Frederick Austerlitz) (1899-1987), and the first of nine onscreen pairings of Clark Gable and Joan Crawford (1905-77); also stars Franchot Tone, May Robson, Winnie Lightner, and Ted Healy and the Three Stooges (Moe, Larry, and Curly); does $2.4M box office on a $923K budget; features the songs Heigh Ho, and The Gang's All Here. G.W. Pabst's Don Quixote is filmed in German, English and French versions. Leo McCarey's Duck Soup (Nov. 17) (Paramount) is the last Marx Brothers comedy to feature Zeppo, and the 5th and last released by Paramount after mediocre box office; features "King of the Slow Burn" comedic actor Edgar Livingston Kennedy (1890-1948) as a lemonade vendor; contains the lines: "Take a card. You can keep it. I've got fifty-one left"; "What is it that has four pairs of pants, lives in Philadelphia, and it never rains but it pours?"; "My husband is dead. - I'll bet he's just using that as an excuse"; "This is a gala day for you. - That's plenty. I don't think I could manage more than one gal a day." Gustav Machaty's Ecstasy (Symphony of Love) stars Hedy Kiesler as a young Czech woman married to an old fart who goes for a young stud, and incl. some nude scenes; she is later discovered in Hollywood and changes her name to Hedy Lamarr - she gives what to lamers? Dudley Murphy's Emperor Jones (Sept. 29), based on the Eugene O'Neill play stars black superman Paul Robeson as an Am. railway porter who kills a man in a gambling dispute then escapes the chain gang to Haiti, where he convinces the superstious nig, er, locals that he has superhuman powers and becomes their emperor until he goes insane with guilt. Clyde Bruckman's The Fatal Glass of Beer (Mar. 3) (Paramount Pictures) stars W.C. Fields as Mr. Snavely, Rosemary Theby as Mrs. Snavely, George Chandler as Chester Snavely, and Richard Cramer as Constale Posthlewhistle; "And it ain't a fit night out for man or beast" (Fields). Thornton Freeland's Flying Down to Rio (Dec. 29) stars Dolores Del Rio as Belinha De Rezende, and Gene Raymond as Roger Bond, making a Hollywood star of "Can't act - can't sing - balding - dances a little" Fred Astaire (Frederick Austerlitz) (1899-1987) in his first onscreen pairing with Ginger Rogers (Virginia Katherine McMath) (1911-95) as Fred Ayres and Honey Hale, becoming their first of nine RKO musicals and one at MGM; does $1.55M box office on a $462K budget; Astaire-Rogers musicals incl. Mark Sandrich's The Gay Divorcee (1934), William A. Seiter's Roberta (1935), Mark Sandrich's Top Hat (1935), Follow the Fleet (1936), George Stevens' Swing Time (1936), Mark Sandrich's Shall We Dance? (1937), Mark Sandrich's Carefree (1938), H.C. Potter's The Story of Vernon and Irene Castle (1939), and Charles Walters' The Barkleys of Broadway (1949); "Fred gave Ginger class, while Ginger gave Fred sex appeal." Lloyd Bacon's Footlight Parade (Oct. 21) stars James Cagney as Chester Kent, who creates live prologues for talkies; also stars Dick Powell as Scotty Blair, and Ruby Keeler as Bea; Busby Berkeley dance routines feature a 20K gal./min waterfall; filmed before the 1934 Hays Code, it has multiple references to prostitution, and features the super-sexy women-are-for-you-know-what number By a Waterfall, staged on a special soundstage constructed by Warner Bros. for Busby Berkeley, one of the largest ever built; "You've laid yourself wide open for a crack, we'll let it go." Lloyd Bacon's 42nd Street (Mar. 9) (produced by Darryl F. Zanuck), based on the 1932 novel by Bradford Ropes stars Dick Powell (1904-63) and Ruby Keeler (1909-93), along with Warner Baxter, Bebe Daniels, and Ginger Rogers in a backstage movie musical choreographed by genius Busby Berkeley (1895-1976) that resurrects the movie musical genre and saves Warner Brothers from bankruptcy in the depths of the Great Depression; it boosts FDR and his New Deal, and the 42nd St. Special publicity train that starts in Denver, Colo. arrives in Washington, D.C. on Mar. 4, his inauguration day; Bacon becomes dir. after Mervyn LeRoy gets sick; at the end Powell and Keeler lower a screen reading "Asbestos"; incl. the songs Shuffle Off to Buffalo, Young and Healthy, and 42nd Street (finale) ("Come and meet those dancing feet/ On the avenue I'm taking you to/ 42nd Street"), by Al Dubin and Harry Warren (Salvatore Antonio Guarana) (1893-1981), the first U.S. composer to compose primarily for films, who joins Warner Brothers and goes on to write scores for 33 musicals (incl. 18 with Berkeley), then moves to 20th Cent. Fox in 1940, then MGM in 1944, followed by Paramount in the early 1950s. Mervyn LeRoy's Gold Diggers of 1933 (May 27) about the Broadway musical business struggling during the Depression is yet another Busby Berkeley-choreographed musical, a sequel to 1929's "Gold Diggers of Broadway", based on a play by Avery Hopwood; stars Dick Powell as rich Boston scion Robert Treat Bradford AKA Brad Roberts, who sneaks to New York City to become a songwriter and performer, and Ruby Keeler as his performer babe Polly Parker, who Brad's family thinks is a you know what; Warren William plays Brad's snooty brother J. Lawrence Bradford; Guy Kibbee plays lawyer Faneuil H. "Fanny" Peabody; also stars Ginger Rogers, Joan Blondell, and Aline MacMahon as gold diggers Fay, Carol, and Trixie ("Another look with those bedroom eyes and I'll break your leg"); Ned Sparks plays ever-broke producer Barney Hopkins, producing "Forgotten Melody"; features Billy Barty playing a child who looks up a girl's dress and raises the curtain on naked showgirls, also Powell using a can opener to get Keeler out of an iron maiden, all pissing-off the Catholic Legion of Decency, which ramps up pressure for enforcing the 1930 Production Code, getting it done by next year; the opening features Ginger Rogers introducing the song Were in the Money, by by Harry Warren (1893-1981) and Al Dubin in a showy musical with girls dressed up like you know what, singing the chorus in Pig Latin ("We're in the money, we're in the money, we've got a lot of what it takes to get along/ We're in the money, the sky is sunny, Old Man Depression, you are through doing us wrong"); also features the songs Pettin' in the Park, The Shadow Waltz, and Rem Hans Steinhoff's Hitlerjunge Quex is a Nazi propaganda film showing how great it is to camp out where it doesn't need brains just brawn. Walter Lantz's and Bill Nolan's B&W cartoon Ham and Eggs (June 19) (Universal Pictures) stars Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, who works as a chef with a girl beagle waitress. Norman Walker's The House of Trent (Dec.) stars Anne Grey, John Stuart, and Wendy Barrie, and is the film debut of English actress Estelle Winwood (1883-1984), who goes on to live to 101 and die as the oldest living SAG member. Wesley Ruggles' I'm No Angel (Oct. 6) is Mae West's 3rd film, and 2nd film with Cary Grant, who plays a playboy to her circus floozy with a maid named Beulah; having a life-long fantasy of being a lion tamer, she refuses a stunt double and goes into a lion cage armed only with a whip; "A story about a gal who lost her reputation - and never missed it"; "Beulah, peel me a grape"; the advent of motion picture ratings causes her to begin using double entendres, incl. the famous soundbyte, "Is that a pistol in your pocket or are you happy to see me?" A. Edward Sutherland's International House (May 27), set in the Internat. House Hotel in Wuhu, China (200 mi. from Shanghai) stars W.C. Fields as Prof. Henry R. Quail, and Peggy Hopkins Joyce as herself; a W.C. Fields punchline about Joyce sitting on her pussy upsets the Hays Office, which begins censoring films next year. Charles Chauvel's In the Wake of the Bounty (Mar. 15) (Australia's first sound feature) is the film debut of Tasmanian-born actor Errol Leslie Flynn (1909-59) as Fletcher Christian, wearing a blonde wig. James Whale's The Invisible Man (Nov. 13), written by Robert Cedric Sherriff stars Claude Rains, who is turned into a raving megalomaniac by invisibility drugs; Gloria Stuart plays Flora Cranley; "We'll start with a few murders. Big men. Little men. Just to show we make no distinction." Victor Saville's B&W I Was a Spy (Sept. 4) (Gaumont British Pictue Corp.) (Fox Film Corp.), based on the 1932 memoir by Marthe Cnockaert stars Madeleine Carroll as a Belgian nurse in occupied Belgium in 1914 who passes intel to the British and falls for German Commandant Oberaertz (Conrad Veidt); Herbert Mashall co-stars as Stephan. Benjamin Stoloff's Joe Palooka (Jan. 26), based on the Ham Fisher comic strip stars Manhattan, N.Y.