|United States of America||Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945)||Mar. 4, 1933||Apr. 12, 1945|
|United Kingdom||Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940)||May 28, 1937||May 10, 1940|
|United Kingdom||George VI (1895-1952)||Dec. 11, 1936||Feb. 6, 1952|
|Soviet Union||Joseph Stalin (1878-1953)||Apr. 3, 1922||Mar. 5, 1953|
|China||Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975)||Dec. 11, 1939||May 31, 1945|
|Canada||William Lyon Mackenzie King (1874-1950)||Oct. 23, 1935||Nov. 14, 1948|
|France||Albert Francois Lebrun (1871-1950)||May 10, 1932||July 10, 1940|
|Germany||Adolf Hitler (1889-1945)||Aug. 2, 1934||Apr. 30, 1945|
|Italy||Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)||Oct. 31, 1922||July 25, 1943|
|Italy||Victor Emmanuel III (1869-1947)||July 29, 1900||May 9, 1946|
|Spain||Francisco Franco (1892-1975)||Oct. 1, 1936||Nov. 20, 1975|
|Mexico||Lazaro Cardenas (1895-1970)||Dec. 1, 1934||Nov. 30, 1940|
|Papacy||Pope Pius XII (1876-1958)||Mar. 2, 1939||Oct. 9, 1958|
1940 Chinese Year: Dragon. Time Mag. Man of the Year: Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965); next time 1949. The Sixteenth (16th) (1940) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 131,669,275 (7.2% increase - smallest ever) (44.2 per sq. mi), incl. 1.2M native-born Germans, and ? mostly European immigrants, with 5M aliens registered under the Alien Registration Act; whites stay at a record 89.8% of the total pop.; avg. life expectancy: 64 years (up from 49 in 1900); pop. of Washington, D.C.: 665K. By this year U.S. homes have 30M radios. Number of Jews remaining in Germany: 202K, plus 57K in Austria. During WWII 200K Allied servicemen endure up to five years in German POW camps, incl. the Birdmen (Birdwatchers) of the German Stalags. The undeclared Japanese war on China causes the Kuomintang Nationalists and the Communists to table their civil war in favor of ousting the Japanese; the Communists have 800K members with a secure base in Yan'an in Shaanxi Province; the Kuomintang are based in Chongqing (Chungking) in Sichuan Province, and mess up by abusing the local pop. while the Communists offer them the moon, and found a univ. in Yan'an to breed anti-Japanese pro-Commie thinkers - facts are not neutral and whoever controls the schools controls the world? On Jan. 1 USC defeats Tenn. by 14-0 to win the 1940 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 1 Hitler issues a New Year's Proclamation to the Nazi Party, with the soundbyte: "The Jewish capitalistic world will not survive the twentieth century." On Jan. 2 after 70 Jews begin starving to death a day in Warsaw, the Polish Gen. Govt. forbids pub. of obituary notices. On Jan. 4 FDR appoints William Francis "Frank" Murphy (1880-1949) of Mich. to the U.S. Supreme Court, and on Jan. 18 he is sworn in as justice #81 (until July 19, 1949), bringing the court back up to nine members; Murphy goes on to become known for letting emotions rule his reason, spawning the expression "tempering justice with Murphy", allying with justices Rutledge, Douglas, and Black to incorporate Bill of Rights protections into the 14th Amendment; on June 3 the 8-1 U.S. Supreme (Hughes) Court decision in Minersville School District v. Gobitis causes a nationwide outburst of violence against the Jehovah's Witnesses for refusal to salute the U.S. flag, which the court says can be compelled by the state even against religious conscience; the students are expelled - and now can go door-knocking full time? On Jan. 6 British foreign secy. Lord Halifax warns Norway of its intention to lay mines in Norwegian waters to stop German merchant ships from bringing Swedish iron ore to German ports; they never carry it out. On Jan. 7 the BBC Forces Programme debuts on radio (until Feb. 26, 1944). On Jan. 8 Britain extends food rationing from meat to butter and sugar; meanwhile the last of 316,192 children evacuated to the countryside at the outbreak of the war return to London. On Jan. 8 Benito Mussolini sends a letter to Hitler, asking if it's really worth it to invade Britain when the U.S. will back them, "to risk all - including the regime - and to sacrifice the flower of German generations in order to hasten the fall of a fruit which must of necessity fall and be harvested by us, who represent the new forces of Europe", adding: "The big democracies carry within themselves the seeds of their decadence"; instead, he proposes the compromise of the creation of a Polish state, with the soundbyte: "In Poland and the Baltic it is Russia that has been the great beneficiary of the war, without firing a shot... I am sure that you cannot abandon the anti-Bolshevik and anti-Semitic banner you have brandished for twenty years"; Hitler takes until Mar. 10 to answer, with the soundbyte "Sooner or later, I believe, Duce, that Fate will force us after all to fight side by side." On Jan. 9 Richard Hermann Hildebrandt (1897-1952), SS chief of Danzig West Prussia informs Heinrich Himmler that his men carried out "the elimination of 4,000 incurable patients from Polish mental hospitals", along with 2K German mental hospital patients in Pomerania. On Jan. 10 Hitler sets Jan. 17 as the date for Operation Yellow, the German invasion of the West, starting with saturation bombing of French airfields on Jan. 14; too bad, on Jan. 10 the Mechelen Incident (Affair) sees Maj. Helmut Reinberger crash in Mechelen-sur-Meuse on the Belgian side with operational plans in his briefcase, tipping them off, causing Dutch and Belgian troops to begin mobilizing on the border, which doesn't phase Hitler; on Jan. 16 Hitler postpones the offensive to spring so that he can "count on at least eight days of fine and clear weather". On Jan. 12 after the first black sit-in in U.S. history, the city of Alexandria, Va. approves a new public library for blacks. On Jan. 13 despite protests from the Soviets, Sweden agrees to a British request to allow volunteers for the Finnish resistance to pass through their country unarmed and ununiformed. On Jan. 16 former navy minister (1937-9) Adm. Yonai Mitsumasa (1880-1948) (known for his short undecipherable Nambu accent speeches) becomes PM #37 of Japan (until July 22). On Jan. 18 the Gestapo arrests 255 Jews in Warsaw, and shoots them on Jan. 21 in the Palmiry Woods. On Jan. 21 Pope Pius XII broadcasts a speech from the Vatican about the plight of Polish civilians, 15K of whom have died in the war, with the soundbyte: "The horror and inexcusable excesses committed on a helpless and a homeless people have been established by the unimpeachable testimony of eyewitnesses"; on Jan. 23 in another broadcast he condemns the existence of concentration camps and condemns Nazi persecution of the Jews. On Jan. 22 Maj. Gen. Friedrich Mieth (1888-1944), chief of staff of the German First Army tells his officers: "The SS has carried out mass executions without proper trials" which "besmirch" the honor of the German Army; after Hitler is informed, he dismisses him. On Jan. 25 German Polish occupation gov.-gen. (1939-45) Hans Michael Frank (1900-46) issues an order for the remodeling of the Polish economy within his Gen. Govt. "for the immediate reinforcement of the military power of the Reich", with Poland to provide Germany with raw materials and manpower of 1M workers incl. 750K agricultural workers (50% women). On Jan. 26 Hollywood actor Ronald Wilson Reagan (1911-2004) marries actress Jane Wyman (Sarah Jane Mayfield) (1917-2007) (until June 28, 1948) in Wee Kirk o' the Heather Church in Forest Lawn, Calif.; they have one adopted son, Michael (b. 1945) and two daughters, Christine (born and died on June 26, 1947), and Maureen Reagan (1941-2001). On Jan. 27 Winston Churchill gives a speech in Manchester, with the soundbyte: "A hundred thousand Czech workmen had been led off into slavery to be toiled to death in Germany", but this "pales in comparison with the atrocities which... are being perpetrated upon the Poles... We may judge what our fate would be if we fell into their clutches. But from them also we may draw the force and inspiration to carry us forward on our journey and not to pause or rest till liberation is achieved and justice is done.... Come then. Let us to the task, to the toil, each to our part, each to our station... There is not a week, nor a day, nor an hour to lose." On Jan. 29 the Soviets begin secret negotiations in Sweden with Finland to scrap their Commie People's Govt. of Finland in exchange for a longer coastline on the Gulf of Finland and some control of the entrance to protect Leningrad, as well as more control in Karelia; on Jan. 31 it is announced in Helsinki that 377 Finnish civilians have been killed by Soviet air raids in the 2-mo. war. On Jan. 30 Reinhard Heydrich founds the IV-D-4 govt. dept. in Berlin to deport Jews anywhere they want. In Jan. U.S. Adm. James Otto Richardson (1878-1974) is appointed CIC of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, protesting its forward deployment from San Pedro, Calif. to indefensible Pearl Harbor in vain, with FDR telling him, "Jim, you just don't get it"; in Feb. 1941 he is replaced with more trusting Adm. Husband E. Kimmel; FDR deliberately parked most of the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor to lure the Japanese into an attack, and Richardson was fired for objecting? - proof of a conspiracy to juke the U.S. into WWII by luring the Japs into a dumb move? In Jan. after cracking the wirings of the rotors and reflectors at the end of 1932, only to see the design leapfrog ahead of him, Polish mathematician Marian Adam Rejewski (1905-80) cracks a key used for the German Enigma machine last Oct. 28; by Oct. several Enigma keys are cracked, allowing British intel to read secret German messages with regularity, making Rejewski one of the biggest heroes of the war; too bad, he can't talk until 1967. In Jan. the comic book series The Flash debuts, pub. by All-Am. Pubs. (later rename Nat. Periodicals and DC Comics), starting out with Jay Garrick and switching to Barry Allen in 1956. In Jan.-Feb. 250 Gypsy children from Brno are used as guinea pigs in Buchenwald Camp to test Zylkon B, followed by 600 Soviet POWs and 250 Polish POWs in Auschwitz Camp I on Sept. 3, 1941 - it is then either found too slow, messy and dangerous to use for mass exterminations, or used in mass exterminations despite the problems and availability of far easier methods, you can ask but we'll never know? On Feb. 1 the Soviets under Gen. Timoshenko launch a major offensive against the Finnish Mannerheim Line, but are beaten back by Feb. 3; too bad, they regroup and break through on Feb. 8, causing the Finns to establish a new defense line, which breaks on Feb. 13, defeating the pooped Finnish army by Feb. 16, which retreats again. On Feb. 2 German Lt. Gen. Wilhelm Ulex and his superior Gen. Johannes Albrecht Blaskowitz (1883-1948) begin protesting the inhuman brutality of German police in Poland, recommending their disbanding, causing Hans Frank on Feb. 13 to travel to Berlin to get Blaskowitz dismissed in vain, while the police brutality goes on unabated. On Feb. 5 the British and French decide to land troops in Stavanger, Bergen, and Trondheim; too bad, Hitler's intel finds out, and assigns Adm. Theodor Krancke (1893-1973) to counter it; on Feb. 21 Hitler appoints Gen. Nikolaus von Falkenhorst (1885-1968) to lead the invasion of Norway and Denmark. On Feb. 8 Lodz (Litzmannstadt) Ghetto is established in Poland; Mar. 7 (Thur.) is Bloody Tuesday; it is sealed on May 1, trapping 160K Jews in Hitler's Hell, with 31,721 apts. and only 725 having running water, along with a dead man wire around it. On Feb. 11 Hitler and Stalin sign the 1940 German-Soviet Commercial Agreement to trade German manufactured goods, armaments, and blueprints and prototypes of advanced military systems (incl. blueprints of the the battleship Bismarck) in return for oil and agricultural products. On Feb. 12 British minesweeper HMS Gleaner under Lt.-Cmdr. Hugh Percival Price (1901-) sinks German sub U-33, recovering three Engima rotors, along with three cypher keys, codenamed Dolphin, Pike, and Oyster; they only succeed in breaking Dolphin, used by surface vessels, but the Germans change it. On Feb. 12 The Adventures of Superman debuts on the Mutual Broadcasting System (until Mar. 1, 1951), starring the voice of Bud Collyer (1908-69), and sponsored by Kellogg's, going on to air the series of episodes "Clan of the Fiery Cross", exposing the KKK via secret info. passed by infiltrator Stetson Kennedy (1916-). On Feb. 16 the Altmark Incident sees British destroyer Cossack violate Norwegian neutrality and boards German supply ship Altmark, rescuing 299 British POWs after killing four German sailors, then making a mad dash through the Skagerrak to the Baltic Sea, winning Capt. (later Adm. of the Fleet) Philip Louis Vian (1894-1968) a Victoria Cross. On Feb. 16 Jesuit priest Edmund Aloysius Walsh (1885-1956), head of the foreign service school of Georgetown U. gives a speech in Washington, D.C., in which he claims that the war aims of Hitler are a "reestablishment of the Holy Roman Empire" (962-1806 C.E.); after the war, with Hitler destroyed by a U.S.-Soviet Communist alliance, he suggests to freshman U.S. Sen. Joseph McCarthy that he might use the anti-Communist issue to gain political prominence. On Feb. 21 in Britain women 60 and older are granted old age pensions. Is that you, Santa Claus? On Feb. 21 German concentration camp inspectorate dir. SS Gen. Richard Gluecks (Glücks) (1885-1945) informs Heinrich Himmler that he has found a site for a "quarantine" camp for Poles to be punished for disobedience and worked, a former Austrian-Hungarian cavalry barracks composed of brick bldgs. on the outskirts of Oswiecim, Poland, which the Germans rename Auschwitz; Jews are not mentioned. On Feb. 26 the U.S. Air Defense Command is created. On Feb. 29 the 12th Academy Awards in Los Angeles are hosted for the 1st time by Bob Hope (first of 18x); the best picture Oscar for 1939 goes to MGM's Gone With the Wind, along with best actress to Vivien Leigh, best supporting actress to Hattie McDaniel (first black actress to win, and first to be allowed at the AA ceremony, although seated near the kitchen), and best dir. to Victor Fleming; Clark Gable is passed over for the best actor award, which goes to Robert Donat for Goodbye Mr. Chips; best supporting actor goes to Thomas Mitchell for Stagecoach (who also plays Scarlett O'Hara's crazy pa Gerald in GWTW); Sidney Coe Howard wins a posth. award for the screenplay for "Gone With the Wind". In Feb. German exiles (in England) Otto Frisch and Rudolf Peierls discover that an A-bomb can be made with a few kg of U-235, ending the insoluble problem of the need for a moderator for U-238 to slow neutrons down; too bad, the ratio is 0.7% of U-235 to 99.3% of U-238, making chemical separation extremely difficult. On Mar. 4 after the ice hardens, Soviet forces launch a major offensive on Viipuri, Finland, causing PM Risto Ryti to fly to Moscow on Mar. 7 for peace negotiations. On Mar. 5 Molly first uses Fibber McGee's overstuffed hallway closet to search for a dictionary to look up the word "anahiliated" (sic); "Gotta straighten out that closet one of these days". On Mar. 5 NKVD head Lavrenti (Lavrentiy) Pavlovich Beria (1899-1953) proposes the execution of all members of the Polish officer corps, which is approved by Stalin, and in Mar. the Katyn Forest Massacre of 4K+ Polish officers by the Soviets (all neatly shot in the back of the neck) takes place, after which the Soviet govt. officially denies it; the Russian govt. doesn't release the archives until 1992, and puts them online in Apr. 2010; another 10K Polish officers are taken to Russia and killed, and their bodies aren't discovered until ?. On Mar. 6 Raymond "Ray" Forrest (Feuerstein) (1916-99) becomes the announcer for the first airborne telecast from an airplane flowing low over New York City. On Mar. 8 a Polish workman in Cracow is overheard by the Gestapo humming the Polish nat. anthem "Poland Has Not Yet Perished", and is shot dead in the street. On Mar. 12 after 27K Finnish and 58K Russian troops are KIA in the 105-day Winter War, defeated Finland signs the Moscow Peace Treaty with the Soviet Union, leasing the Hango Peninsula to Russia for 30 years, and giving up territory which on Mar. 31 becomes the Karelian Soviet Socialist Repub., known for having 60K lakes; on Mar. 14 the British War Cabinet cancels Operation Wilfred, a plan to invade Narvik, Norway and seize 1.5M tons of iron ore waiting to be shipped to Germany, then seize the iron ore fields at Gallivare (Gällivare), Sweden for fear of driving the Norwegians and Swedes into the arms of the Germans. On Mar. 15 two British bombers drop 6M-7M leaflets on Warsaw; on return, one lands by mistake in Germany but takes off again safely. On Mar. 16 15 German bombers attack the British fleet anchored at Scapa Flow naval base N of Scotland, damaging heavy cruiser Norfolk, killing three officers, and killing a civilian watching the raid at his cottage door; after Winston Churchill utters the Mar. 18 soundbyte: "There was considerable feeling in the country that while the Germans used bombs we only dropped leaflets", on Mar. 19 50 British bombers attack the German seaplane base in Hornum on Sylt Island, but fail to do any damage; one plane bombs Bornholm Island by mistake. On Mar. 16 after Pope Pius XII urges negotiations to decentralize Germany and hold a plebiscite in Austria, along with "a regime change and an avowal of Christian morality", a small group of Germans incl. Gen. Ludwig Beck, Col. Hans Oster, and ex-Leipzig mayor Carl Goerdeler hold meetings, which go nowhere under the iron grip of the Nazi regime. On Mar. 17 Dr. Fritz Todt (1891-1942) is appointed Reich minister for weapons and munitions, using his slave labor force to arm the Notsick, er, Nazi war machine. On Mar. 18 Adolf "night train" Hitler and Benito "makes the trains run on time" Mussolini meet at the Brenner Pass in the Alps at the Italian-German border, and after Hitler monopolizes the conversation, starry-eyed Il Duce agrees that Italy will join the war, although he tries to lobby for a 3-4 mo. postponement of German's Western offensive, which Hitler pooh-poohs, saying that once France is defeated Britain will come to terms; he never actually gives Mussy notice of his attack on the West, or his plans to invade Norway, but peppers him with letters dissing the French and British for spinelessness. On Mar. 20 Edouard Daladier is ousted, and Paul Reynaud (1878-1966) becomes PM #118 of France (until June 16), meeting with Neville Chamberlain a week later in London to sign a joint declaration that neither country will sign a separate peace with Germany; he privately lobbies the British to take the Swedish iron ore fields after a diversionary action in Norway, and to bomb Soviet oilfields in the Caucasus to cut off Germany's oil supply. On Mar. 23 Truth of Consequences debuts on NBC Radio (until 1965), hosted by producer Ralph Livingstone Edwards (1913-2005), featuring impossible-to-answer trivia questions followed by Beulah the Buzzer, and the "consequences", a zany and embarrassing stunt, often involving reunion with a loved one. Chinese govt. headed by Wang Jingwei (1883-1944) ("the Chinese Quisling") is established in Nanjing by the Japanese. On Apr. 3 Hungarian PM (1939-41) Count Paul Teleki (Pál Janos Ede Count Teleki de Szék) (1879-1941) signs the Berlin Pact. On Apr. 4 Neville Chamberlain utters the soundbyte that Hitler has "missed the bus". On Apr. 8 the British begin laying mines in Norwegian waters. On Apr. 8/9 (night) Germany invades Norway, with troops landing at Narvik, Bergen, Kristiansand, and Trondheim, causing the govt. to flee to Hamar; former Norwegian war minister and Nazi henchman Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonsson Quisling (1887-1945) becomes PM in Oslo, his name becoming synonymous with traitor; too bad, on Apr. 24 Hitler appoints German Nazi Party man Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (1898-1945) to take effective control, making Quisling a figurehead; on Apr. 10 five British destroyers attack Narvik, sinking two of 10 German destroyers, losing two of their own, then returning on Apr. 13 and sinking the other eight; on Apr. 13 the British and French land at Namsos and Andalsnes near Trondheim, and win initial Vs before being evacuated in May-June; meanwhile Hitler orders German troops to evacuate Narvik; on Apr. 15 the Brits decode the Enigma key used by the Germans in the Norwegian operation, but can't transmit the intel to the field in a timely fashion; by Apr. 17 13K British troops are in Norway N of Narvik and S of Trondheim; on Apr. 29 German troops from Oslo and Trondheim link up, outmaneuvering them. On Apr. 9 (Wesertag) (a.m.) Germany invades Denmark in Operation Weserubung (Weserübung) (Weser River Exercise), causing the govt. to capitulate immediately; Thorvald Stauning remains head of the govt., and Christian X remains in Copenhagen, resisting attempts to make Jews wear yellow stars of David, later resulting in the saying "He wore a yellow star in sympathy"; Hungarian chemist George Charles de Hevesy (1885-1966) of the Niels Bohr Inst. dissolves the gold Nobel Prize medals of Max von Laue and James Franck in aqua regia and leaves the bottle on a shelf in his lab until the war ends, then has the Nobel Society recast the medals. On Apr. 11 the Nazis rename the captured towns of Lodz and Brzeziny in Poland to Litzmannstadt and Lowenstadt (Lion City) after WWI Gen. Karl Litzmann (1850-1936), the Lion of Brzeziny, who became a Nazi Party bigwig. On Apr. 14 220 Poles incl. women and children are rounded up and shot in Serokomla, Poland. On Apr. 20 Hitler celebrates his 51st birthday by establishing the Norland SS regiment which incl. Norwegians and Danes. On Apr. 21 the quiz show Take It or Leave It debuts on CBS Radio (ends July 27, 1947), asking the "64 Dollar Question". On Apr. 23 (Passover) the Nazis humiliate and torture Jews and Poles in Stutthof Camp. On Apr. 27 Heinrich Himmler orders the construction of the Auschwitz (Oswiecim) set of 40+ concentration camps in East Upper Silesia in S Poland near the Czech border (whose sturdy brick bldgs. were formerly an Austrian-Hungarian garrison and cavalry barracks), with the motto "Work Makes Free" (Arbeit Macht Frei); it opens on June 14 (as the Nazis summer in Paris?); it has 7K staff members, only 750 of whom are ever punished after the war; SS man Rudolf Hoess (1901-47) becomes commandant; on Sept. 19 after expressing a desire to gather intel there, Polish army Capt. Witold Pilecki (1901-48) lets himself be rounded up in Warsaw and sent there, and escapes 2.5 years later, giving the outside world its first news of what goes on there, allowing the Polish govt. in exile to convince the Allies of the Holocaust; after the war he is sent on a new mission to spy on the Soviets, and is caught and executed, after which the Polish Communist govt. suppresses info. about him until 1989. On May 2 the Brits withdraw a whole div. from France in case the Germans invade British soil. On May 4 the Germans sink Polish destroyer Grom near Narvik, killing 56, with the rest being rescued by British battleship HMS Resolution. On May 7 the Concordat of 1940 is signed in Vatican City by Portugal and the Holy See, limiting Church power in Portugal while throwing them a bone in that canonical marriages are not allowed to obtain a civil divorce, resulting in 91% of all marriages being canonical by 1960. The German Blitzkrieg of the West is the stuff legends are made of? On May 10 (dawn) after lying in a speech that he will respect Holland's neutrality, while lying in wait in a train in Euskirchen 30 mi. from the Belgian frontier, Adolf Hitler's German Blitzkrieg by 136 divs. begins (ends June 22) sans declarations of war, starting with 2.5K aircraft bombing airfields in France, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg, followed by 16K troops under Luftwaffe Gen. Kurt Student (1890-1978) parachuting into Leiden, Rotterdam, and The Hague while 100 glider troops seize the Belgian bridges across the Albert Canal (which leads to Antwerp), and more siege the Eben-Emael Fortress, taking it on May 11; after invading Luxembourg, the Germans bypass the Maginot Line (which was only intended to protect the coal and steel industries of Alsace and Lorraine, and was never captured throughout the war) and invade Belgium through the Ardennes Forest via a "sickle cut" led by Gen. Erich von Manstein (1887-1973) (Belgium surrenders May 28), then the neutral Netherlands (surrenders May 14-15) (German troops parachute into the country wearing Dutch army uniforms?), followed on May 12 by France (surrenders June 25); France loses 217K KIA and 400K wounded, vs. 46K Germans KIA and 121K wounded, plus 1K aircraft lost; exiled Kaiser Wilhelm II in Apeldoorn, Holland refuses Winston Churchill's offer of asylum in Britain, preferring to live and die under German occupation. On May 10 after a coalition govt. becomes mandatory to fight the Germans, and the Labour Party led by his bitter enemy Edward Hugh John Deale Dalton (1887-1962) refuses to support him, failed appeaser Neville Chamberlain resigns after British Conservative politician Leopold Charles Maurice Stennett "Leo" Amery (1873-1955) tells him "In the name of God, go!", conveniently croaking on Nov. 9, and Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965) (architect of the Norway disaster?) becomes British PM (until July 27, 1945) and defense minister, forming a special defense committee with the chiefs of staff to make daily strategic decisions, working to stop the British govt. from capitulating to Hitler in secret meetings, then on May 13 giving his Blood and Toil Speech (first speech as British PM), with the soundbyte "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat." On May 10 as Germany invades Belgium, Rexist leader Leon Degrelle is arrested by the Belgian govt. as a suspected German collaborator and shipped to France; when Belgium and France surrender, Degrelle returns, and declares the Rexist Party to be in union with the Nazi Party, and forms a Walloon section of the Wehrmacht which ends up on the Eastern Front in a bustiere mini-dress? On May 10 Operation Fork sees Danish dependency Iceland accepts a British garrison under protest in case of a German invasion (until July 1941). On May 10 German ship Antilla is scuttled in Malmok, Antilles to prevent capture by Dutch forces, as French troops land on Aruba to guard the Lago Refinery (until July 6); meanwhile the homes of approx. 200 German, Austrian, and collaborating Dutch persons on Aruba and Curacao are searched; on May 12 British troops of the 2nd Battalion of the King's Shropshire Light Infantry arrive on Curaco; on July 6 they relieve the French on Aruba (until Feb. 11, 1942). On May 10-June 17 the Germans shoot down 959 aircraft in France, killing 1,192 crew. On May 13 after calling George VI at 5 a.m. to beg for aircraft support, then leaving The Hague for Rotterdam, embarking on British destroyer Hereward and not being able to make it to Zeeland, Queen Wilhelmina and the Dutch govt. escape to London and establish a govt.-in-exile. On May 14 (a.m.) the Germans blitz-bomb the Rhine River bridges in Rotterdam, killing 814 civilians with errant bombs, which the Allied press balloons to 25K-30K; on May 15 (9 p.m.) after losing Rotterdam the Dutch army surrenders. On May 14-15 the Battle of Gembloux, the first large-scale tank battle of WWII sees the French artillery-infantry stop the German blitzkrieg until they outflank them to the S; the myth of the use of the internal combustion engine and radio technology with a track and wheel force to rupture the enemy front and disorganize their rear is born, even though many German generals doubted the wisdom of the attack and it is really the fast-thinking opportunistic German operational level and its sheer recklessness that won out and caused the generals to later make it sound like a sound strategy? On May 15 nylon stockings go on gen. sale for the 1st time in the U.S. On May 15 N.H.-born Maurice James "Mac" McDonald (1902-71) and his brother Richard James "Dick" McDonald (1909-98) open the first McDonald's Restaurant in San Bernardino, Calif., becoming the first fast food restaurant, introducing the Speedee Service System in 1948, and opening the first restaurant with the Golden Arches in Mar. 1953 in Phoenix, Ariz; the first mascot is Speedee, which in 1967 is replaced by Ronald McDonald; Montpelier, Vt. becomes that last U.S. state capital to keep McDonald's out - here cum da thunder thighs and budonkadonk butts? On May 15 (night) the first British bomber attack on the Ruhr by 78 bombers hits 24 oil targets, losing 16 planes. On May 15 (night) FDR devises the "pushover" method of skirting the U.S. Neutrality Act by flying aircraft to the Canadian border, pushing them across, then flying them to Newfoundland, where they can be shipped to Britain. On May 16 as the German 7th Panzer Div. under Gen. Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel (1891-1944) (later "the Desert Fox") penetrates 50 mi. into France towards Cambrai, and more German Panzers under Gen. Heinz Wilhalm Guderian (1888-1954) reach 60 mi. E of Sedan, French forces pull out of Belgium. On May 17 the German Sixth Army under Gen. Walther von Reichenau occupies Brussels, causing the British 3rd Div. under Gen. Bernard Montgomery to retreat to the Dendre River; Gen. Franz Halder (1884-1972) writes the unusual soundbyte in his diary: "The Fuhrer is excessively nervous. He mistrusts his own success. He's afraid to take risks. He'd really like to stop now" - Brussels doubts? On May 17 the Panzers of Gen. Guderian reach the Oise River at Origny 10 mi. E of St. Quentin, while the French 4th Armored Div. under Col. Charles Andre Joseph Marie de Gaulle (1890-1970) slows them down, earning him a promotion to gen. On May 17 the Germans bomb Middleburg, Netherlands, destroying a third of the old city center to compel surrender of Zeeland. On May 18 the Germans capture Antwerp. On May 18 Gen. Guderian captures St. Quentin, while Gen. Rommel captures Cambrai and Le Cateau, where French Gen. Henri Honore (Honoré) Giraud (1879-1949) and the French Ninth Army walk into a trap, and Giraud is captured; French WWI ace (14 Vs) Lt. Marius Jean Paul Elzeard Ambrogi (1895-1971) gets his first and only WWII V in Cambrai. On May 18 after arguing in vain for a French offensive war against the Nazis, new interior minister (the Winston Churchill of France) Georges Mandel (Louis George Rothschild) (1885-1944) increases security in Paris, rounding up suspicious persons and setting up traffic stops; Russian writer Vladimir Nabokov and his Jewish wife escape Paris weeks before it falls on a French ocean liner's last voyage to New York City; on June 16 Mandel is offered by Churchill's military liaison officer British Gen. Edward Spears a trip out of France along with Charles de Gaulle, which Mandel declines, with the soundbyte: "You fear for me because I am a Jew. Well, it is just because I am a Jew that I will not go tomorrow; it would look as though I was afraid, as if I was running away"; on June 21 after trying to persuade Pres. Albert Lebrun, the presidents of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Senate, and the entire cabinet to travel to French North Africa to continue the fight against the Germans, he embarks with 25 other mainly Radical or Socialist deputies incl. Pierre Mendes France and Jean Zay and one senator on the Massilia; too bad, on Aug. 8, 1941 they are arrested in Morocco by Gen. Charles Nogues on the orders of Vicy PM Pierre Laval, and Churchill tries in vain to get Mandel released, calling him "the first resister" (above de Gaulle), after which they are sentenced to life imprisonment on Nov. 4, 1941. On May 19 the SS Death Head Div. goes into action for the first time in France near Cambrai, killing 200 French Moroccan troops while only losing 16 of their own - how do you say N-word in German? On May 19 (night) Winston Churchill delivers his first radio broadcast as PM, titled "Be Ye Men of Valour", with the soundbytes: "This is one of the most awe-striking periods in the long history of France and Britain. It is also beyond doubt the most sublime"; the two peoples "have advanced to rescue not only Europe but mankind from the foulest and most soul-destroying tyranny which has ever darkened and stained the pages of history", helping "a group of shattered states and bludgeoned races: the Czechs, the Poles, the Norwegians, the Danes, the Dutch, the Belgians - upon all of whom the long night of barbarism will descend, unbroken even by a star of hope, unless we conquer, as conquer we must, as conquer we shall." On May 19/20 the Germans reach Amiens and Abbeville, cutting the BEF off from the main French army along with its supply line and bases, trapping hundreds of thousands of British, French, and Belgian soldiers with their backs to the sea, causing Hitler to jump for joy, talking "in words of appreciation of the German army and its leadership" while he "busies himself with the peace treaty which shall express the theme, 'Return of territory robbed over the last four hundred years from the German people'"; adding that he will "repay" the French by forcing them to accept peace terms in the same spot in Compiegne where the Germans capitulated in 1918, and as for the British, they "can have their peace as soon as they return our colonies to us". On May 20 Prince Wilhelm of Hohenzollern (b. 1906), grandson of Kaiser Wilhelm II and heir to the German imperial throne is wounded in Valenciennes, dying on May 26 in Nivelles; his funeral service is attended by 50K, pissing-off jealous Hitler, who on ? issues the Prince's Decree (Prinzenerlass), barring all members of the former German royal houses from service in the military. On May 20 after his plane is shot down while machine-gunning French-Belgian refugees, and he is standing on the roadside with a crewman surrounded by an angry crowd, German Sgt. Wilhelm Ross (b. 1917) is shot in the head by a French soldier. On May 20 the U.S. Supreme (Hughes) Court rules unanimously in Cantwell v. Conn. that Jehovah's Witnesses Newton Cantwell and his sons Jesse and Russell can't be forced to get a license to hawk their religious wares in Conn. because the 14th Amendment incorporates the First Amendment against the states. On May 21 the Battle of Arras sees an Allied counterattack by the 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Div. and 1st Army Tank Brigade against the flank of the German army near Arras in NE France fail, causing them to withdraw to avoid encirclement; the SS Death Head Div. is overrun after their anti-tank gun is no match for the British Matilda tank. On May 21 a special unit of Nazis arrives in Soldau (Dzialdowo) in East Prussia, killing 1.5K mental patients in 18 days, with the reports calling them "successfully evacuated". On May 21 (night) British Fascist leader Sir Oswald Mosley and 35 leading members are arrested, followed within a week by 346 more members. On May 22 the Germans reach Le Crotoy at the mouth of the Somme River, cutting the Allied armies in half; 58 British tanks under Lt. Gen. Sir Giffard Le Quesne Martel (1889-1958), counterattack at Arras, but are stopped by dive bombers after killing 89 members of Gen. Rommel's 7th Panzer Div. and 39 members of the SS Death Head Div., becoming the Panzers' first D, causing Hitler to order a halt to the offensive before reaching the Channel ports - big mistake? On May 22 Parliament grants the British govt. wide emergency powers. On May 22 British intel at Bletchley Park breaks the German Enigma key used by the German Luftwaffe, allowing 1K messages a day to be deciphered and sent to the field via special secure mobile unit. On May 22-26 the Siege of Calais sees 4K British and French (mainly British) troops with 40 tanks defend the port against a German Panzer div. aided by German bombers, losing 300 killed and 200 wounded vs. 750-1,750 Germans killed or wounded. On May 23 the Treachery Act of 1940 is passed in Britain to prosecute and execute spies by getting around the stiffer rules of evidence for treason; it is suspended after the war, and repealed on Jan. 1, 1968. On May 23-25 after 1K of 1.2K British troops evacuate by sea, Boulogne falls to the Germans. On May 24 an air attack by the Germans begins on the sea off the Channel coast, sinking French ship Chacal off Dunkirk, and British destroyer HMS Wessex off Calais, badly damaging Polish destroyer Bzura. On May 24 (night) on Hitler's orders, the German Fourth Army under Gen. von Rundstedt halts its advance on the trapped BEF, causing the SS Death Head (Totenkopf) Div. 15 mi. SW of Dunkirk along the line of the AA Canal with bridgehead at Saint-Venant to have to pull back over the Canal d'Aire under British artillery fire, losing 42 KIA; in the evening Gen. Halder is refused permission by Gen. Rundstedt to attack Dunkirk because "the mechanized groups must first be allowed to pull themselves together"; on May 25 the 6th Panzer Army under Waffen-SS Gen. Josef "Sepp" Dietrich (1892-1966) (Hitler's former chaffeur-bodyguard) defies Hitler's orders and continues the advance, ordering his III Battalion to cross the canal and take the heights, driving off British artillery observers, earning Dietrich a Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. On May 25 the Luftwaffe attacks Zeebrugge, Blankenberge, Nieuport, Dunkirk, and Ostend, with Ostend receiving the heaviest bombing; meanwhile the British attack Saint-Venant, forcing the SS-VT Div. to retreat, becoming the first-ever SS unit retreat; the German advance resumes on May 26, with the Deutschland Regiment reaching the Leie River at Merville on May 27, forcing a bridgehead across the river then waiting for the SS Totenkopf Div. only to see British tanks arrive first until the Totenkopf Panzerjager Platoon arrives and saves the day. On May 25 Thornwell Jacobs (1877-1956), the father of the modern time capsule seals his Crypt of Civilization in Oglethorpe U. in Atlanta, Ga., containing encyclopedic knowledge of life and customs; it is slated to be opened in 8113 C.E. - when we embrace what lies ahead, our potential has no limit? Herr Hitler makes a mistake of - don't say it out loud - caution? On May 26 (the night that Calais falls) the British begin Operation Dynamo (Miracle of Dunkirk) (planned in the dynamo room of the Naval HQ in Dover Castle), the evacuation of Dunkirk (Dunkerque) to Dover (ends midnight June 2) (7 days), with the Germans allowing the 198,229 British and 139,997 French troops (338,226 total) to escape German encirclement on 42 British destroyers plus 1.2K Allied naval and civil craft incl. the 700 "Little Ships of Dunkirk", a flotilla of anything they can scrounge up in England that can float, surviving to fight the Krauts another day, with Winston Churchill uttering the soundbyte: "The whole root, the core, and brain of the British Army" have been rescued by a "miracle of deliverance"; the Luftwaffe tries in vain to stop the evacuation, losing 176 aircraft vs. 106 British aircraft; the Germans take 34K British POWs; the British leave 38K vehicles, 12K motorcyles, 475 tanks, 400 anti-tank guns, 1K heavy guns, 8K bren guns, 90K rifles, and 7K tons of ammo, leaving only 600K rifles and 12K bren guns in Britain; 136K British and 200K Polish troops remain in W France, and more British troops are en route from Norway; British gen. Sir Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander (1891-1969) is in charge of the evacuation, getting a promotion to CIC in the Middle East in 1942; the big decision to evacuate is made by BEF cmdr. Gen. John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort (1886-1946); double amputee RAF pilot Douglas Robert Steuart Bader (1910-82) scores his first Vs over Dunkirk, working up to group capt. and becoming a British hero. On May 27 the Le Paradis Massacre sees 97 members of the Royal Norfolk Regiment under Maj. Lisle Ryder (1903-) surrender in Paradis 50 mi. from Dunkirk only to be machine-gunned in a pit in front of a brick barn by the 14 Co. of the SS Totenkopf Div. under orders of Lt. Col. Fritz Knoechlein (Knöchlein) (1911-49), who is hanged in Hamburg on Jan. 28, 1949 when he makes the mistake of leaving two survivors, Pvt. Albert Pooley and Pvt. William O'Callagan. On May 28 (4 a.m.) Leopold III orders Belgian forces to cease fighting, causing the Belgian govt. in exile in Paris to declare him deposed, causing Winston Churchill to warn that it's too soon to "pass judgment" on him. On May 28 the 1st SS Div. Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler takes Wormhout (Wormhoudt) 10 mi. from Dunkirk; the Wormhout (Wormhoudt) Massacre sees the 50-man Royal Warwickshire Regiment surrender along with 30 French soldiers, only to be taken to a barn and shot and grenaded under orders of SS Capt. (later gen.) Wilhelm Mohnke (1911-2001), leaving five survivors; another 35 British POWs are murdered in the same area; on Apr. 24, 1988 the British Sunday Times reports that Mohnke is living as a retired businessman in Hamburg; an official British report is not released until 2011. On May 28 British troops finally take Narvik, only to find that the War Cabinet has authorized Operation Alphabet, the evacuation of Norway; on June 3/4 4.5K troops are evacuated from Narvik. On May 28 Heinrich Himmler writes the top secret Himmler Utopia Plan for reducing Poland to "the largest possible number of parts and fragments", from which the "racially valuable elements" would be extracted, while the rest "withers away", the remainder to be turned into subhuman labor robots taught only "how to count up to a maximum of five hundred, how to write his name, that it is God's command that he should be obedient to Germans, honorable, industrious, and brave." On May 30 the British are completely cornered at Dunkirk as SS divs. continue to advance into France as far as Saint-Etienne 250 mi. S of Paris; on May 31 the French surrender, pleasing Hitler, who tells the Leibstandardte SS Adolf Hitler: "Henceforth it will be an honour for you, who bear my name, to lead every German attack." On May 31 Winston Churchill tells French leaders that the U.S. has been "roused" by events, and is willing "to give us powerful aid"; U.S. army chief of staff George C. Marshall finds another loophole in the laws, declaring munitions to be surplus in order to give them to Britain, which places an order for 15K tons of newfangled TNT; after meeting with WWI hero Marshal Petain and discussing how the French should fight it out in French North Africa if they lose France, Churchill notes a "detached and somber" look on his face, "giving me the feeling that he would face a separate peace". In May the base for the U.S. Pacific Fleet is moved from San Diego, Calif. to Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. In May a camp is set up in Woldenberg, Germany (Dobiegniew, Poland) for captured Polish officers (until Jan. 1945). In May the anti-Communist Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies (CDAAA) is formed by William Allen White (1868-1944) et al. to promote a "pro British policy" against the Axis by providing military material support in order to keep the U.S. out of the war, opposing the Am. First Committee, growing to 700 local chapters; in mid-Dec. the No Foreign War Committee is formed by Verne Marshall to oppose it; after White issues the soundbyte "The Yanks Are Not Coming", which pisses-off New York City Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia, who accuses him of "doing a Laval", i.e., copying French foreign minister Pierre Laval, a leader in the French Vichy govt., White is replaced next Jan. by former U.S. Sen. (R-Vt.) (since June 24, 1940) Ernest William Gibson Jr. (1901-69); after the June 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union, the words "Aiding the Allies" are dropped from the name to allow support for the Soviets without calling them allies; the org. dissolves after the Dec. 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. On June 1 the Germans get close enough to Dunkirk to bombard the 20K British and 60K French troops remaining with artillery, which doesn't stop them from evacuating 64,229 while losing three British and one French destroyers, two troop transports, a minesweeper and a gunboat. On June 2 the comic series The Spirit debuts as a 16-page tabloid insert in the Sun. eds. of Register and Tribune Syndicate newspapers, created by William Erwin "Will" Eisner (1917-2005), reaching 5M circ. in this decade befoe being discontinued in 1952. On June 3 the Germans bomb Paris, killing 254 incl. 195 civilians. I want a perfect body, I want a perfect soul? On June 3 after the Nazis revive a 1937 Polish plan, the Madagascar Plan is proposed by Franz Rademacher (1906-73), head of the Jewish Dept. of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Germany; on June 20 Hitler tells Adm. Raeder that now Germany can send all its pesky Jews to Madagascar; on Aug. 15 with Hitler's approval, Adolf Eichmann releases a memo calling for the resettlement of 1M Jews per year for four years, with the island governed as a police state under the SS; too bad, the D in the Battle of Britain causes it to be postponed, and it is permanently shelved in 1942 with the commencement of the extermination of European Jewry. On June 4 Winston Churchill gives his Fight Them on the Beaches Speech to the House of Commons, with the soundbyte: "Even though large tracts of Europe and many old and famous states have fallen or may fall into the grip of the Gestapo and all the odious apparatus of Nazi rule, we shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender. And even if, which I do not for the moment believe, this island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, will carry on the struggle until in God's good time the New World with all its power and might, sets forth to the liberation and rescue of the Old", all of which rallies public opinion for the war and his govt.; he also utters the soundbyte about FDR: "Don't let the president come out with a peace plan! It will just embarrass us, and we won't accept it"; U.S. Pres. John F. Kennedy later utters the soundbyte that Churchill "mobilized the English language and sent it into battle"; if he had accepted Hitler's peace overtures then millions would have been saved from horrible fates, and Britain would have not lost its world power status, sharing the world with Germany, hence WWII is all his fault? - a hairless sloth? On June 5 (4 a.m.) the Battle (Fall) of France begins (ends June 22), with 143 German divs. attacking 65 French, 22 Belgian, 10 British and 9 Dutch divs. along a 140-mi. front; the Germans enjoy air superiority with 2.5K aircraft vs. a few hundred British aircraft and some obsolete French aircraft; Hitler directs the battle from his new HQ in Bruly-de-Pesche, Belgium near the French border; Paul Reynaud appoints Gen. Charles de Gaulle to be undersecy. of state for war - France is a piece of cake? On June 7 Italy orders its ships to neutral ports. On June 7 after the Norwegian 6th Div. surrenders and defense chief Otto Ruge is taken POW, King Haakon VII and his govt. flee Tromso aboard British cruiser Devonshire to London and establish a govt.-in-exile; on June 9-10 Norway surrenders. On June 8 Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 14, halting the advance in the Chateau-Thierry-Metz-Belfort triangle in E France and diverting troops to the siege of Paris. On June 8 British aircraft carrier HMS Glorious and destroyers HMS Ardent and HMS Acasta are sunk by the Scharnhorst and the Gneisenau while evacuating the last of 25K British troops from Narvik, Norway, killing 1,515 of 1,558 aboard. On June 9 after Churchill talks the War Cabinet into denying Paul Reynaud's request for more airplane squadrons, and instead convinces them that Britain's survival is the key to the war, 11K British-French troops begin evacuating at Le Havre, followed on June 10 by Cherbourg and St. Valery-en-Caux; meanwhile the Germans advance towards Rouen. On June 10 after German tanks close in on St. Valery-en-Caux, and the British 51st Div. under Maj. Gen. Sir Victor Morven Fortune (1883-1949) tries to make a last stand, French troops under Gen. Marcel Ihler (1880-1975) march in front of them waving white flags. On June 10 Gen. Rommel reaches Les Petites-Dalles on the Channel coast, uttering the soundbyte: "We climbed out of our vehicles and walked down the shingle beach to the water's edge until the water lapped over our boots." On June 10 Italy declares war on Britain and France, and on June 11 bombs Malta, then occupies SE France, with Hitler uttering the soundbyte: "First they were too cowardly to take part. Now they are in a hurry so that they can share in the spoils", adding: "I would have done everything the other way around. This must be the last declaration of war in history. I never thought the Duce was so primitive. Never in my life will I sign a declaration of war. I will always strike first"; on June 10 FDR makes his Stab in the Back Speech at the U. of Va., with the soundbyte: "On this tenth day of June 1940, the hand that held the dagger has struck it into the back of its neighbor", pledging to "extend to the opponents of force the material resources of this nation. We will not slow down or detour. Signs and signals call for speed, full speed ahead"; Britain begins rounding up 4.1K Italians age 16-70 who lived there less than 20 years; on June 11 Italy bombs Port Sudan, Aden, and Malta, while Britain bombs Genoa, Turin, and Eritrea; on June 12 Italian merchant ship Romolo is scuttled near Nauru to avoid capture by armed Australian merchant cruiser Manoora; in order to prevent Italian Vs in Africa and free Ethiopia from Italian rule, the East African Campaign by the Allies, led by the British under Gen. Sir Archibald Percival Wavell (1883-1950) begins (ends Nov. 27, 1941); the Italian invasion of France sputters out in two weeks, with 631 Italian vs. 40 French casualties. On June 11 the Germans occupy Reims and Reims-Champagne Air Base, and the French govt. flees Paris S to Briare on the Loire River; Churchill visits them, finding out that they have lost 35 of 103 divs., and telling them: "It is possible that the Nazis may dominate Europe, but it will be a Europe in revolt, and in the end it is certain that a regime whose victories are in the main due to its machines will one day collapse. Machines will beat machines." On June 11 after Hitler orders the Messerschmitt co. to make planes that can carry tanks across the English Channel for an invasion, work begins on the Messerschmitt ME 323 Gigant military glider, which can carry 120 fully-equipped troops (120 tons) riding on plywood floors; they end up being used to support Gen. Rommel in North Africa. On June 12 the British govt. announces a complete blockade of Italy. On June 12 46K British-French forces incl. 12 generals holed-up at St. Valery-en-Caux are captured by the 7th Panzer Div. of Gen. Rommel, who then attacks and captures Cherbourg on June 17-19. On June 12 the U.S. ships 600 freight cars of military supplies from Raritan, N.J. to Britain and France incl. 500K rifles, 80K machine guns, and 900 big guns. On June 12-14 the Soviet Baltic Fleet begins a total military blockade of Estonia; Andrei Alexandrovich Zhdanov (1896-1948) is sent to supervise Estonia's absorption into the Soviet Union. On June 13 Gen. Franco announces a new Spanish policy of non-belligerency, implying all aid to Germany and Italy short of military involvement (until Oct. 1943). On June 13 the French govt. flees to Tours then Bordeaux (like in WWI); meanwhile after PM Paul Reynaud appeals to FDR for U.S. intervention, he replies to Churchill that it's "doing everything in its power to make available to the Allied Governments the material they so urgently require, and our efforts to do still more are being redoubled"; after a diplomatic exchange, FDR prohibits the French from publicizing his message. On June 13 Pope Pius XII issues the encyclical Saeculo Exeunte, honoring Portugal's 800th anniv., calling for it to modernize missionary work. On June 13 Adolf Hitler gives an interview to German-born Am. Hearst correspondent Karl Henry von Wiegand (1874-1961), telling him that Germany has no territorial designs in the Am. continent. The Nazis wash the gay right out of Gay Paris' hair? On June 14 (6:00 a.m.) after French military gov. Gen. Pierre Hering (1874-1963) declares it an open city on June 12, and the French cease military activity in suburban towns to give them a free path, the French weep as the Germans occupy Paris after 2M have already fled, leaving 700K, who are told of a new 8:00 p.m. curfew; at 9:45 a.m. the German Fourth Army under Gen. von Kluge triumphantly marches down the Champs-Elysees to mock the Nov. 1918 French victory march; PM Paul Reynaud resigns, is arrested and sent to Ft. du Portalet, transferred to German custody in 1942 and held in Germany until the end of the war; the SS sets up shop headed by Col. Helmut Knochen (1910-2003); Austrian-born Jewish "The Eyewitness" novelist Ernst Weiss (b. 1882) commits suicide in his Paris apt.; the Nazis order all French films made prior to 1937 destroyed, causing Henri Langlois, 1936 founder of the Cinametheque Francois to smuggle huge numbers of films and documents to unocupied France, incl. Charlie Chaplin's "The Great Dictator". On June 14 Spanish troops occupy Tangier, Morocco; Franco ignores calls by Spanish nationalists to annex it, and in Nov. after a diplomatic dispute with Britain over the former internat. zone (1923) guarantees British rights, promising not to fortify it; the occupation ends on Oct. 11, 1945. On June 14 the Earl of Suffolk leads a special operation in France to recover a cache of French industrial diamonds along with the world's supply of heavy water (26 cans) (188 l), taking Paris Group scientists Hans Heinrich von Halban (1908-64) and Lew Kowarski (1907-79) from Bordeaux in British collier Broompark; they settle at Cambridge and become the Tube Alloy Project, later merging with the Manhattan Project - long live living long and loving every minute of it? On June 14 Canadian troops land in Brest, France, moving through Rennes to Laval, only to be ordered on June 15 to return to Britain via St. Malo, losing six who went AWOL in Laval; on June 18 the German 5th Panzer Div. occupies it. On June 14 an army lorry crashes into a house in Burley in Wharfedale, Yorkshire, England, killing 19 of 21 soldiers. On June 15 the Germans take WWI pest fortress city Verdun and pate fois gras city Strasbourg, followed on June 17 by mustard city Dijon. On June 15-25 Operation Ariel evacuates 163,225 British troops from France incl. 30K from Cherbourg, 21.5K from St. Malo, 32.5K from Brest, 57K from St. Nazaire and Nantes, 2K from La Pallice, and 19K from S France; on June 17 a German bomber sinks British passenger liner RMS Lancastria at St. Nazaire, killing 6.5K soldiers, with 2,477 survivors, becoming the greatest British naval disaster in history (until ?); the British govt. covers it up until U.S. newspapers leak it six weeks later. On June 16 deputy PM Marshal Philippe Petain threatens to resign if the French cabinet doesn't ask for an immediate armistice, and PM Paul Reynaud asks Britain to release France from its agreement not to make a separate peace, and they agree, but propose an Anglo-French Union, which the cabinet rejects, causing Reynaud to resign, and Petain to form a new govt. and ask Germany for an armistice at 11:00 p.m.; on June 17 (a.m.) Hitler learns of it, and jerks his knee before stepping backward while cameraman Walter Frentz (1907-2004) photographs him, causing Canadian producer John Grierson to loop it and make Hitler dance a jig, whipping-up ridicule; on June 17 (p.m.) after Petain broadcasts the news, Winston Churchill broadcasts a speech, with the soundbyte: "Whatever has happened in France makes no difference to our actions and purpose. We shall do our best to be worthy of this high honor. We shall defend our island home, and with the British Empire we shall fight on unconquerable until the curse of Hitler is lifted from the brows of mankind. We are sure that in the end all will come right"; on June 20 on Hilter's orders the Armistice site is destroyed incl. a German eagle impaled on a sword and a large stone tablet reading "Here on the eleventh of November 1918 succumbed the criminal pride of the German Reich, vanquished by the free peoples which it tried to enslave; a statue of Foch is left intact to mock him; the Armistice carriage is taken to Berlin, not surviving the war. On June 16 as Soviet troops invade Estonia, Soviet minister Vyacheslav Molotov presents an ultimatum to Latvia, accusing it of violating the 1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, after which the Soviet NKVD invades and absorbs the Baltic repubs. of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to create the 14th, 15th, and 16th Soviet Repubs.; on June 17 Estonia capitulates to avoid bloodshed, and the Soviet military occupation is completed on June 21 after the Estonian Single Signal Battalion holding out in Tallinn surrenders; on July 21 the Estonian Soviet Socialist Repub. is proclaimed (ends Aug. 20, 1991), along with the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Repub. (ends Mar. 11, 1991); on July 23 the Red Army occupies Latvia; on Aug. 5 after proposing the incorporation of Western Ukraine into the Soviet Union last year, then deporting or killing 34,250 Latvian Trotskyists, Bukharinites, and foreign agents, Odessa-born Great Purge mastermind Andrey Januarevich Vyshinsky (1883-1954) sets up the Latvian Soviet Socialist Repub. (ends Sept. 6, 1991), headed (until 1952) by puppet Augusts Kirhensteins (1872-1963), going on to arrest 27,586 (most of whom are deported), and shoot 945 in the next year; Vyshinsky becomes a big man with Stalin, who names him deputy people's commissar of foreign affairs in 1904-9, accompanying him to Yalta and Potsdam; U.S. spokesman Sumner Welles (1892-1961) announces the U.S. policy of non-recognition of Soviet annexation, after which 50 countries follow suit. On June 16 after arguing in vain for a French offensive war against the Nazis, French Jewish politician (the Winston Churchill of France) Georges Mandel (Louis George Rothschild) (1885-1944) is offered by Churchill's military liaison officer British Gen. Edward Spears a trip out of France along with Charles de Gaulle, which Mandel declines, with the soundbyte: "You fear for me because I am a Jew. Well, it is just because I am a Jew that I will not go tomorrow; it would look as though I was afraid, as if I was running away"; on June 21 after trying to persuade Pres. Albert Lebrun, the presidents of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Senate, and the entire cabinet to travel to French North Africa to continue the fight against the Germans, he embarks with 25 other mainly Radical or Socialist deputies incl. Pierre Mendes France and Jean Zay and one senator on the Massilia; too bad, on Aug. 8, 1941 they are arrested in Morocco by Gen. Charles Nogues on the orders of Vicy PM Pierre Laval, and Churchill tries in vain to get Mandel released, calling him "the first resister" (above de Gaulle), after which they are sentenced to life imprisonment on Nov. 4, 1941. On June 17 (night) British bombers attack the oil installations at Leuna, Germany S of Leipzig. On June 18 the Germans occupy Cherbourg, Briare, Colmar, Le Mans, Nevers, Rennes, and Vannes, while the British bomb Hamburg and Bremen. On June 18 (6:00 p.m.) Brig. Gen. Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970) issues his Appeal of June 18 to the French people via radio from London, talking about how the French govt. is "alleging the defeat of our armies", with the soundbyte: "But has the last word been said? Must we abandon all hope? Is our defeat final? No!", pointing to the "vast empire" of the British and the "immense industrial resources" of the U.S., with the soundbyte: "This is a world war... There still exists in the world everything we need to crush our enemies some day. Today we are crushed by the sheer weight of the mechanized forces hurled against us, but we can still look to a future in which even greater mechanized forces will bring us victory. Therein lies the destiny of the world", inaugurating the Free French Nat. Committee; on June 28 Britain recognizes them, followed by the other Allies and French Resistance by 1942, and it goes on to command all French troops fighting with the Allies and Resistance, collectively known as the Fighting French. On June 18 British PM Winston Churchill gives his Finest Hour Speech to the British people from London, urging Brits to display a stiff upper lip against the German Blitz, and cause future generations to say "This was their finest hour", and uttering the soundbyte "What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilization. Upon it depends our own British life, and the long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us"; the mainline Christian churches in the U.S. and Britain, who are preaching WWII as a war between Christendom and anti-Christian Statism use Churchill's speech as major ammo - let's go kill for Christ again, like he needs it? On June 18 liberal crusading anti-Fascist, anti-poll tax, pro-FDR, pro-U.S. involvement in the war PM newspaper is founded in New York City by liberal Time ed. (1936-9) Ralph Ingersoll (1900-84), who lines up I.F. Stone, Ernest Hemingway, Erskine Caldwell, Tip O'Neill, photographers Margaret Bourke-White and Weegee, and cartoonists Dr. Seuss and Carl Rose; in Apr. 1942 it debuts the cartoon strip Barnaby by Crockett Johnson (David Johnson Leisk) (1906-75); Marshall Field III purchases it, then sells it to Bartley Crum on May 1, 1948, who changes it to New York Star on June 23, after which it suspends pub. on Jan. 28, 1949. On June 18-19 Hitler and Mussolini meet in Munich, and Hitler surprises him by arguing for lenient terms for France, and by his "many reservations on the desirability of demolishing the British Empire, which he considers even today to be an important factor in world equilibrium"; "Hitler is now the gambler who has made the big scoop and would like to get up from the table, risking nothing more" (Count Ciano); "For Mussolini the idea of Hitler's waging war and, worse still, winning it, is altogether unbearable" (Count Ciano) (Nov. 20). On June 19 the Japanese govt. announces that it opposes any change in the status quo of French possessions in Indochina, contradicting its liberator image in Southeast Asia. On June 19 the Germans occupy Nantes and Brest. On June 19 French Capt. Pierre Jean Ronarch steals new unfinished battleship Jean Bart from dry dock at St. Nazaire and sails it to Casabalanca. On June 19 German troops massacre 30 French Moroccan troops trying to surrender between Dijon and Lyon; on June 21 at Villefranche-sur-Saone S of Nevers the SS Death Head Div. takes 25 white French POWs after killing 44 Moroccans. On June 19-24 the British evacuate 22,656 British citizens from the Channel Islands off France, then occupy them on June 30 for the rest of the war. On June 20 a French delegation travels to Rethondes in the Forest of Compiegne to conduct armistice negotiations. Grassroots democracy in the U.S. vs. the hidden powers, Part What? On June 20 Charles Lindbergh speaks at the Peace and Preparedness Rally in Los Angeles, Calif., claiming that the U.S. is virtually impregnable and that those who want it to intervene to defend England really want it to defeat Germany; on Sept. 4 the America First Committee is founded by Yale U. law students Robert Douglas Stuart Jr. (1916-), Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (1913-2006) (future U.S. pres.), Potter Stewart (1915-85) (future U.S. Supreme Court justice), and Robert Sargent Shriver Jr. (1915-2011), going on to recruit writers Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951), E.E. Cummings (1894-1962), Gore Vidal (1925-2012), John Thomas Flynn (1882-1964), Walt Disney (1901-66), Lillian Gish (1893-1993) et al. along with 800K members in 650 chapters, centered in Chicago, Ill., opposing enforcement of the 1939 U.S. Neutrality Act and U.S. entry into WWII, with Lindbergh as its #1 spokesman; they disband on Dec. 11, 1941 after the Pearl Harbor attack - pure luck or a planned end-around run by cagey FDR? On June 20 the Gestapo and police begin executing Polish intellectuals and politicians in the Palmiry Forest, incl. Polish Socialist leader Mieczyslaw Niedzialkowski (b. 1893) June 21, going on to kill 1,739 by July 17, 1941; after being interviewed by Heinrich Himmler, who asks him, "What do you want from us, what do you expect?", Needlekowski responds: "From you I neither want nor demand anything. With you I fight." On June 21 the Germans reach Rennes, Brittany, France. On June 21 (3:30 p.m.) after being shuttled from Bordeaux, French negotiators are stunned to find themselves in the prized railway coach in which Germany had capitulated in 1918 in Compiegne, and at 3:40 p.m. after Hitler leaves, Gen. Keitel reads the armistice terms, incl. German occupation of 75% of France, along with a French govt. on the remainder controlling the colonies, with the French fleet not allowed to pass out of French control, and all 1,538,000 French POWs remaining under German control. On June 21 the Polish govt.-in-exile arrives in London from Paris, and are greeted at Paddington Station by George VI. On June 22 the Italians bomb Alexandria, Egypt. Fie-yur? On June 22 (6:50 p.m.) (8 days after the Germans overrun Paris) new French PM Marshal Henri-Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Petain (Pétain) (1856-1951) signs the Second Armistice at Compiegne with Germany (to take effect on June 25) in the same Orient Express railway carriage of Gen. Foch used in the 1918 signing, surprising the world by his lenient terms, dividing France into occupied (60%) and unoccupied (40%) zones, with the French allowed to keep their colonial empire and part of their fleet, disappointing Mussolini, who wants it all for himself, as well as Corsica, Nice, along with Malta, Egypt, and Sudan from the British; total killed: Germans 45K, French 92K, Belgians 7.5K, British 3.5K, Dutch 2.9K; Hitler has now conquered Poland, Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, and France; Hitler has the carriage taken to Berlin as a souvenir; in Apr. 1945 it disappears on a railway line between Elsterwerda and Grossenhain 50 mi. S of Berlin (British bombing raid?), after which a replica is created; Hitler dances a jig after the Allied surrender (actually, a faked newsreel by Allied intel, but who cares, it's practically history now?); on July 10 Petain replaces Albert Lebrun as pres. of France (although Lebrun never officially resigns), and rules the unoccupied part of France from Vichy, with former PM (1931-2, 1935-6) Pierre Laval (1883-1945) as vice-PM (until 1941), cooperating with the Nazis and their program of giving free working vacations to lucky Jews; meanwhile the real pres. Albert Lebrun flees to Vizelle (Isere) on July 15, but is finally captured by the Nazis on Aug. 27, 1943 and imprisoned in Itter Castle in Tyrol, then released on Oct. 10, 1943 due to poor health; after the Allies return, on Aug. 9, 1944 Lebrun meets with Charles de Gaulle and officially resigns?; in July ex-king Edward VIII and his babe Wallis leave France for more exile in Lisbon, Portugal, where he is later alleged by the Brits to have agreed to become a pro-Nazi puppet king of England upon a Nazi V, then made gov. of the Bahamas to get him quietly out of the way?; Harvard-educated French historian Bernard Fay (1893-1978), dir. of the French Nat. Library is hired by the Vichy regime to root-out pesky Jew-connected OWG-plotting Freemasons, compiling a list of 170K, of whom 989 get sent to concentration camps, where 549 are killed; 3K more lose their jobs, although he protects Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas; in 1946 he receives a life sentence, and with Toklas' financial help escapes to Switzerland in 1951. On June 22 after inventing soft serve ice cream in 1938 and getting his friend Sherb Noble to sell it in his store in Kankakee, Ill., becoming a hit, Dairy Queen (DQ) soft serve ice cream (with the trademark curl) restaurants are founded in Joliet, Ill. by Douds, Iowa-born Dairy Queen (DQ) soft serve ice cream (with the trademark curl) restaurants are founded in Joliet, Ill. by John Fremont "J.F." "Grandpa" McCullough (1871-1963), expanding to 100 stores in 1941, 100 in 1947, 1,446 in 1950, 2.6K in 1955, and 4.8K in 2014; in 1957 it offers Brazier (open charcoal grill) foods incl. hot dogs, BBQ beef and pork; in 1959 the red Dairy Queen symbol is introduced; in 1987 it acquires Orange Julius; in 1998 it is acquired by Berkshire Hathaway. On June 23 (5:45 a.m.) now the Master of Europe, Herr Hitler tours Paris, visiting the French Opera, and Napoleon's Tomb ("the greatest and finest moment of my life"), ordering the remains of Napoleon's son Duc de Reichstadt in Vienna to be laid next to him, uttering the soundbyte: "I am grateful to fate to have seen this town whose aura has always preoccupied me"; he also visits the Eiffel Tower, telling Albert Speer "It was the dream of my life to be permitted to see Paris"; after ordering the statue of WWI French Gen. Mangin and the memorial to British nurse Edith Cavell destroyed, at 8:30 a.m. he flies out of Le Bourget Airport, circles the city, and returns to Bruly-de-Pesche, ordering Speer that evening to resume work on his all-new Nazi Berlin, to be finished by 1950, with the soundbyte: "Wasn't Paris beautiful? But Berlin must be made far more beautiful. In the past I often considered whether I would not have to destroy Paris. But when we are finished in Berlin, Paris will only be a shadow, so why should we destroy it?" his ultimate aim is to rechristen Berlin as Germania, the capital of the world - this is as good as it gets? On June 23 (night) after British PM Winston Churchill requests the army to create them, British volunteer Commandos (Striking Cos.) begin hit-and-run raids on the French coast between Calais and Boulogne. On June 24 Marshal Henri-Philippe Petain of France signs an armistice with Italy, agreeing to an Italian occupation zone of 832 sq. km containing 28.5K inhabitants, incl. Menton, with a DMZ of 50km from the Italian Alpine Wall, incl. Grenoble and Nice. On June 24 French ex-ministers fleeing occupation intending to carry the fight to North Africa reach Casablanca, only to find that Moroccan gov.-gen. (1936-43) Charles Hippolyte Nogues (Noguès) has already accepted the armistice. On June 24 German Holland gov.-gen. (1940-5) Arthur Seyss-Inquart (1892-1946) prorogues Parliament; on July 5 he makes it a crime to listen to BBC radio broadcasts. On June 24-28 the 1940 Repub. Nat. Convention in Philadelphia, Penn. nominates Time mag.-backed newcomer (who switched from Dem. to Repub. in the mid-1930s, staying on the liberal side and waffling about the New Deal and isolationism) Wendell Lewis Willkie (1892-1944) (first Repub. RINO candidate?) of Ind. on the 6th ballot, bypassing Sen. Robert A. Taft of Ohio and New York City district atty. Thomas E. Dewey; conservative Oregon Sen. Charles Linza McNary (1874-1944) is nominated for vice-pres.; the campaign slogan is "Roosevelt for Ex-President"; U.S. Rep. (R-Mass.) Joseph William Martin Jr. (1884-1968) becomes permanent chmn. of the Repub. Nat. Convention (until 1952); NBC-TV (announcer Ray Forrest) and CBS-TV make it the first televised political convention; CBS-TV broadcasts the convention in color. On June 26 with its non-aggression pact with Germany in hand, the Soviet Union demands the return of Bessarabia from Romania, and the cession of Northern Bukovina (Bucovina) (19.3K sq. mi., pop. 3.5M), and after Hitler urges them to do it and they agree on June 27, and occupy it on June 28-July 4, and Romania is the biggest Black Sea country no more; on July 1 after pressure from Germany and Italy, Romania renounces the Anglo-French guarantee of its integrity, and on Aug. 30 yields the 17.4K sq. mi. half (2.4M pop.) of N Transylvania to Hungary in the Vienna Award, creating the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Repub. (#13) (a small part of SE Bessarabia along the Black Sea coast and another small part in the NW are added to Ukrainian SSR), with capital at Kishinev (Chisinau). On June 26 Hitler visits the area of the Western Front where he served in WWI; as he drives through Lille, a woman shouts out the window "The Devil!" On June 27 the Germans set up radio beacon beams in Brest and Cherbourg to use by bombers targeting Britain. On June 28 Italian Air Marshal Italo Balbo (b. 1896), Libyan gov. since 1933 and Mussolini's heir apparent is shot down by mistake by Italian anti-aircraft fire while trying to land in Tobruk. On June 29 Hitler leaves his HQ at Bruly-de-Peche for a new HQ called Tannenberg in the small village of Kniebis near Freudenstadt in the Black Forest. On June 29 the U.S. Alien Registration (Smith) Act is passed, making it a federal crime to advocate the overthrow of the U.S. govt. or any state govt. by force; too bad, it is worded so loosely that it becomes a swinging cannon on deck depending on who's in power? On June 30 German forces occupy the Channel Islands of Guernsey and Jersey. On June 30 Soviet aircraft occupy the port of Izmail in Bessarabia. On June 30 Hitler orders "all objects of art, whether state-owned, or in private Jewish hands" in Paris confiscated for safekeeping "as a security for eventual peace negotiations", and Joachim von Ribbentrop assigns new embassy employee Heinrich Otto Abetz (1903-58) to the job, which he does enthusiastically; on Sept. 17 Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (1893-1946) takes over, after which the Vichy govt. protests the whole program in Oct. in vain, and by the end of Oct. the Louvre is stuffed full, requiring more space; in Nov. Abetz becomes the German ambassador in Paris. On June 30 the comic strip Brenda Starr, Reporter by Dalia "Dale" Messick (1906-2005) debuts, making her the first female syndicated comic strip artist in the U.S.; discontinued on Jan. 2, 2011. In June a French Vichy admin. is installed in Syria (until 1941). In June Robin, the "Boy Wonder" (secret identity of Dick Grayson) debuts in Detective Comics #38; his parents John and Mary were the circus highwire act the Flying Graysons, and were killed by the slug Bess Zucco and his mob. In June-July 526 British pilots are KIA. In June-Sept. German U-boats sink 351 ships. On July 1 the Italian govt. of Mussolini threatens action against Greece for letting British warships use its territorial waters in attacks on Italian ships. On July 1 German U-boats begin attacking merchant ships in the Atlantic. On July 1 the British govt. establishes the Special Operations Executive (SOE) to administer all underground acts of sabotage, subversion, and propaganda in German-occupied Europe and neutral countries, with Churchill giving it the motto: "Set Europe ablaze!"; the French "F" Section is created under Maurice James Buckmaster (1910-92) (who made it out of Dunkirk) and Vera Maria Atkins (Rosenberg) (1908-2000) (a Romanian Jewish immigrant who becomes a British citizen in 1944) to infiltrate operatives back into German-occupied France after training them at Baker St. and Orchard Ct. in London; French-speaking Anthony Morris "Tony" Brooks (1922-2007) (AKA Agent Alphonse) becomes the youngest and longest-surviving F Section organizer, and is parachuted into France in July 1942. On July 2 Marshal Petain moves his Unoccupied Zone govt. from Bordeaux to Vichy. On July 2 Hitler orders his military to prepare invasion plans for Britain, contingent on attaining air superiority; on July 3 the British conclude that any invasion will be preceded by a major air war. On July 2 German U-boat U-47 sinks British liner SS Arandora Star, carrying enemy aliens incl. Jewish refugees off Ireland, killing 714 of 1,582. On July 3 after French Vichy Adm. Jean Louis Xavier François Darlan (1881-1942) refuses to cooperate, the British launch Operation Catapult to keep Germany from taking over French warships, issuing an ultimatum to ships at Mers-el-Kebir Naval Base in Oran to hand them over, and when they refuse they bombard them for 5 min., sinking cruiser Dunkerque and battleships Provence and Bretagne, killing 1.25K, while cruiser Strasbourg, aircraft carrier Commandant Teste, and five destroyers escape to Toulon, causing the Vichy govt. on July 5 to break off diplomatic relations with Britain; meanwhile all French ships in British ports are boarded and captured without violence, except for submarine Surcouf, where one French sailor is killed; Winston Churchill utters the soundbyte about the deaths at Oran: "I leave it with confidence to Parliament, I leave it also to the nation, and I leave it to the United States, I leave it to the world and to history", causing FDR to become convinced of the British will to continue the war alone. On July 3 Am. "Hurricane Smith" actor Ray Earl Middleton Jr. (1907-84) becomes the first to play Superman in public on Superman Day at the 1939 New York World's Fair. On July 5 pissed-off Romania joins the German-Italian Axis. On July 5 after Japan asks the Vichy govt. for military bases in French Indochina then occupies them in the midst of negotiations, the U.S. passes the U.S. Export Control Act, forbidding export of vital materials and military equipment to Japan without a license; meanwhile the thought of the Japanese romping over the colonies of defeated France and Holland causes the U.S. to sweat about a Pacific War. On July 5 Boris Mikhailovich Shaposhnikov (1882-1945), Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (1895-1970), and incompetent (friend of Stalin) artillery chief Grigory Ivanovich Kulik (1890-1950) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to actor-wrestler Jesse "the Body" Ventura (1951-)?) are promoted to field marshal; Shaposhnikov becomes chief of the Red Army Staff - a lot of room at the top after all them purges? On July 6 after the Japanese demand that the British close the Burma Road, their main arms supply route to China, and they don't want a 3rd enemy, they fold and close it for 3 mo. until Oct. 8. On July 6 carrier-based British aircraft attack the Libyan port of Tobruk. On July 6 Hitler returns to Berlin for the first time in 2 mo., and is greeted by vast crowds waving 1M Swastika flags that are distributed free. On July 6 the first German daylight bombing raid over Britain at Aldershot kills three Canadian troops. On July 7 Cardenas' man Manuel Avila Camacho (1897-1955) is elected pres. of Mexico (until 1946), and takes office in Dec., marking a move by the PRM to the right. On July 7 to avoid another Mers-el-Kebir the French Vichy navy in Alexandria, Egypt folds and scuttles their ships; meanwhile those at Casablanca and Dakar refuse, causing the British to damage battleships Richelieu and Jean Bart. On July 9 British and Italian naval forces fight the Battle of the Toe of Italy (Calabria) (Punta Stilo), with British aircraft Eagle gaining air superiority, and British battleship Warspite badly damaging Italian battleship Giulio Cesare. On July 9 German commerce raider Komet sails NE from Germany to the Bering Strait with the help of Soviet icebreakers, going on to sink six merchant ships before returning. On July 9 Hitler holes-up in his mountain retreat of Obersalzberg near Berchtesgaden to make pencil sketches of a new opera house at Linz, the town he lived in as a young man. On July 9 German Protestant pastor Paul-Gerhard Braune (1887-1954) writes Hitler a letter protesting his euthanasia program for endangering "the ethics of the people as a whole", asking "Whom if not the helpless should the law protect?"; after he is told to stuff it by Hitler's Chancellery head Hans Lammers, Reinhard Heydrich issues an arrest warrant for "sabotaging measures of the regime in an irresponsible manner", and he is softened up in a Gestapo prison in Berlin for 10 weeks then released on probation. The war is saved with British and U.S. technology? On July 10 after air marshal Hermann Goering promises Hitler it will only take 1-2 weeks, Germany, having only one unfinished business (the pesky Brits) begins the Battle of Britain (ends Nov. 2) with an all-out air attack starting in SE England, with the coast around Dover becoming known as Hell-Fire Corner as it is shelled by German guns from the opposite coast; on July 10 120 German planes attack a British shipping convoy in the English Channel, while 70 more bomb docks in S Wales; the British Ministry of Aircraft Production begins calling for citizens to donate aluminum, with the soundbyte: "We will turn your pots and pans into Spitfires and Hurricanes, Blenheims and Wellingtons"; after it doen's work as planned, they restart it officially on Aug. 13 (Eagle Day); the Luftwaffe has 1.5K fighters vs. 850 for the Brits, who are hampered by being on the defensive, needing to hold back half their force for defense of Midlands and N factories; on July 10 the British Ministry of Aircraft Production begins calling for citizens to donate aluminum, with the soundbyte: "We will turn your pots and pans into Spitfires and Hurricanes, Blenheims and Wellingtons"; on July 14 the Striking Cos. launch Operation Ambassador (ends July 15) to attack Guernsey, turning into a fiasco, with one killed and two taken POW; air chief marshal Sir Hugh Dowding (1882-1970) is CIC of the RAF Fighter Command; a new secret veapon called RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) is used to effect by the Allies, facing 2.5K total German planes, who fail in their attempt to control the Channel, losing 1.7K planes and killing 23K British civilians before giving up; Rolls-Royce wins the battle with their Merlin Engines for the single-seat Supermarine Spitfire (first flight Mar. 5, 1936) and Hawker Hurricane (first flight Nov. 6, 1935), which can out-turn the German Messerschmitt Bf-109 (first flight May 29, 1935) but have a lower ceiling; the U.S. and Britain begin cooperating in radar development at the MIT Radiation Laboratory in Cambridge, Mass.; until Aug. 7 the Germans carry out only "test raids" on Channel merchant shipping, sinking 30K tons and downing 148 British planes, with losses of 286 German planes; the main air battle on Aug. 24-Sept. 6 is fought over the radar installations and S airfields of Fighter Command, but the Germans screw up and leave the radars intact, and fail to finish off the airfields, instead going on to attack factories and London, spurred by Hitler, who was mad that the Brits had bombed Berlin and wanted to get even; the battle ends with 414 British and allied pilots KIA (about one-third). On July 11 Marshal Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Petain (Pétain) (1856-1951) becomes chief of state of Vichy France (until Aug. 19, 1944). On July 12 after Hermann Goering tells Hitler that it's better to occupy Spain and North Africa than invade Britain, Operation Felix, a plan to occupy Gibraltar is launched; too bad, Gen. Francisco Franco fails to commit Spain to ender the war on the Axis side, causing it to be delayed into 1944, then dropped; meanwhile Operation Goldeneye is devised by the Brits incl. future "James Bond 007" author Ian Fleming to thwart a German invasion of Gibraltar. On July 15 after seeing Germany's concentrated armor divs. easily defeat France's infantry-dominated army in six weeks, the U.S. Army organizes the I Armored Corps; in May the U.S. Army only has 28 tanks (10 medium, 18 heavy), plus 900 obsolete models. On July 15-18 the 1940 Dem. Nat. Convention in Chicago, Ill. sees FDR inform them that he has "no wish to be a candidate again", until Chicago mayor (1933-47) Edward Joseph Kelly (1876-1950) stampedes the convention for him, getting him renominated on the first ballot; FDR's choice of liberal secy. of agriculture Henry A. Wallace causes a near revolt, but a speech by FDR's wife Eleanor ("First Lady of the World") straightens them out and he is nominated for vice-pres. on the first ballot; Wallace later establishes an experimental hybridizing station in Mexico run by Norman E. Borlaug that revolutionizes agriculture, launching the Green Rev. By July 16 Hitler moves to a new HQ called Eagle's Lair (Adlerhorst) at Schloss Ziegenberg near Bad Nauheim and Giessen in the E foothills of the Taurus Mts. On July 16 Hitler signs Gen. Order No. 16, calling for preparations for Operation Sealion, "a landing operation against England", to be on a "broad front approximately from Ramsgate to the area west of the Isle of Wight", with the main objective being to make it impossible for the RAF "to deliver any significant attack against the German crossing"; Gen. Rommel spends the last mos. of the year training his troops for it. On July 19 the 1940 Field Marshal Ceremony at the Kroll Opera House sees Hitler create 12 new disciples, er, field marshals incl. Moritz Albrecht Franz Friedrich Fedor von Bock (1880-1945), Wehrmacht CIC Heinrich Alfred Hermann Walther von Brauchitsch (1881-1948), Albert Kesselring (1885-1960), Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (1882-1946), Gunther Adolf Ferdinand "Hans" von Kluge (1884-1944), Wilhelm Josef Franz Ritter von Leeb (1876-1956), Siegmund Wilhelm Walther List (1880-1971), Erhard Milch (1892-1972), Walther von Reichenau (1884-1942), Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (1875-1953), Hugo Sperrle (1885-1953), and Job Wilhelm Georg Erdmann "Erwin" von Witzleben (1881-1944); he promotes Field Marshal Hermann Goering to the new position of Reichmarschall (marshal of marshals); he also outlines his "peace offer" to Britain, with the soundbyte: "If the struggle continues it can only end in annihilation for one of us. Mr. Churchill thinks it will be Germany. I know it will be Britain... I am not the vanquished begging for mercy. I speak as a victor. I can see no reason why this war must go on. We would like to avert the sacrifices that claim millions", adding that it's possible "that Churchill will once again brush aside this statement of mine by saying that it is merely born of fear and doubts of victory. In this case I shall have relieved my conscience of the things to come" - Hitler has a conscience? On July 19 after rejecting Hitler's peace offer with the soundbyte "By resistance, not appeasement", FDR signs the U.S. Two-Ocean Navy (Vinson-Walsh) Act, authorizing 130 new ships to be added to the 488-ship navy incl. 18 aircraft carriers, seven battleships, 42 subs, 115 destroyers, and 27 cruisers. On July 19 all telephones are confiscated from Jews in Germany - to protect their huge hooked noses from damage? On July 21 as the Soviet Union formally annexes the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, Hitler tells his military cmdrs. in Obersalzberg to make plans to invade the Soviet Union. On July 21 the Benes Decrees, are first issued by Czech pres. Edvard Benes, dealing with reconstruction of the country, then progressing into expulsion of ethnic Germans by Oct. 27, 1945. On July 22 British foreign secy. Lord Halifax rejects Hitler's peace proposal in a radio address, with the soundbytes: "His only appeal was to the base instinct of fear, and his only arguments were threats. His silence as to the future of nations whom on one false pretext or another he has subjugated is significant"; "Certainly no one here wants the war to go on for a day longer than is necessary, but we shall not stop fighting till freedom for ourselves and others is secure." On July 22 after his pro-British pro-U.S. stance pisses-off the imperialists, Yonai Mitsumasa is succeeded by former PM (1937-8) Prince Fumimaro Konoye (Konoe) (1891-1945), who becomes Japanese PM #39 (until Oct. 16, 1941), pressuring Vichy France to cede military bases in French Indochina, with the threat of military force, declaring on July 31 that his aim is "the setting up of a New Order in Greater East Asia". On July 23 Britain recognizes the Czechoslovak Nat. Liberation Committee in London as the Czech. provisional govt.; meanwhile the Germans attempt to extinguish Czech culture while crushing the Jews. On July 23 Hitler attends a performance of Wagner's Gotterdammerung - Ruhe, Ruhe du Gott? On July 24 the U.S. agrees to allocate new weapons to the British according to mutual needs until the end of 1941, starting with 14,375 new aircraft to Britain and 19,902 to the U.S. On July 24 (night) despite being well-marked and signaling with a siren, French merchant steamer Meknes (Meknès) sailing from Southampton carrying 1,179 repatriated French sailors is sunk by a German torpedo boat, killing 383. On July 25 Winston Churchill authorizes Polish forces in Britain to be issued U.S. rifles as soon as they arrive. On July 29 the German navy informs Hitler that an invasion of Britain would not be possible until mid-Sept., and that even then the navy can't withstand a British naval counterattack this year; meanwhile after Gen. Jodl tells Col. (later Gen.) Walther Warlimont (1894-1976), chief of the army planning section of Hitler's plan to attack Russia "as soon as possible", probably May 1941, he silences Warlimont's objections of a disastrous WWI-style 2-front war with the soundbyte: "Gentlemen, it is not a question for discussion but a decision of the Fuhrer." In July All American Comics #16 debuts The Green Lantern (secret identity of Alan Scott), based on the Lensman series of E.E. "Doc" Smith. On Aug. 1 Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 17, "conduct of air and sea warfare against England", stating that a successful air offensive is required before a seaborne landing, and calling for an "intensification of the air war" on Aug. 5, "the Day of the Eagle", targeted at Britain's air industry; meanwhile after Air Marshal Goering is informed by a German pilot that the British Spitfires are as good as German fighters, he replies: "If that is so, I will have to send my air inspector general to the firing squad", pissing-off guess-who WWI ace Ernst Udet (1896-1941), who never forgets it. On Aug. 2 King (1907-50) Gustav V (1858-1950) of Sweden secretly offers to mediate a peace agreement with Hitler and George VI, causing George VI to write in his diary: "Until Germany is prepared to live peaceably with her neighbours in Europe, she will always be a menace. We have got to get rid of her aggressive spirit, her engines of war, and the people who have been taught to use them." On Aug. 3-19 the Italians occupy British Somaliland, along with capital Berbera on Aug. 19. On Aug. 10 Romania passes anti-Jewish laws. On Aug. 13 (Day of the Eagle) (delayed from Aug. 5) 1,485 German aircraft begin bombing British airfields and aircraft factories, losing 45 planes vs. only 13 British planes; on Aug. 14 after poor weather limits the attacking force to 500 planes, 75 are shot down vs. 34 British planes; on Aug. 15 after sending 1,270 fighters and 520 bombers, the Germans lose 70 planes vs. 27 for the Brits, totalling 190 German and 74 British planes lost; meanwhile by Aug. 22 100 British aircraft are destroyed on the ground. On Aug. 14 British intel uses Enigma intercepts to conclude that the Germans won't invade Britain until they achieve air superiority. On Aug. 13 (Day of the Eagle) (delayed from Aug. 5) 1,485 German aircraft begin bombing British airfields and aircraft factories, losing 45 planes vs. only 13 British planes; on Aug. 14 after poor weather limits the attacking force to 500 planes, 75 are shot down vs. 34 British planes; on Aug. 15 after sending 1,270 fighters and 520 bombers, the Germans lose 75 planes vs. 34 for the Brits; on Aug. 18 71 British and 27 British aircraft are lost, totalling 367 German planes lost, causing Goering to give them a rest on Aug. 19, which Churchill calls "a big mistake", after which on Aug. 20 Churchill gives his So Much to So Few Speech to the House of Commons, with the soundbyte: "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few", warning Hitler that even if he takes Russia, it won't save him because British air power "may in another year attain dimensions hitherto undreamed of", allowing them to bomb Germany, with the soundbyte: "Even if Nazi legions stood triumphant on the Black Sea or indeed the Caspian, even if Hitler were at the gates of India, it would profit him nothing if at the same time the entire economic and scientific apparatus of German war power lay shattered and pulverized at home"; meanwhile by Aug. 22 100 British aircraft are destroyed on the ground. On Aug. 14 British intel figures out that the Germans won't invade Britain until they achieve air superiority. On Aug. 14 FDR agrees to give Britain 50 U.S. destroyers in exchange for use of bases in the Caribbean and W Atlantic. On Aug. 16 British flight Lt. (later wing cmdr.) Eric James Brindley Nicolson (1917-45) takes on four German fighters above Southampton, shooting one down despite his plane burning, resulting in severe burns, earning him the only Victoria Cross for a fighter pilot during WWI. On Aug. 17 Hitler declares a blockade of the British Isles; British war losses so far are secretly tallied at 8,266 sailors and 4,400 soldiers KIA, 729 civilians killed, and 3,851 pilots and aircrew killed or missing. On Aug. 18 the German commission in the Netherlands suppresses all representative bodies, and the Netherlands becomes a protectorate (Schutzstaat). The original who-killed-Kennedy conspiracy in the Pentagon? On Aug. 20 after arriving in Liverpool on Apr. 15, a fact-finding mission consisting of Rear Adm. Robert Lee Ghormley (1883-1958), Army Brig.-Gen. George Veazey Strong (1880-1946), and Army Air Forces Maj. Gen.Delos Carleton Emmons (1889-1965) visits London, finding that the recent report by U.S. London ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy claiming "the devastating effect of German air attacks on England's ports, fields, and armament industry" is moose hockey, and that Britain was sure to hold out against the Nazis for at least 6 mo. On Aug. 20 on orders of his old comrade and archenemy Stalin, Leon (Lev) Trotsky (b. 1879), who once had an affair with artist Frida Kahlo is mortally wounded with an icepick (blunt side of an alpenstock) to the head in his home in Coyoacan ("place of the coyotes") in S Mexico City by Spanish-born KGB agent Jaume Ramon (Ramón) Mercader del Rio Hernandez (1914-78), who gives his name as Jacques Mornard until 1950, receiving the Order of Lenin for it, then rotting away in priz until 1960, after which he becomes a Cuban and Soviet Commie hero with free drinks at every bar; meanwhile 300K turn out for his funeral procession in Mexico City. On Aug. 20 the Battle of a Hundred Regiments (ends Dec. 5) pits the Chinese People's Liberation Army under Gen. Peng Dehuai (1898-1974) in a series of assaults on strategic Japanese points in N China; the Japanese beat the Communists back after taking heavy casualties, retaliating against the local pop. On Aug. 20 (night) Italian bombers raid British-held Gibraltar. On Aug. 23-24 the Germans begin their first all-night air raids on C London, AKA the London Mini-Blitz (ends Sept. 7), causing 300-600 killed and 1K-3K injured a day by Sept. 7; on Aug. 23 90 German bombers are shot down; actually the Aug. 23 attack was not aimed at London but 12 bombers fly off course and bomb it, killing nine civilians; Buckingham Palace is hit, causing the Queen Mum to utter the soundbyte "I am almost able to look the East End in the face." On Aug. 25 (night) the first British air raid on Berlin takes place, with a huge AA barrage failing to bring down a single plane, and no German civilians killed; leaflets are dropped warning that "The war which Hitler started will go on, and it will last as long as Hitler does"; on Aug. 28 (night) another raid kills 10 German civilians; on Aug. 30 (night) another raid hits the Siemens plant; the raids are witnessed by CBS-Radio journalist William L. Shirer - less is more? On Aug. 27 the Vichy govt. abrogates a pre-war French decreee forbidding incitements to race hatred. On Aug. 30 the British begin Operation Hats, sending several warships from Gibraltar to Alexandria carrying munitions to build British strength in Egypt. On Aug. 30 (night) a raid by 800 German aircraft against nine British fighter centers loses 17 planes over Biggin Hill Aerodrome; the British only lose one plane; more German bombers drop incendiary bombs on London. On Aug. 31 actors Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh wed in Calif.; the only witnesses are Katharine Hepburn and Garson Kanin, husband of actress Ruth Gordon. In Aug. the Kommandoamt der Waffen-SS is formed within the SS High Command, and new Waffen-SS chief of staff Gottlob Christian Berger (1896-1975) talks Hitler into allowing ethnic Germans from Denmark and Norway to form the SS Regiment Nordland, and Dutch and Flemish ethnic Germans to form the SS Regiment Westland, which are combined into the 5th SS Panzer Div. Wiking; so many volunteers sign up that a new training camp is opened in Sennheim, Alsace-Lorraine. In Aug. 1,075 British civilians are killed in German air raids. On Sept. 2 after U.S. ambassador to Britain Joseph P. Kennedy advises that British surrender is "inevitable", and Churchill advises FDR that in the event of British surrender its colonial islands close to U.S. shores could become a direct threat if they fell into German hands, and after British gold, foreign currency, securities, forced liquidation of assets in North Am., and surrender of patents and royalties on radar and jet engines runs out, the British-U.S. Destroyers-Bases Agreement is signed, giving Britain 50 mothballed WWI destroyers and some obsolescent small arms in exchange for land rights on British possessions in the Caribbean incl. Antigua, Bahamas, Bermuda, St. Lucia, Trinidad, British Guiana, and Newfoundland-Labrador; the destroyers become the Town class, and are named after British towns if there is a U.S. town of the same name; the deal allows the U.S. to protect the British possessions against German takeover in case of British defeat, so it isn't all one-sided?; on Sept. 6 after most of the rickety buckets prove unseaworthy without major work, six U.S. destroyers are delivered to the British at Halifax, N.S.; the obvious violation of neutrality is used as a weapon by Repubs. in the pres. election, allowing them to call FDR a warmonger, but after he wins FDR comes up with the end-around run of the Lend-Lease Act to really aid Britain bigtime, so the Brits owe the Yanks for saving their asses in WWII? On Sept. 3 Newsday daily tabloid newspaper is founded in Hempstead, Long Island, N.Y. by Alicia Patterson (1906-63) (daughter of New York Daily News owner Joseph Medill Patterson, who fired her as a writer), who becomes ed.-publisher, and her 3rd husband Harry Frank Guggenheim (1890-1971), who becomes pres. after returning from military duty during WWII, becoming the largest suburban mag. in the U.S., and reaching 450K circ. when it receives the Pulitzer Prize in 1954; after Patterson dies on July 2, 1963, Guggenheim becomes ed.-publisher, hiring his friend John Steinbeck to write a series of letters titled "Letters to Alicia", airing his regret at the moral decline of the U.S. and supporting LBJ's handling of the Vietnam War; in 1967 Hugo, Okla.-born former White House press secy. (1965-7) (since 1965) Billy Don "Bill" Moyers (1934-) becomes ed.-publisher, steering it to the left, hiring writers incl. Saul Bellow, Pete Hamill, and Daniel Patrick Moynihan and winning two more Pulitzer Prizes, and supporting Vietnam War protesters, pissing-off Guggenheim, who supports Richard Nixon while he supports Hubert Humphrey, causing him to sell it to the conservative Times-Mirror Co. despite Moyers offering $10M more, causing him to resign in 1970 and launch the news program Bill Moyers Journal on PBS-TV in 1971-81 and 2007-10. On Sept. 4 after getting over the shock of the bombing of impregnable Berlin, Hitler cracks up an audience of German women nurses and social workers in Berlin with a speech, with the soundbytes: "When they declare they will increase their attacks on our cities, then we will raze their cities to the ground", and "In England they're filled with curiosity, asking 'Why doesn't he come?' Be calm, be calm, he's coming, he's coming!"; William L. Shirer is in the audience. On Sept. 4 unrest causes King Carol II to name Iron Guard sympathizer Gen. Ion Victor Antonescu (1882-1946) as dictator (until Aug. 23, 1944), causing PM Gheorghe Tarescu to resign; on Sept. 5 Antonescu suspends the 1938 constitution and dissolves parliament; on Sept. 6 the Iron Guard forces Carol II to flee with his mistress Magda Lupescu amid whistling bullets, settling in Mexico City then Rio de Janeiro, and his son succeeds as king Michael I (1921-) (until Dec. 30, 1947), becoming a puppet of the Iron Guard and Antonescu, beginning the "National Legionary State" (ends 1944); after unsuccessfully trying to set up a govt. in exile after Romania joins the Nazi side in WWII, Carol II marries Magda in Rio in 1947; on Sept. 7 the Treaty of Craiova cedes 3K-sq.-mi. S Dobrudja to Bulgaria; on Nov. 27 former PM Nicolae Iorga (b. 1871), the sole remaining vocal supporter of Carol II is assassinated by the Iron Guard; too bad, after Antonescu proves pro-German and the Iron Guard remains nationalistic, they begin to split ranks; meanwhile they agree on the right to massacre rioters. On Sept. 5 the Germans introduce the 1935 Nuremberg Laws to Luxembourg, and seize all 355 Jewish-owned businesses. On Sept. 7 (4:00 p.m.) after Hitler decides that he can make Britain submit without an invasion and orders German bomber raids on London, causing Goering to travel to Pas de Calais in his train Asia to take command, the London Blitz (ends May 10) by the Nazis begins as 300 bombers and 600 fighters attack the docks and oil depots on the lower Thames River, dropping 337 tons of bombs and killing 448 after missing and hitting crowded tenements; at 8:07 p.m. the Brits prematurely issue the codeword "Cromwell" to warn of an imminent invasion, helped by German deceptive tactics incl. movement of barges to Channel bases and cancellation of German army leave; when they fail to invade on Sept. 8, Churchill visits East End, London, and they tell him: "London can take it"; on Sept. 9 after two straight nights of bombing, George VI also visits East End; on Sept. 10 in retaliation for the indiscriminate bombing of London, the War Cabinet tells pilots to drop bombs anywhere they can if they can't locate their targets, causing Joseph Goebbels' garden to be bombed; the final count in London is 43K killed and 1M structures destroyed. On Sept. 7 the Miss America contest in Boardwalk Hall in Atlantic City, N.J. introduces the swimsuit award, which goes to Frances Marie Burke (1922-) of Philly, who also wins the Miss America title. On Sept. 11 Italy invades Egypt to gain control of the Suez Canal. On Sept. 11 on learning of the Romanian coup, Hitler sends a military mission to Romania to help protect its oil wells in Ploesti N of Bucharet and prepare them for use in the Russian invasion. On Sept. 12 (night) the Germans bomb docks in Liverpool, Swansea, and Bristol. On Sept. 13 the Italians cross their Libyan border and occupy Sollum, Egypt, threatening the British naval base at Alexandria and the Suez Canal. On Sept. 14 German Adm. Erich Johann Albert Raeder (1876-1960) advises Hitler that "the present air situation does not provide conditions for carrying out the invasion, as the risk is still too great", causing Hitler to say that the conditions for invading Britain are "not yet in hand", but the bombing of London should go on, because "If eight million inhabitants go crazy that can lead to catastrophe. If we get good weather and can neutralize the enemy's air force, then even a small-scale invasion can work wonders", postponing Operation Sealion (originally scheduled for Sept. 12) on Sept. 17 "until further notice", with the soundbyte "We have conquered France at the cost of 30K men. During one night of crossing the Channel we could lose many times that, and success is not certain", but leaving the invasion force in place as a bluff, causing the Allies to bomb it, and Hitler's officers to beg him to let them withdraw, which he allows on Sept. 23; Hitler drops the British invasion plans in favor of an attack against the Soviet Union while leading his own men to believe he will go after the Brits again next spring, and the Soviets to believe they're being moved E only to get out of the range of British bombers. On Sept. 14 Congress passes the U.S. Selective Service Act, providing for the first peacetime draft in U.S. history; the Alternative Service Program is established for conscientious objectors; in Oct. U.S. Brig. Gen. Lewis Blaine Hershey (1893-1977) becomes acting head of the U.S. Selective Service System, becoming permanent dir. on July 31, 1941 (until 1970) - free Hershey bar for enlisting? On Sept. 15 Battle of Britain Day sees massive German air raids on London, Southampton, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, and Cardiff by 700 fighters and 230 bombers; the Germans lose 60 planes to 26 for the Brits; because the Germans usually attack at night, fighters are almost never used? On Sept. 16 British-based Polish planes attack the German invasion barges at Boulogne, tearing most of them up, making the Battle of Britain effectively kaput. On Sept. 17 Italian destroyers Aquilone and Borea are sunk off Benghazi by RAF bombers. On Sept. 17 (10 p.m.) (after trailing it for 10 hours) German sub U-48 under 30-y.-o. Capt. Heinrich Bleichrodt (1909-77) fires a torpedo into British liner SS City of Benares (former luxury liner) in the North Atlantic, carrying 407 crew and passengers incl. 90 children being evacuated from England to Canada; it sinks in 30 min. in a gale 500 mi. from land and 300 mi. from any rescue vessel, killing 126 crew and 134 passengers incl. 77 children; as a British destroyer races to aid them, the survivors take to lifeboats; Lifeboat 12, carrying 46 adults and six children in a boat with cap. of 30 is missed by the destroyer and drifts for eight days before being rescued, causing a backlash against both the Germans and British; 11-y.-o. Colin Ryder-Richardson (1929-2012) becomes the youngest to achieve the King's Award for Bravery after trying in vain to rescue his nurse from drowning; after the war Bleichrodt is charged at Nuremberg but is acquitted of knowing that children were on board; 49-y.-o. Polish businessman Bohdan Nagorski (1890-1987) (great-uncle of ABC News producer Tom Nagorski), who is carrying a diplomatic pouch for the Polish govt.-in-exile is a survivor. On Sept. 19 Danish-born German spy Wulf Dietrich Christian Schmidt (1911-92) AKA Harry Williamson parachutes into Britain, and is soon arrested and turned into double-agent Tate, going on to fool the Germans so bad they award him an Iron Cross, 1st Class; "One of the seven spies who changed the world" (Nigel West). On Sept. 20 Zionist and future Israeli PM Menachem Begin (b. 1913) is arrested in his Lithuanian home while playing chess with his wife; as the Soviet pigs drag him away he calls out that he concedes the game. On Sept. 20 Ft. Breendonck Camp near Antwerp in Belgium gets its first prisoners. On Sept. 23-25 the British and Free French launch their first offensive, Operation Menace (Battle of Dakar), an attack on Vichy-held Dakar in hopes of liberating French West Africa; too bad, after refusing to switch loyalties, they resist, their battleship Richelieu damaging British cruiser Cumberland and battleship Resolution, causing them to retreat, after which Churchill refuses to back another attack because Britain has too much on its plate. On Sept. 23 the Japanese invade Lang Son Province in N Vietnam from S China, and occupy Indochina; the French flee, giving over their military installations to the invaders to avoid destruction of the country; on Sept. 27 a Communist-led anti-French rebellion begins in Bac Son in N Vietnam. On Sept. 23 Heinrich Himmler launches Operation Tooth, telling SS Lt. Col. Hermann Pook (a dentist) to examine arriving concentration camp inmates for dental gold and tattoo their upper left arms and mark the locations on special forms so that when they die they can collect it; the Allies capture millions of forms after the war. On Sept. 23 (night) the nightly British air raid on Berlin catches Joseph Goebbels dining at the Adlon Hotel with several dignitaries incl. the Spanish foreign minister, causing them to finish in the hotel's air raid shelter. On Sept. 25 Britain attacks Tobruk Harbor in Libya. On Sept. 25 Norwegian Nazi puppet ruler Josef Terboven dissolves the admin. council and installs an all-Nazi-puppet govt., causing the Norwegian Front resistance org. to be created. On Sept. 25 the U.S. announces more loans to China in support of Gen. Chiang Kai-shek against Japan. On Sept. 26 the U.S. extends the license system for goods exported to Japan to iron and steel scrap. On Sept. 27 the Tripartite Pact (Axis) is signed by Germany, Italy, and Japan, who each pledge to help the others if attacked by the U.S. On Sept. 27 Jews in occupied France are ordered to carry special ID cards; Jewish shopkeepers must put a yellow-black "Jewish business" sign in their windows; on Sept. 28 works by 842 authors are pulled from French bookshops, incl. by Jewish writers and French patriots; all Jews are required to register at police stations, giving their nationality, profession, and address. On Sept. 30 Captain Midnight (secret identity of Capt. Jim "Red" Albright, chief of the secret squadron), by Robert Murit and Wilfred Moore debuts on WGN Radio in Chicago, Ill.; he first appears in a comic book in Funnies Comics #57, July, 1941. In Sept. the Fat Year for German U-boats begins as they can operate from occupied France, sinking 32 Allied merchant ships in Oct. In Sept. English radar scientist Sir Henry Thomas Tizard (1885-1959) leads the Tizard Mission to the U.S. to introduce it to British scientific-technological developments incl. the magnetron, the Whittle gas turbine, the Tube Alloys Project (nukes) et al. On Oct. 1 the German Army launches Operation Otto to construct and improve roads and railways leading to the Soviet border, using forced labor to build the Otto Line on the W bank of the Bug River. On Oct. 1 Albert Einstein (1879-1955) and his stepdaughter Margot receive their U.S. citizenship at Trenton, N.J. On Oct. 2-6 the Cincinnati Reds (NL) win their first World Series since 1919 as they defeat the Detroit Tigers (AL) 4-3 in the Thirty-Seventh (37th) World Series, rescuing their bad rap in the 1919 WS. On Oct. 4 Hitler and Mussolini meet at the Brenner Pass (7th meeting), and Hitler warns him against new campaigns in Africa, offering help; he also admits that he has given up trying to invade England, but declares: "The war is won - the rest is only a question of time" - I want to be one less? On Oct. 5 after losing 433 fighter aircraft since Aug. 13, Hitler orders an end to daylight raids on Britain; meanwhile 489K children are evacuated to the countryside by mid-Oct., and hundreds of thousands take to sleeping in the subways. On Oct. 5 civil servants in the Netherlands are required to sign an "Aryan attestation". On Oct. 7 German troops enter Romania to protect the oilfields. On Oct. 8 Britain reopens the Burma Road, soon sending $20M of U.S. military supplies from Lashio on 2K U.S.-built trucks. On Oct. 12 Hitler orders Operation Sealion abandoned except as a deception. On Oct. 12 (Columbus Day) FDR gives an Address on Hemisphere Deense in Dayton, Ohio, with the soundbyte: "Our course is clear. Our decision is made. We will continue to pile up our defense and our armaments. We will continue to help those who resist aggression, and who now hold the aggressors far from our shores." On Oct. 14 (night) a German night raid of London starts 900 fires, killing 400 incl. 64 of 600 at the Balham Tube Station. On Oct. 16 the walled Warsaw Ghetto is created, then sealed on Nov. 26 after 150K Jews are forced to crowd in with 250K Jews already living there, and 100K Poles are forced to move out, taking only what they can carry, becoming the largest Jewish ghetto established by the Nazis - why go out for great kosher? On Oct. 16 16M Americans register for the draft, with FDR delivering a Radio Address on Selective Service Registration Day, with the soundbyte: "We are mobilizing our citizenship, for we are calling on men and women and property and money to join in making our defense effective." On Oct. 16 after deserting his ship in Boston to go to New York City to sell his services to the German embassy then returning, British merchant seaman George Johnson Armstrong (1902-41) is arrested, then deported to Britain, becoming the first British citizen of the war hanged for spying on July 10, 1941. On Oct. 16 (night) the British bomb German naval bases at Kiel after the British cabinet tells them that if they miss their designated targets they should dump the bombs on large cities incl. Berlin, but never tell the public that their vaunted precision bombing is moose hockey. On Oct. 17 a 6-sub German wolf pack incl. U-47 and U-48 based in Lorient attacks 35-ship Convoy SC 7 (Slow Convoy) from Sydney, N.S., sinking 20 ships; on Oct. 18 it sinks 12 of 49 ships of Convoy HX 79 (Halifax) from Halifax, N.S., for a total of 152K tons of shipping. On Oct. 18 (night) German bombers make their 200th air raid on Liverpool. On Oct. 21 Winston Churchill delivers a Speech to the People of France, with the soundbyte: "We seek to beat the life and soul out of Hilter and Hitlerism. That alone, that all the time, that to the end. We do not covet anything from any nation except their respect." On Oct. 22 Jewish businesses in the Netherlands are required to be registered. On Oct. 22 after sinking 17 ships on seven patrols for a total of 110K tons of Allied shipping, German sub U-32 is forced to the surface with depth charges; Capt. Hans Jenisch (1913-82) becomes the first U-boat ace of WWII to be captured; "The prisoners are all fanatical Nazis, and hated the British intensely", German Vs having "established Hitler in their minds, not merely as a God, but as their only God." On Oct. 22 5K German Jews in the W German provinces of Baden, the Saar, and the Palatinate are dispossessed of their property and shipped to Gurs Camp in the Pyrenees in SW France near Pau, which has no medical or sanitary facilities; when German pastor Heinrich Gruber (Grüber) (1891-1975) protests, he is sent to Sachsenhausen, surviving to testify against Adolf Eichmann in 1961; on Aug. 14, 1946 Robert Heinrich Wagner (Backfisch) (1895-1946), wartime German civil admin. chief of Alsace is hanged in Strasbourg for carrying out the deportations. On Oct. 23 after travelling on his private train Amerika and meeting with Vichy France deputy PM Pierre Laval in Montoire-sur-le-Loir on Oct. 22, Hitler meets with Gen. Franco for 9 hours in the town of Hendaye on the Franco-Spanish :) border and fails to get the latter to join the Axis or allow German troops through Spain to attack Gibraltar for a Jan. 10 attack, later telling Mussolini "I would rather have three or four teeth extracted than go through that again"; on Oct. 24 Hitler meets with 84-y.-o. French Marshal Henri-Philippe Petain at Montoire, and fails to get him to declare war on Britain or pledge to fight the Free French in Africa, although they do shake hands. On Oct. 24 the 40-hour work week goes into effect under the 1938 U.S. Fair Labor Standards Act - just when they're about to enter the war? On Oct. 24 the U.S. agrees to equip 10 British divs. for the "campaign of 1942". On Oct. 25 black officer Benjamin Oliver Davis Sr. (1877-1970) becomes a brig. gen. in the U.S. Army, becoming the first African-Am. U.S. army gen.; his son Capt. Benjamin Oliver Davis Jr. (1912-2002) goes on to become one of the first black officers in the Tuskegee Airmen in Mar. 1942. On Oct. 27 the Brazzaville Declaration by Charles de Gaulle announces the creation of the Empire Defense Council in French Equatorial Africa, inviting Vichy-run possessions to join. Neo-Roman Empire Italy goes too far when it challenges Neo-Greek Empire Greece's manhood and gets flipped the Greek bird? On Oct. 28 (Mon.) (5:30 a.m.) after demanding occupation rights to unspecified "strategic" Greek sites at 4 a.m. (dawn), and and getting a curt "Oxi" (Okhi) (Ohi) (Ochi) ("Hell No") response from Greek dictator Ioannis Metaxas, followed by "Alors, c'est la guerre" ("Well then, that's war"), Italian troops in Albania invade Greece, while the Greek pop. takes to the streets shouting "Oxi", launching the Greco-Italian War (ends Apr. 23, 1941); the same day Hitler meets with Mussolini in Florence, Italy, who greets him with "Fuhrer, we are on the march", getting pissed-off at not taking his advice to secure Egypt by taking Alexandria and/or Crete; meanwhile the British scramble to honor their 1939 agreement to help Greece, sending troops and military equipment. On Oct. 28 450+ German aircraft attack S England, losing 28 vs. seven British planes. Trick or Treat 1940, the original Read My Lips: No New Taxes? On Oct. 30 after Repub. Wendell Willkie positions himself as the peace candidate, and FDR as a war monger, FDR gives a No War Speech in Boston, Mass., with the soundbyte "I have said this before, but I shall say it again and again and again: Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars" - what's that stamped on your foreheads, the word dumbass? On Oct. 31 a Belgian Govt.