TLW's 1950s Historyscope 1950-1959 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Gen. Dwight David Eisenhower of the U.S. (1890-1969) Harry S. Truman of the U.S. (1884-1972) U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964) U.S. Sen. Joseph McCarthy (1908-57) Willy Brandt of West Germany (1913-92) Harold Macmillan of Britain (1894-1986) Elizabeth II of Britain (1926-2022) Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt (1918-70) Fulgencio Batista of Cuba (1901-73) Fidel Castro of Cuba (1926-2016) Eva Peron of Argentina (1919-52) Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union (1894-1971) Pope John XXIII (1881-1963) Mohammed Mossadeh (Mossadeq) of Iran (1882-1967) Edward Teller of the U.S. (1908-2003) Adlai Ewing Stevenson of the U.S. (1900-65) Earl Warren of the U.S. (1891-1974) Rosa Parks Being Booked, Dec. 1, 1955 UNIVAC, 1951 Sputnik I, 1957 USS Nautilus, 1954-80 James D. Watson (1928-) and Francis H.C. Crick (1916-2004) Dr. Jonas Salk (1914-95) Ethel and Julius Rosenberg (-1953) Sir Edmund Hillary (1919-2008) and Tensing Norkay (1914-86) Colonel Harland Sanders (1890-1980) Christine Jorgenson (1918-89) after Arnold Palmer (1929-2016) Rocky Marciano (1923-69) Van Cliburn (1934-) William S. Burroughs (1914-97) Alan Freed (1921-65) Elvis Presley (1935-77) Pat Boone (1934-) Harry Belafonte (1927-) Dick Clark (1929-) James Dean (1931-55) Alfred C. Kinsey (1894-1956) Playboy issue #1, Dec. 1953 Brigitte Bardot (1934-) 'I Love Lucy', 1951-7 Arthur Godfrey (1903-83) Adventures of Superman, 1952-8 'Leave it to Beaver', 1957- 'Godzilla', 1954 Bertie the Brain, 1950 Josef Kates (1921-2018)

1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959

The 1950s (1950-1959 C.E.)

The Oh Lord, Won't You Buy Me a Color TV Decade? The last decade when people born in the 19th century still run most things, complete with 20th Century Salem Witch Trials? A separate kind of decade? After having kicked Nazi butt and saved the world for democracy, ninety-plus percent white America turns down its big chance to conquer and rule the world, and turns from G.I. Joes and Rosie the Riveters to the "Silent Generation" (William Manchester), suburban easy-credit rugrat breeders living in appliance-filled homes and watching network TV, driving giant, overpowered, gas-guzzling cars with tailfins to their white or blue collar jobs, while revelling in the new role of world policeman with an atomic billy club and the Dulles of policies? Their own example sparks American blacks to get uppity and demand equal seating and Parks-King rights? Meanwhile Number Two We Try Harder the Soviet Union and its Communist subversive moles everywhere fight a Cold War with Number One on Earth and in space, setting fires far and wide which only manage to tick the Mighty Number One off? Hollyweird exploits the anxiety of A-bomb testing in their backyards to sell tickets? Number Three China shows the U.S. that it needs that atomic club while it tries to develop the Walmart solution? A good decade for mountain climbers, the number 49, and diamonds? UFO sightings begin?

For the rest of the cent. the hordes of spoiled self-centered hedonistic loose-moraled white American Baby Boomer children first try successfully to break from their parents' control, then try in vain to make everybody like them, or to like them, even though they're so beautiful, ending up becoming like their parents even while slowly dismantling their prejudices and injustices and borders in an attempt to appease and accommodate and Americanize the world to make everybody like them, or at least leave them alone while they continue to overconsume? The regular appearance of determined retro enemies puzzles them to the end?

Country Leader From To
United States of America Harry S. Truman (1884-1972) Apr. 12, 1945 Jan. 20, 1953 Harry S. Truman of the U.S. (1884-1972)
United Kingdom Clement Attlee (1883-1967) July 27, 1945 Oct. 26, 1951 Clement Attlee of Britain (1883-1967)
United Kingdom George VI (1895-1952) Dec. 11, 1936 Feb. 6, 1952 George VI of England (1895-1952)
Soviet Union Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) Apr. 3, 1922 Mar. 5, 1953 Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union (1878-1953)
People's Republic of China Mao Tse-tung (Zedong) (1893-1976) 1943 Sept. 9, 1976 Mao Tse-tung of China (1893-1976)
India Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) Aug. 15, 1947 May 27, 1964 Jawaharlal Nehru of India (1889-1964)
Canada Louis Stephen St. Laurent (1882-1973) Nov. 15, 1948 June 20, 1957 Louis Stephen St. Laurent of Canada (1882-1973)
France Vincent Auriol (1884-1966) Jan. 16, 1947 Jan. 16, 1954 Vincent Auriol of France (1884-1966)
West Germany Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967) Sept. 15, 1949 Oct. 16, 1963 Konrad Adenauer of West Germany (1876-1967)
East Germany Wilhelm Pieck (1876-1960) Oct. 11, 1949 Sept. 7, 1960 Wilhelm Pieck of East Germany (1876-1960)
Spain Francisco Franco (1892-1975) Apr. 1, 1939 Nov. 20, 1975 Francisco Franco of Spain (1892-1975)
Mexico Miguel Alemán Valdés (1900-83) Dec. 1, 1946 Nov. 30, 1952 Miguel Alemán Valdés of Mexico (1900-83)
Iran Mohammed Shah Pahlavi II (1919-80) Sept. 16, 1944 Feb. 11, 1979 Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi II of Iran (1919-80)
Egypt Farouk I (1920-65) Apr. 28, 1936 July 26, 1952 Farouk I of Egypt (1920-65)
Israel David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973) May 14, 1948 June 26, 1963 David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973)
Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980) Nov. 2, 1944 May 4, 1980 Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia (1892-1980)
Papacy Pope Pius XII (1876-1958) Mar. 2, 1939 Oct. 9, 1958 Pope Pius XII (1876-1958)
U.N. Trygve Halvdan Lie of Norway (1896-1968) Feb. 1, 1946 Mar. 31, 1953 Trygve Lie of Norway (1896-1968)

1950 - Money for car repairs, money for doctor bills, and money for what? The first part of the decade sees the Korean War, the fall of U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur, the rise and fall of Am. Irish-favorite Communist-baiter Joseph "Tail-Gunner Joe" Raymond McCarthy (junior U.S. Sen. from Wisc.), and the enduring dominance of U.S. Pres. 5-star Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower?

Gen. Dwight David Eisenhower of the U.S. (1890-1969) U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964) U.S. Sen. Joseph Raymond 'Joe' McCarthy (1908-57) Scott Wike Lucas of the U.S. (1892-1968) Herblock Anti-McCarthyism Cartoon, Mar. 29, 1950 Herblock (1909-2001) Dean Acheson of the U.S. (1893-1971) Estes Kefauver of the U.S. (1903-63) Charles Edward Wilson of the U.S. (1886-1972) Paul Martin Simon of the U.S. (1928-2003) U.S. Prov. Kenneth R. Shadrick (1931-50) Rajendra Prasad of India (1884-1963) Haj Ali Razmara of Iran (1901-51) Sheik Abdullah III al-Salim al-Sabah of Kuwait (1895-1965) Col. Jacobo Arbenz Guzman of Guatemala (1913-71) Gustaf (Gustavus) VI of Sweden (1882-1973) Celal Bayar of Turkey (1883-1986) Adnan Menderes of Turkey (1899-1961) Liaquat Ali Khan of Pakistan (1895-1951) Andres Martinez Trueba of Uruguay (1874-1959) Rama IX of Thailand (1927-2016) Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso (1931-) Australian Field Marshal Sir Thomas Albert Blamey (1884-1951) U.S. Gen. Walter Bedell Smith (1896-1961) Ralph Johnson Bunche of the U.S. (1904-71) Helen Gahagan Douglas of the U.S. (1900-80) John J. Muccio of the U.S. U.S. Gen. Omar Nelson Bradley (1893-1981) Oscar Littleton Chapman of the U.S. (1896-1978) Dean Rusk of the U.S. (1909-94) Vincent Richard Impellitteri of the U.S. (1900-87) Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso (1935-) Archbishop Makarios III (1913-77) Joseph Wright Alsop V (1910-89) German Lt. Col. Otto Skorzeny (1908-75) U.S. Capt. Emil Joseph Kapaun (1916-51) Oscar Collazo (1914-94) Robert Schuman (1886-1963) Roberto Rossellini (1906-77) and Ingrid Bergman (1915-82) Edwin 'Big Ed' Johnson of the U.S. (1884-1970) Andrei Sakharov (1921-89) Igor Tamm (1895-1971) Yolande Margaret Betbeze Box (1928-2016) Jean Monnet of France (1888-1979) Paul Henri Spaak of Belgium (1899-1972) Karen Horney (1885-1952) U.S. Gen. Matthew Bunker Ridgway (1895-1993) Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) Cecil Frank Powell (1903-69) Marietta Blau (1897-1970) Otto Paul Hermann Diels (1876-1954) Kurt Alder (1902-58) Philip Showalter Hench (1896-1965) Edward Calvin Kendall (1886-1972) Tadeusz Reichstein (1897-1996) Norman Barrett (1903-79) Sir Derek Barton (1918-98) Aage N. Bohr (1922-) Erwin Chargaff (1905-2002) Enrico Fermi (1901-54) Richard Hamming (1915-98) Odd Hassel (1897-1981) Elizabeth Lee Hazen (1885-1975) and Rachel Fuller Brown (1898-1980) Fred Hoyle (1915-2001) Michael Kasha (1920-) Barbara McClintock (1902-92) Ben Roy Mottelson (1926-) Arthur Nobile (1920-2004) Jan Hendrik Oort (1900-92) Jean Piaget (1896-1980) Leo James Rainwater (1917-86) Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-99) Oliver Smithies (1925-) Sir Martin John Evans (1941-) Mario Ramberg Capecchi (1937-) Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906-2004) Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (1921-) Ashley Montagu (1905-99) Edward Franklin Frazier (1894-1962) Sir Ronald Fisher (1890-1962) Isaac Asimov (1920-92) Sir Antonin Besse (1877-1951) Ray Bradbury (1920-2012) Paul Brickhill (1916-91) Arthur C. Clarke (1917-2008) William Cooper (1910-2002) C.S. (Clive Staples) Lewis (1898-1963) L. Ron Hubbard (1911-86) John Wood Campbell Jr. (1910-71) Dorothy Chandler (1901-97) and Norman Chandler (1899-1973) Ethel Kennedy (1928-) and Robert Francis Kennedy (1925-68) Archbishop Fulton J. Sheen (1895-1979) Sir Rudolf Bing (1902-97) Luigi Nono (1924-90) Gilbert Trigano (1920-2001) Johnnie Parsons (1918-84) Giuseppe Farina (1906-66) Bob Cousy (1928-) Bill Sharman (1926-2013) George Yardley (1928-2004) Paul Arizin (1928-2006) Chuck Cooper (1926-84) Earl Lloyd (1928-2015) Nathaniel Clifton (1922-90) Harold Hunter (1926-2013) Hank DeZonie (1922-2009) Dolph Schayes (1928-) Bob Harrison (1927-) Jean Béliveau (1931-2014) Holcombe Rucker (1926-65) Rucker Park Althea Gibson (1927-2003) Maurice Herzog (1919-2012) and Louis Lachenal (1921-55) Annapurna I Art Larsen (1925-) Kenneth 'Sugar Land Express' Hall (1935-) J. Elmer Reed (1903-83) Klaus Fuchs (1911-88) Hans Albrecht Bethe (1906-2005) Abram Bergson (1914-2003) Harry Gold (1910-74) David Greenglass (1922-) Gregory Corso (1930-2001) John Charles Daly (1914-91) Henry Dinwoodey Moyle (1889-1963) John Stewart Service of the U.S. (1909-99) Philip Caryl Jessup of the U.S. (1897-1986) Harlow Shapley (1885-1972) Margaret Louise Coit (1919-2003) Dorothy Kenyon (1888-19720 Wilma Montesi (1933-53) Mario del Monaco (1915-82) Phil Rizzuto (1917-2007) Joseph 'Specs' O'Keefe Herbert Arthur Philbrick (1915-93) Eugene Polley (1916-) Raul Prebisch (1901-86) Sir Hans Singer (1910-2006) Derek Walcott (1930-) Rose Marie Reid (1906-78) Rose Marie Reid Swimsuits William Edwards Deming (1900-93) James Jerome Gibson (1904-79) Immanuel Velikovsky (1895-1979) Cecil Blanche Woodham-Smith (1897-1977) Philip Showalter Hench (1896-1965) Bernard Berenson (1865-1959) Emilio Carballido (1925-2008) Edward Hallett Carr (1892-1982) Hal Clement (1922-2003) Günter Eich (1907-72) Florence Sally Horner (1937-52) Rollo May (1909-94) Wolfgang Schmieder (1901-90) Fanny Cradock (1909-94) Helen Frankenthaler (1928-) Sir Ernst Gombrich (1909-2001) Hans Hofmann (1880-1966) Elizabeth Jane Howard (1923-) Pamela Hansford Johnson (1912-81) ANcel Keys (1904-2004) Morris Louis (1912-62) George Lachmann Mosse (1918-99) Kenneth Noland (1924-2010) Jules Olitski (1922-2007) Mark Rothko (1903-70) Clyfford Still (1904-80) Karl-Birger Blomdahl (1916-68) Erik Homburger Erikson (1902-94) Jerome Irving Rodale (1898-1971) Jack Vance (1916-2013) Larry Zox (1937-2006 Max Lerner (1902-92) Frederick Buechner (1926-) Roscoe Carlyle Buley (1893-1968) Alice Childress (1920-94) Henry Steele Commager (1902-98) Charles Olson (1910-70) Robert Creeley (1926-2005) Horace Leonard Gold (1914-96) Will Lang Jr. (1914-68) Joseph Francis Rinn (1868-1952) Hazel Scott (1920-81) Duff Cooper (1890-1954) Friedrich Dürrenmatt (1921-90) John Hersey (1914-93) Thor Heyerdahl (1914-2002) Patricia Highsmith (1921-95) Eugene Ionesco (1909-94) Maj. Donald Edward Keyhoe (1897-1988) Par Lagerkvist (1891-1974) Doris Lessing (1919-2013) W. Stanley Moss (1921-65) Hortense Powdermaker (1896-1970) Henry Morton Robinson (1898-1961) Macha Louis Rosenthal (1917-66) E.E. 'Doc' Smith (1890-1965) Wallace Stegner (1909-93) Theodore Sturgeon (1918-85) Rosemary Sutcliff (1920-92) Lionel Trilling (1905-75) James Warburg (1896-1969) Tennessee Williams (1911-83) Shirley Temple (1928-2014) and Charles Alden Black (1919-2006) Mort Walker (1923-) 'Beatle Bailey', 1950- Charles M. Schulz (1922-2000) 'Peanuts', 1950- Smokey Bear (1950-75) H. David Dahlquist (1916-2005) Robert Adler (1913-2007) Simone Signoret (1921-85) Leonard Chess (1917-69) and Phil Chess (1921-) Chess Records Checker Records Cadet Records Elektra Records 'Frosty the Snow Man', by Gene Autry (1907-98) and The Cass County Boys, 1950 'Gene Autry (1907-98) Walter E. 'Jack' Rollins (1906-73) Teresa Brewer (1931-2007) Jack Benny (1894-1974) Nat King Cole (1919-65) Perry Como (1912-2001) Tennessee Ernie Ford (1919-91) Woody Guthrie (1912-67) 'Sing Out', 1950- Eartha Kitt (1927-2008) Oscar Peterson (1925-2007) Hank Snow (1914-99) Eric Nord (1919-89) Enrico Banducci (1922-2007) Kenneth Rexroth (1905-82) Karl Ancerl (1908-73) Pilar Lorengar (1929-96) Andre Jolivet (1905-74) Tab Hunter (1931-) Ed McCurdy (1919-2000) Patti Page (1927-) Frankie Vaughan (1928-99) Muddy Waters (1913-83) The Weavers Ida Lupino (1914-95) Howard Duff (1913-90) Bettie Page (1923-2008) Irving Klaw (1910-66) and Bettie Page (1923-2008) 'The Cisco Kid', 1950-6 'The Colgate Comedy Hour', 1950-55 'Treasury Men in Action', 1950-5 Bud Collyer (1908-69) Art Baker (1898-1966) Bob Barker (1923-) Garry Moore (1915-93) and Durward Kirby (1912-2000) 'What's My Line', 1950-75 Jackie Gleason (1916-87) as Joe the Bartender Frank Fontaine (1920-78) as Crazy Guggenheim George Burns (1896-1996) and Gracie Allen (1895-1964) 'Pulitzer Prize Playhouse', 1950-2 Elmer Davis (1890-1958) 'The Stu Erwin Show', starring Stu Erwin (1903-67) and June Collyer (1906-68) 'Your Show of Shows', 1950-4 'Annie Get Your Gun', 1950 Howard Keel (1919-2004) William Inge (1913-73) Michael Kidd (1915-2007) Sam Levene (1905-80) 'Guys and Dolls', 1950 'Come Back, Little Sheba', 1950 'The Asphalt Jungle', 1950 'The Astonished Heart', 1950 'The Blue Lamp', 1950 'Broken Arrow', 1950 'Chance of a Lifetime', 1950 'Cinderella', 1950 'The Clouded Yellow', 1950 'Cyrano de Bergerac', 1950 'Destination Moon', 1950 'Father of the Bride', 1950 'Flying Disc Man from Mars', 1950 'The Gunfighter', 1950 'Harvey', 1950 'Madeleine', 1950 'Morning Departure', 1950 'Rashomon', 1950 'Rio Grande', 1950 'Rocketship X-M', 1950 'State Secret', 1950 'Seven Days to Noon', 1950 'Stage Fright', 1950 'Sunset Boulevard', 1950 'Treasure Island', 1950 'Winchester 73', 1950 'The Wooden Horse', 1950 'Young Man with a Horn', 1950 'Julius Caesar', 1950 Robert Wagner (1930-) Tollund Man 'Die Sunderin' starring Hildegard Knef (1925-2002), 1950 Milton Avery (1885-1965) 'Maternity' by Milton Avery (1885-1965), 1950 'Cardinal' by Franz Kline, 1950 'Woman 1' by Willem de Kooning (1904-97), 1950 Richard Lippold (1915-2002) 'World Tree' by Richard Lippold, 1950 'Lavender Mist' by Jackson Pollock (1912-56), 1950 National Emblem of India, 1950 'Takes from the Crypt', 1950-5 Eureka 1950a RetroVac, 1950 Hoover Model 29, 1929 Hobie Alter (1933-) Hobie Surfboard John Cameron Swayze (1906-95) Timex Watches, 1950- Stampede Corral Maracană Muncipal Stadium, Rio, 1950 Big Hunk Bar Geritol, 1950 Dunkin' Donuts, 1950 Sir Basil Urwin Spence (1907-76) Coventry Cathedral, 1950-62 Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel, 1950 Termini Railroad Station, 1950 Mario Pani Darqui (1911-93) Enrique del Moral (1905-87) University City, Mexico, 1950 McMinnville UFO, May 11, 1950 Mariana UFOs

1950 Doomsday Clock: 3 min. to midnight. Chinese Year: Tiger (Feb. 17). Time Mag. Man of the Year: The American Fighting Man. World pop.: 2.52B; Africa: 221M; Asia: 1.398B, Europe: 547M; Latin Am.: 167M; North Am.: 171.6M; Oceania: 12.8M; the Seventeenth (17th) (1950) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 150,697,361 (14.5% increase) in a land area of 2,974,726 sq. mi. (50.7 per sq. mi) (3rd time that total U.S. land area is less than in a previous census); white pop. is 89.5%, an all-time max., and now it's downhill all the way?; pop. of ever-growing Washington, D.C.: 800K (1.5M in metro area) (blacks become a majority of the city's pop. in this decade, with almost all of those moving to the suburbs being white until the late 1960s); the U.S. contains 6% of the world's pop., but has 50% of its wealth, incl. 60% of the cars, 58% of the telephones, 48% of the radio sets, and 34% of the railroads; 1,768 U.S. newspapers pub. 59M copies daily. Over 1.5M Germans are still missing from WWII. This year $1 U.S. buys what $8.15 will buy in 2005. Malaria mortality drops from 2M a year in the first half of the cent. to 1M a year, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. The U.N. reports that 480M of 800M children on Earth are undernourished. Only 11% of Americans are employed in agriculture this year. There are 6M TV sets in the U.S., and 15M next year; the big three networks are CBS-TV ("the eye web"), ABC-TV ("the alphabet web"), and NBC-TV ("the peacock web"). Hawaii supplies 72% of the world's pineapples, which slides to 33% by the 1970s as Thailand and the Philippines begin competing; too bad, Hawaiian pineapple growers use heptachlor to kill ants, which ends up in local dairy products consumed by children, and is not banned by the EPA until 1974. It takes until the year 1960 for the human technical knowledge in this year to double, according to French economist Georges Anderla (1921-2005). On Jan. 1 the Internat. Police Assoc. is formed, becoming the world's largest police org. On Jan. 2 6-1-2 Ohio State defeats 10-0 Calif. by 17-14 to win the 1950 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 2 reacting to the Viet Minh rebellion in Vietnam, the French grant Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos full independence within the French Union; the U.S. and U.K. recognize the Vietnamese govt. of Emperor Bao Dai; this doesn't stop Cambodian king (since 1941) Norodom Sihanouk from demanding that the French leave the country, causing him to flee to exile to Thailand in 1952 and work for complete independence; meanwhile Pres. Truman sends Ugly American military advisors to Vietnam to help the French. On Jan. 6 Britain recognizes the People's Repub. of China (Red China), causing the Repub. of China (Taiwan) to sever diplomatic relations; Israel follows suit on Jan. 9, and Finland on Jan. 13; in the U.S. the Repubs. blame the Dems. for "losing China", causing the latter to lose the 1952 U.S. pres. election. The Master of Innuendo and Snappy Comeback is born? On Jan. 7 junior Wisc. Sen. Charlie, er, Joseph R. McCarthy has dinner with "Total Power" author Father Edmund Aloysius Walsh (vice-pres. of Georgetown U.) and other prominent Roman Catholics, and is advised that the best issue for him is to "hammer away" at Communists in the U.S. govt.; too bad he drops an idea to promote a $100 per mo. nat. pension plan instead? On Jan. 11 Huk guerrillas rough up the town of Hermosa, Bataan in the Philippines. On Jan. 12 U.S. secy. of state Dean Acheson delivers his Perimeter Speech, outlining the boundary of U.S. security guarantees vis a vis Asia. On Jan. 12 (7 p.m.) the British sub HMS Truculent (P315) (launched 1942) collides with Swedish oil tanker Divini in the Thames Estuary, and sinks, killing 64. On Jan. 17 the $2.775M ($1.2M in cash) Great Brinks Robbery in Boston, Mass. by 11 men in Halloween masks wearing Brink's uniforms and copied keys is nearly the perfect crime until one of the robbers, Joseph "Specs" O'Keefe confesses on Jan. 12, 1956, implicating Joseph "Big Joe" McGinnis, Anthony Pino, Stanley "Gus" Gusciora et al., allowing them to be nabbed days before the 6-year statute of limitations runs out; eight gang members receive life sentences, and all are paroled in 1971 except McGinnis, who dies in prison; O'Keefe receives four years and is released in 1960; only $58K is recovered. On Jan. 21 accused Commie spy Alger Hiss is convicted of perjury. On Jan. 23 the Israeli Knesset proclaims Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, becoming the only nation whose embassy isn't located in its capital; IBM sets up a facility in Tel Aviv. On Jan. 24 German-born British physicist Klaus Emil Julius Fuchs (1911-88) gives himself up to the War Office in London and confesses to being a Soviet spy for seven years, passing data on U.S. and British nukes; he is charged on Feb. 2, and after a 90-min. trial is convicted on Mar. 1, receiving only a 14-year sentence because the Soviet Union is still classified as a "friendly nation", and becoming a big man in the East German as a "friendly nation"; on Mar. 7 the Soviets deny that he was a Soviet spy, after which German-born U.S. physicist Hans Albrecht Bethe (1906-2005) comments that Fuchs was the only physicist he knew who truly fu, er, changed history; after ratting him out, his U.S. confederate, Russian-Jewish-Swiss-Am. chemist Harry Gold (1910-72) is also convicted, and sentenced next year to 30 years, then paroled in May 1965, his testimony resulting in the arrest of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, along with David Greenglass (1922-); Fuchs is released on June 23, 1959, and moves to East Germany, becoming a big man in the East German Communist govt., giving info. to Chinese scientists which they use to develop their A-bomb. On Jan. 25 Alger Hiss is found guilty of perjury for denying his Commie affiliations and his role in the transfer of State Dept. secrets to the Soviets prior to the war, and spends nearly five years in prison; in 2007 Kai Bird (1951-) suggests that he was framed by U.S. diplomat Henry Wilder Foote (1875-1974) after his sexual advances were rejected - alger = perjure, and hiss = snake? On Jan. 26 India becomes a repub., with Congress Party leader Rajendra Prasad (1884-1963) as pres. #1 (until May 13, 1962); the Constitution of India becomes the longest and most exhaustive of any nation, defining India as a sovereign Socialist secular dem. repub., with a bicameral parliament operating under the Westminster-style system; the Nat. Emblem of India is based on the Sarnath Lion Capital of Emperor Ashoka, erected in 250 B.C.E., with the motto "Truth Alone Triumphs". On Jan. 28 Somaliland is put under Italian mandate by the U.N., and on Apr. 1 it assumes trusteeship, causing the Soviet Union to veto Italy's U.N. membership. On Jan. 29 Sheik Ahmad dies, and his son Abdullah III al-Salim al-Sabah (1895-1965) succeeds him as ruler of Kuwait (until 1965). On Jan. 29 Lord Balfour crticizes the continuation of wartime rationing in Britain. On Jan. 31 after the Soviet Union A-bomb explosion in 1949 is verified, Pres. Truman instructs the AEC to proceed with work on the H-bomb. On Jan. 31 the last Kuomintang troops in mainland China surrender; on Feb. 1 Gen. Chiang Kai-shek is reelected as pres. of the Repub. of China, and moves his govt. to Taipei, Taiwan on Mar. 1. In Jan. Italy announces a 10-year economic plan to reduce unemployment, creating the Cassa del Mezzogiorno (Bank of the South) to finance development. In Jan. Welsh poet Dylan Thomas (1914-53) visits the U.S., beginning his popular reading tours. In Jan. the Commonwealth Conference on Foreign Affairs is held in Colombo, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and next July 1 launches the Ł8B Colombo Plan for Cooperative Economic Development in South and Southeast Asia, with participating nations incl. Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India, Pakistan, and Ceylon; by 1977 it's up to 26 nations; next Nov. 28 the plan is presented to the British Parliament. In Jan. the Repub.-controlled Saturday Evening Post pub. Why We Lost China, by Am. journalist (closet gay) Joseph Wright Alsop V (1910-89), which cements the conspiratorial mind-set of the Repub. Party by blaming the State Dept. for losing "our" China to Commies?; too bad that McCarthy comes along, goes off the deep end and finally pisses-off Alsop by going after his friend Dean Acheson? On Feb. 2 What's My Line debuts on CBS-TV (until Sept. 3, 1967, then revived as a syndicated show from 1968-75), produced by Mark Goodson (1915-92) and William S. "Bill" Todman (1916-79), and hosted by South African-born ABC-TV newsman John Charles Daly (1914-91), with mystery guests whose occupation (line) must be guessed by a panel consisting of gold necklace-wearing Arlene Francis (1907-2001) (1950-75), Dorothy Kilgallen (1913-65) (1950-65), Louis Untermeyer (1885-1977) (1950-1), Random House ed. Bennett Cerf (1898-1971) (1951-71) et al.; the first mystery guest is Yankees shortstop Phil "Scooter" Rizzuto (1917-2007) - I make money with bags and balls in New York? On Feb. 2 the acting career of screen star Ingrid Bergman (1915-82), who has been married to Dr. Aron Peter Lindstrom (1907-2000) since 1937, with daughter Friedel Pia Lindstrom (1938-), goes south after she lets her contract with retiring David O. Selznick lapse in 1948 and began working in Italy with Italian playboy dir. Roberto Rossellini (1906-77), then began an affair with him during the making of the film Stromboli in 1949, leaving her family to live with him in Italy, then having his illegitimate son Roberto Ingmar Rossellini (1950-), followed by twin daughters Isabella Rossellini (1952-) and Ingrid Rossellini (1952-); on Mar. 14 U.S. Sen. (D-Colo.) (1937-55) Edwin Carl "Big Ed" Johnson (1884-1970) (former Colo. gov. in 1933-7) delivers a 1-hour speech from the U.S. Senate floor, calling her a "free-love cultist", a "powerful influence of evil", "an assault upon the institution of marriage", and "Hollywood's apostle of degradation", which fuels a public reaction against this phony virginal Joan of Arc; she gets a quicky Mexican divorce from Lindstrom, followed by a marriage to Rosselini by proxy in Juarez, and doesn't return to the Puritan-run U.S. until 1957. On Feb. 8 the first payment is made via a Diners Club credit card in New York City by Frank McNamara at Major's Cabin Grill, becoming the first-ever use of a charge card ("the First Supper"). Figaro, Figaro, or, The definition of Cheesehead? On Feb. 9 rookie Rep. Wisc. U.S. Sen. Joseph Raymond "Joe" McCarthy (1908-57) bursts into nat. prominence with a Wheeling, W. Va. Lincoln Day Speech (titled "Enemies from Within") to the Ohio County Women's Repub. Club during which he holds up a piece of paper, saying: "While I cannot take the time to name all the men in the State Department who have been named as members of the Communist Party and members of a spy ring, I have here in my hand a list of two hundred and five (205) that were known to the Secretary of State as being members... and who nevertheless are still working and shaping policy"; on Feb. 9 he calls U.S. secy. of state Dean Acheson (1893-1971) a "pompous diplomat in striped pants", and calls on Pres. Truman to furnish a list of State Dept. employees considered bad security risks, and to revoke his pres. order of 3-13-48; on Feb. 20 he changes the magic number of names to 81, and when Sen. (D-Ill.) Scott Wike Lucas (1892-1968) demands that he makes them public, he refuses, saying: "If I were to give all the names involved, it might leave a wrong impression. If we should label one man a Communist when he is not... I think it would be too bad"; in Feb. the Tydings Committee (Subcommittee on the Investigation of Loyalty of State Department Employees) is formed to look into McCarthy's charges, chaired by Sen. (D-Md.) (1927-51) Millard Evelyn Tydings (1890-1961), and this time McCarthy names names, incl. China expert Owen Lattimore (1900-89), astronomer Harlow Shapley (1885-1972), jurist Philip Caryl Jessup (1897-1986), jurist Dorothy Kenyon (1888-1972), State Dept. diplomat (to China) John Stewart Service (1909-99), political scientist Frederick Lewis Schuman (1904-), State Dept. official Haldore Hanson (1912-92), Spanish composer Gustavo Duran Martinez (1906-69) (friend of Ernest Hemingway in Cuba), and U.S. Navy civilian employee (who helped scientists escape from Communist Hungary) Stephen Brunauer (1903-86); on Mar. 29 a cartoon in the Washington Post by Herblock (Herbert Lawrence Block) (1909-2001) coins the term "McCarthyism"; on May 4 Truman relents, releasing the files on the 81 cases McCarthy still claims he has, which McCarthy then claims have been stripped and skeletonized; after he lucks out and the stupid State Dept. fails to prevent the Korean War (or the Chinese from entering it), on Sept. 23 McCarthy claims that the Korean and Indochinese conflicts were planned in the 1945 Yalta Conference by Roosevelt and Stalin; the real reason Stalin approved them was his development of nukes, which neutralized the U.S.?; the Tydings Committee ends up in a partisan split, and the Dem. majority claims that McCarthy is full of it, to which the Repubs. respond that the Dems. are guilty of a whitewash; after three votes, all along partisan lines, the Senate also deadlocks; meanwhile, careers are ruined; John S. Service is fired but reinstated by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1957; Jessup is appointed by Pres. Truman as U.S. delegate to the U.K. next year, but the Senate refuses to approve him, after which Truman appoints him during their recess, after which JFK appoints him to the Internat. Court of Justice in 1961 (until 1970), causing him to become a legal folk hero, and the Philip C. Jessup Cup to be named in his honor; after McCarthy smears his colleague Gen. George C. Marshall as a Comsymp (Commie sympathizer), Gen. Dwight David Eisenhower gets permanently pissed-off at him, later fighting the influence of the John Birch Society on the Repub. Party. On Feb. 11 two Viet Minh battalions attack a French base in French Indochina. On Feb. 11 Finland recognizes Indonesia. On Feb. 11 a bus plunges 40 ft. into a pond in Matsuo, Kyushu, Japan, kiling 22 and injuring 18. On Feb. 12 Communist riots erupt in Paris. On Feb. 12 Albert Einstein warns that nuclear war between the U.S. and Soviet Union could lead to mutual destruction; on Feb. 13 the U.S. Army begins deploying anti-aircraft guns to protect nuclear stations and military targets. On Feb. 12 the European Broadcasting Union is founded, growing to 56 countries. On Feb. 13 a USAF Convair B-36 bomber carrying an Mark-4 atomic bomb goes down off the W coast of Canada, becoming the first "broken arrow". On Feb. 14 Red China and the Soviet Union sign a 30-year Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutal Assistance. On Feb. 14 Sir Winston Churchill gives an election speech in Edinburgh, Scotland proposing "a parley at the summit" with Soviet leaders, coining the term "summit" for a top-level meeting; on Feb. 23 gen. elections in Britain give a V to Clement Attlee's Labour Party, but Churchill's Tories gain seats in the Commons. On Feb. 17 two Long Island Rail Road commuter trains crash head-on in Rockville Centre, N.Y., killing 30; on Nov. 22 another Long Island Rail Road commuter train crashes into another, this time from the rear in Richmond Hill, N.Y., killing 79. On Feb. 17 German-born Jewish-Am. banker (Council on Foreign Relations member) James Paul Warburg (1896-1969), son of CFR founder Paul Warburg testifies before the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee, uttering the soundbyte "We shall have world government whether or not you like it, by conquest or consent"; on Nov. 25, 1959 the CFR pub. Study No. 7, a plan to bring about a NWO via manipulation of U.S. foreign policy and internat. economic interdependence. On Feb. 19 Konrad Adenauer of West Germany fails to negotiate a reunion with East Germany. On Feb. 20 the U.S. breaks diplomatic relations with Bulgaria due to alleged persecution of diplomatic personnel. On Feb. 25 Your Show of Shows debuts on Sat. nights on NBC-TV for 139 episodes (until June 5, 1954), starring Isaac Sidney "Sid" Caesar (1922-2014) and Imogene Fernandez de Coca (1908-2001). In Feb. martial law in de-Commie-fied Greece, in effect since 1947 is lifted. On Mar. 3 Commie Poland declares that it plans on exiling all Germans; on Mar. 20 it decides to confiscate the property of the Roman Catholic Church. On Mar. 5 gen. elections in Greece gives a majority to the combined center and moderate left, with the populists getting the most of any group but less than a majority of the total, causing instability and five different cabinets during the year. On Mar. 8 the Soviet Union admits to having the atomic bomb. On Mar. 8 the first VW Microbus (Kombi) (Transporter) (Bus) (Camper) rolls off the assembly line in Wolfsburg, Germany, becoming its 2nd car model, later designated as Type 2. On Mar. 12 a plane en route from Ireland to Wales crashes near Llandow, Wales, killing 80 rugby fans. On Mar. 12-13 a referendum in Belgium shows 57.7% in favor of the return of king (since 1934) Leopold III, causing the Belgian govt. to collapse on Mar. 18; on Apr. 15 after returning, only to see nationwide demonstrations oppose him, he announces that he is ready to abdicate in favor of his eldest son Prince Baudouin, and on Aug. 1 he transfers his royal powers to him. On Mar. 14 the ship Cygenet hits a mine off the Dutch coast. On Mar. 12 Egypt demands that Britain remove its troops from the Suez Canal. On Mar. 14 the FBI announces its Ten Most Wanted Fugitives List after a reporter requests the names of the "toughest guys" wanted by the agency; murderer Thomas Holden is the first to make the list (he is captured next year); bank robber William Francis "Willie" Sutton Jr. 9190-80) is #11; 55 years later only seven women have appeared on the list, and the all-male cast features a $25M reward for Osama bin Laden. On Mar. 22 52-y.-o. mechanic Frank La Salle is arrested in San Jose, Calif. for the 21-mo.-long rape-abduction of 11-y.