-born James Francis "Jimmy" "the Schnozzola" Durante (1893-1980) as boxing mgr. Knobby Walsh (Junior), who sings his theme song Inka Dinka Doo; also stars Lupe Velez. Rene Clair's July 14th (Quatorze Juliet) (Apr. 17) stars Jorge Rigaud and Anabella Rigaud as a taxi driver and a flower girl who meet on Bastille Day and fall in love. Jack Hays' Kid in Africa (Oct. 6) stars Shirley Temple as Madame Cradlebait, and Danny Boone Jr. as Diaperzan; it features a non-PC scene where Shirley is stewed in a pot by African baby savages. Merian C. Cooper's and Ernest B. Schoedsack's King Kong: The Eighth Wonder of the World (Mar. 2) stars a 50-ft. monster ape (brought to life by Willis O'Brien) brought from Skull Island by Carl Denham (Robert Armstrong) and John Driscoll (Bruce Cabot) to New York City on Capt. Englehorn's ship Venture; Kong kidnaps Ann Darrow, played by "Queen of Screams" Fay Wray (1907-2004), and is shot down from the top of the Empire State Bldg. by four biplanes; Denham speaks the epitaph "It wasn't the airplanes, it was beauty killed the beast"; Edgar Wallace goes to Hollywood to work on the film, but dies before it is completed; freelance actor Cabot goes on to a long career as a supporting actor, losing the role of the Ringo Kid in "Stagecoach" (1939) to John Wayne, which launches Wayne's superstar career, after which they become friends; brings in $1.85M on a $672K budget. Max Ophuls' Liebelei, based on the Arthur Schnitzler play is about an ill-fated love affair. William A. Wellman's Lilly Turner (May 13), based on the 1932 George Francis Abbott play stars Ruth Chatterton as Lilly Turner "Queenie" Dixon, cootchy dancer wife of a carnival magician, who makes her pregnant then reveals he's got another wife, after which she marries alcoholic carnival barker Dave Dixon (Frank McHugh) and join a travelling medicine show, where the psycho strongman chases her, until nice guy young engineer Bob Chandler (George Brent) comes along, giving her her big chance. George Cukor's Little Women (RKO) (Nov. 16), based on the 1868 Louisa May Alcott novel stars Katharine Hepburn as Jo, Joan Bennett as Amy, Frances Dee as Meg, Jean Parker as Beth, Edna May Oliver as Aunt March, Spring Byington as Marmee, Samuel S. Hinds as Mr. March, and a couple more johns, breaking box office records; does $2M box office on a $424K budget. Walter Lang's Meet the Baron (Oct. 20) is an MGM musical staring Jack Pearl as Baron Munchausen, Jimmy Durante as Joe McGoo, ZaSu Pitts, and the Three Stooges; incl. the risque semi-nude shower number Clean As a Whistle. Lowell Sherman's Morning Glory (Aug. 18) (RKO Radio Pictures), written by Howard J. Green based on a play by Zoe Akins stars Katharine Hepburn as small town aspiring stage actress Eva Lovelace, who finds love and fame in the big city with Joseph Sheridan (Douglas Fairbanks Jr.) and Louis Easton (Adolphe Menjou), netting her a best actress Oscar in her 2nd year in Hollywood; Hepburn's 3rd film; does $582K box office on a $239K budget. Alexander Korda's B&W The Private Life of Henry VIII (Aug. 17) (London Film Productions) stars Charles Laughton and a cast of thousands of bimbos, headed by Merle Oberon as Anne Boleyn, Wendy Barrie as Jane Seymour, Elsa Lanchester as Anne of Cleves, Binnie Barnes as Catherine Howard, and Everley Gregg (film debut) as Catherine Parr; first British film to be nominated for best picture Oscar; a best actor Oscar makes Laughton a star who gets all the parts he wants; does Ł750K box office on a Ł65K budget; "Six wives, and the best of them's the worst." Woodbridge S. Van Dyke's The Prizefighter and the Lady (Nov. 10) ("Every Woman's Man") stars Myrna Loy, Walter Huston, Max Baer, Jack Dempsey, Jess Willard, James J. Jeffries, and Primo Carnera, who balks at throwing the climax bout to Baer, causing a script rewrite. Rouben Mamoulian's Queen Christina ' stars Greta Garbo, along with John Gilbert (b. 1895) in his 2nd to last film ("The Captain Hates the Sea"), and his only successful talkie; too bad, his slide is unstoppable, speeded-up by alcoholism, and he dies in 1936 a has-been. Robert N. Bradbury's Riders of Destiny (Oct. 10) (Monogram Pictures) is a Western musical starring John Wayne as Singin' Sandy Saunders (2nd singing cowboy after Ken Maynard in 1929), who wears a black 10-gal. hat, and whose voice is dubbed by the dir.'s son, becoming Wayne's first pairing with George "Gabby" Hayes. Frank Borzage's Secrets (Mar. 16) stars Leslie Howard, and Mary Pickford in her last screen appearance after it loses money. Arthur Hoerl's The Shadow Laughs (Mar. 27), based on a 1931 story by Walter B. Gibson stars Hal Skelly, Rose Hobart, and Harry T. Morey, and is the film debut of closet gay Latin lover Cesar Julio Romero Jr. (1907-94), son of Cuban nat. hero Jose Marti's daughter Maria Mantilla. Lowell Sherman's She Done Him Wrong (Feb. 9) stars Mae West as 1890s saloon gal Lil in a screen version of her 1928 Broadway hit "Diamond Lil", along with unknown actor Cary Grant (whom she discovered on the lot one day - don't ask) in his screen debut; West sings I Like a Guy What Takes His Time, I Wonder Where My Easy Rider's Gone, Silver Threads Among the Gold, Masie, My Pretty Daisy, and Frankie and Johnny ("She was her man, but he done her wrong"). Fritz Lang's The Testament of Dr. Mabuse is about an evil genius (the Dr.) who hypnotizes the dir. of an asylum; "This film meant to show Hitler's terror methods as in a parable. The slogans and beliefs of the Third Reich were placed in the mouths of criminals"; after it is banned by the Nazis, he flees from Berlin to Paris in 1934. Jack Buchanan's That's a Good Girl (Sept. 29) is a musical starring Buchanan as Jack Barrow, and Elsie Randolph as Joy Dean. The Walt Disney animated film The Three Little Pigs (May 27) launches the hit song Who's Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf? by Frank Churchill and Ann Ronell. John Ford's Wee Willie Winkie (July 30), based on a story by Rudyard Kipling stars Shirley Temple, Victor MacLaglen, and Caesar Romero in 19th cent. British India; next year 20th Cent. Fox is awarded Ł3.5K in a lawsuit against British novelist Graham Greene for a sexually suggestive review in his mag. "Night and Day", ruining it. Art: Balthus (1908-2001), La Rue; La Toilette (Chambre) de Cathie; La Caserne; Alice dans le Miroir; charming obscenity? Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), Bowl of Fruit. Salvador Dali (1904-89), The Phenomenon of Ecstasy (photomontage) - isn't an ear fetish great? Max Ernst (1891-1976), Birth of Zoomorph Couple; Europe After the Rain I. Alberto Giacometti (1901-66), The Palace at Four A.M. (sculpture). Rene Magritte (1898-1967), Elective Affinities. Man Ray (1890-1976), Veiled Erotic (photo); modelled by Meret Oppenheim. Diego Rivera (1886-1957), Frescos in Rivera Court, Detroit, Mich.; 27 panels incl. two murals of the action on an auto assembly line? Kurt Schwitters (1887-1948), The Merzbau; a grotto-like transformation of his family house on 5 Waldhausenstrasse, Hannover with collages, begun in 1923 and continued until he flees to Norway in 1937. Poetry: Mary Valentine Ackland (1906-69) and Sylvia Townsend Warner (1893-1978), Whether a Dove or Seagull. Vicente Aleixandre (1898-1977), Destruction or Love. William Faulkner (1897-1962), A Green Bough. Kahlil Gibran (1883-1931), The Garden of the Prophet; Lazarus and His Beloved (posth.). Alain Grandbois (1900-75), Ne a Quebec: Louis Jolliet. Horace Gregory (1898-1982), No Retreat. Daniel Whitehead Hickey, Thirteen Sonnets of Georgia. Robinson Jeffers (1887-1962), Give Your Heart to the Hawks and Other Poems. Wyndham Lewis (1882-1957), One-Way Song. Archibald MacLeish (1892-1982), Conquistador (Pulitzer Prize). Edgar Lee Masters (1868-1950), The Serpent in the Wilderness. John Masefield (1878-1967), The Bird of Dawning. Robert Nathan (1894-1985), One More Spring. Edwin Arlington Robinson (1869-1935), Talifer. Amanda McKittrick Ros (1860-1939), Fumes of Formation; incl. "Visiting Westminster Abbey", which begins "Holy Moses! Have a look!/ Flesh decayed in every nook!" Stephen Sender (1909-95), Poems. Julian Tuwim (1894-1953), A Gypsy Bible; Burning Matter. Giuseppe Ungaretti (1888-1970), The Feeling of Time (Sentimento del Tempo). William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), The Winding Stair; "My Soul. I summon to the winding ancient stair;/ Set all your mind upon the steep ascent,/ Upon the broken, crumbling battlement,/ Upon the breathless starlit air." Plays: Marcel Achard (1899-1974), The Woman in White (La Femme en Blanc). Maxwell Anderson (1888-1959), Both Your Houses (Mar. 6) (Royal Theatre, New York) (72 perf.) (Pulitzer Prize); his magnum opus?; title comes from Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet"; stars Morris Carnovsky as Levering, Russell Collins as Peebles, Mary Philips as Bus, and J. Edward Bromberg as Wingblatt. Jean Anouilh (1910-87), Mandarine. W.H. Auden (1907-73), The Dance of Death (1-act play). Samuel Behrman (1893-1973), Biography. Jacinto Benavente y Martinez (1866-1954), The Fabricated Truth. James Bridie (1888-1951), A Sleeping Clergyman (London). Vivian Ellis (1903-96), Jill Darling (musical); features the song I'm On a See-Saw. Gordon Daviot, Richard of Bordeaux (London). Owen Davis Sr. (1874-1956), Jezebel; in 1853 Miss Julie Kendrick returns to her Twin Oaks plantation in La to wed childhood beau Cousin Preston Kendrick, onl to find that he married a Yankee girl, Miss Julie; filmed in 1938. Michel de Ghelderode (1898-1962), Rainbow; Les Aveugles; The Women at the Tomb; The Siege of Ostend. Jean Giraudoux (1882-1944), Intermezzo. Merton Hodge (1903-58), The Wind and the Rain (first play) (West End, London) (1K perf.). Hanns Johst (1890-1978), Schlageter; pro-Nazi drama about Nazi martyr Albert Leo Schlageter, which debuts on Apr. 20 (Hitler's 44th birthday); "When I heard the word culture, I release the safety catch on my Browning" (Act 1, Scene 1). Georg Kaiser and Kurt Weill (1900-50), Der Silbersee (1-act opera). Margaret Kennedy (1896-1967), Escape Me Never (London); stars Elisabeth Bergner. John Kirkland (1903-69), Tobacco Road (Dec. 4) (Theatre Masque, New York) (48th Street Theatre, New York) (July 16, 1934) (Forrest Theatre, New York) (May 31, 1941) (3,182 perf.); based on the Erskine Caldwell novel about the Lester family in Jawjaw, 30 mi. from Augusta; stars Ky.-born Henry Hull (Vaughan) (1890-1977) as Jeeter Lester, Ruth Hunter as Ellie May Lester, Sam Byrd as Dude Lester, Margaret Wycherly as Ada Lester, and Maude Odell as Sister Bessie Rice. Federico Garcia Lorca (1898-1936), The Blood Wedding (Bodas de Sangre); a bride runs away with her lover, and is murdered by her hubby. Thomas Mann (1875-1955), Joseph and His Brethren (1933-43), incl. Die Geschichten Jaakobs (1933), Der Junge Joseph (1934), Joseph in Aegypten (1936), Joseph, der Ernahrer (1943). W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965), Sheppey. Sean O'Casey (1880-1964), Within the Gates. Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953), Ah, Wilderness! (Guild Theatre, New York) (Oct. 2); O'Neill's only well-known comedy, about the Millers of New London, Conn. on July 4, 1906, and the coming of age of 16-y.-o. middle son Richard; title taken from Omar Khayyam's "Rubaiyat", Quatrain XII: "Oh; Wilderness were Paradise enow!"; stars George M. Cohan as Nat Miller in the New York production, and Will Rogers in the San Francisco production; Elisha Cook Jr. plays Richard Miller. John Osborne (1929-94), A Patriot for Me. Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936), Quando Si E Qualcuno. Dawn Powell (1896-1965), Big Night. Elmer Rice (1892-1967), We, the People: A Play in 20 Scenes. Armand Salacrou (1899-1989), Une Femme Libre, Poof. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), On the Rocks (London). Robert Cedric Sherriff (1896-1975), Windfall. Novels: Hervey Allen (1889-1949), Anthony Adverse; 1,224-page bestseller about the Napoleonic period; sells 1.5M copies in the U.S. Jorge Amado (1912-2001), Cacao (Cacau). Michael Arlen (1895-1956), Man's Mortality; The Short Stories of Michael Arlen. Earl Derr Biggers (1884-1933), Earl Derr Biggers Tells Ten Stories. Phyllis Bottome (1884-1963), The Advances of Harriet. Kay Boyle (1902-92), Gentlemen, I Address You Privately. Louis Bromfield (1896-1956), The Farm. Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973), The Frill (short story). W.R. Burnett (1899-1982), Dark Hazard; filmed in 1934, 1937. Dino Buzzati (1906-72), Barnabo of the Mountains (first novel). Erskine Caldwell (1903-87), God's Little Acre; more scandalmongering about dumb Southerners. Alejo Carpentier (1904-80), Ecue-yamba-o! (Praised Be the Lord!) (first novel). John Dickson Carr (1906-77), Hag's Nook; The Mad Hatter Mystery; introduces fat jolly lexicographer detective Dr. Gideon Fell, based on English writer G.K. Chesterton. Joyce Cary (1888-1957), An American Visitor. Louis-Ferdinand Celine (1894-1961), L'Eglise (The Church). Colette (1873-1954), La Chatte. Padraic Colum (1881-1972), The Big Tree of Bunlahy: Stories of My Own Countryside (Newbery Medal); illustrated by Jack Yeats. Agatha Christie (1890-1976), Lord Edgware Dies (Thirteen at Dinner) (Sept.); Hercule Poirot #8; The Hound of Death and Other Stories (Oct.); incl. The Witness for the Prosecution. Ivy Compton-Burnett (1884-1969), More Women Than Men. James Gould Cozzens (1903-78), The Last Adam. Rene Crevel (1900-35), Putting My Foot In It (Les Pieds dans le Plat). A.J. Cronin (1896-1981), Grand Canary; Kaleidoscope in K. Georges Duhamel (1884-1966), La Chronique des Pasquiers. Mircea Eliade (1907-86), Maitreyi (Bengal Nights). Oliver La Farge (1901-63), Long Pennant. James T. Farrell (1904-79), Gas-House McGinty. Howard Fast (1914-2003), Two Valleys (first novel). Jessie Redmon Fauset (1882-1961), Comedy, American Style. Lion Feuchtwanger (1884-1958), The Oppermans. C.S. Forester (1899-1966), The Gun. Pamela Frankau (1908-67), The Foolish Apprentices; A Manual of Modern Manners; Walk into M Parlour. Erle Stanley Gardner (1889-1970), The Case of the Velvet Claws; The Case of the Sulky Girl (first Perry Mason stories); 1-3 new stories appear every year through 1973. Witold Gombrowicz (1904-69), Memoirs from a Time of Immaturity (short stories). Robert Ranke Graves (1895-1985), The Real David Copperfield. Walter Greenwood (1903-74), Love on the Dole; Harry and Sally Hardcastle in Hanky Park near Salford in N England live in fear of being on the dole; made into a play by Ronald Gow in 1934 starring his future wife Wendy Hiller, becoming a big hit in Britain, causing Parliament to reform unemployment laws, helping the unemployed author become permanently employed as a writer. Trygve Gulbranssen (1894-1962), Beyond Sing the Woods. Knut Hamsun (1859-1952), The Road Leads On. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), Winner Take Nothing (short stories) (last collection). Josephine Herbst (1892-1969), Pity is Not Enough; first in a leftist trilogy about the U.S. from the Civil War through the Depression (The Executioner Waits in 1934, Rope of Gold in 1939). James Hilton (1900-54), Lost Horizon; bestseller; Pocket Books #1; based on Christian Zeeman, a Dane who disappeared in Japan and became a monk in a Zen Buddhist monastery, and Nat. Geographic articles by Austrian-Am. botanist Joseph Rock (1884-1962); 37-y.-o. British consular official Robert Conway disappears into the utopian lamasery of Shangri-La in Tibet along with Mallinson, Chalmers Bryant (an Am. financier wanted for stock fraud posing as Barnard), and Miss Brinkow, a missionary, and is picked to be the new high lama to replace the 300-y.-o. one who is about to croak after uttering the soundbyte "You will have Time, that rare and lovely gift that your Western countries have lost the more they have pursued it"; filmed in 1937 starring Ronald Colman; the first Ballantine paperback Pocket Book to come out in 1939, starting the paperback rev. Paul Horgan (1903-), The Fault of Angels. Fannie Hurst (1889-1968), Imitiation of Life. Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960), The Gilded Six-Bits. John Knittel (1891-1970), Cyprus Wine; The Commander (Der Commandant). Meyer Levin (1905-81), The New Bridge. Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951), Ann Vickers. Norman Lindsay (1879-1969), Saturdee; Pan in the Parlour. Eric Linklater (1899-1974), The Crusader's Key. Malcolm Lowry (1909-57), Ultramarine (first novel). Denis Mackail (1892-1971), Having Fun; Chelbury Abbey. Andre Malraux (1901-76), La Condition Humaine (The Human Condition); a Communist uprising in Shanghai. Frank Martinek (1895-19??), Don Winslow, USN. Francis Van Wyck Mason (1901-78), The Shanghai Bund Murders; The Sulu Sea Murders. W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965), Ah King. Francois Mauriac (1885-1970), Le Mystere Frontenac. Andre Maurois (1885-1967), Edouard VII et son Temps. William Babington Maxwell (1866-1938), This is My Man. William McFee (1881-1966), No Castle in Spain. Claude McKay (1889-1948), Banana Bottom. Caroline Miller (1903-92), Lamb in His Bosom (Pulitzer Prize). Vladimir Nabokov (1899-1977), Camera Obscura. Robert Nathan (1894-1985), One More Spring. Charles Bernard Nordhoff (1887-1947) and James Norman Hall (1887-1951), Men Against the Sea; Mutiny on the Bounty Trilogy #2. Charles Gilman Norris (1881-1945), Zest. Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), Murder at Monte Carlo; The Ex-Detective; Jeremiah and the Princess; The Ex-Detective (short stories). Martha Ostenso (1900-63), There's Always Another Year. Dorothy Parker (1893-1967), After Such Pleasures (short stories). Julia Peterkin (1880-1961), Roll, Jordan, Roll. John Cowper Powys (1872-1963), A Glastonbury Romance. Raymond Queneau (1903-76), The Bark Tree (first novel). Ayn Rand (1905-82), We the Living (first novel); Russian-born Am. writer disses Soviet Communism at a time when starving Americans are friendly toward it. Vance Randolph (1892-1980), From an Ozark Holler (short stories). Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (1896-1953), South Moon Under. Mary Roberts Rinehart (1876-1958), The Album; The State vs. Elinor Norton. Kenneth Lewis Roberts (1881-1941), Rabble in Arms. Mazo de la Roche (1879-1961), The Master of Jalna. Romain Rolland (1866-1944), L'Ame Enchantee (1922-33). Rafael Sabatini (1875-1950), The Stalking Horse. Dorothy L. Sayers (1893-1957), Hangman's Holiday (short stories); Murder Must Advertise; Lord Peter Wimsey #8. Ignazio Silone (1900-78), Fontamara; the Spanish Civil War; first in the Abruzzo Trilogy ("Bread and Wine", "The Seed Beneath the Snow"). C.P. Snow (1905-80), New Lives for Old. Henry De Vere Stacpoole (1863-1951), Mandarin Gardens; The Naked Soul: The Story of a Modern Knight; The Blue Lagoon Omnibus. Vincent Starrett (1886-1974), The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes. John Steinbeck (1902-68), To a God Unknown. Junichiro Tanizaki (1886-1965), A Portrait of Shunkin. Angela Thirkell (1890-1961), High Rising; her first hit. Helen Waddell, Peter Abelard. Hugh Seymour Walpole (1884-1941), Vanessa. Alec Waugh (1898-1981), Wheels Within Wheels. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), The Shape of Things to Come; how scientists will save the world after the world wars trash it; filmed in 1936. Franz Werfel (1890-1945), The Forty Days of Musa Dagh; the 1915 Armenian genocide in Turkey, pissing-off the Turkish govt., which pressures MGM Studios into dropping the planned film; Musa Dagh = Moses' Mountain; "These women's howls had died into a low, almost soundless, windy sigh. It went with the corpse-washing, the enshrouding, like old comfort." Nathanael West (1903-40), Miss Lonelyhearts; male New York Post-Dispatch columnist. Dennis Wheatley (1897-1977), The Forbidden Territory (Duke de Richleau) (2nd novel); big hit, launching his career; Such Power Is Dangerous; Old Rowley: A Very Private Life of Charles II. Ethel Lina White (1876-1944), Some Must Watch; a mute house servant is stalked by a killer; filmed as "The Spiral Staircase" (1946). Stewart Edward White (1873-1946), Ranchero; Andy Burnett Sage #4. Virginia Woolf (1882-1941), Flush; bio. of Elizabeth Barrett Browning's pet cocker spaniel. Elinor Wylie (1885-1928), Collected Prose (posth.); ed. by hubby William Rose Benet. Philip Wylie (1902-71) and Edwin Balmer (1883-1959), When Worlds Collide; another planet is headed toward Earth, causing it to be evacuated; filmed in 1951. Births: English macabre satirical dramatist-novelist (gay) John Kingsley "Joe" Orton (d. 1967) on Jan. 1 in Leicester; lover of Kenneth Halliwell (1926-67). Am. "Going Places" short story writer Leonard Michaels (d. 2003) on Jan. 2 in New York City; immigrant Polish Jewish parents; grows up on New York's Lower East Side only speaking Yiddish until age 6; educated at NYU, and U. of Mich. British "Religion and the Decline of Magic" historian Sir Keith Vivian Thomas on Jan. 2 in Wick, Glamorgan, Wales; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1991. Soviet cosmonaut Oleg Grigoryevich Makarov (d. 2003) on Jan. 6 in Udomlya. Am. "CBS News Sunday Morning" TV journalist-writer-musician (Roman Catholic) Charles Osgood (Charles Osgood Wood III) on Jan. 8 in New York City; educated at Fordham U.; known for wearing a bow tie and for signing off "Until then, I'll see you on the radio." Egyptian PM (1996-9, 2011-) Kamal Ganzouri on Jan. 12 in Monufia. Am. 6'6" hall-of-fame basketball player (white) (Philadelphia Warriors #15, 1955-62) (New York Knicks #6, 1962-6) Thomas Joseph "Tom" Gola (d. 2014) on Jan. 13 in Philadelphia, Penn.; Polish descent father originally named Galinsky; educated at La Salle U. Am. "The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman" novelist (black) Ernest James Gaines on Jan. 15 in River Lake Plantation, Oscar, La. Italian singer (in France) Dalida (Iolanda Cristina Gigliotti) (d. 1987) on Jan. 17 in Cairo, Egypt; Italian parents; raised in Egypt; Miss Egypt of 1954; first singer to receive a diamond record. Am. Dolby noise reduction system electrical engineer Ray Milton Dolby on Jan. 18 in Portland, Ore.; grows up in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at San Jose State College, Stanford U., and Pembroke College, Cambridge U. English "Excalibur", "Deliverance", "Point Blank" dir. John Boorman on Jan. 18 in Shepperton, Surrey. Am. Jesuit priest-astronomer (Roman Catholic) George V. Coyne on Jan. 19 in Baltimore, Md.; educated at Fordham U., and Georgetown U. Am. ambassador (to Turkey) (1989-91) and U.S. asst. secy. of state for intelligence and research (1985-9) (Jewish) Morton Isaac Abramowitz on Jan. 20 in Lakewood, N.J.; educated at Stanford U. and Harvard U. Am. musician (black) Ronald "Ron" Townson (d. 2001) (5th Dimension) on Jan. 20 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. actress Roxane Berard on Jan. 21 in Belgium; Audrey Hepburn lookalike. Am. Wrigley Co. pres. (1961-99) William Wrigley III (d. 1999) on Jan. 21 in Chicago, Ill.; son of Philip Knight Wrigley (1894-1977); grandson of William Wrigley Jr. (1861-1932); educated at Yale U. Am. dancer-singer-actress Chita Rivera (Dolores Conchita Figuero del Rivero) on Jan. 23 in Washington, D.C. Philippine pres. #11 (1986-92) Maria Corazon "Cory" Cojuangco Aquino (d. 2009) on Jan. 25 in Paniqui, Tarlac Province; wife of Benigno Aquino Jr. (1932-83). Canadian poet-novelist-dramatist-journalist Alden Albert Nowlan on Jan. 25 in Windsor, Nova Scotia. Am. author-activist Susan Sontag (Rosenblatt) (d. 2004) on Jan. 28 in S Ariz.; her teacher Mr. Starkie has her reading Goethe at age 10. Am. financial journalist Louis Richard Rukeyser (d. 2006) on Jan. 30 in New York City; son of Merryle Rukeyser (1897-1988); brother of William S. Rukeyser; educated at Princeton U. Am. hall-of-fame ML baseball player (black) (Chicago Cubs #14, 1953-71) ("Mr. Cub") ("Mr. Sunshine") Ernest "Ernie" Banks (d. 2015) on Jan. 31 in Dallas, Tex. Sicilian Corleonesi Mafia boss of bosses ("the Phantom of Corleone") ("Binnie the Tractor") ("the Accountant") <Bernardo Provenzano (d. 2016) on Jan. 31 in Corleone. Am. "A Long and Happy Life" novelist-poet Edward Reynolds Price on Feb. 1 in Macon, N.C.; educated at Duke U., and Merton College, Oxford U. English "Travelling People" novelist Bryan Stanley Johnson (d. 1973) on Feb. 3 in Hammersmith, West London; working class father, barmaid mother; educated at King's College, London. Japanese avant-garde composer Toshi Ichiyanagi on Feb. 4 in Kobe; married (1956-62) to Yoko Ono (1933-). English "Albert Angelo" novelist-poet-critic-filmmaker Bryan Stanley Johnson (d. 1973) on Feb. 5 in London. Am. actress Mamie Van Doren on Feb. 6 in Rowena, S.D. Am. "Jimmie Olsen in Superman" actor Jack Larson on Feb. 8 in Los Angeles, Calif. English "The View Over Atlantis" UFO writer John Frederick Carden Michell (d. 2009) on Feb. 9 in London; educated at Eton College, and Trinity College, Cambridge U. Canadian "Jacob's Wake" playwright Michael Cook (d. 1994) on Feb. 13 in Fulham, London, England; emigrates to Canada in 1965. Am. "Madge Owens in Picnic", "Gillian Gil Holroyd in Bell, Book and Candle", "Madeleine Elster and Judy Barton in Vertigo", "Kit Marlowe in Falcon Crest" actress Kim (Marilyn Pauline) Novak on Feb. 13 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "The Illuminatus! Trilogy" writer Robert Joseph "Bob" Shea (d. 1994) on Feb. 14. Canadisn sports agent ("Mrs. Hockey") Colleen Joffa Howe (d. 2009) on Feb. 17 in Sandusky, Mich.; wife (1953-2009) of Gordie Howe (1928); mother of Marty Gordon Howe (1954-) and Mark Steven Howe (1955-). Japanese-Am. artist-singer-filmmaker (vegetarian) Yoko ("Ocean Child") Ono Lennon on Feb. 18 in Tokyo; wife of John Lennon (1940-80); of the aristocratic Yasuda banking family; survives the Mar. 9, 1945 Tokyo firebombing; educated at Sarah Lawrence College; married (1956-62) to composer Toshi Ichiyanagi (1933-), then (1962-9) to jazz musician Anthony Cox; mother of Kyoko Chan Cox (1963-) and Sean Ono Lennon (1975-); finally decides to give up the name Yoko and go by the name Ono?; "The world's most famous unknown artist: everybody knows her name, but nobody knows what she does" (John Lennon); "She's shaped nothing, she's contributed nothing, she's simply been a reflection of the times... She's an amateur, a very rich woman who was married to someone who did have some talent" (Brian Sewell); "A cross between an aardvark and an albino rat" (John Simon); "Her voice sounded like an eagle being goosed" (Ralph Novak); "If I found her floating in my pool, I'd punish my dog" (Joan Rivers). Scottish "Look Back in Anger" actress (alcoholic) Eileen May Ure (d. 1975) on Feb. 18 in Glasgow; wife (1957-63) of John Osborne and (1963-) Robert Shaw. Am. "Five Easy Pieces" film dir. Robert "Bob" Rafelson on Feb. 21 in New York City. Am. "To be Young, Gifted and Black" jazz singer-pianist-activist (black) Nina Simone (Eunice Kathleen Waymon) (d. 2003) on Feb. 21 in Tyron, N.C.; calls jazz "black classical music". Am. "Wiseguy", "Casino" writer-screenwriter Nicholas Pileggi on Feb. 22 in New York City; husband (1987-) of Nora Ephron (1941-). Kenyan writer (black) Ali al-Amin Mazrui on Feb. 24 in Mombasa; educated at Columbia U., and Nuffield College, Oxford U. Am. "The Watermelon Man", "The President's Analyst" "Jockey brand underwear commercials" actor-comedian (black) Godfrey MacArthur Cambridge (d. 1976) on Feb. 26 in New York City; British Guianan immigrant parents. U.S. Sen. (R-Wyo.) (1977-95) Malcolm Wallop on Feb. 27 in New York City; first non-lawyer to become a member of the Sen. Judiciary Committee. Am. football hall-of-fame fullback Lino Dante "Alan" "the Horse" Ameche (d. 1988) on Mar. 1 in Italy. Am. socialite Caroline Lee Bouvier Canfield Radziwill Ross on Mar. 3 in Southampton, N.Y.; younger sister of Jacqueline Kennedy (1929-94); educated at Sarah Lawrence College; wife (1953-9) of Michael Temple Canfield (1926-69) (illegitimate son of Prince George, Duke of Kent?), (1959-74) Prince Stanislaw Albrecht Radziwill (1914-76), and (1988-2001) Herbert Ross (1927-2001). Australian billionaire real estate magnate (Jewish) Harry "High-Rise Harry" Oscar Triguboff on Mar. 3 in Dalian, China; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; emigrates to Australia in 1947; educated at the U. of Leeds. Am. "Hi-Heel Sneakers" blue singer-songwriter Tommy Tucker (Robert Higginbotham) (d. 1982) on Mar. 5. Am. "Lawdy Miss Clawdy" rocker (black) Lloyd "Mr. Personality" Price on Mar. 9 in Kenner, La. Am. "Nashville Now", "Pop! Goes the Country" talk show host Walter Ralph Emery on Mar. 10 in McEwen, Tenn. Am. "How to Eat Fried Worms" children's writer Thomas Rhodses Rockwell on Mar. 13 in New York City; son of Norman Rockwell (1894-1978); grows up in rural Vt.; educated at Bard College. Am. serial murderer ("the Redneck Charles Manson") ("the Hitchhikers' Killer") ("the Meanest Man in America") Donald Henry "Pee Wee" Gaskins Jr. (nee Parrott) (d. 1991) on Mar. 13 in Florence County, S.C. Am. "Young Blood", "Yakety Yak", "There Goes My Baby" songwriter (Jewish) Michael "Mike" Stoller on Mar. 13; collaborator of Jerry Leiber (1933-2011). English "Alfie", "Harry Palmer in The Ipcress File", "Charlie Croker in The Italian Job" actor Michael Caine (Maurice Joseph Mickelwhite) on Mar. 14 in London. Am. "The Eyes of Love" jazz-pop-film composer-conductor-producer (black) Quincy Delight Jones Jr. on Mar. 14 in South Side Chicago, Ill.; of African Tikar, Welsh, English, French, and Italian ancestry; descendant of Betty Washington Lewis, sister of Pres. George Washington, and Edward I of England; grows up in Bremerton, Wash. and Seattle, Wash.; educated at Seattle U., and Berklee College of Music; starts out as a trumpeter with the Lionel Hampton Orchestra and the Dizzy Gillespie Band; husband (1957-66) of Jeri Caldwell, (1967-74) Ulla Andersson, and (1974-90) Peggy Lipton; father of Kidada Jones (1974-) and Rashida Jones (1976-). U.S. Supreme Court justice #108 (1993-) (Jewish) Ruth Bader Ginsburg on Mar. 15 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Cornell U., and Harvard U. Am. NAACP chairwoman Myrlie Evers-Williams on Mar. 17 in Vicksburg, Miss.; wife of Medgar Evers (1925-1963). English "Moon Tiger" novelist and children's writer Penelope Lively on Mar. 17 in Cairo, Egypt; educated at St. Anne's College, Oxford U. Am. "Goodbye, Columbus" novelist Philip Milton Roth on Mar. 19 in Newark, N.J.; son of an insurance salesman; one of the Big Three U.S. Jewish Writers of the 20th Cent. incl. Saul Bellow (1915-2005) and Bernard Malamud (1914-86). Am. "The Lucifer Effect" psychologist Philip George Zimbardo on Mar. 23 in New York City; Sicilian immigrant parents; educated at Brooklyn College, and Yale U. Am. "Custer Died for Your Sins" writer (Native Am.) Vine Victor Deloria Jr. (d. 2005) on Mar. 26 in Martin, S.D.; son of an Episcopal clergyman on the Standing Rock River Rez. U.S. Sen. (R-Alaska) (1981-2002) and gov. of Alaska (2002-) Frank Hughes Murkowski on Mar. 28 in Seattle, Wash. Am. country singer Ina Anita Carter (d. 1999) (The Carter Family) on Mar. 31 in Maces Spring, Va.; daughter of Maybelle Carter (1909-78); sister of Helen Carter (1927-98) and June Carter (1929-2003). French physicist (Jewish) Claude Cohen-Tannoudji on Apr. 1 in Constantine, Algiers; Algerian Jewish parents; 1997 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. "Cabaret", "I Am a Camera" lyricist (Jewish) Fred Ebb (d. 2004) on Apr. 3 in Manhattan, N.Y.; educated at New York U. and Columbia U.; collaborator of John Kander (1927-). Am. "The Riddler on Batman" actor-impressionist Frank Gorshin Jr. on Apr. 5 in Pittsburgh, Penn. Iranian philosopher (Muslim) Seyyed Hossein Nasr on Apr. 7 in Tehran; educated MIT (first Iranian undergrad) and Harvard U.; disciple of Frithjof Schuon (1907-98). Am. "Trapper John McIntyre in M*A*S*H" actor William Wayne McMillan Rogers III (d. 2015) on Apr. 7 in Birmingham, Ala.; educated at Princeton U. French "Breathless" actor Jean-Paul Belmondo on Apr. 9 in Neuilly-sur-Seine; father Paul is sculptor of Sicilian descent. English historian and Conservative MP Sir Robert Vidal Rhodes James (d. 1999) on Apr. 10 in India; nephew of M.R. James (1862-1936); educated at Worcester College, Oxford U.; knighted in 1991. Am. "Kazuo Kim Quisado in Hawaiian Eye" actor Poncie Ponce (Ponciano Hernandez) (d. 2013) on Apr. 10 in Maui, Hawaii. Russian nuclear physicist Yuri Tsolakovich Oganessian on Apr. 14 in Rostov-on-Don; of Armenian descent; namesake of element #118 oganesson. Soviet "Roadside Picnic" sci-fi novelist (Jewish) Boris Natanovich Strugatsky (d. 2012) on Apr. 14; brotehr of Arkady Strugatsky (1925-91). Am. "Hee-Haw" country singer Roy Linwood Clark on Apr. 15 in Meherrin, Va. Am. "Samantha Stephens and Serena in Bewitched" actress Elizabeth Victoria Montgomery (d. 1995) on Apr. 15 in Hollywood, Calif.; daughter of Robert Montgomery (1904-81); wife (1963-73) of William Asher (1921-2012). Am. "Nadia's Theme" film composer-musician Perry Botkin Jr. on Apr. 16 in New York City; musical partner of Barry De Vorzon (1934-). Am. "The Girl Can't Help It" bleached blonde actress Jayne Mansfield (Vera Jayne Palmer) (d. 1967) on Apr. 19 in Bryn Mawr, Penn.; of German-English descent; grows up in Phillipsburg, N.J.; claims a 163 IQ, and plays piano and violin. Am. "Hound Dog", "Jailhouse Rock" songwriter (Jewish) Jerome "Jerry" Leiber (d. 2011) on Apr. 25; collaborator of Mike Stoller (1933-). Am. writer-journalist Jay Anthony Lukas (d. 1997) on Apr. 25 in White Plains, N.Y.; educated at Harvard U. Am. "This Time Together" actress-comedian Carol Creighton Burnett on Apr. 26 in San Antonio, Tex.; alcoholic parents; grows up in Hollywood with grandmother Mabel Eudora White, inventing imaginary twin sister Karen. Am. physicist (Jewish) Arno Allan Penzias on Apr. 26 in Munich; emigrates to the U.S. in 1940; educated at CCNY and Columbia U. Israeli chemist-writer (Jewish) Israel Shahak (Himmelstaub) (d. 2001) on Apr. 28 in Warsaw, Poland; emigrates to Israel in 1945; educated at Stanford U. and Hebrew U. Am. "Seasons in the Sun" poet-composer-singer Rodney Marvin "Rod" McKuen on Apr. 29 in Oakland, Calif. Am. "On the Road Again", "Red Headed Stranger", "Stardust" singer Willie Hugh Nelson on Apr. 30 in Abbott, Tex.; has at least one child each decade from the 1950s-1990s. Am. "Godfather of Soul", "Hardest-Working Man in Show Business", "Mr. Dynamite", "Soul Brother No. 1", "Minister of Super Heavy Funk", "It's a Man's Man's Man's World" singer-dancer (black) James Joseph Brown (d. 2006) on May 3 in Barnwell, S.C.; born in a 1-room shack; midwives think he is stillborn, but after his body stays warm he is revived; at age 4 his parents separate and he is cared for by Augusta, Ga. brothel madame Aunt Honey; dismissed from school for having ragged clothes. Am. "Archangel in Airwolf" actor Alex Cord (Alexander Viespi) on May 3 in Floral Park, Long Island, N.Y.; educated at NYU. Am. physicist (Jewish) Steven Weinberg on May 3 in New York City; educated at Bronx H.S. of Science, and Cornell U.; 1979 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. Fair Tax economist Dale Weldeau Jorgenson on May 7 in Bozeman, Mont.; educated at Reed College, and Harvard U. Am. Jim Harrigon Jr. in Harrigan and Son", "Capt. John Christopher in Star Trek: TOS" "actor Roger Perry on May 7 in Davenport, Iowa; husband (1975-2000) of Jo Ann Worley (1937-). Am. hall-of-fame football QB ("the Golden Arm") John Constantine "Johnny" "Johnny U" Unitas (d. 2002) on May 7 in Pittsburgh, Penn. English "A Woman of Substance" novelist Barbara Taylor Bradford on May 10 in Leeds, West Yorkshire. Am. Nation of Islam leader (1974-) (black) Louis Farrakhan (Louis X) (Louis Eugene Wolcott) on May 11 in Bronx, N.Y.; at age 16 plays the violin on "The Original Amateur Hour". Japanese "The Funeral" dir.-writer Juzo Itami (d. 1997) on May 15 in Kyoto. English 4'9" "Gunner Harold Lofty Sugden in It Ain't Half Hot Mum" actor Don Estelle (Ronald Edwards) (d. 2003) on May 22 in Crumpsall, Manchester. English "Alexis Carrington in Dynasty" actress (Jewish?) Joan Henrietta Collins on May 23 in London; South African-born Jewish father, British Anglican mother; sister of Jackie Collins (1937-2015); makes stage debut at age 9 in "A Doll's House"; claims that her much older first hubby (1952-6) Maxwell Reed (1919-74) tried to sell her to an Arab sheik for a night for Ł10K; wife of (1963-71) Anthony Newley, (1972-83) Ronald S. Kass, (1985-7) Peter Holm, and (2002-) Percy Gibson. Am. NASA "Six Million Dollar Man" test pilot Bruce Peterson (d. 2006) on May 23 in Washburn, N.D. Am. "Willie Loomis in Dark Shadows" actor John Karlen (Karlewicz) on May 28 in New York City. U.S. 6'4" Sen. (D-Tex.) (1973-97) Charles Nesbitt "Charlie" Wilson (d. 2010) on June 1 in Trinity, Tex. Bahraini emir (1961-99) sheikh Isa ibn Salman Al Khalifa (d. 1999) on June 3 in Jasra; son of Salman ibn Hamad (1894-1961);father of Hamad ibn Isa al-Khalifa (1950-). Swiss physicist Heinrich Rohrer on June 6 in St. Gallen; 1986 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. "Can we talk?" comedian-actress (Jewish) Joan Rivers (Joan Alexandra Molinsky) (d. 2014) on June 8 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Russian Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Barnard College; wife (1965-87) of Edgar Rosenburg (1925-87); mother of Melissa Rivers (1968-). Am. atty. Francis Lee "F. Lee" Bailey Jr. on June 10 in Waltham, Mass.; educated at Harvard U., and Boston U. Am. photojournalist Eddie Adams (d. 2004) on June 12 in New Kensington, Penn.; taker of "the shot seen around the world" in South Vietnam in 1968. Am. "Gomer Pyle" actor-singer (baritone) (gay) James Thurston "Jim" Nabors on June 12 in Sylacauga, Ala. Am. "Being There" novelist (Jewish) Jerzy Kosinski (Jozef Lewinkopf) (d. 1991) on June 14 in Lodz. Am. libertarian writer Harry Browne (d. 2006) on June 17 in New York City. Am. 6'7" hall-of-fame basketball player (black) (Rochester/Cincinnati Royals #12, 1955-8) Maurice Stokes (d. 1970) on June 17 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at the Saint Francis U. Am. "Moonstruck", "Ruby" actor Daniel Louis "Danny" Aiello Jr. on June 20 in New York City. U.S. Sen. (D-Calif, 1992-) and San Francisco mayor #38 (1978-88) (Jewish) Dianne Goldman Feinstein (nee Dianne Emiel Goldman) on June 22 in San Francisco, Calif.; Jewish Polish immigrant paternal grandparents, German-Jewish Russian immigrant maternal grndparents; educated at Stanford U. Am. 6'4" hall-of-fame basketball player (black) (Boston Celtics #24, 1957-69) Samuel "Sam" "the Shooter" Jones on June 24 in Wilmington, N.C.; educated at N.C. Central U. Am. "My Last Go 'Round" folk musician Rosalie Ann Sorrels (nee Stringfellow) on June 24 in Boise, Idaho. Italian conductor Claudio Abbado on June 26 in Milan. Am. "Homecoming" writer John Elliot Bradshaw on June 29 in Houston, Tex.; educated at the U. of Toronto. English "Let him have it!" criminal celeb Derek William Bentley (d. 1953) on June 30 in Bristol. Am. anthropologist Covington Scott Littleton (d. 2010) on July 1 in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at UCLA. Am. 6'1" basketball player-coach (white) (Philadelphia Warriors #5, 1954-7) (Syracuse Nationals/Philadelphia 76ers #?, 1957-65) (Milwaukee Bucks, 1968-77) (Chicago Bulls, 1978-9) Lawrence Ronald "Larry" Costello (d. 2001) on July 2 in Minoa, N.Y.; educated at Niagara U. Am. "Truman", "John Adams", "1776" historian David Gaub McCullough on July 7 