-in-Exile is formed in London. On Oct. 31 (night) German pocket battleship (heavy cruiser) Admiral Scheer under Adm. Theodor Krancke (1893-1973) slips through the Denmark Strait into the Atlantic on its first combat sortie, going on to sink 13 merchant ships, the armed merchant cruiser Jervis Bay, and capture three merchant ships for a total of 115,195 tons of shipping in a 5-mo. cruise; Krancke goes on to command Navy Group West which controls all German naval vessels in France. In Oct. a U.S. Army bus collides with a lorry near Marlborough, Wiltshire, killing 10 soldiers and injuring 21. In Oct. U.S. Brig. Gen. Lewis Blaine Hershey (1893-1977) becomes acting head of the U.S. Selective Service System, becoming permanent dir. on July 31, 1941 (until 1970) - free Hershey bar for enlisting? In Oct. WWI hero Sir Richard Edmund Charles Peirse (1892-1970) becomes chief of the RAF Bomber Command (until Jan. 1942). On Nov. 1 British bombers attack military targets in Berlin and Rome. On Nov. 2 the Germans stage their last night raid of the London Blitz (begun Aug. 23), losing at total of 2,433 aircraft and 6K+ airmen. On Nov. 4 the Greeks counterattack, driving the Italians back to their starting points. On Nov. 5 (Tues.) the 1940 U.S. Pres. Election reelects FDR, who carries 38 states; of the 58.9% who vote for pres., FDR wins 27.3M popular (54.7%) and 449 electoral votes to Wendel Willkie's 22.3M popular (44.8%) and 82 electoral votes; the Dems. retain control of both houses of King Congress; after the U.S. enters WWII, Willkie calls for nat. unity, and FDR makes him an unofficial envoy to other countries, making a round-the-world airplane trip in 1942 - an Indianan will never be president? On Nov. 5 German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer under Capt. (later adm.) Theodor Krancke (1893-1973) attacks 37-ship Convoy HX 84 en route from Nova Scotia to Britain in the mid-Atlantic, sinking armed merchant cruiser Jervis Bay, killing 189, along with five other ships; for giving the convoy an order to scatter to minimize losses, losing his own life, Jervis Bay Capt. Edward Stephen Fogarty Fegen (b. 1891) is awarded the Victoria Cross. On Nov. 6 the British mount a counteroffensive against the Italians at Gallabat, but are driven back. On Nov. 6 the German Sixteenth Army sends an Enigma message ordering apparatus used for equipping British invasion barges put in storage, which is decoded by the British, confirming that the invasion is off. On Nov. 7 British bombers strike the Krupp armament factories in Essen. On Nov. 7 Operation Coat sees five British warships led by battleship Barham leave Gibraltar to reinforce naval forces in Egypt. On Nov. 7 Galloping Gertie, a 2.8K-ft. suspension bridge over the Puget Sound Narrows in Tacoma, Wash. breaks up in gale winds a few mo. after construction and drops almost 200 ft., causing a revamping of U.S. civil engineering curricula to emphasize eigenvalues (resonant frequencies) in mathematics. On Nov. 8 on the 17th anniv. of the 1923 Munich Putsch Hitler has to deliver his speech an hour early to avoid British bombers. On Nov. 11 the Germans arrest 123 trying to lay wreaths at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Paris incl. 90 schoolchildren; on Dec. 23 they execute civil engineer Jacques Bonsergent (b. 1912), who stumbled into the demonstration while visiting Paris for a friend's wedding, becoming the first Parisian (French person?) executed by the German occupation; the Jacques Bonsergent Metro is named for him in 1946. On Nov. 11 British steamer SS Automedon is boarded by German raider Atlantis, which captures the Automedon Bag, a set of secret documents revealing that the British can't hold Hong Kong, Malaya, or Singapore in the event of a war with Japan, which the Germans pass to them, giving them ideas. On Nov. 11 the first official mass execution at Dachau concentration camp N of Munich is of 55 Polish intellectuals from Cracow. On Nov. 11-12 (night) Operation Judgement sees 24 British torpedo bombers from aircraft carrier Illustrious cripple the anchored Italian fleet at Taranto, Italy, sinking battleship Duilio and damaging two others along with two cruisers, which gives the Japanese ideas about how to attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor, causing them to begin planning for Operation Z; it gives the same idea to U.S. Navy secy. Frank Knox, who suggests that precautionary measures be taken. On Nov. 12 Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 18, proposing Operation Felix to get Spain to join the Axis by seizing Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, Madeira, and Spanish Morocco in order to "drive the English from the western Mediterranean". On Nov. 12 the U.S. Supreme Court rules in Hansberry v. Lee that a racially-restrictive real estate covenant in the Washington Park subdiv. of Chicago, Ill. covering Carl Augustus Hansberry (1895-1946), father of writer Lorraine Vivian Hansberry (1930-65) is invalid, allowing them to move in even though they are treated as pariahs, causing Lorraine to write "A Raisin in the Sun" (1959); on May 3, 1948 they rule in Shelley v. Kraemer (after attys. Thurgood Marshall and Loren Miller argue before the court) that such covenants can only be enforced by state actions, which are barred by the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. On Nov. 12-13 Soviet foreign minister (since 1939) Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (1890-1986) visits Hitler in Berlin, becoming the first high-ranking Soviet official to do so at his direct invitation, discussing how the four totalitarian powers will divide the world incl. carving up Britain's kaput empire, "a bloc of 40 million square kilometers in a gigantic auction"; on Nov. 13 an evening banquet is given in the Russian embassy in Unter den Linden by German foreign minister (since 1938) Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (1893-1946), and the toast to Hitler is interrupted by a British air raid, causing them all to take refuge in Ribbentrop's air raid shelter; after Ribbentrop continues to harp to Molotov about dividing England up now that it has been so decisively beaten, Molotov replies, "If England is beaten, why are we sitting in this shelter?"; Molotov tells Ribbentrop that Stalin wants the Kattegat and Skagerrak between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, which the Germans took over from Denmark in May, pissing-off Hitler and making him more eager to attack. On Nov. 13 the Free French under Gen. Charles de Gaulle capture Libreville from the Vichy French, taking the rest of Gabon by Nov. 15. On Nov. 13 after being sent to Britain as an informal emissary to gauge Britain's ability to fight the Germans and learn how British intel works, future CIA head William Joseph "Wild Bill" Donovan (1883-1959) passes a message to FDR from German charge d'affairs (Nov. 1938-Dec. 11, 1941) Hans Thomsen (1891-1968) that Germany would join with Japan if the latter were to declare war on the U.S. On Nov. 14 (night) to get even with the Nov. 8 bombing of Munich, 500 German bombers bomb Godiva-town Coventry, England, creating a firestorm that destroys 60K of 75K bldgs. and kills 568, leaving most corpses unidentifiable, causing the Germans to coin the term "Koventrieren" (to Coventrate), and giving the Brits an idea that they later use on Germany - that'll shut Ribbentrop's trap? On Nov. 15-16 (night) the British bomb industrial centers in Hamburg, Germany, killing 233 on Nov. 16 after clouds and icing cause them to miss military targets and hit civilians. On Nov. 15 the first 75K men are called to duty in the U.S. armed forces under peacetime conscription. On Nov. 16 the Brits get even for Coventry by bombing Hamburg, Germany, killing 233 after clouds and icing cause them to miss military targets and hit civilians. On Nov. 16 Consolidated Edison-hating "Mad Bomber" George P. Metesky (1903-94) plants his first bomb in a 16-year career in the New York City area, incl. inside seats in movie theaters. On Nov. 18 Soviet German spy Richard Sorge warns Stalin from Tokyo that the Germans are preparing an attack. On Nov. 18 Hitler meets with Italian minister Count Ciano at Obersalzberg, getting pissed-off at the failure of the Greek campaign, warning that it might result in the British getting an air base in Athens to bomb the oil wells at Ploesti, Romania, making it necessary for the Germans to intervene, which can't be done before next Mar. On Nov. 18 the Germans first use a parachute mine, killing 39 soldiers at Theydon Bois N of London. On Nov. 19 at the insistence of his sister the Crown Princess of Italy, Hitler meets at the Berghof with Belgian King Leopold, who is being held a prisoner in his own country, and offers him N France if the Belgians cooperate unconditionally with the Germans in the war. On Nov. 19 (night) the British bomb the Skoda armaments factory in Pilsen, Czech., doing little damage; it remains operation through most of the war. On Nov. 21 the British attack Italian-held bases in Libya incl. Benghazi. On Nov. 22 after breaking through the Italian line on Nov. 15, the Greeks defeat the Italians at the Battle of Koritsa 15 mi. inside the Albanian border, capturing 2K Italian POWs, 600 machine guns, and 135 field guns, with Greek pres. Gen. Ioannis Metaxas uttering the soundbyte: "We fight, not only for our own existence, but also for the other Balkan peoples and Albania's liberation as well." On Nov. 22 Naval CIC U.S. Adm. Harold R. Stark writes a letter to Pacific fleet cmdr. James Otto Richardson (1878-1974) inquiring if Pearl Harbor needs torpedo nets to protect it from a surprise Japanese attack, and on Jan. 8 Richardson replies that they aren't needed. On Nov. 23 Romania joins the Axis, and on Nov. 27 the Iron Guard executes 64 former officials of King Carol II's govt. while rioting spreads. On Nov. 23 (night) the Germans heavily bomb Southampton, England, followed on Nov. 24 (night) by Bristol. On Nov. 24 Slovakia under pres. Josef Tiso signs the Tripartite Pact, joining the Axis. On Nov. 24 Libyan-based Italian bombers raid the British naval base at Alexandria. On Nov. 24-30 three British merchantmen stage Operation Collar to supply Mediterranean naval forces in Malta and Alexandria that had been split in half by the Italian entry into the war, with Mussolini calling the Mediterranean the "Italian lake". On Nov. 25 after protests against new anti-Jewish laws in Holland since Nov. 23, the Germans close Delft U., forbidding students to enroll elsewhere; the Dutch Order Service (Orde Dienst) organizes a resistance, concerned mainly with maintaining calm until the peace? On Nov. 28 after setting up a special task force in Oct., Nazi brain man Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (1893-1946) sets up HQ in the house of a Jew to loot France, Belgium, and Netherlands of all valuable art works incl. 5K paintings, needing four large warehouses and a Jewish-owned dept. store to hold it all. On Nov. 28 Fritz Hippler's Nazi film The Eternal Jew (Der Ewige Jude) debuts in Berlin, comparing Jews with rats, "money-mad bits of filth devoid of all higher values, corrupters of the world"; Hitler gives a speech in the film announcing that a new war can only bring about the final annihilation of Jewry. Thank you, next please? On Dec. 1 the British Eighth Army (incl. Indian troops) under Gen. Sir Archibald Wavell begins a W desert offensive (their first) in N Africa against the Italians starting in Mersa Matruh 300km W of Alexandria, Egypt, outflanking them and taking 40K Italian POWs by Dec. 9; on Dec. 11 the British take Sidi Barrani, and begin invading Libya on Dec. 12, taking Sollum on Dec. 17; by Dec. 13 the Italians, led by Mussolini favorite Gen. Rodolfo Graziani (1882-1955) have lost 139K POWs and are crumbling, and he resigns his command early next year; Wavell gets promoted to field marshal; meanwhile Conservative MP (1919-45) Lady Astor calls the British Eighth Army the "D-Day Dodgers", implying that they are avoiding the real war in France, causing The Ballad of the D-Day Dodgers to be composed to the tune of "Lili Marlene". On Dec. 7 (night) the British bomb industrial targets in Dusseldorf, Germany. On Dec. 10 Gen. Franco refuses Hitler's 2nd request to permit German troops to cross Spain to capture Gibraltar, forcing him to issue Fuhrer Directive No. 19, cancelling Operation Felix, and ordering Operation Attila to occupy Vichy France to control the naval base at Toulon and air bases on the Mediterranean coast; Franco pisses Hitler off by saying that he will enter the war against England only when it is "ready to collapse". On Dec. 10 Polish joke CIC Edward Rydz-Smigly escapes from internment in Romania and crosses into Hungary, then ends up back in Warsaw next Oct. 30, where he assumes the disguise of a common underground soldier until he dies of sudden heart failure on Dec. 2. On Dec. 10 Eleanor Roosevelt testifies before the House Select Committee on Nat. Defense Migration on behalf of destitute homeless farm workers, becoming the first First Lady to testify before Congress; she does it a 2nd time on Dec. 10; next First Lady to do it is Rosalynn Carter on Feb. 7, 1979. On Dec. 12-15 (night) the Germans bomb steel-town Sheffield, England. On Dec. 13 Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 20, ordering German troops in Romania reinforced in order to stage Operation Marita, an invasion of N Greece along with seizure of British bases in the Greek islands, after which "the forces engaged will be withdrawn for new employment". On Dec. 13 British bomb disposal expert Capt. M.F. Blaney and Lt. Richard James are blown up trying to dismantle an unexploded bomb at Manor Park in East London along with eight others watching from across the road, earning Blaney a posth. George Cross. On Dec. 15 in Paris Hitler restores the ashes of Napoleon's son Napoleon II, King of Rome (1811-32), who was a prisoner of Metternich in the Schonbrunn Palace in Vienna, and had been buried in the crypt of the Capuchin Church in Vienna; Marshal Petain refuses to attend, and the French people yawn it off. On Dec. 16 to get even for Coventry, the British try to firebomb Mannheim, Germany, but screw up, killing only 23 civilians. On Dec. 16 a secret British govt. report advises giving top priority to bombing German oil facilities, and a directive is issued on Jan. 13. On Dec. 17 British forces reach the Libyan border, being told by Churchill "to maul the Italian Army and rip them off the African shore to the utmost extent". On Dec. 18 Hitler issues Directive No. 21, ordering the military to make plans "to crush Soviet Russia in a quick campaign" to be ready by May 15, while making certain "that the intention to attack does not become discernable"; Hitler expects Finland and Romania to fight on his team to take Leningrad first, then Kiev, then Moscow, with the final objective being to "erect a barrier against Asiatic Russia" on the Volga-Archangel line; the operation is initially known as Operation Fritz until history-man Hitler changes it to Operation Barbarossa (Red Beard), named after HRE Frederick I Barbarossa (1122-90), who is supposed to be sleeping in a cave in Mt. Kyffhauser in Thuringia or Mt. Untersberg in Bavaria, his red beard growing through the table before him and his eyes half-closed, waiting for the ravens flying around to disappear to signal his reawakening to return to save Germany; Soviet spymaster in Japan (since 1933) Richard "Ramsay" Sorge (1895-1944) (posing as a German Nazi journalist under the codename Ramsay) warns Stalin, who doesn't believe him, saying "There's this bastard who's set up factories and brothels in Japan and even deigned to report the date of the German attack as 22 June. Are you suggesting I should believe him too?"; when he advises Stalin on Sept. 14, 1941 that the Japanese are not going to attack the Soviet Union, he believes him and pulls troops out of the east, allowing him to begin the victory push against Hitler; he also tells Stalin that if the Germans capture any city on the Volga River, Japan will attack, causing Stalin to dig in at Stalingrad. On Dec. 21 the entire supreme court of Norway resigns in protest against Nazi justice. On Dec. 20 Eleanor Roosevelt delivers a radio address in New York City against racial prejudice, calling NYC the great polyglot city, with the soundbyte: "We will have bad people among us, but they will not be all white or black or all gentile or all Jew. There will be fewer bad people as justice and economic and educational opportunities are open to all." On Dec. 21 (night) the British bomb Berlin, killing 45 civilians, causing Joseph Goebbels to comment in his diary: "So considerable losses, after all." On Dec. 23 everything's-gonna-be-fine-trust-me Hitler visits military units on the English Channel coast, and his train Amerika has to be shunted into a tunnel at Boulogne when a British bombing attack begins. On Dec. 24 hundreds of telegrams arrive in Polish homes in Warsaw greeting them with news of the death of their relatives in Auschwitz and other Nazi punishment camps. On Dec. 28 British intel learns that its 28 raids of oil installations at Gelsenkirchen, Germany were ineffective. On Dec. 28 Richard Sorge reports that a 40-div. German reserve army is being formed in Leipzig. On Dec. 29 FDR gives his Arsenal of Democracy Speech on radio, in which he utters the soundbyte: "The people of Europe who are defending themselves do not ask us to do their fighting. They ask us for the implements of war, the planes, the tanks, the guns, the freighters, which will enable them to fight for their liberty and for our security. We must be the great arsenal of democracy." On Dec. 29 (night) the Nazis stage a massive London Firebombing Blitz on both banks of the Thames River, destroying Guildhall and eight churches designed by Christopher Wren (who rebuilt 52 churches after the Great Fire of 1666); a haunting Photo of St. Paul's Cathedral visible through the flames while being saved by firefighters hampered by an exceptionally low tide gets mucho publicity; Harvard U. historian Crane Brinton is the fire marshal; British civilian deaths in Dec. total 3,793. On Dec. 30 the 6-mi. Arroyo Seco Parkway in Calif., later called the Pasadena Freeway, the first freeway in the U.S. opens, connecting Pasadena and Los Angeles. I'm so hot, not? On Dec. 31 Pope Pius XI issues the teaching document Casti Conubii (Chaste Christian Marriage), saying that any sex not in the context of marriage for procreation and education of children as an act of love is immoral; the Roman Catholic Church remains the only major denomination in this cent. that still promotes chastity and condemns contraception. In Dec. Kuomintang leader Gen. Chiang Kai-shek demands that all Chinese Communist Eighth Route Army forces withdraw N of the Yangtzi River by the end of the year, followed by all New Fourth Army forces by the end of Jan., but the latter oppose his ultimatum. In Dec. after living together on and off for four years, novelist Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) marries war correspondent Martha Gellhorn (1908-98) (until 1945); Gelhorn goes on to become the only woman to land in Normanday on D-Day (June 6, 1944). Sir Winston Churchill appoints Labour leader (avowed Marxist) Sir Richard Stafford Cripps (1889-1952) as British ambassador to the Soviet Union, who warns Stalin of the possibility of a Nazi attack, and after it happens in June 1941 goes on to engineer an alliance between the Soviet Union and the Allies, becoming super-popular in Britain and gaining jobs in the War Cabinet, lord privy seal, and leader of the House of Commons; too bad, Churchill smells a threat to his position as PM, and in Sept. 1942 sends him on the Cripps Mission to India to strike a deal that they will get full self-govt. after the war for loyalty during it, then pulls the rug under his feet, causing him to step down as Commons leader and accept a less glamorous job as minister of aircraft production for the rest of the war (until 1947). War hero Gen. Enrique Penaranda (Peñaranda) Castillo (1892-1969) is elected pres. of Bolivia (until 1943) as head of the conservative Concordancia party, a union formed against the liberals. The Muslim league in Lahore, led by Muhammad (Mohammad) Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) (known for wearing a karakul hat) passes the Pakistan Resolution, calling for a separate Muslim country of Pakistan to be created. Sir Anthony Eden becomes British foreign secy. again (resigned 1938). Henry L. Stimson becomes U.S. secy. of war (until 1945); just like is founded-13. Anti-FDR labor leader John L. Lewis resigns as head of the CIO after an election. Jesse Holman Jones (1874-1956) is appointed U.S. commerce secy. by FDR (until 1945). Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (1908-79), poor little rich boy son of John D. Rockefeller Jr. is appointed to the new Office of the Coordinator of Inter-Am. Affairs by FDR. Robert Daniel Murphy (1894-1978) is appointed U.S. envoy in French North Africa (until 1942), going on to prepare for Operation Torch. William "Wild Bill" Langer (1886-1959), known for being forced from office as gov. of N.D. in 1934 for fraud becomes a U.S. Sen. (R-N.D.) (until 1959), going on to lead the isolationists and back conspiracy theories of a shadow govt. of "millionaire monopolists, international bankers or crooks" running the U.S by selecting pres. nominees in both major parties. The Home Guard (Local Defence Volunteers) is formed in Britain. The Special Operations Executive (SOE) is established by the British as a secret military org. to promote guerrilla war in occupied territories. The U.S. Investment Co. Act of 1940 allows SEC-regulated money market funds, which total $10B by 1979 and $100B by 1981. The French Foreign Legion (founded 1831) is disbanded (until 1945). The Maud (Military Application of Uranium Detonation) Committee in Britain under English physicist Sir George Paget Thomson (1892-1975) convenes, recommending the development of the atomic bomb next year. Kiwi-born Australian journalist Nancy Wake (1912-) works with the French maquisards against the Germans,becoming a hero. British Fascist leader Oswald Mosley is imprisoned under British Defence Regs (until 1945). FDR appoints GM vice-pres. William Signius "Big Bill" Knudsen (1879-1948) as dir. of the Office of Production Management, and Jewish-Am. labor leader Sidney Hillman (1887-1946) as co-dir. (until 1942) - they both die soon after he does, worked to death? Former (1936) Repub. vice-pres. nominee Frank Knox is appointed U.S. Navy secy. by FDR; investment banking firm (Dillon, Reed and Co.) pres. (since 1938) James Vincent Forrestal is appointed undersecy., then becomes secy. in 1944, becoming the man in Foggy Bottom (later the Pentagon) who has to wear shades his future is so bright? The Germans set up Nazi Police Reserve Battalion 101 to massacre Jews in Eastern Europe, usually by shooting them into open pits. The Nazis launch Operation Bernhard to manufacture high-quality counterfeit British bank notes and flood Britain with them to collapse their economy; it closes in early 1942, then revived to forge money to finance German intel operations, using Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp POWS to do the work under SS Maj. Bernhard Kruger (Krüger) (1904-89); in 1943 a British bank in Tangier obtains samples of their counterfeit notes; the operation folds in mid-1945 having having printed £132.6M-£300M, £100K of which was used to obtain info. that helped to free Benito Mussolini in the Gran Sasso Raid of Sept. 1943. The U.S. obtains a right to establish a military base on the British-held island of Antigua, West Indies. George VI of Britain institutes the George Cross - I want to stand on a rooftop and recommend it to everybody? The Jewish Zionist Lehi (Stern Gang) (Lhamei Herut Yisrael) (Fighters for the Freedom of Israel) of 200-300 members is founded by Avraham Stern (1907-42) (AKA Yair) as a splinter group from the Irgun, going on to become the most violent Zionist org., seeking to forcibly evict the British from Palestine and form a Jewish state. German fighter ace Werner "Pappy" Molders (Mölders) (1913-41), hero of the Spanish Civil War and developer of the Finger-Four Formation gets 68 French-British kills, becoming the first German pilot to receive the Knight's Cross with oak leaves, swords, and diamonds; after being transferred to the Eastern Front in June 1941, he reaches a record 100 Vs in mid-July, is promoted to col., retired, then is killed in his Heinkel He 111 en route to Berlin in a heavy thunderstorm in Breslau on Nov. 22, 1941. Only 18% of Americans are now employed in agriculture. The Rapp-Coudbert Committee in N.Y. is established (until 1942) to rapp-out coudbert, er, root-out Communist influence in the public education system, ending with the dismissal of 60+ instructors and administrators at CCNY incl. historian Jack Donald Foner (1910-99), who doesn't work in academia again until 1969, his crime being devoting too much attention to African-Am. history; in 1979 the N.Y. State Board of Higher Ed. apologizes to the victims. The Hollywood Foreign Press Assoc. is founded in Los Angeles, Calif. to get more clout with the studios and give them greater access to stars. Jewish-Am. liberal Saul David Alinsky (1909-72) of Chicago, Ill. founds the Industrial Areas Foundation to provide workshops to community and labor organizers, founding the modern community action movement that later inspires Barack Obama. British economists John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) and Ernst Friedrich "Fritz" Schumacher (1911-77) propose the Bancor, a supranational currency to be used in internat. trade and cleared by the Internat. Clearing Union; it is rejected by the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944. The ASCAP-BMI War begins, raging during this decade over the right to collect musical royalties. In this decade the Latin Kings street gang is founded in Chicago, Ill. by Puerto Rican youths, expanding to 39+ states and 206 cities, becoming dominated by Mexicans, who create the religion of Kingism. In this decade Jump blues is created to add the "swingy side" of big bands incl. the boogie-woogie rhythm, with artists incl. Charles Brown, Roy Brown, Cab Calloway, Wynonie Harris, Helen Humes, Louis Jordan, Roy Milton, Memphis Slim, Sonny Terry and Brownie McGhee, Big Joe Turner, T-Bone Walker, and Billy Wright; in the 1980s it is revived by artists incl. Joe Jackson and Brian Setzer, later by Roomful of Blues, Mitch Woods and His Rocket 88s, Lavay Smith and Her Red Hot Skillet Lickers, and The Mighty Blues Kings. In this decade the Golden Age of British Cinema sees dirs. Sir David Lean (1908-91), Michael Latham Powell (1905-90), Emeric Pressburger (1902-88), and Sir Carol Reed (1906-76) produce their best work; in 1939 Powell and Pressburger form The Archers film production co., with Pressburger creating the original stories, and Powell doing the directing, cranking out 24 films by 1972 incl. "The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp" (1943), "A Matter of Life and Death" (1946), "Black Narcissus" (1947), and "The Red Shoes" (1948). Gene Autry's Melody Ranch debuts on CBS radio (until 1956), making him a giant star in the U.S. Am. actress Desi Arnaz and Cuban bandleader Lucille Ball get married (divorced 1960) - gotcha? Hollywood actor Ronald Reagan marries actress Yorba Linda, Calif.-born Duke U. Law School grad. Richard Milhous Nixon (1913-94) marries Ely, Nev.-born, Cerritos, Calif.-raised Thelma Catherine "Pat" Ryan (1912-93); they have no sons and 2 daughters, Patricia (Tricia) Nixon (1946-) and Julie Nixon (1948-). Young aspiring actor Eldred Gregory Peck (1916-2003) poses in men's clothing for this year's Montgomery Ward catalog. The 83,673-ton Cunard liner Queen Elizabeth is launched. Lake Como becomes the first nudist recreation community in Fla. The Economic History Assoc. is founded at Santa Clara U. in Calif., going on to establish several prizes incl. the Arthur Cole Prize, Alice Hanson Jones Prize, Gyorgi Ranki Prize, Alan Nevins Prize, Alexander Gerschenkron Prize, and Jonathan Hughes Prize; in 1941 it begins pub. the Journal of Economic History with Cambridge U. Press (until ?). Am. philosopher-historian Arthur Oncken Lovejoy (1873-1962) founds the Journal of the History of Ideas, focusing on "unit ideas" that combine and recombine over time. John F. Kennedy graduates from Hahvahd, er, Harvard - without reading a single book through like George Dubya Bush did in Yale? The British Scientific Advisory Committee is formed by the War Cabinet. The Musical Herr, starring Hitler is such a dog that there's a mass exit of the intelligentsia from his theater of operations to lucky America, causing a brain boom? Am. journalist Varian Mackey Fry (1907-67), the "Artists' Schindler" travels from the U.S. to unoccupied Vichy-controlled Marseille, France with a list of 200 prominent (mainly Jewish) intellectuals and artists known to be in areas of Nazi-occupied Europe, and hooks up with U.S. vice-consul Hiram "Harry" Bingham IV (1903-88), Am. artist Miriam Davenport (1915-99), and Am. heiress Mary Jayne Gold (1909-97) to create the Emergency Rescue Committee, going on to smuggle 2K-4K (2.5K?) of them out of the clutches of the Gestapo to neutral Portugal and Martinique, where most end up the U.S. after getting around the usual Anti-Semitism, incl. artists Jean Arp (1886-1966), Andre Breton (1896-1966), Marc Chagall (1887-1985), Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), Max Ernst (1891-1976), and Jacques Lipchitz (1891-1973), chemist Otto Meyerhof (1884-1951), writers Hannah Arendt (1906-75), and Franz Werfel (1890-1945), and composers Paul Abraham (1892-1960), Bela Bartok (1881-1945), Ralph Benatzky (1884-1957), Paul Hindemith (1895-1963), Emmerich Kalman (1882-1953), Ernst Krenek (1900-91), Darius Milhaud (1892-1974), Arnold Schonberg (1874-1951), Robert Stolz (1880-1975), Oscar Straus (1870-1954), Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Ernst Toch (1887-1964), and Kurt Weill (1900-50); meanwhile, thanks to Herr Hitler and impresario Varian Fry, the Jewish trash, er, Abstract Expressionist Art Movement is founded in New York City in this decade, emphasizing spontaneous personal expression, paint as an object of art, and the art of painting itself; the Big Six are Philip Guston (1913-80), Willem de Kooning (1904-97), Barnett Newman (1905-70) (a miniminalist who paints big stripes), Jackson Pollock (1912-56) (splash artist), Mark Rothko (1903-70) (another minimialist), and Clyfford Still (1904-80); others incl. Milton Avery (1885-1965) ("the American Matisse"), Max Ernst (1891-1976), Robert Motherwell (1915-91), Franz Kline (1910-62), and Mark Tobey (1890-1976); later the CIA secretly promotes them as a weapon in the Cold War via the Congress for Cultural Freedom, founded in 1950. The Am. Ballet Theatre is founded, joining the New York City Ballet as the top two U.S. ballet cos. French composer Jean Martinon (1910-76) is taken POW by the Germans, going on to compose several works, incl. Chant des Captifs while incarcerated; in 1946 he appointed conductor of the Bordeaux Philharmonic Orchestra. Keynote Records is founded by record store owner Eric Bernay to release folk and protest songs, signing the Almanac Singers et al. before expanding to jazz in 1943, signing Count Basie, Roy Eldridge, Coleman Hawkins, Dinah Washington, Lester Young et al. before going bankrupt in 1948 and being acquired by Mercury Records. Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini (1867-1957) selects commentator Benjamin Franklin "Ben" Grauer (1908-77) to be the voice of the NBC Symphony Orchestra (until June 1954). New York City begins the Cabaret Card System, preventing people of "bad character" from working on licensed premises that serve alcohol, which ends up being used by the police to destroy the livelihood of performers incl. Billie Holiday, Chet Baker, Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, Jackie McLean, Elmo Hope, Billy Higgins, and Lenny Bruce; after control is removed from the NYPD in 1961, the system is abolished in 1967. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is founded as part of the Dept. of the Interior to coordinate federal wildlife conservation programs. The Nat. Field Archery Assoc. is formed in the U.S. for bow-and-arrow hunters. Harvard Hospital is sent to England by Harvard Medical School, and located near Salisbury, England (80 mi. W of London), where it becomes a U.S. military field hospital, then in 1946 is turned into the Common Cold Research Center (until 1990). After founding Spiritual Mobilization in 1935 to promote "Freedom under God" (Christian libertarianism), Los Angeles, Calif.-based Congregationalist minister James William Fifield Jr. (1899-1977) gives a speech to the Nat. Assoc. of Manufacturers at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City denouncing FDR and the New Deal and claiming that a free-market agenda is right for Christian America, attracting support from big business and going on to found the radio program "The Freedom Story" in 1949, which reaches 800 stations by 1951, paving the way for Billy Graham and Pres. Eisenhower and leading to putting "under God" in the Pledge of Allegiance and making "In God We Trust" as the nat. motto. Johns Hopkins U. prof. Arthur Oncken Lovejoy (1873-1962) founds Journal of the History of Ideas, focusing on "unit ideas". In this decade Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. becomes a destination for college students on spring break, where they party hearty and drink too much, causing it to become known as Ft. Liquordale; by the 1980s the spring break crowds peak out and begin thinning. In this decade Japanese-Am. sculptor Isamu Noguchi begins designing Atari lamps, with shades made of Japanese paper. Nickel-mining town Sudbury, Ont. becomes the first city in Canada to install parking meters. The U.S. Declaration of Independence is fixed with Scotch tape; too bad, the tape is slightly acidic? In this decade the Happy Goodman Family of Southern gospel singers is founded by Howard "Happy" Goodman and his family incl. his wife Vestal, Sam, Rusty, and Bobby, gaining fame by 1950, releasing their first album I'm Too Near Home in 1963, which features I'm Too Near Home, after which they are selected to sing on "The Gospel Singing Jubilee" in 1964 along with the Florida Boys, the Dixie Echoes, and the Couriers Quartet, leaving in 1974 to star in their own TV series "The Happy Goodman Family Hour", becoming known for their "grab a note and hang on" endings. Am. comedian Danny Kaye (b. 1913) marries Sylvia Fine, who acts as his coach and writes his material. Mike Wallace lands his first radio job on WXYZ in Detroit, where he introduces adventure shows such as "The Green Hornet"; in 1946 he hosts a popular WMAQ radio interview show in Chicago. British super-brain philosopher Bertrand Russell is rejected by City College of New York, then appointed to the William James lectureship at Harvard U. - I'd love a health care career, did you say nine months? Am. Bing Crosby baritone clone singer Vaughn Monroe (1911-73) forms a band in Boston, Mass., going on to produce a string of hits until the 1950s incl. "Let It Snow, Let It Snow, Let It Snow" (1946) and "Ghost Riders in the Sky" (1949). Bing Crosby's Kraft Music Hall (founded 1933) discovers new hit entertainers Jerry Colonna (1904-86), Victor Borge (1909-2000), and Spike Jones (1911-65). Kiwi-born British cartoonist Sir David Alexander Cecil Low (1891-1963) gains fame for producing a series of wicked Anti-Hitler Cartoons. Am. cartoonist Edmund Duffy wins his 3rd Pulitzer Prize (1931, 1934). Alicia Patterson (1906-63) of Chicago, Ill. begins pub. Newsday mag., named via a contest. York Peppermint Patties are introduced by Henry C. Kessler of the York Cone Co. of York, Penn., which markets in the NE U.S.; in 1972 it is acquired by Peter Paul, which markets it nationally in 1975; in 1978 Peter Paul merges with Cadbury, which is acquired in 1988 by Hershey Co.; since the 1970s the slogan is "Get the sensation". Sports: On Feb. 28 the first televised basketball games are played at Madison Square Garden in New York City and shown on W2XBS-TV in New York City, with a viewership of several hundred; Pittsburgh U. defeats Fordham U. by 57-37, and New York U. defeats Georgetown U. by 50-27. On Apr. 2-13 the 1940 Stanley Cup Finals see the New York Rangers defeat the Toronto Maple Leafs 4-2, starting a title drought until 1994 called Dutton's Curse (The Curse of 1940). On Apr. 3 Cornelius "Dutch" Warmerdam (1915-2001) of the U.S., known for using a bamboo pole becomes the 1st to vault over 15 ft. (4.57m) at UCB; in 1942 he sets a pole vault record of 15'7-3/4" (4.77m); nobody else vaults over 15 ft. until 1951; too bad, he goes pro before an Olympics can be held in 1948. On May 30 the 1940 (28th) Indianapolis 500 is won by Wilbur Shaw (2nd win, and 3rd in 4 years) in the same Maserati 8CTF as last year, becoming the 1st to win two in a row, and 2nd to win 3x. On Oct. 14 the $2.7M Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, AKA the Aud in Buffalo, N.Y. opens as the home of the AHL Buffalo Bisons, later the NHL Buffalo Sabres in 1970; it closes in 1996, and is demolished in 2009. On Dec. 8 the Chicago Bears defeat the Washington Redskins 73-0 to win the 1940 NFL Championship, the lopsided win caused by the introduction of the T-formation by coach George "Papa Bear" Halas (1895-1983), quarterbacked by lucky (to not live in Europe?) Jewish-Am. QB Sid Luckman (1916-98). William Donald "Don" McNeill (1918-96) wins the U.S. Open tennis singles title, and Alice Marble (1913-90) wins the women's singles title; because of the war, the Wimbledon tennis tournament is not held in 1940-45. Richard D. "Dick" Chapman (1911-78) wins the U.S. Golf Assoc. amateur title, and William Lawson Little Jr. (1910-68) wins the U.S. Open; Am. golfer Ben Hogan (1912-97) becomes the top U.S. money winner, followed by 1941-2 and 1946, going on strong into the next decade. The XII (12th) 1940 Summer Olympics scheduled for Tokyo are canceled, as are the XIII (13th) 1944 Summer Olympics scheduled for Hell. The Edmonton Flyers amateur ice hockey team is founded in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, going on to win the 1948 Allan Cup; in 1951 they go pro and join the Pacific Coast Hockey League as the farm team of the Detroit Red Wings; they fold in 1963. Jack Dempsey retires from boxing. Bimelech (jockey F.A. Smith) wins the Belmont and Preakness Stakes. Richard Cummings "Dick" Wakefield (1921-85) becomes the first ML "Bonus Baby", receiving an unprecedented $52K signing bonus and a car from the Detroit Tigers; too bad, he lets the money go to his head and doesn' t work hard, and after going 1-for-7 is dumped from the ML in 1942, but returns in 1943 and becomes a star until WWII begins, then ends up a bum after the war, using his relationship with the owner's wife to stay on until 1949 despite the fans booing him. Cleveland Indians pitcher Robert William Andrew "Bob" Feller (1918-2010) becomes the first to pitch a no-hitter on opening day (until ?), against the Chicago White Sox. In the 1940s and 1950s Middletown H.S. in Ohio cranks out several NBA stars, who like to play at Sunset Park, incl. Jerry Lucas, Oscar Robertson, and Wayne Embry, winning state titles in 1944, 1946-7, 1952-3, and 1956-7; on July 25, 2009 players hold a big reunion. Architecture: On Nov. 7 the Tacoma Narrows Bridge AKA Galloping Gertie in Puget Sound between Tacoma and the Kitsap Peninsula, begun in 1938 and opened on July 1 begins swaying violently in 40 mph winds before collapsing, becoming the reason for engineering schools to teach engineers about eigenvalues and resonant frequencies, ruiningg the rep of Latvian-born bridge engineer Leon Solomon Moisseiff (1874-1943). The Banff-Jasper Highway over the Canadian Rockies (begun 1931) opens. Frank Lloyd Wright designs Fla. Southern College in Lakeland, Fla. The 1.2-mi. Allegheny Mountain Tunnel for vehicular traffic on the Pennsylvania Turnpike opens, becoming known as an engineering marvel. The 1.3-mi. Queens-Midtown Tunnel for vehicular traffic over the East River in New York City opens. On Oct. 31 the $1.6M art deco Hollywood Palladium at 6215 Sunset Blvd. between Argyle and El Centro Aves. in Los Angeles, Calif., built on the original Paramount Pictures lot by Norman Chandler opens, featuring a 11.2K sq. ft. kidney-shaped maplewood dance floor (cap. 4K), designed by Hoover Dam and LA Times Bldg. architect Gordon Kaufmann, hosting a dance featuring Tommy Dorsey and His Orchestra and vocalist Frank Sinatra attended by Lana Turner and her hubby Artie Shaw; during WWII it hosts radio broadcasts by Betty Grable; in 1961 it becomes the home of the Lawrence Welk Show. Nobel Prizes: No awards. Inventions: On May 13 Ukrainian-born Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (1889-1972) of the U.S. makes his first free flight in the Vought-Sikorsky VS-300, giving the U.S. heli power. On May 29 the U.S. Navy/U.S. Marine Corps Chance Vought F4U Corsair fighter, powered by the Double Wasp engine makes its first flight, entering service on Dec. 28, 1942, with high demand causing manufacturing to be shared by Goodyear (FG) and Brewster (F3A); until problems with carrier landing are solved, it is replaced by the Grumman F6F Hellcat; it goes on to earn an 11:1 kill ratio vs. Japanese planes; after being adopted by New Zealand and France, 12,571 are produced by 1953, becoming the longest production run of any U.S. piston-engined fighter. On Aug. 19 the North American B-25 Mitchell medium bomber makes its first flight, named in honor of U.S. Maj. Gen. William "Billy" Mitchell; 9,816 are produced in the next four decades, with variations incl. the USMC PBJ-1 patrol bomber, USAAF F-10 recon aircraft, and AT-24 trainer. On Oct. 26 the $51K North American Aviation P-51 Mustang makes its test flight, with the British RAF replacing its Allison V-1710 engines with the Rolls-Royce Merlin, giving it equal or better high-altitude performance to the Luftwaffe fighters after it is introduced in Jan. 1942; 15K are built by 1984. After a successful test flight last Dec. 29, the U.S. Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber (AKA the Flying Boxcar) (bomb cap. 4 tons), designed by Consolidated Aircraft of San Diego, Calif., with greater range and speed than a B-17 begins production in England; in Aug. 1942 the new 3.5M sq. ft. Ford Motor Co. plant in Willow Run, headed by Danish-born engineer Charles Emil Sorensen (1881-1968) opens, becoming the largest factory in the U.S. (largest outside the Soviet Union), ramping up production to one an hour, causing it to become the most-produced U.S. military aircraft (18,482) (until ?); too bad, it is hard to steer, has a tendency to catch on fire, and can't take much battle damage, causing it to be called the Flying Coffin. On Nov. 25 the 2-man British De Havilland DH.98 Mosquito ("Mossie") AKA "The Wooden Wonder" too-fast-to-catch multi-role recon-fighter-bomber aircraft makes its first flight, introduced on Nov. 15, 1941, evolving from photo-recon missions to low-med.-high alt. bombing missions with Blockbuster bombs, becoming the most versatile warplane ever built; there is room for only one passenger, in the bomb bay. The Martin Model 167 Maryland medium bomber makes its test flight, seeing action in France and the U.K. for the rest of WWII; 450 are produced. The Soviet Union introduces the heavily-armored Voroshilov KV-1 Tank, named after Stalin's friend Kliment Efremovich Voroshilov (1881-1969) The U. of Calif. Cyclotron is built, producing mesotrons from atomic nuclei. African-Am. physician (inventor of Scotch Tape) Charles Richard Drew (1904-50) invents the Blood Bank to provide blood for Britain; too bad, he is prohibted by segregation laws from donating his own blood; after having an auto accident in 1950 he bleeds to death, causing a false rumor that he had been refused treatment by a hospital because he was black. In the fall Louis Mountbatten of the British Royal Navy invents Mountbatten (Plymouth) Pink, a new naval camouflage color that is a shade of lavender mauve grey which makes ships vanish during dawn and dusk. English bandleader Al Tabor (1898-1983) invents the Hokey Pokey (Hokey Cokey), based on the early 20th cent. New York City name for ice cream (garbled Italian from street vendors), with a dance derived from actions used with "Under the Spreading Chestnut Tree"; too bad, he loses the copyright; after being recorded by the Ram Trio in 1949, Roland Lawrence "Larry" LaPrise (1912-96) ends up with the copyright for the song. Early in this decade the radioactive ionization chamber smoke detector is invented in Switzerland. In this decade Shannon Airport (Ireland) bartender Michael Collins, invents Irish Coffee. German-Hungarian engineer Peter Carl Goldmark (1906-77) of Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) demonstrates a sequential method of color television (TV), which is commercialized in the 1950s. William Justin Kroll (1889-1973) of Luxembourg discovers the Kroll Process for producing titanium metal, making it possible to use it outside the lab. Forrest Edward Mars Sr. (1904-99), son of Mars Co. founder Frank C. Mars invents M&Ms chocolate candy in a crunchy shell which "melts in your mouth not in your hands"; Peanut M&M's are introduced in 1954, and Peanut Butter M&M's in 1991. Dr. Cecil E. Nixon (1874-1962) of San Francisco, Calif. constructs the zither-playing robot Isis, with a repertoire of 3K tunes. Karl Probst (1883-1963) of Bantam Automotive allegedly invents the Jeep for the U.S. Army in two days, and after it is built in 49 days he test-drives it from Toledo, Ohio to Butler, Penn. The Vought-Sikorsky Corp. of the U.S. performs the first successful helicopter flight. Am. astronomer Fred Lawrence Whipple invents a device for cutting tin foil into chaff to confuse enemy radar. The Northrop N-1M "Jeep" becomes the first U.S. all-wing (flying wing) airplane. A new combustion chamber for jet engines is invented. RCA of Camden, N.J. on Apr. 20 publicly demonstrates the first Electron Microscope that permits direct visualization of viruses. Science: In Feb. German exiles (in England) Otto Frisch and Rudolf Peierls discover that an A-bomb can be made with a few kg of U-235, ending the insoluble problem of the need for a moderator for U-238 to slow neutrons down; too bad, the natural ore ratio is 0.7% of U-235 to 99.3% of U-238, making chemical separation extremely difficult. On Sept. 28 Am. surgeon Austin T. Moore (1899-1963) performs the first metallic hip replacement surgery at Columbia Hospital in S.C. using the cobalt-chrome alloy Vitallium and bolted to the end of the femoral shaft; in 1952 the improved Austin Moore Prosthesis is introduced, which is inserted inside the femur's meduallary shaft. Dale Rraymond Corson (1914-2012), Kenneth Ross MacKenzie (1912-2002), and Emilio Gino Segre (Segrè) (1905-89) of UCB synthesize the radioactive halogen element Astatine (At) (#85) (Gr. "astatos" = unstable). The first Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is found in the Weddell Sea, followed by the Ross Sea and the Adelie Coast of East Antarctica in the 1960s-1970s, and Cape Darnley Polynya in 2013. 18-y.-o. Marcel Ravidat discovers the Lascaux Cave Paintings in France of horses, bulls, bison, deer et al., incl. the Hall of the Bulls; they are dated to 28K B.C., and supposedly cover a span of 15K years, produced by the sensitive artist highbrow Cro-Magnon people of 32K B.C.E. to 10K B.C.E? The pasteurization of milk in the U.S. reduces the number of cases of brucellosis from 6.5K this year to only 70 in 1994; not that raw milk isn't healther if certified; in 1946 the Vacuum Pasteurization Method is perfected, followed by the Ultra-High Temperature Pasteurization Method in 1948. In 1940 after Egon Bretscher (1901-73) and Norman Feather (1904-78) of the Cavendish Lab discover that a slow neutron reactor fueled with uranium can produce substantial amounts for use in an atomic bomb, the element Neptunium (Np) (#93) is first synthesized by Edwin Mattison McMillan (1907-91) and Philip Hauge Abelson (1913-2004) of the Berkeley Radiation Lab, becoming the first transuranic element synthesized; Neptune follows Uranus, therefore neptunium follows uranium? In this decade Am. chemist Edwin Joseph Cohn (1892-1953) develops the Cohn Blood Fractionation procedure to recover albumin from blood plasma, which is used as an excellent substitute for human plasma in WWII. Howard W. Florey perfects penicillin as a practical antibiotic. Am. bacteriologist Alfred Day Hershey (1908-97) observes that when two different strains of bacteriophage infect the same bacteria, the two viruses may exchange genetic info. African-Am. chemist Percy Lavon Julian (1899-1975) of Glidden Co. begins manufacturing human sex hormones (progesterone, estrogen, testosterone) from soybeans, followed by cortisone in 1949, dramatically increasing the supply and reducing the cost; too bad, white racists dynamite his home in Oak Park, Ill. on June 12, 1951. U.S. physicist Donald William Kerst (1911-93) of the U. of Ill. invents the Betatron magnetic induction accelerator to accelerate electrons to high energies, shooting them into a doughnut-shaped vacuum chamber between the poles of an electromagnet carrying an alternating current to produce X-rays. In this decade U.S. astronomer Carl Keenan Seyfert (1911-60) discovers Seyfert Galaxies, spiral galaxies with small, bright nuclei which emit strong broad spectral lines. French mathematician Andre (André) Weil (1906-98) finally proves the famous 1859 Riemann Hypothesis while imprisoned for failure to report for military duty, and goes on to become one of the top mathematicians of the cent. Helium-3 is discovered by ? to be an exception to the rule that a nucleus that contains more protons than neutrons is unstable. Nonfiction: James Truslow Adams (1878-1949), Dictionary of American History (6 vols.). Mortimer Adler (1902-2001), The Philosophy and Science of Man: A Collection of Texts As a Foundation for Ethics and Politics; How to Read a Book: The Art of Getting a Liberal Education; bestseller. Frederick Lewis Allen (1890-1954), Since Yesterday: The 1930s in America, Sept. 3, 1929 to Sept. 3, 1939. George Arliss (1868-1946), My 10 years in the Studios (autobio.). Edward Arnold (1890-1956), Lorenzo Goes to Hollywood (autobio.); goes into politics as a Repub., losing a close election for LA county supervisor, saying that actors are probably not suited to run for political office. Thurman Arnold (1891-1969), The Bottlenecks of Business. Herbert Asbury (1889-1963), Gem of the Prairie: An Informal History of the Chicago Underworld. A.J. Ayer (1910-89), The Foundations of Empirical Knowledge. Gaston Bachelard (1884-1962), La Philosopie du Non: Essai d'une Philosophie du Nouvel Esprit Scientifique. James Beard (1903-85), Hors d'Oeuvre and Canapes; his first book, launching his culinary career in the U.S. as "the Dean of Am. Cuisine" (Julia Child). Samuel Flagg Bemis (1891-1973), Early Diplomatic Missions from Buenos Aires to the United States, 1811-1824. Ruth Benedict (1887-1948), Race: Science and Politics. Edwyn Bevan (1870-1943), Christians in a World at War; Holy Images: An Inquiry into Idolatry and Image-Worship in Ancient Paganism and in Christianity. Franz Boas (1858-1942), Race, Language, and Culture. Emory Stephen Bogardus (1882-), The Development of Social Thought. Elie J. Bois, Truth on the Tragedy of France (London). Herbert Eugene Bolton (1870-1953), Cultural Cooperation with Latin America. Emma Bourne, America: A Nation of One People from Many Countries; map showing U Pluribus Unum at work in a nation of European immigrants; too bad, leftist globalists later try to use it to flood America with existential enemies esp. Muslims? Vera Brittain (1893-1970), Testament of Friendship (autobio.). P.M. Burnett (ed.), Reparations at the Paris Peace Conference (2 vols.). Sir Herbert Butterfield (1900-79), The Statecraft of Machiavelli. Evans Fordyce Carlson (1896-1947), Twin Stars of China: A Behind-the-Scenes Story of China's Valiant Struggle for Existence by a U.S. Marine Who Lived and Moved With Them; The Chinese Army; by a U.S. military observer who travelled with the Chinese Eighth Army in 1937-9. R.G. Collingwood (1889-1943), The First Mate's Log; his big cruise. Arthur H. Compton (1892-1962), The Human Meaning of Science. Ely Culbertson (1891-), The Strange Lives of One Man (autobio.). Bernard DeVoto (1897-1955), Mark Twain in Eruption. Georges Duhamel (1884-1966), Why France Fights; anti-Nazi polemic. Richard T. Ely (1854-1943) and G.S. Wehrwein, Land Economics. Norman Bel Geddes (1893-1958), Magic Motorways; calls for a U.S. interstate highway system; "There should be no more reason for a motorist who is passing through a city to slow down than there is for an airplane which is passing over it." Arthur Eric Rowton Gill (1882-1940), Autobiography: Quod Ore Sumpsimus (posth.); a deeply religious Roman Catholic likes to have sex with his own children, sister, and dogs? Benjamin Gitlow (1891-1965), I Confess: The Truth About American Communism; prominent Am. Communist turns anti-Communist. Kurt Godel (1906-78), The Consistency of the Axiom of Choice and of the Generalized Continuum Hypothesis with the Axioms of Set Theory; proves that transfinite methods cannot introduce inconsistencies into mathematics. Louis Golding (1895-1958), The World I Knew. Henry Green (1905-73), Pack My Bag: A Self-Portrait (autobio.); "I was born a mouthbreather with a silver spoon in 1905, three years after one war and nine before another, too late for both." J.B.S. Haldane (1892-1964), Science and Everyday Life. Cicely Hamilton (1872-1952), Lament for Democracy. Marcus Lee Hansen (1892-1938), The Immigrant in American History (posth.); The Atlantic Migration, 1607-1860: A History of the Continuing Settlement of the United States (posth.) (ed. Arthur M. Schlesinger Sr.) (Pulitzer Prize). G.H. Hardy (1877-1947), A Mathematician's Apology (autobio.); laments the passing of his creative powers. William S. Hart (1872-1946), And All Points West (autobio.). Sir Nevile Henderson (1882-1942), Failure of a Mission: Berlin 1937-1939). Christopher Hill (1912-2003), The English Revolution, 1640 (first book); 3rd ed. 1955; "The object of this essay is to suggest an interpretation of the events of the seventeenth century different from that which most of us were taught at school. To summarise it briefly, this interpretation is that the English Revolution of 1640-60 was a great social movement like the French Revolution of 1789. The state power protecting an old order that was essentially feudal was violently overthrown, power passed into the hands of a new class, and so the freer development of capitalism was made possible. The Civil War was a class war, in which the despotism of Charles I was defended by the reactionary forces of the established Church and conservative landlords. Parliament beat the King because it could appeal to the enthusiastic support of the trading and industrial classes in town and countryside, to the yeomen and progressive gentry, and to wider masses of the population whenever they were able by free discussion to understand what the struggle was really about." Sidney Hook (1902-89), Reason, Social Myths, and Democracy. Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952), Mathematico-Deductive Theory of Rote Learning. Sir Julian Huxley (1887-1975), The New Systematics. Harold LeClair Ickes (1874-1952), The Third Term Bugaboo; U.S. interior secy. 1933-46. Merrill Jensen (1905-80), The Articles of Confederaton: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774-1781 (first book); views the Am. Rev. as "an internal revolution carried on by the masses of the people against the local aristocracy", challenging the consensus view of the ratification process of the U.S. Constitution and claiming that the Articles of Confederation were a better expression of genuine grassroots dem. values, its replacement creating a system of govt. that minimized them. Emory Richard Johnson (1864-1950), Transportation: Economic Principles and Problems. Sir Harold Spencer Jones, Life on Other Worlds. Wilbur K. Jordan (1902-), The Development of Religious Toleration in England: The Attainment of the Theory and the Accomodations in Thought and Institution. Carl G. Jung, The Interpretation of Personality. Madame Chiang Kai-shek (1898-2003), This is Our China; China in Peace and War. Edward Kasner (1878-1955) and James Roy Newman (1907-66), Mathematics and the Imagination; introduces the term googol (one followed by 100 zeroes) (ten duotrigintillion); the name was thought up in 1920 by Kasner's 9-y.-o. nephew Milton Sirotta (1911-81); book claims that it would take a human 10 years of calculation to compute the value of pi to 1K places. Helen Keller (1880-1968), Let Us Have Faith. John F. Kennedy (1917-63), Why England Slept; based on his Harvard senior internat. affairs thesis; claims that the British appeasement of the Nazis prevented greater disaster; sells 80K copies in the U.S. and U.K., netting $40K in royalties, which he uses to by a green Buick convertible and donate to bombed-out Plymouth, England. John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946), How to Pay for the War. Stanley Kimmel, The Mad Booths of Maryland; the eccentric acting family that knocked off Lincoln. Alfred L. Kroeber, Stimulus Diffusion; first description of trans-cultural diffusion - eh, Indiana Jones? William Leonard Langer (1896-1977) (ed.), An Encyclopedia of World History, 1st Ed.; rev. ed. of Karl Ploetz's "Epitome of History"; becomes the #1 ref. on the Great Track of Time until TLW?; he also edits the next 4 eds. (1948, 1952, 1968, 1972). Harold Laski (1893-1950), The American Presidency: An Interpretation. Bernard Lewis (1916-), The Origins of Is'mailism. Anne Morrow Lindbergh (1906-2001), The Wave of the Future: A Confession of Faith; predicts coming fascism; "The wave of the future is coming, and there is no fighting it." Clare Boothe Luce (1903-87), Europe in the Spring; "A world where men have decided to die together because they are unable to find a way to live together"; "All Clare on the Western Front" (Dorothy Parker). Shailer Mathews (1863-1941), Is God Emeritus?. Charles Howard McIlwain (1871-1968), Constitutionalism Ancient and Modern (last work). Claude McKay (1889-1948), Harlem: Negro Metropolis. H.L. Mencken (1880-1956), Happy Days. Erich Mendelsohn (1887-1953), Architecture and the Changing Civilization. Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973), Memoirs. Malcolm Muggeridge (1903-90), The Thirties, 1930-40, in Great Britain. Gilbert Murray (1866-1957), Stoic, Christian and Humanist. George Jean Nathan (1882-1958), Encyclopedia of the Theatre. Allan Nevins (1890-1971), John D. Rockefeller; rev. ed. pub. 1953. Charles Bernard Nordhoff (1887-1947), In Yankee Windjammers. Pierre van Paassen (1895-1968), Afraid of Victory. Eric Partridge (1894-1979), A New Testament Word Book: A Glossary. Charles Petrie (1895-1977), Joseph Chamberlain; Louis XIV; Twenty Years' Armistice and After: British Foreign Policy Since 1918. William Lyon Phelps (1865-1943), Marriage. Michael Polanyi (1891-1976), The Contempt of Freedom (essays); claims that scientists cooperate in a spontaneous order of open debate analogous to a free market. Llewleyn Powys (1884-1939), A Baker's Dozen; Old English Yuletide (posth.). Henry Habberley Price (1899-1984), Hume's Theory of the External World. Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957), The Function of the Orgasm. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), Inquiry into Meaning and Truth. Carl Sandburg (1878-1967), Abraham Lincoln: The War Years (Pulitzer Prize). Adele Sandrock (1863-1937), Mein Leben (posth.). George Santayana (1863-1952), The Realms of Being (1927-40); disputes the idealist contention that knowledge is intuition of ideas. William Buehler Seabrook (1884-1945), Witchcraft: Its Power in the World Today. Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (1857-1953), Man on His Nature; his admiration of French physician Jean Fernel (1497-1558). Florence Scovel Shinn (1871-1940), The Secret Door to Success. Lothrop Stoddard (1883-1950), Into the Darkness: Nazi Germany Today. Michael Strange (1890-1950), Who Tells Me True (autobio.). Fred Utley, The Dream We Lost: The Soviet Union Then and Now; "The only Western writer who had known Russia both from inside and from below, sharing some of the hardships and all the fears of the forcibly silenced Russian people"; praised by Pearl S. Buck. Alan W. Watts (1915-73), The Meaning of Happiness: The Quest for Freedom of the Spirit in Modern Psychology and the Wisdom of the East. H.G. Wells (1866-1946), The New World Order; how world govt. along with eugenics are inevitable. Benjamin Lee Whorf, Science and Linguistics; pub. in MIT Technology Review by a chem. engineer, insurance co. employee and Yale U. anthropology lecturer, claiming that languages constrain and shape thought, e.g., Native Am. languages make it impossible to understand the idea of the flow of time. Edmund Wilson (1895-1972), To the Finland Station; European Socialism from Jules Michelet to Lenin's 1917 arrival at you know where in St. Petersburg to begin the red bloody fun. Ola Elizabeth Winslow (1885-1977), Jonathan Edwards, 1703-1758: A Biography (Pulitzer Prize for Biography/Autobiography) (2nd woman biographer). Clark Wissler (1870-1947), The Indian in the United States. Hans Zinsser (1878-1940), As I Remember Him: The Biography of R.S.. Music: Gene Autry (1907-98), South of the Border. Sir Granville Bantock (1868-1946), Celtic Symphony. Les Baxter (1922-96), It's a Big, Wide, Wonderful World; composed by John Rox; from the 1940 Broadway musical "All in Fun". Irving Berlin (1888-1989), Louisiana Purchase. Boris Blacher (1903-75), String Quartet No. 2. Sir Arthur Bliss (1891-1975), Karen's Piece. Will Bradley Orchestra, Beat Me Daddy (Eight to the Bar); written by Don Raye. Nat King Cole Trio, Sweet Lorraine; by Cliff Burwell and Mitchell Paris. Xavier Cugat (1900-90) Orchestra, Perfidia; with Miguelito Valdes; big hit. Tommy Dorsey Orchestra, I'll Never Smile Again; vocals by Frank Sinatra (1915-98), who decides not to copy Bing Crosby's style and instead "to experiment a little and come up with something different"; Sinatra's first #1 hit, causing Crosby to later comment "Frank Sinatra is the kind of singer who comes along once in a lifetime, but why did it have to be my lifetime?" Jean Francaix (1912-97), L'Apostrophe (musical comedy). Benny Goodman Orchestra How High the Moon (Feb. 7); vocals by Helen Forester; music by Morgan Lewis, lyrics by Nancy Hamilton; from the 1940 Broadway revue "Two for the Show". Woody Guthrie (1912-67), Dust Bowl Ballads (album) (debut); the first concept album?; incl. Dust Bowl Blues, Dust Bowl Refugee, Dust Can't Kill Me, Pretty Boy Floyd, Tom Joad. Sammy Kaye Orchestra, Blueberry Hill (May 31); vocals by Tommy Ryan; music by Vincent Rose (1880-1944), lyrics by Al Lewis and Larry Stock; other versions released by Gene Krupa (June 3), Glen Miller (1940) (#1 in the U.S.), Kay Kyser, Russ Morgan (1940), Gene Autry (1940), Connee Boswell (1940), Jimmy Dorsey (1940), Louis Armstrong (1949) (#29 in the U.S.), and Fats Domino (1956) (#2 in the U.S.). Walter Kent (1911-94) and Nat Burton, There's Always Be an England; giant hit in Britain; "There'll always be an England,/ And England shall be free/ If England means as much to you/ As England means to me"; When You Wish Upon a Star. Lead Belly (1888-1949), Goodnight Irene; based on the 1886 song by Gussie L. Davis; "Sometimes I take a great notion to jump in the river and drown." Paul Lincke (1866-1946), Ein Liebestraum (operetta) (Hamburg). Vera Lynn ("the forces' sweetheart") and the Glenn Miller Orchestra, (There'll Be Bluebirds Over) The White Cliffs of Dover. Johnny Mercer (1909-76), Day In - Day Out; Fools Rush In. Olivier Messiaen (1908-92), Quatuor pour la Fin du Temps (Quartet for the End of Time); composed while a POW in France for the only four available instruments (piano, violin, cello, clarinet). The Glenn Miller Orchestra, Tuxedo Junction (sells 115K copies the first week); Pennsylvania 6-5000; Careless; Fools Rush In (Where Angels Fear to Tread); Blueberry Hill; The Woodpecker Song, When You Wish Upon a Star; In the Mood. Bill Monroe (1911-96) and His Blue Grass Boys, Mule Skinner Blues (RCA Victor); launches the Bluegrass music genre. Ray Noble (1903-78) and His Orchestra featuring Al Bowlly (1899-1941), It's a Lovely Day Tomorrow (Feb. 15). Elliot Harold Paul (1891-1958), The Last Time I Saw Paris. Richard Rodgers (1902-79) and Lorenz Hart (1895-1943), Pal Joey (musical); incl. Bewitched, Bothered, and Bewildered. Roger Sessions (1896-1985), Pages from a Diary. Artie Shaw Orchestra, Everything is Jumpin'; Stardust (Oct. 7); written by Hoagy Carmichael; features a trumpet solo by Billy Butterfield. Dinah Shore (1916-94) and the Glenn Miller Orchestra, Yes, My Darling Daughter; her first hit; sells 500K copies. Dmitri Shostakovich (1906-75), Ninth Symphony. Memphis Slim (1915-88), Beer Drinking Woman. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Symphony in C. Randall Thompson (1899-1984), Alleluia. Ernest Tubb (1914-84), Blue Eyed Elaine. Kurt Weill (1900-50), Ballad of Magna Carta; lyrics by Maxwell Anderson. Kurt Weill (1900-50), Moss Hart (1904-61), and Ira Gershwin (1896-1983), Lady in the Dark. Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys, New San Antonio Rose; sells 2M copies. Art: Milton Avery (1885-1965), Gaspe - Pink Sky. Max Beckmann (1884-1950), Circus Caravan. Constantin Brancusi (1876-1957), Bird in Space (sculpture). Howard Chandler Christy (1873-1952), Washington Presiding Over the Constitutional Convention. Stuart Davis (1894-1964), Hot Still-Scape for Six Colors. Max Ernst (1891-1976), Europe After the Rain II (1940-2); Lone Tree and United Trees; The Robing of the Bride; La Toilette de la Marie. Marsden Hartley (1877-1943), Fisherman's Last Supper (1940-1). Frida Kahlo (1907-54), Self-Portrait with Thorn Necklace and Hummingbird. Vassily Kandinsky (1866-1944), Sky Blue. Henri Matisse (1869-1954), Interior, Ciboure, The Rumanian Blouse. Roberto Matta (1911-2002), Dark Light. Henry Moore (1898-1986), Air Raid Shelter Scenes; drawings and watercolors of scenes in air raid shelters, made for the British govt. 1940-1. Georgia O'Keeffe (1887-1986), Red and Yellow Cliffs. John Piper (1903-92), St. Mary le Port, Bristol. Clyfford Still (1904-80), Self-Portrait (PH-382). Rex Whistler (1905-44), Miss Laura Ridly. Movies: John Cromwell's Abe Lincoln in Illinois (Feb. 12), based on the 1938 Robert Emmet Sherwood play stars Raymond Massey as Abe, Ruth Gordon (screen debut) as Mary Todd Lincoln, Gene Lockhart as Stephen Douglas, and Mary Howard as Ann Rutledge. Eddie Cline's The Bank Dick stars W.C. Fields, who also writes it under an alias. W.S. Van Dyke's Bitter Sweet (Nov. 8) (MGM), based on the 1929 Noel Coward operetta stars Jeanette MacDonald and Nelson Eddy; the score is so heavily cut that it pisses-off Coward, who utters the soundbyte: "I was saving up 'Bitter Sweet' as an investment for my old age. After MGM's dreadful film I can never revive it"; does $2.2M box office on a $1.1M budget. Jack Conway's B&W Boom Town (Aug. 8) (MGM) stars Clark Gable and Spencer Tracy as broke feuding friend oil wildcatters Big John McMasters and Square John Sand, and Claudette Colbert and Hedy Lamarr as their babes Elizabeth "Betsy" Bartlett amd Larem Vam,eer; does $5M box office on a $1.6M budget; "I'm your girl, you can lick me all you want if it helps." A. Edward Sutherland's The Boys of Syracuse (Aug. 9), based on the 1938 Richard Rodgers-Lorenz Hart musical based on Shakespeare's "The Comedy of Errors" stars Allan Jones as Antipholus, Joe Penner as Dromio, Irene Hervey as Adriana, Rosemary Lane as Phyllis, and Martha Raye as Luce. Norman Taurog's Broadway Melody of 1940 (Feb. 9) stars Fred Astaire (1899-1987) and Eleanor Powell in their only onscreen pairing, and George Muraphy, and features the old Cold Porter Song "Begin the Beguine", and the new Cole Porter song I Concentrate on You. King Vidor's Comrade X (Dec. 13), written by Ben Hecht based on a story by Walter Reisch stars Clark Gable as Amerikansky spy McKinley B. "Mac" Thompson, Hedy Lamarr as Russian Communist true believer Theodore Yahupitz, Vladimir Sokoloff as her corrupt hero Michael Bastakoff, and Oskar Homolka as Commissar Vasiliev; after she marries Gable after knowing him for a few minutes, the plot gets sillier by the second. Alfred J. Goulding's A Chump at Oxford (Jan. 25) stars Stan Laurel and Laurel Hardy, who get jobs as a butler and maid at a fancy dinner party for the Vandeveres, and Stan dresses in drag. Irving Cummings' Down Argentine Way (Oct. 11) stars Don Ameche as a suave Argentine horse breeder, making a star of Elizabeth Ruth "Betty" Grable (1916-73), who is touted as having the most beautiful legs in Hollywood (thigh 18.5", calf 12", ankle 7.5"), which her studio insures with Lloyds of London for $1M; first U.S. film of Brazilian samba singer Carmen Miranda (1909-55), who likes to wear fruit on her head while singing. Ernest B. Schoedsack's Dr. Cyclops (Apr. 12) becomes the first U.S. sci-film made in Technicolor, starring Albert Dekker as nearsighted mad scientist Dr. Alexander Thorkel, who uses radiation from a hidden Peruvian mine to shrink animals, and turns it on scientists Thomas Coley, Victor Kilian, Janice Logan, and Charles Halton, shrinking them to 1-ft., and siccing his cat Satanus on them. Mervyn LeRoy's Escape (Nov. 1) stars Robert Taylor as Am. Mark Preysing, who arrives in Nazi Germany and finds that his mother is about to be executed, and saves her from Gen. Kurt von Kolb (Conrad Veidt) with the help of Countess Ruby von Treck (Norma Shearer) and Emmy Ritter (Alla Nazimova). Fitz Hippler's The Eternal Jew (Der Ewige Jude) (The Wandering Jew), witten by Eberhard Taubert and narrated by Hary Giese (1903-91) uses footage of the Nazi occupation of Poland to portray Jews as rats and useless eaters; too bad, they fail to mention Jewish big brains and genius like Albert Einstein? Walt Disney's animated 124-min. $2.28M Fantasia (Nov. 13), the first commercial film released in stereo mixes cartoons, abstract art, and classical music, conducted by Leopold Stokowski (1882-1977), incl. Paul Dukas' 1897 The Sorcerer's Apprentice starring Mickey Mouse (in his comeback after being eclipsed by Donald Duck), Amilcare Ponchielli's 1876 Dance of the Hours starring ballet-dancing Hyacinth Hippo, J.S. Bach's 1707 Toccata and Fugue in D Minor, Peter Tchaikovsky's 1892 Nutcracker Suite, Modest Mussorgsky's 1886 Night on Bald Mountain, and Igor Stravinsky's 1913 The Rite of Spring, which chucks the composer's pagan rite stuff and uses it to ilustrate the drawing room, er, Darwinian history of the Earth up to the extinction of the dinosaurs; Ben Ali Gator; the 1941 release uses the Fantasound system, using a separate film for the sound with four double-width optical sountracks; Deems Taylor (1885-1966) is the film's MC; too bad, despite being a landmark work, it opens in only 14 theaters because of the needed special equipment, and flops with classical music-hating audiences, almost bankrupting Disney, after which it is cut down to 81 min. in 1942 to try to make a buck; the Hewlett-Packard Co. scores its first big sale when Disney buys their audio oscillators for creating SFX. Thorold Dickinson's Gaslight (June 25) (British Nat. Films) (Anglo-Am. Film Corp.), based on the 1938 play "Gas Light" by Patrick Hamilton stars Anton Walbrook as calculating Brit Paul Mallen, who tries to drive his rich wife Bella Mallen (Diana Wynyard) nuts to get at her family nuts, er, jewels, while Scotland Yard dick B.G. Rough (Frank Pettingell) tries to protect her; meanwhile her only clue to him is the frequent dimming of the you know what?; refilmed in 1944 by MGM starring Ingrid Bergman; causes the term gaslighting to become popular. John Ford's The Grapes of Wrath (Jan. 24) (20th Cent. Fox), written by Nunnally Johnson based on the 1939 John Steinbeck novel stars starring Henry Fonda as Tom Joad, Jane Darwell as Ma Joad, Russell Simpson as Pa Joad, Charley Grapewin as Grandpa Joad, John Carradine as Jim Casy et al. as the Okie Joad family migrating to Calif. to get away from the Dust Bowl, only to be treated like merde and go Socialist; it ends with Tom Joad (Fonda) uttering the soundbyte: "I'll be all around in the dark. I'll be everywhere. Wherever you can look, wherever there's a fight, so hungry people can eat, I'll be there. Wherever there's a cop beatin' up a guy, I'll be there. I'll be in the way guys yell when they're mad. I'll be in the way kids laugh when they're hungry and they know supper's ready, and when people are eatin' the stuff they raise and livin' in the houses they build, I'll be there, too", after which Ma Joad (Jane Darwell) utters the soundbyte: "Can't lick us. Can't wipe us out. We'll go on forever 'cause we're the people"; does $2.5M box office on an $800K budget. Charlie Chaplin's The Great Dictator (Oct. 15) (United Artists) is Chaplin's first all-dialogue film, playing duel roles as a Jewish barber with amnesia who is mistaken for Adenoid Hynkel, dictator of Tomania, effectively ridiculing Herr Hitler so much that he bans it in Germany; the world is a giant balloon to play with?; Jack Oakie plays Benzino Napaloni of Bacteria; Chaplin works so hard at using his mustache as a prop that he never appears with one onscreen again?; does $5M box office on a $2M budget; features the Globe Dance Scene. Preston Sturges' The Great McGinty (Aug. 15) stars Brian Donlevy as a small-time bribe-loving politician, and Akim Tamiroff as the party boss; it somehow sneaks past Hollywood censors while exposing U.S. politics; dir. debut of Preston Sturges (1898-1959). Edward Buzzell's B&W Go West (Dec. 6) (MGM) is another Marx Brothers vehicle, starring Groucho as S. Quentin Quale, and Chico and Harpo as Joe and Rusty Panello, co-starring John Carroll as Terry Turner and Diana Lewis as Eve Wilson; "I was gonna thrash them within an inch of their lives but I didn't have a tape measure" (Groucho); "Time wounds all heels" (Groucho). Veit Harlan's Jud Suss (The Jew Suss) (Sept. 24), a Nazi anti-Jewish film backed by Joseph Goebbels based on German Jewish banker Joseph Suss Oppenheimer (1698-1738) and filmed in his hometown of Ludwigsburg in Baden-Wurttemberg 8 mi. N of Stuttgart, starring greasy, hooked-nose Austrian actor Ferdinand Marian (Haschkowetz) (1902-46) (forced to act in the movie by Goebbels after he finds out that his stepson is half-Jewish) as money and power-hungry "Court Jew" Suss, and Werner Krauss as a sinister rabbi "Ghetto Jew"; a typical fair and balanced Nazi treatment of their racial enemies, portraying them as creepy dirty mice who like to deflower lily-white Aryan girls and control the world economy; Harlan's blonde-blue Swedish 3rd wife Beata margareta Kristina Soderbaum (Söderbaum) (1912-2001) ("the Ideal Aryan Woman") also stars, gaining the nickname "Water Corpse of the Reich" for her habit of committing suicide by drowning in this and other flicks; on Sept. 30 Heinrich Himmler orders all SS men and police to view it. Howard Hawks' His Girl Friday (Jan. 11), based on the play "The Front Page" by Ben Hecht and Charles MacArthur stars Cary Grant as newspaper ed. Walter Burns, who tries to prevent his fast-talking reporter ex-wife Hildy Johnson (Rosalind Russell) from marrying hunk Bruce Baldwin (Ralph Bellamy) and leaving the biz to move in with him and his mother in Albany. Henry Hathaway's Johnny Apollo (Apr. 19) (20th Cent. Fox) stars Tyrone Power as Johnny Apollo AKA Bob Cain Jr., who resorts to crime to buy a pardon for his embezzler father Bob "Pop" Cain (Edward Arnold); Lloyd Nolan plays gangster Mickey Dwyer, Dorothy Lamour plays his moll Lucky Dubarry, and Charley Grapewin plays Judge Brennan; the film debut of tenor Anthony Caruso (1916-2003) as a henchman; "I'm leaving town"; "Where?"; "As far as 20 bucks and a mink coat will take me." Sam Wood's Kitty Foyle: The Natural History of a Woman (Dec. 27), based on the Christopher Morley novel stars Ginger Rogers as a hardworking white collar girl from Philly who falls for socialite Wyn Strafford VI (Dennis Morgan). Lloyd Bacon's Knute Rockne: All American (Oct. 4) (Warner Bros.) is the major film debut of Ronald Wilson Reagan (1911-2004), and his signature performance as Notre Dame U. football star "The Gipper" George Gipp, who dies in hospital room #23; Pat O'Brien plays Knute Rockne, uttering the immortal soundbyte: "Tell the boys to win one for the Gipper", which is deleted from the TV airing of the film after the Gipp family files a lawsuit. Albert S. Rogell's Li'l Abner, co-written by Milton Berle based on the Al Capp comic series stars Granville Owen (Jeff York) as Li'l Abner, Martha O'Driscoll as Daisy Mae, Mona Ray and ? as Mammy and Pappy Yokum, and Kay Sutton as Wendy Wilecat, and features the Sadie Hawkins Day Race in Dogpatch. John Ford's The Long Voyage Home (B&W) (Nov. 11), based on the Eugene O'Neill play about a merchant steamer crew in 1939 stars John Wayne as a young Swede. H. Bruce Humberstone's Lucky Cisco Kid (June 28) (20th Cent. Fox) debuts, based on the O. Henry short stories, starring Cesar Romero, is the film debut of Covington County, Miss.-born Carver Dana Andrews (1909-92) as Sgt. Dunn. Frank Borzage's Mortal Storm (June 14), based on the 1938 Phyllis Bottome novel is a blatantly anti-Nazi Hollywood film, starring James Stewart as a Bavarian who refuses to join the mean nasty Nazis, and falls in love with non-Aryan (they never ay Jew) babe Freya Roth (Margaret Sullavan), and escapes with her; Robert Young plays a good Nazi whose conscience begins to bother him; the first Hollywood film to be set in Nazi Germany and mention Hitler's name, pissing-off the real Nazis, who ban all MGM films in Germany, costing them a lot of marks. Eddie Cline's My Little Chickadee (Mar. 15) (written by Mae West), the only movie in which Mae West and W.C. Fields appear together is about a fallen woman and a gambler marrying to appear respectable in order to fleece a town of suckers; "Once on a trek through Afghanistan we lost our corkscrew and were forced to live on food and water for several days" (Fields); 40-something West's screen career begins tanking after this, causing her to return to the stage, also with limited success, but she's rich, and WWII Army and Navy pilots begin calling their inflatable life vests after her, so what? Herbert Wilcox's No, No, Nanette (Dec. 20), based on the hit 1925 comedy stars his future wife Anna Neagle as perky blonde Nanette, who tries to save the marriage of her panty-chasing uncle "Happy" Jimmy Smith (Roland Young) and aunt Susan (Helen Broderick), ending up having her helpers Bill Trainor (Victor Mature) and Tom Gillespie (Richard Carlson) fall in love with her on the side. King Vidor's Northwest Passage (Feb.23), based on the 1937 novel by Kenneth Roberts about Rogers' Rangers in the French and Indian War of 1759 stars Spencer Tracy as Maj. Robert Rogers, Robert Young as painter Langdon Towne, Walter Brennan as "Hunk" Marriner, and Ruth Hussey as Young's babe Elizabeth Browne; the white racist depiction of the Abenakis and the Oct. 4, 1759 massacre at Saint-Francois-du-Lac, Quebec led by "White Devil" Rogers later makes it non-PC. Hal Roach's One Million B.C. (Apr. 5) stars immature hunk Victor Mature as Tumak, who is exiled from the Rock tribe and joins up with the Shell tribe; Carole Landis plays Loana, making her a star; remade in 1966 starring Raquel Welch and who-cares. A. Edward Sutherland's One Night in the Tropics (Nov. 15), based on the 1914 novel "Love Insurance" by Earl Derr Biggers is the film debut of the N.J.-born comedy team of William Alexander "Bud" Abbott (1895-1974) and Lou Costello (1906-59), who are supposed to have minor roles but steal the show with five classic routines, incl. Who's On First?; they were discovered by dir. Henry Koster at a nightclub in New York City; female lead Mary Jeanette "Peggy" Moran (1918-2002) becomes Koster 2nd wife in 1942, making him promise her that he will put her in every film he makes, which he ends up doing by using a sculptured head, usually on a piano, desk, or mantelpiece (a Grecian bust in a villa in "The Robe"). George Cukor's The Philadelphia Story (Dec. 1), based on the Philip Barry play stars Katharine Hepburn, Cary Grant, and James Stewart in a comedy love triangle about a woman who divorces a man (Grant) then finds him irresistible despite the advances of another man (Stewart); music by Franz Waxman; Hepburn had revived her Broadway career with it and was advised by her "lustiest" lover Howard Hughes to buy the rights so they'd have to cast her in the lead; remade in 1956 as "High Society"; Grant donates his fee to the British war effort, and establishes his screen persona, sticking with it in future movies, saying "Well, who else could I portray? I can't portray Bing Crosy. I'm Cary Grant. I'm myself in that role." Walt Disney's Pinocchio (Feb. 7) is based on the story by Carlo Collodi (1826-90); features the song When You Wish Upon a Star, sung by Cliff Edwards (1895-1971) (as Jiminy Cricket), and composed by Ned Washington (1901-76) and Leigh Harline (1907-69). Hanna and Barbera's Puss Gets the Book, first in the animated theatrical short subject cartoon series Tom and Jerry is created by William Denby "Bill" Hanna (1910-2001) and Joseph Roland "Joe" Barbera (1911-2006), and produced by MGM (until 1957) (114 shows), becoming famous for its violent gags, such as Tom the cat trying to kill Jerry the mouse with an axe, and Jerry slicing Tom in half, and going on to seven Academy Awards; a Hollyweird Jewish conspiracy to rehabiliate their "dirty mice" image created by the Nazis? Alfred Hitchcock's Rebecca (Apr. 12) (United Artists), based on the 1938 Daphne Du Maurier novel stars Laurence de Olivier as widower Maxim de Winter, who moves 2nd wife Joan Fontaine into his Manderley country mansion in Cornwall only to find that the memory of his first wife Rebecca still rules it; Judith Anderson plays housekeeper Mrs. Danvers; features the famous opening line by poor unsophisticated country girl Joan Fontaine: "Last night I dreamed I went to Manderley again"; Florence Bates plays Mrs. Edythe Van Hopper, who utters the line: "Most girls would give their eyes to see Monte", to which Olivier replies: "Wouldn't that rather defeat the purpose?"; also stars George Sanders as caddish cousin Jack Favell, who utters the immortal soundbyte "I say, marriage with Max is not exactly a bed of roses, is it?"; Hitchcock's first Am. film and only Best Picture Oscar; does $6M box office on a $1.288M budget. Victor Schertzinger's Road to Singapore (Mar. 22) is based on the Frank Butler script "The Road to Mandalay", originally written for Burns and Allen and dug up out of the dustbin for Bob Hope and Bing Crosby after they first meet in New York City in 1932 and play two farmers meeting on the street in a vaudeville routine, which is seen by a Paramount big wig, who orders them to star in a feature film, after which they make it a hit with their great ad-libs; "Sarong Queen" Dorothy Lamour stars as the love interest (in love with one but won't say which); box office success leads to six sequels: Road to Zanzibar (1941), Road to Morocco (1942), Road to Utopia (1946), Road to Rio (1947) (the year's highest grossing movie), Road to Bali (1953) (first in color), and Road to Hong Kong (1962) - no road to Timbuktu? Walter Forde's Sailors Three is an English comedy about three sailors (Michael Wilding, Tommy Trinder, and Claude Hulbert) straying onto a Nazi ship. Michael Curtiz' Santa Fe Trail (Dec. 18) (Warner Bros.), filmed at the Lasky Movie Ranch in Simi Hills, Calif. stars Ronald Reagan as Gen. George Armstrong Custer, and Errol Flynn as Gen. J.E.B. Stuart chasing charismatic Bible-thumping abolitionist John Brown (Raymond Massey) in a moose-hockey version of U.S. history; Olivia de Havilland plays Stuart's and Custer's babe Kit Carson Holliday. Michael Curtiz' The Sea Hawk (July 1) stars Errol Flynn as English pirate Geoffrey Thorpe, who works on a special sound stage with two full-size ships. H.C. Potter' Second Chorus (Dec. 3) is a musical starring Fred Astaire and Paulette Goddard, featuring Artie Shaw, Burgess Meredith, and Charles Butterworth; "The worst film I ever made" (Astaire). Seven Sinners (Oct. 25) (Universal) Marlene Dietrich as saloon singer Bijou, who is deported to Boni Komba, where she meets Navy Lt. Dan (John Wayne) at the you know what; fellow singer Dorothy is played by Anna Lee, who has to darken her blonde hair because Dietrich wanted to be the only blonde in the picture; also stars Albert Dekker as Dr. Martin, and Oskar Homolka as bad guy Antro. Ernst Lubitsch's B&W The Shop Around the Corner (Jan. 12) (MGM), written by Samson Raphaelson based on the 1937 play "Parfumerie" by Miklos Laszlo stars James Stewart and Margaret Sullavan in their 3rd of four screen pairings as feuding Budapest gift shop workers Alfred Kralik and Klara Novak, who each have secret pen pal lovers but don't know it's each other; Frank Morgan plays the soft-hearted shop owner Hugo Matuschek; the shop is on Balta St. just around the corner from Andrassy St.; also stars Joseph Schildkraut; remade in 1949 as the musical "The Good Old Summertime", and in 1998 as "You've Got Mail" with Tom Hanks and Meg Ryan. Michael Powell's The Thief of Bagdad (Dec. 5), produced by Alexander Korda stars John Justin as Ahmad, Conrad Veidt as evil grand vizier Jaffar, Sabu as Abu the Thief, and Rex Ingram as the cool giant black Genie. Raoul Walsh's They Drive by Night (Aug. 3) stars George Raft and Humphrey Bogart as wildcat truck driver brothers Joe and Paul Fabrini, one of whom comes to harm, the other getting accused of his friend's murder; too bad, after this Bogart, who had been playing 2nd fiddle to Raft begins getting lucky as illiterate Raft turns down some of the best roles in screen history, incl. "High Sierra", "The Maltese Falcon", and maybe "Casablanca", and he grabs them; Raft also turns down "Double Indemnity", allowing Fred MacMurray to shine, while Raft's career tanks. Mervyn LeRoy's Waterloo Bridge (May 17) (MGM), a remake of the 1931 film based on the 1930 Robert E. Sherwood play stars Vivien Leigh in her first role after Scarlett O'Hara as a ballet dancer romancing English soldier Robert Taylor until he's listed as dead, causing her to go ho until he returns and they start over on the same tear-jerking bridge, the one with the best view in London; Maria Ouspenskaya plays tyrannical ballet troupe mistress Madame Olga. William Wyler's The Westerner (Sept. 20) (United Artists) stars Walter Brennan as hanging Judge Roy Bean of Vinegaroon, Tex., Gary Cooper as drifter Cole Harden, Forrest Tucker as Wade Harper, Paul Hurst as Chickenfoot, Dana Andrews as Hod Johnson, and Lilian Bond as Lily Langtry. Jules White's You Nazty Spy! (Jan. 19) (Columbia) is the Three Stooges' first anti-Hitler film, playing wallpaper hangers recruited for a mission to Moronica (between Jug O' Salvia, Staywayoff, and Woo-Woo, across the Hot Sea from Great Mitten); Curly plays Field Marshal Curly Gallstone, Larry plays Minister of Propaganda Larry Pebble, and Moe plays Dictator Moe Hailstone; "A poppaganda marries a mommaganda, and they raise a lot of little goslings"; "Our motto shall be Moronica for Morons." Ralph Staub's Yukon Flight (Jan. 2) stars James Newill as RCMP Sgt. Renfrew. Plays: Jean Anouilh (1910-87), Leocadia (Time Remembered). Samuel Behrman (1893-1973), The Talley Method. Ugo Betti (1892-1953), The Duck Hunter. Jerome Chodorov (1911-2004) and Joseph Albert Fields (1895-1966), My Sister Eileen; based on the 1938 book by Ruth McKenney; sisters Ruth and Eileen Sherwood travel from Columbus, Ohio to New York City in search of love and fortune; filmed in 1942; turned into the 1953 musical "Wonderful Town". William Douglas-Home (1912-92), Passing By. Vernon Duke (1903-69), John La Touche, and Lynn Root, Cabin in the Sky (musical) (Martin Beck Theatre, New York) (Oct. 25) (156 perf.); stars Ethel Waters as Petunia Jackson, Dooley Wilson as Little Joe Jackson, and Katherine Dunham as Georgia Brown; filmed by MGM in 1943. Horton Foote (1916-), Wharton Dance (Am. Actors Theater, New York). Paul Eliot Green (1894-1981), A Start in the Life. Georg Kaiser (1878-1945), The Soldier Tanaka. Morgan Lewis (1906-) and Nancy Hamilton (1908-85), Two for the Show (musical); features the song How High the Moon. Elliott Nugent (1896-1980) and James Thurber (1894-1961), The Male Animal (Cort Theatre, New York) (Aug. 3) (243 perf.); produced by Herman Shumlin; Midwestern State (really Ohio State U.) English prof. Tommy Turner (Nugent) reads a subversive letter by anarchist Bartolomeo Vanzetti in class while fending off football hero Joe Ferguson (Leon Ames) from his old flame, his wife Ellen (Ruth Matteson); Gene Tierney plays Ellen's co-ed sister Patricia Stanley; "If I can't read this letter today, tomorrow none of us will be able to teach anything except what Mr. Keller here and the legislature permit us to teach. Can't you see what that leads to, what it has led to in other places? We're holding the last fortress of free thought, and if we surrender to prejudice and dictation, we're cowards" (Tommy); filmed in 1942 by Nugent. Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953), Long Day's Journey Into Night (Pulitzer Prize); not produced until 1956; Act 1 takes place at 8:30 a.m., and Act 4 (last) takes place at midnight. Clifford Odets (1906-63), Night Music. Cole Porter (1891-1964), The Return of the Vagabond (New York( May 17) (7 perf.); a vagabond vows to become rich and marry his dream girl. Cole Porter (1891-1964), Herbert Fields (1897-1958), and Buddy DeSylva (1895-1950), Panama Hattie (musical); filmed in 1942. Terence Rattigan (1911-77), Follow My Leader; Grey Farm. William Saroyan (1908-81), The Time of Your Life (Pulitzer Prize refused). Robert Emmet Sherwood (1896-1955), There Shall Be No Night (Pulitzer Prize); contra the Soviet invasion of Finland. Konstantin Simonov (1915-79), The History of One Love (debut) (Komsomol Theater, Leningrad). Emlyn Williams (1905-87), The Corn is Green; produced by Herman Shumlin. Poetry: W.H. Auden (1907-73), Another Time; incl. The Fall of Rome; "Caesar's double-bed is warm/ As an unimportant clerk/ Writes I DO NOT LIKE MY WORK/ On a pink official form"; also incl. Lullaby; "Lay your sleeping head, my love,/ Human on my faithless arm;/ Time and fevers burn away/ Individual beauty from/ Thoughtful children, and the grave/ Proves the child ephemeral"; also incl. Epitaph on a Tyrant; "When he laughed, respectable senators burst with laughter,/ And when he cried the little children died in the streets." Stephen Vincent Benet (1898-1943), Nightmare at Noon. A.J. Cronin (1896-1981), Jupiter Laughs. Countee Cullen (1903-46), The Lost Zoo. Cecil Day-Lewis (1904-72) (tr.), The Georgics of Virgil. A.E. Housman (1859-1936), Collected Poems of A.E. Housman (posth.). Robinson Jeffers (1887-1962), The Stars Go Over the Lonely Ocean; "Long live freedom and damn the ideologies". Louis MacNeice (1907-63), The Last Ditch. Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950), Make Bright the Arrows. Robert Nathan (1894-1985), A Winter Tide: Sonnets and Poems. Kenneth Rexroth (1905-82), In What Hour? (debut). Giorgos Seferis (1900-71), Exercise Book; Deck Diary I. William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), Last Poems (posth.). Novels: Eric Ambler (1909-98), Journey into Fear. Henry Bellamann (1882-1945), Kings Row; Parris Mitchell and Drake McHugh in the Am. South; filmed in 1942 starring Ronald Reagan. Ludwig Bemelmans (1899-1962), Small Beer. Sally Benson (1897-1972), Stories of the Gods and Heroes (short stories). Johan Bojer (1872-1959), The King's Men. Phyllis Bottome (1884-1963), Masks and Faces. Martin Boyd (1893-1972), Nuns in Jeopardy. Kay Boyle (1902-92), Three Short Novels (The Crazy Hunter, The Bridegroom's Body, Big Fiddle). Robert Briffault (1874-1948), Fandango. Louis Bromfield (1896-1956), Night in Bombay. Richard Brooks (1912-92), Splinters (first novel). Arthur Bryant, English Saga. Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973), Other Gods. Dino Buzzati (1906-72), The Tartar Steppe (Il Deserto dei Tartari). Taylor Caldwell (1900-85), The Eagles Gather; sequel to "Dynasty of Death". John Dickson Carr (1906-77), The Man Who Could Not Shudder; And So to Murder; Murder in the Submarine Zone (Nine - And Death Makes Ten) (Murder in the Atlantic). Joyce Cary (1888-1957), Charley is My Darling; displaced young people at the start of WWII. Adolfo Bioy Casares (1914-99), Morel's Invention; robot island. H.L. Chace, Ladle Rat Rotten Hut; garbled version of Little Red Riding Hood to prove a point about sounds and intonation conveying info. Raymond Chandler (1888-1959), Farewell, My Lovely; 2nd Philip Marlowe novel. Agatha Christie (1890-1976), Sad Cypress (Mar.); Hercule Poirot #19; first Poirot courtroom drama; One, Two, Buckle My Shoe (The Patriotic Murders) (An Overdose of Death) (Nov.); Hercule Poirot #20. Walter Van Tilburg Clark (1909-71), The Ox-Bow Incident (first novel); about a lynching in Nev.; his masterpiece?; filmed in 1943 by William A. Wellman starring Henry Fonda and Harry Morgan. Warwick Deeping (1877-1950), The Man Who Went Back. Mircea Eliade (1907-86), Nights at Serampore; The Secret of Dr. Honigberger. James T. Farrell (1904-79), Father and Son. William Faulkner (1897-1962), The Hamlet. Lion Feuchtwanger (1884-1958), Paris Gazette. Penelope Fitzgerald (1916-2000), The Bookshop. Ketti Frings (1909-81), Hold Back the Dawn; filmed in 1941 starring Charles Boyer and Olivia de Havilland. Winston Graham (1908-2003), No Exit. Robert Ranke Graves (1895-1985), Sergeant Lamb of the Ninth (Sergeant Lamb's America). James Norman Hall (1887-1951), Doctor Dogbody's Leg. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) For Whom the Bell Tolls (Oct. 21); title taken from John Donne's 1624 "Devotions Upon Emergent Occasions, Meditations XVII"; based on killings that took place during the 1936-9 Spanish Civil War at the El Tajo cliffs of Ronda in S Spain; Am. North Am. Newspaper Alliance reporter and prof. Robert Jordan becomes an explosives expert for the rebels in the Spanish Civil War, and is assigned to blow up a bridge in Segovia while wooing Maria; filmed in 1943 by Sam Wood starring Gary Cooper and Ingrid Bergman. L. Ron Hubbard (1911-86), Final Blackout. Langston Hughes (1902-67), Simple Speaks His Mind. Pamela Hansford Johnson (1912-81), Too Dear for My Possessing. Mary Margaret Kaye (1908-2004), Six Bars at Seven (first novel). Sheila Kaye-Smith (1887-1956), Ember Lane. Sophie Kerr (1880-1965), Curtain Going Up. Eric Knight (1897-1943), Lassie Come-Home; set in Depression-era Yorkshire, England, where Mr. and Mrs. Carraclough are forced to sell their collie to the rich Duke of Rudling, who takes him to Scotland, where his granddaughter Priscilla helps him escape back to despondent young Joe Carraclough; filmed in 1943. Arthur Koestler (1905-83), Darkness at Noon; Old Bolshevik Rubashov experiences the horrors of the Stalinist purges after being forced to make a false confession of treason. Dorothy Kunhardt (1901-79), Pat the Bunny; interactive baby book; sells 7M copies. Meyer Levin (1905-81), Citizens. Richard Orson Lockridge (1899-1982) and Frances Lockridge (-1963), The Norths Meet Murder; introduces married detectives Mr. and Mrs. North, named for the "stupid people who played the north hand in bridge problems"; first of a series of 26 novels, which are adapted for the stage, film, radio, and TV. Rose Macaulay (1881-1958), And No Man's Wit. Curzio Malaparte (1898-1957), Donna Come Me (Woman Like Me). Thomas Mann (1875-1955), Die Vertauschten Kopfe. Francis Van Wyck Mason (1901-78), Stars on the Sea; The Bucharest Ballerina Murders. Angela du Maurier (1904-2002), The Little Less. Carson McCullers (1917-67), The Heart is a Lonely Hunter; title taken from Fiona MacLeod's poem "The Lonely Hunter"; deaf John Singer in a 1930s Ga. mill town. William McFee (1881-1966), The Watch Below; Spenlove in Arcady. Charles Langbridge Morgan (1894-1958), The Voyage. Robert Nathan (1894-1985), Portrait of Jenny; a Depression era artist paints portraits of a girl in a park who gets older each time she returns, "slipping through time"; filmed in 1948. Charles Bernard Nordhoff (1887-1947) and James Norman Hall (1887-1951), No More Gas; filmed in 1942 as "The Tuttles of Tahiti". Edward Phillips Oppenheim (1866-1946), Last Train Out; The Grassleyes Mystery (short stories). Edith Pargeter (1913-95), Masters of the Parachute Mail; Joylon Carr; Death Comes by Post; last in the Joylon Carr series; The Victim Needs a Nurse; John Redfern. Harold Elliot Paul, Hugger Mugger in the Louvre; Mayhem in B-Flat; Fracas in the Foothills; The Death of Lord Haw Haw. Dawn Powell (1896-1965), Angels on Toast. John Cowper Powys (1872-1963), Owen Glendower; his life as seen through the eyes of his young relative Rhisiart ab Owen of Hereford. Llewelyn Powys (1884-1939), Baker's Dozen (posth.). Ellery Queen, The American Gun Mystery. Mary Renault (1905-83), Kind Are Her Answers. Conrad Michael Richter (1890-1968), The Trees. Mary Roberts Rinehart (1876-1958), The Great Mistake. Kenneth Lewis Roberts (1881-1941), Oliver Wiswell. Rafael Sabatini (1875-1950), The Marquis of Carabas (Master-At-Arms). Dr. Seuss (1904-91), Horton Hatches the Egg (Random House); Horton the Elephant l agrees to sit on a bird's egg while its irresponsible mother Mayzie takes off for Palm Beach; it turns out to be an elephant-bird, and takes months to hatch; "I meant what I said, and I said what I meant.../ An elephant's faithful - one hundred per cent!" Irwin Shaw (1913-84), Sailor off the Bremen (short stories). Nevil Shute (1899-1960), An Old Captivity (Vinland the Good); Landfall: A Channel Story. Upton Sinclair (1878-1968), World's End; first of 11 Lanny Budd novels (1940-53) telling the history of the 20th cent. C.P. Snow (1905-80), Strangers and Brothers (George Passant); first in the 11-vol. Strangers and Brothers series (1940-1970). Howard Spring (1889-1965), Fame is the Spur; bestseller about a labor leader's rise to power. Christina Stead (1902-83), The Man Who Loved Children; semi-autobio. novel about her childhood; doesn't become a hit until a 1965 reissue. Wallace Stegner (1909-83), On a Darkling Plain. Angela Thirkell (1890-1961), Cheerfulness Breaks. Dylan Thomas (1914-53), Portrait of the Artist As A Young Dog (short stories); ratty, fat, outgoing pisshead orator? Geoffrey Trease (1909-98), Cue for Treason; his biggest hit, about runaway boy actors Peter Brownrigg and Kit Kirkstone, who befriend William Shakespeare then foil a plot by Sir Philip Morton against Queen Elizabeth I. James Thurber (1894-1961), Fables for Our Times. John Roberts Tunis (1889-1975), The Kid from Tomkinsville; pitcher Roy Tucker cracks his elbow and switches to outfield. Peter De Vries (1910-93), But Who Wakes the Bugler? (first novel). Hugh Seymour Walpole (1884-1941), The Bright Pavilions. Frank Waters (1902-95), Dust Within the Rock. Dennis Wheatley (1897-1977), The Scarlet Impostor; Three Inquisitive People; Faked Passports; The Black Baroness. Ethel Lina White (1876-1944), While She Sleeps. Laura Ingalls Wilder (1867-1957), The Long Winter. Thomas Wolfe (1900-38), You Can't Go Home Again (posth.); more George Webber; his last autobio. novel. Richard Wright (1908-60), Native Son (Mar. 1); black Bigger Thomas kills his white sweetheart; first Book-of-the-Month Club selection by an African-Am. (next is Toni Morrison's "Song of Solomon" in 1977). Births: Am. "Richard Nixon" actor Frank A. Langella Jr. on Jan. 1 in Bayonne, N.J. Am. journalist Gavin Hall MacFayden (Galter) (d. 2016) on Jan. 1 in Greeley, Colo. Am. televangelist James Orsen "Jim" Bakker on Jan. 2 in Muskegon, Mich.; husband (1961-92) of Tammy Faye Bakker (1942-2007); father of Jay Bakker (197-5). Am. architect Helmut Jahn on Jan. 4 in Nuremberg, Germany; emigrates to the U.S. in 1966. Welsh Josephson Effect physicist Brian David Josephson on Jan. 4 in Cardiff; 1973 Nobel Physics Prize. Chinese novelist-dramatist Gao Xingjian on Jan. 4 in Ganzhou, Jiangxi; becomes French citizen in 1997; 2000 Nobel Lit. Prize. Am. "The Hustle" musician-songwriter-producer (black) Van Allen Clinton McCoy (d. 1979) on Jan. 6 in Washington, D.C. Costa Rican pres. (1998-2002) Miguel Angel Rodriguez Echeverria on Jan. 9 in San Jose; educated at UCB. Am. "A Boy's Own Story" novelist-writer (gay) Edmund Valentine White III on Jan. 13 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Am. (Ga.) anti-war legislator Horace Julian Bond (d. 2015) on Jan. 14 in Nashville, Tenn.; educated at Morehouse College. English "Cats", "Les Miserables" stage-film-TV dir. Sir Trevor Robert Nunn on Jan. 14 in Ipswich, Suffolk; husband (1969-86) of Janet Suzman, (1986-91) Sharon Lee Hill, and (1994-2011) Imogen Stubbs; educated at Downing College, Cambridge U.; knighted in 2002: "Shakespeare has more wisdom and insight about our lives, about how to live and how not to live, how to forgive and how to understand our fellow creatures, than any religious tract, one hundred times more than the Bible. I'm sorry to say that, but over and over again in the plays there is an understanding of the human condition that doesn't exist in religious books." Kenyan Olympic track and field athlete (black) Kipchoge ("born near the grain storage shed") "Kip" Keino on Jan. 17 in Kipsamo. Am. golfer ("the Golden Bear") Jack William Nicklaus on Jan. 21 in Columbus, Ohio; wins so many British Opens that in 2005 he becomes the first person other than the British Queen and Queen Mum to appear on a Scottish postage stamp. Am. football coach (San Francisco 49ers, 1989-96) (Carolina Panthers, 1999-2001) George Seifert on Jan. 22 in San Francisco, Calif. English "Caligula in I, Claudius", "The Elephant Man", "Kane in Alien" actor John Vincent Hurt on Jan. 22 in Shirebrook (near Chesterfield), Derbyshire. Am. "Wooden Heart" pop singer Joe Dowell on Jan. 23 in Bloomington, Ind. Am. "No Constitutional Right to Be Ladies" feminist intellectual historian Linda Kaufman Kerber on Jan. 23 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Barnard College, NYU, and Columbia U. Am. installation artist Vito Hannibal Acconci on Jan. 24 in Bronx, N.Y. German pres. (2012-) Joachim Gauck on Jan. 24 in Rostock. English cyclist Hugh William Porter on Jan. 24 in Wolverhampton, West Midlands. Am. "Farmer Arthur Hoggett in Babe", "Capt. Dudley Liam Smith in L.A. Confidential", "Zefram Cochrane in Star Trek: First Contact" actor James Oliver Cromwell on Jan. 27 in Los Angeles, Calif. Mexican billionaire businessman Carlos Slim Helu (Helú) on Jan. 28 in Mexico City; Lebanese Marionite Catholic immigrant father. Am. feminist Dianic Wicca writer (lesbian) Zsuzsanna Budapest (Zsuzsanna Emese Mokcsay) on Jan. 30 in Budapest; emigrates to the U.S. in 1959; educated at the U. of Chicago. Austrian-Am. "Dr. Carol Marcus in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan", "Belle Marmillion in Steel Magnolias" actress Bibiana "Bibi" Besch (d. 1996) on Feb. 1 in Vienna; mother of Samantha Mathis (1970-). Am. soprano (black) Martina Arroyo on Feb. 2 in New York City. Egyptian jihadist pilot (Sunni Muslim) Gamil El-Batouty (Gameel Al-Batouti) (d. 1999) on Feb. 2 in Kafr al-Dabusi. Am. "On Wings of Song" sci-fi writer-poet (gay) Thomas Michael Disch (d. 2008) on Feb. 2 in Des Moines, Iowa; educated at NYU. Am. TV journalist Jim Hartz on Feb. 3 in Tulsa, Okla. Am. football hall-of-fame QB (#10) (Minn. Vikings) (1961-6, 1972-8) Francis Asbury "Fran" Tarkenton on Feb. 3 in Richmond, Va. Am.-Canadian "Night of the Living Dead" filmmaker ("the Father of the Zombie Film") George Andrew Romero (d. 2017) on Feb. 4 in Bronx, N.Y.; Cuban immigrant father, Lithuanian-Am. mother; educated at Carnegie Mellon U. Swiss surrealist artist and "Alien" set designer Hans Rudolf "Ruedi" Giger (d. 2014) on Feb. 5 in Chur, Grisons Canton. Am. TV journalist Thomas John "Tom" Brokaw on Feb. 6 in Webster, S.D.; French Huguenot descent father, Irish mother. Japanese physicist Toshihide Maskawa on Feb. 7 in Nagoya; 2008 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. ABC Nightline and ABC News anchor (Jewish) Edward James "Ted" Koppel on Feb. 8 in Lancashire, England; German Jewish parents; emigrates to the U.S. in 1953; educated at Syracuse U. and Stanford U. South African novelist-critic John Maxwell Coetzee on Feb. 9 in Cape Town; Dutch-Polish ancestry; becomes Australian citizen in 2006; 2003 Nobel Lit. Prize. Am. economist Herbert Gintis on Feb. 11 in Philadelphia, Penn.; collaborator of Samuel Bowles (1939-); educated at the U. of Penn., and Harvard U. Turkish foreign affairs minister (1997-2002) Ismail Cem Ipekci (d. 2007) on Feb. 15 in Istanbul. Mexican singer-actor ("the Idol of Mexico") Vicente Fernandez Gomez on Feb. 17 in Huentitan el Alto, Jalisco; father of Alejandro Fernandez (1971-); sells 50M+ albums. Am. "The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance", "Rubber Ball", "He's A Rebel", "Hello Mary Lou" singer-songwriter Gene Francis Alan Pitney (d. 2006) on Feb. 17 in Hartford, Conn. Am. "The Tears of a Clown" R&B singer-songwriter-producer (black) ("King of Motown") William "Smokey" Robinson Jr. (Smokey Robinson and the Miracles) on Feb. 19 in Detroit, Mich.; writes first song at age 7; is called Smokey by an uncle because he loves cowboy movies. Am. singer (black) Robert "Bobby" Rogers (Smokey Robinson and the Miracles) on Feb. 19 in Detroit, Mich. Am. "Molly Ringwald's mother in Sixteen Candles" actress Carlin Glynn on Feb. 19 in Cleveland, Ohio; mother of Mary Stuart Masterson (1966-). Turkemenistan pres. #1 (1990-2006) Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov (d. 2006) on Feb. 19 in Gypjak; educated at Leningrad Polytechnic Inst. U.S. Rep. (D-Ga.) (1987-) (black) John Robert Lewis on Fb. 21 in Troy, Ala.; sharecropper parents; grows up in Pike County, Ala.; educated at Fisk U. Am. 6'6" basketball player (black) (Syracuse Nationals/Philadelphia 76ers #25, 1962-9) (Chicago Bulls #25, 1969-75) Chester "Chet the Jet" Walker on Feb. 22 in Benton Harbor, Mich.; educated at Bradley U. Am. "Easy Rider" actor Peter Seymour Fonda on Feb. 23 in New York City; son of Henry Fonda (1905-82) and Frances Ford Seymour (1908-50); brother of Jane Fonda (1937-); father of Bridget Fonda (1964-) and Justin Fonda (1966-). Am. "Hannibal Heyes in Alias Smith and Jones" actor (alcoholic). Peter Ellstrom "Pete" Deuel (d. 1971) on Feb. 24 in Rochester, N.Y.; educated at St. Lawrence U. Am. "Donald Duk" novelist-playwright Frank Chin on Feb. 25 in Berkeley, Calif.; educated at UCB. Am. college basketball announcer Anthony William "Billy" Packer (Paczkowski) on Feb. 21 in Wellsville, N.Y.; educated at Wake Forest U. Am. baseball 3B player (Chicago Cubs #10, 1960-73) Ronald Edward "Ron" Santo (d. 2010) on Feb. 25 in Seattle, Wash. Am. "Dr. Johnny Fever Caravella in WKRP in Cincinnati", "Charlie Moore in Head of the Class" actor Howard Hesseman on Feb. 27 in Lebanon, Ore.; educated at the U. of Ore. Italian auto racer Mario Gabriele Andretti on Feb. 28 in Montona (Motovun), Istria; father of Michael Mario Andretti (1962-); grandfather of Marco Michael Andretti (1987-). Am. "Games People Play" singer-songwriter Joe South (Joseph Alfred Souter) on Feb. 28 in Atlanta, Ga. British historian (Marxist) Timothy Wright Mason (d. 1990) on Mar. 2 in Birkenhead; educated at Oxford U. Am. fashion designer (gay) Perry Edwin Ellis (d. 1986) on Mar. 3 in Portsmouth, Va.; educated at the College of William and Mary, and NYU. Am. scholar Haleh Esfandiari on Mar. 3 in Iran; emigrates to the U.S. in 1980; wife of Shaul Bakhash. Am. actress-writer Joanna Miles on Mar. 6 in Nice, France. German radical Alfred Willi "Red" Rudi Dutschke (d. 1979) on Mar. 7 in Schonefeld, Brandenburg. Soviet cosmonaut Viktor Petrovich Savinykh on Mar. 7 in Berezkiny, Kirov Oblast. Am. "Frank Furill in Hill Street Blues" actor Daniel J. (Danielo Giovanni) Travanti on Mar. 7 in Kenosha, Wisc.; Italian immigrant parents. Canadian "Katherine Papadapolis in Webster" actress Susan Clark (Nora Golding) on Mar. 8 in Sarnia, Ont.; wife of Alex Karras (1935-). Puerto Rican "Gomez in the Addams Family", "Romero", "Kiss of the Spider Woman" actor Raul Rafael Carlos Julia y Arcelas (d. 1994) on Mar. 9 in Rio Pedra. Am. "Walker, Texas Range" actor and martial artist (conservative Repub. Christian) Carlos Ray "Chuck" Norris on Mar. 10 in Ryan, Okla.; of Irish and Cherokee descent; grows up in Prairie Village, Kan. and Torrance, Calif. Am. "Sticks and Bones" playwright-screemwriter (Roman Catholic) David William Rabe on Mar. 10 in Dubuque, Iowa; educated at Villanova U.; husband (1979-) of Jill Clayburgh (1944-2010); father of Lily Rabe (1982-). Am. "Dead Man's Curve", "The Little Old Lady from Pasadena" singer Dean Ormsby Torrence (Jan and Dean) on Mar. 10 in Los Angeles, Calif.; collaborator of William Jan Berry (1941-2004). Am. "We're in This Love Together" singer (black) Alwyn Lopez "Al" Jarreau on Mar. 12 in Milwaukee, Wisc. Am rock bassist Phillip Chapman "Phil" Lesh (Grateful Dead) on Mar. 15 in Berkeley, Calif. Iranian wrestler-actor ("The Iron Sheik) Hossein Khosrow Ali Vaziri on Mar. 15 in Tehran. Italian "Last Tango in Paris", "The Last Emperor" dir.-writer (Marxist) Bernardo Bertolucci on Mar. 16 in Parma. Canadian artist Ken Danby on Mar. 16 in Saul Ste. Marie, Ont. Dutch Labour Party politician-diplomat Johannes Pieter "Jan" Pronk on Mar. 16 in Scheveningen; educated at Erasmus U. Rotterdam. German physicist Gottfried Muenzenberg (Münzenberg) on Mar. 17 in Nordhausen; co-discoverer of elements #107-#112 with Peter Armbruster (1931-). Am. "Children of a Lesser God" playwright-actor (Jewish) Mark Medoff on Mar. 18 in Mount Carmel, Ill.; educated at Stanford U. Am. "Wild Thing", "Angel of the Morning" songwriter Chip Taylor (James Wesley Voight) on Mar. 21 in Yonkers, N.Y.; brother of Jon Voight; uncle of Angelina Jolie and James Haven. Canadian 5'9" hockey hall-of-fame player David Michael "Dave" Keon on Mar. 22 in Noranda, Quebec. Cambodian-Am. "Dith Pran in The Killing Fields" actor-physician-writer Hains Somnang Ngor (d. 1996) on Mar. 22 in Samrong Yong; Chinese descent father, Khmer mother. Welsh "Like I Do" singer Maureen Evans on Mar. 23 in Cardiff. Am. anti-gay activist-singer Anita Jane Bryant on Mar. 25 in Barnsdall, Okla. French computer scientist (inventor of Ada) (Jewish) Jean David Ichbiah (d. 2007) on Mar. 25. Italian pop singer Mina Anna Mazzini on Mar. 25 in Busto Arsizio; discovered on Sept. 24, 1958 by Natalino Otto. Am. Dem. politician and Speaker of the House #52 (2007-2011) (first woman) (Roman Catholic) Nancy Patricia Pelosi (nee D'Alesandro) on Mar. 26 in Baltimore, Md.; 5th of 5 children and only daughter of 3-term city mayor Thomas D'Alesandro Jr. (1903-87); her older brother Thomas Sr. also becomes mayor of Baltimore; grows up in the city's Little Italy neighborhood, then ends up as a U.S. rep. in San Francisco, Calif.; eucated at Trinity College. Am. "Stuttering John Gibbons in My Cousin Vinny" actor-writer-dir. Austin Pendleton on Mar. 27 in Warren, Ohio; educated at Yale U. (Scroll & Key). Am. "Continental Drift", "Affliction" novelist-poet Russell Banks on Mar. 28 in Newton, Mass. Brazilian "The Girl from Ipanema" singer Astrud Gilberto (Astrud Evangelina Weinerrt) on Mar. 29 in Salvador, Bahia; German father, Brazilian mother; grows up in Rio de Janeiro; wife (1959-65) of Joao Gilberto (1931-); emigrates to the U.S. in 1963. Am. 6'8" basketball player (white) (Cincinnati Royals #16, 1963-9) (San Francisco Warriors #47, 1969-71) (New York Knicks #32, 1971-4) Jerry Ray Lucas on Mar. 30 in Middletown, Ohio; educated at Ohio State U. U.S. Rep. (D-Mass.) (1981-) (Jewish) (gay) Barney Frank on Mar. 31 in Bayonne, N.J.; educated at Harvard U. U.S. Sen. (D-Vt.) (1975-) Patrick Joseph Leahy on Mar. 31 in Montpelier, Vt.; Irish-Am. father, Italian-Am. mother; educated at Georgetown U. Kenyan biologist (Kikuyu) Wangari Muta Maathai on Apr. 1 in Ihithe, Nyeri; educated at the U. of Pittsburgh and U. of Nairobi; first woman Ph.D. in Kenya; 1940 Nobel Peace Prize (first African woman). English "Margo Leadbetter in The Good Life", "Audrey fforbes-Hamilton in To the Manor Born" actress Penelope Anne Constance Keith on Apr. 2 in Sutton, Surrey. Am. "Havlicek stole the ball" basketball player John Havlicek on Apr. 8 in Martins Ferry, Ohio. English historian Keith Gilbert Robbins on Apr. 4; educated at Magdalen and St. Antony's Colleges, Oxford U. Am. "Cantaloupe Island", "Watermelon Man" jazz pianist-composer (black) Herbert Jeffrey "Herbie" Hancock on Apr. 12 in Chicago, Ill. Australian "A Stretch of the Imagination" playwright John Charles "Jack" Hibberd on Apr. 12 in Warracknabeal, Victoria. French "Le Proces-Verbal", "Desert" poet-novelist ("the Steve McQueen of French Literature") Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio (Clézio) on Apr. 13 in Nice; of Breton descent; dual French-Mauritian citizenship; likes to write about the desert; 2008 Nobel Lit. Prize. English "Lara Antipova in Doctor Zhivago" actress Julie Frances Christie on Apr. 14 in Chukua (Assam), India. Am. "The Rat Patrol" actor Justin Tarr (Howard Kenneth Barnes) (d. 2012) on Apr. 14 in Amarillo, Tex. Am. "Ensign Pulver", "Charlie X in Star Trek" actor Robert Hudson Walker Jr. on Apr. 15 in Queens, N.Y.; son of Robert Walker (1918-51) and Jennifer Jones (1919-2009). Danish queen (1972-) Margrethe (Margaret) II on Apr. 16 in Copenhagen; daughter of Frederick IX (1899-1972) and Ingrid of Sweden (1910-2000); educated at Girton College, Cambridge U., Aarhus U., the Sorbonne, and London School of Economics. English singer Billy Fury (Ronald William Wycherley) (d. 1983) on Apr. 17 in Liverpool. Am. "Little Green Apples", "The Night the Lights Went Out in Georgia", "Honey" singer-songwriter Bobby Russell (d. 1992) on Apr. 19 in Nashville, Tenn.; husband (1972-4) of Vicki Lawrence; not to be confused with Bob Russell (1914-70). Am. scientist Joseph L. Goldstein on Apr. 18 in Kingstree, S.C.; 1985 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. "A is for Alibi" "Kinsey Millhone of Santa Teresa, Calif." detective novelist Sue Taylor Grafton on Apr. 24 in Louisville, Ky.; daughter of Cornelius Warren Grafton (1909-82); educated at the U. of Louisville. Am. "Then Came Bronson", "Jean Renault in Twin Peaks", "Long Lonesome Highway" actor-singer Michael (Harry Samuel) Parks on Apr. 24 in Corona, Calif. Jordan princess Muna al-Hussein (Antoinette Avril Gardiner) on Apr. 25 in Chelmondiston, England; 2nd wife of King Hussein (1961-72); mother of Abdullah II (1962-), Prince Faisal (1963-), Princess Aisha (1975-), and Princess Zein (1968-). Am. "Michael Corleone in The Godfather", "Tony Montana in Scarface", "Frank Serpico in Serpico", "Lt. Col. Frank Slade in Scent of a Woman" actor Alfredo James "Al" Pacino on Apr. 25 in East Harlem, N.Y.; Italian-Am. parents. Italian "Midnight Express" musician-producer Giovanni Giorgio Moroder on Apr. 26 in Urijei, South Tyrol. Am. economist (Jewish) Peter Arthur Diamond on Apr. 29 in New York City; educated at Yale U. and MIT; teacher of Ben Bernanke (1953-); 2010 Nobel Econ. Prize. Belizean PM #2 (1984-9) and PM #4 (1993-8) Manuel Esquivel on May 2 in Belize City; knighted in 2010. Am. Koch Industries oil magnate and libertarian activist ("the Tea Party's Wallet") David Hamilton Koch (pr. coke) on May 3 in Wichita, Kan.; brother of Charles Koch (1935-). Am. "Coma", "Outbreak" medical thriller novelist Roert Brian "Robin" Cook on May 4 in New York City; grows up in Leonia, N.J.; educated at Wesleyan U., Columbia U., and Harvard U.; sells 400M+ copies. Am. "Detective Hal Vukovich in The Terminator", "Bishop in Aliens" actor Lance Henriksen on May 5 in New York City; Norwegian sailor father nicknamed Icewater. Am. "The Object of Beauty" dir.-writer Michael Lindsay-Hogg on May 5 in New York City; son of Geraldine Fitzgerald (1913-2005). English novelist-journalist (atheist) Angela Carter (nee Angela Olive Stalker) (d. 1992) on May 7 in Eastbourne; educated at Bristol College. Am. "Jaws" novelist Peter Bradford Benchley (d. 2006) on May 8 in New York City; son of children's author Nathaniel Benchley; grandson of humorist (Algonquin Round Table founder) Robert Benchley (1889-1945); brother of writer-actor Nat Benchley; educated at Phillips Exeter Academy, and Harvard U. Am. "Captain and Tennille" singer Cathryn "Toni" Antoinette Tennille on May 8 in Montgomery, Ala.; married to Daryl Frank Dragon (1942-). Am. "The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet", "Hello Mary Lou", "Garden Party" actor-singer Eric Hilliard "Ricky" "Rick" Nelson (d. 1985) on May 8 in Teaneck, N.J.; son of Ozzie Nelson (1906-75) and Harriet Hilliard Nelson (1909-94); brother of David Nelson (1936-). Am. "Anna (Go to Him)" country soul singer (black) Arthur Alexander (d. 1993) on May 10 in Sheffield, Ala. Am. "Your Erroneous Zones" New Age writer Wayne Walter Dyer on May 10 in Detroit, Mich.; educated at Wayne State U. Am. "I Heard It Through the Grapevine", "War", "Papa Was a Rollin' Stone" songwriter-producer (black) Norman Jesse Whitfield (d. 2008) on May 12 in Harlem, N.Y.; collaborator of Barrett Strong (1941-). English novelist-writer (gay) Bruce Charles Chatwin (d. 1989) on May 13 in dronfield (near Sheffield); lover of Jasper Conran (1959-). Am. scholar (Roman Catholic) John Louis Eposito on May 14 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Temple U. Am. libertarian writer-artist Richard (Cory) Kostelanetz on May 14 in New York City; educated at Brown U., Columbia U., and King's College, London; nephew of Andre Kostelanetz (1901-80). Am. Fox News Channel CEO (1996-2016) Roger Eugene Ailes (d. 2017) on May 15 in Warren, Ohio; educated at Ohio U. Am. "Maria Portokalos in My Big Fat Greek Wedding", "Aunt Frieda in The Nanny" actress-singer (Jewish) Lainie Kazan (Levine) on May 15 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Ashkenazi father, Sephardic mother; educated at Hofstra U. Am. political scientist Alvin Rabushka on May 15. Am. computer scientist Alan Curtis Kay on May 17 in Springfield, Mass.; educated at the U. of Colo. Am. hall-of-fame bowler Don Johnson (d. 2003) on May 19 in Kokomo, Ind.; father of Jimmy Johnson. Czech 5'9" hockey hall-of-fame player (Chicago Blackhawks) Stan Mikita (Stanislav Guoth) on May 20 in Sokolce; emigrates to the U.S. as a young boy. Am. leftist writer (on China) Orille Hickock Schell III on May 20 in New York City: educated at Harvard U.; brother of Jonathan Schell (1943-). Am. CNN anchor (1980-2001) (black) Bernard Shaw on May 22 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill.; not to be confused with Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950). Am. "Lt. Ed Traxler in The Terminator", "Capt. Clark Terrell in Star Trek II" actor (black) Paul Edward Winfield (d. 2004) on May 22 in Los Angeles, Calif. Russian poet-writer (Jewish) Joseph (Iosif) Alexandrovich (Aleksandrovich) Brodsky (d. 1996) on May 24 in Leningrad; emigrates to the U.S. in 1972. Am. "Cpl. Radar O'Reilly in M*A*S*H" actor Gary Richard Burghoff on May 24 in Bristol, Conn. Am. "Sandy in Grease" actress-singer Carole Demas on May 26 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at the U. of Vt., and NYU. Am. "The Weight", "Up on Cripple Creek" rock drummer-singer Mark Lavon "Levon" Helm (d. 2012) on May 26 in Marvell, Ark. Am. jazz musician Lew Tabackin on May 26 in Philadelphia, Penn.; huband (1969-) of Toshiko Akiyoshi (1929-). Am. "The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt", "Dutch: A Memoir of Ronald Reagan" biographer Edmund Morris on May 27 in Nairobi, Kenya; South African parents; educated at Rhodes U.; emigrates to Britain in 1964, and the U.S. in 1968. Irish "Circle of Friends" novelist-journalist Maeve Binchy on May 28 in Dalkey, County Dublin. Am. "Odo in Star Trek: DS9", "Father Mulcahy in M*A*S*H", "Clayton Endicott III in Benson", "Paul Lewiston in Boston Legal" actor Rene Murat Auberjonois on June 1 in New York City; son of Princess Laure Louise Napoleone Eugenie Caroline Murat (1913-86), great-great-granddaughter of Joachim Murat (1767-1815) and Caroline Bonaparte (1782-1839) (sister of Napoleon I). Am. mezzo-soprano Frederica "Flicka" von Stade on June 1 in Somerville, N.J. Am. theoretical physicist (atheist) Kip Stephen Thorne on June 1 in Logan, Utah; Mormon parents; educated at Caltech, and Princeton U.; 2017 Nobel Physics Prize. Greek king (last) (1964-73) Constantine II (XIII) on June 2 in Psychiko (near Athens); eldest son of Paul I and Princess Frederika of Hanover; nephew of George II (1890-1947); the Germans invade Greece when he is 1 mo. old, causing him to spend his first four years in exile in Egypt and Cape Town, South Africa. Welsh "It's Not Unusual", "What's New, Pussycat?" singer Sir Tom Jones (Thomas John Woodward) on June 7 in the South Wales village of Pontypridd (pr. "PONT-ee-preathe") (where actor Richard Burton was born on Nov. 10, 1925); starts out as Tommy Scott the Twisting Vocalist; named after the 1963 film; knighted in 2005. Am. singer "These Boots Are Made For Walkin'" singer-actress Nancy Sandra Sinatra on June 8 in Jersey City, N.J.; daughter of Frank Sinatra (1915-98) and Nancy Barbato Sinatra; godfather is Tommy Dorsey; sister of Frank Sinatra Jr. (1944-2016) and Tina Sinatra (1948-); wife (1960-5) of Tommy Sands (1937-). English musician Roy Harper on June 12 in Rusholme, Manchester. Am. "Art Donovan in Lou Grant" actor Jack Bannon on June 14; son of Jim Bannon and Bea Benaderet; husband of Ellen Travolta (1940-) (sister of John Travolta). Am. economist (Jewish) George Arthur Akerlof on June 17; Swedish father, Jewish German-Am. mother; educated at Yale U., and MIT; 2001 Nobel Econ. Prize. French "La Maison des Atlantes" writer-critic Angelo Rinaldi on June 17 in Bastia, Corsica. English "Beat Girls" actor-singer Adam Faith (Terence "Terry" Nelhams-Wright) (d. 2003) (Roulette) on June 23 in East Acton, London. Am. Olympic sprinter (black) ("the Black Gazelle/Pearl") ("The Tennessee Tornado") Wilma Glodean Rudolph (d. 1994) on June 23 in St. Bethlehem, Tenn.; #20 of 22 children; recovers from childhood polio. Scottish Beatles founding member, artist and bassist Stuart Fergusson Victor Sutcliffe (d. 1962) on June 23 in Edinburgh; namer of the Beatles along with John Lennon based on Buddy Holly's band The Crickets. Australian "Beneath Still Waters", "It's a Man's World (When You Have A Man Like Mine)" country-pop singer ("Miss Country Soul") Diana Roselyn Trask on June 23 in Camberwell (near Melbourne), Victoria. English rock bassist Clint Warwick (Albert Clinton Eccles) (Moody Blues) on June 25 in Aston, Birmingham. Am. "Zoot Suit", "La Bamba" playwright-dir. ("Father of U.S. Chicano Theater") Luis Valdez on June 26 in Delano, Calif.; Mexican parents. Bangladeshi banker-economist (Muslim) Muhammad Yunus on June 28 in Chittagong; 2006 Nobel Peace Prize. Am. "Sock It To Me Baby" songwriter L. Russell Brown on June 29. Spanish "The Spirit of the Beehive" dir. Victor Erice Aras on June 30 in Karrantza. Am. folk-blues singer-songwriter (Quaker-turned-Christian) Mark Warren Spelstra (d. 2007) on June 30 in Kansas City, Mo. English "The Railway Series" children's writer Christopher Vere Awdry on July 2 in Devizes; son of Rev. Wilbert Awdry (1911-97). Am. public interest atty. John Francis Banzhaf III on July 2 in New York City; educated at Stuyvesant H.S., MIT, and Columbia U. Soviet cosmonaut (first Bulgarian in space, 1979) Georgi Ivanov (Kakalov) on July 2 in Lovech. U.S. Sen. (R-Tenn.) (2003-) Andrew Lamar Alexander Jr. on July 3 in Maryville, Tenn.; educated at Vanderbilt U., and NYU. Am. "Rescue Me" R&B singer (black) Fontella Bass on July 3 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. Olympic swimmer Lance Melvin Larson on July 3 in Monterey Park, Calif.; educated at USC. Am. "Zusu in It's a Wonderful Life" actress Karolyn Grimes on July 4 in Hollywood, Calif. Irish writer James Herbert "Herbie" Brennan on July 5. Am. painter-photographer Chuck Thomas Close on July 5 in Monroe, Wash.; known for massive-scale portraits; educated at the U. of Wash. Am. 6'4" basketball player (black) (Detroit Pistons #14, 1963-70) (Baltimore Bullets #15, 1970-1) (New York Knicks #42, 1971-2) Edward "Eddie" Miles Jr. on July 5 in North Little Rock, Ark.; educated at Seattle U. Kazakhstan pres. #1 (1990-) (Muslim) Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev on July 6 in Chemolgari. Am. "Don't Touch Me" country singer Marilyn Jeanne "Jeannie" Seely on July 6 in Titusville, Penn. English "Yellow Submarine", "Octopus's Garden", "With a Little Help from My Friends" musician-singer-composer (vegetarian) (teetotaler) Ringo Starr (Richard Starkey) (The Beatles) on July 7 in Dingle, Liverpool; husband (1965-75) of Maureen Cox and (1981-) Barbara Bach (1947-); father of Zak Starkey (1965-); first Beatle to become a grandfather. Am. R&B singer (black) Patricia Eva "Bonnie" Pointer (Pointer Sisters) on July 11 in Oakland, Calif.; sister of Ruth Pointer (1946-), Anita Pointer (1948-), Bonnie Pointer (1950-), and June Pointer (1953-2006); mother of Issa Pointer (1978-). Am. Cajun chef Paul "Lean Gene Autry" Prudhomme (d. 2015) on July 13 in Opelousas, La. English "Capt. Jean-Luc Picard in Star Trek: TNG", "Prof. Charles Xavier in X-Men", "Gurney Halleck in Dune", "King Leondegrance in Excalibur" actor Patrick Hewes Stewart on July 13 in Mirfield, Yorkshire. Am. "Mormon America: The Power and the Promise" writer-journalist Richard N. Ostling on July 14 in Endicott, N.Y.; husband of Joan K. Ostling (1939-2009); educated at the U. of Mich., Northwestern U., and George Washington U. Am. "Beatrice Travis in Vega$" actress Phyllis Davis on July 17 in Port Arthur, Tex. Am. 6'4" "Dr. Steven Kiley in Marcus Welby, M.D.", "Capricorn One", "The Amityville Horror" actor James Brolin (Craig Kenneth Bruderlin) on July 18 in Los Angeles, Calif.; husband (1986-95) of Jan Smithers and (1998-) Barbra Streisand (1942-); father of Josh Brolin (1968-). Am. baseball catcher-coach Joseph Paul "Joe" Torre on July 18 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. legal activist ("Mr. Anti-Smoking") John Francis Banzhaf III on July 20 in New York City. Cuban baseball player Tony (Pedro) Oliva on July 20 in Pinar Del Rio. Am. golfer Susie Maxwell Berning on July 22 in Pasadena, Calif. Canadian "Jeopardy!", "High Rollers", "Classic Concentration" game show host George Alexander "Alex" Trebek (Giorgi Suka-Alex Trebek) on July 22 in Sudbury, Ont.; Ukrainian father, French mother; educated at Malvern Collegiate Inst., and the U. of Ottawa; starts as host of "Jackpot!" in 1970, "The Wizard of Oz" in 1973, and "High Rollers" in 1974; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1998, and gets a jury summons two weeks later?; Kebert Xela backwards; born the same year that Sudbury becomes the first Canadian city to install parking meters. Am. "Nappy-headed hos" shock jock radio personality (alcoholic) John Donald "Don" Imus Jr. on July 23 in Riverside, Calif. Am. "The Milagro Beanfield War" novelist John Treadwell Nichols on July 23 in Berkeley, Calif. Am. "Drift Away" singer (black) Dobie Gray (Lawrence/Leonard Victor Ainsworth) (Laurence Darrow Brown) on July 26 in Fort Bend County, Tex. Am. celeb victim Mary Jo Kopchne (d. 1969) on July 26 in Wilkes-Barre, Penn. Am. sculptor Luis Alfonso Jimenez Jr. (d. 2006) on July 30 in El Paso, Tex.; Am. mother Alicia is visiting relatives in Juarez, Mexico when her water breaks, causing her to race back to the U.S. to have him? Iraqi diplomat-politician (Shiite Muslim) Mohammed (Muhammad) Saeed al-Sahhaf on July 30 in Hilla (near Karbala); educated at Baghdad U. Am. U.S. rep. (D-Colo.) (1973-97) Patricia Nell Scott "Pat" Schroeder on July 30 in Portland, Ore.; grows up in Des Moines, Iowa; educated at the U. of Minn., and Harvard U. English ZX80/ZX81 inventor Sir Clive Marles Sinclair on July 30 near Richmond, Surrey. Am. football hall-of-fame WR Lance Dwight Alworth on Aug. 3 in Houston, Tex. Am. "Capt. Willard in Apocalypse Now", "Pres. Josiah Bartlett in The West Wing" actor Martin Sheen (Ramon Gerardo Antonio Estevez) (Estévez) on Aug. 3 in Dayton, Ohio; husband (1961-) of Janet Templeton; father of Emilio Estevez (1962-), Ramon Luis Estevez (1963-), Charlie Sheen (1965-), and Renee Estevez (1967-). Am. 6'6" football QB (Los Angeles Rams #5, 1962-72) (Philadelphia Eagls #18, 1973-7) Roman Ildonzo Gabriel Jr. on Aug. 5 in Wilmington, N.C.; son of a Filipino imigrant; educated at N.C. State U.; first Asian-Am. starting NFL QB, and first truly big NFL QB. Am. ACORN co-founder (1970) Wade Rathke on Aug. 5 in New Orleans, La. English "Myra Breckinridge" singer-actor-dir. Mike Sarne (Michael Scheuer) on Aug. 6 in Paddington, London. Am. "You've Got That Loving Feeling" singer Robert Lee "Bobby" Hatfield (d. 2003) (Righteous Brothers) on Aug. 10 in Beaver Dam, Wisc.; moves to Anaheim, Calif. at age 4; meets Bill Medley at Calif. State U. Long Beach. Am. singer Darrell "Dash" Crofts (Seals and Crofts) on Aug. 14 in Cisco, Tex.; collaborator of Jim Seals (1941-). Am. "Dreamgirls" playwright-lyricist (gay) Tom Eyen (d. 1991) on Aug. 14 in Cambridge, Ohio; educated at Ohio State U. Am. Laffer Curve economist Arthur Betz Laffer on Aug. 14 in Youngstown, Ohio; educated at Stanford U. and Yale U. Australian "Breaker Morant", "Tender Mercies" film dir.-writer-producer Bruce Beresford on Aug. 16 in Sydney. English politician-writer Stanley Patrick Johnson on Aug. 18 in Penzance; paternal grandson of Ali Kemal Bey (1867-1922); father of Boris Johnson (1964-); educated at Exeter College, Oxford U. Am. "I Can See Clearly Now" singer-songwriter (black) John Lester "Johnny" Nash Jr. on Aug. 19 in Houston, Tex. Am. "Tiffany Case in Diamonds are Forever" actress (Jewish) Jill St. John (Jill Arlyn Oppenheim) on Aug. 19 in Los Angeles, Calif.; classmate of Nancy Sinatra; 162 I.Q.; admitted to UCLA at age 14; wife (1967-9) of Jack Jones and (1990-) Robert Wagner; not to be confused with Susan Saint James (1946-). Am. "Rhoda Morgenstern in the Mary Tyler Moore Show" actress (Roman Catholic) Valerie Harper on Aug. 22 in Suffern, N.Y. Am. "Les Nessman in WKRP in Cincinnati" actor Richard Kinard Sanders on Aug. 23 in Harrisburg, Penn. Am. biochemist Thomas Arthur Steitz on Aug. 23; 2009 Nobel Chem. Prize. English rock group mgr. (Moody Blues, The Move, T.Rex) Anthony Michael "Tony" Secunda (d. 1995) on Aug. 24 in Epson, Surrey. Chinese table tennis champ Zhuang Zedong (Chuang Tse-tung) (d. 2013) on Aug. 24 in Yangzhou, Jiangsu. U.S. Repub. defense secy. #20 (1997-2001) (Jewish) William Sebastian Cohen on Aug. 28 in Bangor, Maine; Russian Jewish immigrant father, Protestant Irish descent mother; educated at Bowdoin College. U.S. White House press secy. #15 (1981-9) James Scott "Jim" Brady (d. 2014) on Aug. 29 in Centralia, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill. Am. "Just a Dream" "swamp pop R&B teenage idol" singer (white) Jimmy Clanton on Sept. 2 in Baton Rouge, La. Am. "Lawrence Welk" ragtime pianist-accordionist Jo Ann Castle (Zering) on Sept. 3 in Bakersfield, Calif.; stage name comes from Castle Accordions; friend of Liberace. Uruguayan "Open Veins of Latin America" writer-journalist Eduardo Hughes Galeano on Sept. 3 in Montevideo; Welsh, German, Spanish and Italian ancestry. Am. "Margie" actress Cynthia Pepper (Cynthia Anne Culpepper) on Sept. 4 in Hollywood, Calif. Am. "One Million Years B.C.", "Fantastic Voyage" "Myra Breckinridge", "Bandolero!" actress-model Raquel Welch (Jo Raquel Tejada) on Sept. 5 in Chicago, Ill.; Bolivian father, English descent mother; wife (1959-64) of James Welch, (1967-72) Patrick Curtis, (1980-90) Andre Weinfeld, and (1999-) Richard Palmer; mother of Damon Welch (1959-) and Latanne (Tahnee) Welch (1961-). Am. ventriloquist (black) Willie Tyler on Sept. 8 in Red Level, Ala.; his puppet is Lester. Am. "Prophets of Regulation" business historian Thomas Kincaid McCraw (d. 2012) on Sept. 11 in Corinth, Miss.; educated at the U. of Miss. Am. "Carrie", "The Untouchables", "Mission: Impossible" dir.