-o. Florence Sally Horner (1937-52), claiming to be her father and ending up with a 30-35-year prison sentence after being convicted of the U.S. Mann Act. On Mar. 23 the Goodson-Todman Productions game show Beat the Clock debuts on CBS-TV, switching to ABC-TV from 1958-61, hosted by Bud Collyer (1908-69); Neil Simon writes for it, and James Dean tests stunts for it. On Mar. 23 the 22nd Academy Awards awards the best picture Oscar for 1949 to Rossen-Columbia's All the King's Men, along with best actor to Broderick Crawford and best supporting actress to Mercedes McCambridge; best actress goes to Olivia de Havilland for The Heiress, best supporting actor to Dean Jagger for Twelve O'Clock High, and best dir. to Joseph L. Mankewicz for A Letter to Three Wives. On Mar. 25 gen. elections in Yugoslavia give an overwhelming V to Tito and his People's Front candidates, allowing Tito to push his Titoism brand of anti-Soviet Communism at will, going on to develop rapprochement with the West, oppose Chinese intervention in Korea, resume diplomatic relations with Greece, and thaw relations with Italy - he's teetering on the edge? In Mar. Am. journalist William John "Will" Lang Jr. (1914-68) reports the discovery of the corpses of German pres. Paul von Hindenburg and his wife alongside Frederick Wilhelm I and Frederick II the Great of Prussia in a salt mine in Germany. In the spring a bear cub nicknamed Smokey Bear (1950-75) is discovered in the burnt-out Lincoln Nat. forest in New Mexico's El Capitan Mts. clinging to the top of a small tree, and the U.S. Forest Service adopts him as their fire-prevention program symbol, with the motto, "Only you can prevent forest fires", using the voice of Jackson Weaver (1920-92) (until 1976); the 1952 song Smokey the Bear by Steve Nelson and Jack Rollins adds "the" for rhyming purposes, causing endless confusion; the real bear is put in the Nat. Zoo in Washington, D.C. until retirement in 1975 at age 70 (in human years); his mate at the zoo is Goldie, but no cubs are born as he is a real gay bear; he is given his own personal zip code, 20252. On Apr. 10 after stopping two rightist coup plots and announcing in Feb. the discovery of a Red plot in La Paz, the Bolivian govt. outlaws the Communist Party and "all its activities and subsidiary organizations"; meanwhile tin prices decrease, threatening the economy. On Apr. 14 the U.S. Nat. Security Council issues the secret Nat. Security Report 68 (NSC-68), setting U.S. policy for the next two decades, envisioning a total victory over Soviet Communism and the emergence of a "new world order" based on capitalist-liberal Am. values; Pres. Truman signs it on Sept. 30; it is not declassified until 1975. On Apr. 24 Jordan officially annexes Judea and Samaria (which they begin to call the West Bank [of the Jordan River], causing other members of the Arab League to protest; on Apr. 27 Britain recognizes Israel - gloating that they kept them Jews from fulfilling the Bible? On Apr. 27 South Africa passes the Group Areas Act, officially segregating the races (whites, Indians, Coloureds, Bantu), and leading to Pass Laws requiring non-whites to carry pass books to enter the white areas; it is given royal assent on June 4, goes into effect on Mar. 30, 1951, and is repealed on Nov. 1, 1957. On Apr. 28 Mass.-born, Swiss-educated Bhumibol Adulyadej (Phumiphon Abdulet) marries Queen Sirikit, and on May 5 is crowned Rama IX (1927-2016) of Thailand (until Oct. 13, 2016); their son Crown Prince Vajiralongkorn is born on July 28, 1952. In Apr. the body of 20-y.-o. Italian model Wilma Montesi (b. 1933) (died Apr. 9) is found near the beach at Ostia, leading to sensational allegations of drug use and sex orgies in Roman society; the case is never solved. On May 1 the U.N. Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) (founded Dec. 8, 1949) begins administering the 950K Palestinians in refugee camps, which grow by 1987 to 2.2M, one-third still living in U.N. camps. On May 3 after the body of a Kansas City, Mo. gambling kingpin is found in a Dem. clubhouse slumped beneath a portrait of Pres. Truman, the Special Committee to Investigate Organized Crime in Interstate Commerce (Kefauver Committee), headed by coonskin cap-wearing populist Cary Estes Kefauver (1903-63) (D-Tenn.) is launched via a resolution, and begins hearings on May 11, conducting open hearings in large cities to document ties between organized crime and local political officials, making a celeb of "king of the bookmakers" Frank Erickson (1896-1968), and Bettie (Betty) Mae Page (1923-2008), a well-endowed (36-23-36) raven-hared Southern white babe who likes to do stripstease and pose in black underwear and high boots in bondage photos, after they shut down S&M pornographer ("the Pin-Up King") Irving Klaw (1910-66); on Dec. 31, 1958 she suddenly converts to Jesus and gives up her exhibitionism; after he becomes the youngest newspaper ed.-publisher in the U.S. in 1948 with the Troy Tribune Troy, Ill., using it to campaign against govt. corruption and vice, gaining attention from Ill. Gov. Adlai Stevenson and resulting in nat. exposure, Eugene, Ore.-born Paul Martin Simon (1928-2003) is invited to speak before the commission, going on to be elected to the Ill. State Senate. in 1962 - I finally have enough money to get the dog fixed? On May 6 the town of Cazin in Yugoslavia (Bosnia) revolts against Communist agrarian reforms. On May 8 the 4th cent. B.C.E. Tollund Man is unearthed in Denmark on the Jutland Peninsula; the head and face are so well-preserved that he is initially taken for a recent murder victim. On May 9 the Schuman Declaration, prepared by Jean Monnet (1888-1979) et al., delivered from the Salon d'Horloge by devout Roman Catholic Luxembourg-born Robert Schuman (1886-1963), and backed by the French govt. invites the Germans and all other Euro countries to manage their coal and steel industries jointly and democratically in Europe's first supranational community, becoming the start of the EU; on Aug. 8 Winston Churchill supports the idea of a pan-European army allied with the U.S. and Canada. On May 9 the West German govt. refuses to recognize Gypsies as deserving of WWII reparations because "It should be borne in mind that Gypsies have been persecuted by the Nazis not for any racial reason but because of an asocial and criminal record." On May 10 Pres. Truman signs Public Law 507, creating the Nat. Science Foundation (NSF). On May 11 the McMinnville UFO Photos taken on the farm of Paul and Evelyn Trent outside Sheridan, Ore. 9 mi. SW of McMinnville, Ore. become the first photos of a UFO since the term was coined, becoming the most famous ever after being reprinted in Life mag.; a pie pan suspended by a string from power lines? On May 14 Turkey has its first free election, and the Dem. Party gains seats from the Repub. People's Party (408 of 487); on May 22 Dem. Party founder (1946) Mahmut Celal Bayar (1883-1986) becomes pres. #3 of the Repub. of Turkey (until May 27, 1960), and co-founder Adnan Menderes (1899-1961) becomes PM (until May 27, 1960); former pres. (since 1938) Ismet Inonu leads the opposition in parliament; on June 6 the Adhan (Muslim call to prayer) in Arabic is legalized. On May 14 the Huntsville Times pub. the headline "Dr. von Braun Says Rocket Flights Possible to the Moon". On May 15 the U.S. Congress passes a bill granting to states clear title to offshore petroleum and other mineral deposits, but Pres. Truman vetoes it on May 29, saying "it would turn over to certain states, as a free gift, very valuable lands and mineral resources" belonging "to all the people of the country" - and I believe the label you want to put on me says "pirate"? On May 20 (3rd Sat. in May) the first U.S. Armed Forces Day is observed. On May 24 the U.S. Dept. of Commerce founds the U.S. Maritime Admin. to replace the U.S. Maritime Commission in the operation of the U.S. Maritime Service and U.S. Merchant Marine; on Aug. 6, 1981 it is taken over by the U.S. Dept. of Transportatin. On May 29 the Royal Canadian Mounted Police schooler RCMPV St. Roch arrives in Halifax, N.S., Canada after becoming the first ship to circumnavigate North Am. In May the First World Buddhist Congress is held in Kandy, Ceylon (Sri Lanka). In May Pakistani PM (1947-51) Liaquat Ali Khan (1895-1951) visits the U.S., and utters the immortal soundbyte: "As I let myself ponder over this, I suddenly see the United States of America as an island, a fabulously prosperous island. And all around this island I see the unhealthy sea of misery, povery, and squalor in which millions of human beings are trying to keep their heads above water. At such moments I fear for this great nation as one fears for a dear friend." On May ? a bus and tram collide in Glasgow, Scotland, killing seven and injuring 43. In May Sing Out!, a quarterly journal for folk musicians begins pub., becoming an industry leader. In May-June all remaining former Socialists, incl. pres. Arpad Szakasits are dismissed from the Hungarian govt., which is now completely Soviet-dominated. On June 1-23 Mauna Loa in Hawaii erupts, destroying the village of Ho'okena-mauka but causing no fatalities; next eruption in 1984. On June 3 26,545 ft. (8,091m) Annapurna ("goodess of the harvest", "full of food") I in the Himalayas of NC Nepal (10th highest mountain on Earth) is first climbed by a French team led by Maurice Herzog (1919-2012) and Louis Lachenal (1921-55), breaking the 8Km barrier. On June 5 Pres. Truman signs his 3rd foreign aid bill, giving $3B to the European Recovery Program and the Point Four Program. On June 5 the U.S. Supreme (Vinson) Court rules 8-0 in Henderson v. U.S. to abolish segregation in railroad dining cars, along with any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage based on race; Justice William O. Douglas doesn't vote. On June 5 the U.S. Supreme (Vinson) Court rules unanimously in Sweatt v. Painter to reverse the "separate but equal" doctrine of racial segregation for law schools. On June 6 East Germany and Poland recognize the Oder-Neisse Line as the final German-Polish frontier, pissing-off West Germany? On June 8 WWII CIC of ground forces in the South Pacific Sir Thomas Albert Blamey (1884-1951) becomes the first Australian field marshal. On June 10 after stepping up guerrilla activity in South Korea, which suffers from inflation, a cabinet crisis, gen. unrest and brutal police actions, the North Korean govt. proposes to the U.N. Korean Commission that elections for an all-Korean legislature be held in Aug. On June 11 The Hazel Scott Show debuts on the DuMont TV Network, starring Trinidad-born jazz singer Hazel Scott (1920-81), who becomes the first African-Am. woman with her own TV show; too bad, she mouths off, dissing McCarthyism and racial segregation, and the show is canceled after the Sept. 29 episode. On June 16 the Displaced Persons Act of 1948 is extended to allow an additional 200K refugees to enter the U.S. On June 17 Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (1925-68) weds baby factory Ethel Skakel (1928-) of Greenwich, Conn; they have 11 children, Kathleen Hartington Kennedy Townsend (1951-) (lt. gov. of Md. 1995-), Joseph Patrick Kennedy II (1952-), Robert Francis Kennedy Jr. (1954-), David Anthony Kennedy (1955-84) (dies of an OD in a Palm Beach hotel), Mary Courtney Kennedy Hill (1956-), Michael LeMoyne Kennedy (1958-97) (dies playing football on skis in Aspen, Colo.), Kerry Kennedy Cuomo (1959-) (marries Andrew Cuomo, son of N.Y. Gov. Mario Cuomo), Christopher George Kennedy (1963-) (pres. of Merchandise Mart in Chicago), Matthew Maxwell Taylor Kennedy (1965-), Douglas Harriman Kennedy (1967-), and Rory Elizabeth Katherine Kennedy (1968-) (filmmaker). M*A*S*H time? On June 25 North Korean forces (with permission from Stalin) cross the 38th parallel and invade South Korea, starting the Korean War (ends 1953); China assists the North, while U.N. troops, led by U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964) aid the South; on June 25 the U.N. Security Council is called by the U.S., and the Soviet delegate doesn't attend, making it possible for them to pass Resolution 82 by 9-0-1 (Yugoslavia abstaining), calling for the withdrawal of the North Korean troops and a ceasefire; on June 27 the U.N. Security Council passes Resolution 83 by 7-1-0 (Yugoslavia against, Egypt abstaining), calling on U.N. members to assist South Korea and invokes military sanctions, causing Pres. Truman to order the U.S. Air Force and Navy into the Korean conflict, and orders the U.S. Seventh Fleet into the Straits of Formosa to block an invasion of China by Formosa (freeing the Chinese to build up forces to cross the Yalu River into North Korea later?); on June 28 Seoul is captured by the North Koreans; on June 30 the first U.S. ground forces are committed; on July 7 the Security Council authorizes a unified U.N. command in Korea under U.S. leadership, and the hastily-formed U.S. Eighth Army backed by 20 other U.N. members takes the North Koreans on; MiG Alley in the Yalu River Valley in NW Korea becomes the scene of a 10-1 kill ratio for U.S. planes; in the opening months of the war, the South Korean military and police execute 4.9K pro-Communist civilians who signed up for reeducation classes, and don't admit it until Nov. 2009 - do you know why we're here, to jack my price up? On June 24 Pres. Truman dedicates Friendship Internat. Airport, serving Baltimore and Washington, D.C.; in 1973 it is renamed Baltimore/Washington Internat. Airport; on Oct. 1, 2005 it is renamed Baltimore/Washington Internat. Thurgood Marshall Airport. On June 26 South Africa passes the Suppression of Communism Act, effective July 17; repealed on July 2, 1982. On June 26 The Garry Moore Show debuts on CBS-TV (until Jan. 8, 1967), starring Garry Moore (1915-93) and Homer Durward Kirby (1912-2000), going on to help launch the careers of Carol Burnett, Jonathan Winters, Don Adams et al. On June 30 Pope Pius XII excommunicates all plotters against legitimate ecclesiastical authorities. In June just before the Korean War begins, Dean Rusk (1909-94) compares the rebellion there to the Am. revolt against the British. On July 2 Peruvian dictator (since 1948) Gen. Manuel A. Odria surprises no one by winning election for pres. unopposed (until 1956) - little by little I've come to understand the Peruvian people? On July 5 the Battle of Osan in Osan, South Korea becomes the first battle of the Korean War, with 5K North Korean infantry and 36 tanks defeating 540 U.S. infantry; Pvt. Kenneth R. "Kenny" Shadrick (b. 1931) becomes the first U.S. fatality in the Korean War; actually the first with a known identity since there were some earlier fatalities in the battle. On July 5 the Israeli Knesset passes the Law of Return, granting every Jew "the right to come to this country as an oleh" (immigrant). becomes the first U.S. fatality in the Korean War; actually the first with a known identity since there were some earlier fatalities in the battle. On July 6 the Battle of Pyongtaek in W South Korea (2nd battle of the Korean War) is another North Korean V, with 12K North Korean troops defeating 2K U.S. troops. On July 7 the Population Registration Act (assented to on June 22) goes into effect in South Africa, bureaucratizing apartheid; repealed on June 28, 1991. On July 15 Jackie Gleason (1916-87) takes over the Cavalcade of Stars (begun Sept. 19, 1949) on the DuMont TV Network, and on Sept. 20, 1952 it switches to CBS-TV under the title The Jackie Gleason Show for a total of 187 episodes (until June 22, 1957), featuring the June Taylor Dancers, led by his sister-in-law; Gleason performs many recurring skits incl. millionaire Reginald Van Gleason III, loudmouth Charlie Bratten, milquetoast Fenwick Babbitt, Rudy the Repairman, the pantomine char. Poor Soul, and Joe the Bartender, who serves zany Crazy Guggenheim, played by Frank Fontaine (1920-78). On July 18 UNESCO releases The Race Question, written by English-born Jewish-Am. anthropologist Montague Francis Ashley-Montagu (Israel Ehrenberg) (1905-99), black Am. sociologist Edward Franklin Frazier (1894-1962) et al., questioning the validity of race as a biological concept and suggesting the substitution of "ethnic group"; revised eds. pub. in 1951, 1967, and 1978; English #1 geneticist-statistician-eugenicist (founder of modern statistical science) Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962) is a notable dissenter, insisting that there are statistical racial differences, with the soundbyte: "Scientific knowledge provides a firm basis for believing that the groups of mankind differ in their innate capacity for intellectual and emotional development." On July 25 a high-level meeting in South Korea decides that U.S. soldiers will shoot refugees approaching their lines, fearing that they are infiltrated by North Koreans, and on July 26-28 the 7th U.S. Cavalry Regiment kills about 400 Korean refugees, mostly women and children carrying baggage and farm animals at er, No Gun Ri 100 mi. SE of Seoul; similar episodes later kill hundreds more, and the govt. tries to cover it up until the Associated Press pub. a story in 1999, prompting a 16-mo. Pentagon inquiry, which clears the Army, until in 2006 a letter from U.S. ambassador to South Korea (1949-52) John J. Muccio to Dean Rusk dated July 26 informs him that this is what the soldiers are ordered to do. On July 30-Aug. 6 the Jehovah's Witnesses stage a huge internat. assembly at Yankee Stadium in Bronx, N.Y., with 80K+ members from 65 countries, showing how peaceful and loving people can be with the Watch Tower org. as their shepherd and Armageddon due any day, and how clean the stadium is after they all leave?; as many as 123K attend in one day, twice the seating capacity?; coincidentally they use the occasion to release their New World Trans. of the New Testament, where their heretical Arian doctrine is prominently showcased. On Aug. 5 a USAF B-29 Superfortress carrying a Mark 4 nuclear bomb crashes shortly after takeoff from Fairfield-Suisun AFB into a residential area in Calif., killing 12 of 20 aboard and seven on the ground incl. five firefighters, and injuring 49 after high explosives in the bomb detonate 20 mi. after the crash, spreading burning fuel and wreckage over a 2 sq. mi. area. On Aug. 6 monarchist demonstrationsin Brussels lead to a riot. On Aug. 12 Pope Pius XII declares this year a Holy Year (#25) (last one in 1933), and issues the encyclical Humani Generis, affirming the Thomist philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas as the basis of Catholic doctrine, and condemning all departures from it, incl. all neo-modernism, and delinking the creation of body and soul, allowing Darwinian Evolution to be considered as a serious hypothesis that doesn't contradict essential Church teachings; on Nov. 1 he climaxes, er, witnesses the "Miracle of the Sun" at the Vatican, and pronounces the dogma of the corporeal Assumption of the Virgin Mary. On Aug. 12-25 the Battle of the Bowling Alley in a narrow valley near Taegu, South Korea sees U.N. forces defeat North Korean forces, with 2.3K U.N. vs. 5,690 North Korean forces KIA. On Aug. 15 (7:39 p.m. local time) an 8.6 earthquake in the Mishmi Hills of Assam, India E of the Himalayas in the North-East Frontier Agency affects 30K sq. mi., and kills 4.8K in India and Tibet, leaving 5M homeless; the largest recorded earthquake caused by continental collision rather than subduction (until ?); the only big one in this decade? On Aug. 15 (Aug. 5?) the Mariana UFO Incident sees Nick Mariana, gen. mgr. of the Great Falls Electrics minor-league baseball team take color photos of two UFOs in Great Falls, Mont.; the USAF investigates and claims they are reflections from two F-94 jets. On Aug. 22 the Immaculate Heart of Mary Seminary in Tagbilaran City, Philippines is founded. On Aug. 23 black Communist singer-actor Paul Robeson meets with U.S. officials to get his revoked passport reinstated, but doesn't succeed until 1958. By early Aug. North Korea has occupied all but the 50-mi. Pusan perimeter in the SE east of the Naktong River; stiff U.S. resistance takes the oomph out of the North Koreans by the end of Aug. On Aug. 31 in the evening three North Korean divs. cross the Naktong River in a bid to take Pusan; the only thing in their way are the 200 men of Company C (Charlie Co.) and other elements of the 2nd U.S. Infantry Div.; by the morning of Sept. 1 only seven men appear to have lived through the night, but later as many as 67 survivors are counted; Company C cmdr. Capt. Cyril Sylvester Bartholdi (b. 1919) is captured, tortured, and killed; the North Korean attack penetrates 10 mi. before fizzling, having failed to drive the Americans off the peninsula, becoming the last major North Korean offensive. In Aug. Geritol brand alcohol-based iron and Vitamin B supplement tonic is introduced by Pharmaceuticals Inc. for "iron-poor tired blood", with the slogan "twice the iron in a pound of calf's liver" (who wouldn't want an alcoholic drink instead of a plate of liver?), sponsoring TV programs for elderly viewers incl. "The Lawrence Welk Show", along with yikes "Star Trek: TOS" (kiss of death?); in 1957 it acquires J.B. Williams Co., which is acquired in 1970 by Nabisco; in 1959 the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) begins investigating it, ordering it in 1965 to disclose that it only helps the minority of people who suffer from iron deficiency anemia, and in 1973 fining the co. $812K (largest FTC fine to date); in 1973 they air a TV commerical with the tag line "My wife, I think I'll keep her", pissing-off women's libbers. On Sept. 4 the comic strip Beetle Bailey by Addison Mort Walker (1923-) debuts on King Features Syndicate. On Sept. 5 the 30-min. Western series The Cisco Kid, based on the 1907 O. Henry short story about two fugitives from justice who turn into Robin Hoods debuts in syndication for 156 episodes (until Mar. 22, 1956), becoming the first TV series to be filmed in color, starring Duncan Renaldo (Renault Renaldo Duncan) (1904-80) as the Cisco Kid, who roams the Wild West on his black-and-white horse Diablo, and Leopold Antonio "Leo" Carrillo (1880-1961) as his sidekick Pancho, who rides the horse Loco. On Sept. 7 a coal mine collapses in New Cumnock, Scotland, killing 13 of 129 miners. On Sept. 7 Truth or Consequences debuts on CBS-TV (until Dec. 31, 1987), becoming the first TV show to be regularly filmed before a live studio audience; on Dec. 31, 1956 Bob Barker (1923-) becomes the host of the TV version (until 1975). On Sept. 8 the U.S. Defense Production Act is passed, controlling military contracting (until ?). On Sept. 9 Calif. celebrates its centennial. On Sept. 9 the 1951 (24th) Miss America Pageant crowns the winner for 1951, not 1950, so that there never is a 1950 Miss America?; winner Miss Ala. Yolande Margaret Betbeze Fox (1928-2016) refuses to pose in a swimsuit, which the pageant backs, changing the focus to scholarship over beauty, causing Catalina Swimwear to drop sponsorship in favor of its own brainless pageants Miss USA and Miss Universe starting next year; in 2006 Miss America moves its pageant to Jan. so that the year confusion can end. On Sept. 10 (Sun.) (8-9 p.m.) the New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles-based variety show The Colgate Comedy Hour debuts on NBC-TV (until Dec. 25, 1955) to compete with "Toast of the Town", sponsored by Colgate-Palmolive, hosted by Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis, featuring Hans Conried, Rosemary DeCamp, and Dick Foran, going on to feature Abbott and Costello, Eddie Cantor et al.; in June 1955 it becomes the "Colgate Variety Hour", featuring Frank Sinatra, Ethel Merman et al.; on Nov. 22, 1953 the show is hosted by Donald O'Connor, becoming the first TV broadcast using the NTSC system, which is used in the U.S. until June 2009. On Sept. 11 the crime drama series Treasury Men in Action (Federal Men) debuts on ABC-TV for 189 episodes (until July 1, 1955), starring Walter Noel Greaza (1897-1973) as the Chief. On Sept. 12 Communist riots erupt in Berlin, causing West Germany to decide to purge Communist officials on Sept. 19. On Sept. 13 after the war seems lost, the U.S. Eighth Army launches a counteroffensive from the Pusan perimeter to the N, followed on Sept. 15 by a risky surprise amphibious landing of army and 1st Marine divs. at the Battle of Inchon (Jinsen) (Chemulpo) at the mouth of the Han River on the Yellow Sea on the W coast of the Korean peninsula (20 mi. WSW of Seoul), which succeeds brilliantly, and ravages North Korean supply lines. On Sept. 18 Makarios III (1913-77) is elected Orthodox archbishop of Cyprus (until 1977); a referendum shows that 95.7% of Cypriots want a union (enosis) with Greece; too bad, the British maintain two sovereign base areas on Cyprus, and don't want to give them up, and push Turkey to declare in 1954 that if they leave Cyprus, it should be given to them. On Sept. 20-26 a U.S. Navy ship releases microbes into the air off the coast of San Francisco, Calif. in a secret biological weapons test. On Sept. 22 Omar Nelson Bradley (1893-1981) is promoted to the rank of 5-star gen., joining Dwight D. Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, George C. Marshall, and Henry H. "Hap" Arnold. On Sept. 22 the U.S. McCarran Internal Security Act is passed over Pres. Truman's veto, establishing the Subversive Activities Control Board and requiring subversive (Communist) orgs. to register with the U.S. atty.-gen., prohibiting their members from becoming U.S. citizen and from crossing the U.S. border; the Pres. is given the authority to apprehend and detain "each person as to whom there is a reasonable ground to believe that such person probably will engage in, or probably will conspire with others to engage in, acts of espionage or sabotage", allowing the detention of dangerous, disloyal, or subversive persons in times of war or "internal security emergency"; the picketing of a federal courthouse is made a felony if intended to obstruct the court system or influence trial participants incl. jurors; on Nov. 15, 1965 the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules 8-8 in Albertson v. Subversive Activities Control Board to overturn the requirement for Communists to register with the govt. on Fifth Amendment grounds; on Dec. 11, 1967 in U.S. v. Robel it overturns the prohibition of Commies working for the federal govt. or defense plants on First Amendment freedom of association grounds. On Sept. 22 the World Dance Council is founded. On Sept. 26 U.S. forces recapture Seoul; the North Koreans flee N to avoid entrapment and recross the 38th parallel. On Sept 26 the U.N. Security Council votes 10-0-1 (Repub. of China) for Resolution 86, authorizing the admission of Indonesia. On Oct. 2 Getulio Vargas is reelected pres. of Brazil (until 1954), and ex-pres. Enrico Dutra is given the rank of marshal of the army in 1952. On Oct. 2 the Peanuts comic strip, by Charles M. Schulz (1922-2000) debuts in seven U.S. newspapers, featuring Charlie Brown, who finally hits a home run on Mar. 30, 1993; original chars. incl. Shermy and Patty, followed by Schroeder (May 1951), Lucy (Mar. 1952), Linus (Sept. 1951), Pig Pen (July 1954), Sally (Aug. 1959), Peppermint Patty (Aug. 1966), Woodstock (introduced Apr. 1967, named June 1970), Franklin (July 1968), and Marcie (July 1971). On Oct. 4-7 the New York Yankees (AL) defeat the "Whiz Kids" Philadelphia Phillies (NL) 4-0 to win the Forty-Seventh (47th) (1950) World Series; during the regular season outfielder Joe DiMaggio plays his one and only game at first base in a 13-year career. On Oct. 5 riots in the Moluccas are quashed by the Indonesian govt. On Oct. 6 the 1-hour anthology drama show Pulitzer Prize Playhouse debuts on ABC-TV for 53 episodes (until June 4, 1952), hosted by journalist Elmer Davis (1890-1958) and sponsored by Schlitz Brewing Co., presenting adaptations of Pulitzer Prize-winning fiction works, with the Columbia U. Pulitzer School of Journalism getting $100K from Schlitz, pissing-off the Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU); the first episode is "You Can't Take It with You", going on to win the 1952 Emmy for best drama series. On Oct. 6 40K Chinese troops invade Tibet, starting the Battle of Chamdo, defeating the 8K-man Tibetan force and taking Chamdo on Oct. 19 after killing, wounding, or capturing 3,341, pissing-off the U.S. Britain, India and other countries; in Nov. the Tibetan nat. assembly holds an emergency session, requesting 16-y.-o. Tibetan Dalai Lama #14 (since Feb. 22, 1940) "His Holiness" Tenzin Gyatso (Lhamo Thondup) (1935-) to become head of state, which he does on Nov. 17 after the People's Repub. of Chna incorporates Tibet, appealing to the U.N. for aid, after which he flees Lhasa for Dromo near the Indian border; too bad, India objects to a U.N. Gen Assembly discussion, calling it a local problem for them and China. On Oct. 7 Army Gen. (U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union from 1946-9) Walter Bedell "Beetle" Smith (1895-1961) becomes dir. #4 of the CIA (until Feb. 9, 1953); last military dir. until 1965. On Oct. 11 the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) issues the first license to broadcast TV in color to CBS-TV; RCA goes to court and blocks it from taking effect. On Oct. 12 The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show debuts on CBS-TV for 291 episodes (until 1958), replacing their 1932-50 radio show (until 1958), starring New York City-born Jewish comedian George Burns (Nathan Birnbaum) (1896-1996) and San Francisco, Calif.-born Roman Catholic comedian Grace Ethel Cecile Rosalie "Gracie" Allen (1895-1964); the shows are filmed, allowing them to be replayed in syndication; "Say good night, Gracie." On Oct. 15 Gen. MacArthur and Pres. Truman meet on Wake Island, and the MacArthur assures Truman that fighting will be over by Christmas because there is no danger of Chinese or Soviet intervention; MacArthur sends the Eighth Army up the W coast and the Tenth Corps up the E coast to create a pincers movement attempting to prevent the North Koreans from escaping into Manchuria; too bad, on Oct. 15 token Chinese forces cross the Yalu River from Manchuria (Communist China) into North Korea. On Oct. 15 elections in East Germany bring a surprise V for the official list of Communist candidates, with only 99.7% of the vote? On Oct. 19 U.N. forces enter the North Korean capital of Pyongyang - pyong a gyang? On Oct. 20 Australia passes the Communist Party Dissolution Act; the Australian supreme court strikes it down on Mar. 9, 1951. On Oct. 21 The Stu Erwin Show (The Trouble with Father) debuts on ABC-TV for 128 episodes (until Apr. 13, 1955), starring real life husband-wife Stuart "Stu" Erwin (1903-67) and June Collyer (1906-68) (sister of Bud Collyer) as a high school principal and his family. On Oct. 25-Nov. 4 the Battle of Unsan sees the Chinese 39th Corps attack the unprepared U.S. 8th Cavalry Regiment, killing 1,149 U.S. and 530 South Korean troops vs. 600+ Commie troops; on Apr. 11, 2013 Pres. Obama posth. awards the Medal of Honor to Chaplain Capt. Emil Joseph Kapaun (1916-51) for helping POWs at the prison camp near Pyoktong before dying of dysentery. On Oct. 28 after airing on NBC Radio since 1932, The Jack Benny Program, starring miserly violin-playing forever-39-years-old ("Well!") Jack Benny (Benjamin Kubelsky) (1894-1974) debuts on CBS-TV, moving in 1964 to NBC-TV (until Apr. 16, 1965), becoming a favorite of JFK et al. On Oct. 29 Swedish king (since 1907) Gustaf V (b. 1858) dies, and his eldest son Gustaf (Gustavus) VI (1882-1973) becomes king of Sweden (until 1973), with the motto "Duty before all", becoming the last Swedish king with royal power. On Oct. 30 the nationalist Jayuya Uprising (Revolt) in Puerto Rico against the U.S. is quashed; on Nov. 1 while staying in the Blair-Lee House in Washington, D.C. during White House repairs, Pres. Truman is the target of an assassination attempt by Puerto Rican nationalists Oscar Collazo (1914-94) and Griselio Torresola (b. 1925) (followers of Harvard-educated nationalist leader Pedro Albizu Campos), who is killed in a 38.5-sec. gunfight at the gates of the White House by Secret Service agents after they almost succeed in doing the job? In Oct. the bimonthly horror comic book anthology series Tales from the Crypt by EC (DC) Comics debuts (until Mar. 1955), becoming a victim of the Comics Code. On Nov. 3 U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 377 (Uniting for Peace Resolution) (AKA the Acheson Plan) is passed, allowing the gen. assembly to hold an emergency special session and issue non-binding recommendations when the Security Council can't reach unanimity and fails to act in order to maintain internat. peace and security. On Nov. 4 the U.N. Gen. Assembly votes 37-10-12 to reverse its 1946 diplomatic isolation of Spain. On Nov. 5 U.S. Rep. (R-Calif.) (since Jan. 3, 1947) Richard M. Nixon (b. 1913) defeats good-looking (in her underwear?) bleeding heart liberal Dem. Rep. Helen Gahagan Douglas (1900-80) (former Hollywood actress) for the U.S. Senate in Calif. with 59% of the vote (500K votes, largest plurality in the nation) in a dirty fear campaign that frames her as a Commie dupe for opposing the House Un-Am. Activities Committee (HUAC), distributing pink leaflets calling her "pink right down to her underwear", to which she responds by coining his perfect nickname "Tricky Dick(y)"; Nixon is sworn-in on Dec. 1 (until Jan. 1, 1953); Nixon doesn't just defeat opponents, he destroys them personally?; JFK donates $1K to help Nixon defeat her. On Nov. 5 Billy Graham begins broadcasting The Hour of Decision radio program. On Nov. 7 a bus plunges 240 ft. into the Mononobe Riber in Mirabu, Shikoku, Japan, killing 33 and injuring 24. On Nov. 8 the first-ever jet airplane dogfight sees USAF Lt. Russell J. Brown shoot down two North Korean MiG-15s near the Yalu River in his F-80. On Nov. 10 a USAF B-50 Superfortress bomber has an in-flight emergency and jettisons and detonates a Mark 4 atomic bomb over Quebec, Canada; luckily the device lacks the plutonium core. United Fruit cracks the white in Guatwoman? On Nov. 10-20 after Guatemala's 2nd universal suffrage election, leftist Arevalo supporter Col. Jacobo Arbenz Guzman (Guzmán) (1913-71) is elected pres. of Guatemala by 60%, taking office next Mar. 15 in the country's first peaceful transfer of power (until June 27, 1954), and begins land reforms to increase the proportion of the pop. controlling arable land (at this point 2% control 72%); too bad, he begins appropriating the plantations of the United Fruit Co., causing the CIA to begin its usual anti-Commie plotting in this yes we have bananas today republic, setting up Operation PBFORTUNE to out him if he's deemed a Communist. On Nov. 11 the Mattachine Society in Los Angeles, Calif. is founded, becoming the first U.S. gay liberation org. On Nov. 13 Venezeualan pres. (since Nov. 24, 1948) Col. Carlos Delgado Chalbaud (Carlos Román Delgado Chalbaud Gómez) (b. 1909) is kidnapped and murdered in Caracas, Venezuela. On Nov. 13 a Curtiss Reid Flying Services plane crashes en route from Rome to Paris, killing all 52 aboard. On Nov. 14 after William O'Dwyer resigns and he becomes acting mayor, then loses the Dem. primary and switches to the populist Experience Party ticket to win, with the slogan "unbought and unbossed", Sicilian-born city council pres. Vincent (Vincenzo) Richard Impellitteri (1900-87) becomes New York City mayor #101 (until Dec. 31, 1953). On Nov. 18 the U.N. accepts the formation of the Libyan Nat. Council. On Nov. 20 writer T.S. Eliot gives a speech against newfangled TV in Britain. On Nov. 20 Time mag. contains an article about painter Jackson Pollock (1912-56) that calls his work "chaos", causing him to telegram them with the message "No chaos, damn it." On Nov. 21 the first U.N. forces reach the Yalu River. On Nov. 22 a Long Island Railroad commuter train crashes into another in Richmond Hill, N.Y., killing 79. On Nov. 22 anti-British riots erupt in Egypt. On Nov. 22 after marrying Army Air Force sgt. John Agar in 1945, making two films with him then divorcing him for mental cruelty in 1949, child movie star Shirley Temple (1928-) retires from show biz, and on Dec. 16 she marries Calif. businessman Charles Alden Black (1919-2006); they have son Charles Alden Black Jr. and daughter Lori Black (AKA Lorax) (1954-). On Nov. 24 Nelson A. Rockefeller (dir. of the Rockefeller Center in New York City since 1931) becomes chmn. of the 13-member Advisory Board on Internat. Development, created as part of Pres. Truman's Point Four Program for aid to underdeveloped nations. On Nov. 24 Gen. MacArthur launches a major offensive to close the trap on the Northern Koreans; after new U.S. defense secy. (1950-1) Gen. George C. Marshall countermands MacArthur's order to bomb the Yalu River bridges, 200K Red Chinese Army troops under Gen. Lin Piao cross the river in full force on Nov. 25-26, surprising and driving the U.N. forces back in disarray across the 38th parallel on Nov. 29, while the Tenth Corps is evacuated by sea from the port of Hungnam on Dec. 10-24; on Nov. 30 MacArthur urges Truman to authorize a nuclear attack on the slant-eyed devils. On Nov. 25 the 1950 Appalachian Storm dumps 30-50 in. of snow, killing 323, being labelled the "storm of the century". On Nov. 26 Andres Martinez Trueba (1874-1959) is elected pres. of Uruguay (until 1952), succeeding Luiz B. Berres. On Nov. 28 Greece and Yugoslavia restore diplomatic relations. In Nov. the U.N. Gen. Assembly upholds charges by the U.S. and Britain against the Soviets for systematic human rights violations in Romania. On Dec. 1 the U.N. Gen. Assembly creates the U.N. Korean Reconstruction Agency (UNKRA) to speed the rehabilitation of South Korea; by June 30, 1957 it spends $143M to construct 6K homes, 110 irrigation and flood control projects, and a gazillion schools, hospitals, and factories. On Dec. 3 Mt. Etna in Sicily erupts. On Dec. 4 the U. of Tenn. defies court rulings and rejects five African-Am. applicants. On Dec. 11 the Maria Hertogh Riots in Singapore kill 18 and injure 173. On Dec. 12 Paula Ackerman becomes the first woman rabbi in the U.S. On Dec. 16 Pres. Buck-Stops-Here Truman proclaims a Nat. State of Emergency in order to fight "Communist imperialism", and the same day the U.S. Office of Defense Mobilization is established. On Dec. 18 the North Atlantic Council announces plans for the establishment of an integrated armed force with Germany participating; on Dec. 19 the council names U.S. Gen. Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969) as the first Supreme Allied Commander of Europe (SACEUR) (until May 1952), recalling him to active duty from the presidency of Columbia U. On Dec. 18 the Supreme Court of Canada rules in Boucher v. the King that the pesky Jehovah's Witnesses are not seditious just because they disagree with the majority, winning the right to knock on doors in Canada. On Dec. 19 the first Canadian troops arrive in Korea. On Dec. 21 Stalin's birthday is celebrated in Albania by erecting a statue to him as their deity and savior. On Dec. 24-25 the ancient Scottish Stone of Scone (pr. skoon) is stolen from Westminster Abbey by Scottish nationalists; it appears on the altar of Arbroath Abbey in Scotland on Apr. 11, 1951. On Dec. 28 the Peak District becomes the first nat. park in Britain. On Dec. 29 Ralph Johnson Bunche (1904-71) becomes the first African-Am. to win the Nobel Peace Prize for working out an armistice agreement between the Arab nations and Israel in 1949 - panties in a bunch jokes here? On Dec. 31 Austrian pres. (since 1945) Karl Renner (b. 1870) dies. In Dec. Lt. Gen. Matthew Bunker Ridgway (1895-1993) assumes command of the U.S. Eighth Army in Korea. In Dec. Gen. Electric pres. (since 1939) Charles Edward "Electric Charlie" Wilson (1886-1972) becomes dir. of the new Office of Defense Mobilization, which takes control of the U.S. economy, rationing raw materials to the civilian economy, a position so powerful that the press begins calling him "co-president", and goes on to back big business against labor, finally resigning in Mar. 1952 after a bitter dispute with his own Wage Stabilization Board after it recommends wage increases for union steel workers without his knowledge, and he intervenes to back the steel cos.' demand for price increases to offset them, only to see Truman back the board; in 1958 the ODM merges with other agencies to become the Office of Civil and Defense Mobilization (until 1961). In Dec. You Asked For It (originally "The Art Baker Show") debuts on the DuMont Network, then next Dec. moves to ABC-TV (until Sept. 1959), hosted by Art Baker (Arthur Shank) (1898-1966) ("Your Genii with the light white hair"), and sponsored by Skippy Peanut Butter and Studebaker Automobiles, featuring attempts to satisfy viewer write-in requests, such as to see the Our Gang troupe reunited, or to watch a cowboy bullwhip artist; in Apr. 1951 Ivory Joe Hunter makes his network TV debut on the show; in Jan. 1958 Baker is succeeded by "Smiling" Jack Smith (1913-2006) ("the Man with the Smile in His Voice") (until 1960). In Dec. "This Land Is Your Land" folk singer Woodrow Wilson "Woody" Guthrie (1912-67) signs a 2-year lease to live in one of Fred Trump's Brooklyn apt. bldgs. called Beach Haven, bitterly lamenting the segregation in lyrics that are never published (until 2016), incl.: "I suppose Old Man Trump knows/ Just how much Racial Hate he stirred up/ In the bloodspot of human hearts/ When he draws that color line here at this/ Eighteen hundred family project." Maj. Gen. Sepahbod Haj Ali Razmara (Pers. "battle organizer") (1901-51) becomes PM of Persia (Iran) (until Mar. 7, 1951). Islamic Malays in Singapore attack Europeans and Eurasians, esp. ethnic Chinese, killing 18 and injuring 173, beginning decades of tension. The Trans-Arabian Oil Pipeline is completed, and oil begins to flow into Sidon; Aramco agrees to split its profits 50-50 with Saudi Arabia. The rise of Communism in Japan results in a govt. crackdown and the creation of the 75K-man Nat. Police Reserve, which is seen by some as the beginnings of a new Japanese army; in Sept. more than 10K prominent wartime leaders are rehabilitated overnight and released in an effort to bolster the country against the Commies; meanwhile the Korean War boosts the Japanese economy with exports to the U.S. military. Suriname is granted full home rule other than foreign affairs and defense by the Netherlands. Karl Lott Rankin (1898-1991) is appointed U.S. ambassador to tricky Taiwan (until 1957). A new 1950 Indian Constitution outlaws "untouchability" (panchamas) ("children of God" - Gandhi) - few change their prejudices? The U.S. Guam Organic Act makes the island of Guam an unincorporated territory of the U.S. Conservative Sir Edward Richard George Heath (1916-) is elected to the British House of Commons, holding his seat until 2001. Va.-born Oscar Littleton Chapman (1896-1978), known for advising Truman to recognize the state of Israel in May 1948, and for being zinged in 1939 by HUAC for contributing $20 to the Am. League for Peace and Dem. is promoted to U.S. interior secy. (until 1953), going on to deny a U.S. govt. loan next year to Lea M. Harvey after finding out that his aluminum co. sold defective shells to the U.S. Navy during WWII. A fiscal crisis in the Philippines causes the Central Bank to borrow heavily to pay govt. payrolls; meanwhile defense secy. Ramon Magsaysay arrests the leaders of the Philippine Communist Party, then works with the army to insure that the upcoming 1951 pres. election will be clean, earning brownie points - or making it appear that way, so he can fix the 1953 election for himself? After a new agreement with the Iraq Petroleum Co. which substantially increases Iraqi royalties, the Development Board of Iraq is established to plan the utilization of oil revenues, with agricultural improvements coming first; next year the Iraqi royalties are raised to over 50%; in 1950-73 Middle Eastern oil rises from 17% to 40% of total world production (down to 35% in 1980). NYU statistics prof. (since 1946) William Edwards Deming (1900-93) is hired by the Japanese to teach them methods of industrial quality control, greatly increasing profits and helping them catch up to the U.S. The Congress for Cultural Freedom (CCF) is founded in the U.S. on June 26 with CIA funds to promote Am. abstract art, jazz, etc. in the Cold War against the Soviet Union. The Nat. Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA is founded on Nov. 29 by 25 Protestant and four Eastern Orthodox church groups, reaching 100K local congregations and 40M adherents by 2019. After hosting a 200th birthday celebration for Johann Wolfgang von Goethe last year, attended by Jose Ortega y Gasset, Artur Rubinstein, Albert Schweitzer, and Thornton Wilder, Great Books-loving Container Corp. of Am. chmn. Walter Paepcke (1896-1960) of Chicago, Ill. (founder of the Aspen Skiing Co.) founds the Aspen Inst. of Humanistic Studies in Aspen, Colo., which goes on to found the Aspen Music Festival and the annual Internat. Design Conference, and expands to Wye River, Md. in 1979. Jewish-Am. writer Howard Fast (member of the Communist Party U.S.A. since 1944) is sent to jail for 3 mo. for contempt of Congress for refusing to name contributors to a home for orphans of U.S. veterans of the Spanish Civil War, using the time to write his bestselling novel "Spartacus"; one of them was Eleanor Roosevelt - the whole House Un-American Activities Committee thang is really a reactionary war against the hordes of Communist-friendly Jews in the U.S. by the white Christian establishment, who use Communism as a coverstory because they can't appear to be neo-Nazis, and when the sham backfires and the Jews win they have a blank check to begin a program of mass social engineering on TV and in the movies of Jewywood and Jew York, while enjoying an endless supply of white post-Christian sellout actors and actresses, naw, just sour grapes? In this decade Germany begins accepting large numbers of temporary Gastarbeiters (foreign workers), esp. from Turkey; too bad, more and more decide to stay, giving Germany 16M immigrants out of 82M pop. by 2010. In this decade Italy becomes Europe's leading producer and consumer of refrigerators. In this decade telephone booth stuffing becomes a fad in the U.S. In this decade the brain weapons arms race begins when U.S. intel discovers that the Soviet Union is bombarding the U.S. embassy in Moscow with microwaves, leading to the 1960s Project Pandora that bombards rhesus monkeys with microwaves to assess their effects; too bad, no evidence of mental effects are found; in 2017 the Havana Syndrome scandal comes and goes the same way. In this decade Existentialism becomes popular among the loss-sensitized French intelligentsia, teaching that although there is no absolute moral law in this godless world, man should create his own moral values and then be held responsible for his actions just the same - then thou thinkest we are invincible? In this decade the postmodernist Confessional School of Poetry emerges in the U.S., focusing on the "I", esp. extreme moments of personal experience incl. trauma, mental illness, sexuality, and suicide, with leaders incl. John Berryman, Allen Ginsberg, Robert Lowell, Sylvia Plath, Anne Sexton, and W.D. Snodgrass; in 1959 Macha Louis Rosenthal (1917-66) pub. the Robert Lowell review Poetry as Confession, coining the term, with the soundbyte that Confessional poetry goes "beyond customary bounds of reticence or personal embarrassment"; the New York School is founded in reaction, producing stream-of-consciousness poetry with vivid imagery, inspired by Surrealism; leaders incl. Frank O'Hara, along with John Ashbery, Ted Berrigan, Joseph Ceravolo, Kenward Elmslie, Barbara Guest, Kenneth Koch, Frank Lima, Bernadette Mayer, Alice Notley, Ron Padgett, Tom Savage, James Schuyler, and Lewis Walsh. In this decade the Nashville Sound along with the Nashville A-Team of session musicians are created by record producer Owen Bradley (1925-98) in a Quonset hut at 804-16th Ave. in Nashville, Tenn., incl. Homer Louis "Boots" Randolph III (1927-2007) (sax), Murrey Mizell "Buddy" Harman Jr. (1928-2008) (drums), Floyd Cramer (1933-97) (keyboards), Hargus Melvin "Pig" Robbins (1938-) (keyboards), Thomas Grady Martin (1929-2001) (guitar) (inventor of the electric guitar fuzz effect), Walter Louis "Hank" Garland (1930-2004) (guitar), John Paul "Johnny" Gimble (1926-) (violin), Buddy Spicher (1938-) (violin), Bob Loyce Moore (1932-) (bass), Earl Eugene Scruggs (1924-2012) (banjo), Charles Wilburn "Buck" Trent (1938-) (banjo), Sonny Osborne (1937-) (banjo), Roddis Franklin "Pete" Drake (1932-88) (steel guitar), Gerald Lester "Jerry" Byrd (1920-2005) (steel guitar), Kenneth C. "Jethro" Burns (1920-89) (mandolin), Charles Ray "Charlie" McCoy (1941-) (harmonica), Jimmy Riddle (1918-82) (harmonica) to back country music singers incl. Eddy Arnold, Patsy Cline, Bob Dylan, Elvis Presley, Jim Reeves et al., branching out to jazz; the Jordanaires, Anita Kerr Singers, and Harden Trio sing backup; they go defunct in the early 1970s; in 1956 the success of the Nashville Sound causes RCA Records to build RCA Studio B in Nashville at the request of Chet Atkins and Steve Sholes. In this decade Aqua Net hairspray is invented, becoming popular with singers incl. Ronnie Spector of The Ronettes to give the big hair look, then enjoying a resurgence in the 1980s with Glam Rockers. In this decade the Big Hunk honey-sweetened nougat bar with roasted peanut bits is introduced by Golden Nugget Candy Co.; in 1970 it is acquired by the Annabelle Candy Co., founded in 1950 in San Francisco, Calif. by Russian immigrant Sam Altshuler and named after his daughter, moving to Hayward, Calif. in 1965. The Law of Return is passed in Israel, permitting Jews to immigrate as long as they have "not willingly changed" their religion; on Dec. 25, 1989 the Israeli Supreme Court decides that Jews who recognize Jesus as the Messiah cannot immigrate, because they "do not belong to the Jewish nation and have no right to force themselves upon it" (Justice Menachem Elon), overturning a 1970 ruling of Justice Silberg: "Being a Jew always a Jew in Halacha" - for them it's a law of no return? Scottish nationalists steal the Stone of Destiny from Westminster Abbey, after which it is recovered from Abroath Abbey - Edward I Longshanks rolls over in his grave? The 3x-weekly 15-min. The Perry Como Show debuts on CBS-TV (until 1967), sponsored by Chesterfield cigarettes; its season premiere on Sept. 15, 1956 is in color, broadcast from their new color studios at Ziegfeld Theatre in New York City; Como becomes the highest paid performer in TV; he also does Xmas TV specials from 1948-94, plus other specials from 1963-87. The Frank McCune Show debuts on NBC-TV (until 1951), featuring the first TV comedy laughtrack. Prevention Mag. begins pub. in Emmaus, Penn., founded by Jewish organic farming founder Jerome Irving Rodale (Cohen) (1898-1971), pushing organic (pesticide-free) food, and eschewing red meat, dairy products, caffeine, nicotine, and white sugar, making claims that his regimen would reduce heart disease, causing the FTC to come after him, resulting in a decades-long court fight almost all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court before he vindicates his right to pub. his views without having to prove his claims to a govt. agency; too bad, as he is crowing about his big V on the Dick Cavett Show, he croaks and dies of a heart attack, but his mag. goes on to grow to 12M readers. Early in this decade the San Francisco Renaissance in poetry and the arts in Calif. is launched by modernist poet Kenneth Rexroth (1905-82) et al. Auschwitz survivor Karel Ancerl (1908-73) becomes conductor of the Czech Philharmonic on Oct. 20 (until 1968). Spanish soprano Pilar Lorengar (1929-96) makes her debut in Oran, Algeria as Maruxa, then begins working for the Berlin Opera in 1958, staying on for 30 years. Italian tenor Mario del Monaco (1915-82), "the Brass Bull of Milan" debuts in Verdi's "Otello" in Buenos Aires, which becomes so popular that he performs it 427x, and is buried in his Otello costume. Gregory Corso (1930-2001) meets Allen Ginsberg in a New York City bar and becomes a beatnik. Ed McMahon (1923) becomes a clown on TV's "Big Top" (until 1951). The 67.89-carat brownish-yellow pear-shaped Victoria-Transvaal Diamond (originally 240-carat) is mined in Africa, and used in the Lex Barker-Dorothy Hart movie Tarzan's Savage Fury as the eye of a jungle idol. The Nat. Book Award is established; on Mar. 15 the first winner is Nelson Algren for "The Man with the Golden Arm". This year Japan produces a grand total of 15K automobiles. In this decade Pop Art is developed in Britain for commercial advertising. Am. poet Charles Olson (1910-70) pub. the essay Projective Verse, calling for "open field" composition to replace traditional closed poetic forms, with the new form to be based on the line, where each line is a unit of breath and utterance, and the content to consist of "one perception immediately and directly [leading] to a further perception", becoming the manifesto of the Black Mountain (Projectivist) Poets of N.C., led by Harvard dropout Robert Creeley (1926-2005) at Black Mountain College in Asheville, N.C. (founded 1933) ("Form is never more than an extension of content") create the idea of a "counterculture"; when the college closes in 1957, he heads for San Francisco and keeps on. U.S. home builders begin building neighborhoods with numerous cul-de-sacs for the safety of children; by the year 2000 the problems of too-close neighbors trapped in a coal sack cause the concept to begin to be questioned; Highlands Ranch development S of Denver, Colo. (1981), with 600 cul-de-sacs is a case in point (see 2001); meanwhile water-hungry lawns containing fescue, bluegrass, and rye become fashionable, even though they originated in rainy Britain where artificial watering is seldom needed. Antihistamines become popular for treating colds and allergies. Chrysler offers power windows - if you can find a better car, buy it? Nash introduces production seat belts in its Statesman and Ambassador models, and reintroduces the Rambler (AKA the Kenosha Cadillac) brand until it is bought out in 1954 by Am. Motors Corp. (AMC). The Muscular Dystrophy Assoc. of Am. (MDA) is founded; in 1955-6 it builds the Muscle Research Center in New York City. Minn. Valley Canning Co. changes its name to Green Giant, with their trademark "The Jolly Green Giant"; it TV commercials, appearing in 1958 use a green rubber puppet and aren't popular until stop-motion and the "Ho Ho Ho" bit are added in 1961 - show us your niblets? This is the decade of the Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, when American men wear you know whats and fedoras and drive big cars with tail fins, while ladies wear roll-on hose while their daughters wear bobby sox, and all adults smoke, and kids are innocent and cute until they reach 16, when they get mixed up? The Catholic Patriotic Assoc. is set up by the Red Chinese to help push the Roman Catholic Church underground. In this decade Am. philanthropist Dorothy Buffum "Buff" Chandler (1901-97), wife of Los Angeles Times pub. Norman Chandler (1899-1973) leads a campaign to save the financially troubled Hollywood Bowl (off the Hollywood Freeway) and to build the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in 1962-4 as a permanent home for the Los Angeles Philharmonic. Tallulah Bankhead coins the immortal phrase "Use it or lose it". Henry Fonda marries his 3rd wife, theatrical producer Susan Blanchard (nee Jacobson) (1928-) 8 mo. after the suicide of his 2nd wife Frances (1949); they divorce in 1956. High-ranking Nazi official Adolf Eichmann flees to Argentina under the alias Riccardo Klement (b. May 23, 1913 in Bolzano, Italy), with occupation listed as "tecnico" on his passport, which is found in a court file in Buenos Aires in 2007. St. Antony's College in Oxford U. is founded by a donation by French coffee merchant Sir Antonin Besse (1877-1951) of Aden, becoming known for research in internat. relations, economic, politics, and area studies. 17-y.-o. Elizabeth Taylor ends her affair with her first big love Howard Hughes to marry hotel heir Conrad Nicholson "Nicky" Hilton (1926-69) (until 1952). The Hungry I (hungry i) nightclub at 599 Jackson St. opens on the ground floor of the Internat. Hotel in North Beach San Francisco, Calif., founded by 6'7" Krefeld, Germany-born hipster Eric "Big Daddy" Nord (Harry Helmuth Pastor) (1919-89), soon being purchased by impresario Harry Charles "Enrico" Banducci (1922-2007), moving to 546 Broadway, becoming famous for its brick wall stage, becoming the launching pad for acts incl. Bill Cosby, Ronnie Schell, The Kingston Trio, Glenn Yarborough, Prof. Irwin Corey, Godfrey Cambridge, Mort Sahl, We Five, the Mamas and the Papas, Laura Nyro, and Barbra Streisand. Henri Matisse begins work on the Venice Chapel. The USS Oriskany ("Mighty O"), named after a 1777 Am. Rev. War battle is commissioned (until 2006). Roman Catholic archbishop Fulton John Sheen (1895-1979) of Rochester, N.Y. begins hosting the TV show Life Is Worth Living on the DuMont TV Network, switching to ABC-TV in 1951, reaching audiences of up to 30M with messages about theology and anti-Communism, then going into syndication in 1961-8, becoming TV's first major religious broadcaster; in Feb. 1953 he denounces the regime of Joseph Stalin, comparing him with Julius Caesar, and concluding "Stalin must one day meet his judgment"; he eventually converts Heywood Broun, Clare Booth Luce, and Henry Ford II to Roman Catholicism. Chess Records is founded in Chicago, Ill. by Polish-born Jewish brothers Leonard Chess (Lejzor Czyz) (1917-69) and Phil Chess (Fiszel Czyz) (1921-), going on to sign R&B artists Muddy Waters, Bo Diddley, Etta James, Jackie Brenston and His Delta Cats, The Flamingos, The Moonglows, Aretha Franklin, Chuck Berry et al.; in 1952 they found Checker Records for radio play; in Dec. 1955 they found Argo Records, which changes its name in 1965 to Cadet Records. Elektra Records is founded by nobodies Jac Holzman and Paul Rickolt for a joint investment of $600, going on to concentrate on folk music and protest singers, not selling very much until they decide to go into psychedelic rock in 1966, signing the Doors, Love, the Stooges, and MC5 - how elektrifying? Belgian entrepreneur Gerard Blitz (1912-90) and French former WWII Communist resistance fighter Gilbert Trigano (1920-2001) founds Club Med, starting with a tent village on a beach in Majorca, where guests have no class distinctions, pay for extras with bead necklaces, and are encouraged to make friends and have sex. The first 45 rpm jukeboxes (replacing 78 rpm models) are introduced by Seeburg Corp. (known as the Trashcan) and Ristaucrat Inc. of Appleton, Wisc.; next year Victor and Columbia agree to split the record market, with Victor selling LPs and Columbia selling 45 rpm records. Leytonstone, London, England-born husky-voiced TV chef Fanny Cradock (Phyllis Nan Sortain Pechey) (1909-94) and her hubby Johnnie Cradock (-1987), AKA Maj. and Mrs. Cradock, AKA Phyllis Cradock and Frances Dale begin writing a column in The Daily Telegraph under the alias "Bon Viveur" (until 1955), introducing the English public to French and Italian cuisine incl. pizza, and launching their career of turning theaters into restaurants, where they cook dishes for the audience while affecting a French accent; in 1955 she begins hosting a cooking show on BBC-TV, based on the recipes of her hero Auguste Escoffier, cutting corners for budget purposes, with soundbytes incl. "This won't break you", "This is perfectly economical", and "This won't stretch your purse", loving to wear chiffon ballgowns onscreen along with thick makeup while wielding her piping bag and using vegetable dyes, using only gas stoves in order to represent the British Gas Council; her Christmas Cookery shows get reaired year after year; too bad, in 1976 after fleeing to exile in Ireland to avoid income taxes, she stinks up a guest appearance on The Big Time, misadvising cooking show winner Mrs. Gwen Troake on how to make dessert, causing the press to expose her and Johnnie as living together unmarried, after which the BBC cancels her contract. Early in this decade the Golden Age of Radio ends, and the Age of TV begins, with many radio acts making a smooth transition, e.g., George Burns and Gracie Allen, and Red Skelton. Galaxy Science Fiction is founded in the U.S. by World Editions of Italy, with Montreal-born Horace Leonard Gold (1914-96) as ed., becoming #1 and pub. classic stories incl. "The Fireman" by Ray Bradbury, "The Puppet Masters" by Robert A. Heinlein, and "The Demolished Man" by Alfred Bester. In this decade the Marriage Equality Movement ramps up, changing marriage obligations from gender-based roles to flexible divs. of labor, companionship, and mutual sexual attraction. In this decade anon. English Shaggy Dog Stories become popular, e.g., a big game hunter asks two elephants why they're standing with feet together facing in opposite directions; answer: playing bookends. Wolfgang Schmieder (1901-90) pub. the Bach Works Catalog (Bache Werke Verzeichnis) (BMV), becoming the std. numbering system for the works of J.S. Bach. Austrian-born Jewish impresario Sir Rudolf Bing (1902-97) becomes gen. mgr. of the Metropolitan Opera in New York City (until 1972), going on to arrange for Marian Anderson to become the first African-Am. to sign there, and supervise the move to the Lincoln Center in 1966. In this decade the Color Field abstract art movement emerges, generating canvases full of kiddie-type block colors ("rid of superfluous rhetoric"); leaders incl. Gene Davis (1920-85), Helen Frankenthaler (1928-), Hans Hofmann (1880-1966), Morris Louis (Bernstein) (1912-62), Kenneth Noland (1924-2010), Jules Olitski (1922-2007), Mark Rothko (1903-70), Clyfford Still (1904-80), and Lawrence "Larry" Zox (1937-2006). James Byron Dean (1931-55), "the first American teenager" makes his film acting debut in a Pepsi Cola TV movie commercial with Nick Adams; his first movie role is in Hal Walker's Sailor Beware (1952), in which he has three lines. Deanna Durbin quits Hollywood. Hot singer Tab Hunter (Arthur Andrew Kelm) (1931-) is arrested at a gay party, which is covered up by his agent Henry Wilson (1911-78) until 1955, when Confidential mag. threatens to expose his other client Rock Hudson, and he throws them Hunter instead. Dunkin' Donuts is founded in Quincy, Mass. by William Rosenberg, who started in 1948 with Open Kettle AKA Kettle Donuts, specializing in quick coffee and donuts for sugar junkies; in 1963 it expands to 100 locations, followed by to 11.3K in 36 countries by 2015; in Feb. 1990 it acquires rival Mister Donut. Hot Tamales cinnamon candy begins to be manufactured by Just Born Co. of Bethlehem, Penn. (founded 1932). In this decade the Japanese begin marketing Cat's Eye Marbles, flooding the U.S. marble market. Timex brand wristwatches, designed by Norwegian immigrant Joakim Lemkuhl (1895-1984) for Waterbury Clock Co. (which changes its name to U.S. Time Co. then Timex Corp.) begin to be marketed in the U.S., selling 2M by 1951 with an 18% share of the low-end of the U.S. wristwatch market, with ads featuring "torture tests"; in 1956 TV journalist John Cameron Swayze (1906-95) becomes doing TV ads, with the slogan "It takes a licking and keeps on ticking", selling 1B by the end of the cent. The 6-cylinder 2-door $1,300 Henry J pioneer low-priced compact automobile, named after Henry J. Kaiser is introduced on Sept. 28 by the Kaiser-Frazer Corp. (until 1954) after receiving a U.S. govt. loan, economizing by eliminating the rear trunk lid, fixing the rear windows, and eliminating glove compartment, armrests, flow-through ventilation, and passenger-side sun visor, using Jeep engines; too bad, gas rationining is ended, dropping the price to 27 cents/gal., and Chevy offers the Chevrolet 150 which has rear windows and a trunk lid, while Rambler offers more features; in 1952 they are sold as the Sears Allstate. Dunkin' Donuts is founded in Quincy, Mass. by William Rosenberg, who started in 1948 with Open Kettle AKA Kettle Donuts, specializing in quick coffee and donuts for sugar junkies; in 1963 it expands to 100 locations, growing to 11.3K in 36 countries by 2015; in Feb. 1990 it acquires rival Mister Donut. Sports: The Golden Age of 10-Pin Bowling begins, where bowlers in the U.S. rival prof. sports stars in popularity and income; it ends by 1980, after which bowling alleys experience declining attendance before shutting down. In Mar. City College of New York (CCNY) (coach Nat Holman) becomes the first college basketball team (until ?) to win the NCAA and NIT titles the same year, defeating Bradley U. in both. On Apr. 8-23 the 1950 NBA Finals sees the Minneapolis Lakers (coach John Kundla) defeat the Syracuse Nationals (coach Al Cervi), led by 6'7" Adolph "Dolph" Schayes (1928-) by 4-2 (2nd title, and 1st back-to-back repeat); in Game 1 Robert William "Bob" "Tiger" Harrison (1927-) scores the first buzzer-beater in the finals. On Apr. 11-23 the 1950 Stanley Cup Finals see the Detroit Red Wings defeat the New York Rangers (first Finals appearance since 1940) 4-3, becoming the 3rd NHL dynasty in 1950-5. The NBA finds out that once you go black you can never go back? On Apr. 25 the first-ever 1950 NBA Draft selects 121 players for 12 teams in 12 rounds; 6'1" point guard ("the Houdini of the Hardwood") ("Mr. Basketball") Robert Joseph "Bob" "Cooz" Cousy (1928-) is selected 3rd overall in round 1 by the Tri-Cities Blackhawks, but fails to report, causing him to be picked up by the Chicago Stags, who fold, after which the Boston Celtics pick him up (#14) despite owner Walter A. Brown not liking him, uttering the soundbyte "I could have fallen to the floor" when he hears the news; he goes on to lead the NBA in assists eight straight times; after playing for the Brooklyn Dodgers farm team, 6'1" Abilene, Tex.-born guard William Walton "Bill" Sharman (1926-2013) of USC is drafted in round 2 (16th overall) by the Washington Capitols (#10), then drafted by the Fort Wayne Pistons 1951 after they disband, who trade him to the Boston Celtics (#21), where he partners with Bob Cousy, becoming the greatest backcourt duo in NBA history; in 1961 he leaves to become coach of the ABL Cleveland Pipers, working up to head coach of the Los Angeles Lakers in 1971-6; 6'5" forward-guard George Harry "Bird" Yardley III (1928-2004) is drafted in round 1 (7th overall) by the Fort Wayne Pistons (#12), going on to become the first NBA player to score 2000 points in the 1957-8 season; Philly-born 6'4" forward-guard (Villanova U.) "Pitchin' Paul Joseph Arizin (1928-2006) is the territorial pick for the Philadelphia Warriors (#11), retiring in 1962 with the 3rd highest career point total in NBA history (16,266); after becoming the first African-Am. player to integrate Southern college basketball games at West Va. State College, Charles Henry "Chuck" Cooper (1926-84) is drafted as the first pick in round 2 (12th overall) by the Boston Celtics (#11), becoming the first black player drafted by the NBA, making his debut on Nov. 1: in 1954 he is traded to the Milwaukee Hawks (until 1956); in round 9 Alexandria, Va.-born Earl "the Big Cat" Lloyd (1928-2015) is drafted (100th overall), becoming the the first African-Am. to play in an NBA game on Oct. 31 for the Washington Capitols against the Rochester Royals; after the team folds on Jan. 9, 1951, he plays for the Syracuse Nationals in 1952-8, defeating the Fort Wayne Pistons 4-3 for the 1955 NBA title, then the Detroit Pistons in 1958-60, going on to coach the Detroit Pistons in 1971-2; on May 24 6'7" Little Rock, Ark.-born Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton (1922-90) becomes the 3rd African-Am. player drafted by the NBA, and on May 24 the 2nd to sign with the NBA, making his debut on Nov. 4 (Nov. 3?) for the New York Knicks (#8), becoming the first NBA black star, playing until 1956 when he becomes the oldest NBA player to be named All-Star, then the Detroit Pistons in 1957-8; on Apr. 26 after being drafted in round 10 by the Washington Capitols (#35), Harold Hunter (1926-2013) becomes the first African-Am. to sign with the NBA; too bad, he is cut in training camp, going on to coach at Tenn. State U. in 1959-68, racking up a 172-67 record incl. four 20+-in-a-row; on Dec. 3 Henry Lincoln "Hank" DeZonie (1922-2009) signs with the Tri-Cities Blackhawks, becoming the 4th African-Am. player in the NBA, quitting after five games. On May 12 the Am. Bowling Congress (ABC) meets in Columbus, Ohio, and opens membership to black males after pressure from Cleveland, Ohio-born Nat. Negro Bowling Assoc. (NNBA) pioneer J. Elmer Reed (1903-83), who becomes a member of the ABC board of dirs.; in 1951 the Women's Internat. Bowling Congress (WIBC) opens membership to black females; in Mar. 1978 Reed becomes the first African-Am. bowler to be inducted into the ABC Hall of Fame. On May 13 the first FIFA Formula One World Championship race begins in Silverstone, England. On May 30 the 1950 (34th) Indianapolis 500 is won by Johnnie Woodrow Parsons (1918-84) (born on the 4th of July) after it is stopped at 138 laps due to rain; no European drivers enter this year or next, although in 1950-60 Indy 500 races are part of the Formula One Grand Prix championships; Parsons' first name is misspelled Johnny (his son's name) on the trophy; a false rumor circulates that Parsons had a crack in his engine block and wouldn't have completed 200 laps; the first Formula One World Drivers Title goes to Emilio Giuseppe "Nino" Farina (1906-66) of Team Alfa Romeo (known for his straight-arm driving style), who clinches it in race 7 of 7 by 3 points. On July 16 the 4th FIFA World Cup of Soccer (first since 1938) in the new Maracana Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, attended by a record 199,854 mainly Brazilian fans sees "the plucky country" Uruguay defeat Brazil 2-1, shocking Brazilian fans forever? On Aug. 12 the New York Giants of the NFL defeat the Ottawa Roughriders of the CFL 20-6 in Ottawa, becoming the first Internat. Game by an NFL Team. On Sept. 4 the Southern 500 at Darlington Raceway in S.C. is held, becoming the first 500-mi. NASCAR race. On Sept. 16 the Cleveland Browns (winner of all four AFC championships) defeat the Philadelphia Eagles (defending NFL champs) 35-10 in their first All-NFL Game in Philly. On Sept. 27 Joe Louis comes out of retirement and loses in New York City to heavyweight boxing champ Ezzard Charles in 15 rounds despite outweighing him by 34 lbs. (218 to 184). Clarendon County, S.C.