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Yale U. Am. "Clean Asshole Poems and Smiling Vegetable Songs" poet (gay) Peter Orlovsky on July 8 in New York City; lover (1954-) of Allen Ginsberg (1926-97); Russian parents. British "Awakenings" neurologist (Jewish) (gay) (atheist) Oliver Wolf Sacks (d. 2015) on July 9 in London; educated at Queen's College, Oxford U. Scottish "The New Russians" writer-journalist Hedrick Smith on July 9 in Kilmalcolm. Am. Broadway "Hello, Dolly!", "Mame", "La Cage aux Folles" composer-lyricist (gay) Gerald "Jerry" Herman on July 10 in New York City. Chinese Olympic decathlete C.K. Yang (Yang Chuan-kwang) (d. 2007) on July 10 in Taitung, Taiwan. Am. "Point Blank", "Jimmy the Kid" crime novelist-writer Donald Edwin Westlake (d. 2008) (AKA Richard Stark, Alan Marsh, Alan Marshall, James Blue, Ben Christopher, Sheldon Lord, Edwin West, John B. Allan, Curt Clark, Tucker Coe, P.N. Castor, Timothy J. Culver, J. Morgan Cunningham, Samuel Holt, Judson Jack Carmichael) on July 12 in Brooklyn, N.Y. English "This Sporting Life" novelist-playwright David Malcolm Storey on July 13 in Wakefield, Yorkshire. Canadian Quebec Liberal PM #22 (1970-6, 1985-94) Robert Bourassa (d. 1996) on July 14 in Montreal, Quebec. English economist Sir James Ball on July 15 in ?; educated at Oxford U., and the U. of Penn. Maltese Labour Party PM (1984-7) Karmenu Mifsud Bonnidi on July 17; educated at the U. of Malta. Russian "Babi Yar" poet-actor-dir. Yevgeny Yevtushenko on July 18 in Zima Junction, Urkutsk, Siberia; first Soviet lit. figure to speak out against Stalinism - what's he gonna do, put me in Siberia? Am. "Grendel" novelist John Champlin Gardner Jr. (d. 1982) on July 21 in Batavia, N.Y. English Pompidou Center and Millennium Dome architect Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside on July 23 in Florence, Italy; collaborator of Renzo Piano (1937-). Am. "Gem in the Star Trek 'Empath' episode" actress Kathryn Hays (Kay Piper) on July 26 in Princeton, Ill. English actor-comedian-singer John Lancelot Blades "Lance" Percival (d. 2015) on July 26 in Sevenoaks, Kent. Am. economist Edmund Strother Phelps Jr. (1933-) on July 26 in Evanston, Ill.; educated at Amherst College, and Yale U.; 2006 Nobel Econ. Prize. Am. folk musician Nicholas Wells "Nick" Reynolds (d. 2008) (Kingston Trio) on July 27 in San Diego, Calif. Am. New Christy's Minstrels founder Randy Sparks on July 29 in Leavenworth, Kan. Am. "Gerald Lloyd Kookie Kookson III in 77 Sunset Strip" actor Edd Byrnes (Edward Byrne Breitenberger) on July 30 in New York City. Am. "Border Trilogy", "Blood Meridian" "No Country for Old Men" novelist Cormac (Charles) McCarthy on July 20 in Providence, R.I.; raised in Knoxville, Tenn.; educated at the U. of Tenn.; changes his first name to that of a famous Irish high kings Cormac mac Airt and Cormac mac Cullennain to avoid comparison with the famous ventriloquist Edgar Bergen's dummy Charlie McCarthy. Am. "Dr. Kelly Brackett in Emergency!" actor Robert "Bob" Fuller on July 29 in Troy, N.Y. Am. "Green, Green" folk singer-songwriter Lloyd A. "Randy" Sparks (The New Christy Minstrels, The Back Porch Majority) on July 29 in Leavenworth, Kan.; grows up in Oakland, Calif.; educated at UCB. Am. actor-dir.-producer-chef Dominick "Dom" DeLuise (d. 2009) on Aug. 1 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; father of Peter DeLuise (1966-), David DeLuise (1971-), and Michael DeLuise (1969-). Am. casino magnate (Jewish) Sheldon Gary Adelson on Aug. 6 in Boston, Mass.; Ukrainian Jewish immigrant parents. Am. political economist Elinor "Lin" Ostrom (Elinor Claire Awan) (d. 2012) on Aug. 7 in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at UCLA; 2009 Nobel Econ. Prize (first woman). Am. sci-fi novelist Jerry Eugene Pournelle (AKA Wade Curtis) on Aug. 7 in Shreveport, La.; educated at the U. of Wash. Am. baseball right fielder (Cleveland Indians, 1955-9) Rocco Domenico "Rocky" Colavito Jr. on Aug. 10 in New York City; first Al outfielder with a perfect 1.000 fielding percentage. Am. Baptist "Moral Majority" leader Rev. Jerry Lamon Falwell Sr. (d. 2007) on Aug. 11 in Lynchburg, Va. Am. country singer Billie Jean Horton (Billie Jean Jones Eshliman Williams Horton Berlin) on Aug. 12 in Bossier City, La.; 2nd wife (1952-3) of Hank Williams Sr. (1923-53); wife (1953-60) of Johnny Horton (1925-60). Am. auto racer Rufus Parnell "Parnelli" Jones on Aug. 12 in Texarkana, Ark. Swiss physical chemist (NMR inventor) Richard Robert Ernst on Aug. 14 in Wintherthur; educated at ETH-Z; 1991 Nobel Chem. Prize. English "The Mountains of Rasselas: Ethiopian Adventure", "The Scramble for Africa" historian Thomas Francis Dermot Pakenham, 8th Earl of Longford on Aug. 14; educated at Belvedere College, and Magdalene College, Oxford U. Am. "Jingle Bell Rock", "My Special Angel" country singer Robert Lee "Bobby" Helms (d. 1997) on Aug. 15 in Bloomington, Ind. Am. Milgram Experiment psychologist (Jewish) Stanley Milgram (d. 1984) on Aug. 15 in New York City; educated at Harvard U. Am. "Catwoman in Batman" 5'11" actress Julie Newmar (Julia Chalene Newmeyer) on Aug. 16 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Lincoln Case in Route 66" actor Glenn Corbett (Glenn Edwin Rothenburg) (d. 1993) on Aug. 17 in El Monte, Calif.; educated at Occidental College. Am. 6'9" basketball player (white) (New York Knicks #12, 1955-61, 1962) Kenneth Robert "Ken" Sears on Aug. 17 in Watsonville, Calif.; educated at Santa Clara U. French "Rosemary's Baby", "Chinatown", "The Piano" dir.-producer-writer-actor (Jewish) Roman Polanski (Rajmund Roman Thierry Polanski) (Liebling) on Aug. 18 in Paris; Polish Jewish father, Russian mother; emigrates to Poland in 1937; husband (1968-9) of Sharon Tate (1943-69) and (1989-) Emmanuelle Seigner (1966-). Am. "Love Me Tender", "The Ten Commandments" actress Debra Paget (Debralee Griffin) on Aug. 19 in Denver, Colo.; descended from Lord and Lady Paget of England; sister of Teala Loring (Judith Griffin), Lisa Gaye (Lezlie Griffin), and Ruell Shayne (Frank Griffin). U.S. Sen. (D-Maine) (1980-95) George John Mitchell Jr. on Aug. 20 in Waterville, Maine; educated at Bowdoin College, and Georgetown U.; U.S. Sen. majority leader (1989-95). Am. buckminsterfullerene chemist Robert Floyd Curl Jr. on Aug. 23 in Alice, Tex.; educated at Rice Inst., and UCB; 1996 Nobel Chem. Prize. Am. "Capt. A.J. Dallas in Alien", "Mike Viper Metcalf in Top Gun" actor Thomas Roy "Tom" Skerritt on Aug. 25 in Detroit, Mich.; educated at Wayne State U., and UCLA. Am. conservative writer (Jewish) Benjamin J. "Ben" Wattenber on Aug. 26 in Bronx, N.Y.; educated at Hobart College; father of Daniel Wattenberg (1959-). Am. "My Secret Garden" feminist writer Nancy Colbert Friday on Aug. 27 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Wellesley College. Am. "America, Russia and the Cold War" historian (of U.S. foreign relations) Walter "Walt" LaFeber on Aug. 30 in Walkerton, Ind.; educated at Hanover College, Stanford U., and U. of Wisc.; student of William Appleman Wiliams (1921-90). Am. Tex. Dem. gov. #45 (1991-5) Dorothy Ann Willis Richards (d. 2006) on Sept. 1 in Lakeview, Tex.; wife of civil rights atty. David Richards; elected Tex. state treasurer in 1982, first woman elected statewide in almost 50 years since Ma Richardson in 1925. Am. country singer Conway Twitty (Harold Lloyd Jenkins) (d. 1993) on Sept. 1 in Friars Point, Miss.; named after silent actor Harold Lloyd; grows up in Helena, Ark.; names himself after Conway, Ark. and Twitty, Tex. English "Noises Off", "Copenhagen", "Democracy" playwright-novelist Michael Frayn on Sept. 8 in London; educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge U. Soviet cosmonaut Yevgeny Vassilyevich Khrunov (d. 2000) on Sept. 10 in Prudy. German fashion designer (Roman Catholic) (gay) Karl Otto Lagerfeld on Sept. 10 in hamburg. Am. "The Turner Diaries" white supremacist nationalist leader William Luther Pierce III (d. 2002) (AKA Andrew Macdonald) on Sept. 13 in Atlanta, Ga.; educated at Rice U., Caltech, and U. of Colo. Am. "Lisa Grimaldi in As the World Turns" actress Eileen Fulton (Margaret Elizabeth McLarty) on Sept. 13 in Asheville, N.C.. Am. soul bassist Lewie Steinberg (Booker T. and the M.G.'s) on Sept. 13 in Memphis, Tenn. Australian "The Purple Rose of Cairo" actress Ada "Zoe" Caldwell on Sept. 14 in Melbourne, Victoria. Am. "Leadville Johnny in The Unsinkable Molly Brown", "Rotten Luck Willie in Paint Your Wagon", "Wade Gustafson in Fargo" actor-singer Harve Presnell (d. 2009) on Sept. 14 in Modesto, Calif. Am. Stargate Project writer-artist Ingo Douglas Swann (d. 2013) on Sept. 14 in Telluride, Colo. Am. "Miss Hannigan in Annie" actress-singer Dorothy Loudon (d. 2003) on Sept. 17 in Boston, Mass. Am. "Baretta", "Mickey Gubitosi in Our Gang" actor-writer-producer Robert Blake (Michael Gubitosi) on Sept. 18 in Nutley, N.J. Am. "Honeycomb" singer James Frederick "Jimmie" Rodgers on Sept. 18 in Camas, Wash.; not to be confused with country singer Jimmie Rodgers (1897-1933). Scottish "Illya Kuryakin in The Man from U.N.C.L.E.", "Dr. Donald Ducky Mallard in NCIS" actor David Keith McCallum Jr. on Sept. 19 in Glasgow; violinist father; husband (1957-67) of Jill Ireland (1936-90). U.S. Army secy. (1977-81) (first African-Am.) Clifford Leopold Alexander Jr. on Sept. 21 in New York City; educated at Harvard U., and Yale U.; father of Elizabeth Alexander (1962-). Iraqi chief justice #1 (2005-13) Medhat al-Mahmoud on Sept. 21 in Rusafa. Am. conservative activist Richard Art Viguerie on Sept. 23 in Golden Acres (near Houston), Tex. Am. rock drummer Mel Taylor (d. 1996) (Ventures) on