-writer Brian Russell De Palma on Sept. 11 in Newark, N.J.; educated at Columbia U.; husband (1979-83) of Nancy Allen (1950-) and (1991-3) Gale Anne Hurd (1955-). Am. biophysicist Joachim Frank on Sept. 12 in Siegen, Germany; educated at the U. of Freburg, Ludwig Maximilians U. of Munich, and Technical U. of Munich; 2017 Nobel Chem. Prize. Am. "Sue Ellen Ewing in Dallas" actress Linda Ann Gray on Sept. 12 in Santa Monica, Calif. U.S. Rep. (D-N.Y.) (1975-93) (Jewish) Stephen Joshua Solarz (d. 2010) on Sept. 12 in Manhattan, N.Y.; educated at Brandeis U., and Columbia U. Costa Rican pres. (1986-90, 2006-) Oscar Rafael de Jesus Arias Sanchez on Sept. 13 in Heredia; educated at the U. of Costa Rica, U. of Essex, and London School of Economics; 1987 Nobel Peace Prize. Am. "Sugar Shack", "Bottle of Wine" singer Jimmy Gilmer (The Fireballs) on Sept. 15 in Chicago, Ill.; grows up in Amarillo, Tex. Am. "Jonathan Garvey in Little House on the Prairie", "Father Murphy" 6'5" actor-football player (Los Angeles Rams #74, 1962-76) Merlin Jay Olsen (d. 2010) on Sept. 15 in Logan, Utah; educated at Utah State U. Am. "The Doomsday Machine episode of Star Trek: TOS" sci-fi novelist-screenwriter Norman Richard Spinrad on Sept. 15 in New York City; educated at Bronx H.S. of Science, and CCNY. Scottish "Regeneration" screenwriter-producer Allan Scott (Shiach) on Sept. 16 in Elgin, Morrow; educated at McGill U. Am. "Venus" pop singer Frankie Avalon (Francis Thomas Avallone) on Sept. 18 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. "You've Got That Loving Feeling" singer William Thomas "Bill" Medley (Righteous Brothers) on Sept. 19 in Los Angeles, Calif.; meets Bobby Hatfield at Calif. State U. Long Beach. Am. "An Old Fashioned Love Song", "We've Only Just Begun" singer-songwriter-actor Paul Hamilton Williams on Sept. 19 in Omaha, Neb. Afghan pres. #10 (2001) (Sunni Muslim) Burhanuddin Rabbani (d. 2011) on Sept. 20 in Badakhshan; Persian-speaking ethnic Tajij; educated at Kabul U., and Al-Azhar U. Am. "Hey Joe", "Morning Dew" singer-songwriter Timothy Alan Patrick "Tim" Rose (d. 2002) (Big Three) on Sept. 23 in Washington, D.C. Canadian rock drummer Dewey Martin (Buffalo Springfield) on Sept. 30 in Chesterville, Ont. Am. "Women and Madness", "Wonder Woman" feminist writer (Jewish) Phyllis Chesler on Oct. 1 in New York City; educated at Bard College, and New School for Social Research. Am. "Undercover Angel", "Angie Baby", "Rock and Roll Heaven" songwriter-singer Alan Earle O'Day (d. 2013) on Oct. 3 in Hollywood, Calif. Canadian hockey player Joseph Gilbert Yvon "Jean" Ratelle on Oct. 3 in Lac Saint-Jean, Quebec. English "Ritual" actor-novelist David John Pinner on Oct. 6 in Peterborough; Am. "Chachi's mother Louisa Arcola Delvecchio in Happy Days" actress Ellen Travolta on Oct. 6 in Englewood, N.J.; sister of John Travolta (1954-). Am. Adobe Systems co-founder John Edward Warnock on Oct. 6 in Salt Lake City, Utah; educated at the U. of Utah; collaborator or Charles Geschke (1939-). English Beatles composer-musician-singer and rock god ("1960s youth spokesman") John Winston (Ono) Lennon (d. 1980) on Oct. 9 in Liverpool; only son of Alfred "Alf" Lennon (1912-76) and Julia Stanley "Judy" Lennon (1914-56); raised by his maternal uncle George Toogood Smith (1903-55) and maternal aunt Mary Elizabeth "Mimi" Smith (nee Stanley) (1903-92) at Mendips House, 251 Menlove Ave., Liverpool; husband (1962-7) of Cynthia Powell and (1969-80) Yoko Ono (1933-); father of Julian Lennon (1963-) and Sean Lennon (1975-). Am. "Care of the Soul" psychotherapist and spiritual writer (Roman Catholic) Thomas Moore on Oct. 8 in Detroit, Mich.; educated at DePaul U., the U. of Mich., the U. of Windsor, and Syracuse U. English Conservative MP (1970-97) and journalist Winston Spencer Churchill (d. 2010) on Oct. 10 in Chequers, London; son of Randolph Churchill (1911-68) and Pamela Digby Harriman (1920-97); grandson of Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965); educated at Eton College and Christ Church, Oxford U.; sells his grandfather's personal papers to the U.K. for 12.5M. Am. tenor jazz saxophonist (black) Ferrell "Pharaoh" Sanders on Oct. 13 in Little Rock, Ark. English "Out of Time" R&B singer (white) Chris Farlowe (John Henry Deighton) (AKA Little Joe Cook) (Colosseum) (The Thunderbirds) on Oct. 13 in Islington, North London. Am. singer-actor Sir Cliff Richard (Harry Rodger Webb) (Shadows) on Oct. 14 in Lucknow, India; big name in corny British pop music before the Beatles, charting in the U.S. in each decade from the 1950s-2000s, selling 250M+ records. Australian surgeon Peter Charles Doherty on Oct. 15 in Brisbane; 1996 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. "Gen. Berenger in WarGames", "Roscoe Brown in Lonesome Dove", "Ellis in No Country for Old Men" actor Leonard Barrie "Barry" Corbin on Oct. 16 in Lamesa, Tex. Am. 6'6 hall-of-fame basketball player-coach (Detroit Pistons #22, 1962-8) (New York Knicks #22, 1969-74) (Detroit Pistons, 1964-7) David Albert "Dave" "Big D" DeBusschere (d. 2003) on Oct. 16 in Detroit, Mich.; educated at Detroit U. British "Albus Dumbledore in Harry Potter" actor Sir Michael John Gambon on Oct. 19 in Dublin, Ireland; knighted in 1998. English "Secret Love" singer (Marilyn Monroe lookalike?) Kathy Kirby (Kathleen O'Rourke) on Oct. 20 in Ilford, Essex. Am. poet-writer-critic (Jewish) Robert Pinsky on Oct. 20 in Long Branch, N.J.; educated at Rutgers U. and Stanford U. Am. "Fire in the Lake" journalist Frances FitzGerald on Oct. 21. South African "Dooh-Wah Diddy Diddy" rock keyboardist-singer Manfred Mann on Oct. 21 in Johannesburg. Brazilian #1 soccer player ("the Black Pearl") Pele (Pelé) (Edson Arantes do Nascimento) on Oct. 23 in Tres Coracores. Am. basketball coach (Indiana U.) (1971-2000) ("the General") Robert Montgomery "Bobby" "Bob" Knight on Oct. 25 in Massillon, Ohio. Soviet cosmonaut Gennadi (Gennady) Mikhailovich Strekalov (d. 2004) on Oct. 26 in Mytishchi. Am. Gambino family crime boss ("The Dapper Don") ("The Teflon Don") John Joseph Gotti Jr. (d. 2002) on Oct. 27 in Bronx, N.Y. Am. "The Woman Warrior" feminist novelist Maxine Hong Kingston on Oct. 27 in Stockton, Calif.; Chinese immigrant parents. Am. "Soap", "The Golden Girls", "Empty Nest" TV writer-producer Susan Harris (nee Spivak) on Oct. 28 in Mount Vernon, N.Y. Am. "Ballad of the Green Berets" singer U.S. Army Green Beret SSgt. Barry Allen Sadler (d. 1989) on Nov. 1 in Carlsbad, N.M. Am. football hall-of-fame kicker James Leroy "Jim" Bakken on Nov. 2 in Madison, Wisc. Am. "The Silence of the Lambs" novelist Thomas Harris on Nov. 4 in Jackson, Tenn.; grows up in Rich, Miss. Am. blues-rock singer Delbert McClinton on Nov. 4 in Lubbock, Tex. Ecuadorian pres. #33 (1979-81) Jaime Roldos (Roldós) Aguilera (d. 1981) on Nov. 5 in Guyaquil. German "A Shot in the Dark" actress Elke Sommer (Schletz) on Nov. 5 in Berlin. Am. "Cpl. Mark T. Hitch Hitchcock in The Rat Patrol" actor Lawrence P. Casey on Nov. 8 in New York City. Am. astronomer Charles Thomas Kowal (d. 2011) on Nov. 8 in Buffalo, N.Y.; educated at USC. U.S. Sen. (D-Calif.) (1993-2011) (Jewish) Barbara Levy Boxer on Nov. 11 in New York City; educated at Brooklyn College. Am. SpaceShipOne test pilot Michael Winston "Mike" Melvill on Nov. 11. Am. "To Know Him Is To Love Him" singer-songwriter Carol Connors (Annette Kleinbard) on Nov. 13 in New Brunswick, N.J. Am. "Khrushchev: The Man and His Era" political scientist-biographer William Chase Taubman on Nov. 13 in New York City; educated at Bronx H.S. of Science, Harvard U., and Columbia U. Am. "Hey Looka Yonder (It's the Clear Water)" folk singer-writer (black) "Brother" Thomas Griffin "Tom" Winslow (d. 2010) (The Winslows, Pete Seeger Band) on Nov. 13 in Hobgood, N.C.; father of Thomasina Winslow and Gary Winslow. Am. economist Hugo Freund Sonnenschein on Nov. 14 in New York City; educated at the U. of Rochester, and Purdue U. Am. "Jack McCoy in Law & Order" actor Samuel Atkinson "Sam" Waterston on Nov. 15 in Cambridge, Mass.; Scottish immigrant father, Mayflower descendant mother; educated at Yale U., and the Sorbonne. Am. Olympic rower Philip Anthony "Tony" Johnson on Nov. 16 in Washington, D.C. Israeli-Am. chemist (Jewish) Arieh Warshel on Nov. 20 in Kibbutz Sde Nahum, palestine; 2013 Nobel Chem. Prize. Russian ballerina Natalia Makarova on Nov. 21 in Leningrad. British "Monty Python" film dir. and cartoonist Terry Gilliam on Nov. 22 in Medicine Lake, Minn.; becomes British citizen in 1968. Cuban ML baseball pitcher Luis Clemente Tiant Vega on Nov. 23 in Marianao. Am. NFL commissioner (1989-2006) Paul John Tagliabue on Nov. 24 in Jersey City, N.J.; educated at NYU. Am. football hall-of-fame coach and NASCAR team owner (Washington Redskins, 1981-1992, 2004-7) Joe Jackson Gibbs on Nov. 25 in Mocksville, N.C. Am. "When a Man Loves a Woman" singer (black) Percy Sledge on Nov. 25 in Leighton, Ala.; Repub. strategist Lee Atwater once plays backup for him. English "The Foundations of Modern Political Thought" historian Quentin Robert Duthie Skinner on Nov. 26 in Oldham, Lancashire; educated at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge U. Chinese-Am. "Kato in The Green Hornet", "Fist of Fury" actor-dir.-producer-writer (founder of Jeet Kune Do) ("Be Like Water") ("We break tile"?) Bruce Lee (Lee Jun-fan) (d. 1973) on Nov. 27 in San Francisco; son of Cantonese opera star Lee Hoi-chuen (1901-65) and Grace Ho; brother of Robert Lee (1943-); raised in Hong Kong; emigrates to the U.S. in 1958; father of Brandon Lee (1965-93) and Shannon Lee (1969-). Am. "Hey! Baby" singer-songwriter Bruce Channel (pr. shuh-NELL) on Nov. 28 in Jacksonville, Tex. Am. "Feels So Good" flugelhorn player Charles Frank "Chuck" Mangione on Nov. 29 in Rochester, N.Y. Canadian singer-songwriter Dennis Gerrard Stephen "Denny" Doherty (d. 2007) (Mamas and Papas) on Nov. 29 in Halifax, N.S. Am. conservative writer Kevin Phillips on Nov. 30; educated at Bronx High School of Science, Colgate U., U. of Edinburgh, and Harvard U. Am. "Stir Crazy", "Bustin' Loose" comedian-actor (black) Richard Franklin Lennox Thomas Pryor III (d. 2005) on Dec. 1 in Peoria, Ill.; father of Rain Pryor (1969-). Am. football hall-of-fame cornerback (Oakland Raiders) (1967-78) (black) William Ferdie "Willie" Brown on Dec. 2 in Yazoo City, Miss.; educated at Grambling U. Am. murderer Gary Mark Gilmore (Faye Robert Coffman) (d. 1977) on Dec. 4 in McCarney, Tex. Am. philosopher James Henry Fetzer on Dec. 6 in Pasadena, Calif.; educated at Princeton U. and Indiana U. Am. "Abby Cunningham in Knots Landing" actress Donna Mills (Donna Jean Miller) on Dec. 11 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Do You Know the Way to San Jose", "Walk On By" singer-actress (black) Marie Dionne Warwick on Dec. 12 in East Orange, N.J.; sister of Dee Dee Warwick (1945-2008); niece of Cissy Houston (1933-); cousin of Whitney Houston (1963-); releases 56 top-100 singles in 1962-98. Am. "I Ain't Marching Anymore" leftist folk-protest singer (alcoholic) Philip David "Phil" Ochs (d. 1976) (pr. OAKS) (AKA John Butler Train) on Dec. 19 in El Paso, Tex.; Scottish-born mother; educated at Ohio State U.; calls his songs "topical" not "protest". Am. composer-singer-musician Francis Vincent "Frank" Zappa (Jr.) (d. 1993) on Dec. 21 in Baltimore, Md.; husband (1960-4) of Kathryn J. "Kay" Sherman and (1967-) Gail Zappa (1945-); father of Moon Unit Zappa (1967-), Dweezil Zappa (1969-), Ahmet Zappa (1974-), and Diva Thin Muffin Zappa (1979-); known for his mustache and goatee. Chinese journalist Ching Cheong on Dec. 22 in Chaozhu, Guangdong; educated at the U. of Hong Kong. English rock bassist Brian "Licorice" Locking (The Shadows) on Dec. 22 in Bedworth, Warwickshire. Am. rock musician (Jewish) Jorma Ludwik Kaukonen Jr. (Jefferson Airplane) on Dec. 23 in Washington, D.C.; Finnish-Am. father, Jewish-Am. mother. Am. "Wall of Sound" record producer (the Crystals, the Ronettes, the Righteous Brothers, John Lennon) (Jewish) (alcoholic) (aviophobe) ("Tycoon of Teen" - Tom Wolfe) Phil Spector on Dec. 26 in Bronx, N.Y.; father commits suicide in 1949; wife Ronnie Spector is told to fake a pregnancy in 1968 so they can adopt a child and pretend it's theirs; she divorces him in 1972 after he knocks her down and threatens to blind her with his fingers? Am. economist Edward Christian Prescott on Dec. 26 in Glens Falls, N.Y.; educated at Swarthmore College, Case Western Reserve U., and Carnegie Mellon U.; 2004 Nobel Econ. Prize. Am. "Shaggy Dog, "Swamp Fox", "Hardy Boys", "Mike Douglas in My Three Sons" actor Timothy Daniel "Tim" Considine on Dec. 31 in Los Angeles, Calif.; nephew of Bob Considine (1906-75); brother of John Considine (1935-); grandson of Alexander Pantages (1867-1936) and John Considine (1868-1943). Am. "An Insider's View of Mormon Origins" writer (Mormon) Grant H. Palmer on ? in ?; educated at Brigham Young U. Am. Modernist artist (Jewish) Elizabeth Murray (d. 2007) on ? in Chicago, Ill. Niger pres. #3 (1987-93) (black) Ali Saibou (d. 2011) near Ouallam. Am. Marxist Humanist writer-philosopher Marshall Berman on ? in Bronx, N.Y.; educated at Columbia U. and Harvard U. Swiss art dealer Bruno Bischofberger on ? in Zurich; educated at the U. of Zurich. Am. bowler Jack Biondolillo on ? in Houston, Tex. Am. "Lincoln and the Economics of the American Dream" historian (of the U.S. Civil War) Gabor S. Boritt on ? in Budapest, Hungary; emigrates to the U.S. in 1957; educated at Yankton College, U. of S.D., and Boston U. Australian "The Kingdom of the Hittites" historian Trevor Robert Bryce on ? in ?; educated at the U. of Queensland. Am. "How the Irish Saved Civilization" historian Thomas Cahill in New York City; educated at Queens College and Fordham U. French writer (coiner of the term "mediology") Jules Regis Debray on ? in ?. Am. "Winter in the Blood" native novelist-poet James Welch on ? in Browning, Mont.; Blackfeet father, Gros Ventre mother. Am. poet William Kilborn "Bill" Knott on ? in Carson City, Mich. Am. "In Country" novelist Bobbie Ann Mason on ? in Mayfield, Ky.; educated at the U. of Ky. Am. "Chick-A-Boom" singer-songwriter Daddy Dewdrop (Richard "Dick" Monda) on ? in Cleveland, Ohio. Am. "The Golden Girls" TV writer Gail Parent on ? in ?. Afghan political leader (head of Jamiat-e Islami Afghanistan) Burhanuddin Rabbani (d. 2011) on ? in Badakhshan. Am. Roman Catholic-turned-Episcopalian theologian Matthew (Timothy James) Fox on ? in Madison, Wisc. Italian archeologist Paolo Matthiae. Russian ballet star ("Cosmic Yuri") Yuri Vladimirovich Soloviev (d. 1977) on ? in ?; rival of Vaslav Nijinsky. Saudi royal prince (Sunni Muslim) Khalid (Khaled) al-Faisal bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud on ? in Mecca; son of King Faisal (1906-75); half-brother of Prince Saud al-Faisal (1941-) and Prince Turki al-Faisal (1945-); educated at the U. of Oxford. Am. political scientist William Chase Taubman; educated at Bronx H.S. of Science, Harvard U., and Columbia U. Deaths: British Gen. Sir Bindon Blood (b. 1842) on May 16 in London. Am. peanut butter inventor Marcellus Gilmore Edson (b. 1849) on Mar. 6 in Montreal, Quebec. Am. Stanley Hotel founder Freelan Oscar Stanley (b. 1849) on Oct. 3 in Newton, Mass. Am. theatrical mgr.-producer Daniel Frohman (b. 1851) on Dec. 26. English physicist-writer Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge (b. 1851) on Aug. 22. Am. "Lincoln, the Man of the People" poet Edwin Markham (b. 1852) on Mar. 7. French neurologist Pierre Marie (b. 1853) on Apr. 13. U.S. Sen. (D-N.C.) (1901-31) Furnifold McLendel Simmons (b. 1854) on Apr. 30 in Bern, N.C. English physicist Sir J.J. Thomson (b. 1856) on Aug. 30 in Cambridge. Am. Volunteers of America founder Ballington Booth (b. 1857) on Oct. 5. Austrian psychiatrist Julius Wagner-Jauregg (b. 1857) on Sept. 27 in Vienna. Am. Mormon fundamentalist leader Matthias Foss Cowley (b. 1858) on June 16 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Dutch anthropologist Eugene Dubois (b. 1858) on Dec. 16 in Venlo; dies still believing that Java Man (Homo erectus erectus) is the missing link. Swedish novelist Selma Lagerlof (b. 1858); 1909 Nobel Lit. Prize. Am. atty. Samuel Untermeyer (b. 1858) on Mar. 16 in Palm Springs, Calif. French journalist Paul Desjardins (b. 1859) on Mar. 13 in Pontigny. Swedish poet-novelist Verner von Heidenstam (b. 1859) on May 20 in Orvalid; 1916 Nobel Lit. Prize. British Labour politician George Lansbury (b. 1859). French tire manufacturer Edouard Michelin (b. 1859) on Aug. 25 in Orcines. German conductor Karl Muck (b. 1859) on Mar. 3 in Stuttgart. Am. Adm. Hugh Rodman (b. 1859) on June 7 in Bethesda, Md. Am. economist Frank William Taussig (b. 1859) on Nov. 11 in Cambridge, Mass. Am. "Son of the Middle Border" writer Hamlin Garland (b. 1860) on Mar. 4 in Hollywood, Calif. German inventor Paul Nipkow (b. 1860) on Aug. 24 in Berlin. German eugenicist Alfred Ploetz (b. 1860) on Mar. 20 in Herrsching, Bavaria; lives to see his dream of racial hygiene implemented by his idol Adolf Hitler. Am. Tommy Gun inventor John Taliaferro Thompson (b. 1860) on June 21; dies after going bankrupt, only to have WWII crank up the demand for his death sticks. Am. Tex. gov. #25 (1911-15) Oscar Branch Colquitt (b. 1861) on Mar. 8 in Austin, Tex. (influenza). German philosopher Carl Gruenberg (b. 1861) on Feb. 2 in Frankfurt. British gen. Sir Aylmer Hunter-Weston (b. 1864) on Mar. 18. German Zimmermann Telegram foreign minister Arthur Zimmermann (b. 1864) on June 6 in Berlin (pneumonia). Am. isolationist Repub. Sen. William E. Borah (b. 1865) on Jan. 19 in Washington, D.C. English actress Mrs. Patrick Campbell (b. 1865) on Apr. 9 in Pau, France. Am. Arctic explorer Dr. Frederick Albert Cook (b. 1865) on Aug. 5. French bicyclist-journalist Henri Desgrange (b. 1865) on Aug. 16 in Beauvallon (prostate cancer). English historian H.A.L. Fisher (b. 1865) on Apr. 18. Am. gen. William Sidney Graves (b. 1865) on Feb. 27 in Shrewbury, N.J. English physician-missionary Sir Wilfred Thomason Grenfell (b. 1865). English chemist Sir Arthur Harden (b. 1865) on June 17; 1929 Nobel Chem. Prize. English soccer player Tinsley Lindley (b. 1865) on Mar. 31 in Nottingham. Am. New York City mayor #93 (1904-9) George B. McClellan Jr. (b. 1865) on Nov. 30 in Washington, D.C. Polish writer Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer (b. 1865) on Jan. 18 in Warsaw. Norwegian industrialist Samuel Eyde (b. 1866) on June 21. Am. baseball hall-of-fame player Billy Hamilton (b. 1866) on Dec. 16 in Worcester, Mass. U.S. agriculture secy. #5 (1913-20) and treasury secy. #48 (1920-1) David Franklin Houston (b. 1866) on Sept. 2 in New York City (heart attack). English archeologist-writer E.F. Benson (b. 1867) on Feb. 29 in Univ. College, London. English-born Am. silent film actress Flora Finch (b. 1867) on Jan. 4 in Los Angeles, Calif. (blood poisoning from a cut on her arm). Am. social worker Lillian D. Wald (b. 1867). German architect Peter Behrens (b. 1868) on Feb. 27. German Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse (b. 1868) on May 28 in Kassel. English newspaper publisher Lord (1st Viscount) Rothermere (b. 1868) on Nov. 26. German adm. Adolf von Trotha (b. 1868) on Oct. 11. French painter Edouard Vuillard (b. 1868) on June 21 in La Baule. English PM Neville Chamberlain (b. 1869) on Nov. 9 in Highfield Park (near Heckfield), Hampshire (bowel cancer). Am. historian-diplomat William Edward Dodd (b. 1869) on Feb. 9 near Round Hill, Va. (pneumonia). Lithuanian-born Am.-British anarchist Emma Goldman (b. 1869) on May 14 in Toronto, Canada; the U.S. allows her to be buried in German Waldheim Cemetery in Forest Park, Ill.; her tombstone reads "Liberty will not descend to a people, a people must raise themselves to Liberty": "Show me the country in which there are no strikes and I'll show you that country in which there is no liberty." Am. sculptor Janet Scudder (b. 1869) on June 9 in Rockport, Mass. Am. silent film actor Ben Turpin (b. 1869) on July 1 in Santa Monica, Calif. (heart attack). Am. electrical engineer Robert Bowie Owens (b. 1870). Moravian-born German sculptor Hugo Lederer (b. 1871) on Aug. 1 in Berlin. Romanian PM (1931-2) Nicolae Iorga (b. 1871) on Nov. 27 in Strejnic; a child prodigy polyglot polymath historian, leaves a gigantic body of 5,614 works, mainly on the history of the Ottoman Empire and SE Europe, keeping him from finishing his master history of Da World. Am. actor Wilfred Lucas (b. 1871) on Dec. 5 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. writer Florence Scovel Shinn (b. 1871) on Oct. 17. German EEG inventor Hans Berger (b. 1873) on June 1 (suicide). Greek Olympic marathoner Spiridon Louis (b. 1873) on Mar. 26. Finnish pres. #4 (1937-40) Kyosti Kallo (b. 1873) on Dec. 19 in Helsinki; dies at the railroad station while trying to leave after writing a resignation note on Nov. 27. U.S. House Speaker (1936-40) William Brockman Bankhead (b. 1874) on Sept. 15. German chemist-industrialist Carl Bosch (b. 1874) on Apr. 26 in Heidelberg; 1931 Nobel Chem. Prize. Am. philanthropist Edward Stephen Harkness (b. 1874) on Jan. 29. Am. Hawaiian ukelele maker Jonath Kumalae (b. 1874) on May 6 in Honolulu. Russian theatrical producer Vsevolod Meyerhold (b. 1874) on Feb. 2 (executed). Scottish statesman-novelist-historian and Canadian gov.-gen. Sir John Buchan (b. 1875) on Feb. 11. Am. auto magnate Walter Percy Chrysler (b. 1875) on Aug. 18. Australian singer Florrie Forde (b. 1875) on Apr. 18 in Aberdeen, Scotland. Am. baseball player Patsy Dougherty (b. 1876) on Apr. 30 in Bolivar, N.Y. Am. historian William Henry Schofield (b. 1878). Am. bacteriologist Hans Zinsser (b. 1878) on Sept. 4 in New York City. German-Swiss abstract painter Paul Klee (b. 1879) on June 29: "I want to be as though new-born, knowing nothing, absolutely nothing about Europe." Russian rev. leader Leon Trotsky (b. 1879) on Aug. 21 in Mexico (assassinated): "Old age is the most unexpected of all the things that happen to a man"; "In a country where the sole employer is the State, opposition means death by slow starvation. The old principle: Who does not work shall not eat, has been replaced by a new one: Who does not obey shall not eat." Spanish pres. #2 (1936-9) Manuel Azana (b. 1880) on Nov. 3 in Montauban, France (exile); after the Vichy French refuse to allow his coffin to be covered with the Spanish Repub. flag, the flag of Mexico is substituted; leaves Diarios Completos: Monarquía, República, Guerra Civil (pub. in 2003). Czech violinist-composer Jan Kubelik (b. 1880) on Dec. 5. Russian-born Israeli Zionist leader Ze'ev Jabotinsky (b. 1880) on Aug. 4 in Hunter, N.Y. (heart attack); dies while visiting a Jewish self-defense camp in an effort to form a Jewish army to fight Hitler. buried in New Montefiore Cemetery in N.Y. according to his will that reads: "I want to be buried outside Palestine, may NOT be transferred to Palestine unless by order of that country's eventual Jewish government." Am. cowboy actor Tom Mix (b. 1880) on Oct. 11 near Florence, Ariz. (automobile accident); dies on State Route 79 in his Cord 812 Phaeton when it goes over a washed-out bridge and a large aluminum suitcase filled with money and jewels breaks his neck; buried in Forest Lawn Cemetery in Glendale, Calif. Am. Marine Corps. gen. Smedley Darlington Butler (b. 1881) on June 21. French archeologist Henri de Genouillac (b. 1881) on Nov. 20. English "Gill Sans" typographer Eric Gill (b. 1882) on Nov. 17. British diplomat Philip Henry Kerr, 11th marquess of Lothian (b. 1882) on Dec. 12 in Washington, D.C.; dies of food poisoning after refusing treatment. Austrian "The Eyewitness" novelist Ernst Weiss (b. 1882) on June 15 in Paris, France (suicide). English artist-philosopher Arthur Eric Rowton Gill (b. 1882). Am. silent film actor-dir.-producer Edwin Carewe (b. 1883) on Jan. 22 in Hollywood, Calif. (heart disease). Austrian novelist Ernst Weiss (b. 1884) on June 14 in Paris (suicide). Am. novelist DuBose Heyward (b. 1885) on June 16. German-born Am. entomologist Otto Emil Plath (b. 1885) on Nov. 5 in Winthrop, Mass. (diabetes); freaks-out his daughter Sylvia Plath, who later writes the poem "Daddy". Am. Iron Lung co-inventor Louis Agassiz Shaw Jr. (b. 1886) on Aug. 27 in Back Bay, Boston, Mass. Am. black leader Marcus Garvey (b. 1887) on June 10. Am. "Buck Rogers" sci-fi writer Philip Francis Nowlan (b. 1888) on Feb. 1 in Philadelphia, Penn. German dramatist Walter Hasenclever (b. 1890) on June 22 in Les Milles (OD). Dutch writer Hendrik Marsman (b. 1890) on June 21 in the English Channel (ship torpedoed). Czech novelist Rudolf Medek (b. 1890) on Aug. 22. Russian dramatist Mikhail Bulgakov (b. 1891) on Mar. 10 in Moscow (kidney disease); leaves "The Master and Margarita" (pub. 1966). British Capt. Edward Fegen (b. 1891) on Nov. 5 in the Atlantic Ocean (KIA). German Marxist philosopher Walter Benjamin (b. 1892) on Sept. 26 in Port Bou, Catalonia (suicide) (murder?). Am. silent film actor-dir. Charley Chase (b. 1893) on June 20 in Hollywood, Calif. (heart attack); dies heartbroken over his brother James Parrott's death 13 mo. earlier. Polish Socialist leader Mieczyslaw Niedzialkowski (b. 1893) on June 21 in Palmiry (executed). Soviet writer Isaak Babel (b. 1894) on Jan. 15 in Lubyanka Prison (executed). Soviet NKVD dir. (1937-40) Nikolai Yezhov (b. 1895) on Feb. 4 in Moscow (executed); after his official photos are retouched out of existence, he becomes known as "the Vanishing Commissar". Italian Air Marshal Italo Balbo (b. 1896) on June 28 in Tobruk, Libya (KIA). Am. "Great Gatsby" writer F. Scott Fitzgerald (b. 1896) on Dec. 21 in Hollywood, Calif. (heart attack); dies while beset with financial worries and illness, leading to a crack-up, which he wrote about in a series of essays, leaving an unfinished novel and 160 short stories, incl. May Day, The Diamond as Big as the Ritz, The Rich Boy, The Last of the Belles, and Babylon Revisited: "There are no second acts in American lives"; "Optimism is the content of small men in high places"; "Show me a hero and I will write you a tragedy"; "Writers aren't exactly people... they're a whole lot of people trying to be one person" - the good die young? Am. silent film actress Agnes Ayres (b. 1898) on Dec. 25 in Los Angeles, Calif. (cerebral hemorrhage). Am. "Day of the Locust" novelist Nathanael West (b. 1903) on Dec. 22 near El Centro, Calif. (auto accident); runs a stop sign the day after his friend F. Scott Fitzgerald dies; his new wife Eileen McKenny, protagonist of her sister's play "My Sister Eileen" dies with him. Cuban composer Alejandro Caturla (b. 1906) on Nov. 12 in Remedios. German imperial heir Prince Wilhelm of Hohenzollern (b. 1906) on May 26 in Nivelles, Belgium (KIA). Kiwi RAF pilot Edward James Kain (b. 1918) on June 7 in Echemines, France (KIA while performing acrobatics).
Chinese Year: Snake.
Time Mag. Man of the Year: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) (1932, 1934).
Collaboration with the Nazis in Netherlands
causes the Jewish pop. to shrink from 154,887 this year to 14,346 in 1947.
On Jan. 1 Stanford defeats Nebraska by 21-13 to win the 1941 Rose Bowl.
On Jan. 1 Red Army size reaches 4,207,000.
On Jan. 1-5 the British capture Bardia in Libya from the Italians under Lt. Gen.
Annibale "Electric Whiskers" Bergonzoli (1884-1973), who retreat to Tobruk with a few thousand troops after losing 35,949 POWs.
On Jan. 2-6 the Soviets hold strategic war games
for the "Northern variant", followed on Jan. 8-11 by the "Southern variant", assuming that the Germans invade first; after the Southern variant counterattack proves more successful, this area is chosen
as the main focus of Soviet forces.
On Jan. 3 Scandinavian-descent Henry Martin "Scoop" Jackson (1912-83) becomes a Dem. U.S. Rep. from Wash.,
followed by U.S. Sen. on Jan. 3, 1953 (until his death on Sept. 1, 1983); meanwhile Scandinavian-descent
Warren Grant "Maggie" Magnuson (1905-89) becomes Dem. U.S. Sen. from Wash. on Dec. 14, 1944
(until Jan. 3, 1981); they go on to work together to bring home the bacon, getting Wash. state nearly one-sixth of public works appropriations even though
it ranks 23rd in pop.; Magnuson slips an amendment into a funding bill to get supertankers banned from Puget Sound.
On Jan. 4 the Greek army resumes its offensive in Albania with 13 divs.
against 16 Italian divs., driving them back across the border towards
which they capture on Jan. 10, causing Mussolini to personally supervise a counterattack on Mar. 9, which is called off in less than two weeks.
On Jan. 6 the British launch Operation Excess,
sending three escorted merchant ships from Gibraltar to Athens carrying military supplies.
On Jan. 6 Pres. FDR delivers his
Four Freedoms Speech
(Annual Message to Congress), expressing the world aims of U.S. policy as freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship,
freedom from want, and freedom from fear, which sounds good until he adds:
"Translated into world terms, means a worldwide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation
will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor, anywhere in the world."
On Jan. 7-13 Chinese Nationalist Kuomingtang troops, enjoying a $630M lend-lease plus
a $500M loan from the U.S., ambush the Communist Chinese New Fourth Army, killing 3K in the
New Fourth Army (Wannan) Incident;
meanwhile the lovely Japanese forces in China one-up FDR by instituting a policy of "three alls" (kill all, burn all, destroy all) - as
yellow kills yellow while white kills white from pole to shining pole on Garden Earth?
On Jan. 10 the Germans stage their first air raid in the Mediterranean, with Sicily-based bombers attacking a convoy en route from Gibraltar to
Malta, sinking two merchant ships, badly damaging aircraft carrier Illustrious, and crippling cruiser Southampton so bad
that the British sink it, killing 80.
On Jan. 10 all Jews in the Netherlands are required to register.
On Jan. 11 Hitler issues
Fuhrer Directive No. 22,
pledging help to Mussolini, with the soundbyte:
"Tripolitania must be held, and the danger of a collapse on the Albanian front must be eliminated",
ordering troops to prepare to move to Albania "to go over to the offensive at a later date"; on
Jan. 12 Brits in Malta give their answer by bombing German air bases in Sicily.
On Jan. 13 Hitler invites King Boris I of Bulgaria to Berlin, asking him to join the
Axis and help Germany attack Greece; Boris does a Franco and declines.
On Jan. 13 Stalin holds a meeting with military cmdrs. in Moscow, telling them to
prepare for a 2-front war with Germany and Japan.
On Jan. 16 the Second Battle of Malta
(first in 1565) begins as 70 German dive bombers from Sicily attempt to sink damaged
British aircraft carrier Illustrious, known as "HMS Peppercoat" for its extensive
damage, killing 50+ civilians and damaging 200 bldgs. while losing 10 aircraft, but failing
to sink the carrier; on Jan. 16 85 German dive bombers attack the airfield at Luqa, destroying six British bombers.
On Jan. 19 after breaking the Italian code so they can read all messages, 30K British troops launch a counteroffensive in East Africa in Eritrea,
Somaliland, and Ethiopia, heading for Addis Ababa, entering Kassala on Jan. 20; meanwhile on Jan. 20 after the British 7th Armored Div. cuts
it off, Australian troops attack Tobruk, causing Mussolini to beg Hitler for help, who sends the 15th Armored Div. under Gen. Rommel.
On Jan. 20 the U.S. Supreme (Hughes) Court rules 6-3 in Hines v. Davidowitz
that a Penn. law requiring aliens to register and carry ID cards is superseded by the 1940 U.S. Alien Registration Act under the preemption doctrine.
On Jan. 20 U.S. pres. #32 Franklin D. Roosevelt is inaugurated for an unprecedented 3rd term in the
45th U.S. Pres. Inauguration;
Iowa-born U.S. secy. of agriculture #11 (1933-40) Henry Agard Wallace (1888-1965)
becomes the 33rd U.S. vice-pres.; Philly-born John Jay McCloy (1895-1989),
longtime associate of the Rockefeller family and lawyer for the German chemical firm I.G. Farben, who had long supported the Third Reich
and sat with Hitler at the 1936 Berlin Olympics becomes asst. war secy. (until 1945), going on to stink himself up by refusing
to bomb rail lines leading to the Nazi gas chambers while offering various phony excuses and later blaming it on FDR.
On Jan. 21 the Iron Guard rebels against Romanian dictator Ion Antonescu and massacres 120 Jews in the streets of Bucharest,
taking some to cattle slaughterhouses and butchering them Kosher-style as seen in the flick "The Eternal Jew";
the Iron Guard is quickly crushed with backing from Germany then outlawed, its top leaders executed or exiled, after which
Antonescu forms an alliance with the Nazis, guaranteeing them Romanian oil reserves and participation in Operation Barbarossa
in exchange for helping him recover Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from the Soviets, with the hopes of also getting back N
Transylvania from Hungary after the war.
On Jan. 22 Tobruk
in Libya falls to the 6th Australian Div., who take 25K POWs; on Feb. 1 the Italians abandon Benghazi.
On Jan. 23 Operation Rubble
sees five Norwegian merchant ships escape with British help from Gothenburg
to Scapa Flow, missing new German battle cruisers
which reach the Atlantic and sink 22 merchant ships before being sunk.
On Jan. 24 Nazi fighter ace
Franz Xaver Baron von Werra
(1914-41), who was shot down over S England last June escapes a POW train in Canada
to New York City, receiving mucho publicity, causing Hitler to award him the Knight's Cross;
3 mo. later while Canada seeks his extradition, he returns to Germany via Mexico, Panama, Brazil,
and Spain; too bad, on Oct. 25 he crashes into the sea N of Vlissingen on a practice flight, and his body is never found.
On Jan. 24 the Happy Valley Murder Case
sees dissolute English-born Scottish peer Josslyn Victor Hay, 22nd Earl of Erroll (b. 1904),
member of the pink-walled British expatriate gin-and-tonic Muthaiga Country Club
in Nairobi (founded 1913) found shot dead in his Buick on the Nairobi-Ngong Road in Kenya; old fart Sir
Henry John Delves "Jock" Broughton, 11th Baronet (1883-1942),
husband of young foxy Lady Diana Broughton,
who was hooking up with Erroll is tried for the murder, and after his hairdresser becomes jury foreman he is acquitted, but commits suicide on
Dec. 5, 1942 after returning to England; basis of the 1987 film "White Mischief".
On Jan. 24 U.S. Navy secy. Frank Knox writes
to the British War Dept. that a war with Japan might lead to a surprise attack at Pearl Harbor, with "inherent possibilities of a major disaster".
On Jan. 25 as Ky.-born Adm. Husband Edward Kimmel (1882-1968)
replaces Adm. Richardson as Pacific Fleet cmdr., they jointly write a
to Naval CIC Adm. Stark discussing the possibility of a Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, causing new pursuit planes and B-17 bombers
to be sent to Hawaii and the Philippines.
On Jan. 26-31 the 4th Indian Div. captures Agordat, Eritrea; on
Jan. 29 Italian troops evacuate Derna, Libya,
and Australian troops occupy it on Jan. 30; on Apr. 6 the Germans retake it.
On Jan. 27 the Anglo-British Conversations (ABC)
between the U.S. and Britain begin to plan how they can work together to defeat Germany in the event that the U.S. enters the war, deciding
on a united field command; on Mar. 27 they produce Joint Basic War Plan No. 1,
calling for defeating Germany before Japan.
On Jan. 29 after building the Metaxa Line,
a network of fortifications in N Greece along the Bulgarian frontier, "Hell No" Greek PM (since Apr. 13, 1936) Gen. Ioannis Metaxis (b. 1871) dies
in Athens of metataxemia, er, toxemia, causing rumors of being poisoned by the British, his rep as a dictator sweetened greatly by standing up to
Mussolini; on Jan. 29 Bank of Greece pres. Alexandros Koryzis (1885-1941),
becomes PM #131 of Greece (until Apr. 18), immediately facing a Nazi invasion.
In Jan. The Brains Trust
(originally "Any Questions") debuts on BBC, moving to Sun. afternoons and gaining a 29% audience share, with the audience submitting deep questions
such as "What is the meaning of life?"; the original brains are philosopher
Cyril Edwin Mitchison Joad (1891-1953),
biologist Julian Huxley (1887-1975), and retired naval Cmdr.
Archibald Bruce Campbell (1881-1966),
with William Donald Hamilton McCullough (1901-78)
as question master; Joad always answers with the phrase "It all depends on what you mean by", and becomes the #1 British philosopher with the public;
it becomes a BBC-TV show in the 1950s, and ends on on PBS in the U.S. in the 1960s with the slogan "Five Panelists Versus the Universe";
too bad, in Apr. 1948 Joad is convicted of travelling on the Waterloo-Exeter train without paying, and receives a £2 fine, the nat. publicity getting
him fired by BBC, ruining his hopes of a peerage and causing him to wither and die in a few years.
In Jan. 2K Jews die in Warsaw from Nazi-imposed hunger; ditto in Feb.
In Jan. the fascist-friendly Nat. Popular Rally (Front) (Rassemblement National Populaire) is organized in France, uniting
Radical Socialists and producing an electoral program by Jan.; it is dissolved in 1945.
In Jan. the Nazis get worked up over Finnish dog Jackie,
who mocks Hitler by making a Nazi salute, causing them to try to ruin its 41-y.-o. wholesale merchant owner
Tor Borg (1899-1960) of Tampere.
In Jan. the monthly mag. Gourmet
is founded by Earle R. MacAusland (1890-1980),
becoming the first U.S. mag. devoted to food and wine; it ceases pub. in Nov. 2009.
On Feb. 5 Romanian Jews are told they will get double punishment for crimes - one for Christ, one for Caesar?
On Feb. 5-7 the Italians lose the
Tank Battle of Beda Fomm
on the Libyan coast 120 mi. S of Benghazi, with 20K Italian POWs taken
along with 200 big guns and 120 tanks vs. nine British KIA; on Feb. 6
Australian troops capture Benghazi,
destroying 80 tanks and capturing seven generals incl. Gen. Bergonzoli; on
Feb. 8 after being given command by Hitler of all German mechanized units
in Libya on Feb. 6, with the order to hold Tripolitania to prevent
the British from breaking through to Tunisia, Gen. Erwin Rommel and his
5th Panzer Div. leave Naples by sea.
On Feb. 6 Hitler issues
Fuhrer Directive No. 23,
calling for stepping-up the sinking of British merchant shipping and
air attacks on armament factories rather than enemy ships and planes in order
to strangle the British war economy to hurt operations in Europe and Africa,
causing Winston Churchill on Feb. 9 to utter the soundbyte:
"Herr Hitler will do his utmost to prey upon our shipping and to reduce
the volume of American supplies entering these islands. Having conquered
France and Norway, his clutching fingers reach out on both sides of us,
into the ocean."
On Feb. 7 an editorial in
mag. by conservative Repub. anti-New Deal big boss
Henry Robinson Luce
(1898-1967) calls the 20th cent. "the American Century", arguing
that the U.S. should become like his Presbyterian missionary parents
and forsake isolationism to spread democracy as the world's Good Samaritan,
and ending with the big punchline, a call for the U.S. to enter WWII - his
Skull & Bones connection makes this an Illuminati conspiracy?
On Feb. 8 the U.S. House of Reps by 260-165 passes the
U.S. Lend-Lease Bill,
followed by the U.S. Senate by 60-31 on Mar. 8, with happy Winston Churchill uttering
the soundbyte: "Give us the tools and we will finish the job"; on Mar. 11 FDR signs it,
calling it "the end of compromise with tyranny".
On Feb. 10 Operation Colossus
sees the British launch their first airborne troop attack of the war,
dropping 38 paratroopers at a railway viaduct in Trignano (near Potenza)
in S Italy; too bad, they are captured, and don't do much damage.
On Feb. 11 French Adm.
Jean Louis Xavier Francois Darlan (1881-1942),
cmdr. of French naval forces since 1939 becomes vice-PM of Vichy France,
and the #2 most powerful figure after PM Henri-Philippe Petain.
On Feb. 11 the British advance into Italian Somaliland in E Africa.
On Feb. 11 the British govt. learns that the German force in Romania
will soon be 35 divs., enough to conquer Greece, causing them to order
resources to be shifted away from Tripoli to defend it to prevent the Germans
from being at the door of Egypt, the Suez Canal, and Jew-filled Palestine.
On Feb. 11 after fleeing Germany in 1933, settling in S France in 1938, then being
offered immunity by the Vichy French only to be handed over to the Gestapo at the border,
Jewish Socialist Dem. (ex-minister of finance of the Weimar Repub.)
Rudolf Hilferding (b. 1877)
dies in prison in Paris from abuse; his death isn't announced until fall; really
murdered on Hitler's orders?
On Feb. 12 after the whimpy Italians lose 20K killed or wounded and 130K POWs along
with 850 big guns and 400 tanks vs. 500 British KIA and 1.4K wounded,
German Gen. Erwin Rommel arrives in Tripoli, followed on Feb. 14 by the first units of
the German Afrika Korps; lucky that all British fighters are off in Greece, leaving
only one squadron in Cyrenaica.
On Feb. 12 Mussolini tries in vain to talk Gen. Franco into joining the Axis - he
saw the Charlie Chaplin movie?
On Feb. 14 Hitler fails to talk Yugoslav PM (1939-41)
(1893-1969) into joining the Axis; meanwhile FDR sends personal messages of
support to Prince Paul, prince regent of Yugoslavia and Turkish pres. Ismet Inonu - duh,
did you forget about WWI?
On Feb. 22 Pelagia Bernatowicz
of Grudziadz, Poland is sentenced to death for listening to a Polish
radio broadcast by the BBC.
On Feb. 22 after Wagnerian sopranos Kirsten Flagstad and Marjorie Lawrence become unavailable,
(1899-1972) gets her break with a live broadcast of the NBC Symphony Orchestra;
too bad, the Metropolitan Opera lets her go in 1953 after she becomes too big a hit with
on Jerry Lewis, Groucho Marx et al., after which she becomes a hit
at the Copacabana and on TV.
On Feb. 24 Hitler gives his
Road to the Future Speech
in Munich, with the soundbyte:
"When I first entered this hall 21 years ago, I was an unknown, nameless soldier,
with nothing behind me but my own convictions. During the years since, a new world
has been created. The road leading to the future will be easier than the road behind us."
On Feb. 25 after 400 Jews are rounded up, strikes break out in Amsterdam, the
Feb. 1941 Strike begins,
causing Holland SS head
Johann Baptist "Hanns" Albin Rauter
(1895-1949) to order troops to fire on the strikers, killing 11, after which
389 are deported to Buchenwald, and 2 mo. later the remaining 364 are sent
to the stone quarries of Mauthausen camp, which kills them all by fall; the
is formed as a German vehicle to communicate their orders; in return for immunity
for deportation, they must draw up the list of other Jews to be deported, resulting
in the elite saving their own; a registration of Jews in Holland shows 140,552 pure Jew,
14,549 half-Jew, and 5,719 quarter-Jew.
On Feb. 25 after seeing through Hitler's BS that daily German recon flights over the Baltic
are for lulling Britain into not preparing for an invasion, new Soviet army chief of staff Gen.
Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov (1896-1974)
issues a secret directive naming Germany as a probable enemy, instructing frontier regions to
make preparations; the Baltic Fleet is issued a directive to prepare to lay minefields; too bad,
there's a shortage of mines, roads, materials, factories, airfields, etc.
On Feb. 26 a Douglas DC-3 airliner crashes outside Atlanta, Ga., gravely injuring Eastern Airlines owner
Edward Vernon "Eddie" "Rick" Rickenbacker (1890-1973),
who is taken for dead by emergency medical personnel.
On Feb. 27 British Nigerian troops occupy Mogadishu.
On Feb. 27 the 13th Academy Awards
(first with sealed envelopes and the phrase "May I have the envelope, please?")
awards the best picture Oscar for 1940 to United Artists' Rebecca, best actor to James Stewart for The Philadelphia Story, best actress
to Ginger Rogers for Kitty Foyle, best dir. to John Ford and best supporting actress to Jane Darwell for The Grapes of Wrath;
Walter Brennan wins his 3rd best supporting actor Oscar for The Westerner ("Come and Get It", 1936; "Kentucky", 1938).
In Feb. the Communists in Vietnam reorganize into the First Co. of the Nat. Salvation Army, and are destroyed in an ambush by French
troops in Sept. - but the other Commies can't live without their love?
In Feb. Dutch communists organize a strike in protest of raids on Jewish neighborhoods, causing the Nazis to declare martial law on Mar. 8.
In Feb. after being arrested by the French police last Dec. 13,
Marcel Deat (Déat) (1894-1955)
(known for the article "Why Die for Danzig?") founds the
Nat. Popular Rally (Front) (RNP)
(Rassemblement National Populaire) by uniting Radical Socialists, going on to
collaborate with the Vichy regime.
In Feb. USMC Gen.
Holland McTyeire "Howlin' Mad" Smith
(1882-1967) becomes cmdr. of the
U.S. 1st Marine Div.,
going on to lead it on a Pacific island-hopping victory tour in WWII.
In Feb.-Mar. Marshal Goering visits Paris 4x to steal art works from private Jewish collections, incl. paintings by Euro masters; when a
local German official objects that he's breaking the law, Goering replies "The highest jurist in the state is me."
On Mar. 1 after building stone bridges over the Danube River from Romania on
Feb. 28, the first German troops enter Bulgaria as Hitler watches King Boris I join the Axis in Vienna.
On Mar. 1 the U.S. ambassador in Moscow informs Stalin that U.S. intel believes that Germany is about to attack them.
On Mar. 1 Heinrich Himmler orders the construction of
concentration camp (Auschwitz II) near Auschwitz.
On Mar. 3 Krakow (Cracow) Ghetto
On Mar. 3 Hitler tells Gen. Jodl that after taking over Russia, the "Jewish-Bolshevik intelligentsia.. must be eliminated".
On Mar. 3 German Jew Ernst Cahn (b. 1889)
becomes the first person to be shot by a firing squad since the German occupation
after his ammonia-based Koco Cafe fire protection system in Amsterdam accidentally triggers,
spraying a group of German soldiers and causing a riot; on Mar. 5 Dutch Communist
becomes #2 after being caught distributing leaflets calling for a strike.
On Mar. 4 Operation Claymore
sees the British raid the Lofoten Islands off Norway to capture an Enigma
machine from German armed trawler Krebs, killing 14 sailors
and capturing 25; too bad, Capt. Hans Kupfinger throws the machine
overboard, but they capture the coding documents, allowing German
naval messages to be read for several weeks in Apr.-May.
On Mar. 5 Hitler issues his
telling his troops:
"The war against Russia cannot be fought in knightly fashion. The struggle is one of ideologies and racial differences,
and will have to be waged with unprecedented, unmerciful, and unrelenting hardness"; it gleefully explains the Genocide Loophole:
"The Commissars hold views directly opposed to those of National Socialism, hence they must be eliminated. Any German soldier who
breaks international law will be pardoned. Russia did not take part in the Hague Convention and therefore has no rights under it."
On Mar. 5 Operation Lustre
begins, ferrying 60,364 British troops (four divs.) to Greece from Egypt.
On Mar. 5 spy Richard Sorge sends Stalin microfilm of a telegram by German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop to the German ambassador
in Japan containing his guess of mid-June as the likely date of the German invasion of the Soviet Union.
On Mar. 7 German sub U-47 is sunk, killing the entire crew incl. Royal Oak sinker Capt. Gunther Prien.
On Mar. 7 Austrian-born Warsaw actor Karol Juliusz "Igo" Sym (b. 1896)
is murdered by Polish patriots for declaring himself an ethnic German; when the murders won't give themselves up, the Germans take
160 hostages and shoot 17 of them.
On Mar. 11 the U.S. begins to supply Britain and Russia under the Lend-Lease Act.
On Mar. 14 Polish patriots
Edward Lembicz (b. 1904) and
Jan Mikolajczk (b. 1915)
are sentenced to death in Poznan by the Germans for singing the Polish nat. anthem.
On Mar. 15 Operation Savanna(h),
led by Free French soldier Capt. (later gen.)
Georges Roger Pierre Berge (Bergé)
(1909-97) becomes the first successful insertion of subversives into France via
parachute; too bad, their mission of blowing up a bus carrying Luftwaffe pilots is a bust,
but the extraction is successful.
On Mar. 17 Hitler orders Army Group South to move to Cracow.
On Mar. 17 German recon aircraft are sighted over the Soviet Baltic port
of Libava (Liepaja) in W Latvia,
with Stalin personally countermanding Adm. Kuznetsov's order to fire on
them or any German plane crossing the frontier; one plane makes a forced
landing outside the harbor, and the piloted is rescued, given dinner,
his plane refueled, and waved back to Germany.
On Mar. 17 Hamilton Airport in Milwaukee, Wisc. is renamed
Gen. Mitchell Field
after USAF Brig. Gen. William "Billy" Mitchell.
On Mar. 20 Sumner Welles tells Soviet ambassador (since June 6, 1939)
Konstantin Aleksandrovich Umansky
(1902-45) of news from Swedish diplomatic missions via the Greeks that the Germans
intend to attack the Soviet Union; meanwhile intel div. chief Gen.
Filipp Ivanovich Golikov
(1900-80) sends Stalin a report describing in detail the coming attack, and giving the
date as May 20, but concluding that it might be misinfo. from the British or Germans.
On Mar. 22 Japanese agent
Nagai (Nagao) Kita
is ordered to obtain info. about naval movements in and out of Pearl Harbor;
U.S. intel intercepts his instructions but don't get alarmed.
On Mar. 24 Rommel captures
then on Mar. 25 against Hitler's explicit instructions and Italian protests launches
a full-scale offensive against the depleted Brits who are strung out in Greece.
On Mar. 24 after replacing Adm. Richardson as Pacific fleet cmdr. in Jan., U.S. Adm.
Husband Edward Kimmel (1882-1968)
writes a letter
to Navy CIC Adm. Stark, with the soundbyte:
"The war may be initiated by enemy attack without warning, and these attacks may take
any form. Such attacks may be directed against shipping, outlying possessions, naval units,
or against Pearl Harbor itself."
On Mar. 25/26 six Italian torpedo boats under Lt.
attack Suda Bay in Crete,
damaging British cruiser HMS York so bad it has to be beached.
On Mar. 25 after British intel figures him out on Mar. 18 and works against him, and
four ministers resign on Mar. 20 after he asks them to join the Axis, regent
Prince Paul of Yugoslavia has PM Cvetkovic sign the Axis Pact, triggering the British-organized
Belgrade Coup on
Mar. 26-27, overthrowing and replacing him with 17-y.-o. Prince Peter as head of state,
and air force gen. Dusan Simovic
(1882-1962) as PM #18 (until Jan. 12); the new govt. offers to sign a non-aggression pact
with Germany, but Hitler goes nonlinear and orders the country's death and dismemberment
"with merciless harshness and ... in Blitzkrieg style", issuing
Fuhrer Directive No. 25
for Operation Punishment,
a simultaneous attack on Yugoslavia and Greece, causing the invasion of the Soviet Union
to be postponed from May to June.
On Mar. 26 Stallin' Stalin issues
Order No. 008130,
ordering the Western Special Military District to go to a "state of readiness"
until June 13, causing 58K men to begin working on fortifications in
the Baltic district, 35K in the Western district, and 43K in the Kiev
district; too bad, they leave several large gaps in their defense line,
esp. around Grodno; at the end of Mar. Stalin calls up 500K men,
followed a few days later by 300K more.
On Mar. 27 after 12 days the British drive the Italians from
Keren in Eritrea.
On Mar. 27-29 thanks to British intel breaking Italian codes so they can surprise them, the
Battle of Cape Matapan
in S Greece and Gaudo Island S of Crete is a V for the British navy
over the Italians, who lose 3 of 13 destroyers and 5 of 8 cruisers,
along with 2.4K sailors, vs. only two British aircraft lost; British Lt.
Prince Philip, son of Prince Andrew of Greece receives an honorable
mention for directing the searchlights of the Valiant.
On Mar. 30 Hitler tell 200 senior cmdrs. and their staff that the invasion
of Hammer and Sickle Land will be on June 22, with the soundbyte:
"We have the chance to smash Russia while our own back is free. That
chance will not return so soon. I would be betraying the future of the
German people if I did not seize it now", explaining his Commissar Decree
with the soundbyte that cruelty is "kindness for the future", telling
them that "It is not our job to see that these criminals [commissars] survive",
telling the shocked generals to carry out his orders with absolute unconditional obedience.
On Mar. 31 the Central Office for Jewish Emigration
is created in the Netherlands.
In Mar. the comic book series Captain America
by Timely Comics (predecessor of Marvel Comics), created by
Joseph Henry "Joe" (Hymie) Simon (1913-2011)
and artist Jack Kirby (Jacob Kurtzberg) (1917-94)
debuts with a cover showing him hitting Adolf Hitler in the face; his alter ego is Steve Rogers, born on July 4, 1917
in Lower East Side, Manhattan to Irish immigrants, who is a tall scrawny weakling until given the Super-Soldier serum
designed by Abraham Erskine AKA Dr. Josef Reinstein; his popularity zooms during WWII then tanks, and he is retired in 1953,
then revived in 1964 to become a member of the Avengers.
In the spring U.S. polls indicate that 80% of Americans are opposed to joining WWII.
On Apr. 2 British forces begin falling back in Cyrenaica in North Africa; on
Apr. 4 Benghazi is recaptured by troops under Gen. Rommel.
On Apr. 2 making use of decrypted messages, British torpedo aircraft
sink four of five Italian destroyers en route from Massawa to Port Sudan.
On Apr. 2 a pro-Axis Arab regime is set up in Iraq by
Rashid Ali al-Gaylani
(1892-1965), who seizes the Turkmeni town of
in NE Iraq (90 mi. SE of Mosul), cutting off the oil pipeline to the Mediterranean
used by the British, delighting Hitler, who sends military experts and arms from
Vichy Syria, only to have the British retake it by June 1 after landing at Basra on
Apr. 18; on Apr. 28 Rashid Ali seals off the British airbase
55 mi. W of Baghdad, trapping 2.2K soldiers and 9K civilians; on May 2 British forces
from the airfield launchd preemptive airstrikes on Iraqi forces throughout Iraq,
beginning the Anglo-Iraqi War
(ends May 31); the siege is lifted by the units based at Habbaniya along with pilots from the
training school, a battalion of the King's Own Royal Regiment flown in at the last moment,
No. 1 Armoured Car Co. RAF, and the RAF's Iraq Levies; the subsequent arrival of a relief column
(Kingcol), part of Habforce sent from Palestine causes the rebel forces to retreat to Baghdad.
On Apr. 3 after Hungarian PM Count Pal Teleki commits suicide over
Hungarian regent Adm. Horthy's decision to join the Axis, Hitler issues
Fuhrer Directive No. 26,
promising the Yugoslavian province of the Banat to Hungary, and
Macedonia to Bulgaria; Italy is instructed to attack Yugoslavia only
after the German attack "begins to be effective".
On Apr. 4 disguised German raider
sinks British armed merchant cruiser Voltaire; by the end of June
German deception ships sink 38 merchantmen, while undisguised raiders incl.
Pinguin sink 37.
On Apr. 5 the Duke of Aosta, Italian viceroy of Ethiopia orders the evacuation of
Addis Ababa; on Apr. 7
the British occupy Massawa,
main Italian naval base in East Africa after the Italians lose 3K of 13K; on May 5
Emperor Haile Selassie returns to Addis Ababa 5 years to the day after leaving.
On Apr. 6 (Palm Sun.) (5:00 a.m.) backed up by Bulgaria
Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece,
launching the April War (Operation 25), starting with
Operation Retribution (Punishment) (Castigo),
the bombing of Belgrade (ends Apr. 10), killing 17K civilians in one day;
Luftwaffe Gen. Alexander Lohr (Löhr) (1885-1947),
who runs the bombing and also the Sept. 1939 bombing of Warsaw is executed for it after the war;
the Axis has 50 divs., Yugoslavia 28 divs., with far less armor;
most of Yugoslavia's 600 aircraft are destroyed on the ground;
German troops from Austria and Hungary move on Belgrade, while more
from Bulgaria move on Nis, Skopje, and Monastir, and more from Bulgaria
invade Greece, attacking Salonica; the Luftwaffe bombs Piraeus,
sinking six Allied ships followed by Clan Fraser, carrying
200 tons of explosives, which blows up, taking 10 more ships with it;
Northern Prince, carrying bomb-making materials for the Greeks
is sunk in the E Mediterranean; on
Apr. 8 the Germans occupy
Salonica (Salonika); on
Apr. 9 70K Greek troops under Gen.
Konstantinos Th. Bakopoulos
(1889-1950) surrender; on Apr. 9 (night) to get even for Belgrade, British bombers
drop incendiary bombs on C Berlin, causing Hitler to head for his air raid shelter; on
Apr. 10 the Germans occupy
allowing Croat nationalist leader
(1889-1959) to declare Croatian independence, with Croatian Peasant Party leader
Vladimir "Vladko" Macek
(1879-1964) being smart enough to turn down the job of PM after deciding that the
Axis will lose the war, although it results in his arrest in Oct.;
Hitler takes his train Amerika to
near Ahnuldland Graz in S Austria to watch the action, welcoming escaped
Canadian POW Franz von Werra (and father a secret child to take over
the world one day, named Arnold?); on Apr. 11 as German troops reach
the outskirts of Belgrade, Italian troops from Albania, Istria, and
Zara invade the Dalmatian coast, occupying
Uljan Island and
Ljubljana (May 3),
while Hungarian troops invade the Banat, moving toward Novi Sad; more Italian troops
reclaim the areas taken from them by the Greeks; on Apr. 13 German troops occupy
(8th Euro capital in 1.5 years), the first citizen to be murdered being a Jewish tailor
who spits at the troops and shouts "You will all perish"; on Apr. 17 Yugoslavia surrenders
to the Germans in Belgrade after losing 341K POWs incl. 6K officers, and after being
refused permission by the king to resign, Greek PM Alexandros Koryzis commits suicide
at 4 p.m. as the Germans close in on Athens (the Greek papers call it a heart attack to
cover it up); on Apr. 18 after some frustrated Greek soldiers fire on their own officers,
the Germans break through the Kiwi-held
closing in on Athens, causing Greek PM (since Jan. 29)
Alexandros Koryzis (b. 1885)
(who was refused permission to resign by the king) to commit suicide at 4 p.m.
(the Greek papers call it a heart attack to cover it up); on Apr. 23 Greece surrenders,
with many battery cmdrs. committing suicide while the men sing the Greek nat. anthem;
King George II of Greece flees to London and forms a govt. in exile; on Apr. 24-May 1
evacuates 50,732 British troops from Greece to Crete, while resistance inside Greece
continues, hampered by ideological differences between the resistance groups;
German paratroopers occupy the Greek islands of Lemnos, Thasos, and Samothrace;
Bulgaria invades N Greece, and is granted an outlet to the Aegean Sea;
Prince Peter and his govt. flee Yugoslavia, which ceases to exist, being
replaced by the new supposedly independent Axis-run states of Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro,
with some parts ceded to Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Italian protectorate of Albania;
the V in Big Y backfires when the heavy-handed tactics of the SS cause Yugoslavians
(working with Croats to ethnically cleanse Serbs) to develop a strong resistance movement
consisting of two resistance armies, the pro-monarchy anti-Communist
Chetniks under Gen.
Draza Mihailovich (Drazha Mihajlovic)
(1893-1946) and the pro-Soviet
under half-Croatian half-Slovene Marxist
Josip Broz Tito
(1892-1980), who later after the war tries to wipe out his nationalist
opponents, Serb, Slovene, and Albanian.
On Apr. 8 (night) German bombers return to Coventrized Coventry, smashing
On Apr. 9 while Hitler is looking the other way, the U.S. signs the
with the Danish minister in Washington, D.C., placing Greenland under U.S.
protection for the duration while maintaining Danish sovereignty and affirming
loyalty to Christian X; FDR tells Churchill that the U.S. will extend
its patrol area in the Atlantic as far E as the 25th meridian.
On Apr. 10 the Germans under Gen. Rommel cut off 24K Australian troops in
starting a siege, but they are repulsed by May 1.
On Apr. 10 Stalin starts waking up and issues decrees to defend Moscow
and Leningrad with fighter corps.
On Apr. 10 the U.S. commits its first hostile action against Germany
when destroyer USS Niblack
drops depth charges against a U-boat that sunk a Dutch freighter.
On Apr. 11 (night) the Germans bomb the docks of
Bristol, England; on
Apr. 12 Churchill visits it with new U.S. ambassador (until 1946)
John Gilbert Winant
(1889-1947), who observes high morale.
On Apr. 12 French Lt.
Alain Le Ray
(1910-2007) becomes the first of many persons to escape from
Germany's supposedly escape-proof
On Apr. 13 two years after their 1939 border war, Japan and the Soviet Union sign the 5-year
Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact in Moscow,
freeing Stalin to concentrate on the German threat, and Japan to concentrate on Asia and the Pacific;
Stalin makes a rare public appearance at the railway station to say goodbye to foreign minister (1940-1)
Yosuke Matsuoka (1880-1946),
with the soundbyte "We are both Asiatics", making a point of making shows of friendships with
the German ambassador and military attache.
On Apr. 14 Stalin orders 2.3K artillery emplacements built in the W frontier area; only 1K are
built by the time of the German invasion.
On Apr. 14 Hungarian troops in N Yugoslavia
500 Jews and Serbs and shoot or bayonet them to death.
On Apr. 14 Gen. Rommel captures
along with Halfaya Pass.
On Apr. 15 the Germans occupy
immediately removing the 1930 Gavrilo Princip Plaque and destroying the new
Sephardic Il Kal Grande Great Synagogue, with
joining in the fun.
On Apr. 15 the Soviets force a German aircraft down near
and find a camera and detailed topographical map of the frontier region.