-born Althea Gibson (1927-2003) becomes the first African-Am. to compete in the Forest Hill, N.Y. On Oct. 28 Torcida Split is founded in Croatia for fans of the Hajduk soccer team. tennis championships, and the first to compete at Wimbledon next year; superstitious lefty Arthur David "Art" "Tappy" Larsen (1925-), known for tapping everything in sight delights audiences by winning the U.S. Open singles title at Forest Hills; Tappy played against Jonathan Quayle Higgins in 1944 :). On Nov. 22 the Fort Wayne Pistons defeat the Minneapolis Lakers by 19-18, becoming the lowest-scoring game in NBA history (until ?). Babe Didrikson wins the U.S. Women's Open in golf again (1948, 1954); along with 12 others, incl. Louise Suggs and Patty Berg she founds the Ladies Prof. Golf Assoc. (LPGA). Aspen, Colo. puts itself on the world skiing map by hosting the FIS (Internat. Skiing Federation) world championships. After becoming the first African-Am. player to integrate Southern college basketball games at West Va. State College, Charles Henry "Chuck" Cooper (1926-84) is drafted as the first pick in round 2 by the Boston Celtics, becoming one of the first black players in the NBA: in 1954 he is trated to the Milwaukee Hawks (until 1956). 6'3 center Joseph Jean Arthur "Le Gros Bill" Beliveau (Béliveau) (1931-2014) is drafted by the Montreal Canadiens, going on to become the 2nd NHL player to score 1K points and the 4th to score 500 goals, winning 10 Stanley Cups before retiring in 1971. 6'1 190 lb. QB Charles Kenneth Hall (1935-) becomes a star with the Sugar Land H.S. Gators football team in Sugar Land, Tex., setting 17 nat. football records in 1950-3, many of which stand for 50+ years, becoming known as the Sugar Land Express; in 1999 the Kenneth Hall Trophy is established for the most outstanding U.S. h.s. football player. NYC parks and recreation playground dir. (1948-65) Holcombe Rucker (1926-65) launches an annual street basketball tournament in Rucker Park (P.S. 156 Playground) at 155th St. and Frederick Douglass Blvd. in Harlem, N.Y. across the street from the former Polo Grounds, which attracts future NBA superstar talent and introduces slam dunks, crossover dribbles and other advanced techniques before the NBA adopts them; players incl. Earl Monroe, Wilt Chamberlain, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Nate Archibald, Julius Erving, Ron Artest, and Connie Hawkins; in 2002 TNT debuts the film On Hallowed Ground: Streetball Champions of Rucker Park. The Nat. Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in Saratoga Springs, N.Y. is founded for Am. Thoroughbred racehorses, jockeys, and trainers. Architecture: In this decade English architect Francis Reginald Stevens "F.R.S." Yorke (1906-62) and his firm Yorke Rosenberg Mardall design Gatwick Airport 30 mi. S of London. On May 25 the 2.8mi (9,117 ft.) twin-tube Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel for vehicular traffic under the East River in New York City opens, connecting Manhattan and Brooklyn after passing underneath Governors Island, becoming the longest continuous underwater vehicular tunnel in North Am. (until ?). On May 27 the Linnanmaki (Linnanmäki) ("Castle Hill") Amusement Park in Helsinki, Finland opens. On Oct. 7 the Agate Pass Bridge On Oct. 15 the 2nd Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Wash. opens. On Dec. 15 the $1.25M Stampede Corral in Calgary, Alberta, Canada (cap. 6,475) opens to replace the Victoria Arena as the home of the Calgary Stampeders and the Calgary Stampede, becoming the largest Canadian arena W of Toronto; on Dec. 26 the first game sees the Stampeders defeat the Edmonton Flyers 5-0. Upscale Cherry Creek Shopping Center 3 mi. E of downtown Denver, Colo. is begun, becoming the #1 shopping center of Colo. Maracana (Maracană) Municipal Stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is built in time for the 1950 World Cup of Soccer, becoming the world's largest soccer stadium (until ?), with a cap. of 205K incl. 155K seated. Italian architect Eugenio Montuori (1907-82) designs the modernist Termini Railroad Station in Rome. Mexican architects Mario Pani Darqui (1911-93) and Enrique del Moral Dominguez (1905-87) design University City (Ciudad Universitaria) in Mexico City, Mexico. Quorum of the Twelve Apostles member (since Apr. 10, 1947) Henry Dinwoodey Moyle (1889-1963) convinces the LDS Church to purchase the 54K-acre Deseret Cattle and Citrus Ranch 50 mi. SE of Orlando, Fla. and 19 mi. W of Cape Canaveral, Fla., growing to 312K acres and becoming the largest cow-calf ranch in the U.S.; he then talks the church into an ambitious building program with the idea that larger meetinghouses will attract more converts, giving the church a deficit of $32M by 1962, causing LDS pres. David O. McKay to fire him after he talked him into discontinuing publishing annual financial statements to hide church spending. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Ralph Johnson Bunche (1904-71) (U.S.) [mediation in Palestine]; Lit.: Bertrand Arthur William Russell (1872-1970) (U.K.); Physics: Cecil Frank Powell (1903-69) (U.K.) [discovery of pion] via the photographic method, whose inventor Marietta Blau (1897-1970) is snubbed; Chem.: Otto Paul Hermann Diels (1876-1954) and Kurt Alder (1902-58) (Germany) [diene synthesis]; Medicine: Philip Showalter Hench (1896-1965) and Edward Calvin Kendall (1886-1972) (U.S.), and Tadeusz Reichstein (1897-1996) (Switzerland) [adrenal cortex hormones]. Inventions: In this decade Fusarium wilt (Panama disease) infects the U.S. banana pop., collapsing the global banana trade until the Cavendish variety replaces it. In this decade Britain develops the Blue Peacock nuke, with a plan to ship them to the British Army of the Rhine to use as landmines along the East German border; the plan is canceled in 1957. In May the tranquilizer Miltown (Meprobamate), AKA Don't-Give-a-Damn Pills is synthesized by Wallace Labs; in 1955 it hits the market bigtime in Madison Ave. and Hollywood, going on to become the #1 selling drug in the U.S.; Milton Berle quips "I'm thinking of changing my name to Miltown Berle." On July 1 Cheez Whiz is introduced nationwide by Kraft Foods as an easy way to make Welsh rabbit (rarebit), but 1,304 more uses are eventually found for this slightly gross processed cheese sauce with Worcester sauce in it, and it initially goes over bigger in Puerto Rico, where it is mixed with mayonnaise to make "La Mexda"; meanwhile Kraft founder James L. Kraft (b. 1875) gives up the cheese on Feb. 16. On Aug. 25 the 13-ft.-tall tic-tac-toe-playing digital computer game Bertie the Brain is released, designed by Vienna, Austria-born Canadian engineer Josef Kates (Josef Katz) (1921-2018) for the 1950 Canadian Nat. Exhibition, with a display consisting of light bulbs; it uses his invention, the Additron Tube, which does the work of ten regular vaccum tubes to make a 1-bit digital full adder, but is kept from commercialization by the advent of the transistor. The "farmer's dream" comes true as the first calves are born as a result of Artificial Insemination using frozen semen. Eureka Co. introduces the Eureka 1950A RetroVac, the first convertible upright vacuum. Hoover Co. introduces the Hoover Model 29, with bright modern color schemes incl. red. In the 1950s Craftool Co. founder Martin Miller invents the 5-gal. drum vacuum with water filtration for commercial shop environments, becoming the first vacuum cleaner to target a predominantly male market. After actor Fred Barton Jr. asks 20th Cent. Fox vice-pres. Irving Berlin Kahn (nephew of Irving Berlin) for it, the TelePrompTer is invented by Hubert "Hub" Schlafly (1919-2011) of 20th Cent. Fox in New York City, making its debut on the TV soap opera "The First Hundred Years". The yummy not-too-spicy seafood dish Chili Crab is invented in Singapore by Cher Yam Tian and Lim Choon Ngee, becoming the nat. dish. On Dec. 11 the tranquilizer Chlorpromazine (CPZ) (AKA Thorazine) is synthesized by by French chemist Paul Charpentier at Rhone-Poulenc Labs in Paris, becoming the first with specific antipsychotic action, leading to less use of electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery, and a movement toward deinstitutionalization. Helene Curtis begins marketing Spray Net, coining the term "hair spray". H. David Dahlquist (1919-2005) invents the Bundt Pan, which doesn't sell well until the 1966 Texas Bake-Off is won by the Tunnel of Fudge cake. B.F. Goodrich introduces the puncture-sealing tubeless tire. The Karpen Voltaic Pile, a "uniform temperature thermoelectric pile" (patented in 1922) is built by Vasile Karpen in Romania as a perpetual motion machine, and keeps working continuously until ?. Early in this decade the Skateboard is invented - by some kid? In this decade Marc Gregoire of Paris first uses Teflon for fishing tackle to minimize tangling. U.S. engineers develop the Vidicon TV camera tube. The Haloid Co. (U.S.) markets the first Xerographic Copying Machine (Xerox), but it is not perfected until 1959. The Lazy Bones, the first (non-wireless) TV Remote Control is invented by Robert Adler (1913-2007) and Eugene Polley (1916-) of Zenith Radio Corp.; the photoelectric Flashmatic is introduced in 1955, followed by the ultrasonic Zenith Space Command (first commercially successful wireless) in 1956, with the slogan "Nothing between you and the TV but space"; the couch potato gen. is launched; Adler and Polley are awarded an Emmy for Space Command in 1997. Hobart "Hobie" Alter (1933-) designs the first foam-fiberglass surfboard, which becomes a top seller. Cardston, Alberta, Canada-born swimsuit designer Rose Marie Reid (nee Yancey) (1906-78) of Los Angeles, Calif. files for a patent on a 1-piece bathing suit using elastic fabric sans buttons, which is both fashionable and functional, using photopermeable fabric to allow full body tanning; it catches on, capturing 10% of the women's swimwear market, and she is named Designer of the Year by Sports Illustrated, and Woman of the Year by Time in 1955; meanwhile she uses her free time to proselyte Jews for the Mormon faith. In this decade silver icicles made of lead begin to be used on Christmas trees. In this decade Taiwanese chef Peng Chang-kuei invents the tasty dish known as Gen. Tso's Chicken, named after Qing Dynasty gen. Zuo Songtang (1812-85), 2nd most famous military man (after Mao Tse-tung) from his home region of Hunan. Science: In this decade male birth control drug WIN 18,446 is tested on prisoners near Salem, Ore., and found effective; too bad, when tried on non-prisoners it doesn't mix with alcohol, so the tests are abandoned; the first effective male birth control drug is marketed in ? Californicating with the basic elements again? On Mar. 17 U. of Calif. (Berkeley) scientist Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-99) announces the creation of the radioactive element Californium (#98) (Cf) by intense neutron bombardment of plutonium (curium?); the chemical element Berkelium (#97) (Bk) is prepared by bombarding americium with high-energy alpha particles in a cyclotron; it is later prepared by neutron bombardment of plutonium. Australian-born British surgeon Norman Rupert "Pasty" Barrett (1903-79) first describes Barrett's Esophagus, a first step toward esophageal cancer. On Mar. 23 the World Meteorological Assoc. (WMO) is founded. Chemistry evolves from mere mathematical formulas to the odd hassle of 3-D diagrams? English chemist Sir Derek Harold Richard Barton (1918-98) shows that organic molecules can be assigned a preferred conformation based on the work of Norwegian chemical physicist Odd Hassel (1897-1981), founding Conformational Analysis, winning them the 1969 Nobel Chem. Prize. Austrian-born Am. biochemist Erwin Chargaff (1905-2002) of Columbia U. pub. Chargaff's Rule 1, that the number of adenine and thymine bases, and the number of cytosine and guanine bases are equal to each other, surmising that "they could very well serve as one of the agents, or possibly the agent, concerned with the transmission of inherited properties"; he also proves Chargaff's Rule #2 that the composition of DNA varies between species. Italian physicist Enrico Fermi (1901-54) formulates the Fermi Paradox, that despite the seeming vastness of the Universe there's still no evidence of intelligent life anywhere but lucky lucky Earth. Am. mathematician Richard Wesley Hamming (1915-98) pub. a paper introducing the concept of Hamming Distance, allowing error-correcting codes to be created. Elizabeth Lee Hazen (1885-1975) and Rachel Fuller Brown (1898-1980) of the N.Y. State Dept. of Health isolate the powerful antifungal agent Nystatin from Streptomyces noursei, becoming the first non-toxic treatment for fungal infections in humans. British astronomer Fred Hoyle (1915-2001) (a Big Bang critic) coins the term Big Bang in sarcasm in a radio broadcast, but it's so good that it sticks. Am. chemist Michael Kasha (1920-) proposes Kasha's Rule, that when light is shined on a molecule, it will only emit light from its lowest energy excited state; many exceptions are later found. Am. maize geneticist Barbara McClintock (1902-92) pub. her discovery of Transposons, AKA Jumping Genes, winning her the 1983 Nobel Med. Prize after her work is ignored until the gender-transposing jumping 1970s. Arthur Nobile (1920-2004) Arthur Nobile (1920-2004) of the U.S. uses bacteria to turn cortisone and hydrocortisone into the superior anti-inflammatory drugs Prednisone and Prednisolone, creating a new industry. Dutch astronomer Jan Hendrik Oort (1900-92) proposes the Oort Cloud orbiting the Sun beyond Pluto's orbit at 50K AU (1 l.y.) as the source of long-period comets. Am. physicist Leo James Rainwater (1917-86) of Columbia U. pub. a paper explaining non-spherical properties of the atomic nucleus beyond the 1949 Nuclear Shell Model; Danish physicist Aage Niels Bohr (1922-2009) (son of Niels Bohr) comes up with the idea independently, and works with Ben Roy Mottelson (1926-) to verify the new model with experimental data, winning them all the 1975 Nobel Physics Prize. Soviet physicists Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (1921-89) and Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (1895-1971) propose the Tokamak nuclear fusion reactor, using torus-shaped magnetic fields to confine hot ionized plama; next year Sakharov invents Magnetocumulative (MC) Generators for compressing magnetic fields with explosives. Motorcycle-loving English geneticist Oliver Smithies (1925-) discovers Gel Electrophoresis, a technique for separating protein molecules using an electric current applied to a starch gel matrix; actually, sucrose was used for it way back in the 1930s, but this process works better. Harvard U. astronomer Fred Lawrence Whipple (1906-2004) proposes the Dirty Snowball (Icy Conglomerate) (Icy Dirtball) Model of comet composition. Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (1921-2011) of the U.S. pioneers Radioimmunoassay, but refuses to patent it. Plutonium is separated from pitchblende concentrates. In this decade the Food-Exchange System is developed for diabetics. Nonfiction: Herbert Sebastian Agar (1897-1980), The Price of Union: The Influence of the American Temper on the Course of History; a passage about John Quincy Adams inspires John F. Kennedy to write "Profiles in Courage" (1956). Richard Aldington (1892-1962), D.H. Lawrence. Newton Arvin, Herman Melville. Herbert Asbury (1889-1963), The Great Illusion: An Informal History of Prohibition. W.H. Auden (1907-73), The Enchafed Flood; or, The Romantic Iconography of the Sea. Alice Ann Bailey (1880-1949), Glamour: A World Problem (posth.). Roland Herbert Bainton (1894-1984), Here I Stand: A Life of Martin Luther; bestseller (1M copies), becoming Luther's #1 biography, just in time for Martin Luther King Jr. to get everybody confused? Nigel Balchin (1908-70), The Anatomy of Villainy. Harry Elmer Barnes (1889-1968) and Oreen M. Ruedi, The American Way of Life: An Introduction to the Study of Contemporary Society. Nikolai Berdyaev (1874-1948), Dreams and Reality (posth.). Bernard Berenson (1865-1959), Aesthetics and History. Abram Bergson (1914-2003), Soviet National Income and Product in 1937; calculates the nat. output and economic growth of the Soviet Union sans market valuation based on factor price. Capt. S. Payne Best, The Venlo Incident (London). Ray Allen Billington (1903-81), American History After 1865; later eds. w/Martin Ridge. Kenneth E. Boulding (1910-93), A Reconstruction of Economics; emphasizes stocks, assets, and shares of wages and profits in nat. income rather than flows, income, and prices of labor and capital, being panned as out of step with the Keynesian mainstream; coins the term "psychic capital", the accumulation of desirable mental states. R.A. Brady, Crisis in Britain: Plans and Achievements of the Labour Government. Crane Brinton (1898-1968), Ideas and Men: The Story of Western Thought; rev. ed. June 1, 1963. Juanita Brooks (1898-1989), The Mountain Meadows Massacre; proves that the Mormon militia did it, and that militiaman John D. Lee was a scapegoat; charges Brigham Young with running a coverup after provoking it with incendiary rhetoric, making him "an accessory after the fact". Roscoe Carlyle Buley (1893-1968), The Old Northwest, Pioneer Period 1815-1840 (2 vols.) (Pulitzer Prize). Kenneth Burke (1897-1993), A Rhetoric of Motives. Albert Camus (1913-60), Actuelles I; French Resistance newpaper articles. Edward Hallett Carr (1892-1982), A History of Soviet Russia (14 vols.); praises Stalin, pissing-off historians incl. Richard Pipes, who compares his dismissal of the 1921 Soviet famine to Holocaust denial. Alexis Carrel (1873-1944), The Voyage to Lourdes (posth.); Nobel Med. Prize winner witnesses a miraculous cure, turning him backto faith in God. Alfred Cobban (1901-68), The Debate on the French Revolution, 1789-1800 (London). Margaret Louise Coit (1919-2003), John C. Calhoun: American Portrait (Pulitzer Prize). Henry Steele Commager (1902-98), The American Mind: An Interpretation of American Thought and Character Since the 1880s. Counterattack, Red Channels: The Report of Communist Influence in Radio and Television; issued by a right-wing journal pub. by "Am. Business Consultants", it lists 151 intellectuals, entertainers and journalists incl. Leonard Bernstein, Lee J. Cobb, Aaron Copland, Jose Ferrer, John Garfield, Ruth Gordon, Ben Grauer, Dashiell Hammett, E.Y. Harburg, Lillian Hellman, Judy Holliday, Lena Horne, Langston Hughes, Burl Ives, Sam Jaffe, Gypsy Rose Lee, Burgess Meredith, Zero Mostel, Dorothy Parker, Edward G. Robinson, Pete Seeger, William L. Shirer, Louis Untermeyer, and Orson Welles, creating a de facto industry blacklist, using the for-profit corp. AWARE Inc. as a clearance service to check for Communist sympathies. Marion Crawford (1909-88), The Little Princesses: The Story of the Queen's Childhood by Her Nanny; "Crawfie", nanny of Elizabeth I and Princess Margaret tells too much, getting banned from court for life. Ely Culbertson (1891-1955), Albert Hodges Morehead Jr. (1909-66), and Geoffrey Mott-Smith (1902-60), Hoyle: The New Encyclopedia of Games, with Official Rules. Richard N. Current (1912-2012), Pine Logs and Politics: A Life of Philetus Sawyer, 1816-1900. Merle Eugene Curti (1897-1996) and Lewis Paul Todd, Rise of the American Nation (2 vols.); becomes a popular textbook, going through several eds. even after their deaths. Herbert Cutner (1881-1969), Jesus: God, Man or Myth? An Examination of the Evidence (Jan. 1); claims that Jesus wasn't a man turned into a god, but a god turned into a man, and that his earliest mentioner St. Paul never thought of Jesus as a man, but as a spiritual being found in a spiritual sense within oneself, explaining why the early Church had a hard time accepting him, becoming a Freethinker/atheist Bible; "I make no apology for the fact that this work is controversial. It was unavoidably so, as many of the defenders of the 'man' Jesus, as well as those who insist that he was a 'God,' have bitterly assailed, not only on critical but on personal grounds, those of us who have insisted that the story of Jesus is just a myth. I hope, however, that readers will see something beyond the controversial part - will find a real criticism of the so-called evidences brought forward to prove that Jesus Christ lived on earth"; "It is surely very strange that though Paul talks incessantly of Christ Jesus, he never mentions 'Jesus of Nazareth.' He never mentions the wonderful teaching of Jesus, nor his still more wonderful miracles. Now, if the Gospel stories are true, and if Paul was converted so soon after the death of Jesus, and if he were also continually wrangling with the Apostles, how is it that in the Epistles we do not get more of Jesus of Nazareth, and a little less of Christ Jesus?"; The whole fabric of Vicarious Suffering with its Savior and its Cross is nothing but a huge imposture, that in fact it has literally no meaning. A suffering God is just a pagan and Gnostic IDEA." - TLW's favorite work on the Jesus question? Edward Dahlberg (1900-77), Fleas of Sodom (essays). Christopher Henry Dawson (1889-1970), Religion and the Rise of Western Culture. Carl Van Doren (1885-1950), Jane Mecom, or The Favorite Sister of Benjamin Franklin; Benjamin Franklin's youngest sister Jane Franklin Mecom (1712-94); The Letters of Benjamin Franklin and Jane Mecom. Peter Ferdinand Drucker (1909-2005), The New Society. John Foster Dulles (1888-1959), War or Peace - all war and no peace makes John a Dulle boy? Will Durant (1885-1981), The Story of Civilization: Part IV, The Age of Faith; 325 C.E. to 1300 C.E., from Constantine the Great to Dante, focusing on Christendom, Judaism, and Islam; "So today we leave men free to question the religious, but not the political, faith of their fathers; and political heresy is punished by social ostracism as theological heresy was punished by excommunication in the Age of Faith; now that the policeman labors to take the place of God, it becomes more dangerous to question the state than to doubt the Church. No system smiles upon the challenging of its axioms." Albert Einstein (1879-1955), General Field Theory; "Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter"; "Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning... The field thus becomes an irreducible element of physical description, irreducible in the same sense as the concept of matter (particles) in the theory of Newton... The physical reality of space is represented by a field whose components are continuous functions of four independent variables - the co-ordinates of space and time. Since the theory of general relativity implies the representation of physical reality by a continuous field, the concept of particles or material points cannot play a fundamental part, nor can the concept of motion. The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high." Erik Erikson (1902-94), Childhood and Society; expands Freud's five stages of development to the Eight Ages of Man, and proposes the identity crisis; his er, widow later adds #9, old age. Carroll Lane Fenton (1900-) and Mildred Adams Fenton, Worlds in the Sky. Louis Fischer (1896-1970), The Life of Mahatma Gandhi. Father Edward Joseph Flanagan (1886-1948), Understanding Your Boy (posth.). Robert James Forbes (1900-73), Man, the Maker: A History of Technology and Engineering. Erich Fromm (1900-80), Psychoanalysis and Religion. James Jerome Gibson (1904-79), The Perception of the Visual World; rejects behaviorism in favor of the idea that animals "sample" information from the "ambient" outside world, proposing the concept of Optical Flow (Affordance). Samuel Glasstone, The Effects of Atomic Weapons; first unclassified explanation, terrifying all. Ernst Gombrich (1909-2001), The Story of Art; bestseller (7M copies); tr. into 30+ languages, reaching 16 eds.; revitalizes the study of art history in the English-speaking world despite attacks by the PC police for being Eurocentric and ignoring women artists. Pierre-Paul Grasse (1895-985), Traite de Zoologie, Anatomie, Systematique, Biologie (Traité de Zoologie, Anatomie, Systématique, Biologie) (52 vols.) (1950-79). John Gunther (1901-70), Roosevelt in Retrospect: A Profile in History. George Gurdjieff (1866-1949), Beelzebub's Tales to His Grandson: An Objectively Impartial Criticism of the Life of Man (autobio.) (posth.); #1 in the All and Everything Trilogy. Maurice Hankey (1877-1963), Politics, Trials and Errors; argues that the Allies had no right to convict German and Japanese officials of war crimes. Gayelord Hauser, Look Younger, Live Longer. Thor Heyerdahl (1914-2002), Kon-Tiki: Across the Pacific in a Raft; rejected by 20 publishers before Rand McNally takes a chance on it; "A long, solemn and tedious Pacific voyage, best suited... to a journal like the National Geographic" (William Styron for McGraw-Hill). Gilbert Highet (1906-78), The Art of Teaching. Karen Horney (1885-1952), Neurosis and Human Growth: The Struggle Toward Self-Realization; claims that neuroses are the antithesis of healthy growth, and are conditioned by culture rather than instinctual drives like Freud claims. Laurence Housman (1865-1959), The Family Honour. No doubt about it, the Americans have the kookiest cults, or, The first thing you know old Ron's a millionaire? L. Ron Hubbard (1911-86), Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health (May 9); from Greek "dia" + "nous" = through + mind; the founding holy book of the Church of Scientology (founded in Camden, N.J. in Dec. 1953), it talks about "engrams", which are memories stored during periods of unconsciousness (post-natal or pre-natal), not accessible afterward by the consciousness, but which can bite back by giving primal commands that "aberrate" (depart from rational thought or behavior) and are "the very stuff of which insanity is made"; by the Dianetic (Greek for through-soul) process of "auditing" one individual can "clear" another of his engrams, raising his IQ and making him rational and responsible; after free plugs by Astounding Science Fiction ed. (since 1937) John Wood Campbell Jr. (1910-71), it stays on the New York Times bestseller list for 26 weeks without paid ads, sparking "the fastest growing movement in the U.S." (Los Angeles Daily News); it is pub. in Manhattan, N.Y. from a bldg. that in 1955 becomes the Church of Scientology of New York, which in 1980 moves near Times Square; "The creation of Dianetics is a milestone for Man comparable to his discovery of fire and superior to his inventions of the wheel and the arch" (first line); "Dianetics is not in any way covered by legislation anywhere, for no law can prevent one man sitting down and telling another man his troubles, and if anyone wants a monopoly on dianetics, be assured that he wants it for reasons which have to do not with dianetics but with profit"; "A large proportion of allegedly feeble-minded children are actually attempted abortion cases... However many billions America spends yearly on institutions for the insane and jails for the criminals are spent primarily because of attempted abortions done by some sex-blocked mother to whom children are a curse, not a blessing of God... All these things are scientific facts, tested and rechecked and tested again"; "There is no national problem in the world today, which cannot be resolved by reason alone"; "The sexual pervert (and by this term Dianetics, to be brief, includes any and all forms of deviation in Dynamic II [i.e. sexuality] such as homosexuality, lesbianism, sexual sadism, etc., and all down the catalog of Ellis and Krafft-Ebing) is actually quite ill physically... he is very far from culpable for his condition, but he is also far from normal and extremely dangerous to society"; Hubbard forms the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation in Elizabeth, N.J., founds six Dianetics centers nationwide, and in Aug. speaks to 6K at the Shrine Auditorium in L.A., going on the radio in Dec. on 126 stations, presenting Sonya Bianca as "the world's first Clear", who turns out to be a dud who couldn't even remember the color of his tie; in 1951 he advises silence in the delivery room (since engrams can be accidentally created) and the laying of the newborn on the mother's abdomen before cutting the chord; Scientology cult members are eventually taught the pseudo-psychological concepts of Thought insertion, incl. implants, "intentional installation of fixed ideas, contra-survival to the thetan", he also incl. Space opera, incl. the civilization of Helatrobus, "a little pipsqueak government" that existed "between about 319 trillion years ago to about 256 trillion years ago", which left the Heaven implant 43 trillion years ago; he also teaches about the civilization of Xenu, the dictator of the Galactic Confederacy 75M years ago, who brought billions of his people to Teegeeack (Earth) in spaceships resembling Douglas DC-8 airliners, stacked them around volcanoes, then killed them using H-bombs, their essences (thetans) sticking to the bodies of the living and haunting modern people as body thetans (BT), which are trapped in MEST (matter, energy, space, and time) until the Scientologist rids the thetan of engrams and attains a state of Clear, then goes on to advance through the Bridge to Total Freedom to an Operating Thetan (OT) who can experience the self outside the body via exteriorization, and control both the self and the environment; "We have calculated that on average, each person on planet earth has 2,209 of these Body Thetans (BT's for short), Hubbard's term for the alien spirits, attached to you causing you to be constrained by Xenu's false reality. The average cost for Scientology to OT 8 is a mere USD 360,000, meaning that each BT only costs USD 163 to clear. Now that is a bargain if there ever was one" - just wait till they quote their prices? Leopold Infeld (1898-1968), Albert Einstein: His Work and Its Influence on Our World. C.L.R. James (1901-89), State Capitalism and World Revolution. Merrill Jensen (1905-80), The New Nation: A History of the United States During the Confederation, 1781-1789. Frances Parkinson Keyes (1885-1970), The Cost of a Best Seller (autobio.). Maj. Donald E. Keyhoe (1897-1988), The Flying Saucers Are Real; bestseller (500K copies), based on his popular article of the same title in the Jan. issue of True (pub. Dec. 26, 1949); argues that aliens have been observing the Earth for 200+ years, stepping it up after the 1945 atomic bomb explosions, and that the USAF is trying to cover it up. Ancel Benjamin Keys (1904-2004), The Biology of Human Starvation (2 vols.); first study of its kind (until ?); goes on to theorize that dietary saturated fat causes cardiovascular disease, and popularizes the Mediterranean Diet with his wife Margaret - he lived to 100 so I'll have what he's having? R.A. Knox, Enthusiasm. Ronald Arbuthnott Knox (1888-1957), The Knox Trans. of the Vulgate Old Testament; freer rendering of verses than the Douay version. Jack Lait and Mortimer Lee, Washington Confidential. Karl Lashley (1890-1958), In Search of the Engram; concludes that there is no localized part of the brain for an engram, but that it is distributed throughout the cerebral cortex, stating the principles of mass action and equipotentiality. Max Lerner (1902-92), The Unfinished Country; "The turning point in the process of growing up is when you discover the core of strength within you that survives all hurt"; "When you choose the lesser of two evils, always remember that it is still an evil." Bernard Lewis (1916-2018), The Arabs in History; this year he becomes the first Westerner granted access to the Imperial Ottoman Archives in Istanbul. Wyndham Lewis (1882-1957), Rude Assignment: A Narrative of My Career Up-to-Date (autobio.); goes completely blind by next year. Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart (1887-1970), The Marines Were There: The Story of the Royal Marines in the Second World War (London). Konrad Lorenz (1903-89), Man Meets dog. Connie Mack (1862-1956), My 66 Years in the Big Leagues. Rollo May (1909-94), The Meaning of Anxiety; "The apprehension cued off by a threat to some value which the individual holds essential to his existence as a self"; "Anxiety is the dizziness of freedom" (Soren Kierkegaard). Margaret Mead (1901-78), Social Anthropology. Robert A. Millikan (1868-1953), Autobiography. W. Stanley Moss (1921-65), Ill Met by Moonlight: The Abduction of General Kreipe (autobio.); bestseller about the British SEO operation to kidnap German Gen. Heinrich Kreipe in Crete in Feb.-May 1944; filmed in 1957. George Lachmann Mosse (1918-99), The Reformation. Percy Howard Newby (1918-97), Maria Edgeworth. George Orwell (1903-50), Shooting An Elephant (posth.). Charles Olson (1910-70), Projective Verse (pub. in "Poetry" mag.); his new open form controlled by sound and breathing. Charles Fulton Oursler (1893-1952), Why I Know There is a God. Pierre van Paassen (1895-1968), Jerusalem Calling! Vance Packard (1914-96), Animal IQ. Charles Petrie (1895-1977), The Jacobite Movement: The Last Phase, 1716-1807; Chapters of Life (autobio.). Herbert Arthur Philbrick (1915-93), I Led Three Lives; an FBI informer who infiltrated the Communist Party of the U.S.A. tells all. Jean Piaget (1896-1980), The Construction of Reality in the Child; The Principles of Genetic Epistemology. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) and Barbel Inhelder (1913-97), The Psychology of the Child. Max Planck (1858-1947), A Scientific Autobiography (posth.). Hortense Powdermaker (1896-1970), Hollywood, the Dream Factory; first anthropological study of the U.S. film industry. Raul Prebisch (1901-86), The Economic Development of Latin America and Its Principal Problems; proposes the Singer-Prebisch Thesis, dividing the U.S. and other industrialized nations from the "periphery" of primary producers, who are doomed to see the prices of their primary products such as agricultural goods fall more than manufactured secondary prices; in Feb. 1949 German-born British economist Sir Hans Wolfgang Singer (1910-2006) pub. Postwar Relations between Underdeveloped and Industrialized Countries, showing a long-term deterioration in the terms of trade for underdeveloped countries, which Prebisch bases his book on, causing them to share credit. Quentin Reynolds, Courtroom. Joseph Rinn (1868-1952), Sixty Years of Psychical Research: Houdini and I Among the Spiritualists; how they debunked psychics and mediums. A.L. Rowse, The England of Elizabeth. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), Unpopular Essays; Ideas That Have Harmed Mankind; What Desires Are Politically Important? Gilbert Ryle (1900-76), The Concept of Mind. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80), La Mort dans l'Ame (The Death of Love). Joseph Schacht (1902-69), Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence. Carl Schmitt (1888-1985), The Nomos of the Earth. Alexander P. de Seversky (1894-1974), Air Power: Key to Survival. Otto Skorzeny (1908-75), Memoirs (Apr.); Hitler's favorite commando, who escaped after WWII and was spotted in Paris, causing him to flee to Madrid, where he worked with the ODESSA network; the pub. of his memoirs by Le Figaro causes 1.5K Communists to riot outside their HQ. Pitirim Sorokin (1889-1968), Social Philosophies of an Age of Crisis. Frank Swinnerton (1884-1982), Arnold Bennett. Paul Tabori (1908-74), Harry Price: The Biography of a Ghost Hunter; by a believer in psychical researcher Harry Price (1881-1948). Lionel Trilling (1905-78), The Liberal Imagination: Essays on Literature and Society. Alan Turing (1912-54), Computing Machinery and Intelligence (Oct.) proposes the Turing Test as a way to determine if machines can think by playing the Imitation Game. Immanuel Velikovsky (1895-1979), Worlds in Collision: The Book About the Day the Sun Stood Still (Apr. 3); NYT bestseller; Albert Einstein becomes a fan; how a comet-like object was ejected from Jupiter in the 15th cent. B.C.E., changing the Earth's orbit and axis and causing catastrophes that are described in the Bible, then settled down as the new planet Venus, after which in the 8th-7th cents. B.C.E., Mars acted up, causing more catastrophes, after which everything settled down and here we are let me tell you all about it?; an imaginative erudite pseudo-scientific Bible-thumping alternative to standard science that pisses-off the scientific establishment (Harlow Shapley, Carl Sagan et al.) so much that they begin a boycott of Macmillan's textbooks, causing them to drop it in 2 mo. despite being a bestseller, after which Doubleday says ka-ching ka-ching thanks. Ernest Watkins (1902-82), The Cautious Revolution: Britain Today and Tomorrow; the post-WWII recovery policies of the British Labour govt. Alan W. Watts (1915-73), Easter: Its Story and Meaning; The Supreme Identity. Alec Waugh (1898-1981), The Lipton Story: A Centennial Biography. Norbert Wiener (1894-1964), The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society; examines the implications. Cecil Blanche Woodham-Smith (1897-1977), Florence Nightingale, 1820-1910; rehabilitates her and makes a star out of the author. Art: Gene Autry (1907-98) and The Cass County Boys, Frosty the Snowman (Snow Man) (#7 in the U.S.) (#4 country) (Columbia Records); composed by Steve Edward Nelson (1907-81) and Walter E. "Jack" Rollins (1906-73); covered by Nat King Cole (1950) (#9 in the U.S.), Guy Lombardo (1950) (#28 in the U.S.), Jimmy Durante (1953) (#7 in the U.S.), Perry Como (1957) (#74 in the U.S.), Jan and Dean (1963) (#11 in the U.S.), Johnny Mathis (2003) (#29 in the U.S.), Kimberley Locke (2007) (#1 in the U.S.), Whitney Wolanin (2012) (#13 in the U.S.). Milton Avery (1885-1965), Man and Dog; Maternity. Francis Bacon (1909-92), Studies on Velazquez' "Pope Innocent X". Georges Braque (1882-1963), Apples. Roland Detre (1903-2001), Seascape. Nadine Drummond, Burn Out. M.C. Escher (1898-1972), Butterflies (wood engraving). Sam Francis (1923-), Big Red; done in Paris. Helen Frankenthaler (1928-), Open Wall. Alberto Giacometti (1901-66), Seven Figures and a Head (sculpture). Franz Kline (1910-62), Four Square; Cardinal; Chief. Oskar Kokoschka (1886-1980), Portrait of Theodor Heuss. Willem de Kooning (1904-97), Woman I-VI (series of 6) (1950-3) - try to raise the bar? Lee Krasner (1908-84), City Vertical (collage). Richard Lippold (1915-2002), World Tree (sculpture); commissioned by Walter Gropius; ends up on the campus of Harvard U. Roberto Matta (1911-2002), C'Ontra Vosotvos Asesinon de Palomas. Justin McCarthy (1891-1977), Show Girl. Barnett Newman (1905-70), The Wild. Mervyn Peake (1911-68), Gormenghast; #2 in the Gormenghast series. Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), The Shadow. Jackson Pollock (1912-56), Number 1, 1950 (Lavender Mist); Autumn Rhythm (No. 30, 1950). No. 29, 1950; One (No. 31, 1950); No. 32, 1950. Fairfield Porter (1907-), Laurence at the Piano. Robert Rauschenberg (1925-), Automobile Tire Print; a long strip of paper over which composer John Cage rolled his Model-A Ford outside his Fulton St. studio - Jurassic Park VIII: A grand adventure in an auto? Larry Rivers (1923-2002), Washington Crossing the Delaware; redo of 1851 Emanuel Leutze painting. Mark Rothko (1903-70), No. 10. Ben Shan (1898-1969), Age of Anxiety. Rufino Tamayo (1899-1991), Sleeping Musicians. Music: Olivier Alain (1918-94), Chant Funebre sur les Morts en Montagne. Eileen Barton, If I Knew You Were Comin' I'd've Baked a Cake. Leonard Bernstein (1918-90), Mark "Moose" Charlap (1928-74), Jule Styne (1905-94), and Carolyn Leigh (1926-83), Peter Pan (musical) (Winter Garden Theatre, New York) (Oct. 20) (152 perf.); based on the 1904 J.M. Barrie play; stars Mary Martin as Peter Pan, and Cyril Ritchard as Capt. Hook. Karl-Birger Blomdahl (1916-68), 3rd Symphony ("Facettes"). Pierre Boulez (1925-), Polyphonie X (1950-1). Teresa Brewer (1931-2007), Choon' Gum; Molasses, Molasses. Renato Cellini (conductor), Rigoletto (RCA); first complete operatic LP record; features Leonard Warren, Erna Berger and Jan Peerce. Nat King Cole (1919-65), Mona Lisa (#1 in the U.S.). Perry Como (1912-2001), Hoop-De-Doo. Aaron Copland (1900-90), Clarinet Concerto; Benny Goodman and the NBC Symphony Orchestra. Bing Crosby (1903-77) and the Lee Gordon Singers, A Marshmallow World; written by Peter DeRose and Carl Sigman. Henry Dixon Cowell (1897-1965), Ongaku. Luigi Dallapiccola (1904-75), Job (oratorio). Vic Damone (1928-2018), My Heart Cries for You (#4 in the U.S.). Fats Domino (1928-2017), Every Night About This Time. Billy Eckstine (1914-93), My Foolish Heart; I Apologize. Red Foley (1910-68) and the Cumberland Valley Boys, Just a Closer Walk with Thee (#1 country); Steal Away (#1 country); Chattanoogie Shoe Shine Boy (#1 country and U.S.); becomes his trademark song. Tennessee Ernie Ford (1919-91), The Shotgun Boogie; goes #1 on the country charts for three weeks, making him a star. Merv Griffin (1925-2007), I've Got a Lovely Bunch of Coconuts. Phil Harris, The Thing; novelty hit. Helen Humes (1913-81), Million Dollar Secret; Rock Me to Sleep. Andre Jolivet (1905-74), Concerto for Flute and Strings. Sammy Kaye (1910-87), Harbor Lights (album); incl. It Isn't Fair (#2 in the U.S.), Harbor Lights (#1 in the U.S.), which becomes his signature song. Aram Khachaturian (1903-78), Spartacus (ballet) (1950-4). Eartha Kitt (1927-2008), C'est Si Bon; becomes her signature song. Ed McCurdy (1919-2000), Last Night I Had the Strangest Dream; becomes an anti-war classic, covered by Pete Seeger (195?), Simon and Garfunkel (1964), Johnny Cash (2002), and Garth Brooks (2005); sung by children on the East German side of the Berlin Wall in Nov. 1989 in front of NBC-TV journalist Tom Brokaw while the wall is being dismantled. Gian Carlo Menotti (1911-2007), The Consul (opera) (New York) (Pulitzer Prize); political refugees in the Cold War. Guy Mitchell, Mitch Miller and His Orchestra, My Heart Cries for You (#2 in the U.S.) (1M copies); composed by Percy Faith and Carl Sigman based on an 18th cent. French melody. Luigi Nono (1924-90), Variazione Canoniche Sulla Serie dell' Op. 41 di Arnold Schonberg (first work) (Darmstadt). Patti Page (1927-), All My Love; The Tennessee Waltz (written by Redd Stewart and Wee King). Les Paul (1915-2009) and Mary Ford (1924-77), The Tennessee Waltz. Oscar Peterson (1925-2007), Oscar Peterson at Carnegie Hall (album); his 1929 Carnegie Hall performance, given after being discovered by jazz impresario Norman Granz of Clef Records. Cole Porter (1891-1964), Out of this World (musical). William Howard Schuman (1910-92), George Washington Bridge. Carl Smith (1927-2010), Let's Live a Little (#2 country). Hank Snow (1914-99), I'm Movin' On; his first hit, staying at #1 for 21 weeks, setting a record (until ?). Howard Swanson (1907-78), Short Symphony (New York). The Treniers, Ragg Mopp. Frankie Vaughan (1928-99), The Old Piano Roll Blues (debut); Stay With the Happy People. Sarah Vaughan (1924-90), Don't Blame Me. Muddy Waters (1913-83), Rollin' Stone; a hit with the Rolling Stones, who name their group after it. The Weavers, Tzena, Tzena, Tzena, Tzena; Good Night, Irene (by Leadbelly) (#1 in the U.S.); from Greenwich, N.Y., incl. Peter "Pete" Seeger (1919-), Ruth Alice "Ronnie" Gilbert (1926-2015), Lee Hays (1914-81), and Fred Hellerman (1927-) (who later produces Arlo Guthrie's album "Alice Restaurant"); too bad, after being accused of being Communists, they disband in 1951. Kurt Weill (1900-50), Huckleberry Finn (unfinished); lyrics by Maxwell Anderson. Margaret Whiting (1924-) and Bob Hope (1903-2003), Blind Date. Lee Wiley (1908-75), Night in Manhattan (album). Bob Wills (1905-75) and his Texas Playboys, Faded Love (#8). Movies: 1950 - The dust of the first A-bomb tests is just settling, and already Hollyweird is portraying a U.S. Space Race based on nuclear propulsion? Joseph L. Mankiewicz's All About Eve (Oct. 13), based on Mary Orr's story "The Wisdom of Eve" (based on the life of Tallulah Bankhead) stars Anne Baxter as Eve Harrington, a Hollywood climber who uses aging Margo Channing (Bette Davis) as a ladder, stealing her beau (Gary Merrill), her friends (Celeste Holm, Hugh Marlowe), and her career; new kid on the block (model mag. covergirl) Marilyn Monroe (dress size 16, about 12 in modern sizes) has a small part, paying her dues; "Fasten your seat belts, it's going to be a bumpy night." George Sidney's Annie Get Your Gun (May 17) (MGM), based on the 1946 Rodgers and Hammerstein musical stars Betty Hutton as Annie Oakley, and Howard Clifford Keel (1919-2004) as Frank Butler in his film debut; Louis Calhern (who replaced Frank Morgan after he died of a heart attack during filming) plays Buffalo Bill Cody, J. Carrol Naish plays Sitting Bull, Edward Arnold plays Pawnee Bill, and Keenan Wynn plays Charlie Davenport; Judy Garland was the first Annie, but had to pull out because of her health; incl. the songs There's No Business Like Show Business, Doin' What Comes Natur'lly, Anything You Can Do, You Can't Get a Man With a Gun. R.G. Springsteen's The Arizona Cowboy (Apr. 1) (Republic Pictures) is the film debut of Willcox, Ariz.-born singing cowboy Rex Elvie Allen (1920-99), who wears a white Stetson, rides faithful horse Koko, and has a comic sidekick (Buddy Ebsen or Slim Pickens); first in a series of 19 films. John Huston's B&W The Asphalt Jungle (May 23) (MGM), based on the 1949 W.R. Burnett novel about a $1M jewel heist in the Am. Midwest (Cincinnati?) stars Sam Jaffe as mastermind Erwin "Doc" Riedenschndier, Marc Lawrence as bookie Cobby, Louis Calhern as criminal lawyer Alonzo Emmerich, Anthony Caruso as safecracker Louie Ciavelli, James Whitmore as getaway river Gus Minissi, Sterling Hayden as gangster Dix Handley, and Jean Hagen as Hayden's babe Doll Conovan; Marilyn Monroe has a small uncredited part as Angela Phinlay; does $1.077M box office in the U.S.-Canada and $1.060M foreign on a $1.232M budget, making a profit of only $40K. Antony Darnborough's B&W The Astonished Heart (Mar.) (Gainsborough Pictures) (Gen. Film Distributors), based on Noel Coward's 1935 play stars Coward as pshrink Christian Faber, who is infatuated with his mistress Leonora Vail (Margaret Leighton), and likes to quote Deut. 28:28: "The Lord shall smite thee with madness, and blindness, and admonishment of heart"; Celia Johnson plays his wife Barbara Faber; "A daring experiment in love"; a flop. Basil Dearden's B&W The Blue Lamp (Ealing Studios) (Jan. 20) (Gen. Film Distributors), named after the you know whats that hang outside British police stations, produced by Michael Balcom and written by T.E.B. Clarke, a British social realist police drama set in Paddington, London in July 1949, starring Jack Warner as veteran police constable (PC) George Dixon, Jimmy Hanley as new recruit Andy Mitchell, and Dirk Bogarde as teen thug Tom Riley; Bernard Lee plays Sgt. Roberts, and Peggy Evans plays Diana Lewis; basis of the 1955-76 BBC-TV series "Dixon of Dock Green", starring Warner. George Cukor's Born Yesterday (Dec. 26) based on the 1946 Garson Kanin play stars Broderick Crawford as crooked tycoon Harry Brack, who goes to Washington, D.C. with his mistress Emma "Billie" Dawn (Judy Holliday) and crooked atty. Jim Devery (Howard St. John) to buy some politicians, until Billie falls for journalist Paul Verrall (William Holden) and escapes from him. Delmer Daves' Broken Arrow (July 20) (20th Cent. Fox), filmed near Flagstaff, Ariz. is the first major Hollywood Western since WWII to side with the Indians, based on the 1947 novel "Blood Brother" by Elliott Arnold stars James Stewart as mailman Tom Jeffords, who walks into the camp of Cochise (Jeff Chandler) and negotiates safe passage to Tucson; Debra Paget plays Indian babe Sonseeahray (Morningstar); Basil Ruysdael plays "Christian Gen." Oliver Otis Howard; Jay "Tonto" Silverheels plays Geronimo; Will Geer plays rancher Ben Slade; real Apaches from the local rez are used as extras. Bernard Miles' B&W Chance of a Lifetime (British Lion) (Pilgrim Pictures), produced by Miles and co-written by Walter Greenwood stars Basil Radford as British agricultural implements factory owner Dickinson, who falls on hard times after WWII, c ausing the employees to strike, after which Dickinson lets them try running the factory themselves. Clyde Geronimi's, Hamilton Luske's, and Wilfred Jackson's animated Cinderella (Feb. 15) (Walt Disney Pictures) (RKO Radio Pictures) (12th Disney animated film), based on the fairy tale by Charles Perrault features the voices of Ilene Woods, Eleanor Audley, Verna Felton, Rhoda Williams, James Macdonald, Luis van Rooten et al.; Cinderella's two stepsisters are Anastasia and Drizella; Al Hoffman composes the songs "Cinderella", "A Dream is a Wish Your Heart Makes", "Bibbidi-Bobbidi-Boo"; does $263.6M box office on a $2.9M budget. George Sherman's Comanche Territory (May 1) (Universal Pictures), filmed in Oak Creek Canyon, Ariz. stars singing Maureen O'Hara as Katie Howard, and Macdonald Carey as Jim Bowie, who tries to stop Katie's crooked brother Stacey (Charles Drake) from starting a war with the Comanche over silver land; also stars Will Geer. Ralph Thomas' B&W The Clouded Yellow (Nov. 21) (Carillon Films) (Rank Film Distributors) (Columbia Pictures) stars Trevor Howard as ex-British secret service agent David Somers, who gets a job cataloguing butterflies, and ends up helping hot babe Sophie Malraux (Jean Simmons) beat a murder rap; Simmons' marriage to Stewart Granger helps with publicity. Curzio Malaparte's Cristo Proibito (Forbidden Christ) is about a war vet who returns to his village to avenge the death of his brother who was shot by the Nazis; released in the U.S. as "Strange Deception". Michael Gordon's B&W Cyrano de Bergerac (Nov. 16) (United Artists), produced by Stanley Kramer, the first screen version of the 1897 Edmond Rostand play stars Jose Ferrer, who wins his first and only Oscar; the score is by Dimitri Tiomkin; does $1.9M box office on a $1.1M budget. Irving Pichel's B&W Destination Moon (Aug.), produced by George Pal and partly written by Robert A. Heinlein portrays U.S. private capitalist industry (Lockheed) going to the Moon with nuclear propulsion, and features a Woody Woodpecker cartoon to teach the basics of space flight, later copied in "Jurassic Park"; too bad, its expensive Technicolor SFX cause it to be released after the B&W "Rocketship X-M", which has an anti-nuclear message; both films launch the Golden Age of Sci-Fi Films. Rudolph Mate's D.O.A. (B&W) is a film noir starring Edmund O'Brien as a happy-go-lucky single Calif. man who has been given a "luminous toxin" and only has one week to live and figure out who murdered him, after which he marches into the DA's office, tells, and guess what; also stars Beverly Garland, Pamela Britton, and Luther Adler. Robert Z. Leonard's Duchess of Idaho (July 14), set in Sun Valley, Idaho stars Esther Williams and Van Johnson as Christine Riverton Duncan and Dick Layne in their 4th film together. Vincente Minnelli's Father of the Bride (June 16), based on the 1949 Edward Streeter novel stars Spencer Tracy and Elizabeth Taylor; the sequel is Father's Little Dividend (1951). Fred C. Brannon's Flying Disc Man from Mars (Oct. 25) (B&W) is a 12-part 167-min. serial from Republic Pictures starring Walter Reed as pilot Kent Fowler, Lois Collier as Helen Hall, James Craven as former Nazi scientist Dr. Bryant, and Gregory Gaye as Martian invader Mota. Arthur Lubin's Francis (Feb.) stars Donald O'Connor as 2nd Lt. Peter Stirling, whose army mule Francis can talk; spawns yearly sequels until 1955, sidetracking O'Connor's career. William Alexander's A French Peep Show (Jan.) stars Dick Barrow as the MC, Gloria Howard as Atomic Bomb, Jo Jo Adams, Mabel Hunter, Gertrude "Baby" Banks, and Luella Owens. Henry King's Western The Gunfighter (June 23) (20th Cent. Fox), written by Nunnally Johnson based on a story by William Bowers and Andre de Toth stars Gregory Peck as over-the-hill gunslinger Jimmy Ringo, who keeps trying to quit while every young Tom, Dick, and Harry or Skip Homeier (as Hunt Bromley) wants a piece of him, finally getting gunned down in the back and telling the sheriff the other guy drew first, while telling the new king of the hill that he's the new It, and he'll be waiting for him in Hell?; Helen Westcott plays Ringo's wife Peggy Walsh. Joseph H. Lewis' Gun Crazy (B&W) (Jan. 20), based on a 1940 short story by MacKinlay Kantor stars curvy Peggie Cummins as sexy modern-day Annie Oakley Annie Laurie Starr, and John Dall as her sureshot hubby Barton "Bart" Tare, who go on a holdup spree, getting away with it until she reveals her bad side and kills two hostages, bringing the FBI down on them, after which they try to hide out in his boyhood camping spot, get turned in by his childhood friends, and die together with guns blazing; ripped-off by "Bonnie and Clyde" (1967)? William Wellman's The Happy Years is the film debut of too-handsome Robert John Wagner Jr. (1930-); too bad, it loses $1.096M, getting him off to a limping start. Henry Koster's Harvey (Oct. 13), based on the 1944 Mary Cole Chase play stars James Stewart as Elwood P. Dowd, who tags along with an invisible 6'3-1/2" "pooka" (rabbit) friend named Harvey; Josephine Hull plays his sister Veta Louise Simmons; Cecil Kellaway plays nuthouse dir. Dr. Chumley ("Have you ever been to Akron?"); 6'3.5" Stewart, who looks up at him in the flick later says Harvey's really 6'8"; does $2.6M box office; "My mother told me, she said, Elwood, to make it in this world you either have to be oh so clever or oh so pleasant. Well, for years I was clever. I recommend pleasant." Arthur Pierson's B&W Home Town Story stars Jeffrey Lynn as defeated Sen. Blake Washburn, who returns to his you know what and becomes a newspaper ed. with an anti-big business agenda until his daughter gets in an accident, and guess who helps; features Marjorie Reynolds, Marilyn Monroe, and Alan Hale Jr. David Bradley's Julius Caesar (Mar.), based on the Shakespeare play, the first film version with sound, using Northwestern U. students as extras stars up-and-coming Charlton Heston as Mark Antony (only paid cast member), Bradley as Brutus, and Harold Tasker as Caesar. David Lean's B&W Madeleine (Feb. 14), based on a true story about Madeleine Smith of Glasgow, Scotland, who endures the "trial of the century" in 1857 for the arsenic murder of her secret lover Emile L'Angelier, starring Lean's wife Ann Todd as Madeleine, and Ivan Desny as L'Angelier; Leslie Banks plays her father, and Norman Wooland her respectable suitor William Minnoch. Roy Ward Baker's B&W Morning Departure (GDF) (British Empire Films) (Universal-Internat.) (Feb. 21), based on the play by Kenneth Wollard is a British naval war drama film set aboard post-WWII British sub HMS Trojan, which is hit by a derelict magnetic mine, starring John Millas as Lt. Cmdr. Peter Armstrong, Helen Cherry as his wife Helen, Nigel Patrick as 1st Lt. Manson, Richard Attenborough as Stoke Snipe, and Lana Morris as his wife Rosie; Michael Caine plays Teaboy (uncredited). John Sturges' Mystery Street (B&W) (July 28) is a film noir starring Ricardo Montalban as small town dick Lt. Peter Morales, who investigates the case of a pregnant ho found in skeletal form on a Mass. beach with the help of Harvard prof. McAdoo (Bruce Bennett), saving innocent Henry Shanway (Marshall Thompson) from the chair, while his wife Grace (Sally Forrest) plays the weeping widow. Jules Dassin's Night and the City (June 9) (20th Cent., Fox), based on the 1938 Gerald Kersh is a film noir starring snakey Richard Widmark as Am. hustler Harry Fabian in London, who tries to arrange a wrestling match between Gregorius the Great (Stanislaus Zbyszko) and the Strangler (Mike Mazurk), and ends up dead after it goes bust; also stars Gene Tierney as Fabian's babe Mary Bristol, Herbert Lom as Kristos, Hugh Marlowe as Adam Dunne, and Googie Withers and Francis L. Sullivan as Helen and Phil Noseross of the naughty Silver Fox Club; Dassin is rushed to England to direct it after producer Daryl Zanuck tells him he is about to be blacklisted, and he spends the rest of his career making movies in France and Greece. Walt Disney's animated short Quack a Doodle Doo (Mar. 3) (Paramount Pictures) is the film debut of gargantuan duckling Baby Huey, voiced by Sid Raymond. Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon (The Outrage) (Aug. 25), based on the short story "In a Grove" by Ryunosuke Akutagawa about four witnesses to the rape of a woman (Machiko Kyo) and murder of her samurai husband (Masayuki Mori), incl. the rapist and the dead man through a medium (Fumiko Honma), who tell four different stories; gains the slant-eyed Japs, er, Japanese an internat. following despite WWII? John Ford's B&W Rio Grande (Nov. 15) (Republic Pictures), last in Ford's Cavalry Trilogy stars John Wayne as Lt. Col. Kirby Yorke, an ex-Civil War cavalry cmdr. on the Mexican border of Tex. campaigning against Apaches while dealing with unhappy wife Kathleen (Maureen O'Hara) and a new recruit, his son Trooper Jeferson Yorke (Claude Jarman Jr.); Ben Johnson plays Trooper Travis Tyree, who is running from the law; features folk songs sung by the Sons of the Pioneers incl. "Festus Haggen in Gunsmoke" Ken Curtis; studio pres. Herbert Yates forces Ford to make this film before "The Quiet Man", only to see the latter go #1; does $2.25M box office; "John Ford's greatest romantic triumph". William Keighley's Rocky Mountain (Nov. 11), filmed in Gallup, N.M., about Confederates sent to meet with Southern sympathizers from Calif. and capture the Rocky Mt. region, only to be exterminated by Shoshones in E. Colo. is Errol Flynn's last Western, in which he meets 3rd wife Patrice "Pat" Wymore (1927-), whom he marries next year despite being engaged to Romanian princess Irene Ginka. Max Ophuls' La Ronde (Sept. 27), based on the 1897 Arthur Schnitzler play "Reigen" about rotating love affairs introduces new French sex bombshell Simone Signoret (1921-85), and gets banned in New York, making it more popular. Herbert Sydney Wilcox's Odette (June 6) stars his wife Anna Neagle as WWII French Resistance heroine Odette Sansom (1912-95). Allan Dwan's Sands of Iwo Jima (Mar. 1) gets John Wayne his first Oscar nomination as Sgt. John M. Stryker, and features real footage, incl. an appearance by real flag-raising Marine Ira Hayes. Kurt Neumann's Rocketship X-M (Expedition Moon) (B&W) (July) stars Lloyd Bridges, and features theremin music by Ferde Grofe; shot after "Destination Moon", it hits theaters first because of less SFX, becoming the first U.S. sci-fi space adventure feature film. Sidney Gilliat's B&W State Secret (The Great Manhunt) (Sept. 11) (British Lion Films) (Columbia Pictures), filmed in the Italian Dolomites stars Douglas Fairbanks Jr. as Am. surgeon John Marlowe, who goes to small Euro country Vosnia to operate on the dictator, who dies but is replaced by a lookalike, causing him to be hunted by the secret police headed by Col. Galcon (Jack Hawkins), gaining the help of Lisa Robinson (Glynis Johns); Herbert Lom plays Balkan con man Karl Theodor; does Ł187K box office in the U.K. John Boulting's and Ray Boulting's B&W Seven Days to Noon (Oct. 10) (Charter Film Productions) (British Lion Films), written by Paul Dehn and James Bernard based on the book "Un Nazi en Manhattan" by Fernando Josseau stars Barry Jones as prof. John Malcolm Francis Willington, who steals a nuke from the Wallingford Research Center and tries to blackmail the British govt. into eliminating its nuclear stockpile, causing Scotland Yard Det. Folland (Andre Morrell) to try to track him down while he hides out with Mrs. Goldie Phillips (Olive Sloane); the debut of Chobham, Surrey-born film composer John Mervyn Addison (1920-98), who goes on to score 50+ films incl. "Pool of London" (1951), "The Man Between" (1953), "Terror on a Train" (1953), "The Red Beret" (1953), "Private's Progress" (1956), "Reach for the Sky" (1956), "The Entertainer" (1960), "A Taste of Honey" (1961), "Tom Jones" (1963), "Girl with Green Eyes" (1964), "The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders" (1965), "Torn Curtain" (1966), "The Charge of the Light Brigade" (1968), "Sleuth" (1972), "A Bridge Too Far" (1977), "Strange Invaders" (1983), and "Code Name: Emerald" (1985). Willi Forst's The Sinner (Die Sunderin) stars Hildegard Knef (1925-2002) as Marina, who performs the first nude scene in a German film, pissing-off the Roman Catholic Church and causing a scandal. Alfred Hitchcock's Stage Fright (Feb. 23) (Transatlantic Pictures) (Warner Bros.), filmed in London stars Jane Wyman as aspiring actress Eve Gil, who tries to hide her actor friend Jonathan Cooper (Richard Todd), secret lover of actress Charlotte Inwood (Marlene Dietrich), who is suspected of killing her husband and hiding her bloodstained dress, posing as reporter Doris Tinsdale to spy on her, while hooking up with Inspector Wilfred "Ordinary" Smith (Michael Wilding). Charles Walters' Summer Stock (If You Feel Like Singing) (Aug. 31) is an MGM musical starring Gene Kelly as summer stock troupe leader Joe Ross, and Judy Garland as Jane Falbury, a farm owner who lets them rehearse because of her actress sister Abigail (Gloria DeHaven), then just stumbles into the leading lady role because she sings as good as Judy Garland?; her last MGM movie and last pairing with Kelly; her problem with sleeping pills causes her to look fat, and a 2-week diet causes her to appear noticeably thinner when singing the final number Get Happy. Billy Wilder's Sunset Boulevard (Aug. 4), based on the story "A Can of Beans" by Charles Brackett stars aging silent film queen Gloria Swanson as aging silent film queen Norma Desmond, who hires young hack screeenwriter Joseph C. "Joe" Gillis (William Holden) to move into her mansion and engineer her comeback to those people "out there in the dark", uttering the soundbytes "All right, Mr. DeMille, I'm ready for my closeup", and "I'm big. It's the pictures that got small"; has-been dir. Erich von Stroheim plays has-been dir. Maximillian "Max" von Mayerling, who states that Erich von Stroheim used to be one of the three great dirs. of the silent film era along with D.W. Griffith and Cecil B. DeMille; music by Franz Waxman; does $5M box office on a $1.75M budget. Byron Haskin's Treasure Island (June 22) (Walt Disney Productions) (RKO Radio Pictures), based on the 1883 Robert Louis Stevenson novel and filmed by Disney in England using profits made previously in England which the govt. wouldn't let them take to the U.S. (their first live action film) stars child star Bobby Discroll as Jim Hawkins, Robert Newton as Long John Silver (who originates the pseudo-Cornish pirate accent and "arrrgh, matey" that everybody copies), Basil Sydney as Capt. Smollett, and Walter Fitzgerald as Squire Trelawney. Henri-Georges Clouzot's B&@ Wages of Fear is about French nitroglycerin drivers braving impassible roads in Central Am. Anthony Mann's B&W Winchester '73 (June 7) (Universal Pictures) stars James Stewart as Lin McAdam, who with his friend Rankie "High-Spade" Wilson (Millard Mitchell) chase outlaw Dutch Henry Brown (Stephen McNally) to Dodge City, Kan., where McAdam beats Brown in a shooting competition, winning a "One of One Thousand Winchester 1873 rifle, which Brown steals, resulting in a long chase, after which McAdam kills Brown in Tascosa, Tex. and it is revealed that they're really brothers; also features Shelley Winters and Dan Duryea; Tony Curtis plays a cavalry trooper; Rock Hudson plays an Injun. Jack Lee's B&W The Wooden Horse (Oct. 16) (British Lion Film Corp.) is about the WWII escape attempt from German POW camp Stalag Luft III, using a you know what to cover the tunnel entrance; stars Leo Genn as Peter Howard, David Tomlinson as Philip Rowe, Anthony Steel as John Clinton, David Greene as Bennett, and Peter Burton as Nigel. Michael Gordon's Woman in Hiding (Feb. 22) stars Ida Lupino (1914-95) and Howard Duff (1913-90) in their first onscreen pairing, after which the get married next year and become one of the most popular Hollywood couples of the 1950s; too bad, they separate in 1966 and divorce in 1984. Michael Curtiz's Young Man with a Horn (Feb. 9) (Warner Bros.), based on the 1938 novel by Dorothy Baker about jazz trumpeter Bix Beiderbecke, starring Kurt Douglas as horn player Rick Martin, who spirals down toward alcoholism, Doris Day as his babe Jo Jordan, and Lauren Bacall as his other babe (closet lez?) Amy North. Poetry: W.H. Auden (1907-73), Collected Shorter Poems, 1930-1944. Edmund Charles Blunden (1896-1974), After the Bombing and Other Short Poems. Aime Cesaire (1913-2008), Corps Perdu. Rene Char (1907-88), Les Matinaux. Robert Nathan (1894-1985), The Green Leaf: The Collected Poems of Robert Nathan. Pablo Neruda (1904-73), Canto General; "Come up with me, American love./ Kiss these secret stones with me./ The torrential silver of the Urubamba/ makes the pollen fly to its golden cup." Ezra Pound (1885-1972), Seventy Cantos. Carl Sandburg (1878-1967), Complete Poems (Pulitzer Prize). Giuseppe Ungaretti (1888-1970), The Promised Land (La Terra Promessa). Richard Wilbur (1921-2017), Ceremony, and Other Poems; incl. Ceremony; "A striped blouse in a clearing by Bazille/ Is, you may say, a patroness of boughs/ Too queenly kind toward nature to be kin./ But ceremony never did conceal,/ Save to the silly eyes, which all allows,/ How much we are the woods we wander in." William Carlos Williams (1883-1963), The Collected Later Poems. Plays: Jean Anouilh (1910-87), La Repetition ou l'Amour Puni (The Rehearsal). Irving Berlin (1888-1989), Howard Lindsay and Russel Crouse, Call Me Madam (musical) (Imperial Theatre, New York) (Oct. 12) (644 perf.); stars Ethel Merman as Sally Adams, "the hostess with the mostest on the ball", U.S. ambassador to Lichtenburg, who charms Cosmo Constantine while her press atache Kenneth Gibson falls for Princess Maria; inspired by the 1949 appointment of Dem. fundraiser Perle Mesta as U.S. ambassador to Luxembourg; incl. The Hostess with the Mostest, You're Just in Love. Boris Blacher (1903-75), Lysistrata (ballet). Emilio Carballido (1925-2008), Rosalba y los Llaveros (Rosalb and the Keyrings) (debut) (Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City); first modern Mexican comedy. Alice Childress (1920-94), Florence (New York); first African-Am. woman to have a play produced professionally; old black Miss Whitney has a premonition that her daughter Florence will become a success after meeting a racist white actress in a railway station; Just a Simple Life; based on Langston Hughes' "Simple Speaks His Mind" (1940). William Cooper (1910-2002), Prince Genji. Friedrich Durrenmatt (1921-90), Romulus the Great (Romulus der Grosse). Gunter Eich (1907-72), Geh Nicht Nach El Kuwehd!; Traume; "Be inconvenient, be sand, not oil in the gears of the world." T.S. Eliot (1888-1965), The Cocktail Party (Jan. 21) (New York); original title "One-Eye Riley"; Edward and Lavinia Chamberlayne are separated after five years of marriage, and try to keep up social appearances at a you know what, until the Unidentified Guest, who turns out to be their mutual psychiatrist, teaches them that their life together is better than apart, pissing-off Edward's mistress; based on Euripides' "Alcestis". Horton Foote (1916-), Celebration (Am. Nat. Theater, New York). Christopher Fry (1907-2005), Venus Observed (verse play) (St. James's Theatre, London); #2 (autumn) in his four seasonal plays; produced by Sir Laurence Olivier. Michel de Ghelderode (1898-1962), For They Know Not What They Do. James Leo Herlihy (1927-93), Streetlight Sonata (first play). William Inge (1913-73), Come Back, Little Sheba (first play) (Booth Theatre, New York) (Feb. 15) (190 perf.); overweight middle-aged Lola (Shirley Booth) and her recovering alcoholic hubby Doc Delaney (Sidney Blackmer) are disrupted by lustful boarder and college art student Marie Buckholder (Joan Lorring); Lola loses her dog named guess what; filmed in 1952 starring Burt Lancaster as Doc, and Terry Moore as Marie. Eugene Ionesco (1909-94), The Bald Soprano (The Bald Prima Donna) (Le Cantatrice Chauve) (Theatre des Noctambules, Paris) (May 11); the Smiths invite the Martins to their London home for a visit, after which they are joined by maid Mary and her fire chief lover, and engage in absurd conversation, incl. something about a bald soprano who always wears her hair in the same style, the play ending with the two couples shouting in unison "It's not that way. It's over there!"; becomes a big hit in France, being permanently shown since 1957 (until ?) at the Theatre de la Huchette; original title "English Without Effort", based on his attempts to learn English via the Assimil Method; Les Salutations. Pamela Hansford Johnson (1912-81), Corinth House (first play). John Knittel (1891-1970), Therese Etienne. Frank Loesser (1910-69), Abe Burrows (1910-85), and Jo Swerling (1897-1964), Guys and Dolls (musical) (46th Street Theatre, New York) (Nov. 24) (1,200 perf.); based on two short stories by Damon Runyon (1880-1946), "The Idyll of Miss Sarah Brown" and "Blood Pressure"; no Pulitzer Prize for Drama is awarded this year depite it being selected as the winner because Burrows' troubles with HUAC cause the Columbia U. trustees to veto it; features choreography by Michael Kidd (1915-2007); stars stars Robert Alda, Isabel Bigley, Vivian Blaine, and Samuel "Sam" Levene (1905-80), who can't sing, causing the key solo number "Sue Me" to be rewritten in a single octave; too bad, he loses the role to Frank Sinatra in the 1955 film version, although Sinatra can't add the Jewish touches, and would have been better as Sky Masterson, the role taken by Marlon Brando?; songs incl. Sue Me, A Bushel and a Peck, Adelaide's Lament, Sit Down You're Rocking the Boat, If I Were a Bell, Marry the Man Today, Take Back Your Mink, Luck Be a Lady, The Crapshooters' Dance, and A Fugue for Tinhorns, sung by three scruffy horse-betters at a street stall. Carson McCullers (1917-67), The Member of the Wedding (Empire Theatre, New York) (501 perf.); based on the 1946 novel; dir. by Harold Clurman; stars Ethel Waters, Julie Harris, and child prodigy Brandon De Wilde. Robert Nathan (1894-), The Sleeping Beauty. Clifford Odets (1906-63), The Country Girl; a drunken actor and his loyal wife; staged in 1952 as "Winter Journey". John Patrick (1905-95), The Curious Savage; Mrs. Savage inherits $10M, and her grown-up stepchildren get her committed to get their hands on it. Terence Rattigan (1911-77), Who Is Sylvia (The Man Who Loved Redheads). Armand Salacrou (1899-1989), Dieu le Savait, ou la Vie n'est pas Serieuse. Robert Cedric Sherriff (1896-1975), Home at Seven. Cornelia Otis Skinner (1901-79), Nuts in May. Samuel A. Taylor (1912-2000), The Happy Time; based on the stories of Robert Fontaine. Michael Todd (1907-58), Peep Show (June 28) (revue) (New York); incl. Blue Night, a beguine composed by Thai king Rama IX. Antonio Buero Vallejo (1916-2000), In the Burning Darkness (En la Ardiente Oscuridad). Derek Walcott (1930-), Henri Christophe: A Chronicle in Seven Scenes (debut). Sandy Wilson (1924-2014), Caprice (musical). Novels: The year that sci-fi emerges from magazines to book form? Isaac Asimov (1920-92), Pebble in the Sky (first novel); #1 in the Galactic Empire series (1950-2); I, Robot; actually, a screenplay that perennially fails to get filmed (until 2004); about situations where the Three Laws of Robotics get conflicted. Miguel Angel Asturias (1899-1974), Strong Wind. Louis Auchincloss (1917-), The Injustice Collectors (short stories). Jacques Audiberti (1899-1965), Le Maitre de Milan. Ludwig Bemelmans (1899-1962), Sunshine; grumpy old landlord Mr. Sunshine. Pierre Benoit (1886-1962), Les Agriates. Heinrich Boll (1917-85), Wanderer, Kommst du Nach Sparta (Stranger, Bear Word to the Spartans). Phyllis Bottome (1884-1963), Fortune's Finger; Under the Skin: Love Drew No Color Line When a White Woman Entered a Negro's World. Ray Bradbury (1920-2012), The Martian Chronicles (The Silver Locusts); about the dying Martian civilization. Paul Brickhill (1916-91), The Great Escape; the Mar. 1943 escape from Stalag Luft III; filmed in 1964. Frederick Buechner (1926-), A Long Day's Dying (first novel); title from John Milton's "Paradise Lost": "[Expulsion from Paradise] will prove no sudden but a slow pac'd evil,/ A Long Day's Dying to augment our pain." W.R. Burnett (1899-1982), Stretch Dawson (Yellow Sky); filmed in 1948, and as "The Jackals" in 1967. James M. Cain (1892-1977), Jealous Woman. John Dickson Carr (1906-77), The Bride of Newgate; Night at the Mocking Widow. Agatha Christie (1890-1976), Three Blind Mice and Other Stories; A Murder is Announced (June); Miss Marple. Walter Van Tilburg Clark (1907-71), The Watchful Gods and Other Stores; incl. "The Wind and the Snow of Winter". Arthur C. Clarke (1917-2008), Prelude to Space (first sci-fi novel). Hal Clement (1922-2003), Needle (From Outer Space); about an alien life form that lives in the human body; followed by "Through the Eye of a Needle" (1979). Duff Cooper (1890-1954), Operation Heartbreak (first and only novel); the Apr. 1943 MI6 operation to fool the Nazis into thinking that the Allies were going to invade Sardinia instead of Sicily. William Cooper (1910-2002), Scenes from Provincial Life; Joe Lunn. A.J. Cronin (1896-1981), The Spanish Gardener. Maurice Druon (1918-2009), La Chute des Corps. James T. Farrell (1904-79), An American Dream Girl; The Name is Fogarty: Private Papers on Public Matters. Howard Fast (1914-2003), The Proud and the Free. C.S. Forester (1899-1966), Mr. Midshipman Hornblower. Paul Goodman (1911-72), The Dead of Spring. Catherine Gordon (1895-1981) and Allen Tate (1899-1979), The House of Fiction: An Anthology of the Short Story. Winston Graham (1908-2003), Night Without Stars; Jeremy Poldark; Poldark Saga #3. Giovanni Guareschi (1908-68), The Little World of Don Camillo. James Norman Hall (1887-1951), The Far Lands. Robert A. Heinlein (1907-88), The Man Who Sold the Moon. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), Across the River and Into the Trees; first novel since "For Whom the Bell Tolls" (1940); title from the quote "Let us cross over the river and rest under the shade of the trees" by Confed. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson; about aging U.S. Col. Richard Cantwell on a duck hunt in Trieste, Italy, flashing back to WWI and young hot Venetian woman Renata, based on Hemingway's babe Adriana Ivancich. John Hersey (1914-93), The Wall; the Warsaw Ghetto. Patricia Highsmith (1921-95), Strangers on a Train (first novel); the 1951 Alfred Hitchcock film makes her a star and lets her give up her career writing for comic books, developing novels that make a criminal into somebody to cheer for. Eric Hodgins (1899-1971), Blandings Way; sequel to "Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House" (1946). Elizabeth Jane Howard (1923-), The Beautiful Visit (first novel). Langston Hughes (1902-67), Simple Speaks His Mind; Jess B. Semple. Fannie Hurst (1889-1968), Anywoman. Ruth Prawer Jhabvala (1927-), To Whom She Will (first novel). Nikos Kazantzakis (1883-1957), Captain Michalis (Freedom and Death). Margaret Kennedy (1896-1967), The Feast. Jack Kerouac (1922-69), The Town and the City (first novel). Joseph Kessel (1898-1979), Le Tour du Malheur (The Lion). Francis Parkinson Keyes (1885-1970), Joy Street; 1936-46 Boston, Mass. Par Lagerkvist (1891-1974), Barabbas (Dec. 31). Carlo Levi (1902-75), L'Orologio (The Watch). C.S. Lewis (1898-1963), The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe; set in 1940; first of seven books about Narnia, where it's "always winter and never Christmas": "Prince Caspian" (1951), "The Voyage of the Dawn Treader" (1952), "The Silver Chair" (1953), "The Horse and His Boy" (1954), "The Magician's Nephew" (1955), "The Last Battle" (1956); Christlike lion-messiah Aslan, the White Witch, the four Pevensie siblings Susan, Lucy, Peter, Edmund (the betrayer), and a crypto-Christian battle between good and evil; sells 95M copies in the next 55 years; "The whole Narnian story is about Christ", writes Lewis in a 1961 letter to a child; Lewis recommends that they be read in the following order: 1955, 1950, 1954, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1956. Norman Lindsay (1879-1969), Dust or Polish? Richard Llewellyn (1906-83), A Few Flowers for Shiner. Denis Mackail (1892-1971), It Makes the World Go Round (last novel). Rose Macaulay (1881-1958), The World My Wilderness. Naguib Mahfouz (1911-2006), The Beginning and the End. Francis Van Wyck Mason (1901-78), Valley Forge: 24 December 1777. Angela du Maurier (1904-2002), Reveille. Daphne du Maurier (1907-89), Parasites. Mary McCarthy (1912-89), Cast a Cold Eye (short stories). William McFee (1881-1966), The Law of the Sea. Katherine Milhous (1894-1977), The Egg Tree (Caldecott Medal). Percy Howard Newby (1918-97), The Young May Moon. Charles Bernard Nordhoff (1887-1947) and Tod Ford, The Far Lands (posth.). Patrick O'Brian (1914-2000), The Last Pool and Other Stories. Clifford Odets (1906-63), The Country Girl. Milton K. Ozaki (1913-89), The Affair of the Frigid Blonde (The Deadly Blonde). Edith Pargeter (1913-95), The Coast of Bohemia. John Dos Passos (1896-1970), U.S.A. Elliot Harold Paul (1896-1958), Springtime in Paris. Conrad Michael Richter (1890-1968), The Town (Pulitzer Prize). Henry Morton Robinson (1898-1961), The Cardinal; bestseller about Stephen Fermoyle, based on Francis Cardinal Spellman. William Sansom (1912-76), The Passionate North (short stories). Budd Schulberg (1914-2009), The Disenchanted. Allan Seager (1906-68), The Old Man of the Mountain (short stories). Dr. Seuss (1904-91), If I Ran the Zoo; coins the word "nerd". Irwin Shaw (1913-84), Mixed Company (short stories). Nevil Shute (1899-1960), A Town Like Alice (The Legacy); Jean Paget turns dingy Willstown into you know what. Clifford D. Simak (1904-88), Cosmic Engineers; metal men fight the Hellhounds to keep two universes from colliding. C.P. Snow (1905-80), The Masters. E.E. "Doc" Smith (1890-1965), First Lensman; Galactic Patrol, Gray Lensman; Second Stage Lensmen; Children of the Lens; about Master Pilot John K. Kinnison fighting millennia-old beings of pure intellect and psionic powers in an inter-galactic war using beams of lambent energy, cones of destruction, hyper-spatial tubes et al.; sci-fi's first space epic? Olaf Stapledon (1886-1950), A Man Divided. Wallace Stegner (1909-83), The Preacher and the Slave (Joe Hill: A Biographical Novel); The Women on the Wall (short stories). Irving Stone (1903-89), Immortal Wife; about Jessie Benton Fremont (1824-1902), wife of "the Great Pathfinder" John Charles Fremont (1813-90). Theodore Sturgeon (1918-85), The Dreaming Jewels (The Synthetic Man); 8-y.-o. Horton "Horty" Bluett runs away to the circus disguised as a girl, and takes on evil carnival owner Pierre Monetre, who is trying to unlock the power of alien jewels; in 1951 he pub. Sturgeon's Law: "90% of science fiction is crud, but then, 90% of everything is crud." Rosemary Sutcliff (1920-92), The Chronicles of Robin Hood (first novel). Frank Swinnerton (1884-1982), A Flower for Catherine. Peter Hillsman Taylor (1917-94), A Woman of Means. Josephine Tey (1896-1952), To Love and Be Wise; Inspector Alan Grant #4. Jack Vance (1916-2013), The Dying Earth (first fantasy novel); first in the Dying Earth series. Gore Vidal (1925-2012), A Search for the King: A 12th Century Legend; troubador Blondel searches for his lover, er, master Richard I Lionheart, encountering dragons, giants, and werewolves; Dark Green, Bright Red; predicts the 1954 Guatemala coup. Georg von der Vring (1889-1968), Und Wenn Du Willst, Vergiss!; a love affair between a German man and British woman. Robert Penn Warren (1905-89), World Enough and Time. Evelyn Waugh (1903-66), Helena. Dennis Wheatley (1897-1977), The Second Seal. Tennessee Williams (1911-83), The Roman Spring of Mrs. Stone. Kathleen Winsor (1919-2003), Star Money. Frank Garvin Yerby (1916-91), Floodtide; "A big, savage novel about a man's fall into lust." Births: Canadian 5'11" hockey player (Philadelphia Flyers) Richard George "Rick" MacLeish on Jan. 3 in Cannington, Ont. Am. "Pamela Barnes Ewing in Dallas" actress Victoria Principal on Jan. 3 in Fukuoka, Japan; born while her father is in the USAF; of English, Italian, and Filipino descent. British atty.-gen. (2001-7) Peter Henry Goldsmith, Baron Goldsmith on Jan. 5 in Liverpool; educated at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge U., and Univ. College London; created baron in 1999. Am. rock guitarist-songwriter (pemphigus sufferer) Chris Stein (Blondie) on Jan. 5 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. FBI dir. #5 (1993-2001) Louis Joseph Freeh on Jan. 6 in Jersey City, N.J.; educated at Rutgers U., and NYU. U.S. FBI acting dir. (2001) Thomas J. Picard on Jan. 6 in New York City; educated at St. Francis College, and St. John's U. Am. "Col. Wilma Deering in Buck Rogers in the 25th Century", "Kate Summers in Silver Spoons" actress Erin Gray on Jan. 7 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Am. baseball pitcher (lefty) (Cincinnati Reds, 1972-3) (Baltimore Orioles, 1974-7, 1982) Ross Albert "Scuz" "Crazy Eyes" Grimsley II on Jan. 7 in Topeka, Kan.; son of Ross Albert Grimsley (1922-94); known for his hair and mustache, and turquoise contact lenses. English DNA fingerprinting geneticist Sir Alec John Jeffreys on Jan. 9 in Oxford; knighted in 1994; educated at Merton College, Oxford U. U.S. Rep. (R-Mo.) (1997-2011) and House Majority Leader (2005-6) Roy Dean Blunt on Jan. 10 in Niangua, Mo.; educated at Southwest Baptist U., and Mo. State U. U.S. Rep. (D-Tex.) (1995-) (black) Sheila Jackson Lee on Jan. 12 in Queens, N.Y.; educated at Yale U., and U. of Va. Am. "Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer" dir. John McNaughton on Jan. 13 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Lydia Grant in Fame" actress-dancer-choreographer-dir.-producer (black) Deborah Kaye "Debbie" Allen on Jan. 16 in Houston, Tex.; La. Creole father, African-Am. mother; sister of Phylicia Rashad (1948-); educated at Howard U. Italian 6'9" basketball player Dino Meneghin on Jan. 18 in Alano di Piave, Veneto. Canadian auto racer Joseph Gilles Henri Villenueve (d. 1982) on Jan. 18 in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec; father of Jacques Villenueve (1971-). Brazilian-Am. "Ted Hoffman in Murder One" actor (Jewish) Daniel Benzali on Jan. 20 in Rio de Janeiro. Am. Dem. Wash. gov. #21 (1997-2005), U.S. commerce secy. #3 (2009-11), and U.S. ambassador to China #10 (2011-4) Gary Faye Locke on Jan. 21 in Seattle, Wash.; educated at Yale U., and Boston U. British R&B-pop singer-songwriter (black) Billy Ocean (Leslie Sebastian Charles) on Jan. 21 in Fyzabad, Trinidad; emigrates to London in 1958. Am. rock musician Danny Federici (Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band) on Jan. 23 in N.J. Am. "Angus MacGyver in MacGyver" actor Richard Dean Anderson on Jan. 23 in Minneapolis, Minn. Austrian Freedom Party of Austria politician (Roman Catholic) Joerg (Jörg) Haider (d. 2008) on Jan. 26 in Bad Goisern; educated at the U. of Vienna. Bahraini king (1999-) (Sunni Muslim) Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah on Jan. 28 in Riffa. Am. "Brass Buckles", "Hee Haw" model-actress-singer (Jewish) Barbi Benton (Barbara Lynn Klein) on Jan. 28 in New York City; grows up in Sacramento, Calif.; educated at UCLA. Israeli journalist (Jewish) Barry M. Rubin (d. 2014) on Jan. 28 in Washington, D.C.; educated at Georgetown U. Am. naturalist-outdoorsman Tom Brown Jr. on Jan. 29 in Toms River, N.J.; trained in wilderness survival by Lipan Apache elder Stalking Wolf AKA Grandfather. German "Mieze in Berlin Alexanderplatz", "Marianne and Julianne" actress Barbara Sukowa on Feb. 2 in Bremen. Am. "Campus Man" actress Morgan Fairchild (Patsy Ann McClenny) on Feb. 3 in Dallas, Tex. Am. rock drummer Phillip W. "Phil" Ehart (Kansas) on Feb. 4 in Coffeyville, Kan. Am. "Inseparable", "Pink Cadillac" singer (black) Natalie Maria Cole (d. 2015) on Feb. 6 in Los Angeles, Calif.; daughter of Nat King Cole (1919-65). Mexican politician Luis Donaldo Colosio-Murrieta (d. 1994) on Feb. 10 in Magdalena de Kino, Sonora; educated at the U. of Penn. Am. Olympic gold medal swimmer Mark Andrew Spitz on Feb. 10 in Modesto, Calif. English "When the Heart Rules the Mind" musician Stephen Richard "Steve" Hackett (Genesis, GTR) on Feb. 12 in Pimlico, London. Canadian "Starship Troopers", "Total Recall" actor Frederick Reginald "Michael" Ironside on Feb. 12 in Toronto, Ont. English rock guitarist-songwriter Stephen Richard "Steve" Hackett on Feb. 12 in Pimlico. English singer-flautist Peter Brian Gabriel (Genesis) on Feb. 13 in Cobham, Surrey. Am. climatologist Patrick J. "Pat" Michaels (d. 2022) on Feb. 15 in Berwyn, Ill.; educated at the U. of Chicago, and U. of Wisc. Am. "The Minimalist" NYT food critic Mark Bittman on Feb. 17 in ?. Am. "Ferris Bueller's Day Off", "Sixteen Candles", "The Breakfast Club", "Uncle Buck", "Weird Science" dir.-producer-writer John Hughes Jr. (d. 2009) on Feb. 18 in Lansing, Mich. Am. "Jacy in The Last Picture Show", "Betsy in Taxi Driver", "Madelyn Maddie Hayes in Moonlighting" actress Cybill Lynne Shepherd on Feb. 18 in Memphis, Tenn.; Miss Congeniality in the Miss America pageant; at age 20 is encouraged to lie about her age, but later comes clean? Am. rock bassist Walter Carl Becker (Steely Dan) on Feb. 20 in Queens, N.Y.; collaborator of Donald Fagen (1948-). Ethiopian pres. #4 (2018-) (first woman) Sahle-Work Zewde on Feb. 21 in Addis Ababa; educated at the U. of Montpellier. Jordanian PM (2011-12) Awn Shawkat Al-Khasawneh on Feb. 22 in Amman; educated at Queens' College, Cambridge U. Am. 6'6" basketball hall-of-fame player (Philadelphia Nets #6, 1976-87) Julius Winfield "Dr. J." Erving II on Feb. 22 in Nassau County, N.Y.; educated at the U. of Mass. French "Madeleine in Entre Nous" actress Miou-Miou (Sylvette Herry) on Feb. 22 in Paris. English "Educating Rita", "Molly Weasley in Harry Potter" actress-writer Julia Mary "Julie" Walters on Feb. 22 in Edgbaston, Birmingham. Am. "The Mind-Body Problem" novelist (Jewish) Rebecca Goldstein (nee Newberger) on Feb. 23 in White Plains, N.Y.; educated at Princeton U.; wife of Sheldon Goldstein and Steven Pinker (1954-); mother of Yael Goldstein Love and Danielle Blau. Am. "Bad to the Bone" blues rock musician George Thorogood on Feb. 24 in Wilmington, Del. Irish "The Crying Game", "Night in Tunisia", "The Butcher Boy" dir.-writer-novelist (Roman Catholic-turned-atheist) Neil Patrick Jordan on Feb. 25 in Sligo; educated at Univ. College Dublin. Am. rock musician Jonathan Cain (Jonathan Leonard Friga) (Journey, Bad English, The Babys) on Feb. 26 in Chicago, Ill.; husband (2015-) of Paula White (1966-). Am. "Close to You", "We've Only Just Begun" singer-drummer (anorexic) Karen Carpenter (d. 1983) (Carpenters) on Mar. 2 in New Haven, Conn.; sister of Richard Carpenter (1946-). Am. football linebacker (Dallas Cowboys, 1975-9) (black) Thomas "Hollywood" Henderson on Mar. 3 in Austin, Tex. Am. "Dr. Jack Badofsky in SNL", "Carl Sweetchuck in Police Academy" actor-writer Timothy James "Tim" Kazurinsky on Mar. 3 in Johnstown, Penn. Canadian auto racer Francis Archibald Affleck (d. 1985) on Mar. 4 in Saint-Lambert, Quebec. U.S. energy secy. #14 (2017-) and Repub gov. #47 of Tex. (2000-15) James Richard "Rick" Perry on Mar. 4 in Haskell, Tex.; of English descent; grows up in Paint Creek, Tex.; educated at Texas A&M U. English human resources expert Sir Ken Robinson on Mar. 4 in Liverpool; educated at the U. of London. Am. violinist Eugene Fodor on Mar. 5 in Denver, Colo. Am. "Immaculate Reception" 6'2" football hall-of-fame fullblack (black) (Pittsburg Steelers, 1972-83) Franco Harris on Mar. 7 in Ft. Dix, N.J.; African-Am. father, Italian-born mother; educated at Penn State U. Guinea PM (2008-10) Kabine (Kabiné) Komara on Mar. 8; born into a Maninka family; educated at the U. of Colo., and Am. U. in Cairo. Iranian army CIC (2005-) Gen. Ataollah Salehi on Mar. 9 in Tehran. Am. "Spin and Win" auto racer Daniel John "Danny" Sullivan III on Mar. 5 in Louisville, Ky. Am. "Don't Say You Don't Remember" singer-actress Beverly Bremers (rhynes with dreamers) on Mar. 10 in Chicago, Ill.; grows up in St. Louis, Mo. Am. "Don't Worry, Be Happy" singer (black) Robert "Bobby" McFerrin Jr. on Mar. 11 in Manhattan, N.Y.; son of Robert McFerrin Sr. (1921-2006). Am. "Timmy Martin in Lassie" actor Jonathan Bion "Jon" Provost on Mar. 12 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Fargo" actor-dir. William Hall Macy Jr. on Mar. 13 in Miami, Fla. Am. conservative commentator (Jewish) Irving Charles Krauthammer (d. 2018) on Mar. 13 in New York City; educated at McGill U., Balliol College, Oxford U., and Harvard U., where he becomes a quadraplegic in his first year of medical school after a diving board accident. Am. "Disco Duck", "Meatballs" singer-DJ Rigdon Osmond "Rick" Dees III on Mar. 14 in Jacksonville, Fla. Am. Muslim imam (black) Siraj Wahhaj (Jeffrey Kearse) on Mar. 15 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at NYU. Am. "Billy Bibbit in One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest", "Piter De Vries in Dune", "Voice of Chucky" actor Bradford Claude "Brad" Dourif on Mar. 18 in Huntington, W. Va.; father of Fiona Dourif (1981-). Am. drummer John Hartman (Doobie Brothers) on Mar. 18 in Falls Church, Va. Am. "The Celestine Prophecy" writer-producer James Redfield on Mar. 19 near Birmingham, Ala.; educated at Auburn U. Am. "Prof. Eddie Jessup in Altered States", "Ned Racine in Body Heat", "Luis Alberto Molina in Kiss of the Spider Woman", "James Leeds in Children of a Lesser God", "Arkady Renko in Gorky Park", "Tom Grunick in Broadcast News" actor William McChord Hurt (d. 2022)on Mar. 20 in Washington, D.C.; foster son of Henry Luce III; educated at Tufts U., and Juilliard School. English rock drummer Carl Frederick Kendall Palmer (Emerson, Lake & Palmer, Asia, Crazy World of Arthur Brown, Atomic Rooster, Asia) on Mar. 20 in Handsworth, Birmingham. English "Dreamer", "The Logical Song" rock singer-musician Charles Roger Pomfret Hodgson (Supertramp) on Mar. 21 in Portsmouth, Hampshire. Am. corrections officer (first female to die in the line of duty) Donna Payant (nee Collins) (d. 1981) on Mar. 22. Anglo-Egyptian "In the Eye of the Son" novelist-writer (Muslim) Ahdaf Soueif on Mar. 23 in Cairo. Am. "The King Is Gone" country singer Ronald Dean "Ronnie" McDowell on Mar. 25 in Portland, Tenn. Am. "Close the Door" R&B singer (black) Theodore DeReese "Teddy" Pendergrass (d. 2010) (Harold Melvin and the Blue Notes) on Mar. 26 in Philadelphia, Penn. Canadian "Ned Nederlander in The Three Amigos", "Ed Grimley" actor-comedian Martin Short on Mar. 26 in Hamilton, Ont. English folk singer Steve Tilson on Mar. 26 in Liverpool; grows up in Leicestershire; father of Martha Tilson (1975-) and Joe Tilston. English rocker Anthony George "Tony" Banks (Genesis) on Mar. 27 in East Hoathly, East Sussex. Scottish "Rubeus Hagrid in Harry Potter", "Valentin Dmitrovich Zukovsky in GoldenEye" actor Robbie Coltrane (Anthony Robert McMillan) on Mar. 30 in Rutherglen, South Lanarkshire. Am. 6'11" basketball player (black) (Portland Trail Blazers #35, 1972-6) LaRue Martin on Mar. 30 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Loyola U. U.S. Supreme Court justice #110 (2006-) Samuel Anthony Alito Jr. on Apr. 1 in Trenton, N.J.; Italian-Am. parents; grows up in Hamilton Township, N.J.; educated at Princeton U., and Harvard U. Am. "Chicago Hope" actress-dir. Christine Lahti (Finnish "bay or cove") on Apr. 4 in Birmingham, Mich. Swedish singer Agneta Ase "Agnetha" Faltskog (ABBA) on Apr. 5 in Jonkoping. Am. baseball player (black) (lefty) (Cincinnati Reds, 1973-81) (Seattle Mariners, 1990-1) George Kenneth "Ken" Griffey Sr. on Apr. 10 in Donora, Penn.; father of Ken Griffey Jr. (1969-). English rock drummer Peter "Pete" Van Hooke (Mike + the Mechanics, Van Morrison, Ezio) on Apr. 6 in Stanmore, Middlesex. Malawian pres. #4 (2012-) (first female) (black) Joyce Hilda Banda (nee Mtila) on Apr. 12 in Malemia. Am. "The Partridge Family" singer-actor David Bruce Cassidy on Apr. 12 in New York City; son of actor Jack Cassidy (1927-76); brother of Shaun Cassidy (1958-). Am. serial murderer Joseph Paul Franklin (James Clayton Vaughn Jr.) (d. 2013) on Apr. 13 in Mobile, Ala. Am. "Quest for Fire", "Beauty and the Beast", "Hellboy" actor (Jewish) Ronald Francis "Ron" Perlman on Apr. 13 in Washington Heights, N.Y.; educated at CUNY, and U. of Minn. Am. "Grim Reaper in Bill & Ted'ws Bogus Journey", "Col. Stuart in Die Hard 2", "Heywood in The Shawshank Redemption" actor William Thomas Sadler on Apr. 13 in Buffalo, N.Y.; of Scottish-English-German descent; educated at Cornell U. Am. physician-geneticist Francis Sellers Collins on Apr. 14 in Staunton, Va.; educated at the U. of Va., Yale U., and U. of N.C. Am. "The Fisher King", "Sleepless in Seattle" producer-writer Lynda Rosen Obst on Apr. 14 in New York City; educated at Pomona College, and Columbia U. Am. actress "Jackie in The Amityville Horror", Missy Mahoney in Miss Firecracker" Amy Wright on Apr. 15 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Chicago, and Beloit College; wife (1989-) of Rip Torn (1931-). Am. "Dirty Dancing", "Material Girl", "Xanadu", "High School Musical" actor-dir.-producer-choreographer Kenneth John "Kenny" Ortega on Apr. 18 in Palo Alto, Calif. Swedish psychiatrist Lars Christopher Gillberg on Apr. 19. Am. civil rights scholar (black) (Jewish) Lani Guinier on Apr. 19 in New York City; Jamaican father, Jewish mother; educated at Radcliffe College, and Yale U.; first African-Am. tenured prof. at Harvard Law School (1998). English "I Love Your Way" rock musician Peter Kenneth Frampton (Humble Pie) on Apr. 20 in Beckenham, Kent. Russian politician Lt. Gen. Alexander Ivanovich Lebed (d. 2002) on Apr. 20 in Novocherkassk. Am. Black Panther member (black) Robert James "Lil' Bobby" Hutton (d. 1968) on Apr. 21 in Jefferson County, Ark. Am. "Falling" musician Jesse Willard "Pete" Carr (LeBlanc and Carr) on Apr. 22 in Daytona Beach, Fla. Canadian hockey right wing (Boston Bruins, Philadelphia Flyers) ("the Riverton Rifle") Reginald Joseph "Reggie" Leach on Apr. 23 in Riverton, Man.; of First Nations ethnicity. Am. "The Tonight Show" (1992-) comedian James Douglas Muir "Jay" Leno on Apr. 28 in New Rochelle, N.Y.; Italian-Am. father, Scottish-Am. mother; educated at Emerson College. Israeli physician-politician (Jewish) Aryeh Eldad on May 1 in Tel Aviv; son of Israel Eldad (1910-96). Am. "Cold As Ice" rock musician Lou Gramm (Louis Andrew Grammatico) (Foreigner) on May 2 in Rochester, N.Y. Nicaraguan activist-actress Bianca Jagger (nee Perez-Mora Macias) on May 2 in Managua, Nicaragua; wife (1971-80) of Mick Jagger. Am. soul singer (black) Vaetta "Vet" Stone (Sly and the Family Stone) on May 2 in Vallejo, Calif.; sister of Sly Stone (1943-), Rose Stone (1945-), and Freddie Stone (1946-). Welsh "Those Were the Days" singer Mary Hopkin (AKA Mary Visconti) on May 3 in Pontardawe. Iranian petroleum minister (2011-) (Shiite Muslim) Rostam Ghasemi on May 5 in Rasht, Gilan Province. Iranian pop singer-actress Googoosh (Faegheh Atashin) on May 5 in Tehran. Am. private investigator Kinsey Millhone on May 5 in Santa Teresa, Calif. :) Am. "The Bone Collector" crime novelist Jeffrey Deaver on May 6 in Glen Elyn, Ill. ; educated at the U. of Mo., and Fordham U. Am. rock drummer Charles L'Empereur "Prairie" Prince (The Tubes, Journey) on May 7 in Charlotte, N.C. Am. "Meet the Press" NBC-TV journalist (1991-2008) Timothy John "Tim" Russert Jr. (d. 2008) on May 7 in Buffalo, N.Y.; Irish-Am. Catholic parents. Am. "The Man Who Loved Women" actress-producer Marcia Lynne "Marcheline" Bertrand (d. 2007) on May 9 in Blue Island, Ill.; wife (1971-80) of Jon Voight (1938); mother of James Haven (1973-) and Angelina Jolie (1975-). Am. "Swarm", "Sea Change" poet Jorie Graham on May 9 in New York City; educated at the Sorbonne and NYU. Am. rock bassist Thomas "Tom" Peterson (Petersson) (Cheap Trick) on May 9 in Rockford, Ill.; inventor of the 12-string bass guitar concept. U.S. homeland security secy. #5 (2017-) USMC gen. John Francis Kelly on May 11 in Boston, Mass.; educated at the U. of Mass. Boston. Irish "The Usual Suspects", "Stigmata", "End of Days" actor-playwright (atheist) Gabriel Byrne on May 12 in Dublin; studies to be a Roman Catholic priest then quits; sets foot in the U.S. for the first time at age 37; husband (1988-99) of Ellen Barkin (1954-); "They've turned American movies into McMovies, so that when the moviegoer gets his movie, it's like a hamburger." Am. "Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention" historian (black) William Manning Marable (d. 2011) on May 13 in Dayton, Ohio; educated at the U. of Md. Am. "Higher Ground", "Living for the City", "Superstition", "Isn't She Lovely?", "You Are the Sunshine of My Life" singer (black) (blind) "Little" Stevie Wonder (Stevland Hardaway/Judkins Morris) on May 13 in Saginaw, Mich.; father of Aisha Morris (1975-), Mumtaz Morris (1983-), Kailand Morris, Mandia Kadjay Carl Stevland Morris, and Nia Morris (2014-). U.S. Rep. (D-Calif.) (2013-) Karen Lorraine Jacqueline "Jackie" Speier on May 14 in San Francisco, Calif.; German immigrant father, Armenian descent mother; named after Jackie Kennedy; educated at UCD. Swedish toxicologist and Mayanist Carl Johan Calleman on May 15 in Stockholm; educated at the U. of Stockholm. English rock musician-songwriter Daniel David "Danny" Kirwan (Fleetwood Mac) on May 15 in Brixton, London. Am. "King Island Christmas", "The Thought Exchange" theater-film composer-songwriter David Alan Friedman on May 16. Am. "Little Shop of Horrors", "The Little Mermaid" playwright-lyricist (gay) Howard Elliott Ashman (d. 1991) on May 17 in Baltimore, Md.; educated at Boston U., Goddard College, and Indiana U. Yugoslavian pres. (1989-90), Slovenian PM (1992-2002), and Slovenian pres. (2002-7) Janez Drnovsek (d. 2008) on May 17 in Kisovec. Am. Olympic hurdler Rodney "Hot Rod" Milburn Jr. (d. 1997) on May 18 in Opelousas, La. Am. rock musician Mark Allen Mothersbaugh (Devo) on May 18 in Akron, Ohio; brother of Bob Mothersbaugh (1952-); educated at Kent State U. Am. pollster Patrick Hayward "Pat" Caddell (d. 2019) on May 19 in Rock Hill, S.C.; educated at Harvard U. Chinese democracy activist Wei Jingsheng on May 20 in Beijing. U.S. Repub. atty. gen. #75 (1991-3) and #85 (2019-) (Roman Catholic) William Pelham Barr on May 23 in NEw York City; Jewish to Roman Catholic convert father; educated at Columbia U., and George Washington U.; known for playing the bagpipes.' Am. "Deadly Drifter" actress O-Lan Jones on May 23 in Los Angeles, Calif.; wife (1984-9) of Sam Shepard (1943-). Am. "Body of Lies" novelist-journalist (The Washington Post) David R. Ignatius on May 26 in Cambridge, Mass.; educated at Harvard U., and King's College, Cambridge U. Am. "Centipede" singer (black) Maureen Reillette "Rebbie" Jackson on May 29 in Gary, Ind.; sister of Michael Jackson (1958-2009) and Janet Jackson (1966-). Am. "Logan in Logan's Run", "Tom Gillette in Judging Amy" actor Gregory Harrison on May 31 in Avalon, Catalina Island, Calif. Am. "I've Never Been to Me" R&B singer (white) Charlene (Charlene Marilynn D'Angelo) on June 1 in Hollywood, Calif. Soviet cosmonaut Gennadi Mikhailovich Manakov on June 1 in Yefimovka, Orenburg Oblast. Am. rock musician Wayne Nelson (Little River Band) on June 1 in Kansas City, Mo. English musician-songwriter Graham Cyrill Russell (Air Supply) on June 1 in Nottingham; collaborator of Russell Hitchcock (1949-). Canadian actress-singer Joanna Gleason on June 2 in Winnipeg, Man. Am. "Stumblin' In" actress-musician-songwriter Susan Kay "Suzi" Quatro on June 3 in Detroit, Mich.; known for being more successful in Europe than the U.S. and for parodying herself on the TV series "Happy Days". Am. "Let's Hear it for the Boy", "It's Gonna Take a Miracle" singer-songwriter (black) Deniece "Niecy" Williams on June 3 in Gary, Ind. Am. "Officer Matt Cordell in Maniac Cop" actor Robert Z'Dar (Robert J. Zdarsky) (d. 2015) on June 3 in Chicago, Ill. Am. libertarian commentator and judge (Roman Catholic) Andrew P. Napolitano on June 6 in Newark, N.J.; educated at Princeton U. and Notre Dame U. German physicist Hans-Joachim "John" Schellnhuber on June 7 in Ortenburg, Bavaria; educated at the U. of Regensburg, and U. of Oldenburg. English rock bassist-songwriter-producer Trevor Bolder (Uriah Heep, Spiders from Mars, David Bowie) on June 9 in Kingston upon Hull. Am. writer-journalist (Jewish) Richard Ben Cramer on June 12 in Rochester, N.Y.; educated at Johns Hopkins U. and Columbia U. English archbishop of Canterbury #104 (2002-12) Rowan Douglas Williams on June 14 in Swansea, Glamorgan, Wales; educated at Christ's College, Cambridge U., and Wadham College, Oxford U. Am. "Crazy on You" singer Ann Dustin Wilson (Heart) on June 19 in San Diego, Calif.; sister of Nancy Wilson (1954-). Iraqi PM #1 (2006-) (Muslim) Nouri Kamil Mohammed Hassan al-Maliki on June 20 in Abu Gharaq. Australian "Love Is in the Air" singer-songwriter John Paul "Squeak" Young (The All Stars) on June 21 in Glasgow, Scotland; emigrates to Australia in 1962. Am. 6'7" football defensive lineman (Washington Redskins) (1975-88) David Roy Butz on June 23 in Lafayette, Ala.; nephew of Earl Butz (1909-2008). Am. "Carrie", "Officer Ann Lewis in Robocop" (Jewish) Nancy Anne Allen on June 24 in New York City; Irish-Am. father, Jewish-Am. mother; wife (1979-84) of Brian De Palma (1940-) and (1992-3) Craig Shoemaker (1962-). Israeli maj. gen. (Jewish) Moshe "Bogie" Ya'alon (Smilansky) on June 24 in Kiryat Haim; Ukrainian Jewish immigrant father. Am. Christian apologist Gary Robert Habermas on June 28 in Detroit, Mich.; educated at William Tyndale College, U. of Detroit, and Mich. State U. Am. "Heart of Rock and Roll" singer Huey Lewis (Hugh Anthony Cregg III) (Huey Lewis and The News) on July 5 in New York City; Irish-Am. father, Polish immigrant mother; maternal grandfather invented red wax protective sealant for cheese; raised in Marin County, Calif.; gets a perfect score on his Math SAT; educated at Cornell U. Am. guitarist Michael Monarch (Steppenwolf) on July 5 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. musician Erik Cartwright (Foghat) on July 10 in New York City. Am. Hardee's, Carl's Jr. CEO Andrew Franklin "Andy" Puzder on July 11 in Cleveland, Ohio; educated at Cleveland State U., and Washington U. Am. astronaut George Driver "Pinky" Nelson on July 13 in Charles City, Iowa; educated at Harvey Mudd College, and U. of Wash. Am. "Picasso: Creator and Destroyer" columnist-writer Arianna Huffington (Stassinopoulos) on July 15 in Athens, Greece; moves to England at age 16; educated at Girton College, Cambridge U.; moves to the U.S. in 1980; wife (1986-97) of bi millionaire Michael Hufington (1947-). Am. "Jack Dalton in MacGyver", "Al the Bartender in Quantum Leap", "Sheriff Farley in My Cousin Vinny" actor Bruce Travis McGill on July 15 in San Antonio, Tex. Kiwi "The Phantom of the Opera" actor Robert John "Rob" Guest (d. 2008) on July 17 in Birmingham, England; emigrates to New Zealand in 1963. English "Screw it let's do it" Virgin brand entrepreneur Sir Richard Charles Nicholas Branson on July 18 in Blackheath, London; knighted in 1999. Am. singer (gay) Glenn M. Hughes (d. 2001) (biker in The Village people) on July 18 in New York City. English "Geoffrey Fairbrother in Hi-de-Hi" actor Simon John Cadell (d. 1996) on July 19 in London. Indian "Sarfarosh" actor-dir. (Muslim) Padma Bhushan Naseeruddin Shah on July 20 in Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh. Canadian rock musician Blair Thornton (Bachman Turner Overdrive) on July 23 in Vancouver, B.C. English "Dirty Mary, Crazy Lary" actress Susan Melody George on July 26 in London; not to be confused with Am. writer Susan George (1948-). English "Q" journalist David Hepworth on July 27 in Dewsbury, Yorkshire. Am. "Delia Reid in Ryan's Hope" Ilene Kristen (Schatz) on July 30 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Scottish "Fingerprints of the Gods", "The Mars Mystery journalist Graham Bruce