Sept. 24; brother of Larry Taylor (1942-). Am. basketball coach (Atlanta Hawks, 1976-81) (New York Knicks, 1982-7) (Memphis Grizzlies, 2002-5) Herbert Jude "Hubie" Brown on Sept. 25 in Hazleton, Penn.; educated at Niagara U. Am. "Banana Boat Song", "Walk Right In" folk singer-songwriter Erik Darling (d. 2008) (The Tarriers, The Weavers) on Aug. 3 in Baltimore, Md. Am. "Lawrence Welk" dancer (black) Arthur Duncan on Sept. 25 in Pasadena, Calif. Am. "Elly May Clampett in The Beverly Hillbillies" actress Donna Douglas (Dorothy Smith) (d. 2915) on Sept. 26 in Pride, La.; 1957 Miss New Orleans. Am. "Barney Collier in Mission: Impossible" actor (black) Francis Gregory Alan "Greg" Morris (d. 1996) on Sept. 27 in Cleveland, Ohio. Am. "Kate McCoy in The Real McCoys" actress Kathleen "Kathy" Nolan (Jocelyn Schrum) on Sept. 27 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. "Please Talk to My Heart" country singer-songwriter Johnny "Country" Mathis (d. 2011) on Sept. 28 in Maud, Tex. Am. gospel-soul singer (black) Emily Drinkard "Cissy" Houston (Sweet Inspirations) on Sept. 30 in Newark, N.J.; mother of Whitney Houston (1963-); aunt of Dionne Warwick and Dee Dee Warwick. English biologist (agnostic) ("the Godfather of Cloning") Sir John Bertrand Gurdon on Oct. 2; educated at Christ Church, Oxford U., and Caltech; 2012 Nobel Med. Prize. Canadian "Little Darlin'" singer "Diamond" Dave Somerville (The Diamonds, The Four Preps) on Oct. 2 in Guelph, Ont. Australian tennis player (lefty) Neale Andrew Fraser on Oct. 3 in Melbourne, Victoria. Australian actress Diane Cilento on Oct. 5 in Brisbane; wife (1962-73) of Sean Connery and (1985-) Anthony Shaffer. British Interpol secy.-gen. (1985-2001) Raymond Edward Kendall on Oct. 5; educated at Oxford U. Am. astronaut William Alison "Bill" Anders on Oct. 17 in Hong Kong. Belgian "Dominique" singer (lesbian) ("the Singing Nun") Jeanne-Paule Marie "Jeanine" Deckers (AKA Sister Luc Gabriel) (AKA Soeur Sourier) (d. 1985) on Oct. 17 in Wavre. Swedish-born Am. "Katy Holstrum in The Farmer's Daughter" actress Inger Stevens (nee Stensland) (d. 1970) on Oct. 18 in Stockholm; emigrates to the U.S. in 1947; wife (1955-7O of Anthony Goglio and (1961-70) Ike Jones (1929-). Am. "White Christmas", "The Ballerina in Bonanza" dancer-actress Barrie Chase on Oct. 20; mother of Borden Chase (1900-71). Am. astronaut Donald Herod Peterson on Oct. 22 in Winona, Miss. English London East End crime bosses Ronald "Ronnie" Kray (d. 1995) and Reginald "Reggie" Kray (d. 2000) on Oct. 24 in Hoxton, East London. Am. "Whites", "Mating" novelist Norman Rush on Oct. 24 in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at Swarthmore College. Am. country pianist Floyd Cramer (d. 1997) on Oct. 27 in Shreveport, La.; grows up in Huttig, Ark. Am. baseball player (black) Elijah Jerry "Pumpsie" Green on Oct. 27 in Oakland, Calif.; first black player in the Boston Red Sox (1959-62). Am. Nation of Islam leader (black) (Muslim) Warith Deen Mohammed (Wallace Delaney Muhammad) (d. 2008) on Oct. 30 in Hamtramck, Mich.; son of Elijah Muhammad (1897-1975). Am. surfboard-catamaran inventor Hobart "Hobie" Alter on Oct. 31. English "James Bond Theme", "Born Free", "Midnight Cowboy", "Dances With Wolves" film composer John Barry (John Barry Prendergast) (d. 2011) on Nov. 3 in York. Am. "Capt. Wilton Parmenter in F-Troop", "Sam Jones in Mayberry R.F.D." actor-dancer Kenneth Ronald "Ken" Berry on Nov. 3 in Moline, Ill.; serves in the U.S. Army under Sgt. Leonard Nimoy. Am. Dem. Mass. gov. #65, #67 (1975-9) Michael Stanley "Mike" Dukakis on Nov. 3 in Brookline, Mass.; Greek immigrant parents; educated at Harvard U. Indian Hindu economist (atheist) ("the Mother Teresa of Economics") Amartya Kumar Sen on Nov. 3 in Santiniketan, West Bengal; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U.; 1998 Nobel Econ. Prize. Am. "Deputy Vance Porter in The Dakotas" actor Michael Harris Greene on Nov. 4 in San Francisco, Calif. Anglo-Am. engineer-physicist ("Father of Fiber Optic Communications") ("Godfather of Broadband") Sir Charles Kuen Kao on Nov. 4 in Shanghai, China; educated at Imperial College, London; 2009 Nobel Physics Prize. Nigerian Biafran pres. #1 (1967-70) (black) Gen. Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu (d. 2011) on Nov. 4 in Zungeru. Am. "Card Sharks", "Sale of the Century" TV game show host Jim Perry (James Edward Dooley on Nov. 9 in Camden, N.J.; educated at the U. of Penn. Am. astronaut Ronald Ellwin Evans Jr. (d. 1990) on Nov. 10 in St. Francis, Kan. Am. "Respect Yourself" R&B singer-songwriter (black) Bonnie "Sir Mack" Rice (The Falcons) on Nov. 10 in Clarksdale, Miss. Iraqi pres. #6 (2005-14) (Kurdish) (first non-Arab pres.) Jalal Talabani on Nov. 12 in Kelkan; educated at Baghdad U. Am. gangster Daniel John Patrick "Danny" Greene (d. 1977) on Nov. 14 in Cleveland, Ohio. Am. Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Wallace Haise Jr. on Nov. 14 in Biloxi, Miss.; educated at the U. of Okla., and Harvard U. Am. "Deputy Sheriff Warren Ferguson in The Andy Griffith Show" comedian Jack Burns on Nov. 15. Am. "The Oracle in The Matrix" actress (black) Gloria Foster (d. 2001) on Nov. 15 in Chicago, Ill. Am. writer Anne Howland Ehrlich (Anne Fitzhugh Howland) on Nov. 17 in Des Moines, Iowa.; wife of Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-). Am. Fluxus cellist ("the Joan of Arc of New Music") Madeline Charlotte Moorman (d. 1991) on Nov. 18 in Little Rock, Ark.; educated at UTA, and Juilliard School; collaborator of Nam June Paik. Am. TV host (Jewish) Larry King (Lawrence Harvey Zeiger) on Nov. 19 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. astronaut Henry Warren "Hank" Hartsfield Jr. on Nov. 21 in Birmingham, Ala.; educated at Auburn U. and Duke U. Am. "A Dear John Letter" country singer Ollie Imogene "Jean" Shepard on Nov. 21 in Pauls Valley, Okla.; not to be confused with radio-TV personality Jean Shepherd (1921-99). Polish composer-conductor Krzysztof Penderecki on Nov. 23 in Debica. Am. hall-of-fame bowler Carmen Salvino on Nov. 23 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Wooly Bully", "Little Red Riding Hood" singer Sam the Sham (Domingo Samudio) (Sam the Sham and the Pharaohs) on Nov. 23 in Dallas, Tex. Iranian rev. sociologist ("Ideologue of the 1979 Iranian Rev.") Ali Shariati (d. 1977) on Nov. 23 in Kahak (nar Sabzevar). Am. "The Radicalism of the American Revolution", "The Creation of the American Republic" historian Gordon Stewart Wood on Nov. 27 in Concord, Mass.; educated at Tufts U., and Harvard U.; student of Bernard Bailyn (1922-). English blues singer-songwriter John Mayall on Nov. 29 in Macclesfield. Am. "Everything You Wanted to Know About Sex" writer (Jewish) David Reuben on Nov. 29. Am. actress Kathryn Crosby on Nov. 25 in Houston, Tex. Am. singer-actor Robert Goulet on Nov. 26 in Lawrence, Mass. Am. "Selena Cross in Peyton Place", "Carolyn Muir in The Ghost & Mrs. Muir" actress Hope Elise Ross Lange (d. 2003) on Nov. 28 in Redding, Conn.; educated at Reed College; husband (1956-61) of Don Murray (1929-) and (1963-71) Alan J. Pakula (1928-98) Am. "Penny in Sky King" actress Gloria Winters (d. 2010) on Nov. 28 in Los Angeles, Calif. English singer-songwriter John Mayall on Nov. 29 in Manchester. Am. Pop Art painter James Rosenquist on Nov. 29 in Grand Forks, N.D. German "The Magnificent Seven" actor Horst Werner Buccholz (d. 2003) on Dec. 4 in Berlin. Am. 6'7" basketball player (white) (St. Louis Hawks #12, 1955-6) (Rochester/Cincinnati Royals #24, 1956-8) Richard James "Dick" Ricketts Jr. (d. 1988) on Dec. 4 in Pottstown, Penn.; brother of David Ricketts (1935-2008); educated at Duquesne U. Am. 6'5" basketball player (black) (New York Knicks #11, 1959-65) John M. "Jumpin' Johnny" Green on Dec. 8 in Dayton, Ohio; educated at Mich. State U. Am. "Heah come de judge" comedian-actor (black) Clerow "Flip" Wilson Jr. (d. 1998) on Dec. 8 in Jersey City, N.J. Am. trash talking TV host Morton Downey Jr. (Sean Morton Downey) (d. 2001) on Dec. 9 in Los Angeles, Calif.; son of Morton Downey (1901-85). Am. "Up in Smoke" dir. and record producer (Jewish) Lou Adler on Dec. 13 in Chicago, Ill.; husband (1964-80) of Shelley Fabares. Dutch atmospheric chemist Paul Jozef Crutzen on Dec. 13 in Amsterdam; 1995 Nobel Chem. Prize. English botanist Colin Louis Avern Leakey on Dec. 13 in Cambridge; son of Louis Leakey (1903-72) and Frida Avern Leakey; brother of Richard Leakey (1944-) and Philip Leakey (1949-); educated at Cambridge U. Am. "Ensign Charles Parker in McHale's Navy", "The Carol Burnett Show" actor-comedian Thomas Daniel "Tim" Conway on Dec. 15 in Willoughby, Ohio; grows up in Chagrin Halls, Ohio; adopts the name Tim to avoid confusion with English actor Tom Conway (1904-67). Syrian Melkite Greek Patriarch (2000-) Gregory III (Lutfy Laham) on Dec. 15 in Darayya. Am. "Bayou Lightning" blues musician (black) Lonnie Brooks (Lee Baker Jr.) on Dec. 18 in Dubuisson, La. Am. "Roots" actress (black) Cicely Tyson on Dec. 19 in New York City; parents come from St. Kitts and Nevis, West Indies. Japanese Yamato emperor #125 (1989-) Heisei (Jap. "peace and prosperity") (Akihito) on Dec. 23 in Tokyo; son of Showa (Hirohito) (1901-89); father of crown prince Naruhito (1960-) and prince Aya (1966-). Am. "True Grit" novelist Charles McColl Portis on Dec. 28 in El Dorado, Ark. Am. "Mr. Blue in Reservoir Dogs" actor-writer Edward Heward "Eddie" Bunker (d. 2005) on Dec. 31 in Hollywood, Calif. Am. "Bridge Over Troubled Water", "The Boxer" musician Fred Carter Jr. on Dec. 31 in Winnsboro, La.; father of Deana Carter (1966-). Am. "The Snow Gods" novelist Herbert