On Apr. 15 Jews in the
are ordered to turn in their wireless sets.
On Apr. 16 (night) to get even for Berlin, the Germans stage a massive bombing
raid on London, killing 2.3K.
On Apr. 19 British troops retreat to S Greek ports incl. Nauplia, Kalamata,
and Monemvasia; on Apr. 20-25 as they evacuate to Crete, the Germans are
held in rearguard action by Anzac troops at the
Battle of Thermopylae
in E Greece, who also evacuate to Crete, causing Hitler on Apr. 25 to issue
Fuhrer Directive No. 28
for Operation Mercury
to invade Crete.
On Apr. 19 (night) attempting to relieve Tobruk, a British commando force lands at
Bardia, but is driven off; on
Apr. 21 after learning that Gen. Rommel is about to be reinforced with a tank div.
at Tobruk, Churchill launches
sending tanks from Britain to Egypt, hoping there will be no German invasion of Britain.
On Apr. 20 Hitler celebrates his 52nd birthday.
On Apr. 23 Cambodian king (since 1927) Sisowath Monivong (b. 1875)
dies, and his son prince Sisowath Monireth is passed over for his
daughter's more manageable 19-y.-o. son
(1922-), who on Apr. 25 becomes king of Cambodia (until Mar. 2, 1955).
On Apr. 24 the
On Apr. 26 Hitler leaves Monichkirchen to visit Maribor (renamed Mariburg) in N Yugoslavia,
then visits Graz, Austria,
where he gets a "fanatical reception" - from Ahnuld's parents?
On Apr. 27 German forces occupy
after total losses of 15.7K Greeks, 13,755 Italians, 3,712 British, and 2,232 Germans KIA;
under German occupation 300K die of starvation, plus tens of thousands killed in reprisals.
On Apr. 29 Hitler gives a
speech to 9K officer cadets, with the
soundbyte that he never knew the meaning of the word capitulation.
On Apr. 29 after his efforts at promoting isolationism are foiled by FDR,
German charge d'affairs (Nov. 1938-Dec. 11, 1941)
Hans Thomsen (1891-1968)
telegraphs from Washington, D.C. claiming that the U.S. has broken the Japanese Magic code
used by ambassadors; too bad, neither the Germans nor Japanese believe him.
On Apr. 30 a German U-boat sinks British troop transport
killing 73 Canadian soldiers, the only lost at sea during the war while
en route from Canada to Britain.
On Apr. 30 Otto Frank first writes to Nathan Straus Jr. for help in emigrating to the U.S.
In Apr. the Germans sink 394,107 tons of Allied merchant shipping, plus 187,054 tons in
Greek ports during evacuation; the British lose 6,065 civilians to bombing.
In Apr. eager-to-please Stalin keeps honoring the Aug. 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact,
sending Germany 208K tons of grain, 90K tons of oil, 8.3K tons of cotton,
6,340 tons of metals, and 4K tons of rubber imported from Asia.
In Apr. after being criticized by FDR for making politically-incorrect America First
statements, Charles Lindbergh resigns from the Air Corps Reserve Commission - want
me to take my hat off so you get a better look?
In Apr. Rama Varma XVII dies, and his younger brother Sir
Sri Kerala Varma VI
(1863-1943) becomes king (maharaja) of Cochin (until Oct. 13, 1943) - big
On May 1 the Soviet May Day Parade sees Stalin put new Soviet ambassador to Berlin
Vladimir Georgievich Dekanozov (Dekanozishvili)
(1898-1953) in the place of honor next to him above Lenin's tomb; meanwhile a
military bulletin warns that the Germans have accelerated troop movements to the border,
esp. around Memel 60 mi. S of Libava, the most westerly Soviet naval base, and Herr Hitler
orders Berlin bombed nightly to keep up the deception.
On May 1 Jewish doctors in the
are banned from treating non-Jews; all Jews are banned from attending stock and commercial exchanges.
On May 1 Cheerios
(originally CheeriOats until 1945) brand oat breakfast cereal is intoduced by Gen. Mills, selling 1.8M cases (12 boxes/case) the first year;
they are made with the same puffing gun technology used to make Kix brand creal since 1937;
in the mid-1950s the Cheerios Kid is introduced in commercials, with the slogan "Big-G, little-o... Go-power";
in mid-1976 they introduce Cinnamon Nut Cheerios, followed in 1979 by Honey Nut Cheerios, which outsells the original in 2009,
when Olympic gold medal gymnast Shawn Johnson becomes the first athlete to be featured on the box; in 1988 the introduce
Apple Cinnamon Cheerios, followed by MultiGrain Cheerioes (1992), Frosted Cheerios (1995), Berry Burst Cheerios (2001), and
Chocolate Cheerios (2010); in 2013 Gen. Mills airs an interracial ad "Just Checking", which causes a racist reaction and PC counterreaction,
causing them to release the 2014 Super Bowl ad "Gracie", which rubs it in by the mother having a biracial baby, sans negative reactions;
by 2015 one in every eight boxes of cereal sold in the U.S. is guess what.
On May 4 Hitler gives a
at the Reichstag in Berlin, with the soundbyte:
"The most unscrupulous men of the present time had, as they admit today, decided as early as 1936
to involve the Reich, which in its peaceful work of reconstruction was becoming too powerful for them,
in a new and bloody war and, if possible, to destroy it. They had finally succeeded in finding a state
that was prepared for their interests and aims, and that state was Poland. All my endeavors to come
to an understanding with Britain were wrecked by the determination of a small clique which, whether
from motives of hate or for the sake of material gain, rejected every German proposal for an understanding
due to their resolve, which they never concealed, to resort to war, whatever happened. The man behind
this fanatical and diabolical plan to bring about war at whatever cost was Mr. Churchill. His
associates were the men who now form the British government."
On May 4-19 an Italian force of 7K collapses against a mixed force of British, Indian, South African, and Abyssinian troops at the
Second Battle of Amba Alagi.
On May 5 Romanian dictator Ion Antonescu informs Berlin that Soviet troops are moving W from Siberia and concentrating
around Kiev and Odessa, and that factories in Moscow "have been ordered to transfer their equipment to the country's interior".
On May 5 the blinders are taken off as Stalin gives a
to military academy graduates, saying that the Red Army is ready to fight the most modern army", warning that Germany is attempting
to seize all of Europe, making it necessary for Russia to be ready, with the soundbyte:
"A good defense signifies the need to attack. Attack is the best form of defense... We must now conduct a peaceful, defensive policy with attack.
Yes, defense with attack. We must now re-teach our army and commanders. Educate them in the spirit of attack";
he's really trying to bluff the Germans into dropping any invasion plans?
On May 5 after a British rout of the Italian occupiers, Ethiopian Emperor
Haile Selassie (1897-1975)
enters Addis Ababa exactly five years after the Italians captured it, regaining his throne.
On May 5 French Resistance spy
Georges Begue (Bégué) (George P. Begue) (1911-93)
(AKA George Noble and George One) parachutes into Vichy France 20 mi. S of Chateauroux to set up
an underground radio transmitter to communicate with London; on May 9
Pierre de Vomecourt (Vomécourt) (1906-86)
joins him, becoming the first Special Operations executive (SOE) group leader in France.
On May 6 Stalin replaces Molotov as Soviet PM as a last ditch attempt to rescue relations with Germany;
meanwhile he orders reserve troops from the Urals and the Volga River to the Dnieper River, W Dvina,
and border regions.
On May 6 Operation Tiger II
sees 13 British merchant ships leave Gibraltar, arriving in Egypt after losing one ship, bringing
238 tanks and 43 fighters.
On May 6 London-born Am. comedian
Leslie Townes "Bob" Hope (1903-2003)
hold shis first USO show before an audience of servicemen in a broadcast from March Field in Riverside, Calif.;
Am. singer-actress Frances Langford (1913-2005)
joins Bob Hope's radio show, going on to accompany him on his WWII USO tours, singing her signature song
"I'm in the Mood for Love", to which one GI shouts "You've come to the right place, honey!",
which Hope later says got the biggest laugh he ever heard.
On May 7 Spanish Civil War veteran
(1892-1980) flees from Zagreb to Belgrade, setting up a Communist resistance org.
under the name Valter, later changing it to Tito; on May 11 former Yugoslav army officer
Col. Draza Mihailovic sets up a resistance org. in Ravna Gora plateau
in W Serbia, attracting Chetniks to fight the Germans; after two years
the Brits switch support to Tito after he opposes Serbian nationhood.
On May 8 after sinking 28 merchant ships in 10 mo., German commerce raider
is sunk off Seychelles by British cruiser HMS Cornwall.
On May 8 the British capture an Enigma machine from German U-boat
in the Atlantic, which sinks while being towed to Iceland, killing
all aboard incl. Capt. Julius Lemp, sinker of Athenia.
On May 8 the Nazis force Belgian workers to blow up a monument to victims
of the first German WWI gas attack in Belgium in Apr. 1915 in
On May 8 (night) German bombers miss the target of an aircraft engine factory in Derby
by 20 mi. after the British use electronic jamming to bend their signal beam.
On May 10 the Germans finish Operation Otto (begun Oct. 1, 1940), the construction of
road and rail facilities to the Soviet border.
On May 10 Hitler's deputy leader (since 1934)
(1894-1987) (a pilot in WWI) steals a plane and flies to Scotland dressed up in a robe
with a number of occult symbols, apparently to negotiate a peace with the Scots
(he knew about Sir William Wallace and Sir Robert Bruce and thought Churchill was like
Edward I Longshanks?);
he parachutes out near Eaglesham just S of Glasgow, is captured, claims that he came to
negotiate a peace with Britain, denies any planned attack on Russia, and is declared nuts
after an official Nazi announcement says that he is suffering from "a mental disorder",
and kept incommunicado and caged throughout the war, incl. a short stay in the Tower of London;
the move foils British spy
Ian Lancaster Fleming (1908-64),
who was trying to use mystic Aleister Crowley to supply him with fake horoscopes - looking
for Sir William Wallace to help him fight for his free-ee-ee-dom?
On May 10 (night) the Germans badly damage the Houses of Parliament in
London, destroying the debating chamber of the House of Commons, making
one-third of the streets in C London impassible and killing a record
1,436 civilians; meanwhile the British bomb the U-boat base at Hamburg; on
May 10 the London Blitz (begun Aug. 23, 1940) ends, leaving 20K dead and 1.4M homeless.
On May 12 German Luftwaffe officer Maj.
Axel von Blomberg (b. 1908)
(son of Field Marshal Wener von Blomberg)
arrives in Baghdad to help Rashid Ali, and on May 15 is killed by a stray bullet
from a British plane; meanwhile the Japanese ambassador in Baghdad
reports to Tokyo that Rashi Ali won't hold out for more than 3-8 days,
esp. if the British advance from Palestine, which is intercepted by
British intel, causing the Arab Legion under Maj. Glubb and the
Transjordan Frontier Force to be sent 300 mi. to Habbaniya, with
the Jordanians mutinying rather than fight rather Muslims, er, Arabs.
On May 12 the German high command orders that high-ranking Russian officials and leaders
"must be eliminated", making it look like an act of reprisal for reprisals against German pilots.
On May 12 after rescuing a team of French nuclear scientists and their stockpile of heavy water (entire world's supply?)
before the French defeat, the Holy Trinity of British bomb disposal experts incl.
Charles Howard, 20th Earl of Suffolk, 13th Earl of Berkshire (b. 1906),
his secy. Miss Morden, and his chauffeur Fred Hards are killed when their 35th bomb explodes in Erith Marshes, Kent.
On May 13 Stalin divides the Soviet Union into seven districts in preparation for war with Hitler.
On May 14 the Germans begin a massive air bombardment of
to deceive the Allies that they are about to invade, but British intel decodes their messages.
On May 14 three Poles,
Leon Pawlowski, and Stanislaw Wencel are sentenced to death in Poznan for resistance, with
the Germans pub. the warning "Everyone who believes in resistance will be destroyed."
On May 15 the first British jet airplane, the
Gloster Whittle E-28/39,
developed by Sir
Frank Whittle (1907-96)
"If you had been given the money you would have been six years ahead of us. If Hitler or Goering
had heard that there is a man in England who flies 500 mph in a small experimental plane and that it
is coming into development, it is likely that World War II would not have come into being" (Hans Von Ohain).
On May 15 after decoding German messages revealing that Gen. Rommel's forces are tired
and need rest, the British attack at the Egyptian border in
forcing them to withdraw from the Halfaya Pass; on May 27 Gen. Rommel recaptures
Halfaya Pass, taking 3K POWs and 123 big guns; on May 29 Rommel counterattacks, but they
decode the messages again and withdraw in time.
On May 15 the Battle of Crete
begins with German air attacks, invading early on May 20 in 493 Junkers JU 52 troop planes, most landing
near the Maleme airfield, after which the 32K British and Anzac and 10K Greek troops only shoot down seven,
although III Battalion 1st Assault Regiment loses 112 of 126 men; in the evening the Germans capture Hill 107,
which overlooks the airfield, and on May 21 the Germans capture it, allowing refinforcements to be flown in; on
May 22 German dive bombers sink British cruisers Fiji and Gloucester, machine-gunning survivors,
killing 725, and damaging battleship Valiant, with Lt. Prince Philip of Greece aboard; on May 23 destroyer
Kelly is sunk by 24 dive bombers, killing 130;
Lord Louis Mountbatten is a survivor; on May 28 (night) the British begin evacuating from Sphakia, Paleohora,
and Plakias while 2.7K Italians land at Sitia; on May 29 the Germans badly damage British flagship
killing 360 of 1,090; on June 1 (night) the British evacuation ends with 17K evacuated and 5K left behind;
the Germans lose 1,990 KIA vs. 1,742 British troops and 2,265 sailors, after which Hitler abandons parachute assaults for good.
On May 15 Richard Sorge sends Stalin a radio message pinning down the invasion date as June 20-22, causing Soviet troops
to be rushed from the Far East to a line between Kreslava and Kremenchug sans equipment and arms.
On May 15 after failing to find volunteers, German SS doctor
Sigmund Rascher (1909-45)
requests permission from Heinrich Himmler to use 2-3 "professional criminals" from Dachau for oxygen endurance tests, and is approved.
On May 16 the Soviet Union and Iraq
establish diplomatic relations.
On May 17 Iceland
announces its intention of separating from Denmark; after FDR accepts Churchill's
request on June 14, U.S. forces replace British forces in July.
On May 19 "Uncle" Ho Chi Minh ("He Who Enlightens")
(1890-1969) (Nguyen Sinh Cung) (Nguyen Ai Quoc) (Nguyen That Thanh) (Nguyen Van Thanh)
forms the Viet Minh
(Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh) (League for the Independence of Vietnam).
On May 20 after several thousand Jews emigrate from France and Belgium to neutral Portugal
followed by the U.S., German SS Brig. Gen. (deputy of Reinhard Heydrich)
Walther Friedrich Schellenberg
(1910-52) informs the Gestapo and German consulates that Jewish emigration is forbidden
"in view of the undoubtedly imminent final solution of the Jewish problem";
Frontier (Border) Police School
in Pretsch on the Elbe River that they will lead 3K SS troops in the rear of the German army
in Russia for an "annihilation campaign against the racial enemy"; on June 1 Heydrich adds
that the "Eastern Jews" are the "intellectual reservoir of Bolshevism", and "in the Fuhrer's view"
must be liquidated - ha ha ha ha staying alive?
On May 22 FDR directs the U.S. military to draft
War Plan Gray
for the occupation of the Portuguese Azores by 28K troops, half Marines.
On May 24 the
Battle of the Denmark Strait
sees British ship HMS Hood
(last British battle cruiser built, the pride of the Royal Navy) sunk (killing all but
3 of 1,418 aboard) by German battleship
(the pride of the German Navy) under Capt. Lindemann, which is itself hunted down and sunk
(2.3K lives lost incl. Adm. Lutjens) off Brest, France on May 27 by the British Navy after
puts three torpedoes in it, causing Adm. Lutjens to order it scuttled, and the
Dorsetshire and Maori abandon rescuing survivors after a U-boat alarm, causing
hundreds of German sailors to be cut to pieces by their propellers;
the cat survives, is renamed Oscar, and serves aboard HMS Cossack, which is sunk on Oct. 24,
which he also survives, causing him to be renamed to Unsinkable Sam and shipped aboard HMS Ark Royal,
which is sunk a few weeks later, after which he is retired in Belfast, Ireland.
On May 24 a British sub sinks Italian liner
SS Conte Rosso
en route to Libya, killing all 1.5K aboard.
On May 25 as the British counterattack the Germans at
Galatos in Crete
with 25 bayonet charges, Greek King George II is evacuated with his ministers to Egypt - old man
take a look at my life, I'm a lot like you?
On May 26-June 11 the
Battle of Bir Hakeim in Libya
sees Free French and French Foreign Legion troops repel an Italian attack; on May 28 French Capt.
Pierre Joseph Auguste Messmer
(1916-2007) (future French PM in 1972-4) holds back 15 German Panzers trying to finish the job; on
June 12 the Germans finally take it after killing 72 of 2.5K French troops, causing the Brits to
retreat to Egypt, leaving the Germans and Italians at its gates, threatening the Suez Canal - that'll
get FDR's attention?
On May 27 Pres. Roosevelt gives a radio Fireside Chat titled
On An Unlimited Nat. Emergency,
citing rising world tensions to proclaim an "unlimited national emergency", announcing that
U.S. ports "are helping now to ensure the delivery of needed supplies to Britain", and
uttering the immortal soundbyte "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself."
On May 30 after a fuel shortage ends Italian air support, Rashid Ali sends the mayor of Baghdad
to ask for an armistice; on June 1-2 after getting whipped-up by pro-Nazi Jew-hating Jerusalem
grand mufti (1921-48)
Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (al-Husseini) (1895-1974)
(who fled to Iraq in 1939 with 400 Palestinian supporters), helped by Nazi propaganda, the
(Arabic "violent dispossession") sees Muslim Nazi sympathizers in Baghdad and Basra, Iraq
stage a pogrom against the long-settled (2.6K years) 140K Jewish pop., killing 180, wounding
hundreds, and destroying 900 Jewish homes and 586 shops; British authorities stand by
and don't pub. their official report until 1958; the dissolution of the Iraqi Jewish community begins, with Nuremberg-style laws, and 90% flee to Israel after 1948, along
with 1M Jews from the Arab world.
In May U.S. freighter Robin Moor
is sunk by a German U-boat.
On June 1 the Germans finish conquering Crete.
By June 1 the Russians have 150 rifle divs., seven armored divs., and 38 armored brigades on their W border.
On June 3 the SS Death Head Div. leaves Bordeaux for Marienwerder, East Prussia for the big fun
in ha-ha-ha-ha Russia.
On June 4 a pro-Allied govt. is installed in Iraq.
On June 4 after refusing Hitler's offer to live on one of his former royal estates in Prussia,
Kaiser Wilhelm II (b. 1859) dies in exile in Doorn, Netherlands before getting to see the new
German invasion of hated Bolshevik Russia - was he feeling doorn high or doorn low?
On June 6 Hitler orders Gen. Brauchitsch to issue the ha-ha-ha-ha Commissar Decree to all cmdrs.
On June 8 (2:00 a.m.) to cut the Germans off from the easy route to Palestine and the
Suez Canal, 9K British, 18K Australian, 2K Indian, and 5K Free French (De Gaullist) troops launch
invading Vichy-held Syria and Lebanon from Iraq and Palestine, capturing
Damascus on June 21,
followed on July 9 by
Tyre, and on July 12 by
an armistice is signed on July 12, and Syria becomes an Allied base for the rest of the war,
with French Gen. Georges Catroux
(1877-1969) promising them independence with Damascus as capital of the
Repub. of Syria
(until 1958); it isn't recognized until Jan. 1, 1944; 26-y.-o. Zionist Palestinian volunteer
Moshe Dayan (1915-81)
loses an eye in the early days.
On June 8 German infantry units begin landing in Finland for the attack on Russia.
On June 10 (751st anniv. of the drowning death of HRE Frederick I Barbarosa in 1190)
the Germans launch
laying mines in the Baltic Sea for 10 days to trap the Russian fleet.
On June 11 Hitler talks with Romanian leader Ion Antonescu, telling
him he's not expecting active assistance but "merely expected of Romania
that in her own interest she do everything to facilitate a successful
conclusion of this conflict", promising him Bessarabia et al. - he
has to do a balancing act like Nadia Comaneci?
On June 11 Hitler issues
Fuhrer Directive No. 32,
laying down detailed plans for the military after it defeats the Soviet Union, incl.
to secure the Atlantic coasts of Spain and Portugal and take Gibraltar,
while pressuring Turkey and Iran to help him drive the British from
Palestine and Egypt, ordering Tobruk to be taken in Nov.; if possible,
the Germans will send a force from Transcaucasia to retake Iraq, using
Arabs to "tie down" the Brits "at the right moment by civil commotion
or revolt"; after the East is secure, the invasion of Britain will begin.
On June 11 (night) the British begin bombing industral targets in the
Rhineland, Ruhr, and German North Sea ports for 20 straight nights.
On June 12 the Croatian
Roman Catholic militant group, led by "Croatian Fuhrer"
Ante Pavelic (1889-1959)
makes a deal with pro-Nazi Muslim Jerusalem grand mufti
Muhammad Amin al-Husayni (1895-1974)
and the Nazi SS to begin persecuting Jews and Orthodox Christian Serbs in Croatia,
causing the mufti to use his connections with Islam admirer Heinrich Himmler
to raise the Nazi 13th SS Handzar Div.
of mostly Bosnian Muslims who help murder 400K in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina by 1945;
they are all issued al-Insani's booklet
Islam and Judaism,
which begins: "For us Muslims it is unworthy to utter the word Islam in the same
breath with Judaism, since Islam stands high over its perfidious adversary";
Pope Pius XII officially backs Pavelic, and he is given sanctuary in the Vatican
at the end of the war before escaping to Argentina; in Aug. 1943 after the Germans
mistreat them, they mutiny, killing several Germans, causing the mufti to arrive
and restore order.
On June 12 Winston Churchill makes a
on the radio, with the soundbytes:
"It will not be by German hands that the structure of Europe will be rebuilt or union
of the European family achieved. In every country into which the German armies and
Nazi police have broken there has sprung up from the soil a hatred of the German name
and contempt for the Nazi creed which the passage of hundreds of years will not efface
from human memory";
"We shall aid and stir the people of every conquered country to resistance and revolt.
We shall break up or derange every effort which Hitler makes to systematize and consolidate
his subjugation. He will find no peace, no rest, no halting place, no parley."
On June 13 Churchill offers Stalin to send British troops in the event of a German invasion,
pissing-off Stalin because he considers it a provocation to push him into war with Germany;
instead he ignores reports of a German military buildup on his borders, with the soundbyte:
"You can't believe everything Intelligence says"; on June 14 he interrupts a military meeting
with Gens. Zhukov and Timoshenko to accept a phone call from Ukraine Communist Party boss
Nikita Khrushchev reporting a bumper crop.
On June 14 the U.S. freezes German and Italian assets.
On June 14 75 merchant ships incl. 30 flying the U.S. flag set sail for Egypt
carrying military supplies incl. 200 U.S. tanks.
On June 15 the British launch
to relieve Tobruk and push Gen. Rommel back through Libya, but it fizzles because of the
superior German tanks and guns, and within four days they lose 122 troops and 100 tanks.
On June 15 rumors spread in Berlin that an understanding with Stalin is imminent.
On June 15 Stalin refuses a request from Ukrainian Gen.
Mikhail Petrovich Kirponos
(1892-1941) (awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union on Mar. 21, 1940 for
bravery in the Soviet-Finnish War, then appointed cmdr. of the Kiev Military District
in Feb.) to evacuate 300K civilians from the frontier along the Bug River and set up
anti-tank barriers, claiming it would be provocative.
On June 16 the last German warship in Soviet waters in the Baltic Sea departs, causing
Adm. Tributs on June 19 to report it to Moscow, receiving permission from Adm. Kuznetsov
to go to Readiness Level 2 (alert).
On June 16 Joseph Goebbels pub. the
in his diary: The Fuhrer has assessed the [military] operation at four months; I think it will be less.
The Bolsheviks will fall like a house of cards", after which the Wehrmacht will
debased Jewish Bolshevism with "der echte Sozialismus" (real Socialism).
On June 16 (night) Churchill delivers a
Radio Broadcast to the People of the U.S.,
with the soundbyte:
"Every month that passes adds to the length and to the perils of the journey that will have
to be made. United we stand, divided we fall. Divided, the Dark Ages return. United, we
can save and guide the world."
On June 17 German military cmdrs. receive the codeword "Dortmund", an order to launch the
invasion of Russia on June 22; "Altona" would have meant postponement or cancellation.
On June 18 (noon) Soviet frontier troops in Bialystok E of the Bug River are put on alert.
On June 18 Nazi brain man Alfred Rosenberg completes plans for the
to prevent a Russian comeback, breaking up the Caucasus region into German-administered "gen. commissariats" in Georgia, Azerbaijan, North Caucasus, Krasnodar, and Ordzhonikidze,
along with "main commissariats" in Armenia and Kalmyk; it will work along with the
to create a German satellite region incl. Leningrad, Moscow, and Stalingrad, er, Hitlergrad.
On June 18 FDR appoints WWI vet (Medal of Honor winner) William Joseph "Wild Bill" Donovan (1883-1959)
as coordinator of nat. security info.
On June 19 the SS establishes a welfare fund for widows and orphans of SS men KIA.
On June 19 Soviet defense minister Marshal Timoshenko orders forward airfields and military installations camouflaged.
On June 20 the U.S. Army Air Forces
is established, with Gen. Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold (1886-1950)
as the first commanding gen., becoming the first/only USAF gen. with 5-star rank, and the first/only person to hold 5-star rank in two different U.S. military services.
On June 20 (night) a German recon mission tries to cross the Soviet lines at Buraki on the Prussian-Lithuanian frontier, and is repulsed, with three KIA and two captured.
On June 21 (2:40 a.m.) Soviet Gen. Vladimir Efimovich Klimovskikh (1894-1941),
chief of staff of the Western Front radios Moscow from Panevezys, Lithuania, warning that "German aircraft with loaded bomb racks" crossed the frontier W of Kovno on
June 20, and wire barricades along the frontier near Augustow and Siena were "removed towards evening", adding "From the woods, sounds of engines"; on June 21 (4:00 a.m.) a convoy of
32 German troop ships is spotted at the entrance to the Gulf of Finland; at 2:00 p.m. Stalin calls Moscow military cmdr. Gen.
Ivan Vladimirovich Tyulenev (1892-1978) and tells him that "the situation is uneasy", ordering him to bring Moscow's
air defenses to 75% of combat readiness, then does ditto to Nikita Khrushchev in Kiev; on June 30 after it goes bad, Klimovskikh is arrested, and he is executed on July 22.
On June 21 (afternoon) Hitler writes Mussolini, with the soundbyte that he has just made "the hardest decision of my life".
On June 21 the Blue Div. of 45K Spanish troops (incl. volunteers and conscripts) begins operation on the Eastern Front (until Mar. 21, 1944)
incl. 1K men of the Portuguese Legion under the Spanish flag, going on to be awarded a medal by Adolf Hitler for impeding the advance of the Red Army.
On June 21 (9:00 p.m.) (shortest night of the year) German sgt.-maj. Alfred Liskof (Liskow) (1910-42)
deserts, swims the Bug River near Sokal (N of Lviv), and tells Soviet frontier guards at
Vladimir-Volynsky that the big invasion is set for next morning, which Kiev district military cmdr. Gen.
Maksim Alexeyevich Purkayev (1894-1953)
relays to Marshal Zhukov in Moscow, causing Stalin to stall and call it a deception, finally agreeing to alert military cmds. of a "possible" German attack; Zhukov
and Timoshenko order firing posts "secretly manned" in the early hours, and all aircraft dispersed and airfields camouflaged before dawn, with preparations made
"for blocking out cities and other targets".
On June 22 (Sun.) (12:30 a.m.) Hitler has an after-dinner conversation with Adm. Raeder and Albert Speer, boasting of his planned monumental Nazi bldgs. for Berlin,
Linz et al., saying that they can get all the granite they want when they conquer Russia, and playing a recording of Franz Liszt's Les Preludes, calling it the "victory fanfare
for the Russian campaign", describing his plans to make Trondheim, Norway into German's largest dockyard with a pop. of 250K Germans.
Just when the Axis is looking like it's here to stay, high stakes gambling addict Hitler launches Operation Blunderossa and gambles the Third Reich away?
On June 22 (Sun.) (4:15 a.m.) (1 year and 1 day after France signed the armistice with Germany) (129 years minus 4 days after Napoleon crossed the Nieman River to invade Russia)
after Hitler utters the soundbyte "We have only to kick in the door and the whole rotten structure will come crashing down", in defiance of the Non-Aggression Pact (claiming
gross violations of the same by the Soviets), after 17K trains bring troops to the Russian border since Jan., Germany attacks the Soviet Union with 154 German, 18 Finnish,
and 14 Romanian divs. (3.2M men) in Operation Barbarossa,
facing 2.5M Soviet soldiers in the W, with 2.2M in reserve defending Moscow, Leningrad, the Donetz Basin, and the Urals, with only 30% having
automatic weapons, and only 20% of the aircraft and 10% of the tanks of modern design; after bombing 66 airfields to destroy aircraft on the ground,
while bombing Kovno, Minsk, Rovno, Odessa, Sevastopol, and Libava, the German army begins advancing along a 930-mi. front;
if they had concentrated on securing the oil fields of the south first, they might have won, but thought they could win it all in one summer and lost it all?;
Siemiatycze in NE Poland, attended by the local German border patrol and some Jews;
at 7:00 a.m. Reich propaganda minister Paul Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945)
reads a Russian Invasion Proclamation by Hitler over the radio, with the soundbyte:
"Weighted down with heavy cares, condemned to months of silence, I can at last speak freely, German people! At this moment a march is taking
place that, for its extent, compares with the greatest the world has ever seen. I have decided today to place the fate and future of the
Reich and our people in the hands of our soldiers. May God aid us, especially in this fight" (I'm getting seasick?);
at 7:15 a.m. Marshal Zhukov issues an order to Soviet troops authorized by Stalin to "attack the enemy and destroy him", but not cross the
frontier into Germany, although air strikes are permitted up to 150km (90 mi.) behind the lines against Konigsberg, Memel et al.;
at 12:00 noon after frantic attempts to stop the war with diplomatic messages to Germany and Japan, Vyacheslav Molotov announces the
attack to the Soviet people; at 9:15 p.m. after the Germans have an easy time penetrating Soviet territory, Marshal Timoshenko issues a directive
ordering Soviet forces to go on the offensive and penetrate German territory to a depth of 50-75 mi.; by noon the Germans have destroyed
1K+ Soviet aircraft on the ground, 25% of their air force; on ? the Roman Catholic bishop of Eichstatt, Germany sends out a
pastoral letter calling the German invasion "a crusade, a holy war... for faith and church";
by the time Berlin falls in May 1945, 30M+ are killed in "the greatest and most hideous land-air conflict in history (Chris Bellamy); Army Group North (27 divs.), commanded by Field Marshal
Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb (1876-1956) heads through the Baltic States to Leningrad; Army Group Center
(51 divs.), commanded by Field Marshal Fedor von Bock (1880-1945) heads for Moscow; Army Group South (38 divs.), commanded
by Field Marshal Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (1875-1953) heads toward the Ukrainian capital of Kiev; the Russians
have 170 divs. facing them, representing 54% of their total strength; the German advance ultimately reaches a line from Archangel on the White Sea
to Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea; the Russkies shock the Nazis with their T-34 medium tank and
(Kliment Voroshilov) heavy tank, which outclass anything they have, causing a rush to catch up; after German ambassador
Friedrich-Werner Graf von der Schulenberg (1875-1944)
tells Russian minister Vyacheslav Molotov that Germany has been forced to take "countermeasures" in light of Russian military buildup on the border, he replies "Surely, we have not deserved that";
Stalin has a "nervous collapse" and does not speak for 11 days.
On June 22 Italy declares war on the Soviet Union.
On June 22 Germany declares war on the Soviet Union.
On June 22 the Soviet Southwestern Front
is formed to defend Ukraine along a 865km line from the Pripyat River and the town of Wlodawa to the Prut River and the town of Lipkany on the Romanian border; the
Soviet Western Front
is formed to defend a 470km line down to the S border of Lithuania; on June 25 the
Soviet Southern Front
is formed to defend the area S to Odessa on the Black Sea.
On June 22 Operation Kilpapurjehdus (Regatta)
is launched by Finland to militarize the Aland Islands to prevent Soviet occupation.
On June 22 (eve.) Germany overruns W border frontier fortress towns
Kobryn (Kobrin) and
later herding the Jews of Bialystok into the latter to create a ghetto.
On June 22 (night) Hitler arrives at the secret camouflaged
Wolf's Lair (Wolfschanze)
in the pine forests of Mauerwald in East Prussia at Gierloz near the Teutonic Knights town of Rastenburg 110 mi. from Danzig,
where for 3.5 years (until Mar. 20, 1945) he lives in a miserable hut and rules the biggest army in history,
becoming one of the best-kept secrets of the war.
On June 22-July 3 the Luftwaffe achieves
air superiority over the Soviets, destroying 2K Soviet aircraft while losing only 35 aircraft, of which 15 are non-combat-related.
On June 23 a 3-member Soviet Evacuation Council incl.
future PM Alexei Kosygin is set up in Moscow to relocate 1.5K armament and industrial plants in W Russia and Ukraine E beyond the Urals to Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Sverdlovsk,
Siberia, and Kazakhstan.
On June 23-30 the Tank Battle of Dubno (Dubna) (Brody)
sees the Soviets under Maj.-Gen.
(1896-1968) counterattack and successfully delay the advance into Ukraine of
German Army Group South under Gen. von Rundstedt.
On June 24 NKVD head Lavrentiy Beria forms the 100-to-200-man Destruction Battalions
of men unfit for military service to guard important installations behind the lines; they have the greatest impact in N Estonia since it's the last Baltic territory the Germans capture.
On June 24-25 Soviet gens. Mikhail Grigorevich Khatskilevich (b. 1895) and
I.S. Nikitin become the first to be KIA in the German offensive.
On June 25 the Germans capture Slonim; on July 1
a Soviet counterattack E of the city allows two tank brigades to escape encirclement; on July 17 the Germans round up 1.2K Jewish men and murder them on the outskirts of the city;
Jewish men are taken to a stadium where for three days they are given no food or water, and have to sleep in the open; on Breger St. a German amuses his fellows by commanding Jews to
dance, with "Tanzen sie, verfluchten Juden!" (Dance you damn Jews).
On June 25 after German troops burn the border village of Slochy
and execute all 100 of its pop., Gen. Joachim Hermann August Lemelsen (1888-1954)
of the 47th Panzer Corps protests the "senseless shootings of both prisoners of war and civilians", and is ignored, then five days later changes his tune and approves
the shooting of commissars and partisans to liberate the Russian people "from the oppression of a Jewish and criminal group".
On June 25 the Germans occupy Dubno,
where they discover the Zionist Gordonia underground; Jewish doctor
Benjamin From (b. 1894)
is dragged from the operating room while operating on a Christian woman,
and killed with his entire family.
On June 25 after A. Philip Randolph convinces him, FDR signs
Executive Order 8802, creating the
Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC)
within the U.S. Office of Production Management to eliminate discriminatory
employment practices in U.S. defense industries, i.e. help blacks find jobs;
too bad, it can only hear and investigate complaints, but has no enforcement powers,
and is terminated on June 30, 1946 after being superseded by the
Committee on Fair Employment Practice in May 1943.
On June 25-29 the Kaunas Pogrom
in Lithuania sees 600 members of the Lithuanian Activist Front backed by the Germans massacre 5K Jews.
On June 26 Finland declares war on the Soviet Union; on
June 27 Gen. Mannerheim appeals to the Finns to fight a "holy war".
On June 26 the Germans occupy
Dvinsk 185 mi. inside the Soviet border,
allowing them to cross the Dvina River.
On June 26 the Germans occupy
Kovno on the Nieman River in Lithuania,
causing locals to stage a 2-day pogrom on the 35K Jews there, killing 1K+.
On June 26 Soviet aviator
Nikolai Frantsevich Gastello
(b. 1908) becomes the first to conduct a "fire taran" suicide attack
with his plane on a ground target near the village of Dekshany in Belarus,
becoming a hero of the Soviet Union and household name.
On June 27
Hungary declares war on the Soviet Union.
By June 27 most of the Russian air force is destroyed by the Germans.
On June 27 several thousand Jews are shot in the courtyard of the police HQ in
in NE Romania; Romanian soldiers massacre 250, killing 1,194 more by sending them S in a sealed
train for eight days.
On June 27 two German Panzer groups link forces E of
trapping and capturing 300K Russian troops, most of whom don't survive a year.
On June 27 the council of deputies of Leningrad organizes "First response groups" of civilians,
going on to mobilize 1M citizens for the construction of fortifications; 30K workers are sent
from Moscow to Luga
S of Leningrad to dig anti-tank ditches and fortifications.
On June 27 Nikita Khrushchev organizes 140 partisan units of 10-20 men (2K total)
to infiltrate German-occupied territory.
On June 27 British cryptographers in Bletchley Park break the German Vulture Enigma key
used by the German troops on the Eastern Front; on June 28 Churchill authorizes intel to be
passed to the Soviets via British embassy official Lt.
Cecil Barclay (1915-)
On June 27 Jewish Pole
sees a Soviet POW singled out and beaten by a German soldier in Nieswiez, then lined up against
a fence and executed for slapping him back.
On June 27 the Minn. offices of the Socialist Workers Party are raided by
the FBI, after which a grand jury indicts 28 members of violation of the
1861 U.S. Sedition Act (1st time), and the 1940 U.S. Smith Act, and on
Oct. 27 their trial begins, and 23 are found guilty of violating the
Smith Act for distributing written material encouraging insubordination
in the armed forces, and sentenced to 12-to-16-mo. terms; strangely,
the U.S. Communist Party supports the trial because they're their enemies
On June 28 Albania declares war on the Soviet Union.
On June 28 the Germans capture
Minsk, one-third of the way to Moscow.
On June 29 Black Sunday
sees the Germans capture
in East Galicia, with the Soviet NKVD massacring 3K Ukrainian POWs before evacuating,
after which Ukrainian nationalists slaughter Jews in the streets.
On June 29 the Nazi Party newspaper Volkischer Beobachter pub. the
about the supposedly inferior Russian soldier, that he "surpasses our adversary in the West in his
contempt of death. Endurance and fatalism make him hold out until he is blown up with his trench,
or falls in hand-to-hand fighting."
On June 29 212,209 children begin to be evacuated from Leningrad to Yaroslavl on the Volga River.
On June 29 Moscow orders a scorched earth policy for retreating troops.
On June 29 the Germans launch
Operation Silver Fox
(ends Nov. 17) to take the Soviet Arctic port of Murmansk.
On June 29 Polish PM #1 (1919) Ignace Jan Paderewski (b. 1860) dies in New York City,
and is interred in Arlington Cemetery in a casket mounted on wheels for return to Poland
after the war; it isn't moved until ?, and his heart is left in Arlington.
On June 29-July 2 all Jewish males ages 16-60 in Dvinsk are arrested.
On June 30 Soviet gen. Mikhail Kirponos orders a withdrawal from the Lvov Salient
to a new line on Korosten, Novgorod, Shepetovka, Starokonstantinov, and Proskurov,
which they reach on July 9, receiving reinforcements.
On June 30 HMAS Waterhen
is sunk off Sidi Barrani en route to Tobruk, becoming the first Australian warship lost to
enemy action in the war; the crew is saved by a British destroyer, after which on
July 19 Australian cruiser HMAS Sydney sinks Italian cruiser
to get even.
On June 30
Lev Kantorovich (b. 1911)
becomes the first writer from Leningrad to be KIA by the Germans, becoming a local hero.
On June 30 the SS murders 300 Jews in Lutsk,
and 1,160 more on July 2, then 3K on July 4 in nearby
followed on ? by 180 Jews in Tarnopol, and on ? by 300-500 in Zolochew.
On June 30-July 1 Jewish Soviet motorized infantry Gen.
slows down the Panzers of Gen. Guderian in the Borisov area on the E bank of the Beresina River,
earning him a Hero of the Soviet Union medal; too bad, on June 28 more Germans capture
and establish a beachhead on the river.
In June the British break the Italian Navy's
C38m cypher machine.
In June the Germans occupy
(until 1944), and have their fun with the large Jewish pop. in Vilnyus (Vilnius)
and other cities, who violently riot in vain; the mobile SS killing squad
Einsatzkommando massacres the entire Jewish pop. of 900-y.-o.
in two days, killing 3,446, incl. 929 males, 1,636 females, and 821 children; the
Tower of Life (Faces)
in the U.S. Holocaust Museum
in Washington, D.C. (opened in 1993) is a 3-floor display of photos of the dead inhabitants.
In June Operation Munchkin
is launched in Dachau Camp by Heinrich Himmler to breed fluffy angora rabbits to make
fur-lined coats, gloves, socks, and underwear for Nazi soldiers, expanding to 30 other camps,
with 6.5K rabbits raised this year, growing to 25K by 1943, collecting 5 tons of fur before
the program ends in 1943.
In June Jewish RAF Flight Sgt.
Sydney Cohen (-1946)
veers off-course en route to Malta and makes an emergency landing in his Swordfish biplane in
Lampedusa Island, after which the entire 4.3K-man Italian garrison runs out waving white flags
and surrenders and makes him cmdr. of the island, the news raising British morale, with the
News Chronicle headline reading "London Tailor' Cutter is Now King of Lampedusa",
inspiring Yiddish playwright to compose the Yiddish musical "The King of Lampedusa", which
debuts in 1943 at the New Yiddish Theatre on Adler St. in New York City, becoming the
longest-running production in Yiddish, and is later staged at the Grand Palais in London
starring Meier Tzelniker and his daughter Anna; the BBC later broadcasts an English version
starring Jewish-English actor Sidney Tafler; Lord Haw-Haw threatens the English theater
with a Luftwaffe attack; too bad, Cohen disappears during a flight over the English Channel on
Aug. 26, 1946 after viewing the play in Haifa, Palestine in 1944.
In June the Am. Council for Judaism
is founded by Reformed Jewish rabbis Henry Cohen, Abraham Cronbach, Morris Lazaron, David Philipson,
and Louis Wolsey, who don't think that Jews should have a nat. state and oppose Zionism;
supporters incl. Sumner Welles and Dean Acheson; New York Times publisher (1935-61)
Arthur Hays Sulzberger (1891-1968) (a Reform Jew),
who told his editors to bury news of the Nazi genocide on the back pages and omit descriptions of victims as Jews enthusiastically
supports it with frequent coverage; in 1946 after visiting a Nazi concentration camp, he gives a
with the soundbyte:
"It is my judgment that thousands dead might now be alive" if the Zionists had put "less emphasis on statehood."
On July 1 the Germans launch Operation Salmon Trap (Lachsfang)
to take the railway line between Belomorsk and Kandalaksha.
On July 1 the Germans occupy
inciting the pop. against the city's 40K Jews, causing pogroms that kill 6K in 3 mo.; on July 4
the Great Choral Synagogue is burned with 300 Jews locked in the basement.
On July 1 Finnish and German troops begin an offensive E from C Finland to cut off Russia's N lifeline,
being surprised by stubborn Russian resistance.
On July 1 U.S. Navy aircraft begin anti-submarine patrols from bases in Newfoundland.
On July 1 von Ribbentrop fails to talk the Japanese into attacking the Soviet Union in the Far East,
deciding to invade French Indochina instead; on July 6 spy Richard Sorge informs Moscow, allowing more reinforcements
to be sent to the Western Front.
On July 1 the FCC authorizes commercial TV
in the U.S.; NBC-TV begins operation on WNBT (formerly W2XBS, later WNBC) New York (Channel 1), with
Ray Forrest reading the first formal on-camera announcement, followed on July 4 by the first live TV commercial,
for Adam Hats, who give him a free hat; Bulova Watch Co. sponsors the first
"America runs on Bulova time" on WNBT before a baseball game between the Brooklyn Dodgers and
Philadelphia Phillies, at a cost of $4-$9; the shows a ticking watch but has no announcer;
CBS-TV begins operation on WCBW New York (Channel 2); there are only 1K TV sets in operation in the
viewing area; on Dec. 7 Forrest becomes the first TV announcer to break into a program with a news bulletin,
interrupting the Sun. afternoon movie "The Playboy" (1938) to announce the Pearl Harbor Attack.
On July 1 (night) art historian
Vladimir Levinson-Lessing (1893-1972)
leaves Leningrad on a train bound for the E carrying the Hermitage's art treasures and jewels;
another treasure train arrives at Sverdlovsk on July 20.
On July 2-21 the Germans and Romanians stage
Operation Munchen (München)
to retake Bessarabia and N Bukovina from the Russians, crossing the Prut River and
advancing on Vinnitsa; on Aug. 21 after big Vs, Ion Antonesco is made the 3rd marshal
in Romanian history.
On July 3 after 12 days Stalin breaks out of his funk and gives his
Comrades, Citizens, Brothers and Sisters Speech
on the radio:
"In spite of the heroic resistance of the Red Army, and although the enemy's finest divisions have met
their doom on the field of battle, the enemy continues to push forward, hurling fresh forces to the front...
"Comrades, citizens, brothers and sisters, fighters of our Army and Navy... A grave threat hangs over
our country. How could it have happened that our glorious Red Army surrendered a number of our cities and
districts to Fascist armies? Is it really true that German Fascist troops are invincible, as is ceaselessly
trumpeted by the boastful Fascist propagandists? Of course not! History shows that there are no
invincible armies and never have been. Napoleon's army was considered invincible but it was beaten
successively by Russian, English and German armies. Kaiser Wilhelm's German Army in the period of the
first imperialist war was also considered invincible, but it was beaten several times by the Russian
and Anglo-French forces and was finally smashed by the Anglo-French forces...
We must immediately put our whole production to war footing. In all occupied territories partisan units
must be formed to foment guerrilla warfare everywhere, to blow up bridges and roads, damage telephone
and telegraph lines, set fire to forests, stores, transports", ordering Hitler "and all his accomplices"
to be "hounded and annihilated at every step";
just in case anybody gets any ideas, "Military tribunals will pass summary judgment on any who fail
in our defense, whether through panic or treachery, regardless of their position or rank";
after justifying the Aug. 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact on the grounds that it gave him time to build up defenses,
he expresses "a feeling of gratitude" to Britain and the U.S. for offers of assistance, and signs an
agreement with the Polish govt.-in-exile, whom he had not talked with since Sept. 1939; clueless Gen.
Franz Halder (1884-1972)
writes the soundbyte
in his diary: "It is no exaggeration to say that the campaign against Russia has been won in 14 days"; on July 16 Hitler tells
Gen. Keitel et al. that the fact that the Soviets are waging partisan warfare behind the front lines "enables us to exterminate everyone who opposes us".
FDR now has all cylinders working as he plunges the U.S. into WWII?
On July 3 after Charles Evans Hughes retires, along with all four of the conservative justices, Chesterfield, N.H.-born liberal pro-FDR
Harlan Fiske Stone (1872-1946)
takes over as U.S. Chief Justice #12
(until Apr. 22, 1946), to which FDR has already appointed liberals Hugh L. Black (1937), Stanley F. Reed (1938), Felix Frankfurter (1939),
William O. Douglas (1939), and Frank Murphy (1940), and to which on July 8 he appoints Charleston, S.C.-born Irish-Am.
James Francis Byrnes (1879-1972) (until Oct. 3, 1942), followed on July 11 by
Spring Creek, Penn.-born Robert Houghwout Jackson (1892-1954)
(who never attended college) (until Oct. 9, 1954) as Supreme Court justices #81 and #82; only Hoover appointee Owen J. Roberts hangs on for
un-PC conservatism; the new PC U.S. Supreme Court upholds the U.S. Federal Wage and Hour Law - this little ole light of mine, I'm gonna let it shine?
On July 4 after the Germans improve air defenses, a British bombing raid on Bremen loses five of 12 aircraft.
On July 4 the SS murder 463 Jews in Kovno; on July 6 they kill 2,514 more.
On July 4 the SS murder 54 Jews in Vilna, and 93 more on July 5; ditto to 600 Jews in Tarnopol and 600 in Zborow.
On July 5 Yugoslavian (Serbian) resistance leader Josip Broz Tito issues an
Appeal to Resist,
with the soundbyte:
"Now is the time. The hour has struck to rise like one man in the battle
against the invaders and hirelings"; on July 7 Tito's forces have their
first battle with the German police at
Bela Crkva, Serbia.
On July 5 Hitler's Table Talk
at his HQ begins to be recorded by his secy. Martin Bormann, and preserved for posterity;
he gives his views on vegetarianism, economics, religion et al.;
"The deliberate lie in the matter of religion was introduced into the world by Christianity...
Let it not be said that Christianity brought man the life of the soul, for that evolution was
in the natural order of things";
"The best thing is to let Christianity die a natural death... When understanding of the universe
has become widespread... Christian doctrine will be convicted of absurdity... Christianity has
reached the peak of absurdity... and that's why someday its structure will collapse... The only
way to get rid of Christianity is to allow it to die little by little";
"Christianity is an invention of sick brains. One could imagine nothing more senseless, nor any
more indecent way of turning the idea of the Godhead into a mockery";
"I realize that man, in his imperfection, can commit innumerable errors, but to devote myself
deliberately to errors, that is something I cannot do. I shall never come personally to terms
with the Christian lie. Our epoch in the next 200 years will certainly see the end of the disease
On July 6 the Germans occupy
200 mi. from Leningrad; meanwhile two German divs. are driven back from
and a German Panzer attack at
is repulsed as the Soviets bring up reinforcements to Orel and Bryansk.
On July 7
First Battle of Kiev (Kiev Defensive Operation)
begins (ends Sept. 26) as German troops stage the largest encirclement of troops in
history (until ?).
On July 7 the U.S. launches
occupying Iceland with a U.S. Marine brigade, allowing U.S. patrols to reach within 400 mi. of N Scotland.
On July 7 1,150 Jews are shot by the SS in
ditto to 7K Jews in Lvov, and to 132 Jews in Dobromil.
On July 7 Churchill
Stalin offering to do "everything to help you that time, geography, and our growing resources allow",
ordering the RAF to work for the "devastation of the German cities" to force the Germans
to siphon air power from the Eastern Front.
By July 8 more than half of the 164 Soviet divs. have been destroyed, with 500K POWs taken,
incl. 287K POWs and 2,585 tanks in the Minsk Salient - I'm driven to overcome?
On July 8 Stalin removes Gen.
for "permitting the destruction of his army by the Germans", having him shot.
On July 8 at Eagle's Lair Gen. Halder writes the
in his diary:
"Fuhrer is firmly determined to level Moscow and Leningrad to the ground, and to dispose fully
of their population, which otherwise we shall have to feed during the winter."
On July 8 all Jews in Baltic countries are ordered to wear the Star of David.
On July 9 the British break the Enigma key used by the German army to direct ground-air operations
on the Eastern Front.
On July 9-23 the Germans occupy
Pskov 180 mi. from Leningrad.
On July 10 the Germans cross the Dnieper River in the Ukraine, driving back a massive
Soviet counterattack at
meanwhile the Germans set up the
Maly Trostenets (Trastianets)
camp for Soviet POWs, which abuses them to the max.
On July 10 200-350 Jews in
120 mi. NE of Warsaw are massacred by their Roman Catholic neighbors by burning in a barn,
after which their property is looted, launching a conspiracy of silence; they take until July 12, 2011 to apologize.
On July 10 the first volunteer div. leaves Leningrad for the front lines,
with many not issued rifles, although they all get hand grenades and Molotov cocktails.
On July 10 Hitler utters the
to Walther Hewel:
"It is I who have discovered the Jews as the bacillus and ferment that causes all decay in society.
And what I have proved is this, that nations can survive without Jews, that the economy, culture,
art, and so on can exist without Jews and in fact better. That is the cruelest blow I have dealt the Jews."
On July 12 the
Anglo-Soviet Mutual Assistance Pact
is signed, pledging not to make a separate peace - you kill Nazis, we kill Nazis?
By July 13 German Army Group Center has penetrated 450 mi. beyond Bialystock ("the Jerusalem of Poland"),
coming within 200 mi. of Moscow, where Russian Field Marshal
Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov
(1896-1974) and Gen.
Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko
(1895-1970) are directing defenses.
On July 14 the British occupy Syria.
On July 14 the British step up bombing intensity with a raid on
followed by July 23 by two more, along with two on Hamburg, two on Frankfurt, and Mannheim,
and one on Berlin; on July 14 Churchill gives his
Do Your Worst; We'll Do Our Best
speech on the radio, with the soundbyte:
"In the last few weeks alone we have thrown upon Germany about half the tonnage of bombs thrown
by the Germans upon our cities during the whole course of the war. But this is only a beginning."
On July 14 Hitler issues a
Supplement to Directive No. 32,
laying out a plan to reduce German military size after taking Russia.
On July 14 Soviet artillery Capt.
first uses the Katyusha
(named after a love song) rocket launcher in combat near Orsha, Vitebsk; it can fire 320 rockets in 25 sec.
On July 15 Jews in
are ordered by Hinrich Lohse to wear yellow badges on the chest and the back, to avoid public facilities
and walk in the gutters, to be given food only deemed "surplus" to local needs, and to join
forced labor gangs; the Minsk Ghetto is established on July 20.
On July 15-Aug. 8 the
Battle of Uman
sees the Germans encircle the 6th and 12th Soviet armies S of Uman, Ukraine.
On July 15 a top secret British govt. committee concludes that
"the scheme for a uranium bomb is practicable and likely to lead to decisive results in the war",
recommending that work continue "on the highest priority and on the increasing scale necessary to
obtain the weapon in the shortest possible time."
On July 16 the German begin encircling
halfway between Minsk and Moscow (200 mi. from Moscow), completing it on July 27, taking 100K POWs.
On July 16 Hitler holds a
of his ministers incl. Hermann Goering to discuss the admin. of the occupied Soviet territories,
in which live 4M pesky Jews, and says that the lands W of the Ural Mts. are to become a
"German Garden of Eden", adding the comment "This vast area must be pacified as quickly as possible;
this will happen best by shooting anyone who even looks sideways at us", which they take to mean
approval for the Final Solution, and on July 31 Gory Goering gives written authorization to
Reinhard Heydrich to go ahead with it.
On July 17 Churchill sends Stalin intercepted intel that the Germans are getting disturbed by the
extent of Russian resistance and their own casualties, and can no longer provide adequate air protection
to Panzers at the front or strategic positions at the rear.
On July 17 700 Jews are taken from
by the SS to nearby Ponar and shot.
On July 17 Carl's Jr.
fast food restaurant chain is founded in Anaheim, Calif. with a $311 loan by
Carl Nicholas Karcher (1917-2008)
and his wife Margaret as a hot dog cart, which on Jan. 16, 1945 becomes Carl's Drive-in Barbecue, and Carl's Jr.
in 1954, with the logo featuring a bright yellow 5-pointed Happy Star; by 1974 it expands to 100 restaurants,
and 300 by 1981 before going public; in 1979 the first restaurant outside Calif. opens in Las Vegas, Nev.; in
1988 Karcher is fined $500K for insider trading in Oct. 1984; in 1997 it acquires Hardee's; in 2002 it acquires the
Green Burito brand; by 2015 it has 1K locations in 10 countries; too bad, Carl Karcher's ultraconservative
political views start getting him attacked by the PC police in 1971.
On July 18 in an effort to prevent war with the U.S., Japanese PM Prince Fumimaro Konoye
ousts anti-Am. foreign minister Yosuke Matsuoka and replaces him with "pro-Anglo-Saxon"
Adm. Tojido Toyoda (according to Herbert Hoover); too bad, on July 25 the U.S. freezes
all Japanese assets and cuts off all imports and exports, denying it needed oil,
stunning Konoye, who wins secret support from the navy and army to meet FDR on the U.S. side
of the Pacific to hear and respond to U.S. demands; FDR
secretly wants war
so bad he does everything he can to provoke Japan into it?
On July 18 after bombing the town on June 22 and occupying it on June 23, 53 Jews are shot by the SS at
On July 18 SS Operational Situational Report for the U.S.S.R. No. 26
gives the total number of Jews "liquidated" inside the Lithuanian border by a task force based
in Tilsit as 3,302.
On July 18-31 10K Jews are murdered in
Kishinev (Chisinau) in Bessarabia.
On July 19 Hitler issues
Fuhrer Directive No. 33,
ordering the army to try to "to prevent any further sizeable enemy forces from
withdrawing into the depths of Russia, and wipe them out"; on July 20 Adm. Canaris
his staff that the mood at Hitler's Wolf Lair is "very jittery, as it is increasingly evident that the
Russian campaign is not going by the book", adding:
"This war will not bring about the expected national collapse so much as the invigoration of Bolshevism."
On July 20 Stalin orders all Red Army units "purged of unreliable elements".
On July 20
is established; on July 24
Kishinev (Chisinau) Ghetto
is established; on Aug. 1
is established on Aug. 1; on July 25-27
sees the Ukrainians massacre 2K Jews in Lvov.
On July 20 the German army reports that the triangle of Polotsk, Vitebsk,
and Nevel 50 mi. NW of Smolensk has become a "partisan region", with roads mined daily.
On July 20 a British minelayer is sent to Archangel with military supplies; on
July 23 a British naval force leaves Scapa Flow to attack German shipping
between the Norwegian port of Kirkenes and the Finnish port of Petsamo.
On July 21 Vichy France yields military control of Indochina to the Japanese
while retaining some sovereignty, and on July 28 140K (125K?) troops
it, although the French only authorized 40K; on July 29 they occupy
Cam Ranh Bay
naval base 800 mi. from Manila and Singapore; on July 26 pissed-off FDR seizes
all Japanese assets in the U.S., after which the British and Dutch East Indies
do ditto, cutting off 75% of Japan's overseas trade and 90% of its oil imports,
leaving it a 3-year supply; the Panama Canal is closed to Japanese shipping;
Gen. Douglas MacArthur assumes command of U.S. forces in the Far East and Philippines,
who face the Japanese in French Indochina across the South China Sea; the Japanese
occupy Saigon with Vichy approval.
On July 21 Hitler visits Army Group North HQ and orders that Leningrad be "finished off speedily".
On July 21 the SS forces 45 Jews to dig a pit in ?, then throws them in
and orders 30 White Russians to cover them with earth; when they refuse,
they machine-gun them all.
On July 21 the German Luftwaffe begins nightly air raids on Moscow (until July 27),
missing the Kremlin; on July 27-Aug. 27 they stage 24 more air raids, killing 750.
On July 23 after holding out for 30 days being pounded by special German mortar
Karl with 2-ton projectiles,
surrenders, boosting morale of Soviet troops.
On July 23 the SS murders 95 Jews and 30 Communists in
On July 23 Hitler issues a
Supplement to Fuhrer Directive No. 33,
saying that commanders of all rear areas are "to be held responsible
together with the troops at their disposal for quiet conditions in their
areas", and that they must "contrive to maintain order... not by requesting
reinforcements, but by employing suitably draconian methods".
On July 24
sees the RAF unsuccessfully attack British battle cruisers Scharnhorst,
Gneisenau, and Prinz Eugen at Brest and La Pallice.
On July 25 the British propaganda film
Target for Tonight,
produced by Harry Watt debuts, showing squadron leader
Percy Charles "Pick" Pickard (1915-44)
at the controls while bombing Germany, causing the phrase to enter the jargon.
On July 25-29 Ukrainians stage a pogrom in
Lvov, killing 2K Jews.
On July 27 after four bomb attacks on military vehicles in
the Germans round up 1,200 Jews then shoot every 10th one - no we're not pinching pennies?
On July 27 Hinrich Lohse
(1896-1964), German commissar for the Baltic states and White Russia is ordered
to give Jews in ghettos "only the amount of food that the rest of the
population could spare, and in no case more than was sufficient to sustain
life", and to continue "until such time as the more intensive measures
for the Final Solution can be put into effect".
On July 27 Soviet gens. Pavlov, Klimovskikh, and Korobkov are sentenced to death;
Gen. Pyadyshev, organizer of Leningrad's Luga defense line is shot in secret.
On July 28 the Germans occupy
Kingisepp 70 mi. from Leningrad,
after which 30K Leningrad citizens are made to build defense works around it,
followed by 100K more around Krasnogvardeisk (Gatchina).
On July 28 the
Vyazma (Viazma) Plan
creates a 350-man partisan unit in Vyazma to work behind the lines; meanwhile
SS chief Heinrich Himmler orders his men to take "cleansing actions" against
"racial inferiors" and anybody suspected of helping partisans, executing them then
burning their village down.
On July 29 the Soviets erect a defense line for Moscow between Rzhev and Vyazma.
By July 30 the Germans capture 800K Russian POWs and 12K tanks - they should remember Napoleon and just turn around and skedaddle?
On July 30 Hitler issues
Fuhrer Directive No. 34,
ordering the German army to annihilate Soviet troops W of the Dnieper River NW of Kiev,
while Army Group Center is ordered "to go over to the defensive".
On July 30 the Sikorski-Maisky Agreement,
negotiated by Wladyslaw Eugeniusz Sikorski (1881-1943)
and Soviet ambassador (to the U.K.) Ivan Mikhailovich Maisky (1884-1975)
declares the 1939 Soviet-Nazi Pact null and void, and allows for hundreds of thousands of Poles to be released from Soviet Gulags.
On July 30 Polish journalist
writes about the Jew-killing SS in Ponar, Lithuania:
"About 150 persons shot. Most of them were elderly people. The executioners complained of
being very tired of their 'work', of having aching shoulders from shooting. That is the reason
for not finishing the wounded off, so that they are buried half alive."
By July 31 the British can easily read all German U-boat orders sans delay,
causing the number of merchant ship sinkings to drop to below 30 vs. 90+ in May.
On July 31 Hermann Goering writes SS #2 man Reinhard Heydrich a letter calling for a
Final Solution (Entlosung)
to the Jewish problem in German territories - I only meant uncircumcize them, give them rhinoplasty,
steam clean, and baptize them?
On July 31 FDR "co-president" and emissary
Harold Lloyd "Harry" Hopkins
(1890-1946) has a
with Stalin in the Kremlin, telling him "Hitler's greatest weakness was found
in the vast numbers of oppressed peoples who hated Hitler and the immoral ways
of his government", to which Stalin adds "and countless other millions in nations
still unconquered could receive the kind of encouragement and moral strength
they needed to resist Hitler only from one source, the United States",
U.S. troops on any part of the Russian front under U.S. cmdrs.; on Aug. 1 Hopkins reports
that Stalin has an "unbounded determination to win"; Hopkins is
a Soviet agent?