Hancock on Aug. 2 in Edinburgh; grows up in India; educated at Durham U.; collaborator of Robert Bauval (1948-). East German Olympic marathoner Waldemar Cierpinski on Aug. 3 in Neugattersleben, Saxony-Anhalt. Am. "Diamonds & Dirt" country singer-songwriter Rodney Crowell on Aug. 7 in Crosby, Tex.; grows up in Houston, Tex. Am. conservative Repub. politician (black) Alan Lee Keyes on Aug. 7 in Long Island, N.Y.; educated at Cornell U. and Harvard U. Am. 6'0" Olympic runner David James "Dave" Wottle on Aug. 7 in Canton, Ohio; likes to wear a golf cap. Am. "Can't Stop My Heart from Loving You" country singer James Paul "Jamie" O'Hara (The O'Kanes) on Aug. 8 in Toledo, Ohio.; collaborator of Kieran Kane (1949-). Canadian Trivial Pursuit co-creator Chris Haney (d. 2010) on Aug. 9 in Welland, Ont.; collaborator of Scott Abbott (). Am. "Baby, Come to Me" R&B singer (black) Patti Austin on Aug. 10 in Harlem, N.Y. Am. auto racer Glenn Jarrett on Aug. 11; eldest son of Ned Jarrett (1932-); brother of Dale Jarrett (1956-). Am. Apple Computer co-founder (Freemason) Stephan Larry "Woz" Wozniak on Aug. 11 in San Jose, Calif. Am. 6'8" basketball player (black) (Indiana Pacers #30, 1971-5, 1980-2) (Philadelphia 76ers #30, 1975-8) (Denver Nuggets #30, 1978-80) George F. McGinnis on Aug. 12 in Indianapolis, Ind.; educated at the U. of Ind. Am. "Far Side" cartoonist Gary Larson on Aug. 14 in Tacoma, Wash. Am. "Rosa Lee in Tender Mercies", "First Lady in The Jackal", "Loretta Bell in No Country for Old Men" actress Tess Harper (Tessie Jean Washam August) on Aug. 15 in Mammoth Springs, Ark. English equestrian-pharologist princess royal Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise Mountbatten-Windsor on Aug. 15 in Clarence House, London; 2nd child and only daughter of Elizabeth II (1926-2022) and Philip Mountbatten (1921-); first member of the British royal family to compete in the Olympic Games; wife (1973-92) of Mark Phillips (1948-) and (1992-) Timothy Laurence (1955-). Am. "Piss Christ" photographer Andres Serrano on Aug. 15 in New York City; half-Honduran half-Afro-Cuban. Canadian Conservative politician Stockwell Burt Day Jr. on Aug. 16 in Barrie, Ont.; educated at the U. of Victoria, and Vanguard College. French guitarist (Jewish) Marcel Dadi (d. 1996) on Aug. 20 in Sousse, Tunisia. Am. attempted assassin Arthur Herman Bremer on Aug. 21 in Milwaukee, Wisc. French "I Love America" singer Patrick Juvet on Aug. 21 in Montreux. Kyrgyzstani pres. (2010-) (Communist) (atheist) Roza Isakovna Otunbayeva on Aug. 23 in Osh. Am. paleoanthropologist Tim D. White on Aug. 24 in Los Angeles County, Calif.; grows up in Lake Arrowhead, San Bernardino County, Calif.; educated at UCR, and U. of Mich. Am. rock singer-actor (Jewish) Gene Simmons (Chaim Witz) (The Demon in Kiss) on Aug. 25 in Haifa, Israel;Jewish Hungarian Holocaust survivor mother; emigrates to the U.S. at age 8. Scottish rock bassist Philip Neil Murray (Whitesnake, Black Sabbath) on Aug. 27 in Edinburgh, Scotland. Am. baseball player Ronald Ames Guidry on Aug. 28 in Lafayette, La. English rock musician Michael Joseph "Micky" Moody (Whitesnake) on Aug. 30 in Middlesbrough, Cleveland, Ohio. Am. talk show host Philip Calvin "Dr. Phil" McGraw on Sept. 1 in Vinita, Okla.; Ph.D from U. of North Texas, with dissertation "Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Psychological Intervention". Am. founder (Jewsh) (gay) Harvey Robert Levin on Sept. 2 in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at UCSB, and U. of Chicago. Am. "Cathy" cartoonist Cathy Lee Guisewite on Sept. 5 in Dayton, Ohio. Am. politician-atty. (Roman Catholic-turned-Jew) Cameron Forbes Kerry on Sept. 6; brother of John Kerry (1943-); educated at Harvard U., and Boston College. Am. "Brenda Morgenstern in Rhoda", "Marge Simpson in The Simpsons" actress (Jewish) Julie Deborah Kavner on Sept. 7 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "America: A Tribute to Heroes" conservative writer (Roman Catholic) Margaret Ellen "Peggy" Noonan on Sept. 7 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; of Irish descent; educated at Fairleigh Dickinson U.; wife (1985-90) of Richard W. Rahn (1942-). U.S. secy. of defense #26 (2017-18) Marine Corps gen. James Norman "Mad Dog" "Warrior Monk" Mattis on Sept. 8 in Pullman, Wash.; educated at Central Wash. U. Am. political scientist Seyla Benhabib on Sept. 9 in Istanbul, Turkey; emigrates to the U.S. in 1970; educated at Brandeis U., and Yale U. Scottish pop singer Gordon Fraser "Nobby" Clark (Bay City Rollers) on Sept. 10 in Edinburgh. Am. rock musician Anthony Joseph "Joe" Perry (Aerosmith) on Sept. 10 in Lawrence, Mass. Syrian politician-writer Abdulrazak (Abdul Razaq) Eid on Sept. 10 in Ariha. Am. "Chanice Kobolowski in Uncle Buck", "Annie Kinsella in Field of Dreams" actress Amy Marie Madigan on Sept. 11 in Chicago, Ill. English Egyptologist and singer (Mandalaband) David Michael Rohl on Sept. 12 in Manchester; educated at the U. of London. Am. "My Best Friend's Girl", "The Replacements" dir. Howard Deutch on Sept. 14 in New York City. English physicist Frederick Duncan Michael Haldane on Sept. 14 in London; educated at Christ's College, Cambridge U.; 2016 Nobel Physics Prize. Canadian 5'10" hockey player Orest Michael "Oscar" "Ernie" Kindrachuk on Sept. 14 in Nanton, Alberta. English rock guitarist (Jewish) Paul Francis Kossoff (d. 1976) (Free) on Sept. 14 in Hampstead, London; son of David Kossoff (1919-2005). Am. atty. Michael Byron "Mike" Nifong on Sept. 14 in Wilmington, N.C.; educated at the U. of N.C. Am. children's writer-artist (black) John Steptoe (d. 1989) on Sept. 14 in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, N.Y. Pakistani Ahmadiyya Muslim caliph #5 (2003-) Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad on Sept. 15 in Rabwah. Am. "Finding Your Roots", "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Black Man" historian-filmmaker (black) Henry Louis "Skip" Gates Jr. on Sept. 16 in Keyser, W. Va.; educated at Yale U. and Clare College, Cambridge U. Am. gatronome (in Britain) (Jewish) Loyd Daniel Gilman Grossman on Sept. 16 in Marblehead, Mass.; educated at Boston U., and London School of Economics. Indian PM #14 (2014-) (first born after Indian independence) Narendra Damodardas Modi on Sept. 17 in Vadnagar; educated at Gujarat U., and Delhi U. Am. singer-songwriter John Waldo "Fee" Waybill (The Tubes) on Sept. 17 in Omaha, Neb. Am. "ABC-TV's Good Morning America" TV personality (breakfast blonde) Joan Lunden (Joan Elise Blunden) on Sept. 19 in Fair Oaks, Calif.; educated at Calif. State U. Sacramento. Am. "Saturday Night Live", "Dr. Peter Venkman in Ghostbusters", "John Winger in Stripes", "Tripper Harrison in Meatballs", "Hunter S. Thompson in Where the Buffalo Roam", "Frank Cross in Scrooged", "Carl Spackler in Caddyshack" actor-comedian-writer (Roman Catholic) William James "Bill" Murray on Sept. 21 in Evanston, Ill.; 5th of 9 children; brother of Brian Doyle-Murray (1945-), John Murray (1958-), and Joel Murray (1963-); sister Nancy is an Adrian Dominican nun; grows up in Wilmette (near Chicago), Ill.; kicked out of Regis U. in Denver; arrested on Sept. 21, 1970 at O'Hare Aiport in Chicago for marijuana possession; nicknamed "the Murricane" by Dan Aykroyd for his mood swings. Am. liberal radio-TV journalist Alan Samuel Colmes (d. 2017) on Sept. 24 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; grows up in Lynbrook, N.Y.; educated at Hofstra U. Am. sci-fi "Freedom Beach' novelist Joseph Vincent "John" Kessel on Sept. 24 in Buffalo, N.Y.; educated at the U. of Rochester, and U. of Kansas. Am. "Lone Star", "Matewan" film dir.-actor-writer (Catholic atheist?) John Sayles on Sept. 28 in Schenectady, N.Y. Colombian drug trafficker Jorge Luis Ochoa Vasquez on Sept. 30 in Medellin. Am. "Ishmael in Kingpin", "Russell Casse in Independence Day" actor-comedian Randall Rudy "Randy" Quaid on Oct. 1 in Houston, Tex.; brother of Dennis Quaid (1954-). English rock bassist Michael John Cleote "Mike" Crawford Rutherford (Genesis, Mike + the Mechanics) on Oct. 2 in Guildford, Surrey. Am. rock musician John "J.C." Curulewski (d. 1988) (Styx) on Oct. 3 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Princess Ardala in Buck Rogers in the 25th century" actress (Jewish) Pamela Gail Hensley on Oct. 3 in Glendale, Calif.; wife (1978-81) of Wes Farrell (1939-) and (1982-) E. Duke Vincent (1932-). Am. "Moonstruck", "Joe Versus the Volcano", "Doubt: A Parable" playwright-screenwriter-dir. John Patrick Shanley on Oct. 3 in Bronx, N.Y.; educated at NYU. Am. "Ira Woodbine in Cybill" actor and SAG pres. #24 (2005-) (Jewish) Alan Rosenberg on Oct. 4 in Passaic, N.J.; German Jewish parents. Am. "Bobby Wheeler in Taxi", "Zack Allan in Babylon 5" actor Jeff Conaway on Oct. 5 in New York City. Am. "The Postman" novelist Glen David Brin on Oct. 6 in Glendale, Calif.; educated at Caltech and UCSD. Am. singer-musician (black) Thomas McClary (Commodores) on Oct. 6 in Tuskegee, Ala. Am. R&B-funk bassist-singer-songwriter (black) Robert Earl "Kool" Bell (Kool and the Gang) on Oct. 8 in Youngstown, Ohio; grows up in Jersey City, N.J.; brother of Ronald Nathan Bell (195-). Am. romance novelist Nora Roberts (Eleanor Marie Robertson) (AKA J.D. Robb, Jill March, Sarah Hardesty) on Oct. 10 in Silver Spring, Md. Am. R&B musician (black) Andrew Woolfolk (Earth, Wind and Fire) on Oct. 11. Am. "Susan Williams in Stop Susan Williams", "Muriel Cigars ads", "Serta Perfect Sleeper mattress ads" 5'11" actress-singer Susan Anton on Oct. 12 in Oak Glen, Calif.; 1969 Miss Calif. Japanese "Iron Chef" actor Takeshi Kaga (Shigekatsu Katsuta) on Oct. 12 in Kanazawa, Ishikawa. Am. "Moosewood Cookbook" chef-writer Mollie Katzen on Oct. 13 in Rochester, N.Y.; educated at Cornell U.; sister of Daniel Katzen. Am. "Doubt", "Moonstruck", "Joe Versus the Volcano" playwright John Patrick Shanley on Oct. 13 in Bronx, N.Y.; educated at NYU. Am. 5'4" speedskater and track cyclist Sheila Grace Young-Ochowicz on Oct. 14 in Birmingham, Mich.; grows up in Detroit, Mich.; first U.S. athlete to win three medals at a single Winter Olympics (1976). Austrian economist Dennis J. Snower on Oct. 14 in Vienna. Am. economist George (Jorge) Jesus Borjas on Oct. 15 in Havana, Cuba; emigrates to the U.S. in 1962; educated atSt. Peter's College, and Columbia U. Am. "Then She Found Me", "The Pursuit of Alice Thrift" novelist (Jewish) Elinor Lipman on Oct. 16 in Lowell, Mass. Am. "She's Come Undone", "This Much Is True" novelist Walter John "Wally" Lamb on Oct. 17 in Norwich, Conn.; educated at the U. of Conn., and Vermont College. Am. "Virgil Tibbs in The Heat of the Night", "Coalhouse Walker Jr. in Ragtime" actor (black) Howard Ellsworth Rollins Jr. (d. 1996) on Oct. 17 in Baltimore, Md.; educated at Towson U. Am. "The Heidi Chronicles" playwright (Jewish) Wendy Wasserstein (d. 2006) on Oct. 18 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at CCNY, and Yale U. English historian Robert C.T. Parker on Oct. 19. Am. "Running Down a Dream" hall-of-fame singer-songwriter-guitarist Thomas Earl "Tom" Petty (d. 2017) (The Heartbreakers, The Traveling Wilburys) on Oct. 20 in Gainesville, Fla.; meets Elvis Presley at age 11. Am. astronaut (black) Ronald Ervin McNair (d. 1986) on Oct. 21 in Lake City, S.C.; educated at MIT. Am. Dem. Colo. gov. #40 (1999-2007) William Forrester "Bill" Owens on Oct. 22 in Fort Worth, Tex.; educated at Stephen F. Austin State U., and UTA. English "Stumblin' In" musician Christopher Ward "Chris" Norman (Smokie) on Oct. 25 in Redcar, North Yorkshire. Am. counterterrorism expert Richard Alan Clarke on Oct. 27 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Boston Latin School and the U. of Penn. Am. "Exterior Signs of Wealth" novelist and "Judge Janice Goldberg in Law & Order actress (Jewish) Frances Ann "Fran" Lebowitz on Oct. 27 in Morristown, N.J. Kiwi archeologist Michael John "Mike" Morwood (d. 2013) on Oct. 27 in Auckland; educated at the U. of Auckland, and Australian Nat. U. English writer (atheist-turned-religious) Andrew Norman Wilson on Oct. 27; educated at Rugby School, and New College, Oxford U. Australian climate scientist Michael Robin "Mike" Raupach (d. 2015) on Oct. 30. Canadian "Dewey Oxberger in Stripes", "Uncle Buck", "Del Griffith in Planes, Trains and Automobiles", "Dean Andrews Jr. in JFK" actor-comedian John Franklin Candy (d. 1994) on Oct. 31 in Newmarket, Ont. Iraqi-British architect ("Queen of the Curve") Dame Zaha Mohammad Hadid (d. 2016) on Oct. 31 in Baghdad; educated at the Am. U. of Beirut; created dame in 2012. Am. TV journalist Jane Pauley on Oct. 31 in Indianapolis, Ind. Am. physicist Robert Betts Laughlin on Nov. 1 in Visalia, Calif.; educated at UCB and MIT; 1998 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. physicist Robert Betts Laughlin on Nov. 1 in Visalia, Calif.; educated at UCB, and MIT; 1998 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. "All Things Are Possible" musician Dan Peek (d. 2011) (America) on Nov. 1 in Panama City, Fla. Am. biophysicist (Jewish) James Edward Rothman on Nov. 3 in Haverhill, Mass.; educated at Yale U., and Harvard U.; 2013 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. "Cold Mountain" novelist Charles Frazier on Nov. 4 in Asheville, N.C. Am. "Christine Sullivan in Night Court" ctress Marjorie Armstrong "Markie" Post on Nov. 4 in Palo Alto, Calif. Norwegian Labour politician Thorbjorn Jagland (nee Johansen) on Nov. 5 in Drammen; educateed at the U. of Oslo. Am. "Entertainment Tonight" host (1982-) Mary Hart (Mary Johanna Harum) on Nov. 8 in Sioux Falls, S.D.; lives in Scandinavia as a child; wife (1972-9) of Terry Hart, and (1989-) film producer Burt Sugarman. Am. "Nicholas Pierce in Dallas" actor Jack Scalia on Nov. 10 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. "Eye of the Tiger" musician-songwriter Jim Peterik on Nov. 11 in Berwyn, Ill. Am. "The Teddy Bear Song" country-gospel singer Barbara Fairchild on Nov. 12 in Knobel, Ark. Am. "Lawrence Welk" singer Mary Lou Metzger on Nov. 13 in Pittsburgh, Penn. Chinese "Curse of the Golden Golden Flower", "Ju Dou", "Raise the Red Lantern" dir.-producer-writer-actor Zhang Yimou on Nov. 14 in Xi'an, Shaanxi. Am. Lotus Development Corp. founder (Jewish) Mitchell David "Mitch" Kapor on Nov. 15 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Yale U. Am. track star Mac Maurice Wilkens on Nov. 15 in Eugene, Ore. Am. "Charley Dietz in Empty Nest" actor David Russell Leisure on Nov. 16 in San Diego, Calif. Am. football defensive end (Dallas Cowboys, 1973-83) (black) Harvey Banks "the Beautiful" "Too Mean" Martin (d. 2001) on Nov. 16 in Dallas, Tex. English "Squeezing Out Sparks" singer Graham Parker (Graham Parker and The Rumour) on Nov. 18 in East London. Canadian genocide scholar William A. Schabas on Nov. 19; educated at the U. of Toronto, and U. of Montreal. Am. economist Halbert L. White Jr. (d. 2012) on Nov. 19; educated at MIT. Am. economist David Richard Henderson on Nov. 21 in Boissevain, Man., Canada; emigrates to the U.S. in 1972; educated at the U. of Winnipeg, and UCLA. Am. "Pajamas" singer-songwriter Livingston Taylor on Nov. 21 in Boston, Mass. Am. baseball player (LF) Gregory Michael "Grek" "the Bull" Luzinski on Nov. 22 in Chicago, Ill. Am. rock bassist Martina Michele "Tina" Weymouth (Talking Heads, The Heads, Tom Tom Club) on Nov. 22 in Coronado, Calif. U.S. Sen. (D-N.Y.) (1999-) (Jewish) Charles Ellis "Chuck" Schumer on Nov. 23 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; of Ukrainian Jewish descent; educated at Harvard U.; 2nd cousin once removed of Amy Schumer (1981-). Am. Southern rock drummer Bob Burns (Lynyrd Skynyrd) on Nov. 24 in Jacksonville, Fla. Am. "Richard Chip Douglas in My Three Sons" actor Stanley Bernard Livingston on Nov. 24 in Los Angeles, Calif.; brother of Barry Livingston (1953-). Canadian 5'10" hockey left wing (Philadelphia Flyers, 1970-82) Robert James "Bob" "Hound" "Houndog" Kelly on Nov. 25 in Oakville, Ont. Am. "Pollock", "The Right Stuff", "Glengarry Glen Ross" actor Edward Allen "Ed" Harris on Nov. 28 in Englewood, N.J. - Ed Hairless? Am. physicist Russell Alan Hulse on Nov. 28 in New York City; educated at Bronx H.S. of Science, and the U. of Mass.; 1993 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. 6'4" basketball player-coach (white) (Boston Celtics #44, 1972-5) (Phoenix Suns #44, 1975-80) (Phoenix Suns, 1992-5) (Seattle SuperSonics, 1998-2000) (Sacramento Kings, 2009-12) Paul Douglas Westphal on Nov. 30 in Torrance, Calif.; educated at USC. Am. "Rachel Phelps in Major League" actress Margaret "Peggy" Whitton on Nov. 30. Guatemalan pres. #36 (2012-15) Otto Fernando Perez (Pérez) Molina on Dec. 1 in Guatemala City; educated at the School of the Americas. Am. "Jimbo", "Adventures in Paradise", "Facetasm" new wave comic book artist Gary Panter on Dec. 1 in Durant, Okla. Am. "Little Ricky in I Love Lucy", "Johnny Paul Jason in The Andy Griffith Show" actor-drummer (Roman Catholic) Keith Thibodeaux (AKA Richard Keith) on Dec. 1 in Lafayette, La. Australian Middle East scholar (Muslim) Amin Saikal on Dec. 2 in Kabul, Afghanistan. Cuban Olympic runner Alberto Juantorena Danger on Dec. 3 in Santiago de Cuba. Am. "42nd Street" theater dir.-producer-writer Mark Bramble on Dec. 7. Am. Hare Krishna guru Radhanath Swami (Richard Slavin) on Dec. 7 in Chicago, Ill.; born to a Jewish family. British "Love and Affection", "Drop the Pilot" singer-songwriter (black) Joan Anita Barbara Armatrading on Dec. 9 in Basseteere, Saint Kitts; emigrates to the U.K. at age 8. Greek shipping heiress Christina Onassis (d. 1988) on Dec. 11 in New York City; daughter of Aristotle Onassis (1906-75) and Athina Livanos (1929-74); educated at Queen's College, London. Am. "Cindy Smith in The Smith Family" actress-singer Darleen Carr (Drake) (Farnon) on Dec. 12 in Chicago, Ill. Am. economist (Jewish) Eric Stark Maskin on Dec. 12 in New York City; educated at Harvard U.; 2007 Nobel Econ. Prize. Australian "K-19: The Widowmaker" playwright Louis Nowra (Mark Doyle) on Dec. 12 in Melbourne. Canadian 5'10" hockey hall-of-fame goalie William John "Battlin' Billy" "Hatchet Man" Smith on Dec. 12 in Perth, Ont. Am. "Nina Van Horn in Just Shoot Me!", "Ronee Lawrence in Frasier" actress-model (vegetarian) Wendie Malick on Dec. 13 in Buffalo, N.Y. Australian "My Brilliant Career" dir. Gillian May Armstrong on Dec. 18 in Melbourne. Am. movie reviewer Leonard Maltin on Dec. 18 in New York City. Am. movie producer (Jewish) (co-founder of DreamWorks SKG) Jeffrey Katzenberg on Dec. 21 in New York City; Walt Disney CEO. Canadian geneticist Lap-Chee Tsui on Dec. 21 in Shanghai; educated at the Chinese U. of Hong Kong, and U. of Pittsburgh. Am. Repub. political strategist Karl Christian Rove on Dec. 25 in Denver, Colo.; grows up in Salt Lake City, Utah; educated at the U. of Utah; during the 1960 pres. election his bike with a Nixon bumper sticker gets pushed over by a girl who backs JFK? Am. "Like Flies on Sherbert", "Can't Seem to Make You Mine", "Thirteen" singer-songwriter-producer William Alexander "Alex" Chilton (d. 2010) (The Box Tops, Big Star) on Dec. 28 in Memphis, Tenn. English mathematician Clifford Christopher Cocks on dec. 28 in Prestbury, Cheshire; educated at King's College, Cambridge U., and Oxford U. Am. "Chancellor Ava Paige in The Maze Runner" actress Patricia Davies Clarkson on Dec. 29 in New Orleans, La. Am. "Crime Story", "Miller's Crossing" actor Jon Polito on Dec. 29 in Philadelphia, Penn. Danish computer science (inventor of C++) Bjarne Stroustrup on Dec. 30 in Aarhus; educated at Cambridge U. Rwandan pres. #5 (1994-2000) (black) )(Hutu) Pasteur Bizimungu on ? in Gisenyi. Am. "The Chaneysville Incident" novelist (black) David Henry Bradley Jr. on ? in Bedford, Penn. Palestinian Nat. Authority pres. (2009-) (Sunni Muslim) Aziz al-Duwaik on ? English "Horse-Whisperer" novelist Nicholas Evans on ? in Bromsgrove, Worcestershire; educated at Oxford U. Am. economist Wayne E. Ferson on ? in ?; educated at SMU, and Stanford U. Irish "The Dark Fields" novelist Alan Glynn on ? in Dublin. Am. Christian theologian Gary Robert Habermas on ? in ?; educated at Mich. State U. Afghan jihadist leader Mawlawi Jalaluddin Haqqani; father of Sirajuddin Haqqani (1973-). Am. multimedia conceptual arist Jenny Holzer on ? in Gallipolis, Ohio. French Eiffel computer language designer Bertrand Meyer on ? in ?; educated at Stanford U., and U. of Nancy. Israeli real estate-shipping magnate (Jewish) Eyal Ofer on ? in Haifa; son of Sammy Ofer (1922-2011); brother of Idan Ofer (1955-); educated at Atlantic College. Turkish army CIC (2011-15) Gen. Necdet Ozel (Özel) in Ankara. Am. "The Sparrow" novelist (Jewish convert) Mary Doria Russell on ? in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Mich. Am. economist Nancy Laura Stokey on ? in ?; wife of Robert E. Lucas Jr. (1937-); educated at the U. of Penn., and Harvard U.; student of Kenneth Arrow. Am. chef Jonathan Waxman on ? in ?. Deaths: Am. writer Agnes Repplier (b. 1850) on Nov. 15 in Philly: "Just as we are often moved to merriment for no other reason than that the occasion calls for seriousness, so we are correspondingly serious when invited too freely to be amused." Am. writer Minna Antrim (b. 1856): "Experience is a good teacher, but she sends in terrific bills." Anglo-Irish lit. giant George Bernard Shaw (b. 1856) on Nov. 2 in Hertfordshire, England; 1925 Nobel Lit. Prize; first person to win an Oscar (1938) ("Pygmalion") and a Nobel Prize (1925) (until ?): leaves money to promote a new phonetic alphabet: "I knew if I stayed around long enough, something like this would happen"; "A life spent making mistakes is not only more honorable, but more useful than a life spent doing nothing"; "We have no more right to consume happiness without producing it than to consume wealth without producing it"; "All great truths begin as blasphemies"; "You see things; and you say, 'Why?' But I dream things that never were; and I say, 'Why not?'"; "An Englishman thinks he is moral when he is only uncomfortable"; "My way of joking is to tell the truth. It's the funniest joke in the world"; "Once there was a time when all people believed in God and the Church ruled. This time is called the Dark Ages"; "The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place"; "You use a glass mirror to see your face; you use works of art to see your soul"; "Well, it will be a new experience anyway" (last words). Canadian-born Am. businesswoman Martha Matilda Harper (b. 1857) on Aug. 3 in Rochester, N.Y. Swedish king (1907-50) Gustaf V (b. 1858) on July 29 in Drottningholm Palace, Stockholm. German-born Am. conductor-composer Walter Damrosch (b. 1862) on Dec. 22 in New York City. French trench mouth physician J.H. Vincent (b. 1862). Am. theatrical producer William Aloysius Brady (b. 1863) on Jan. 6 in New York City. Am. transportation expert Emory Richard Johnson (b. 1864) on Mar. 8 in Philly. English "What is Money?" diplomat-economist Alfred Mitchell-Innes (b. 1864) on Feb. 13. Am. automotive king Ransom Eli Olds (b. 1864) on Aug. 26 in Lansing, Mich. Irish novelist George A. Birmingham (b. 1865) on Feb. 2 in Kensington, London. Am. Salvation Army general Evangeline Cory Booth (b. 1865) on July 17 in Hartsdale, N.Y. (arteriosclerosis). Brazilian immunologist Vital Brazil (b. 1865) on May 5 in Rio de Janeiro. Am. politician James Rudolph Garfield (b. 1865). Japanese physicist Hantaro Nagaoka (b. 1865) on Dec. 11; a crater on the Moon is later named after him. Am. interior decorator Elsie de Wolfe (b. 1865) on July 12; "She was probably the first woman to dye her hair blue, to perform handstands to impress her friends, and to cover 18th century footstools in leopard-skin chintzes." (American Decades) English-born Am. Shakespearean actress Julia Marlowe (b. 1866) on Nov. 12. Swiss-born Am. psychiatrist Adolf Meyer (b. 1866) on Mar. 17. Swiss-born Am. Waldorf-Astoria Hotel maitre d'hotel Oscar Tschirky (b. 1866) on Nov. 6. Dutch linguist Holger Pedersen (b. 1867) on Oct. 25. German novelist Hedwig Courts-Mahler (b. 1867); leaves 192 romances. Dutch-born Am. pianist-composer Martinus Sieveking (b. 1867) on Nov. 26 in Pasadena, Calif. Am. statesman Henry L. Stimson (b. 1867) on Oct. 20. Am. "Spoon River Anthology" poet Edgar Lee Masters (b. 1869) on Mar. 5 in Melrose Park, Penn.; epitaph: "Good friends, let's to the fields.../ After a little walk and by your pardon,/ I think I'll sleep, thereis no sweeter thing./ Nor fate more blessed than to sleep./ I am a dream out of a blessed sleep - / Let's walk, and hear the lark." U.S. secy. of state (1920-1) Bainbridge Colby (b. 1869) on Apr. 11. Am. Denver, Colo. mayor #33 (1923-31) and #35 (1935-47) Benjamin Franklin Stapleton (b. 1869) on May 23 in Denver, Colo. Am. baseball player Bill Dahlen (b. 1870) on Dec. 5 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; not voted into the hall of fame until ?. German Krupp firm head and Nazi war criminal Gustav von Bohlen und Halbach (b. 1870) on Jan. 16. Scottish comic singer-songwriter (music hall star) Sir Harry Lauder (b. 1870) on Feb. 26 in Strathaven, Lanarkshire. Irish archeologist Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister (b. 1870) on Apr. 26 in Cambridge, England. Irish-born British businessman-politician Sir John Power, 1st baronet (b. 1870) on June 5 in France. Austrian pres. #4 (1945-50) Karl Renner (b. 1870) on Dec. 31 in Vienna. South African PM (1919-24, 1939-48) Jan Christiaan Smuts (b. 1870) on Sept. 11 in Doornkloof, Irene (near Pretoria): "Leadership, besides being a great creative force, can be diabolical" - his name single-handedly links apartheid, smut, and 9/11? English actress Florence Arliss (b. 1871) on Mar. 11 in London. French pres. (1932-40) Albert Lebrun (b. 1871) on Mar. 6 in Paris (pneumonia). German novelist Heinrich Mann (b. 1871) on Mar. 12 in Santa Monica, Calif.; dies before he can move to Germany to become pres. of the Prussian Academy of Arts. Irish-born British gen. Sir Frederick Barton Maurice (b. 1871) on May 19 in Cambridge. Indian Vedanta Society founder Sri Aurobindo (b. 1872) on Dec 5: "Man is a transitional being. He is not final. The step from man to superman is the next approaching achievement in the earth's evolution. It is inevitable because it is at once the intention of the inner spirt and the logic of Nature's process." French Socialist statesman Leon Blum (b. 1872): "Life does not give itself to one who tries to keep all its advantages at once... morality may perhaps consist solely in the courage of making a choice." U.S. Rep. (R-Okla.) (1921-7) John William Herreld (b. 1872) on Dec. 26 in Oklahoma City, Okla. French sociologist Marcel Mauss (b. 1872) on Feb. 10. Danish children's writer Karin Michaelis (b. 1872) on Jan. 11. French psychiatrist Joseph Capgras (b. 1873) on Jan. 27 in Paris. Am. silent film actor Maurice Costello (b. 1873) on Oct. 29 in Hollywood, Calif. Finnish-born Am. architect Eliel Saarinen (b. 1873) on July 1. Dutch novelist-poet Johannes Vilhelm Jansen (b. 1873) on Nov. 25; 1944 Nobel Lit. Prize. Am. Phillips Petroleum founder Frank Phillips (b. 1873) on Aug. 23 in Atlantic City, N.J. Am. botanist Oakes Ames (b. 1874) on Apr. 28. Canadian PM (1921-6, 1926-30, 1935-48) W.L. Mackenzie King (b. 1874) on July 22. Am. "Tarzan" writer Edgar Rice Burroughs (b. 1875) on Mar. 19 in Tarzana, Calif.; his ashes are buried on Ventura Blvd. in Tarzana outside his office. Irish physicist Arthur William Conway (b. 1875). Am. historian Carter G. Woodson (b. 1875) on Apr. 3 in Washington, D.C. Italian novelist Rafael Sabatini (b. 1876) on Feb. 13 in Switzerland. Am. air conditioning inventor Willis Carrier (b. 1876) on Oct. 7 in New York City. Italian opera baritone Giuseppe de Luca (b. 1876) in New York City. English "Sorrell and Son" novelist Warwick Deeping (b. 1877) on Apr. 20. Am. geographer Isaiah Bowman (b. 1878) on Jan. 6 in Baltimore, Md. Indonesian freedom fighter Ernest Douwes Dekker (b. 1879) on Aug. 28 in Bandung, West Java. Italian gen. Giuseppe Garibaldi II (b. 1879) on May 19 in Rome. German scholar Lazarus Goldschmidt (b. 1871) in London, England. Am. showman Sid Grauman (b. 1879) on Mar. 5 in Los Angeles, Calif. Polish-born Am. linguist Alfred Korzybski (b. 1879) on Mar. 1 in Lakeville, Conn.: "The map is not the territory"; "There are two ways to slice easily through life: to believe everything or to doubt everything." Indian guru Ramana Maharshi (b. 1879) on Apr. 14 in Arunachala. English "David Copperfield" film dir. Thomas Bentley (b. 1880) in Warwickshire. Am. real estate developer Jesse Clyde Nichols (b. 1880) on Feb. 16. Am. architect Julian Abele (b. 1881) on Apr. 23 in Philadelphia, Penn. (heart attack); designed the Widener Memorial Library at Harvard U., the Philadelphia Museum of Art, and the Duke U. campus. Polish Marxist economist Henryk Grossman (b. 1881) on Nov. 24 in Leipzig, East Germany. French aromatherapy pioneer Rene-Maurice Gattefosse (b. 1881) on ? in Casablanca, Morocco. Jamaican-born French hockey official Louis Magnus (b. 1881) on Nov. 1. Romanian Gen. Petre Dumitrescu (b. 1882) on Jan. 15 in Bucharest. Am. silent film actress Lottie Briscoe (b. 1883) on Mar. 21 in New York City. Am. actress-playwright Jane Cowl (b. 1883) on June 22 in Santa Monica, Calif. (cancer). Canadian-born Am. "The Treasure of the Sierra Madre" actor Walter Huston (b. 1883) on Apr. 7 in Hollywood, Calif. (aortic aneurysm). U.S. Rep. (D-Ala.) (1919-35) John McDuffie (b. 1883) on Nov. 1 in Mobile, Ala. Czech-born Am. economist Joseph Schumpeter (b. 1883) on Jan. 8 in Taconic, Conn. Am. historian Lothrop Stoddard (b. 1883) on May 1 in Washington, D.C. (cancer); his associations with the Nazis causes him to die a pariah. British Field Marshal Archibald Percival Wavell (b. 1883) on May 24 in London. German Expressionist-not painter Max Beckmann (b. 1884) on Dec. 28 in New York City (heart attack). Am. silent film actor-dir. William Garwood (b. 1884) on Dec. 28 in Los Angeles, Calif. (cirrhosis). Swiss "The Way of All Flesh" actor Emil Jannings (b. 1884) on Jan. 3 in Strobl, Austria; winner of the first Best Actor Oscar. Am. Egyptologist Herbert Eustis Winlock (b. 1884) on Jan. 26 in Venice, Fla. Am. New Thought writer Robert Collier (b. 1885). Am. writer-ed. Carl Van Doren (b. 1885) on July 18 in Torrington, Conn. Am. physician George R. Minot (b. 1885) on Feb. 25. Am. Truman White House press secy. Charles G. Ross (b. 1885) on Dec. 5. U.S. Air Force gen. "Hap" Arnold (b. 1886) on Jan. 15 in Sonoma, Calif. Am. poet William Rose Benet (b. 1886) on May 4. Am. physicist Arthur Jeffrey Dempster (b. 1886) on Mar. 11 in Stuart, Fla. Am. poet John Gould Fletcher (b. 1886) on May 20 in Little Rock, Ark. (suicide). Am. historian Douglas Southall Freeman (b. 1886) on June 13 in Richmond, Va. (heart attack). Russian-born Am. "jazz singer" Al Jolson (b. 1886) on Oct. 23 in San Francisco, Calif.; leaves a card game in a penthouse suite at the Westin St. Francis Hotel (same hotel where Fatty Arbuckle got in trouble with a coke bottle in 1921) after saying "Fellows, I'm not feeling well", then goes back to his room and dies in a couple of minutes; when the San Francisco Examiner hears about it, they rush a photographer to the hotel, who rearranges the cards on the table to give Jolson a hand of aces and eights, and the paper reports that he died with the Deadman's Hand. Azerbaijani-born Am. "Imitation of Life" dir. John M. Stahl (b. 1886) on Jan. 12 in Hollywood, Calif. (heart attack). English sci-fi writer Olaf Stapledon (b. 1886) on Sept. 6 in Caldy. Am. banker Maurice Wertheim (b. 1886) on Mar. 27 in Cos Cob, Conn. (heart attack). Am. baseball hall-of-fame pitcher Grover Cleveland Alexander (b. 1887) on Nov. 4 in St. Paul, Neb.; career 373-208 record, with 2.56 ERA and 90 shutouts. Am. Colo. gov. #29 (1939-43) Ralph Lawrence Carr (b. 1887) on Sept. 22 in Denver, Colo. Am. publisher George Palmer Putnam (b. 1887) on Jan. 4 in Trona, Calif. (kidney failure). U.S. Navy Cmdr. Earl Winfield Spencer Jr. (b. 1888) on May 29 in Coronado, Calif. Greek gen. Konstantinos Bakopoulos (b. 1889). Dutch physicist Dirk Coster (b. 1889) on Feb. 12 in Groningen. German-born Australian Sufi Muslim leader Friedrich von Frankenberg (b. 1889) in Camden. Soviet Field Marshal Grigory Kulik (b. 1890) on Aug. 29 (executed). Russian dancer-choreographer Vaslav Fomich Nijinsky (b. 1890) on Apr. 8 in London. Am. poet-playwright Blanche Oelrichs (Michael Strange) (b. 1890) on Nov. 5 in Boston, Mass. (leukemia). Am. aircraft designer Walter Beech (b. 1891) on Nov. 29. Am. newspaper pub. Generoso Pope (b. 1891) on Apr. 28 in New York City (heart disease). Am. actor Alan Hale Sr. (b. 1892) on Jan. 22 in Hollywood, Calif. Am. silent film actress Helen Holmes (b. 1892) on July 8 in Burbank, Calif. (heart failure). Irish-born Am. dir. Rex Ingram (b. 1892) on July 21 in North Hollywood, Calif. Am. poet Edna St. Vincent Millay (b. 1892) on Oct. 19 in Austerlitz, N.Y.: "Life must go on; I forget just why." Am. ambassador Laurence A. Steinhardt (b. 1892) on Mar. 28 near Ramsayville, Ont., Canada (killed in plane crash en route to Washington, D.C.). English traveller Bertram Thomas (b. 1892) on Dec. 27 in Pill. Tunisian-born French film oridycer Jacques Haik (b. 1893) on Aug. 31 in Paris. English Socialist leader Harold Laski (b. 1893) on Mar. 24 in London. Am. Boysenberry botanist Rudolph Boysen (b. 1895) on Nov. 25. Am. civil rights atty. ("the Man Who Killed Jim Crow") Charles Hamilton Houston (b. 1895) on Apr. 22 in Washington, D.C. Italian-Am. dir. Monty Banks (b. 1897) on Jan. 7 in Arona (heart attack). Am. baritone "Whispering" Jack Smith (b. 1898) on May 13 in New York City (heart attack). German composer Kurt Weill (b. 1900) on Apr. 3 in New York City. British "Animal Farm", "1984" novelist George Orwell (b. 1903) on Jan. 21 in London: "Who controls the past controls the future; who controls the present controls the past"; "In a time of deceit telling the truth is a revolutionary act"; "Truth is treason in an empire of lies"; "We have now sunk to a depth at which restatement of the obvious is the first duty of intelligent men." Am. physician (Scotch Tape inventor) Charles Richard Drew (b. 1904) on Apr. 1 in N.C. (bleeds to death after an auto accident). Am. radio astronomy pioneer Karl Jansky (b. 1905) on Feb. 14 in Red Bank, N.J. - the static bored him to death? Kiwi RAF Cmdr. Henry Neville Gynes Ramsbottom-Isherwood (b. 1905) on Apr. 25 near Tonbridge, Kent, England (airplane crash). Venezuelan pres. (1948-50) Col. Carlos Delgado Chalbaud (b. 1909) on Nov. 13 in Caracas (assassinated). Am. jazz musician Ray Perry (b. 1915). Dutch poet Hans Lodeizen (b. 1924) on July 26 in Lausanne (leukemia). U.S. Army Pvt. Kenneth R. Shadrick (b. 1931) on July 5 in Osan, South Korea; first known U.S. casualty of the Korean War.

1951 - The Tabletop Not Univac Year? The U.S. twizzles itself in Korea, and can't figure out how to untwizzle itself?