Burkholz (d. 2006) on ? in ?; educated at NYU. Am. golfer Homero Blancas Jr. on ? in ?. Am. Protestant theologian Walter Brueggemann on ? in Tilden, Neb.; educated at Union Theological Seminary. Am. writer-critic Frederick Campbell Crews on ? in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Yale U., and Princeton U. Am. cancer researcher (Jewish) Judah Folkman (d. 2007) on ? in ?. Palestinian PLO leader (Muslim) (founder of Black September?) Salah Mesbah Khalaf (Abu Iyad) (d. 1991) on ? in ?. Am. historian-political scientist Michael J. Parenti on ? in New York City; educated at Yale U. Am. businessman (Jewish) Donald Soffer on ? in Duquesne, Penn.; educated at Brandeis U.; owner of the yacht Monkey Business. Am. historian Gordon S. Wood on ? in Concord, Mass.; educated at Tufts U. and Harvard U. Deaths: Am. celeb Elizabeth Bacon Custer (b. 1842) on Apr. 6 in New York City; buried next to her hubby George Armstrong Custer at West Point. Am. scholar George Herbert Palmer (b. 1842). Am. minister-reformer Charles Henry Parkhurst (b. 1842) on Sept. 8 in Ventnor, N.J.: "Our civilization, broadly, is a dead failure." English literary critic-journalist George Saintsbury (b. 1845) on Jan. 28 in Bath, Somerset. Am. anthropologist William Henry Holmes (b. 1846) on Apr. 20. English philologist-Assyriologist Archibald Henry Sayce (b. 1846) on Feb. 4. English Theosophist and Indian independence champ Annie Besant (b. 1847) on Sept. 20 in Adyar, India. Am. astronomer Ormond Stone (b. 1847) on Jan. 17 in Centreville, Va. Russian pianist Vladimir de Pachmann (b. 1848) on Jan. 6 in Rome. Am. decorative artist Louis Comfort Tiffany (b. 1848) on Jan. 17. Am. gasoline-powered farm tractor inventor John Froelich (b. 1849) on May 23 in St. Paul, Minn. (heart attack). English statesman Augustine Birrell (b. 1850) on Nov. 20. Am. political economist James Laurence Laughlin (b. 1850) on Nov. 28. German-born Am. Ethical Culture movement founder Felix Adler (b. 1851) on Apr. 24. German diplomat Wilhelm von Schoen (b. 1851) on Apr. 24 in Berchtesgaden. Argentine pres. Hipolito Irigoyen (b. 1852) on July 3. Irish novelist George Augustus Moore (b. 1852) on Jan. 21. English comedian Arthur Roberts (b. 1852) on Feb. 27 in London. German philosopher Hans Vaihinger (b. 1852) on Dec. 18. Am. clergyman Henry van Dyke (b. 1852): "Self is the only prison that can ever bind the soul." French "Sappho" artist Charles August Mengin (b. 1853) on Apr. 3 in Paris. Austrian Gen. Oskar Potiorek (b. 1853) on Dec. 17 in Klagenfurt. Finnish mathematician Hjalmar Mellin (b. 1854) on Apr. 5 in Helsinki. French bacteriologist Pierre Paul Emile Roux (b. 1854) on Nov. 3 in Paris. German Adm. Ludwig von Schroeder (b. 1854) on July 17 in Berlin-Halensee. German Gen. Hermann von Francois (b. 1856) on May 15. Am. artist-historian James Edward Kelly (b. 1856) on May 25 in New York City; buried in Old St. Raymond's Cemetery in Bronx, N.Y. British RMS Lusitania capt. William Thomas Turner (b. 1856) on June 23; loses son Percy Wilfred Turner (b. 1886) to German sub U-98 on Sept. 16, 1941. German adm. Friedrich von Ingenohl (b. 1857) on Dec. 19 in Berlin. Belgian gen. Leon de Witte de Haelen (b. 1857) on July 13 in Meer. English lexicographer Henry Watson Fowler (b. 1858) on Dec. 26 in Chard, Somerset. Am. anthropologist Frederick Starr (b. 1858) on Aug. 14 in Tokyo, Japan (pneumonia). Am. writer Lawrence Fraser Abbott (b. 1859). Am. astrologer Evangeline Smith Adams (b. 1859) on Nov. 10 in New York City. Am. Monsanto founder John Francis Queeny (b. 1859) on Mar. 19 in St. Louis, Mo. English lyricist Adrian Ross (b. 1859) on Sept. 11 in Kensington, London (heart failure). Am. Shakespearean actor Edward Hugh Sothern (b. 1859) on Oct. 28. English newspaper ed. Horatio W. Bottomley (b. 1860). English writer-ed. Leonard Huxley (b. 1860) on May 2. Bulgarian Gen. Kliment Boyadzhiev (b. 1861) on July 15 in Sofia. Am. illustrator-cartoonist Edward W. Kemble (b. 1861). Bolivian pres. (1904-9, 1913-17) Ismael Montes (b. 1861). Scottish naturalist-writer Sir John Arthur Thomson (b. 1861) on Feb. 12 in Limpsfield, Surrey. Am. writer John Jay Chapman (b. 1862) on Nov. 4 in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. English shipping magnate Sir John Ellerman (b. 1862) on July 16; leaves a Ł36.7M estate, revealing him as the richest man in England. English statesman Sir Edward Grey, 1st Viscount Grey of Fallodon (b. 1862) on Sept. 7. French BCG Vaccine physician Leon Charles Albert Calmette (b. 1863) on Oct. 29. English "Prisoner of Zenda" novelist Anthony Hope (b. 1863) on July 8 in London. English Theosophy leader G.R.S. Mead (b. 1863) on Sept. 28 in London. French PM #84, #92 (1917, 1925) Paul Painleve (b. 1863) on Oct. 29 in Paris. English automobile king Henry Royce (b. 1863). Sri Lankan Buddhist leader Anagarika Dharmapala (b. 1864) on Apr. 29 in India. British Adm. Rosslyn Wemyss, 1st Baron Wester Wemyss (b. 1864) on May 24 in Cannes, France; dies without heir. Am. scholar-educator Irving Babbitt (b. 1865) on July 15. Am. artist-novelist Robert William Chambers (b. 1865) on Dec. 16 in Broadalbin, N.Y. Afghan journalist Mahmud Tarzi (b. 1865) on Nov. 22 in Istanbul. Am. heavyweight boxing champ "Gentleman" Jim Corbett (b. 1866) on Feb. 18 in Bayside, Queens. German-Am. tenor (co-dir. of the Metropolitan Opera) Andreas Dippel (b. 1866) on May 12. Am. illustrator-cartoonist Louis M. Glackens (b. 1866). English "The Forstye Saga" novelist John Galsworthy (b. 1867) on Jan. 31 in London; 1932 Nobel Lit. Prize. Am. painter George Benjamin Luks (b. 1867). German poet Stefan George (b. 1868) on Dec. 4. German violinist Willy Burmester (b. 1869) on Jan. 16. Greek poet Constantine Cavafy (b. 1869) on Apr. 29. Czech architect Adolf Loos (b. 1870) on Aug. 23 in Vienna. Am. filmmaker Lewis J. Selznick (b. 1870) on Jan. 25. U.S. pres. #30 (1923-9) Calvin Coolidge (b. 1872) on Jan. 5 in Northampton, Mass.; "How could they tell (that he was dead)?" (Dorothy Parker): "No nation ever had an army large enough to guarantee it against attack in time of peace or insure it victory in time of war"; "One of the greatest favors that can be bestowed upon the American people is economy in government" - save a horse ride a cowboy? Polish-born Am. filmmaker Mark M. Dintenfass (b. 1872) on Nov. 23 in Cliffside Park, N.J. German philosopher Theodor Lessing (b. 1872) on Aug. 31 in Marienbad, Czech. (assassinated in his home by Nazi sympathizers). Am. architect Addison Mizner (b. 1872): "God gives us relatives; thank God, we can choose our friends"; "Misery loves company, but company does not reciprocate." Austrian-born Am. architect Joseph Urban (b. 1872) on July 10 in Manhattan, N.Y. (heart attack). Hungarian pschoanalyst Sandor Ferenczi (b. 1873) on May 22 in Budapest. Italian explorer Luigi Amedeo Francesco, duke of the Abruzzi (b. 1873). English-born Am. movie pioneer David Horsley (b. 1873) on Feb. 23 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. Variety founder Sime Silverman (b. 1873) on Sept. 23 in Los Angeles, Calif. (heart attack at the Ambassador Hotel). Canadian Gen. Sir Arthur Currie (b. 1875) on Nov. 30 in Montreal, Quebec. Russian psychiatrist Pyotr Gannushkin (b. 1875) on Feb. 23 in Moscow. Austrian soprano Selma Kurz (b. 1875). German chancellor (1922-3) Wilhelm Cuno (b. 1876) on Jan. 3. French poet-novelist Raymound Roussel (b. 1877) on July 14: "My fame will outshine that of Victor Hugo or Napoleon". Scottish-born Am. actor Ernest Torrence (b. 1878) on May 13 in New York City (complications from gallstone surgery). Danish arctic explorer-ethnologist Knud Rasmussen (b. 1879) on Dec. 21 in Copenhagen. Am. "The Lone Wolf" novelist Louis Joseph Vance (b. 1879) on Dec. 16 in New York City; burns to death in a cigarette-benzene accident. Norwegian poet Olaf Bull (b. 1883) on June 29. Iraqi king (1933-9) Faisal I (b. 1883) on Sept. 8. Am. publisher-producer Horace Liveright (b. 1883) on Sept. 24; dies broke and alcoholic. Am. "Charlie Chan" writer Earl Derr Biggers (b. 1884) on Apr. 5 in Pasadena, Calif. (heart attack). Am. poet Sara Teasdale (b. 1884) on Jan. 29 in St. Louis, Mo. (suicide by OD): "I found more joy in sorrow/ Than you could find in joy"; "It is my heart that makes songs, not I"; "No one worth possessing can be quite possessed"; "I make the most of all that comes and the least of all that goes." Am. writer Ring Lardner (b. 1885) on Sept. 25. Am. actor-dir. Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle (b. 1887) on June 29. Australian "Felix the Cat" producer Patrick Sullivan (b. 1887) on Feb. 15 in the U.S. (alcoholism). Am. jazz musician Freddie Keppard (b. 1889) on July 15 in Chicago, Ill. German jurist Hermann Heller (b. 1891) on Nov. 5 in Madrid, Spain. English poet-novelist Stella Benson (b. 1892). Am. musician Lorenzo Tio Jr. (b. 1893). Canadian actor Jack Pickford (b. 1896) on Jan. 3 in Paris (syphilis et al.). Am. country singer Jimmie Rodgers (b. 1897) on May 26 in New York City (TB contracted in 1924). French actress Renee Adoree (b. 1898) on Oct. 5 in Tujunga, Calif. Jewish Zionist leader Chaim Arlosoroff (b. 1899) in Tel Aviv. Italian-born assassin Giuseppe Zangara (b. 1900) on Mar. 20 in Raiford, Fla. (executed). German historian Eckart Kehr (b. 1902) in Washington, D.C. (heart attack) - the good die young? Am. jazz guitarist Eddie Lang (b. 1902) on Mar. 26 in New York City (hemorrhage after a tonsillectomy) - the good die young? German black actor-dancer Hilarius Gilges (b. 1909) on June 23 in Dusseldorf; kidnapped, tortured, and murdered by the Gestapo and SS; on Dec. 23, 2003 Hilarius Gilges Plaza in Dusseldorf is dedicated.