Trust us, your hanging will be happy?
On July 31 after a Pole escapes from a labor detail and 10 of 600 men in his block are picked
at random to be starved to death in a locked cell, Polish Franciscan friar
(St.) Maximilian (Raymund) Kolbe (b. 1894)
volunteers to take one of their places, and becomes the last to die; in 1971 lucky
Francis Gajowniczek attends his beatification ceremony; on Oct. 10, 1982 Pope John Paul II
canonizes him, calling him "The Patron Saint of Our Difficult Century".
In July pro-Nazi Latvian officials incl.
(1899-1968) return to Nazi-controlled Latvia and set up shop;
too bad, the Gestapo arrests Celmins on Mar. 14, 1944 for pro-Latvian
underground activities, and he ends up in a concentration camp until the
war ends, then ends up in the U.S. in 1949, preaching against Soviet Communism.
In July German Gen.
Herrmann Karl Robert "Henning" von Tresckow
(1901-44)of Army Group Center tries unsuccessfully to get Field Marshal von Kluge
(who was dismissed from his command in 1938 then reinstated) to join a klugey risky
hair-raising plot to arrest and depose Hitler.
In July FDR
his military cmdrs. to prepare for the total defeat of Germany and Japan?
In July-Aug. the Pripyat March,
led by SS Lt. Gen.
Hans Georg Otto Hermann Fegelein (1906-45)
(Eva Braun's brother-in-law), the first planned mass extermination program of the Nazis sees 17,288 Jews
from the territories of nine raions of Belorussia and three raions of Ukraine in the region of the Pripyat
swamps of the Pripyat River murdered; the villages of Dvarets, Khochan, Azyarany, Starazhowtsy, and Kremna
are completely destroyed by burning, and Turaw is partially destroyed; most are shot, and some are drowned
in a swamp.
On Aug. 1 the U.S. announces an oil embargo against aggressor states.
On Aug. 1 SS chief Heinrich Himmler is
splashed with brains in Minsk while
watching an execution, causing him to go "very green and pale" (and vomit?), causing him to
order SS Gen. Arthur Nebe (1894-1945)
to find a new method of mass murder, inventing gas vans; he ends up executed for the July 20, 1944 Plot;
after the war a film is found in his Berlin apt. showing a gas chamber fed by a truck's exhaust; in
Aug. Auschwitz deputy commandant Capt.
Karl Fritzsch (1903-45)
conducts killing experiments on Russian POWs with Zyklon-B commercial pesticide,
removing the warning irritant from the cans, with new label "without irritant".
On Aug. 2-29 the Tank Battle of the Yelnya Salient
is the first Soviet V over the Germans; on Aug. 4 Hitler tells Field Marshal von Bock and Panzer Gen. Guderian:
"If I had known they had that many tanks, I'd have thought twice before invading."
On Aug. 8 the Germans siege Odessa, Ukraine (ends Oct. 16).
On Aug. 8-11 new regulations are issued in the Netherlands
requiring all Jews to register their assets with the Lippmann-Rosenthal Bank.
On Aug. 11 after FDR leaves New London, Conn.
on his pres. yacht USS Potomac on Aug. 3 allegedly for a fishing trip, banning the press, then on Aug. 4 secretly boards heavy cruiser
USS Augusta, Churchill and FDR hold their first official war meeting in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland
aboard new British battleship HMS Prince of Wales,
with Churchill wanting a U.S. declaration of war, and FDR only wanting a declaration about the postwar peace,
and after Churchill warns FDR "that he would not answer for the consequences if Russia was compelled to sue for peace and,
say, by the spring of next year, hope died in Britain that the United States were coming into the war", he agrees to give aid
to Russia "on a gigantic scale", and to issue a statement that any "further encroachment" by Japan in the SW Pacific will
"produce a situation in which the United States Government would be compelled to take countermeasures, even though these might
lead to war between the United States and Japan"; on Aug. 12 they issue the Atlantic Charter,
calling for the renunciation of aggression and disarmament of aggressor nations, with no territorial changes "that do not accord
with the freely expressed wishes of the people concerned", becoming a foundation stone of the United Nations; FDR utters the soundbyte to the press:
"There has never been, there isn't now and there never will be, any race of people on earth fit to serve as masters over their fellow men...
We believe that any nationality, no matter how small, has the inherent right to its own nationhood";
they agree to send a joint military mission to Moscow headed by Lord Beaverbrook and W. Averell Harriman to discuss Soviet war production needs.
On Aug. 11 the Soviets stage their first air raid on Berlin, causing Hitler on Aug. 12 to issue a
Supplement to Fuhrer Directive No. 34,
calling for the Crimea to be occupied followed by an offensive over the Kerch Straits towards Batum to destroy Soviet airfields.
On Aug. 13 after three starving Jews buy a sack of potatoes from a Lithuanian peasant
outside the ghetto of Kovno,
the Germans round up and shoot 28 Jews at random.
On Aug. 15 the Germans stage a pogrom at
on the Lithuanian-Latvian border, killing 3.K Jews;
ditto to 600 Jews in Stawiski
on the German-Soviet border.
On Aug. 15 Heinrich Himmler visits
along with Gen. Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski to see 98 Jewish men and two women executed, walking up
to one and asking him if he and his parents and ancestors are all Jewish, to which he replies
"Then I can't help you"; after watching the executions and getting nauseated, Himmler
for a less stressful (on himself) form of murder, coming up with gas?
On Aug. 15 100+ German bombers attack the railway station at
on the Leningrad-Moscow line.
On Aug. 15 British Wing Cmdr. Roland Robert Stanford Tuck (1916-87)
leads the first air mission by fighters based in E England against enemy-occupied territories in a "Rhubarb" sweep of Holland for ground targets by two Hawker Hurricanes.
On Aug. 15 spy Richard Sorge radios Stalin that the Japanese won't declare war "before the winter season" because it might "exert an excessive strain on the Japanese economy".
On Aug. 18 the Soviets evacuate the Black Sea port of Nikolayev (Nikolaev).
On Aug. 18 the Butt Report
is released by the British Air Ministry, finding a widespread failure of bombers to deliver their payloads to the correct target based on cameras mounted on their er, undersides.
In mid-Aug.-mid-Oct. the Germans under SS Gen. Theodor Eicke (1892-1943)
murder 18K Russian POWs at Sachsenhausen concentration camp (300 a day).
On Aug. 18 Hitler refuses Gen. von Brauchitsch's request to resume the attack on Moscow, but tells Joseph Goebbels that he hopes to be "beyond" Moscow by the winter.
On Aug. 18 after being lured by a promise of a job at the city archives, 534 Jewish intellectuals in the Jewish ghetto in
are shot, causing the musicians to be disguised as policemen to save their lives, later forming an orchestra next summer; on Aug. 18 German Lt.
Kurt Josef Waldheim (1918-2007) receives a cavalry assault badge for valor E of Kovno.
On Aug. 19 Hitler tells visitors at Wolf's Lair:
"For the good of the German people we must wish for a war every 15 or 20 years.
An army whose sole purpose is to preserve peace leads only to playing at soldiers - look at
Sweden and Switzerland"; on Aug. 20 he tells Albert Speer to place captured Soviet artillery
and tanks on granite pedestals in the plans for his new Nazi Berlin.
On Aug. 20 after being arrested in a demonstration in Paris on Aug. 13, Communists
Henry Gaultherot and
Szmul Tyszelman (a Jew) are executed.
On Aug. 20 Italian troops occupy
on the Dalmatian coast, finding evidence of mass murder of Serbs and Jews by the Ustachi,
incl. 791 on Pag (293 women and 93 children) and 3.5K at Jadovno 12 mi. from Gospic.
On Aug. 20 (night) the Germans reach
Gatchina 28 mi. S of Leningrad.
On Aug. 21 (a.m.) after an attack on a German patrol, Germans massacre Jews and Serbs in
then order other Jews to hang them from lamp posts; on Aug. 22 they order them to cut them
down and throw them in garbage trucks.
On Aug. 21 the Germans occupy
cutting the Leningrad-Moscow railway line.
On Aug. 21 Australian troops in besieged Tobruk sail back to Egypt
after losing 832 killed and 7K taken POW, and are replaced by British troops.
On Aug. 21 French Communist
Pierre Georges (1919-44)
AKA Col. Fabien assassinates young German naval officer
at a Paris Metro station, becoming the first violent anti-German act of the Paris occupation;
after they can't find out who did it, German gov. of Paris Gen.
Otto von Stuelpnagel (Stülpnagel)
(1878-1948) orders 22 civilian hostages executed in the Gestapo prison in
Mont Valerien, Suresnes in W Paris, announcing their names on special red posters posted
On Aug. 24 Churchill delivers a
to the British people, with the soundbyte:
"Scores of thousands, literally scores of thousands of executions in cold blood
are being perpetrated by the German police troops upon the Russian patriots
who defend their native soil. Since the Mongol invasions of Europe in the
sixteenth century there has never been methodical, merciless butchery on such a scale,
or approaching such a scale", with the soundbyte
"We are in the presence of a crime without a name"; he doesn't mention Jews since that
would give away their ability to decode their messages?; he meant 13th cent. not 16th cent.?
On Aug. 25 Britain launches
occupying Iran's S oilfields while the Soviets occupy the N, issuing a joint
ultimatum to the Iranian govt. to accept their "protection", causing
Shah (since 1925) Reza Pahlavi I (b. 1878) to abdicate on Aug. 28 in favor of his
pro-West Swiss-educated son
Mohammed Shah Pahlavi II
(1919-80), who on Sept. 16 becomes Iranian shah (last) (until Feb. 11, 1979).
On Aug. 25 the Germans occupy industrial city
in Ukraine, finding empty bldgs.
On Aug. 25-Sept. 3 Operation Gauntlet
sees British, Canadian, and Norwegian commandos invade Spitzbergen and
destroy fuel reserves, evacuating 2K Russian civilians to Archangel aboard
the Empress of Canada, and rescuing 50 French officers who escaped
East Prussia to Russia and were sent there by the Russians.
On Aug. 26 Hitler tours the rubble of Brest-Litovsk with Mussolini.
On Aug. 26 the Soviets launch a failed counterattack at
On Aug. 26 the Islamic anti-Western
Jamaat-e-Islami (Urdu "party of Islam")
is founded in Lahore, Pakistan, becoming the oldest religious political party in Pakistan.
On Aug. 26-29 after being deported by the Hungarian govt., which refused to take them
back when asked, 23.6K Jews are murdered by the SS under orders of Gen.
Friedrich August Jeckeln
by mowing them down with machine guns in bomb craters; after reaching the 100K mark, he is
captured by the Soviets on Apr. 28, 1945, and hanged in Victory Square in Riga, Latvia on
Feb. 3, 1946.
On Aug. 27 Hitler and Mussolini fly to Field Marshal von Rundstedt's HQ at Ulman in the Ukraine
200 mi. E of Kamenets Podolsk.
On Aug. 27-31 the Soviets evacuate 23K soldiers and civilians by sea from
on 190 ships, losing 25 of 29 large troop transports and 10K killed, becoming known as the
Baltic Dunkirk; Capt.
of the Kazakhstan is executed for deserting under fire.
On Aug. 28 Grafeneck Euthanasia Center dir. Dr.
(1906-83) visits Auschwitz and selects 575 Soviet POWs for use in lethal medical experiments
in Sonnenstein near Dresden - walk this way?
On Aug. 28 the Japanese ambassador to the U.S. presents a secret letter from Prince Fumimaro Konoye
asking for a personal meeting with FDR; too bad, on Sept. 3 it leaked by the Herald-Tribune,
spilling the beans and imperiling Konoye's govt.
On Aug. 28 the SS murders 2,076 Jews incl. 599 children at
On Aug. 28 Roman Catholic pastor
(1875-1943) of St. Hedwig's Church in Berlin writes a protest letter to Reich chief physician
(1900-45) protesting the euthanasia program, saying that it "will call forth the vengeance of
the Lord on the heads of the German people"; he is sentenced to two years in prison.
On Aug. 29 Finnish forces capture
(changed to Zelenogorsk in 1948) 30 mi. NW of Leningrad, then refuse to advance to Leningrad since
they only wanted to restore their pre-1939 frontier; other Finnish troops keep advancing toward
Lake Onega E of Leningrad to cut Soviet communications between the Baltic and White Seas.
On Aug. 29 Liberal PM (since 1939) Robert Gordon Menzies suddenly resigns, and after the United Australian Party defers to the Country Party,
Sir Arthur William Fadden (1894-1973)
becomes PM #13 of Australia; on Oct. 7 after the two independent MPs switch their vote, causing him to joke that he was the Flood PM
(40 days and 40 nights), he is replaced by Labor Party leader (since Sept. 23, 1935)
John Joseph Curtin (1885-1945),
who becomes PM #14 (until July 5, 1945), going on to become one of the best Australian PMs so far.
On Aug. 30 the Neva Squadron begins shelling the Germans at Gatchina, firing 340 shells at it on Aug. 31, then relocating naval guns on shore
at Pulkovo Heights incl. from 1917 Russian Rev. cruiser Aurora.
The F-ckn' 872 worst days of WWII for Russia begin?
On Aug. 30 German Army Group North takes Mga
10 mi. E of Leningrad, and cuts the last rail line to Leningrad.
On Aug. 30-Sept. 8 the Soviets recapture
Yelnya between Smolensk and Kaluga,
becoming their first major V against the Germans, causing Hitler to give up on taking the Crimea
and Caucasus and issue
Fuhrer Directive No. 35,
ordering Army Group Center to launch
the capture of Moscow (Oct. 2).
On Aug. 31 the Soviets retake Mga; on Sept. 1 the Germans retake it - Hitler never gets the hint?
On Aug. 31 the Germans shoot 3.7K Jews and bury them in mass graves at
6 mi. from Vilna (Vilnius), Lithuania, followed by 3.4K more on Sept. 6,; eventually
they kill 70K Jews and 30K non-Jews, and bury them in oil storage tanks.
In Aug. the Flying Tigers
(1st Am. Volunteer Group) is founded in Kunming, China by the new U.S. Army Air Forces to
fight for China against Japan; after relocating from Mandalay, Burma on Dec. 8,
it is led by Col. (later Lt. Gen.)
Claire Lee Chennault
(1893-1958) (adviser to the Chinese govt. since July 1937), with three squadrons of P-40s
that later see action in Burma et al., becoming known for "defensive pursuit".
In Aug. British intel intercepts a
from the Japanese ambassador in Berlin, who reports that
"In the event of a collision between Japan and the United States, Germany would at once open
hostilities with the United States", passing it to FDR - the smoking gun?
On Sept. 1 Stalin announces the deportation of all 440K ethnic
living in the Volga River region to the E, leaving hundreds of towns and villages from Marxstadt
to Strassburg deserted; on Aug. 28 Stalin abolishes the Autonomous Socialistic Soviet Repub. of the Volga Germans.
On Sept. 1 76K Jews in Berlin are ordered to wear a yellow Star of David.
On Sept. 1 after a public outcry by Lutheran Bishop
(1868-1953) of Wurttemberg and Roman Catholic Bishop
Clements August, Count von Galen
(1878-1946) of Munster, the German euthanasia program
(founded Sept. 1939) is officially ended after killing 90K-250K Germans incl. 80K mental patients
and 10K POWs with alleged intellectual or physical disabilities, most by gassing; it still goes on
unofficially - in case we missed any?
On Sept. 3 600 Soviet POWs and 250 Polish POWs are
with Zyklon-B at Auschwitz in their 2nd experiment, which is a success.
On Sept. 4 U.S. destroyer USS Greer
is attacked by German U-boat U-652 off Iceland after it wrongly connects depth charges dropped by a
British aircraft to it, causing FDR to start an undeclared state of war with Germany in the North Atlantic.
On Sept. 6 Japanese Prince Fumimaro Konoye holds a 3-hour dinner
with U.S. ambassador to Japan (since 1932) Joseph Clark Grew (1880-1965),
informing him that Japan now agrees with the four principles the Americans were demanding as the basis for peace; there is no response; on
Sept. 29 Grew sends a "prayer" (Herbert Hoover) to FDR to not pass up this chance for peace; on Sept. 30 Grew writes Washington:
"Konoye's warship is ready waiting to take him to Honolulu, Alaska or any place designated by the president."
On Sept. 6 U.S. merchant ship SS Steel Seafarer
en route to Egypt is sunk by German aircraft in the Red Sea 200 mi. S of Suez.
On Sept. 6 after influence by SS Capt.
(1911-48), all Jews in German-occupied areas age 6 years and up must begin
wearing a yellow Star of David - that ain't mustard that's pure shit?
On Sept. 8 German Army Group North begins the 872-day
Siege of Leningrad
(St. Petersburg), Russia's 2nd-biggest city (ends Jan. 27, 1944);
1.3M-1.5M Soviet citizens are killed incl. 641K from starvation and 17K from shelling;
150K shells and 100K bombs are dropped on the city; signs are stenciled on bldgs. that
they are more likely to be killed by artillery shells on the N side of streets; during
the fun and games, the Nazis strip Catherine II the Great's
(donated to Peter I the Great by Prussia in 1716) in St. Petersburg, and
take it to Konigsberg, after which the whereabouts remain unknown until ?;
after the war the room is painstakingly reconstructed.
On Sept. 8 the Germans capture
Shlisselburg (Schlusselburg) (Schlüsselburg)
at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga 22 mi. E of St. Petersburg, but can't take
Oroshek Fortress; meanwhile Finnish troops cut the Leningrad-Murmansk railway at
Lodeynoye Polye 152 mi. NE of St. Petersburg,
while German bombers drop 6K+ incendiary bombs on Leningrad, destroying the 4-acre
Badayev Warehouse containing food supplies.
On Sept. 8 Otto Frank writes to Nathan Straus Jr. to see about obtaining visas for Cuba.
On Sept. 9 Soviet Marshal
Semyon (Simon) Mikhailovich Budenny (Budyenny) (Budyonny)
(1883-1973) asks Stalin's permission to evacuate Kiev, and is refused.
On Sept. 9 German Army Group North under Field Marshal Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb
begins the Siege of Leningrad while being bombarded by Soviet cruiser
Maxim Gorky, battleship Krasny Oktyabr (October Rev.),
and battleship Marat; an SS div. from Crete is ordered to cross
the Neva River NW of Mga to invade Leningrad from the N, but doesn't have enough pontoons.
On Sept. 9 (night) 16 German U-boats attack a convoy of 65 merchant ships in the North Atlantic
en route to Britain from Sydney, Cape Breton, Canada, sinking 15 before
is forced to the surface by depth charges from Canadian corvettes Chambly and Moosejaw,
scuttling itself before it can be captured, after which Chambly is sunk, along with U-207 - ripped off
for the 1942 Humphrey Bogart flick "Action in the North Atlantic"?
On Sept. 10 Josef Terboven proclaims a state of emergency in Oslo, launching
mass arrests of trade union leaders and shutting down newspapers.
On Sept. 10 the govt. of Slovakia in Bratislava issues German-style Nuremberg Laws to oppress
the country's 135K Jews.
On Sept. 10 Hitler issues a new order to delay the attack on Moscow until Soviet forces in the
C Ukraine are encircled E of Kiev between Nezhin and Lubny, which they finish on Sept. 16,
capturing 600K POWs - he lost it to General Winter right here?
On Sept. 10 Hitler and Hungarian Adm. Horthy visit Marienburg in E Prussia,
where Hitler tells him "We don't have your Jewish problem."
On Sept. 11 Soviet Marshal Budenny and senior Communist Party official Nikita Khrushchev
appeal to Stalin for permission to withdraw from Kiev, causing Budenny to be dismissed, and
new cmdr. Gen.
Mikhail Petrovich Kirponos (1892-1941)
to be told to "search for ways to resist, and only resist."
On Sept. 11 Marshal Georgi Zhukov arrives by air in Leningrad to take charge of the city's defenses,
ordering a counterattack at Schlusselburg on Sept. 14 then removing Col. Gen.
Aleksandr Sergueyevich Shcherbakov (1901-45)
(dir. of the Soviet Info. Bureau) and commissar ? Chukhov when they tell him it can't be done.
9/11, Pentagon, naw?
On Sept. 11 ground is broken for the 6.5M sq. ft. 5-floor Pentagon
in Arlington County, Va. near Washington, D.C. on Hell's Bottom, an abandoned railyard, designed by architects
George Edwin Bergstrom (1876-1955) and
David J. Witmer (1888-1973), and supervised by Gen.
Leslie Richard Groves Jr. (1896-1970), who later heads the Manhattan Project;
it has five ring corridors per floor with a total length of 17.5 mi., housing 23K+ employees, surrounding a 5-acre plaza called Ground Zero;
it is dedicated on Jan. 15, 1943; before this, war was managed from 17 different locations around Washington, D.C., then consolidated in
Foggy Bottom (between Penn. Ave. and Constitution Ave.) (built on a swamp known for its vapors),
which was too small and ends up as the HQ of the State Dept.; FDR ordered the building of a temporary structure for the duration of the war, but the generals
secretly appealed to Virginia's Congressional delegation for permanent funds - guess what happens exactly 60 years later?
The beginning of the PC Police?
On Sept. 11 American hero Charles Augustus Lindbergh (1902-74)
gives a speech in Des Moines, Iowa,
charging that "the British, the Jews and the Roosevelt administration" are trying
to drag the U.S. into WWII, saying "Instead of agitation for war the Jewish groups
in this country should be opposing it in every possible way, for they will be among
the first to feel its consequences... Their greatest danger to this country lies
in their large ownership and influence in our motion pictures, our press, our radio,
and our government"; the media backlash causes him to go on the defensive and deny
that he is anti-Semitic, hampering his efforts to keep the U.S. out of the war.
On Sept. 12 the first surreal Nappy-nightmare snows falls on the Russian Front, but
doesn't stick; Hitler orders the Leningrad offensive halted, preferring to
starve the city into submission, allowing troops to concentrate on Moscow, ordering
five Panzer divs., two motorized divs., and most of the Luftwaffe to leave within a week
although 30 Soviet divs. trapped in Leningrad are on the verge of capitulating?
On Sept. 12 the British RAF sees its first action in N Russia at
17 mi. NE of Murmansk, shooting down three German aircraft while losing one, causing Kiwi Cmdr.
Henry Neville Gynes Ramsbottom-Isherwood (1905-50)
and three airmen to become the first and only Allied troops to be awarded the Order of Lenin.
On Sept. 12 German police murder 1,255 Jews near Ovruch, Ukraine, after which a
In mid-Sept. Hitler orders Albert Speer to increase purchases of monumental granite from Sweden, Norway, and Finland for Berlin and Nuremberg.
On Sept. 15 "Forbidden for Jews" signs begin appearing in the
Jews are banned from most public places.
On Sept. 16 the Germans capture Pushkin (Tsarskoye Selo)
near Leningrad, along with the tram station at
but leave the airport N of the Neva River in Soviet hands, keeping German troops
from ever marching in the city itself as a massive airlift begins on Sept. 13 (ends Dec. 1),
bringing 6K tons of freight incl. 1,660 tons of arms and munitions and 4,325 tons of food;
the Germans go on to engage in atrocities against the Jews in Pushkin.
On Sept. 16 German Paris ambassador
Heinrich Otto Abetz (1903-58)
visits Hitler at Wolf's Lair, and is treated to a
Speech on the Future of Nazi Russia;
"poisonous nest" Leningrad is to be razed to end "250 years of Asiatic
pestilence"; Russia W of the Ural Mts. will become "Germany's India",
with the Urals the new frontier; with help from the iron ore fields at
Krivoi Rog Germany will become economically self-sufficient;
meanwhile 10 members of the French Resistance, mostly Jews are executed
in Paris for sabotage.
On Sept. 16 German Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel issues
OKW Order No. 888/41,
ordering German troops in occupied Europe to kill 50 Communists for every wounded German
soldier, and 100 for each dead German soldier.
On Sept. 16 SS troops and Ukrainian militia murder several hundred Jews in
Uman, incl. women and children, causing some German soldiers
to suffer nervous breakdowns.
On Sept. 16 Atlantic convoy HX 150
sets sail from Halifax, N.S., becoming the first to be escorted by U.S. warships.
On Sept. 17 the U.S. Navy increases it role in escorting Allied convoys in the Atlantic
bound for England.
On Sept. 18 Italian troop transports
are sunk by British sub
causing German U-boats to arrive in the Mediterranean by Nov.
On Sept. 19 German CIC Field Marshal
(1882-1946) issues an
reminding his soldiers that "a human life in unsettled countries counts for
nothing, and a deterrent effect can be obtained by unusual severity"; after
the war this helps get him hanged - movie gangster Harvey Keitel's many
evil characters would be proud?
On Sept. 19 after the Soviets under Gen. Kirponos (who is KIA on Sept. 16)
obey Stalin's orders to fight to the last man until he changes his mind and
orders a withdrawal on Sept. 18, the Germans occupy
in the Ukraine after the Soviets lose 1M troops incl. 500K POWs (greatest
military D in history?) (only 15K escape); they go on to take
160 mi. to the SE by the end of Sept., allowing the German Sixth Army
under Gen. Walther von Reichenau to advance toward Kharkov, the German 17th Army
under Gen. Carl-Heinrich von Stulpnagel to advance toward Poltava and then
Voroshilovgrad, German Army Group South to advance toward the coast of the
Sea of Azov, the German 11th Army under Gen. Erich von Manstein to advance
toward the Crimea, taking the entire peninsula except for Sevastopol by fall,
and the First Panzer Army under Gen.
Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist
(1881-1954) to head for Melitopol then Rostov, gateway to the Caucasus.
On Sept. 19 276 German bombers attack Leningrad, killing 1K+; on Sept. 21 180 bombers
attack Kronstadt, seriously damaging the dockyard.
On Sept. 20 Soviet hero gen. Mikhail Kirponos (b. 1892) is KIA in Lokhvytsia, Ukraine.
On Sept. 22 Britain asks Finland to end its war with the Soviet Union,
followed by the U.S. on Oct. 3, but it fights on.
On Sept. 23 after three SS sentries are killed, the SS murders the entire pop. of the village of
On Sept. 24 Waffen SS Totenkopf Div. Cpl.
(1921-95) remains at his gun after his entire battery is KIA, knocking out 13 Soviet tanks
and receiving the Iron Cross First Class with Knight's Cross personally from Hitler.
On Sept. 24 after British agent Col. D.T. Hudson lands near Petrovac on
Sept. 17, Josip Broz Tito and his 70K partisans capture
Uzice, Yugoslavia, which
has a rifle factory producing 400 rifles a day.
On Sept. 24 Japanese consul Nagai Kita
is instructed by Tokyo to divide Pearl Harbor into five zones and report
the number of warships moored in each; it takes until Oct. 9 for the U.S. govt.
to decrypt the message, only to consider it unimportant.
On Sept. 25 German Army Group South launches an offensive toward Kharkov
and the Crimea, meeting unexpectedly strong defenses incl. the new T-34
Soviet supertank, which the SS Death Head Div. counters with special squads
carrying hand-held bombs in satchels; on Sept. 26 SS Capt.
Max Seela leads a squad that wastes seven of them.
On Sept. 26 after a Lithuanian policeman in
thinks he hears a shot, 1.8K street Jews are rounded up, trucked to a
WWI fort, and shot.
On Sept. 27 the Germans occupy
Perekop, cutting off the Crimea.
On Sept. 27 the SS murders 3,446 Jews incl. 800+ children in
Eisiskes, Lithuania in
specially-dug pits in the Jewish cemetery - I would find it kind of hard
to believe in the Jewish God Jehovah after this?
On Sept. 27 10K-ton merchant ship
USS Patrick Henry
is launched in Baltimore, Md., becoming the first of thousands of
standardized mass-produced prefab
Henry John Kaiser
(1882-1967), "Father of Modern U.S. Shipbuilding";
the USS Robert E. Peary is built in a record four days.
On Sept. 28 ? Vershovsky,
Russian mayor of Kremenchug tries to save several hundred Jews from the
SS by having them baptized, getting arrested and shot.
On Sept. 29 Convoy PQ-1,
the first British military supply convoy to Russia leaves Hvalfiord, Iceland for Archangel,
arriving on Oct. 11.
On Sept. 29 a memorandum
written by the chief of staff of the German naval command to Army Group North states:
"The Fuhrer is determined to raze Petersburg [Leningrad] to the ground"; on Nov. 27
Finnish foreign minister (1940-3)
Rolf Johan Witting (1879-1944)
that former Petersburg is to be given to the Finns, with the River Neva forming the postwar
border between the German Reich and Finland.
On Sept. 29 Moscow orders the evacuation of Russia's largest heavy machine works at
Kramatorsk SE of Kharkov.
On Sept. 29-30 the
Babi Yar Massacre
of 33,771 Jews by machine gun takes place in a ravine near Kiev;
after the war 726 mass graves of 1.7M Ukrainian Jews are discovered.
On Sept. 30 the Finnish army breaks through to
Petrozavodsk on Lake Onega.
On Sept. 30 after Averell Harriman agrees to send them 400 tons of barbed wire
a month, Lord Beaverbrook agrees to send the Soviets Britain's entire
supply quota from the U.S. incl. 1.8K fighter aircraft, 2,250 tanks,
500 anti-tank guns, 23K Tommy guns, 25K tons of copper, 27K tons of rubber,
and 250K greatcoats, with a further 1.8K British Hurricanes and Spitfires,
900 U.S. fighters, and 900 U.S. bombers promised in nine monthly deliveries,
plus 150 sets of Asdic submarine detection units, 1.5K naval guns,
5K anti-aircraft machine guns, and eight destroyers before the end of the year,
plus 1K tanks and spare parts, 300 anti-aircraft guns, 300 anti-tank guns,
and 2K armored cars with anti-tank guns a month, plus 4K tons of aluminum,
13K tons of steel, and other essential materials, machine tools, medical
supplies, and clothing - so much for the Great American Depression?
On Oct. 1 Jewish children in Amsterdam are required to attend segregated schools.
On Oct. 1-6 the New York Yankees (AL) defeat the Brooklyn Dodgers (NL) 4-1 to win the
Thirty-Eighth (38th) World "Subway" Series;
the Dodgers play in their first WS in 21 years under mgr.
Leo "Lippy" Durocher
10-02-41 - the high water mark of Nazism?
On Oct. 2 Operation Typhoon
(ends Jan. 7) begins with 2K Panzers as the Russkies enact a scorched-earth policy, with
ham Hitler uttering the
"Today begins the last great decisive battle of the war", giving Germany
"the three greatest industrial districts of the Bolsheviks", concluding
"At last we have created the prerequisites for the final tremendous blow
which, before the onset of winter, will lead to the destruction of the enemy" - the
German version of Ty Cobb?
On Oct. 2 the Zagare (Zhager) Massacre
sees the SS machine-gun 533 Jewish men, 1,017 women, and 496 children.
On Oct. 2 the SS murders 976 Jews in
S Lithuania after furnishing benches so that the local Lithuanian pop. can enjoy the view.
On Oct. 2 SS Operational Situational Report No. 101
reports 35,782 "Jews and Communists" murdered in Nikolayev and Kherson
on the Black Sea coast.
On Oct. 2 under orders of SS chief I-hear-an-empty Col.
(1910-2003), seven synagogues in Paris are dynamited; after one fuse fails, #7 is
blown up on Oct. 3.
On Oct. 3 the Germans capture
before the Soviets can destroy its factories, causing Hitler to travel specially to address
a huge crowd in the Berlin Sportpalast, with the soundbyte:
"48 hours ago there began new operations of gigantic dimensions. They
will lead to the destruction of the enemy in the East. The enemy has
already been routed and will never regain his strength"; he then gives his
Grand Conspiracy Speech
in Berlin, claiming that a "conspiracy of democratic Jews and Freemasons dragged
Europe into war two years ago", that "We had no idea how gigantic the preparations
of Russia were against Germany and Europe and how immeasurably great was the danger,
how by the skin of our teeth we have escaped destruction not only of Germany but
also of Europe", and that Russia has been "broken and will never rise again" - look
in the mirror when you say that?
On Oct. 3 the British Tube Alloys Project passes its results to James Bryant Conant
of the U.S., who tells FDR on Oct. 6 that a 25-lb. A-bomb core will explode
with the equivalent of 1.8K tons of TNT; Soviet spy Klaus Fuchs passes the
same info. to Stalin.
On Oct. 4 the Germans lock-in the staff and patients of a Jewish hospital and orphanage in
then set it on fire, killing any who escape.
On Oct. 4 U.S. Army Pvt. Willie Gillis
appears on the cover of the Saturday Evening Post for the first of 11x,
modeled by Norman Rockwell on his neighbor Robert Buck.
On Oct. 6 the Germans occupy
capturing 100K Russian POWs; the 2nd snow of the year falls on the Russian Front,
On Oct. 7 snow flurries fall on Hitler's Wolf's Lair.
On Oct. 7 17K Jews are massacred in
Rovno (Rivne), Poland.
On Oct. 8 Mariupol, Ukraine
is captured by the Germans, who reach the Sea of Azov, causing Hitler's
press chief Otto Dietrich
to tell reporters in Berlin on Oct. 9:
"In a military sense Soviet Russia has been vanquished."
On Oct. 8 Vitebsk Ghetto
in Russia is liquidated of 3K Jews.
On Oct. 10 as the first Leningrad starving deaths occur, Gen. Zhukov is recalled to Moscow to
halt the German advance, with Gen. Nikolai Bulganin as his political advisor.
On Oct. 10
N of Prague is established, followed on Oct. 11 by
On Oct. 10 Hitler utters the
"The law of existence prescribes uninterrupted killing so that the better may live";
meanwhile German Sixth Army cmdr. Marshal Walther von Reichenau issues a
directive, containing the soundbyte:
"The most essential aim of the campaign against the Jewish-Bolshevist system
is the complete crushing of its means of power, and the extermination of
Asiatic influences in the European region", which "poses tasks for the
troops that go beyond the one-sided routine of conventional soldiering",
making it necessary for the German soldier to "have full understanding
of the necessity of a severe but just atonement on Jewish subhumanity" - E=MC squared
might just be a Jewish atonement on you German supermen?
On Oct. 12 the Germans occupy
235 mi. SW of Moscow (until Sept. 17, 1943), which becomes a center for 60K Soviet partisans;
the German armies trap and destroy eight Soviet armies and take 648K POWs;
Russian tank soldier
Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (1919-2013)
is wounded by a German shell in the Battle of Bryansk in W Russia, and has a brainstorm
in the hospital, resulting in 1947 in the super-reliable
AK-47 (Avtomat Kalashnikov),
which fires at 600 rpm, and is too late for WWII service but becomes standard Soviet army
issue in 1949, produced by the state-controlled Izhmash Co.
in Izhevsk; as good Socialists, they don't attempt to get a patent;
by the end of the cent. there are 100M of them, accounting for 80% of all assault rifles,
selling for as little as $15; in 2007 Mikhail K. says "I sleep well; it's the politicians
who are to blame for failing to come to an agreement and resorting to violence", and
adding that it was before he designed it, when Nazi soldiers used superior weaponry against
the Red Army that he slept badly.
On Oct. 12 the Germans occupy
Kaluga 93 mi. SW of Moscow.
On Oct. 12 after a 17-day voyage around the North Cape, the first British
supply convoy arrives in Archangel with 20 heavy tanks and 193 fighters,
followed on Oct. 19 by 140 heavy tanks and 100 fighters, followed on Oct. 22 by
200 heavy tanks and 200 fighters.
On Oct. 12 108 Muslim leading citizens of Sarajevo sign the
Resolution of Sarajevo Muslims,
condemning Ustase persecution of Serbs, disavowing connection with the Muslims who helped them,
and asking for help in stopping persecution of Muslims by Serbs.
On Oct. 13-Jan. 18 the
Battle of Borodino Field
is a German V in Oct., followed by a Soviet V in Jan.
On Oct. 14 the Germans take
Kalinin 90 mi. NW of Moscow.
On Oct. 14 the first snow falls in Leningrad, and the temperature on
the Russian Front falls below zero, with Hitler uttering the
"Weather prediction is not a science that can be learned mechanically"; on
Oct. 15 10 in. of snow falls, and after it melts the roads turn to thick mud,
which only the wide-tread Soviet T-34 tanks can navigate; Hitler failed to
learn the lesson of the
Rasputitsa AKA Gen. Mud.
On Oct. 15 after a test-run at the 1939 New York City's World Fair,
restaurant on 5 E. 55th St. in Manhattan, N.Y. on Fifth Ave. across from the
St. Regis Hotel opens, run by French-born chef
Henri Soule (Soulé) (1904-66)
and Saint Vinnemer, Yonne, France-born chef
Pierre Franey (1921-96),
becoming the #1 French restaurant in the U.S. until it closes in 1971, with clientele
incl. the Kennedy family, spawning a slew of offshoots.
In 1960 after a revolt by the staff over low pay, Franey and his apprentice Jacques Pepin
leave to work for the Howard Johnson's restaurant chain, and Franey assists Craig Claiborne
of The New York Times in writing restaurant reviews on his weekends off, leaving
Howard Johnson's in 1975 to begin his own column "The 60 Minute Gourmet" for the NYT,
which is syndicated in 360+ newspapers worldwide.
On Oct. 14-26 the Germans stage
to clear out partisans between Minsk and Smolensk.
On Oct. 15 all Soviet govt. offices in Moscow are ordered to prepare to evacuate to Kuibyshev
on the Volga River, filling 200 trains, plus another 80K trucks and 12 trains which evacuate
500 factories; meanwhile 56 bridges leading to Moscow are mined, plus 16 more inside the city.
On Oct. 15 after the number of Jews in Germany declines to 163K, the Nazis officially forbid
Jewish emigration, and begin
from the Reich, with 1K transported by train from Vienna to Lizmannstadt, ending up in a ghetto.
On Oct. 15 after 200 starved last month, the Germans impose a death penalty on all Jews
leaving the Warsaw Ghetto without permission, as well as on any Pole who tries to hide them;
meanwhile 20K Jews and 5K Gypsies from around Germany are deported to the Lodz Ghetto, where
100 starved last month - the ACLU would make a mint here?
On Oct. 16 after 120K Soviet troops evacuate to Sevastopol in a 3rd Dunkirk, the Germans take
on the Black Sea coast, and Romanian troops penetrate as far as Odessa after occupying Bukovina; on
Oct. 22-24 after seeing that the Communists blew up the Romanian HQ, Bolshevik and Jew-hating
(same thing to him?) Ion Antonescu orders the
a mass extermination of 25K-34K Jews in Odessa and surrounding towns in
Transnistria (border between Romania and Ukraine).
On Oct. 16 after five U.S. destroyers come to the aid of a convoy from
Sydney, Cape Breton, destroyer
is torpedoed by a German U-boat off the Iceland coast, killing 11 but not
sinking it, causing FDR to utter the soundbyte "Hitler's torpedo was
directed at every American" on Navy Day (Oct. 27).
On Oct. 16 Prince Fumimaro Konoye resigns, and on Oct. 18 military leader Gen.
(1884-1948) becomes PM #40 of Japan (until 1944), and now the
Party of Complete Agreement with the Rule of the Showa Emperor is poised
to showa the world; the Japanese mistakenly believe that the U.S. insists
on total troop pullout of Manchuria, causing them to attack needlessly?;
meanwhile Stalin pulls 8 divs., half of his Far Eastern force incl. 1K tanks
and 1K aircraft for the defense of Moscow - I really want to go?
On Oct. 16-25 the Germans take
(reducing its pop. from 507K to 175K by the end of the war),
Belgorod (Oct. 25) in S Russia, and
Tarusa (Tarussa) (Oct. 24) S of Moscow,
while Gen. von Manstein breaks into the Crimea, causing Hitler to celebrate and muse about
highways from Germany to the Crimea and Caucasus which "will be studded along their whole length
with German towns, and around these towns our colonists will settle" incl. people from "Western
countries and America", adding "The Jew, that destroyer, we shall drive out."
On Oct. 18 Stalin's spy Richard Sorge and 35 members of his ring are arrested
by the Japanese in Tokyo.
On Oct. 19 Stalin proclaims a state of siege, ordering Moscow to be defended
to the last man and woman; 500K men and women are sent to dig 5M mi. of
anti-tank ditches between Moscow and er, Kuntsevo, and at Naro-Fominsk,
also laying 185 mi. of barbed wire.
On Oct. 19 Hermitage dir. Iosif Orbeli obtains Stalin's permission to
release half a dozen orientalists from the front line to celebrate the
800th anniv. of Azerbaijan nat. poet Nizami.
On Oct. 20 the Germans reach within 65 mi. from Moscow after occupying
600K sq. mi. of Soviet territory with a pop. of 65M and capturing 3M POWs,
shooting any who can't march to Smolensk.
On Oct. 20 the Nazi-appointed Joodsche Raad Jewish Council
sanctions the creation of
a card index of Netherland Jews.
On Oct. 20 the first show of
Reveille With Beverly, with host
Jean Ruth (Hay) (1917-2004)
is broadcast at 5:30 a.m. on radio station KFEL in Denver, Colo.; it is soon picked up
by the Armed Forces Radio Service, reaching 11M U.S. soldiers by the end of 1942.
On Oct. 20-21 German Wehrmacht and Croatian Ustachi forces massacre 2.3K Serbian men and boys at
1.7K at Kraljevo, and 6K at
On Oct. 21 SS Operational Situation Report No. 120
reports 2.2K Serbs and Jews shot in reprisal for an attack on a train
near Topola which killed 22 German soldiers; also 1,757 executed at
Kraljevo, and two Greek villages near the Strumen Estuary burned down
and the entire male pop. of 202 shot for supporting partisans.
On Oct. 21 the Germans shoot 50 hostages in
for the assassination of region military cmdr. Lt. Col.
? Hotz (Hötz) on Oct. 20.
On Oct. 21 (noon) lunchtime with Hitler utters the tasty
"Didn't the world see, carried on right into the Middle Ages, the same old system of martyrs,
tortures, faggots? Of old, it was in the name of Christianity. Today it's in the name of
Bolshevism. Yesterday the instigator was Saul: the instigator today is Mardochai. Saul has
changed into St. Paul, and Mardochai into Karl Marx. By exterminating this pest, we shall do
humanity a service of which our soldiers can have no idea";
in the evening dinner with Hitler waxes lyrical about his new Nazi Master Race Capital of Berlin,
with the soundbyte:
"Nothing will be too good for the beautification of Berlin. When one enters
the Reich Chancellery one should have the feeling that one is visiting the
master of the world. One will arrive there along wide avenues containing
the Triumphal Arch, the Pantheon of the Army, the Square of the People,
things to take your breath away", adding "Granite will ensure that our
monuments last forever."
On Oct. 21 after three weeks of effort dissassembling the
Kramatorsk Heavy Machine Works
SW of Kharkov and packing it on trains, 2.5K workers walk 20 mi. E to find
a train of their own.
On Oct. 22 the Germans murder 25K Jews in
locking half of them into four large warehouses then setting three on fire and shelling the 4th.
On Oct. 23 Jewish emigration from Germany is prohibited, even to Vichy France.
On Oct. 24 the German Sixth Army under Gen. Walther von Reichenau retakes
and on Oct. 30 begins the
Siege of Sevastopol
(ends July 3, 1942).
On Oct. 24 3.7K Jews incl. 885 children are rounded up in the Jewish ghetto in
and taken to Ponar to be murdered.
On Oct. 24 Hitler arrives at Wolf's Lair, giving
speech, with the soundbyte:
"From the rostrum of the Reichstag I prophesied to Jewry that, in the event of war proving inevitable,
the Jew would disappear from Europe. That race of criminals has on its conscience the
two million dead of the First World War, and now already hundreds of thousands more.
Let nobody tell me that all the same we can't park them in the marshy parts of Russia.
Who's worrying about our troops? It's not a bad idea, by the way, that public rumor
attributes to us a plan to exterminate the Jews. Terror is a salutary thing."
On Oct. 24 after being put in charge of Jewish deportation to Riga,
Berlin civil servant
Adolf Otto Eichmann
(1906-62) approves a proposal by Hinrich Lohse to use mobile poison gas vans
on Jews to save transportation costs; on Oct. 27-30 the first experimental
gassings are carried out on 290 elderly Jews in Kalisz in W Poland in a
truck linked to its exhaust pipe, after which the other Jews in town are
presented with the transportation bill.
On Oct. 25 deep snow falls on the Moscow Front.
On Oct. 26 the Germans stage their first public hanging in
of three partisans incl. 17-y.-o.
Maria "Masha" Bruskina (b. 1924).
On Oct. 27 the Germans occupy
Volokolamsk 80 mi. NW of Moscow
(until Dec. 20); in Nov. 28 Soviet soldiers of the 316th Rifle Div. disable 18 German tanks
headed to the Volokolamsk-Moscow Hwy.
On Oct. 29 the
sees 9.2K Jews incl. 4,273 children murdered in Fort No. 9 in
On Oct. 29 the first Soviet troops from the Far East see action at
Borodino near Moscow.
On Oct. 29 as Germany is winning the war, Winston Churchill gives his
Harrow School Speech
to his alma mater, with the soundbytes
"This is the lesson: Never give in. Never give in. Never, never,
never, never - in nothing, great or small, large or petty - never
give in", and "These are not dark days; these are great days - the
greatest days our country has ever lived; and we must all thank God
that we have been allowed, each of us according to our stations, to
play a part in making these days memorable in the history of our race."
On Oct. 31 (05:25) U.S. destroyer
is sunk off Iceland by German U-boat
under handsome Capt. (later Rear Adm.)
Erich Topp (1914-2005)
while escorting Convoy HX-156 from Halifax, N.S., killing 115 of 159, becoming the
first U.S. warship lost in WWII, causing FDR to wire Stalin that he approves $1B in
lend-lease aid sans interest, with repayment to begin five years after the war ends.
On Oct. 31 as the Luftwaffe stages 45 bombing attacks on Moscow, the Soviets evacuate
17,614 armament factory workers and 8,590 wounded military officers from Leningrad.
On Oct. 31 after trying to obtain food outside their ghetto, 200 Jews are shot at
Kletsk (Kleck), Russia.
1942 Chinese Year: Horse. Time Mag. Man of the Year: Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) (1939); beginning this year Boris Chaliapin (1902-79), son of Russian opera singer Feodor Chaliapin begins drawing the covers for Time's Man of the Year (until Richard Nixon in 1970). The need for the U.S. Navy to withdraw ships from the Atlantic to protect Hawaii and the West Coast from possible Japanese attack helps the Germans sink more than 2x as many ships in the North Atlantic this year as in 1941, plus more along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The coalition against Nazi Azis, er, Axis comes into full formal existence? On Jan. 1 reps of 26 Allied nations incl. the U.S., Britain, and the Soviet Union sign the United Nations Declaration (Declaration by United Nations), pledging their full resources against the Axis, and promising not to make peace separately, with the goal being "to ensure life, liberty, independence and religious freedom, and to preserve the rights of man and justice" - Stalin broke that New Year's resolution in a millisecond? On Jan. 1 after 60K of 80K Jews are murdered in Vilna (Vilnius) Ghetto in Lithuania, 150 Jewish leaders issue a declaration, which incl. the soundbyte: "Hitler plans to destroy all the Jews in Europe, and the Jews of Lithuania have been chosen as the first in line. We will not be led like sheep to the slaughter!" On Jan. 1 after tearing it down stone by stone for 4 mo., the Nazis finish demolishing Zagreb Synagogue in Croatia. On Jan. 1 former mayor of Chartres Jean Moulin (1889-1943) AKA Max parachutes into France to organize resistance groups to unite under Gen. Charles de Gaulle. On Jan. 1 Bletchley Park cracks German Enigma codes Pink, Gadfly, Hornet, and Wasp, followed on Jan. 2 by Kite. On Jan. 1 Oregon State defeats Duke U. by 20-16 to win the 1942 Rose Bowl. wartime regs cause it to be hosted at Duke in Durham, N.C. instead of in Calif., becoming the first not hosted in Pasadena until ? On Jan. 2 the Japanese occupy Manila and Cavite in the Philippines, causing pres. Manuel Quezon y Molina and vice-pres. Sergio Osmena to be evacuated and form a govt. in exile while U.S. and Philippine forces fortify their position on the Bataan Peninsula, being advised on Jan. 3 that there will be no U.S. relief forces; on Jan. 3 the Japanese occupy Labuan and Brunei, staging an air attack on Rabaul in New Britain on Jan. 4; on Jan. 7 the Siege (Battle) of Bataan begins (ends Apr. 9); U.S. military chaplain Father William T. Cummings (1903-45) allegedly utters the soundbyte: "There are no atheists in foxholes". On Jan. 2 Hitler orders the German Ninth Army that just evacuated Kalinin to make a stand and give up not even "one inch of ground"; meanwhile the Red Army breaks through the German line NW of Rzhev, while the Second Panzer Army reports that the local pop. is feeding the Red Army intel, causing them to stop all civilian movement between fronts. On Jan. 2 FDR and Churchill hold a meeting that decides to boost U.S. arms production 3x to 45K airplanes, 45K tanks, and 500K machine guns by the end of 1943, with other categories increased 70%. On Jan. 5 the Dutch Council of Churches protests the "complete lawlessness" of German treatment of the Jews. On Jan. 5 British MI-9 agent Donald Darling AKA Sunday arrives in Gibraltar to create an overland escape route for Allied POWs from Marseilles to Barcelona to Gibraltar or Lisbon; co-agent Michael Creswell AKA Monday is based in N Spain. On Jan. 6 the Pan-Am Pacific Clipper arrives in New York City after making the first round-the-world trip by a commercial airplane. On Jan. 7 the Germans begin a drive against the Communist partisans of Tito in Yugoslavia, driving them 50 mi. S from Olovo to Foca. On Jan. 7 in -40C temps the Soviets launch the Novgorod Offensive N of Lake Ilmen, with the Germans unable to fight back because of frostbite; on Jan. 11 Field Marshal von Leeb begs Hitler to pull back from the exposed Demyansk Pocket, and is refused, trapping 100K Germans, after which von Leeb resigns. On Jan. 9-Feb. 15 the SS murders 10K Jews in Simferopol in the Crimea; really shot on Dec. 9-13? On Jan. 10 Japan declares war on the Netherlands. On Jan. 10 the Japanese occupy Port Swettenham in Malaya, followed on Jan. 11 by Kuala Lumpur. On Jan. 10 the first Jews are sent from Amsterdam to Nazi work camps. On Jan. 11-12 the Japanese capture Tarakan Island off NE Borneo, containing 700 oil wells. On Jan. 11-13 the Japanese capture the key airbase of Manado in Celebes, followed by Rabaul on Jan. 23, New Ireland on Jan. 25, the Solomon Islands on Jan. 26, and Amboina on Jan. 31. On Jan. 12 U.S. Pres. Roosevelt creates the Nat. War Labor Board - it's not the New Deal anymore, its war? On Jan. 12 the German Kriegsmarine begins Operation Drum Roll, a U-boat offensive along the U.S. East Coast, sinking many boats close to the shore because of bright lights from the coastal cities that allow them to be silhouetted, the first ship sunk being British merchant ship SS Cyclops; by the end of Jan. 46 ships (196K tons) are sunk; a gen. blackout is stalled for 6 mo. due to pressure from the tourist trade; the U.S. responds with Q-Ships, heavily-armed anti-sub ships disguised as merchant ships. On Jan. 12 the SS executes 5K Jews in Kovno. On Jan. 12 the Germans begin deporting 19,582 Jews from Odessa; by mid-1943 15K are dead of murder, starvation, or disease. On Jan. 12-23 the SS executes 8K Jews in Kiev. On Jan. 13 reps of nine occupied countries incl. Gen. Sikorski of Poland and Gen. Charles de Gaulle of France sign a London War Crimes Declaration, vowing "the punishment, through the channels of organized justice, of those guilty of, or responsible for, these crimes, whether they have ordered them, perpetrated them, or participated in them." On Jan. 14 the SS murders 807 Jews in Ushachi, and 925 in Kublichi in White Russia; local peasants search their teeth for gold. On Jan. 14-22 the Battle of Muar, the last major battle of the Malaysian campaign is a V for 8K Japanese over 4K Brits, who lose 3.1K KIA vs. 700 Japanese. On Jan. 15 Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) succeeds Mohandas K. Gandhi as head of India's Nat. Congress Party. On Jan. 15 the U.S. 34th Infantry Div. under Maj. Gen. Russell Peter "Scrappy" Hartle (1889-1961) become the first U.S. troops of WWII to arrive in Britain. On Jan. 15 Hitler tells his guests of plans to build various monuments to Nazism in Konigsberg, Nuremberg, and Trondheim. On Jan. 16 the War Production Board (WPB), established by executive order #9024 of FDR supersedes the Office of Production Mgt., with Sidney Hillman as dir. of the labor div.; happy Sid ends up playing a key role in delivering organized labor to the Dem. Party. On Jan. 17 (dawn) as Winston Churchill is returning to Britain from the U.S. via flying boat, it deviates off course towards Brest; when it corrects course, British radar mistake it for a hostile bomber and send six aircraft to shoot it down, but they all miss. On Jan. 17 British destroyer HMS Matabele is sunk en route from Iceland to Murmansk by a German U-boat, killing 247. On Jan. 18-23 1,643 Soviet paratroopers are dropped behind the German lines SE and SW of Vyzama in Russia, disrupting German comm and supply lines. On Jan. 19 the U.S. Supreme (Stone) Court rules 7-2 in Glasser v. U.S. that the Assistance of Counsel Clause of the Sixth Amendment requires reversal of a conviction if the defendant's atty.'s representation was limited by a conflict of interest, and that a jury must be drawn from a "cross-section of the community", meaning that women can't be excluded just because they didn't attend a jury training class or aren't members of the League of Women Voters, becoming the first jury discrimination case to invoke the Sixth Amendment rather than the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. On Jan. 20 the Soviets recapture Mozhaisk, protecting Moscow from direct assault; meanwhile partisans attack German railway guards all the way back to Minsk and Baranowicze. On Jan. 20 Jakob (Yakov) Grojanowski (real name Szlamek Bajiler) escapes from Chelmno where he was forced to bury bodies of gassed fellow Jews, reaching the nearby village of Grabow, where he tells the local rabbi: "Don't think I'm crazed and have lost my reason. I am a Jew from the nether world. They are killing the whole nation of Israel. I myself have buried a whole town of Jews, my parents, brothers, and the entire family"; he goes on to pub. the Grojanowski Report On Jan. 20 the 90-min. Wannsee Conference of 15 top Nazis in the Wannsee lakeside resort in W Berlin, led by Reich Security Chief ("the Blonde Beast") Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (1904-42) incl. Martin Franz Julius Luther (1895-1945), Roland Freisler (1893-1945), Josef Buhler (Bühler) (1904-48), Wilhelm Stuckart (1902-53), and Adolf Otto Eichmann (1906-62) introduces a wide range of German govt. agencies to the Final Solution to the pesky Jews of Europe, who are calculated at 11M after 530K already emigrated from Germany and Austria since 1933, and establishes Heydrich's authority over it, arranging mass railway transit, with Eichmann put in charge; after the war the only remaining copy of the minutes, owned by Luther is found, and it says the solution is to evacuate them to E Europe then work them to death, not murder them, but in 1962 Eichmann (under duress?) allegedly tells Jewish interrogators that they held a non-recorded cognac discussion where they freely talked about exterminating them; "Darwin would be astounded at the progress we're going to make in one year as we move the human race forward"; from this point to the war's end 6M Jews are allegedly murdered (5K a day or 150K per mo. for 40 mo.?); by 2010 Yad Vashem claims to ID 4M of them; in 2010 Poland officially lowers the Auschwitz death toll from 4M to 1.5M. On Jan. 21 Gen. Rommel begins a counteroffensive from El Agheila, driving the British back halfway from Benghazi to Tobruk. On Jan. 21 6K Japanese troops attack 1K Australians at Raubal, killing most of the Australian POWs. On Jan. 21 Gen. MacArthur in the Bataan Peninsula orders a retreat from the Mauban-Abucay line to the Pilar-Bagac road; at night the Japanese begin landing S of Bagac. On Jan. 21 retreating Australian troops at Parit Sulong, Malaya leave their wounded near a roadblock and try to reach British lines through the jungle; on Jan. 23 the Parit Sulong Massacre sees the Japanese bayonet the wounded to death. On Jan. 23 the Japanese begin landing at Kieta in the Solomon Islands, at Balikpapan in Borneo, and at Kendari in the Celebes Islands. On Jan. 23 the Soviets begin retaking the Kholm Pocket (ends May 5), and nearly encircle Rzhev, staging to break through near Izyum to isolate German troops in Kharkov by a S offensive. On Jan. 23 Hungarian troops drive 550 Jews and 292 Serbs onto a frozen river in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia, then shell it until they all drown. On Jan. 23 Hitler meets with Heinrich Himmler et al., and utters the soundbyte: "One must act radically. When one pulls out a tooth, one does it with a single tug, and the pain quickly goes away. The Jew must clear out of Europe", adding that if they "break their pipes" on the journey, "I can't do anything about it, but if they refuse to go voluntarily, I see no other solution but extermination", adding "Why should I look at a Jew through other eyes than if he were a prisoner of war?" On Jan. 23 Hitler gives yet another speech on the Jews, with the soundbyte: "A good three or four hundred years will go by before the Jews set foot again in Europe. They'll return first of all as commercial travellers, then gradually they'll become emboldened to settle here - the better to exploit us." On Jan. 23-24 U.S. forces score their first naval V of WWII at First Battle of Balikpapan sees U.S. forces score their first naval V of WWII, sinking four of 16 Japanese transports with no losses; too bad, the Japanese score a land V. On Jan. 24 Japanese troops land at Point Longoskayan S of Gen. MacArthur's forces, cutting them off, but they hold them off, destroying the bridgehead on Point Longoskayan on Jan. 29, causing them to send for reinforcements. On Jan. 25 Japanese troops land at Lae, Philippines. On Jan. 25 occupied Thailand is forced to make a declaration of war against the U.S. and Britain; popular politician Pridi Banomyong (Phanomyong) (1900-83) refuses to sign the war declaration of Field Marshal Pibun Songkram, and becomes the regent for young king Ananda Mahidol, founding the anti-Japanese underground Free Thai Movement (Khabuan Kan Seri Thai), working with the Allies, causing Lord Louis Mountbatten in late 1945 to end up in the unique situation where "the Supreme Allied Commander was exchanging vital military plans with the head of a state technically at war with us". On Jan. 26 despite protests from PM Eamon de Valera, the first U.S. forces of WWII arrive in Ulster, Northern Ireland. On Jan. 26 the Zemun Death March sees several hundred Jewish women and children forced to march in the snow from Ruma to Zemun in Yugoslavia, losing many children on the way; in May most of the survivors are murdered. On Jan. 27 Hitler gives yet another speech on the Jews, with the soundbyte: "Let them go to Russia. Where the Jews are concerned, I'm devoid of all sense of pity. They'll always be the ferment that moves people against one another... They'll also have to clear out of Switzerland and Sweden. It's where they're found in small numbers that they're most dangerous. Put five thousand Jews in Sweden, soon they'll be holding all the posts there... We cannot allow them to retain bases of withdrawal at our doors. We want to be out of danger of all kinds of infiltration." On Jan. 28 Japanese troops land on the Russell Islands E of New Guinea, threatening Australia. On Jan. 29 Gen. Rommel occupies Benghazi. On Jan. 29 the Soviets retake Sukhinichi, inflicting heavy losses on the Germans SW of Kaluga. On Jan. 29 Britain and the Soviet Union sign a Treaty of Alliance with Iran, allowing their troops to remain there until 6 mo. after the end of the war, establishing the Persian Corridor as the main supply route from the W to Russia; the shah agrees "not to adopt in his relations with foreign countries an attitude which is inconsistent with the alliance". On Jan. 30 Hitler gives a speech to a huge crowd at the Sportspalast in Berlin on the 9th anniv. of coming to power, with the soundbyte: "The war will not end as the Jews imagine it will, namely with the uprooting of the Aryans, but the result of this war will be the complete annihilation of the Jews", gloating that the time will come "when the most evil universal enemy of all time will be finished, at least for a thousand years." On Jan. 31 the Germans report that the partisan movement "is gaining the upper hand" in the Yelnya-Dorogobuzh area. On Jan. 31 U.S. aircraft carriers see their first action of the war 2.8K mi. E of Bataan at Kwajalein, Wotje Atoll, and Maloelap Atoll; the USS Enterprise is damaged by a Japanese torpedo. On Jan. 31 Australian troops surrender at Dutch Timor, with several hundred commandos taking to the jungle, killing 1.5K Japanese while losing only 40 in 11 mo. On Jan. 31 SS Operational Situation Report No. 170 says that 85,201 Jews, Communists, partisans, and criminals have been shot in the Crimea so far. On Jan. 31 a Soviet report claims that 200K+ have died of starvation and cold in Leningrad since the siege began 5 mo. earlier; meanwhile on Jan. 22 a shorter 2-3 hour route across Lake Ladoga is set up, eventually evacuating 554,186 incl. 37,713 wounded soldiers. In Jan. the Rio de Janeiro Conference of foreign ministers of 21 Am. republics passes resolutions severing all ties with Axis nations. In Jan. vice-adm. William Frederick "Bull" Halsey Jr. (1882-1959) is promoted to full adm., and bullishly leads the attack against the palsy-stricken Japanese on Marshall and Gilbert Islands. In Jan. Bougainville Island in the Solomons is occupied by the Japanese, who develop harbors and construct airfields. In Jan. former U.S. secy. of war (1929-33) Patrick Jay Hurley (1883-1963), a WWI army officer in France is recalled to active military duty as a brig. gen. and assigned to the Far East theater of operations, then in 1942-3 becomes FDR's personal rep. in the Soviet Union and Far East, then is promoted to Maj. Gen. in 1944, becoming U.S. ambassador to China - not bad for a Choctaw Indian? In Jan. the Nazis kill 1.5M Jews, so that Churchill could not have prevented the Holocaust by making peace with Herr Hitler? In Jan. the first Coty Am. Fashion Critics' Awards are announced by cosmetics co. Coty Inc. to promote Am. fashion on the worldwide fashion scene; the first Winnie (for women's wear) goes to Norman Norell; the first men's wear award is given in 1968. On Feb. 1 Joseph Terboven, German commissioner for Norway appoints Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonsson Quisling (1887-1945) as minister-pres. of a puppet regime; on Feb. 7 Quisling abolishes the Norwegian constitution and makes himself a virtual dictator; he tries to create an Italian-style chamber of corporations, but mass resignations from the trade unions kill it. On Feb. 1 the Japanese bayonet 10 Australian POWs to death at Sowacoad on Amboina Island, followed by 30 more on Feb. 4; 426 of 809 Australians defending the principal port are ditto. On Feb. 1 the ultra-secure German U-boat 4-wheel Enigma Machine version called Triton (known to the Allies as Shark) goes into operation; it isn't broken until Dec. 13, letting the German Navy operate freely most of this year; meanwhile British codes for North Atlantic convoys are broken by the Germans, while the British break Enigma codes GGG (between Berlin and Gibraltar) and Orange 11 (between Berlin and the SS units on the Eastern Front). On Feb. 2 the SS murders 1K Jews in Sompolno near Chelmno, sending the rest to Chelmno Camp. On Feb. 4 Gen. Rommel retakes Cyrenaica, with the soundbyte: "It went like greased lightning." On Feb. 4 the naval Battle of Macassar Strait (Flores Sea) is a V for the Japanese over U.S. forces, losing 70 U.S. seamen KIA. On Feb. 4 a troop convoy bringing Indian soldiers to Singapore is attacked by the Japanese, sinking Empress of Asia, with only 16 of 1820 killed but all the weapons and equipment lost. On Feb. 4 Egyptian King Farouk I has a humiliating confrontation with British ambassador Sir Miles Wedderburn Lampson (1880-1964), surrounding his Abdin Palace with tanks and issuing an ultimatum, taking the poop out of his plans to become an autocrat by forcing him to reinstate the nationalist Wafdist Party as a counter to Axis sympathizers; Ahmed Maher El-Sayid becomes PM (until 1945); Lampson is created Baron Killearn next year after earning it through his big killing with the Egyptians; Egypt remains officially neutral throughout the war until Feb. 1945 but cooperates with the British. On Feb. 5 Operation Disclaim sees British troops parachute near Sarajevo to support partisans. On Feb. 7 after an amphibious assault on N Malaya and Thailand on Dec. 8, the Battle of Singapore sees 36K Japanese invade the island of Singapore ("Gibraltar of the East") from the N by land and force the British to unconditionally surrender on Feb. 15, capturing 16K British, 14K Australian, and 32K Indian POWs, with 2K British KIA and 5K wounded vs. 1,713 Japanese KIA and 2,772 wounded, becoming the largest surrender of British troops in history, which Winston Churchill calls the "worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history", causing Japanese Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita (1885-1946) to become known as the "Tiger of Malaya"; during the surrender negotiations on Feb. 15 he thumps his fist on the table demanding unconditional surrender, hoping they don't realize they outnumber the Japanese by 2-1, while British Lt. Gen. Arthur Ernest Percival (1887-1966) sucks his thumb?; the surrender permanently undermines British prestige in the Far East, and Percival is later snubbed for a knighthood, even though his army was underfunded and had no tanks because Churchill diverted 350 tanks to the Soviet Union after the German invasion; Percival spends the rest of the war in a POW camp in Manchuria near Hsian (100 mi. NE of Mukden) with U.S. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright. On Feb. 8 after telling Hitler that war production is being increased by 55%, Fritz Todt (b. 1891) dies in an aircraft explosion after takeoff en route from Wolf's Lair in Rastenburg to Berlin, and his asst. Albert Speer (1905-81) (who almost took the same plane) becomes German minister for armaments and munitions, exploiting slave labor to supply the Nazi war machine; the naval Battery Todt at Haringzelles on the Channel coast is named for him. On Feb. 8 German troops from the Moscow Front in the Demyansk Pocket S of Leningrad are surrounded by the Red Army; on Mar. 21 they attempt to exit through the Ramushevo Corridor, succeeding on Apr. 21 after losing 3,335 killed and 10K wounded of 100K men. On Feb. 9 the Germans launch Operation Malaria against Soviet partisans in Osipovichi. On Feb. 9 German anthropologist-surgeon SS Capt. August Hirt (1898-1945) of the U. of Strasbourg writes Heinrich Himmler for permission to use the heads of executed Jewish-Bolshevist commissars for study as examples of "the prototype of the repulsive but characteristic subhuman"; by next year he gets 125; after Strasbourg is captured in 1944, he disappears, and commits suicide before he can be tried for war crimes. On Feb. 9 the U.S. Congress institutes Daylight Saving Time; first time since 1918. On Feb. 10 the Glen Miller record (on the RCA Victor label) Chattanooga Choo Choo (recorded last May 7) is awarded the first solid gold record for sales of 1M+ (1.2M). On Feb. 11 the Germans launch Operation Cerebus (AKA the Channel Dash), sending war cruisers Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and Prinz Eugen from Brest through the English Channel into the North Sea, dispiriting the British public; Scharnhorst and Gneisenau are damaged by mines laid on their anticipated route based on intel, putting them out of action for 6 mo.; on Feb. 23 British sub HMS Trident torpedoes Prinz Eugen off the coast of Norway, killing 50. On Feb. 11 U.S. troops arrive on Aruba and Curacao in the Antilles to relieve the British force; on Feb. 16 German sub U-156 attacks tankers Pedernales, Oranjestad, and USS Arkansas near Aruba, killing 23 sailors; only the Oranjestad sinks; too bad, while attempting to fire on the refinery with its deck gun, the crew of U-156 forgets to remove the saltwater plug from the barrel, and the gun explodes, killing one and injuring another; on Feb. 17 U-156 narrowly misses USS Arkansas with a torpedo, forcing it onto Eagle Beach; on Feb. 18 a Navy salvage team tries to dismantle it, and the torpedo explodes, killing four and injuring two; meanwhile on Feb. 17 German sub U-502 hits the reef in front of Oranjestad and has to surface for several minutes to free itself, drawing several bombers but escaping. On Feb. 13 the Japanese occupy the port of Bandjarmasin in SE Borneo. On Feb. 13-15 the Battle of Palembang, sees the Japanese capture Sumatra along with the Palembang oilfield and the Royal Dutch Shell oil refineries at Pladju (Pladjoe), and make Indonesian nationalist revolutionary Achmed (Achmad) Sukarno (Soekarno) (1901-70), founder of the Poetara Party (who is living in exile by Dutch authorities there) the head of a puppet govt. On Feb. 14 the Japanese begin invading Sumatra (ends Mar. 28). On Feb. 14 the Japanese sink the Arawak royal yacht SS Vyner Brooke (carrying 300 civilians) off the coast of SE Sumatra; on Feb. 16 they massacre the 100 survivors (incl. wounded and children) on the beach. On Feb. 14 the Air Ministry Area Bombing Directive reverses its Nov. 13 directive to hold back because of the threat of Luftwaffe night fighters, and orders the RAF to focus its operations "on the morale of the enemy civil population and in particular the industrial workers", esp. in the cities of Cologne, Duisburg, Dusseldorf, and Essen; on Mar. 30 Churchill's rabidly anti-Nazi science advisor ("Baron Berlin") (of German descent, with a German accent and aristocratic manner) Frederick Alexander Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell (1886-1957) advocates carpet bombing of German cities to break the spirit of the civil pop. - aaa-men? On Feb. 15 while in Berlin for Dr. Todt's funeral, Hitler addresses a graduate class of SS officers, uttering the soundbyte: "Stem the Red Tide and save civilization." On Feb. 17 in -52C temps the Soviets launch an offensive in Rzhev, dropping 7,373 paratroopers behind German lines in heavy fog, of which 25% drop on German positions and are taken POW, allowing the Germans to hold; one SS regiment loses all but 35 of 2K men. On Feb. 18 the Japanese round up 5K Chinese civilians on Singapore, murdering them within two weeks, many by decapitation. On Feb. 19 after his incompetence results in Leningrad being surrounded, Red Army chief Grigory "the Body Ventura", er, Kulik, known for dissing mines and machine guns as defensive weapons is demoted from Field Marshal to Maj. gen., and spared the firing squad because of his connections with Stalin. Executive Order 9066 = Executive Order 666 for Japs with thick eyeglasses? On Feb. 19 (Thur.) U.S. Pres. Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066, creating de facto martial law on the West Coast and ordering 115K West Coast Japanese-Ams. ("yellow devils") interned in camps; Calif. Dem. gov. (1939-43) Culbert Levy Olson (1876-1962) calls them a "menace"; Wyo. Repub. gov. (1939-43) Nels Hansen Smith (1884-1976) says that they should be "hanging from every pine tree", etc.; only Colo. Repub. gov. Ralph Lawrence Carr (1887-1950) stands up to FDR, saying that the Constitution must apply to "every man or we shall not have it to protect any man", adding "If you harm them, you must harm me. I was brought up in a small town where I knew the shame and dishonor of race hatred. I grew to despise it because it threatened the happiness of you and you and you", causing thousands of protest letters and cables threatening to kill or impeach him, ending his political career in 1943; on Apr. 1 Calif. announces that all Japanese citizens will be arrested and deported to internment (concentration) camps in Idaho. On Feb. 19 188 Japanese warplanes launched from four aircraft carriers in the Timor Sea followed by 54 land-based bombers attack the N Australian city of Darwin, killing 240 and sinking all 17 ships in the harbor incl. U.S. destroyer USS Peary, along with 22 Australian and U.S. planes vs. only five Japanese planes shot down - yellow Japs making a monkey of whites? On Feb. 19 Sweden sends a Report on Euthanasia in Germany to Britain, telling of gassings and lethal injections in mental asylums; the extra space is used to house wounded German soldiers. On Feb. 19-May 21 Paul Reynaud, Leon Blum, and Edouard Daladier are tried by the Vichy govt. for treason in the Riom Trial, but Blum's eloquent speech causes the trial to be cut short without a verdict. On Feb. 20 the Japanese capture Timor, then conquer all of Java in the Battle of the Java Sea on Feb. 27-Mar. 12, opening the way for conquest of the East Indies, starting with Batavia (Jakarta) on Mar. 6; they are finally stopped in the jungles of New Guinea, checking the threat to Australia; meanwhile U.S. Navy physician Corydon McAlmont Wassell (1884-1958) disobeys orders to leave the wounded in stretchers as the Americans evacuate Java, risking his life to save them and winning a Navy Cross. On Feb. 20 Philippines Pres. Manuel Quezon is evacuated from Luzon in a U.S. sub. On Feb. 21 FDR orders Gen. MacArthur to evacuate the Philippines to Australia; on Feb. 23 the HQ staff on Java is evacuated; on Feb. 23 FDR gives Fireside Chat No. 2, On the Progress of the War, with the soundbyte: "We Americans have been compelled to yield ground, but we will regain it. We and other United Nations are committed to the destruction of the militarism of Japan and Germany. We are daily increasing our strength. Soon we, and not our enemies, will have the offensive, and we, not they, will win the final battles, and we, not they, will make the final peace." On Feb. 23 U.S. troops land on the Russell Islands 30 mi. NW of Guadalcanal. On Feb. 23 the Jewish refugee ship Sturma, which picked up 769 refugees in Constanza, Romania sinks after being refused entry into Palestine. On Feb. 23 Uruguayan pres. Gen. Alfredo Baldomir dissolves the legislature and creates a state council with members from all parties except Communists and Herreristas; he then relegalizes the two main parties to create a 2-party system. On Feb. 24 the Soviets surround and cut off a German army corps in Staraya Russa. On Feb. 24 the Voice of America (VOA) begins broadcasting; "The news might be good, it might be bad, but we will tell you the truth". On Feb. 24-25 the Battle of Los Angeles, Calif. against invading Japanese forces turns out to be a false alarm; it was really a UFO attack? On Feb. 25 the British withdraw from oil-rich Java; on Feb. 27 an ABDACOM Allied naval task force under Dutch Rear Adm. Karel Willem Frederik Marie Doorman (1889-1942) attacks a Japanese fleet en route to Java in the Java Sea, losing flagship De Ruyter along with Doorman (Feb. 28); they also lose cruiser Java and British destroyers Electra and Jupiter, sinking only one Japanese troop transport; U.S. heavy cruiser USS Houston ("Galloping Ghost of the Java Coast") and Australian cruiser HMAS Perth escape but are sunk on the night of Feb. 28/Mar. 1 in the Battle of Sunda Strait; on Feb. 28 the Japanese invade Java; on Mar. 7 the Dutch surrender, and the Japanese take 100K POWs incl. 34K Dutch soldiers, 8.5K of which die in captivity; they also take 80K civilians, of which 10.5K die in captivity. On Feb. 26 the Allies sink Japanese sub I-23, the first Japanese warship used in the Pearl Harbor attack. On Feb. 26 the 14th Academy Awards awards the best picture Oscar for 1941 to 20th Century-Fox's How Green Was My Valley along with best dir. to John Ford (born Sean Aloysius O'Fearna) and best supporting actor to Donald Crisp; best actor goes to Gary Cooper for Sergeant York, best actress to Joan Fontaine for Suspicion (only actor to win for a perf. in an Alfred Hitchcock film) (her sister Olivia de Havilland was also nominated for Hold Back the Dawn, a first - next in ?), and best supporting actress to Mary Astor for The Great Lie. On Feb. 27 the U.S. Navy's first aircraft carrier USS Langley is sunk by Japanese planes along with all 32 aircraft. On Feb. 27-28 Operation Biting (the Bruneval Raid) sees British paratroopers seize a German radar at Bruneval near Le Havre, with two British vs. six Germans KIA. On Feb. 28 Bengali radical Socialist Indian nationalist Subhas Chandra Bose (1897-1945) leader of the left-wing opposition to Gandhi broadcasts a Call for Indian Independence, saying that he's ready to cooperate with Germany, pissing-off the British. In Feb. the Bank of Japan Law, modeled after the 1939 German Reichsbank Act reforms the central bank. In Feb. 4,618 Jews die of starvation in Warsaw. In Feb. 100K die in Leningrad of starvation. In Feb. the Second Leningrad Partisan Brigade receives a printing press from Boston, Mass. by parachute, and begins pub. The People's Avenger. In Feb. Philly printer Maurice Gomberg creates a Post-War New World Map proposing a "New World Moral Order for permanent peace, justice, security and world reconstruction", dividing the world up between the U.S., Britain, and the Soviet Union, and displays it in his store window until Helen Somers sees it and purchases and distributes several copies, incl. to the Library of Congress. On Mar. 1 British cruiser HMS Exeter, British destroyer HMS Encounter, U.S. destroyer USS Pope, and Australian sloop HMAS Yarra are sunk, making the Japanese masters of the Java Sea. On Mar. 1 new Army Group South cmdr. Field Marshal (Der Sterber) (The Dier) (known for lecturing troops about the glory of dying for the Fatherland) Moritz Albrecht Franz Friedrich Fedor von Bock (1880-1945) (former Army Group Center cmdr.) tells Hitler that the Russians might be able to counter a German spring offensive with new troops; Gen. Halder reports 202,257 Germans KIA, 725,642 wounded, 400K taken POW, and 112,617 incapacitated by frostbite in the 8 mo. since the start of Operation Barbarossa in June 1941. On Mar. 1 along with 50+ others, Australian Pvt. Colin F. Brien is executed by sword over a shallow grave in Malaya, but survives, escapes, is recaptured, and kept as a novelty in a POW camp, later testifying at the Tokyo War Crimes Trials. On Mar. 2 the SS murders 5K in Minsk Ghetto. On Mar. 2 the SS gasses 900 Jews in vans in Krosniewice, Poland. On Mar. 3 the SS gasses 3.2K Jews in vans in Zychlin, Poland. On Mar. 3 an air raid by the Japanese on Broome, West Australia kills 70 and destroys 23 Allied aircraft. On Mar. 3 (night) 200+ British bombers bomb the Renault vehicle plant in Billancourt, France, killing five of 3K workers along with 500 civilians in nearby homes. On Mar. 4 the SS murders 3K Jews in Baranowicze, White Russia. On Mar. 5 the Dutch evacuate Batavia. On Mar. 5 the Japanese occupy Pegu, Burma 40 mi. from Rangoon; on Mar. 6 Gen. Sir Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander (1891-1969) (last man to leave Dunkirk) orders the evacuation of Rangoon. On Mar. 6 the SS murders 270 Jews and 30 Gypsies in Klintsy, Russia. On Mar. 7 the Nazis order the deportation of Belgians to alleviate worker shortages. On Mar. 7 the British evacuate Rangoon, Burma, and on Mar. 8 Japanese troops occupy it; on Apr. 30 Japanese troops capture Lashio, Burma, causing British and Chinese troops to withdraw; the Japanese close the Burma Road; British Lt. Gen. William Joseph "Bill" Slim (1891-1970) is recalled to India, leading the retreating Brits to safety in Imphal, India, and going on to command the new Fourth Army next Oct., plotting a comeback - no more need to make after shave for hairy Westerners? On Mar. 7 after escaping to Tjerba Island off Sumatra, 19 British officers begin dying of disease and exposure, starting with Cmdr.Pendarvis Lister Frampton (-1942), followed on Mar. 10 by Air Vice-Marshal Conway Walter Heath Pulford (-1942), followed on ? by Rear Adm. E.J. "Jackie" Spooner (-1942); the remnant are later taken POW. On Mar. 7 Croatian Archbishop Aloysius Stepinac (1898-1960) writes a letter to the Croatian interior minister protesting mass arrests of Jews to be sent to concentration camps; he is ignored. On Mar. 7 Joseph Gobble Gobble Goebbels writes the soundbyte in his diary: "The situation is now ripe for a final settlement of the Jewish question. Later generations will no longer have either the willpower or the instructive alertness. That is why we are doing good work in proceeding radically and consistently. The task we are assuming today will be an advantage and a boon to our descendants." On Mar. 8 the Japanese occupy Lae and Salamaua in New Guinea, followed on Mar. 9 by Buka in the Solomon Islands. On Mar. 8 the U.S. provides the Nationalists in China with a $500M credit, while Britain provides them with a £50M credit. On Mar. 9 after Hungarian regent Miklos Horthy appoints him to reverse the pro-Nazi policies of Laszlo Bardossy, Miklos Kallay de Nagy-Kallo (1887-1967) becomes PM of Hungary (until Mar. 19, 1944), going on to refuse to help the Nazis round up Jews while giving the left-wing press freedom and making peace overtures to the Allies, pissing-off the Nazis, who occupy Hungary in Mar., forcing Kallay to flee, after which the Nazis put a puppet in his place; too bad, Kallay is captured and sent to Dachau, then Mauthausen, and is liberated by U.S. troops on May 5, 1945 in Tyrol, going into self-imposed exile in the U.S. for life starting in 1951. On Mar. 8 (night) 212 British bombers attack Essen, Germany, but do little damage; on Mar. 11 they attack the wrong town, Hamborn 8 mi. from Essen. On Mar. 9 the U.S. Army's Services of Supply assumes direction of those parts of the Dept. of War's office engaged in procurement and production. The U.S. Supreme Court swims in the shark-infested waters of homeland fascism during a war against it, starting ripples that are never worked out completely? On Mar. 9 the U.S. Supreme (Stone) Court rules unanimously in Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire that a pesky Jehovah's Witness can be jailed for calling a cop a "damned fascist" or "damned racketeer" in public while escorting him to the station, and/or because he started out preaching that "religion is a racket" because it might inflame listeners to violence, although the latter are not subject to arrest, articulating the "fighting words" doctrine; another such conviction is not upheld until ?, although police depts. seize on it to routinely arrest anyone they want just for opening their mouth to a cop, knowing they'll be covered for in the courthouse they bring him to, which reaches nat. proportions with the 2009 arrest of Pres. Obama's personal friend Henry Louis Gates Jr.; meanwhile on Nov. 22, 1943 (the war being won) the court rules in Cafeteria Employees Union Local 302 v. Angelos that the word "fascist" is now "part of the conventional give-and-take in our economic and political controversies", and on May 16, 1949 (after the war is won) it rules 5-3 in Terminiello v. Chicago that a Chicago ordinance outlawing a speech that "stirs the public to anger... or creates a disturbance" is unconstitutional under the 1st and 14th Amendments, and that they should arrest the violent members of the crowd not the speaker. On Mar. 11 "Dugout Dug" Gen. Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964) leaves the Philippines by torpedo boat, reaching Mindanao 560 mi. away after 35 hours, then flying to Darwin, Australia on Mar. 17, where he utters one of the biggest soundbytes of the war: "I came through, and I shall return" (accomplished Oct. 20, 1944); he becomes supreme cmdr. of Allied forces (SAC) in the SW Pacific theater, refusing to withdraw and fight behind the Brisbane line, preferring to advance N from Australia and attack the Japanese on New Guinea; motor torpedo boat squadron cmdr. John Duncan Bulkeley (1911-96) evacuates MacArthur, his family and staff to Mindanao aboard his 77-ft. boats through 600 mi. of open ocean, and ends up rising to vice-adm. On Mar. 13 the first 6K Jews arrive at Belzec from Mielec, Poland, and are gassed in vans; on Mar. 4 1.6K more Jews from Lublin are ditto, followed by 1K from Tarnopol on Mar. 25, and 6K from Stanislawow on Mar. 31; by the end of the year 360K from 200 villages and towns are ditto, along with 1K Poles for "helping Jews". On Mar. 14 British intel concludes that the next major German offensive will be in S Russia on May 15, causing Churchill to promise Stalin a major British air offensive against Germany to take the heat off. On Mar. 15 Hitler gives a speech in Berlin, with the soundbyte that Russia will be "annihilatingly defeated" in the summer. On Mar. 17 the SS murders 900 Jews in Ilya (Ilja) N of Minsk. On Mar. 19 the Germans launch Operation Munich against partisans in the Yelnya-Dorogobuzh area. On Mar. 19 German cmdr. in Serbia Gen. Walter Kuntze (1883-1960) issues a directive to occupation troops in Serbia and Croatia, telling them to stage severe reprisals against Yugoslav partisans incl. burning houses and villages, and shooting 100 for each German killed and 50 for each German wounded. On Mar. 20 the Germans shoot 100 Poles in Zgierz, Poland, making all 6K inhabitants watch. On Mar. 21 Fritz Sauckel (1894-1946) (Nazi Party member since 1923) is appointed gen. plenipotentiary for labor deployment on the recommendation of Albert Speer, working directly under Adolf Hitler to force 5M people from the conquered eastern territories into slave labor in Germany. On Mar. 23 the U.S. govt. begins moving Japanese-Ams. from their West Coast homes to Japanese-Am. Detention Centers (concentration camps); at the same time 600K Italian-Ams. are registered as enemy aliens, and 10K end up in detention camps. On Mar. 23 the Japanese occupy the Andaman Islands in the Bay of Bengal. On Mar. 23 the Italians sink four British ships bringing oil to Malta, salvaging only 5K of 26K tons of gasoline. On Mar. 25 Kolomyia Ghetto is established, followed on Apr. 30 by Pinsk Ghetto; on May 1 Dvinsk Ghetto is liquidated. On Mar. 26 the first Jews are deported to Auschwitz, 999 women from Slovakia, followed on Mar. 27 by a "special train" from Paris carrying 1,112, of which only 21 survive 5 mo. On Mar. 26-Apr. 6 Operation Bamberg sets Russian villages near Bobruisk SE of Minsk on fire, killing 3.5K, fanning hatred of Germans and cooperation with partisans. On Mar. 28 (a.m.) British naval forces stage Operation Chariot, a raid on the Nazi-occupied French port of St. Nazaire, Normandy, the only dry dock on the Atlantic coast able to repair Germany's last remaining battleship the Tirpitz, taking it out for the rest of the war while killing 400 Germans, many in their own crossfire, and losing 205 of 611 British commandos, the rest taken POW; 185 British sailors are KIA, along with 300 French civilian workers. On Mar. 28 Nazi foreign minister von Ribbentrop attempts unsuccessfully to talk Japanese Berlin ambassador Count Oshima into attacking Vladivostok during Russia's spring offensive. On Mar. 28 the British make their first successful parachute drop of supplies to agents in France at Blyes. On Mar. 28 (night) 234 British bombers attack the port of Lubeck (Lübeck), Germany, becoming the first time they use a first wave to start a fire that guides a 2nd wave, destroying 2K bldgs. incl. most of the medieval city, and killing 312 civilians, leaving 15K homeless; on Apr. 7 after delivering a Palm Sun. sermon attributing the bombing to divine punishment, Lutheran pastor Karl Friedrich Stellbrink (1894-1943) is arrested by the Nazis along with three Roman Catholic priests for criticizing Nazi rule, becoming known as the Lubeck (Lübeck) Martyrs; they are all beheaded in Hamburg 7 mo. later on Nov. 10, 1943, becoming a symbol of German Ecumenism; meanwhile the Nazis plan the Baedeker Raids as retribution on the Allies. On Mar. 31 the Japanese occupy phosphate-rich Christmas Island S of Java, becoming their southernmost conquest; after finding it too small and rocky to build an airfield, they evacuate it on Apr. 4. On Mar. 31 a German labor decree orders deportees to Auschwitz to be sorted into the "fit" to work and the "unfit", the fit to be transferred to nearby Birkenau, the unfit to be gassed. In Mar. Adolf Hitler approves Operation Aida, a German offensive to be led by Gen. Erwin Rommel to cross N Africa to the Nile River and the Suez Canal. In Mar. Operation March Fever by the Germans under SS Gen. Franz Jaeckeln kills 8,350 Jews, 389 partisans, and 1,274 more shot for suspicion. In Mar. U.S. Adm. Ernest Joseph King (1878-1956) (CIC of the U.S. fleet since Pearl Harbor) becomes chief of naval ops. in charge of the entire U.S. Navy (until Dec. 1945), building it to 92K ships and craft and 4M men; his post of CIC of the U.S. fleet is abolished after the war, making him the only man to hold both appointments - the original king of the world? It's becoming hard to keep up with the Josephs? In Mar. Sobibor Concentration (Extermination) Camp in Poland is established, becoming operational on May 16-18; camp cmdr. is Franz Stangl (1908-61), who allegedly presides over the killing of 100K Jews before leaving for Treblinka in Sept., then escapes to Syria via Italy with Vatican help after the war, moving to Brazil in 1951 and finally getting captured in 1967 and imprisoned. In Mar. the Axis sinks a record 273 Allied merchant ships incl. 95 in the North Atlantic and 98 in the Far East, for a total of 834,184 tons. In Mar. Dutch social worker Marion van Binsbergen (1920-2016) (later Pritchard) begins helping save 150 Dutch Jews, most of them children. On Apr. 1 Operation Performance sees 10 Norwegian merchant ships attempt to break out of the Swedish port of Gothenburg; only two make it to Britain. On Apr. 1 the Japanese launch Operation C, with five Pearl Harbor aircraft carriers attacking Colombo, Ceylon on Apr. 5, sinking British cruisers Dorsetshire and Cornwall, armed merchant cruiser Hector, and destroyer Tenedos, killing 500; they then attack Trincomalee, sinking aircraft carrier Hermes and destroyer Vampire, and sink 23 merchant ships in the Bay of Bengal, threatening Calcutta. On Apr. 3 the Japanese bomb Mandalay, Burma, burning much of the city and killing 2K. On Apr. 3 129 Jews are deported to Belzec from Augsburg along with 1.2K from Tlumacz; on Apr. 4 1.5K are deported from Horodenka. The original springtime for Hitler? On Apr. 5 (Easter Sun.) Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive #41, praising his soldiers for their "great defensive success" in Russia, and directing them to seize the initiative again when spring comes; meanwhile in the spring Hitler's Russian command post known as Werewolf (Werwolf) 10 mi. N of Vinnitsa, Ukraine is completed, and Hitler spends the entire summer there after moving in on July 16, complaining about the flies and mosquitoes. On Apr. 5 right after HMS Warspite is "adopted" by the London Stock Exchange and presented with a plaque and other gifts for the crew, heading for sea, 91 Japanese bombers and 36 fighters from Vice Adm. Chuichi Nagumo's five carriers stage a sneak attack on Colombo, Ceylon, downing 19 British planes vs. seven Japanese; six Swordfish torpedo bombers blunder into the dogfights and are downed; the Japanese pound Colombo Harbor, sinking armed merchant cruiser HMS Hector and destroyer HMS Tenedos; 500 British troops are KIA. On Apr. 5 the Japanese bomb Mandalay, Burma, killing 2K. On Apr. 5 as U.S. and Filipino troops attend Easter Sun. services, Japanese forces attack Bataan, Philippines; at 10 a.m. the 4th Japanese Div. attacks, and is resisted by the 21st Philippine Div., which is pushed back, losing the division HQ, along with Brig. Gen. Mateo Capinpin; on Apr. 6 the U.S. 26th Cavalry Regiment attacks sans horses, which have all been eaten, and after being pummeled they scatter into the hill and turn guerrilla; the Japanese take Bataan with a total of only 630 casualties; 11 Navy and 66 Army Nurses are captured and imprisoned near Manila, becoming known as the Angels of Bataan (Battling Belles of Bataan), nursing POWs until they are liberated in Feb. 1945; Ann Agnes Bernatitus (1912-2003), who was evacuated from the Philippines before the fall of Corregidor becomes the only Navy nurse to evade captue, becoming the first Am. recipient of the Legion of Merit in Oct. 1942. On Apr. 5 USS O'Bannon sinks Japanese sub RO-34 near Russell Island, Solomon Islands. On Apr. 5 Adolf Hitler and Heinrich Himmler dine at Rastenburg, and agree to take all Germanic children away from their parents in occupied lands and raise them up as good Nazis - the only job I do well is here on the farm? On Apr. 5 654 of 699 Lutheran ministers in Oslo, Norway issue a Declaration of the Sovereignty of God over Nazism and all ideologies, resigning from their govt. posts. On Apr. 6 the Japanese bomb Cocanada (Kakinada) and Vizagapatam in Madras, India; on Dec. 1 the British No. 7 Squadron is based at Vizagapatam (until Mar. 1943). On Apr. 6 Japanese troops invade Lorengau in the Admiralty Islands 800 mi. from Cape York, Australia. On Apr. 6 HMS King George V and USS Washington rendezvous at Scapa Flow; when the officers parley, the Yanks are surprised by the the British plan to "head in there just as fast as they could to about 10,000 yards, which for big guns is like shooting a rifle across the room, and letting the enemy have it. This idea of closing the enemy and shooting it out in the Nelsonian tradition was certainly firmly implanted." On Apr. 7 the first 2.5K Jews from Zamosc, Poland are sent to the new death camp of Sobibor to be gassed; by the end of the year 250K Jews mainly from C Poland are ditto. On Apr. 8 to divert German aircraft from the Russian Front, the British begin a series of air raids along the English Channel coast of France, losing 259 aircraft vs. 58 German. On Apr. 8 Wojtek the Bear (1942-63) is discovered as a cub in the mountains of Iran by a group of Polish PWs en route from Sibera to Alexandria, Egypt, ending up in Italy after the Allies make a pact with Stalin to release them; the bear grows up to like to smoke cigarettes and drink beer, becoming the mascot of the 22nd Artillery Support Co. of the 2nd Polish Corps; after the war he is sent to Hutton, Berwickshire, Scotland to live on a farm with Polish fighters; in Nov. 2015 a bronze statue of him is unveiled in Edinburgh. On Apr. 9 after 2K cross to Corregidor on Apr. 8 to join Gen. Wainwright's men, Bataan falls after 96 days, and 12K U.S. and 64K Filipino POWs are forced into the week-long (97km) Bataan Death March from Balanga to Camp O'Donnell, during which the Japanese treat the POWs like mangy animals, torturing and murdering them and depriving them of food and water, killing 600+ Americans and 5K+ Filipinos, after which 1K+ Americans and 16K Filipinos die in the first few weeks at the camp; on May 30, 2009 at the 64th and final reunion of survivors in San Antonio, Tex., the Japanese ambassador to the U.S. finally apologizes; meanwhile the remaining 11,574 U.S. and Filipino defenders under U.S. Lt. Gen. Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright (1883-1953) hole-up in the rocky island fortress of Corregidor in Manila Bay, where they endure constant air and artillery bombardment (until May 6). On Apr. 10 Heinrich Himmler's personal secy. tells the inspector of statisics for the Reich to change the words "special treatment [Sonderbehandlung] of the Jews" in reports to "transportation of the Jews to the Russian East". On Apr. 12 after hearing of Japanese claims, Congress Party leader Jawaharlal Nehru utters the soundbyte: "It distresses me that any Indian should talk of the Japanese liberating India." On Apr. 13 after finding a gap between two Australian posts, the Germans attack Tobruk, but are driven back by Cpl. Jack Edmondson (b. 1915), who is KIA and awarded Australia's first Victoria Cross of WWII. On Apr. 15 after learning that they suffered 1.7K tons of bombs that destroyed 300 houses and bldgs. and killed 300 (incl. 70 children) and injured 329 since Apr. 1, George VI writes a letter awarding the British island of Malta the George Cross, a bravery medal usually given to individuals, causing them to display it on their flag; it is not publicly presented in Valletta until Sept. 13. On Apr. 15 the trains begin running in Leningrad for the first time in several months, causing German POW Cpl. N. Falkenhorst to tell the Russkies that he's lost faith in Hitler. On Apr. 17 12 British bombers stage a daring low-level (500 ft.) bombing raid on the diesel works at Augsburg, Germany, losing seven bombers; South African Squadron Leader John Dering Nettleton (1917-43) becomes a hero and is awarded the Victoria Cross. On Apr. 17 French Gen. Henri Honore (Honoré) Giraud (1879-1949), who was captured in June 1940 escapes from the maximum security castle prison in Konigstein, Saxony to France, then takes a British sub to North Africa while the Gestapo tries to kill him, pissing-off Hitler, whom Goebbels describes as "in a black rage". On Apr. 17 archbishop of York (since 1929) William Temple (1881-1944) becomes archbishop of Canterbury (until Oct. 26, 1944). We may do little, but it makes a big statement that your homeland isn't invulnerable to attack from Yankees? On Apr. 18 (Sat.) after the aircraft carrier USS Hornet sails across the Pacific and is refueled on Apr. 17 in a storm, WWI flying ace Lt. Col. James Harold "Jimmy" Doolittle (1896-1993) (who is awarded the Medal Honor for it) leads the Doolittle Raid 823 mi. away on naval and oil installations in Tokyo (Kobe, Yokosuka, Yokohama, Nagoya) by 16 Army B-25 Mitchells (codename Shangri-La) as a big publicity stunt for the U.S., becoming its first offensive action in the Pacific War, killing 87 and injuring 462; aircraft carrier Ryuho at Yokosuka is damaged; one of the B-25s is the Ruptured Duck, piloted by Maj. Ted W. Lawson (1917-92), who is portrayed by Van Johnson in the 1944 film Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo; all of the pilots parachute out after dropping their bombs and running out of fuel, and some of them land in Japanese-occupied China, and are rescued by Capt. John Morrison Birch (1918-45), a Baptist missionary in China who joined the Flying Tigers and set up a spy network; one bomber crashes in Vladivostok, and the crew is imprisoned in the Urals, but on May 11 they escape, making it to Quetta, India via Persia with help from a British consul; two bombers crash on Japanese-occupied territory, and three of eight captured are beheaded; the Japanese occupy the Chinese province of Chekiang to prevent further missions; the raid isn't announced until May 10; it causes Americans to fear an air attack by the Japs?; on Apr. 15, 2015 U.S. House and Senate leaders present the Congressional Gold Medal to the WWII Doolittle Raiders, known for bringing the war to Tokyo on Apr. 18, 1942; too bad, the Japanese vent their fury on the Chinese in a 3-mo. balls of fury Summer Campaign, killing 250K, which incl. bacteriological warfare. On Apr. 18 after its wounded cmdr. Col. ? Yefremov commits suicide to avoid capture, a Soviet partisan force in Dorogobuzh is destroyed by the Germans, with only a few escaping to fight again. On Apr. 20 the British and Americans launch Operation Calendar to deliver 47 Spitfire fighters to Malta on U.S. carrier Wasp; too bad, the Germans destroy 10 of them on the ground in Malta, after which Mussolini begs Hitler to carry out Operation C3 (Herkules), the German occupation of Malta, but Hitler refuses because of the coming Russian offensive; on Apr. 24 Churchill asks FDR to send the Wasp in again. On Apr. 2 the comic strip Barnaby debuts, by Crockett Johnson (David Johnson Leisk) (1906-75), about 5-y.-o. Barnaby Baxter and his short cigar-chomping fairy godfather Jackeen J. O'Malley, with four wings; makes Dorothy Parker a fan. On Apr. 21 the Germans begin launching tanker U-boats from France to supply 32 U-boats operating off the E coast of the U.S. On Apr. 23 the Baedeker Raids (Blitz), German night air raids against cathedral cities in Britain selected from the Baedeker Tourist Guide to Britain to get even for the Mar. 28 night bombing of Lubeck begin, starting with Exeter; after it fails, they do it again on Apr. 24; meanwhile 150 German bombers attack Bath, killing 400 civilians, while the British bomb Rostock on the Baltic Sea, destroying 70% of the houses in the old city center and damaging the Heinkel aircraft works, pissing-off Hitler; on Apr. 27 Hitler tells Goebbels that he will "repeat these raids night after night until the English were sick and tired of terror attacks", causing Goebbels to utter the soundbyte: "He shares my opinion absolutely that cultural centers, health resorts, and civilian centers must be attacked now. There is no other way of bringing the English to their senses. They belong to a class of human beings with whom you can talk only after you have first knocked out their teeth"; on Apr. 27 the Germans bomb Norwich; on Apr. 28 they bomb Norwich and York, destroying the 15th cent. Guildhall; too bad, too many German planes are shot down, causing the Germans to begin using instructional crews from reserve training units. On Apr. 26 an explosion in Honkeiko Colliery in Manchuria kills 1,549 - the first big fire of the decade? On Apr. 26 Hitler delivers his I'm Better Than Napoleon Speech in the Sportpalast in Berlin, claiming that he had succeeded where Napoleon had failed despite the worst winter in 140 years, with the soundbyte: "A world struggle was decided this winter... We have mastered a destiny which broke another man a hundred and thirty years ago", predicting "great victories" in the spring as long as there is "obedience to only one idea, the fight for victory", saying: "Let nobody now preach about his well-earned rights. Let each man clearly understand, from now on there are only duties"; he then asks for and is given the title of Oberster Gerichtsherr (Supreme Law Lord) with life and death power over every German, a title not even the Roman emperors claimed? On Apr. 26 British bombers attack railways facilities in Hazebrouck and St. Omer in France; on Apr. 26 (night) British bombers strike Rostock, Germany for the 3rd night in a row, destroying 70% of it and causing a panic as 100K are evacuated; another attack targets the Skoda arms plant in Pilsen. On Apr. 28 FDR deliver his radio fireside chat "On Sacrifice", with the soundbyte: "It is even reported from Japan that somebody has dropped bombs on Tokyo and on other principal centers of Japanese war industries. If this be true, it is the first time in history that Japan has suffered such indignities." On Apr. 29 the Japanese seize Lashio, Burma, terminus of the Burma Road. On Apr. 30 after asking for permission on Apr. 27, Gen. Stillwell in Burma is authorized to withdraw to India with 100K Chinese troops under his command. In Apr. 102,497 starve to death in Leningrad. In Apr. Soviet physicist Georgy Nikolayevich Flyorov (1913-90) warns Stalin that the U.S., U.K., and Germany might be building an a-bomb, urging him to "build the uranium bomb without delay". In Apr. future U.S. pres. Gerald R. Ford joins the U.S. Navy, followed in Aug. by Richard M. Nixon. On May 1 Warthegau gov. (1939-45) Arthur Greiser writes to Heinrich Himmler for permission to ship Poles with TB to Chelmno for "special treatment"; meanwhile 2.1K Jews are deported from Dortmund to Sobibor or Belzec for gassing. On May 2 the Japanese capture Mandalay - do you know the road to it? On May 2 Philippines chief justice #5 (since Dec. 24, 1941) Jose Abad Santos y Basco (b. 1886) is executed for refusing to work for a Japanese puppet govt. On May 2 the U.S. War Dept. sets up the 834th Photo Signal Detachment, with seven Hollywood scriptwriters told to create a series of films titled "Why We Fight"; the first film "Prelude to War", dir. by Frank Capra is released next May. On May 3 Jews in the Netherlands are ordered to wear a Star of David. On May 4 the British evacuate the port of Akyab on the Bay of Bengal less than 100 mi. from the Indian border. On May 4 the Germans and Italians launch Operation Trio against Tito and his Communist partisans in Foca, Yugoslavia, driving them 200 mi. N to Bihac. On May 4-8 the Battle of the Coral Sea sees a U.S. fleet use decrypted intel to intercept a Japanese fleet escorting invasion forces to Tulagi in the Solomon Islands and Port Moresby in New Guinea, becoming the first-ever air-naval battle where the planes do all the fighting and the ships never sight each other; the Japanese lose light aircraft carrier Shoho, while the U.S. loses aircraft carrier USS Lexington (Lady Lex), along with 216 crew; in Mar. 2018 it is found by research vessel Petrel, funded by Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen; the U.S. sinks 100K tons of Japanese shipping between New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, halting the Japanese advance to the S begun at Pearl Harbor, and protecting Australia and the New Hebrides from invasion; on May 8 U.S. Navy Lt. John James Powers (b. 1912) becomes a hero when he tells fellow pilots "Remember, the folks back home are counting on us. I am going to get a hit if I have to lay it on their flight deck", then dive-bombs a Japanese carrier, releasing the bomb at less than 200 ft. and getting killed in its explosion, winning him a posth. Medal of Stupidity, er, Honor. On May 5 after the Germans execute 18 young Norwegians caught trying to escape to England 2 mo. earlier from Alesund, Joseph Goebbels writes the soundbyte in his diary: "I hope these executions will have their effect in changing the attitude of the Norwegian population. If they don't want to learn to love us, they must at least fear us." On May 5 Operation Ironclad sees British and Free French forces land at the Diego Suarez Naval Base on N Magadascar held by Vichy French forces, then occupy the island and enter the capital of Tananarive on Sept. 23, denying the Japanese a base to control the Indian Ocean. On May 5 after firing 16K artillery shells in 24 hours, Japanese troops land on Corregidor Island in Manila Bay; on May 6 after losing 800 men vs. 1.2K Japanese, Gen. Wainwright surrenders 15K U.S. and Filipino forces, becoming the largest surrender in U.S. history (until ?) - will the last one leaving please correg the door? On May 7 Jewish partisan Isai Kazinets is executed in Minsk after being tortured and not talking, getting made a posth. Hero of the Soviet Union in 1965. On May 7 an order is issued by the German high command directing the staff at Buchenwald to cease preparing shrunken heads other than for medical reasons after visitors begin showing up all over Europe with souvenirs?; meanwhile SS "Doctor Death" Aribert Ferdinand Heim (1914-92) stinks up Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen, and Mathausen camps by performing experiments on prisoners without anesthesia, extracting organs, injecting poison etc., later escaping capture and dying in Egypt under the alias Tarek Hussein Farid. On May 8 Case Blue (Fall Blau), the German Summer Offensive begins in the Crimea, attacking the Kerch Peninsula with dive bombers, trapping 170K Red Army troops (three armies, 21 divs.) and taking them POW; on May 18 German Field Marshal Erich von Manstein wins the Battle of Kerch Peninsula, capturing Izyum SE of Kharkov, along with 214K Soviet POWs and 1.2K tanks, opening the way to Sevastopol (Sebastopol). On May 9 Operation Bowery sees U.S. aircraft carrier Wasp and British aircraft carrier Eagle help bring 62 Spitfire fighters to Malta; this time they are quickly refuelled and take off before the Germans can destroy them despite nine German-Italian air raids, giving the Allies air supremacy; on May 10 British minelayer HMS Welshman arrives with 340 tons of supplies. On May 9 (night) three French partisans blow up the main transmitter of Radio Paris near Melun, putting it out of action for two weeks. On May 10 the secret Maly Trostenets Death Camp 7 mi. SE of Minsk begins operation, gassing tens of thousands of Jews with exhaust in vans. On May 12 the Soviets surprise-attack the Germans S of Kharkov, causing them to postpone their spring offensive. On May 15 gasoline rationing (3 gals. a week) begins in 17 E U.S. states, and on Nov. 26 FDR extends it to the rest of the U.S., effective Dec. 1 (ends July 1, 1945); the OPA freezes rents; sugar and coffee rationing begin. On May 18 Jose Key of Gibraltar is sentenced to death in London for passing info. to the Germans. On May 18 Communist Jews post anti-Nazi posters and sabotage an anti-Soviet exhibition at the Berliner Lustgarten, causing the Germans to arrest 27 and sentence 20 to death, shooting them all incl. Herbert Baum (b. 1912) on June 1. On May 19 (night) the British bomb Mannheim, Germany. On May 21 I.G. Farben sets up a synthetic oil-rubber factory at Monowitz outside Auschwitz, employing hundreds of thousands of workers, tens of thousands of whom die. On May 21 4.3K Jews are deported from Chelm to Sobibor to be gassed; meanwhile 2K Jews are murdered in Korzec. On May 22 Mexico declares war on Germany, Italy, and Japan. On May 24 45K German troops launch Operation Hanover (ends May 29) to search and destroy 20K partisans along the Bryansk-Vyazma railway, killing thousands. On May 26 taking advantage of the 24-hour day, Allied convoy PQ-16 en route to Archangel is attacked by 260 German aircraft in the Arctic Circle, losing seven ships but making it through. On May 26 Gen. Rommel begins an offensive against the Gazala Lined, defended by the Free French at Bir Hakeim; it breaks by June 13. On May 26 the Twenty-Year Anglo-Soviet Mutual Assistance Treaty is signed in London by Sir Anthony Eden and Vyacheslav Molotov, promising mutual military and other assistance in the war against the Axis, and agreeing not to negotiate a separate peace. On May 27 SS Chief Reinhard Heydrich (b. 1904) is ambushed and shot in Prague by Czech partisans incl. Jan Kubis (b. 1913) and Josef Gabcik (b. 1912), who were trained by the Allies under Operation Anthropoid and provided with modified Gammon grenades filled with Botulin toxin, after which they hide in the crypt of an Orthodox church in Prague, are betrayed by Czech a-hole Pvt. Karel Curda (1911-47) and surrounded, then get killed shooting it out on June 16, killing 14 Germans, after which on June 27 the church's head Bishop Gorazd (Matej Pavlik) (b. 1879) is arrested, tortured, then killed on Sept. 4; on June 4 Heydrich dies of infection, and on June 10 the Nazis at Hitler's orders wipe out the males in the innocent towns of Lidice and Lezaky (Ležáky) (13 mi. NW of Prague) in revenge; a total of 13K are killed, arrested, or deported. On May 27 after being docked in Norfolk, Va. during the Dec. 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor Attack, and carrying U.S. Marines to Am. Samoa from San Diego on Jan.6, 1942, then participating in the Battle of the Coral Sea on May 4-8, 1942, U.S. aircraft carrier USS Yorktown (launched Apr. 4, 1936) enters dry dock at Pearl Harbor for accelerated repairs, steaming out on May 30 en route to the Battle of Midway on June 4-7, 1942, where she is sunk. On May 27 U. of Baltimore night law school student grad. Spiro T. Agnew (b. 1918) marries Elinor Isabel "Judy" Judefind (1921-); they have one son James, and three daughters Pamela, Susan, and Kimberly; Agnew serves in the U.S. Army until 1946. On May 28 200 Poles are murdered by the Germans in Magdalenka, Poland. On May 28 4-foot-something Joseph Goebbels writes the soundbyte in his diary: "Ten Jews either in a concentration camp or six feet under are preferable to one roaming at large"; on May 29 Hitler visits Berlin, and agrees to Goebbels' request to remove all Jews immediately from the city; on May 30 he tells Goebbels that "all restraint be dispensed with, and that the interests of the security of the Reich be placed above the interests of single individuals from whom we can expect little good". On May 29 Jews in Paris are ordered to wear a yellow Star of David. On May 29 3K Jews are rounded up by the Germans for murder in Radziwillow (Chervonoarmeisk), Poland; Asher Czerkaski leads a breakout, and the Germans murder 1.5K as they flee, hunting down and murdering most of the rest in the forest. On May 30 working for German Adm. Canaris, Pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer flies to Sweden and meets with Bishop Bell of Chichester, England, telling him of the crimes of the Nazis and assuring him of growing resistance inside Germany. On May 30 Hitler addresses a group of newly-commissioned German officers at the Berlin Sportspalast, uttering the soundbyte: "On this January 30th, I can tell you that I am sure of only one thing. How this year is going to end I don't know. Whether or not the war will end this year I do not know. But I do know one thing. Wherever the foe may appear, he will this year be fought as before. It will again be a year of great victories, and even as I held the flag high before this, at all times, so I will hold it high even now because I find myself in such a different position. My German countrymen, my soldiers. We have a full measure of fame and glory behind us. One likes so much to draw analogies from it. In this fight German heroes have fought in similar situations, which also seemed hopeless. We should not draw any comparisons with former times at all. We have no right to do so. We have the strongest army in the world. We have the strongest air force in the world." On May 30 the Soviets set up a Central HQ of the Partisan Movement in Moscow to coordinate anti-German activity. On May 30 (night) the RAF stages Operation Millennium, its first "thousand bomber raid" on Cologne, dropping 1,455 tons of bombs in 90 min., losing 39 shot down plus two who collide in mid-air, smashing the perfume, er, chemical and machine tool works, killing 469, destroying 13K houses, and making 45K homeless, becoming a big V for Jews under German occupation; Lord Haw-Haw broadcasts from Berlin the Nazi response: "The German attitude is, 'Give us more hell, as much as you can, and we shall repay the hell with interest'." On May 31 two Japanese midget subs sneak into Sydney Harbor and fire torpedoes at U.S. cruiser Chicago, but miss, sinking Australian depot ship HMAS Kuttabul, killing 20; after two Japanese crew are killed and the other two commit suicide, they are cremated in Sydney with military honors and the ashes returned to Japan. On May 31 Japanese midget subs sink British merchant ship British Loyalty in Diego Suarez, Madagascar, and damage battleship Ramillies; all the Japanese crew are KIA. In May Gen. Carl Andrew Spaatz (1891-1974) becomes cmdr. of the U.S. Eighth Air Force, moving its HQ to England in July; in Jan. 1944 he becomes cmdr. of the U.S. Strategic Air Forces in Europe, while Lt. Gen. Jimmy Doolittle takes over the Eighth Air Force; Spaatz orders daylight bombings in Germany and Austria against the advice of the Brits, which turns out to break the back of the Nazi Luftwaffe and give air supremacy to Allied air forces, causing Gen. Eisenhower to later comment that he was one of the two U.S. generals who contributed most to the V in Europe (along with Gen. Omar Bradley). In May the Germans launch Operation Olympus to hunt down Greek partisans, but the local pop. gives them food and shelter. In May the SS gasses 19K+ Jews at Chelmno, 6K+ at Auschwitz, 5K+ at Belzec, and 36K at Sobibor. In May the Germans execute 5K "non-productive" Jews in Dubno outside the town hall. In May the Germans murder 30K Russian Jews in fields and ditches. In May German U-boats on the E U.S. coast sink 111 merchant ships, making 377 for the year. In May Mao Tse-tung calls the Yan'an Forum on Art and Literature to lay down the law on art and lit.; writer Ding Ling (1904-86) gets the raspberry for her bourgeois feminist mistake of singling out male Commies for mistreating women; in June the Yan'an Rectification Movement (ends 1944) drums slackers out of the burgeoning Chinese Communist Party, incl. Wang Shiwei (Sidao) (Shuhan) (1906-47) (executed in 1947), causing some to commit suicide? Springtime for Hitler? In May U.S. Gen Dwight D. Eisenhower arrives in London, setting up the Supreme HQ Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) in Little America in Grosvenor Square, London to prepare for D-Day; Irish-born divorcee Kay Summersby (1908-75) is assigned as his driver, and later secy. (until Nov. 1945), going on to become a U.S. citizen and capt. of the Women's Army Corps (WACs), causing rumors of an affair. On June 1 the Warsaw underground Socialist newspaper Liberty Barricade pub. the first account of the exhaust gassings at Chelmno using info. from Emanual Ringelblum via Jakub Grojanowski; those at Belzec, Sobibor, Maly Trostenets etc. are still unknown by the Allies. On June 1 after a self-taught lawyer argues successfully, the U.S. Supreme Court rules unanimously in Skinner v. State of Okla. that the 1935 Okla. Habitual Criminal Sterilization Act, pushed through by Dem. gov. (1931-5) William Henry Davis "Alfalfa Bill" Murray (1869-1956) mandating involuntary sterilization is unconstitutional for violating the Equal Protection Clause because it lets white collar criminals have kids. On June 3 Operation Kottbus begins, with 16K German troops attacking the Repub. of Palik Soviet partisan stronghold near Polotsk, followed on June 5 by Operation Birdsong, with 5K German troops wiping out 1,193 of 2.5K partisans between Roslavl and Bryansk within four weeks; too bad, they return within 2 mo. On June 3 the Germans shoot 110 Jews in Gesiowka (Gesia or Goose Street) Prison in Warsaw, Poland. On June 4 Adolf Hitler secretly visits Finnish Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim in Imatra in S Finland on the latter's birthday, discussing the situation in the Soviet Union; a portion of his conversation is secretly recorded, becoming the only recording of Hitler's normal speaking voice to survive the war. Six months after Pearl Harbor, the Yankees are already midway to defeating the Japanese? On June 4-7 the Battle of Midway Island sees an 86-warship fleet of four Japanese aircraft carriers incl. Akagi, Kaga, Soryu, and Hiryu, seven battleships, and 150 support ships attempt to sneak-attack Midway Island to open the way to Fiji and Samoa, with a diversionary action in the Aleutian islands of Kiska and Attu, but U.S. codebreakers tip the U.S. Navy off, allowing them to defeat them with three carriers and 50 support ships, failing in four attacks, losing 65 planes, then on lucky #5 sinking all four Japanese carriers (incl. three that took part in the Pearl Harbor attack) and a heavy cruiser (the first three carriers are burning by 10:30 a.m.), shooting down 332 aircraft and killing 3.5K men incl. 200 pilots while losing U.S. carrier Yorktown and one destroyer along with 150 planes and 307 men, becoming the turning point in the Pacific War, allowing U.S. forces to go on the offensive; U.S. Navy ensign George Henry Gay Jr. (1917-94) is the sole survivor of the 30-man Torpedo Squadron 8 operating from the USS Hornet; after Adm. William Halsey comes down with severe psoriasis, he is replaced by Adm. Raymond Ames Spruance (1886-1969) right before the big battle, who goes on to become cmdr. of the U.S. 5th Fleet in Apr. 1944, going on to direct the campaigns in Iwo Jima and Okinawa. On June 5-July 3 the Germans siege and capture Sevastopol (Sebastopol) after capturing Ft. Stalin on June 13, Ft. Siberia in June 17, Ft. Maxim Gorky on June 18, and Ft. Lenin on June 20, taking tens of thousands of Soviet POWs; the big V causes Hitler on July 1 to give Gen. Mainstein a Field Marshal's baton; as a taste of what's to come, some pesky Soviet fighters hang on in the catacombs of the quarries for months; Sevastopol is given the title of Hero City. On June 6 the Japanese occupy Attu in the Aleutian Islands, and land on Kiska, becoming the high water mark of their success. On June 8 three Jewish partisans incl. Vitka Kempner (1920-88) sneak out of Vilna Ghetto and blow up a German military train; the Gestapo shoots 32 families in reprisal. On June 8 the British break German Eastern Front Enigma code Mosquito, followed on June 16 by Skunk. On June 9 Heinrich Himmler leads the state funeral for Reinhard Heydrich in Berlin, uttering the soundbyte that it is the "holy obligation" of the SS to avenge his death "and to destroy with even greater determination the enemies of our nation, mercilessly and pitilessly"; on June 10 Operation Heydrich begins with the SS deporting 1K Jews to Maly Trostenets; meanwhile they shoot 199 men in Lidice, Czech. 6 mi. NW of Prague, then send all 60 women and their 88 children to Ravensbruck, Mathausen, and Auschwitz to be gassed; meanwhile 17 men and 16 women are shot in Lezaky, Czech., and 14 children are sent to death camps, two surviving the war; on June 12-13 2K Jews are deported from Theresienstadt to Maly Trostenets; on June 22 Adolf Eichmann sends his plan for Operation Heydrich to his subordinates, calling for 40K Jews to be deported from France, 40K from Holland, and 10K from Belgium, with a daily train to Auschwitz that carries 1K. On June 9 Polish Gen. Wladyslaw Sikorski delivers a speech in London on mass murder of Jews by the Germans in the last 12 mo., with the soundbyte: "The Jewish population in Poland is condemned to death in accordance with the slogan 'Slaughter all Jews, no matter how the war ends'. "Massacres of tens of thousands of Jews have been carried out this year... People are being starved to death in ghettos. Mass executions are held. Even those suffering from typhus are shot... To smash the resistance of the railwaymen at the Upper Silesian junctions, gallows have been erected in 18 Silesian towns. Members of the educated classes, railwaymen, and workers are being hanged there, and all the schoolchildren herded to watch this cruel spectacle. And the application of reprisals where these are possible may stay the fury of German killers and save hundreds of thousands of innocent victims from inevitable annihilation"; on June 10 the London Times carries the headline: "Mass Butchery in Poland". On June 11 Gen. Rommel's forces capture French-held Bir Hakeim, and head towards the Egyptian border. On June 11 Iron Cross 2nd Class winning co. cmdr. Michael Kitzelmann (b. 1916) is shot by a firing squad in Orel for speaking out against German atrocities in the Eastern Front, with the soundbyte: "If these criminals should win, I would have no wish to live any longer." On June 12 U.S. bombers based in the Nile Delta bomb the Ploesti oilfields in Romania 900 mi. away. On June 12 the Germans hang 10 poles, er, Poles for sabotage of an iron foundry in Dabrowa Gornicza in Silesia, leaving their bodies hanging as a warning. On June 12 (his birthday) 18-y.-o. future U.S. pres. George Herbert Walker Bush (b. 1924) enlists in the U.S. Navy's flight training program, becoming one of the youngest commissioned pilots in the Navy, and, at 6 ft. 2 in., also one of the tallest? On June 12-15 Operation Harpoon (Vigorous) attempts to get supplies to the strategic island of Malta in vain, losing British cruiser HMS Hermione to German sub U-205 N of Sollum on June 15, and scuttling British destroyer HMS Hasty and Australian destroyer HMAS Nestor, also losing British destroyers HMS Airedale, HMS Bedouin, and HMS Oakley (Kujawiak) (manned by Polish sailors), while sinking Italian heavy cruiser Trento; Operation Pedestal on Aug. 9-15 succeeds; Malta is awarded the George Cross. On June 13 the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was formed by William Joseph "Wild Bill" Donovan (1883-1959) to recruit anti-Hitler elements inside Germany as fifth columnists. After the war it recruited Nazis like Klaus Barbie (who fled to Argentina in 1951, followed by Brazil), Gen. Reinhard Gehlen, and Nazi scientists to help it fight the Soviet Union. On June 13 the 12-ton (1-ton warhead) A4 (V-1) rocket (using calcium permanganate propellant), developed by Wernher von Braun (1912-77) is tested by the Germans at Peenemunde in front of 35 senior officials incl. Albert Speer, crashing within 1 mi. despite its promised 200 mi. range; too bad, they get it right. On June 15 Jewish journalist in Switzerland Richard Lichtheim writes the soundbyte: "The destruction of the Jewish communities is continuing. The whole of Europe is anxiously awaiting the day when the Allied nations will liberate this tortured Continent." On June 17 the first labor camp prisoners arrive for work at the Blechhammer (Ger. "sheet metal hammer") area of Upper Silesia. On June 17 a consultative board for the Netherlands East Indies is set up in London to assist the govt.-in-exile. On June 19 Heinrich Himmler gives a speech to officers of the Das Reich SS div., with the soundbyte: "The German soldier has in the past frequently operated under long-outmoded conceptions that once went unquestioned - these he carried with him to the battlefield in 1939... This erroneous notion of what war is all about showed itself unmistakably. Thus, for instance, it was thought that one had to say that in the case of a Jewess, even if she had been caught harboring partisans at the time, one couldn't touch her - she was, after all a lady... The same held for this Eastern campaign too, when the whole German nation took the field, their heads filled with such absolute rubbish and overrefined, civilized decadence. We SS men were less encumbered, one might even say practically unencumbered by such rubbish. After a decade of racial education we, the entire cadre of the SS, entered this war as unshakeable champions of our Germanic people. We ought to spare neither or own nor foreign blood if the nation requires." On June 19 after meeting him at age 15, Norma Jeane Baker (b. 1926) marries James Edward "Jim" Dougherty (1921-2005), who works with Robert Mitchum in a defense plant, and next year joins the U.S. Merchant Marine, heading for Santa Catalina Island, where she joins him, then heading overseas in 1944 while she works for the Radioplane Co. in Burbank, Calif., which features her in some war propaganda photos that are pub. in the Aug. 2, 1945 issue of Yank, the Army Weekly, becoming her start as a model; after getting ideas about going bigtime, she divorces him on Sept. 13, 1946; in 1947 he joins the Los Angeles Police Dept. and marries Patricia Scoman. On June 20 (5:30 a.m.) Gen. Rommel begins his assault on Tobruk; at 7:00 p.m. the first German Panzers enter; on June 21 (8:00 a.m.) South African Gen. Hendrik Balzazar Klopper (1903-77) surrenders his 30K men, along with 20K vehicles, 2K tons of gasoline, and 5K tons of rations; Churchill tells FDR "Defeat is one thing, disgrace is another", causing FDR to reply "What can we do to help?"; Hitler immediately awards Rommel a field marshal's baton, causing Rommel to reply "I'm going to Disneyland", er, "I'm going to Suez", telling his wife "I would rather he had given me one more division"; on June 22 the British fall back to Mersa Matruh, Egypt 180 mi. from Alexandria. Weather empathy? On June 21 Tirat Tsvi, Israel reaches an Asian record high temp. of 129 F (54 C). On June 22 a Japanese sub shells Ft. Stevens, Ore. on the Columbia River, becoming the first attack by a foreign power on a U.S. continental military installation since 1812; next in ?. On June 23 the first group of Polish and Jewish mental patients are transported to Auschwitz. On June 23 300 British POWs arrive at Bampong, Thailand to begin construction of the Japanese Railway of Death from Thailand to Burma; in Sept. 3K Australian POWs arrive at Thanbyuzayat, Burma to begin at the other end; 15K are killed building it; Australian artist Ray Parkin (1910-2005) records the fun in the sun. On June 23 Odilo Globocnik's henchman SS. Col. Viktor Hermann Brack (1904-48) (organizer of Aktion T-4) writes a letter to Heinrich Himmler, proposing that 2M-3M out of the 10M Euro Jews be saved for work after sterilizing them using X-rays so they're not aware of it. On June 25 U.S. Gen. Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969) arrives in London to supervise the D-Day invasion of Nazi Europe - how come we're out to destroy a country with no industry, no bases, no value to anyone? On June 25 the Gestapo orders 25K Jews in Paris to be rounded up and shipped to the Fun Zone in the E. On June 25 (night) 1,006 British RAF bombers bomb Bremen, Germany (their 3rd 1K-bomber raid), losing 49; too bad, clouds make target ID impossible, and the raid is a dud. On June 26 the BBC in London broadcasts a segment on the Jews in Poland, based on info. from Emanuel Ringelblum claiming that the Nazis have