UNIVAC, 1951 Ethel Rosenberg (1915-53) and Julius Rosenberg (1918-53) Harry S. Truman of the U.S. (1884-1972) U.S. Gen. James Alward Van Fleet (1892-1992) U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964) U.S. Gen. Matthew Bunker Ridgway (1895-1993) Sir Winston Churchill of Britain (1874-1965) Mohammed Mossadegh of Iran (1882-1967) Kermit Roosevelt Jr. of the U.S. (1916-2000) Gen. António de Oliveira Salazar of Portugal (1889-1970) Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes of Portugal (1894-1964) Khwaja Nazimuddin of Pakistan (1894-1964) Hussein I of Jordan (1935-99) Baudouin I of Belgium (1930-93) Reve Pleven of France (1901-93) Gen. Alexander Papagos of Greece (1883-1955) Gen. Nikolaos Plastiras of Greece (1883-1953) Eamon de Valera of Ireland (1882-1975) John Jay McCloy of the U.S. (1895-1989) Alfried Krupp of Germany (1907-67) Oscar Fredrik Torp of Norway (1893-1958) Victor Paz Estenssoro of Bolivia (1907-2001) Hugo Ballivián Rojas of Bolivia (1901-95) Giuseppe Saragat of Italy (1898-1988) Giuseppe Romita of Italy (1887-1958) Robert Abercrombie Lovett of the U.S. (1895-1986) Dan Thornton of the U.S. (1911-76) Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana (1909-72) King Idris I of Libya (1890-1983) Sir Henry Gurney of Britain (1898-1951) Moises da Costa Gomez of Dutch Antilles (1907-66) Francois Nourissier (1927-) Paul Tillich (1886-1965) Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (1903-95) Soraya Esfandiari Bakhtiari of Iran (1932-2001) Tribhubana Bir Bikram of Nepal (1906-55) USAF Brig. Gen. Charles F. Blair Jr. (1909-78) Joan Vollmer (1923-51) William Seward Burroughs II (1914-97) Harry Tyson Moore (1905-51) Jean Lee (1919-) Jersey Joe Walcott (1914-94) Ike Williams (1923-94) Jose Maria Gatica (1925-63) James Walter 'Jimmy' Carter (1923-94) Sugar Ray Robinson (1921-89) Jake LaMotta (1921-) Ike (1890-1969) and Rocky Marciano (1923-69) Curt Gowdy (1919-2006) Babe Didrikson Zaharias (1911-56) Lee Jouglard (1921-78) Myler Skoog (1926-) Gene Melchiorre (1927-) Mel Hutchins (1928-) Don Sunderlage (1929-61) Lee Wallard (1910-63) Norm Van Brocklin (1926-83) Bobby Thomson (1923-2010) Ralph Branca (1926-) Russ Hodges (1910-75) Bob Sheppard (1910-2010) Willie Mays (1931-) Woody Hayes (1913-87) Haskell Cohen (1914-2004) Ed Macauley (1928-) Johnny Bright (1930-83) Maureen Connolly (1934-69) Eddie Gaedel (1925-61) Kiki Haakonason (1929-2011) Capt. Henrik Kurt Carlsen (1914-89) Lothar Malskat (1913-88) Leon Jouhaux (1879-1954) Par Lagerkvist (1891-74) Sir John Douglas Cockcroft (1897-1967) Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (1903-95) Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-99) Edwin Mattison McMillan (1907-91) John Boyd Orr (1880-1971) Carl Djerassi (1923-) Corrado Böhm (1923-2017) Maj. Ralph Lowell (1890-1978) Luis Miramontes (1925-2004) George Rosenkranz (1916-) Gregory Goodwin Pincus (1903-67) Min Chueh Chang (1909-91) John Rock (1899-1984) Solomon Asch (1907-96) Mircea Eliade (1907-86) Robin Jenkins (1912-2005 Marvin Lee Minsky (1927-) Sir Steven Runciman (1903-2000) An Wang (1920-90) Fritz Perls (1893-1970) Paul Goodman (1911-72) Kenneth Joseph Arrow (1921-) Robertson Davies (1913-95) Donald Rodney Justice (1925-2004) David Oman McKay (1873-1970) Robert Rossen (1908-66) Mickey Spillane (1918-2006) Volney G. Mathison (1897-1965) Hubbard Mark VI E-Meter Hubbard Mark Super VII Quantum E-Meter Hubbard Mark VIII E-Meter Nick the Greek Dandolos (1883-1966) Johnny Moss (1907-95) Maria Callas (1923-77) Ray Charles (1930-2004) Rosemary Clooney (1928-2002) Jay Livingston (1915-2001) and Ray Evans (1915-2007) Bud Powell (1924-66) Max Roach (1924-2007) Curley Russell (1917-86) Paul Alexander Baran (1909-64) Bill Bright (1921-2003) Hortense Calisher (1911-2009) Rachel Carson (1907-64) Bruce Catton (1899-1978) Federico Chabod (1901-60) Morton Deutsch (1920-) Julien Gracq (1910-2007) Oscar Handlin (1915-2011) Georg Katona (1901-81) Robert A. Heinlein (1907-88) James Jones (1921-77) Henrietta Lacks (1920-51) Siegfried Lenz (1926-) Gabriel Marcel (1889-1973) Celia Franca (1921-2007) James Merrill (1926-95) Michael Polanyi (1891-1976) Carl Rogers (1902-87) Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) Robert Pinget (1919-97) J.D. Salinger (1919-2010) 'The Catcher in the Rye' by J.D. Salinger (1919-2010), 1951 William Prescott Webb (1888-1963) John Whiting (1917-63) Herman Wouk (1915-) Howard Fast (1914-2003) Janet Frame (1924-2004) Herbert Gold (1924-) Eric Hoffer (1898-1983) John Harold Johnson (1918-2005) John Hawkes (1925-98) Nicholas Monsarrat (1910-79) Elting Elmore Morison (1909-95) John Morton Blum (1921-2011) Anthony Shaffer (1926-2001) John Forbes Nash Jr. (1928-2015) Peter Shaffer (1926-) Josephine Tey (1896-1952) Tony Bennett (1926-) John Cage (1912-92) Camilo Jose Cela (1916-2002) Edward Dmytryk (1908-99) Richard McKeon (1900-85) Gian Carlo Menotti (1911-2007) Brian Moore (1921-99) Nicholas Mosley (1923-) Merlo John Pusey (1902-85) Donald Woods Winnicott (1896-1971) Marguerite Yourcenar (1903-87) Carl Smith (1927-2010) John Wyndham (1903-69) Hank Ketcham (1920-2001) 'Dennis the Menace', 1951- Dragnet, 1951-9 'I Love Lucy', 1951-7 'The Adventures of Wild Bill Hicock', 1951-8 'Amos n Andy', 1951-3 'Hallmark Hall of Fame', 1951- 'Sky King', 1951-9 'Whats the Story', 1951-5 'The King and I', 1951 'A Tree Grows in Brooklyn', 1951 Paul Harvey (1918-2009) Ruth Lyons (1905-88) Stan Freberg (1926-) Sophia Loren (1934-) Lee Strasberg (1901-82) Dinah Shore (1916-94) Lee Marvin (1924-87) Charles Bronson (1921-2003) 'The African Queen', 1951 Samuel P. Spiegel (1901-85) 'Alice in Wonderland', 1951 Gene Kelly and Leslie Caron in 'An American in Paris', 1951 Gene Kelly (1912-96) Leslie Caron (1931-) 'The Day the Earth Stood Still', 1951 'Detective Story', 1951 Lee Grant (1927-) 'Bedtime for Bonzo', 1951 'Carmen Comes Home', 1951 'Distant Drums', 1951 'Here Comes the Groom', 1951 'The Lavender Hill Mob', 1951 'The Magic Box', 1951 'The Man in the White Suit', 1951 'The Man With My Face', 1951 'Royal Wedding', 1951 Anna Maria Alberghetti (1936-) Arnold Manoff (1914-65) 'Scrooge', 1951 'The Strange Door', 1951 'A Streetcar Named Desire', 1951 'Superman and the Mole Men', 1951 'The Teahouse of the August Moon' by Vern Sneider (1916-81), 1951 'The Thing', 1951 'Where No Vultures Fly', 1951 Helmut Qualtinger (1928-86) Johnnie Ray (1927-90) Jackie Brenston (1930-79) Ike Turner (1931-2007) Chester Arthur 'Howlin Wolf' Burnett (1910-76) Sam Phillips (1923-2003) Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958) Earl 'Madman' Muntz (1914-87) The Muntz Jet, 1951-3 Dudley Joseph LeBlanc (1894-1971) Hadacol Bette Nesmith Graham (1924-80) Yale Art Gallery, 1951 Peace Bridge (Friedensbrücke), Frankfurt, 1951 Emile Norman (1918-) and Brooks Clement (-1973) 'Flowers and Animals' by Karel Appel, 1951 'The Photojournalist' by Andreas Feininger, 1951 'Girl With a White Dog' by Lucian Freud (1922-), 1951-2 UNIVAC I, 1951 CBS Eye Logo, 1951 U.N. HQ, 1948-52 Circle in the Square Theatre, 1951 Jack in the Box, 1951 Robert Oscar Peterson (1916-94)

1951 Doomsday Clock: 3 min. to midnight. Chinese Year: Rabbit (Feb. 6). Time Mag. Man of the Year: Mohammed Mossadegh (1882-1967). Paris celebrates its 2,000th anniv. Percentage of the pop. working in commerce and industry: Britain: 46%, Germany: 41%, U.S.: 30%, Italy: 29%, Japan: 20%, India: 10%. The first Muslim immigrants come to the Netherlands, Moluccan families of former soldiers from Indonesia. On Jan. 1 Michigan defeats Calif. by 14-6 to win the 1951 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 1 the lucky govt. of Communist Romania launches a Soviet-style 5-year plan designed to shift the economy from an agricultural to industrial basis, incl. construction of a 42-mi. canal linking the Danube River and Black Sea; too bad that peasants resist collectivization, while industrial workers become known for low productivity; in Jan. the govt. institutes a monetary reform which robs, er, reduces the value of currency, and in May it issues a decree requiring peasants to sell their crops to the state. On Jan. 1 North Korean and Red Chinese forces begin a massive assault on U.N. lines, capturing Seoul on Jan. 4; by the end of Jan. U.N. forces halt their retreat and hold a defensive line 75 mi. below the 38th parallel; on Jan. 25 they counterattack, recapturing Seoul on Mar. 14-15 and reaching the 38th parallel by the end of Mar. On Jan. 4 the U.S. Senate opens a Great Debate on U.S. Foreign Policy, with the attack on the admin. led by Ohio Repub. Sen. Robert A. Taft; on Jan. 6 it is revealed that U.S. arms and ammo are being sent to Nationalist China. On Jan. 8 Bermuda conservation officer David Wingate rediscovers 18 cahows (Bermuda petrels), which were thought to have been extinct since 1615; he breeds them up to over a hundred. On Jan. 9 Hall County, Tex.-born Lubbock-raised Repub. Daniel Isaac J. "Dan" Thornton (1911-76) becomes Colo. gov. #33 (until Jan. 11, 1955), becoming known for wearing a Stetson hat and cowboy boots while smoking a pipe, going on to get Colorado Springs selected as the site of the U.S. Air Force Academy; in 1952 he is on the short list for Dwight Eisenhower's veep, aced-out by Richard Nixon; no surprise, he dies of a heart attack on Jan. 18, 1976 2 weeks before his 65th birthday; the N Denver suburb of Thornton, Colo. is named after him - Jan. is a big month for Dan? On Jan. 10 the first jet passenger trade is made. On Jan. 13 Pravda unveils the Doctors' Plot, nine Jewish physicians in the Kremlin who admitted under torture to being U.S. and/or British agents, calling them "criminals in white coats"; the whole incident was staged by Stalin to justify anti-Semitism? On Jan. 15 the U.S. Supreme (Vinson) Court rules 6-3 in Feiner v. New York that a "clear and present danger" of incitement to riot is not protected free speech and can be used as an excuse for a police action to destroy your entire civil rights even though all you did was open your mouth in public, despite the court's attempt to separate the content of the speech from the crowd's possible reaction to it - that's life in Dirty Denver? On Jan. 16 the Viet Minh begin an offensive against Hanoi. On Jan. 16 a gas pipeline from Brownsville, Tex. to New York City opens, becoming the world's largest. On Jan. 17 Chinese and North Korean forces capture Seoul after refusing a ceasefire, causing a U.N. counteroffensive beginning on Jan. 25. On Jan. 18 a lie detector is first used in the Netherlands. On Jan. 18 Hermann Flake is sentenced to death for his "hate campaign against the GDR". On Jan. 18 (night) Mt. Lamington in New Guinea erupts, causing a "cloud of death" that kills 3K-5K. On Jan. 20-21 a series of 649 avalanches in the Alps kill 240 and bury 45K temporarily in Austria, Italy and Switzerland - the first atomic bomb test in the Alps? On Jan. 27 an Air Force plane drops a 1-kiloton atomic bomb on Frenchman Flats in the Nevada desert NW of Las Vegas, becoming the first of 921 nuclear warhead tests at the 1,375 sq. mi. Nevada Test Site 70 mi. NE of Las Vegas, opening a new era for Nevadans of bad news from the doctor; on Feb. 1 the first telecast of an atomic explosion at the site is aired, followed by the first underground atomic explosion at Frenchman Flat on Nov. 29; the site ends up with 300M curies of radiation and 1.6T gal. of polluted water, and is never cleaned up; meanwhile Hollyweird scrambles to exploit the atomic fallout fear with radioactive mutant flicks; by the end of the cent. it becomes a tourist mecca. On Jan. 29 Japanese PM Yoshida Shigeru holds talks with U.S. ambassador John Foster Dulles for a peace treaty; meanwhile Yoshida's Liberal Party calls for the restoration of Soviet-held Kuril Islands and U.S.-held Ryukyu Islands, incl. Okinawa (home of the "ikigai" or "why do I wake up today?" philosophy, because the word "retirement" is unknown?); the draft treaty is completed and sent on Mar. 29 to the 14 co-belligerent powers, causing the Soviet Union to propose a new treaty in which they have a hand, which the U.S. rejects on May 19; a peace conference is set for Sept. 4 in San Francisco. On Jan. 30 Belgium bans Communists from making speeches on radio. On Jan. 31 former USAF brig. gen. Charles F. Blair Jr. (1909-78) (hubby of actress Maureen O'Hara since in 1968-78) sets a piston engine plane record of 446 mph (718 kmh/h) avg. speed on a nonstop flight from New York City to London in 7 hours 48 min. in his P-51 Mustang "Excalibur III"; on May 29 he flies from Bardufoss, Norway to Fairbanks, Alaska over the North Pole, becoming the first long distance solo flight across any polar region, proving that non-military transpolar flights are feasible, along with military air attacks, causing Pres. Truman to award him the Harmon Trophy. On Feb. 1, 1951 U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 498 (44-7-9) condemns the aggression of Red China in Korea, exhorting it to pull its troops out, and exhorting U.N. member states to support U.N. troops in Korea, becoming the first time the U.N. treats a nation as an aggressor, passed after every resolution in the U.N. Security Council to take action is vetoed by the Soviet Union. On Feb. 1 Gavilan, N.M. reaches a state record low temp of -50F (-46C). The cloyingly sweet international corporate pirates know no political ideology? On Feb. 3 John Jay McCloy (1895-1989), high commissioner of the U.S. Zone in Germany frees Nazi war criminal Alfried Felix Alwyn Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach (1907-67) well in advance of his 12-year sentence, and drops the confiscation of his $500M munitions fortune; his 8-member board of dirs. also walks from Landsberg Prison, along with four Nazi gens.; Eleanor Roosevelt asks him "Why are we freeing so many Nazis?"; McCloy goes on to become chmn. of Chase Manhattan Bank (1953-60), chmn. of the Ford Foundation (1958-65), and chmn. of the Council on Foreign Relations (1954-70), and receives the Grand Cross Order of Merit from the German govt.; in Mar. 1953 Krupp initially promises to sell his iron, steel, and coal interests, but after he gets out he becomes a nat. hero in Germany and builds his steel empire until he is once again the wealthiest man in Europe. On Feb. 4-8 Gertrude Levandowski undergoes a 96-hour operation (longest in history until ?) to remove a 140 kg ovarian cyst, halving her body weight. On Feb. 6 a Penn. Railroad commuter train plunges through a temporary overpass in Woodbridge, N.J., killing 85 and injuring 500. On Feb. 11 the first parliamentary elections in Gold Coast are a V for Kwame Nkrumah (1909-72), causing him to be freed from prison; on Mar. 21, 1952 he becomes PM #1 of Gold Coast (until July 16, 1960), which changes its name to Ghana in 1957. On Feb. 12 Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran marries his 2nd wife, glam babe (Sofia Loren lookalike?) Soraya Esfandiari Bakhtiari (1932-2001); he divorces her in 1958 after she fails to produce an heir. On Feb. 15 PM Veniselos of Greece gives a speech in parliament (vouli) calling on Britain to allow Cyprus to unite with "Mother Greece". On Feb. 16 New York City passes a bill prohibiting racism in city-assisted housing. On Feb. 18 Nepal becomes a constitutional monarchy. On Feb. 19 31-y.-o. redhead Jean Lee (b. 1919) becomes the last woman to be hung in Australia for the torture-murder of a 73-y.-o. bookmaker. On Feb. 21 Jack in the Box fast food restaurants is founded in San Diego, Calif. by Robert Oscar Peterson (1916-94), becoming the first drive-through with an intercom, with a clown on top with a sign saying "Pull forward, Jack will speak to you", expanding to 2.2K restaurants in 21 U.S. states, mainly on the West Coast. On Feb. 26 bread rationing begins in Czech. On Feb. 27 the Twenty-Second (XXII) (22nd) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, limiting a Dem. U.S. pres. like FDR to two terms of office - the barn door closes after the horse leaves, returns, leaves, returns, leaves, returns, leaves and dies of old age? On Feb. 28 after mob queen Virginia Hall testifies, denying knowledge of the Mafia and claiming that her ample income comes from gifts from beaus for performing oral sex, the Kefauver Committee issues a Preliminary Report documenting at least two major crime syndicates operating in the U.S.; on Mar. 12 it holds its first public hearings in New York City, and for two weeks the disclosures are sensational, getting big ratings; on May 17 slowpoke CBS-TV and ABC-TV cover the hearings after Kefauver resigns on May 1 to run for vice-pres.; Virginia Hill soon marries Sun Valley ski instructor Hans (Norman Johann) Hauser (1911-74) and moves to Europe to flee the IRS (who claims she never pays taxes, and goes after her), and ends up dying suspiciously in Austria in 1966. In Feb. tensions between Pakistan and India ease, and trade resumes. On Mar. 6 Belgium extends conscription to 24 mo. On Mar. 6 Julius Rosenberg (1918-53) and Ethel Rosenberg (1915-53) go on trial for espionage against the U.S.; on Mar. 29 they are convicted, and on Apr. 5 they are sentenced to death; their accomplice Morton Sobell (1917-) gets 30 years, and is released from Alcatraz Prison in 1969; info. is later released that Ethel was innocent? On Mar. 7 Operation Ripper by U.N. troops under U.S. Gen. Matthew Ridgway begins, going after the Chinese in Korea and recapturing Seoul on Mar. 14. On Mar. 7 Iranian PM (since 1950) Haj Ali Razmara (b. 1901) is assassinated in Tehran by 26-y.-o. Kahlil Tahmassebi of the Fadayan-e Islam org., becoming the first Iranian PM to be assassinated. On Mar. 12 the comic strip Dennis the Menace by Henry King "Hank" Ketcham (1920-2001) debuts in 16 U.S. newspapers, followed by another version in England on Mar. 17 by Scottish cartoonist David "Davey" Law (1908-71). On Mar. 13 Israel demands 6.2B DM compensation from Germany. On Mar. 14 West Germany joins UNESCO. On Mar. 14 there is a 7-8 earthquake in Euskirchen, Germany - not that there's anything left standing to damage? On Mar. 21 the U.S. troop level in Korea reaches 2.9M. On Mar. 23 France raises wages 11%. On Mar. 26 the U.S. Air Force Flag is approved, with an eagle and 13 white stars on a blue background. On Mar. 29 the 23rd Academy Awards awards the best picture Oscar for 1950 to 20th Century-Fox's All About Eve, along with best dir. to Joseph L. Mankiewicz and best supporting actor to George Sanders; best actor goes to Jose Ferrer for Cyrano de Bergerac, best actress to Judy Holliday for Born Yesterday, and best supporting actress to Josephine Hull for Harvey. On Mar. 30 after India and Pakistan sign the Karachi Agreement establishing a ceasfire line, the U.N. Security Council votes 8-0-3 (India, Yugoslavia, U.S.S.R.) to adopt Resolution 91 establishing the U.N. Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) to monitor it. On Mar. 31 U.S. tanks reach the 38 deg. lat. line in Korea. In Mar. the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission unveils plans for a $45M plant in the Rocky Flats area W of Denver, Colo. between Boulder and Golden; in 1953 it begins processing plutonium, and in 1954 begins manufacturing nuclear bombs; on Sept. 11, 1957 a fire in a nuclear glove box contaminates Bldg. 771 with plutonium and release it into the atmosphere; in 1959 barrels of radioactive waste are found to be leaking into an open field, which is covered-up until wind-borne particles are detected in Denver in 1970; in 1972 Congress authorizes the purchase of a 4.6K-acre buffer zone around it; on Apr. 28, 1979 a few weeks after the Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident, 15K protesters call for it to be closed, incl. singers Jackson Browne and Bonnie Raitt, causing police to arrest 286 incl. Daniel Ellsberg; in Aug. 1989 3.5K more protesters demonstrate; on June 6, 1989 the FBI implements Operation Desert Glow, raiding the plant, discovering numerous violations of federal pollution laws, causing Rockwell Internat. to plead guilty in 1992 and pay a record $18.5M fine; in 2001 Congress passes the U.S. Rocky Flats Nat. Wildlife Refuge Act, transferring 4K acres to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; in 2003 the plant is closed; the cleanup is completed in Oct. 2006. On Apr. 1 female suffrage begins in Greece. On Apr. 1 353 Jehovah's Witnesses are rounded up by the Soviet govt. in Estonia and deported to Siberia after being given a chance to renounce their beliefs. On Apr. 1 Paul Harvey (1918-2009) debuts his "News and Comment" show on ABC Radio Network (until 2008), which becomes known for "The Rest of the Story". On Apr. 2 Pakistan approves a new U.N. plan to end its dispute with India over Kashmir, but India rejects parts of the plan. On Apr. 4 after 3 mo. of debate the U.S. Senate by 69-21 a resolution approving the president's plan to send four divs. to Europe, but announces that no more can be sent without approval. On Apr. 4 Prince Bernhard of Netherlands visits Juan and Eva Peron in Buenos Aires. On Apr. 4 in Italy the right-wing Socialists, led by Giuseppe Saragat (1898-1988) merge with the Unitarian Socialists, led by Giuseppe Romita (1887-1958), creating the Italian Socialist Party on May 1. On Apr. 9 a 5.5 earthquake rocks El Reno, Okla., with effects felt in a wide area. On Apr. 9 David Oman McKay (1873-1970) becomes pres. #9 of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (until Jan. 18, 1970), going on to preside over an increase in church membership from 1.1M to 2.8M, opposing atheistic Communism and planning a BYU campus in Hawaii, softening the church's stance on Africans holding the priesthood by no longer requiring dark-skinned applicants from South Am., South Africa et al. to prove that their lineage isn't African; he becomes friends with film dir. Cecil B. DeMille, consulting with him during production of the 1956 film "The Ten Commandments". On Apr. 11 having concluded that victory in Korea is impossible without starting WWIII, and having resisting all pressure to nuke North Korea and/or China and/or every Commie on the planet, deciding instead to hold the 38th parallel and seek a negotiated settlement, only to see Gen. Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964) differ with him publicly and even advocate widening the war to China, U.S. pres. Harry S. Truman relieves MacArthur from command in Korea, saying that he "is unable to give his wholehearted support to the policies of the U.S. government and the United Nations"; Sen. Joseph McCarthy blasts him for it, saying that "Truman is surrounded by the Jessups, the Achesons, the old Hiss crowd. Most of the tragic things are done at 1:30 and 2 o'clock in the morning when they've had time to get the President cheerful"; MacArthur is replaced by Gen. Matthew Bunker Ridgway (1895-1993), and command of the Eighth Army is given to Lt. Gen. James Alward Van Fleet (1892-1992); on Apr. 19 MacArthur gives a Farewell Address to Congress, uttering the immortal soundbytes: "In war there can be no substitute for victory" and "Old soldiers never die, they just fade away"; on Apr. 21 he is given a ticker tape parade in New York City; on Apr. 24 the Senate votes to investigate the admin.'s Far East policy and MacArthur's dismissal, holding hearings on May 3-June 25 which end in approval of a limited war in Korea. On Apr. 15 Michiel P. "Michael" Gorsira (1914-94) becomes the first gov. of Curacao (until 1967). On Apr. 15 Western series The Adventures of Wild Bill Hickock debuts on CBS-TV (ABC-TV in 1957-8) for 113 episodes (until May 16, 1958), starring Guy Madison (Robert Ozell Moseley) (1922-96) as U.S. Marshal James Butler "Wild Bill" Hicock (who rides the horse Buckshot), and 300-lb. Andrew Vabre "Andy" Devine (1905-77) as his comical raspy-voiced deputy Jingles P. Jones. On Apr. 16 British sub HMS Affray (built 1944) sinks in the English Channel, killing 75. On Apr. 18 Moises Frumencio da Costa Gomez (1907-66) becomes PM of Dutch Antilles (until Dec. 8, 1954). On Apr. 18 the Schuman Plan (Paris) Treaty, designed to pool Western Europe's coal and steel production is signed in Paris, creating the European Coal and Steel Community, calling it "the real foundation of Europe"; German parliamentary leader Heinrich von Brentano di Tremezzo (1904-64) becomes pres. of the 6-nation Schuman Plan Committee, charged with drafting a constitution for a proposed European federation. On Apr. 18 creaky Portuguese dictator pres. (since Dec. 29, 1926) Gen. Antonio de Fragoso Carmona (b. 1869) dies, and his slightly less creaky protege (an economist) Gen. Antonio (António) de Oliveira Salazar (1889-1970), whom he had put in power in 1932 becomes acting pres. of the unhappy military nuthouse; on Aug. 9 young whippersnapper air force marshal Francisco Higino Craveiro Lopes (1894-1964) becomes puppet pres. #12 of Portugal (until Aug. 9, 1958), with Salazar remaining as PM #100 (until Sept. 25, 1968). On Apr. 21 the Soviet Union forms a nat. Olympic committee in time to particpate in the 1952 Helsinki Winter Games. On Apr. 22-25 the Battle of the Imjin River (Gloster Hill) (Solma-ri) sees 4K troops of the British 29th Brigade and 1st Battalion hold off 27K troops of the Chinese 63rd Army, with 400 "Glorious Glosters" fighting a last stand on Hill 235 (later rename Gloster Hill) against 10K Chinese troops for three nights, giving U.N. forces a chance to regroup and block the Chinese advance on Seoul. On Apr. 24 a train fire in Yokohama, Japan kills 100+. On Apr. 25 U.S. secy. of state Dean Acheson reveals a U.S. commitment made 10 weeks earlier to give military aid to the govt. of Taiwan for "the legitimate self-defense of Formosa". On Apr. 25 Canadian-born Jewish-Am. film dir. Edward Dmytryk (1908-99), one of the Hollywood Ten of 1947 returns from England to the U.S. and turns rat on 26 Commies incl. John Howard Lawson, Adrian Scott, and Albert Maltz, allowing him to resume his Judas, er, career. On Apr. 28 the Liberal Party govt. of Robert Menzies in Australia is reelected for a 2nd term. On Apr. 29 popular veteran Iranian nationalist Mohammed Mossadegh (Mossadeq) (1882-1967) becomes PM of Iran (until 1953); on May 8 after they refuse to negotiate their ongoing ripoff of the Iranian people, his govt. nationalizes the Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. (British Petroleum), intending to apply oil revenues to pull the nation out of poverty, causing pissed-off Britain (Sept. 10) and the U.S. to impose sanctions, and the CIA, led by Buenos Aires-born agent Kermit "Kim" Roosevelt Jr. (1916-2000) (grandson of Teddy Roosevelt) to begin making secret plans to overthrow him after British intel agent Christopher Montague Woodhouse convinces Ike of the Communist threat to hide the oil profit motive; Mossadegh's public behavior of frequently fainting and weeping in the Majlis (parliament) doesn't help him?; "Never had so few lost so much so stupidly and so fast" (Dean Acheson on BP). In Apr. Cahiers du Cinema (Cinéma) (Notebooks on Cinema) begins pub. in Paris, France by Andre Bazin (1918-58), Jacques Doniol-Valcroze (1920-89), Joseph-Marie Lo Duca (1905-2004)< et al., going on to reinvent the basic tenets of film theory and criticism, becoming the oldest film mag. to survive to modern times. In Apr.-May the Chinese stage a final offensive in Korea, causing the U.S. Eighth Army to fall back. On May 1 the Grande Theatre in Geneva, Switzerland nearly burns down after a fire starts onstage. On May 600K march for peace and freedom in Germany. On May 2 the German Federal Repub. is made a full member of the Council of Europe, participating in its regular session at Strasburg. On May 3 English king George VI inaugurates the Festival of Britain at a service in St. Paul's Cathedral, and attends the opening of London's Royal Festival Hall on the South Bank of the Thames River in London, becoming the first Grade I listed bldg. since WWII. On May 6 Victor Paz Estenssoro (1907-2001) of the MNR receives nearly 50% of the pres. vote in Bolivia (among six candidates) on a platform of agrarian reform and nationalization of the mines, causing Congress to convene to choose a pres. from the top three candidates; on May 15 pres. Urriolagoitia intervenes, putting the govt. under control of a military junta led by undersecy. for defense gen. Hugo Ballivian (Ballivián) Rojas (1901-95) to seize power (until 1952), and the other side to get really serious?; in Sept. the new govt. agrees "in principle" to a plan for a staff of U.N. experts to improve the tin-horn sagging economy. On May 8 the first Dacron suits for men are introduced. On May 9 Operation Greenhouse stages the first a-bomb test on Enewetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands, followed on May 25 by the first test of a "boosted" A-bomb. On May 9 U.N. forces stage an air raid on Chinese positions on the Yalu River. On May 14 the first volunteer-operated passenger trains begin operation on the narrow-gauge steam Talyllyn Railway. On May 16 El Al Israel Airlines begins the first regularly scheduled transatlantic flights between New York City and London. On May 19 the U.N. begins a counteroffensive in Korea. You're beautiful, you're beautiful, you're beautiful it's true? On May 21 the Ninth Street Show (9th St. Art Exhibition) in New York City marks the advent of the avante-garde abstract expressionist New York School. On May 22 the U.S. Eighth Army counterattacks, and by June regains its positions N of the 38th parallel, and both sides dig in. On May 23 the Chinese force the Tibetan delegation in Beijing to sign the 17 Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet without authorization, forcing the Dalai Lama to surrender his army to Beijing, announcing it on Radio Beijing on May 27, shocking Lhasa and causing the Dalai Lama to rush back to Lhasa on Aug. 17 to negotiate a more favorable treaty; too bad, on Sept. 9 3K Chinese troops march into Lhasa, soon followed by 20K more, occupying all major Tibetan cities and causing him to flee to India. On May 23 after student strikes at the all-black Robert Russa Moton H.S. (founded 1939) in Farmville, Va. near Longwood U., which was deliberately underfunded by the lily white school board, who forced them into "tar-paper shacks", the NAACP files the lawsuit Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County; after the state courts reject the lawsuit, they appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court, and it is incorporated into Brown v. Board of Education, causing the h.s. to become known as "the student birthplace of the Am. Civil Rights Movement". On May 24 racial segregation in restaurants in Washington, D.C. is ruled illegal. On May 27 Socialist mayor of Vienna Theodore Koerner is elected as Austria's 2nd postwar pres. (until 1957). On May 31 the U.S. Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) goes into effect, replacing the 69 Articles of War enacted on June 30, 1775 and the 101 Articles of War enacted on Apr. 10, 1806. On June 1 the Henderson Plant in 16 mi. SE of Las Vegas, Nev. opens, becoming the first self-contained titanium plant, supplementing their magnesium capability. On June 4 the U.S. Supreme (Vinson) Court rules by 6-2 Dennis v. U.S. to uphold the 1940 U.S. (Alien Registration) Smith Act and the conviction of 11 Communists because First Amendment protection doesn't extend to a plot to overthrow the govt.; too bad, they didn't actually plot, only preach, causing dissenting Justice Hugo Black to utter the soundbyte: "These petitioners were not charged with an attempt to overthrow the Government. They were not charged with overt acts of any kind designed to overthrow the Government. They were not even charged with saying anything or writing anything designed to overthrow the Government. The charge was that they agreed to assemble and to talk and publish certain ideas at a later date: The indictment is that they conspired to organize the Communist Party and to use speech or newspapers and other publications in the future to teach and advocate the forcible overthrow of the Government. No matter how it is worded, this is a virulent form of prior censorship of speech and press, which I believe the First Amendment forbids. I would hold 3 of the Smith Act authorizing this prior restraint unconstitutional on its face and as applied"; softened in Yates v. U.S. (1957). On June 4 the U.S. Supreme (Vinson) Court rules 7-2 in Garner v. Board of Public Works that a municipal loyalty oath covering the previous five years which was enacted more than five years previous is not an ex post facto law or a bill of attainder. On June 11 Mozambique becomes an overseas province of Portugal. On June 13 former PM #1 (Taoiseach) (1937-48) Eamon de Valera (1882-1975) becomes PM of Ireland again (until June 2, 1954, then Mar. 20, 1957 to June 23, 1959). On June 15 West Coast North Am. Forest Fires begin raging in N.M., Ariz., Calif., Ore. Wash., and B.C. Canada, destroying thousands of acres; on Sept. 21 a forest fire burns 33K acres and 32 bldgs. in Forks, Wash.; on Sept. 26-28 ash from a forest fire in Canada causes the Sun to turn blue in Europe. On June 19 Pres. Truman signs a military manpower bill extending the draft until July 1, 1955, lowering the draft age to 18 and authorizing universal military training at an unspecified future date. On June 23 British diplomat-spies Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean flee to the lovely Soviet Union. On June 23 a hailstorm in Kan. casues $1.5M crop damage and $14M property damage, becoming the most expensive in U.S. history. On June 25 CBS-TV transmits the first commercial color telecast, a 1-hour Arthur Godfrey special from New York City to four other cities. On June 25 the game show What's the Story debuts on DuMont Network (until Sept. 23, 1955), hosted by Walter Rainey, Walter Kiernan, Al Capp, and John McCaffery, with celebs asked to identify famous events from clues, becoming the last series to air on the DuMont Network. On June 28 Hungarian archbishop Josef Groesz is convicted of conspiring against the govt., and on July 21 all Roman Catholic bishops in Hungary take an oath of allegiance to the Commie govt. after two years of holding out. On June 28 Amos 'n' Andy debuts on CBS-TV (until 1953), based on the WMAQ Chicago Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll radio show of 1928, starring Tim Moore (1887-1958) as George "Kingfish" Stevens, Alvin Childress (1907-86) as Amos Jones, and Spencer Williams (1889-1965) as Andrew Hogg "Andy" Brown, becoming the first U.S. TV series with an all-black cast; too bad, black protests over its racial stereotyping gets it canceled. On June 30 the NAACP begins a legal attack on school segregation and discrimination. In June Dean Rusk gives a speech to the China Inst. in which he calls Chiang Kai-shek the legitimate ruler of China, and calls the Soviet Union the "jealous and implacable master" of Commie China, "whose price of friendship is complete submission", and accuses it of using the "cloak of the Korean aggression" to score inroads into Manchuria, "losing its great Northern areas to the European empire which has stretched out its greedy hands for them for at least a century"; the British protest, the U.S. State Dept. denies that he represents U.S. policy, and finally Dean Acheson holds a press conference saying it represents nothing new. In June Jewish-Am. "All the King's Men" dir. Robert Rossen (1908-66), who had been a member of the Am. Communist Party from 1937-47 takes the 5th Amendment before the House Un-Am. Activities Committee (HUAC), then in May 1953 flip-flops and rat finks 57 names, with the soundbyte "I don't think... that any one individual can indulge himself in the luxury of personal morality or pit it against what I feel today very strongly is the security and safety of the nation"; his unofficial Hollywood blacklisting ends. On July 1 the admin. of Am. Samoa is transferred to the U.S. Dept. of the Interior. On July 9 U.S. pres. Truman asks Congress to formally end the war with Germany, which is done on Oct. 19. On July 9-13 the Great Flood of 1951 in Kan. and Mo. kills 24, injures 1.1K, and causes $760M in property damage. On July 10 despite South Korean objections truce discussions begin in Kaesong between U.N. and Chinese Communist forces; on Oct. 8 they agree to move them to the village of Panmunjom in the DMZ; on Oct. 10-22 they meet to resolve procedural issues, then renew talks on Oct. 25. On July 12 Rene Pleven (1901-93) becomes PM of France (until Mar. 10, 1951); on Oct. 24 he proposes the Pleven Plan to create a European Defence Community (EVG) out of France, Italy, the Benelux nations, and the Federal Repub. of Germany, with its own supranat. European Army; Pleven becomes PM again from Aug. 11, 1951 to Jan. 20, 1952. On July 14 the George Washington Carver Nat. Monument in Diamond, Mo. is dedicated, becoming the first to honor an African-Am. On July 15 a bus plunges off the Harada Bridge into the Tenryu River in Urakawa, Shizuoka, Japan, killing 24. On July 16 after the Royal Question sparked by suspected authoritarian sympathies gave the title of prince regent to his brother Charles on Sept. 20, 1944, king (since Feb. 23, 1934) Leopold III of Belgium (b. 1901) abdicates in favor of his eldest son Baudouin I (1930-93), who on July 17 becomes king #5 of Belgium (until July 31, 1993), becoming the last Belgian sovereign of Congo. On July 20 king Abdullah I Ibn Hussein (b. 1882) of Jordan, founder of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is assassinated by a Palestinian extremist at the Al-Aqsa (Haram al Sharif) Mosque in Jerusalem, and his son Talal I bin Adullah (1909-72) succeeds him, but is deposed next Aug. 11 for ill health (schizophrenia), and his 16-y.-o. son Crown Prince Hussein bin Talal I (1935-99) succeeds him (until Feb. 7, 1999), with a regency council ruling until his 18th birthday (May 2, 1953); Hussein pursued the gunman, who shot him, but the bullet was deflected by a medal on his uniform given to him by his grandfather. On July 26 Italian PM Alcide de Gasperi's 7th cabinet is sworn-in after a July 3 decision to incl. more liberal members. On July 29 the 1951 (1st) Miss World beauty pageant is held in the Lyceum Ballroom in London, England as part of the Festival of Britain; the winner is 21-y.-o. Miss Sweden Kerstin "Kiki" Haakansson (1929-2011), who is the first and last winner to wear a bikini for the crowning ritual, after which winners wear 1-piece bathing suits. On Aug. 6 a typhoon in Manchuria causes floods, killing 4.8K. On Aug. 11 fighting begins between Peru and Ecuador over a cent.-old border dispute regarding access to Amazon tributaries, and they submit it for mediation to the U.S., Chile, Argentina and Brazil, who convene a conference on Aug. 29 after the clashes stop, causing it to close without action. On Aug. 16 the Mystery of Le Pain Maudit (Cursed Bread) in Pont-Saint-Esprit in SE France sees the pop. plagued with sudden frightful hallucinations; in 2010 it is revealed that the CIA put LSD in their food as part of a secret mind control experiment. On Aug. 29 Japan joins the U.S. Fulbright student exchange program. On Sept. 1 the U.S., Australia and New Zealand sign the ANZUS Treaty, a mutual defense pact. On Sept. 2 West German chancellor Konrad Adenauer tours the newly-restored frescoes of Christian saints in the Marienkirch in Lubeck on its 700th anniv., and 2M postage stamps commemorating the event are issued; next year Konigsberg artist Lothar Malskat (1913-88) admits that he painted the frescoes from pictures of Marlene Dietrich (1901-92), Rasputin, Genghis Khan, et al. after the real ones were damaged by a bomb in 1942, and is arrested and given 18 mo. while his work is erased; when released he becomes a celeb and his work sells. On Sept. 3 the daytime soap opera Search for Tomorrow debuts on CBS-TV; on Mar. 26, 1982 it switches to NBC-TV; the final episode airs on Dec. 26, 1986. On Sept. 3 the London Daily Express reveals the existence of a secret network of tunnels under London, embarrassing the govt. On Sept. 6 amphetiamine addict and prominent Beat Gen. figure Joan Vollmer (b. 1923) is killed by her junkie beau (also a prominent Beat Gen. figure) William Seward Burroughs II (1914-97) in a drunken game of William Tell, after which he spends his career glorifying it and blaming the "Ugly Spirit" for it, with the soundbyte: "I am forced to the appalling conclusion that I would have never become a writer but for Joan's death." On Sept. 8 occupied Japan signs the Treaty of San Francisco with the U.S. and 47 other countries (except the Soviet Union and China, who boycott the conference), ending the War of the Pacific and giving up all its overseas territory incl. Taiwan, but levying no reparations and permitting defensive rearmament; the treaty contains the soundbyte: "The Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation, and the threat and use of force as a means of settling international disputes"; on Sept. 8 the U.S. and Japan sign a mutual security treaty in which Japan grants the U.S. the right to maintain military bases on its soil indefinitely and to assist U.N. action in E Asia, while prohibiting Japan from allowing any other nations to have bases on its soil; on Sept. 4 the first live transcontinental broadcast begins from the peace treaty conference, while NBC-TV extends to 61 stations to go coast-to-coast. On Sept. 9 gen. elections in Greece give the conservative Greek Rally Party of Field Marshal Alexander Papagos (1883-1955) a plurality, but parliament becomes deadlocked when it can't obtain a majority, and on Sept. 29 King Paul I appoints Gen. Nikolaos (Nicholas) Plastiras (1883-1953) of the Progressive Union of the Center as PM of a coalition cabinet with the Liberals (until 1952). On Sept. 13-Oct. 15 U.N. forces in Korea capture Heartbreak Ridge N of Yanguu. On Sept. 15 troops of seven nations begin the first joint peacetime maneuvers in Western Europe - a seven-nation army? On Sept. 17 a Life article titled The Gray Lady Reaches 100 first calls The New York Times (founded Sept. 18, 1851) the Gray Lady. On Sept. 20 NATO approves the admission of Greece and Turkey, giving 14 it members. On Sept. 20 the first jet crossing of the North Pole is made. On Sept. 24 the soap opera Love of Life debuts on CBS-TV (until Feb. 1, 1980). On Sept. 30 The Red Skelton Show, starring Vincennes, Ind.-born Richard Bernard "Red" Skelton (1913-97) debuts on NBC-TV, switching in 1953-70 to CBS-TV, becoming "The Red Skelton Hour", then back to NBC-TV (until Aug. 1, 1971), featuring his comic arsenal of funny characters and acrobatic slapstick, plus his talent for cracking up guest stars; "Good night for now, and may God bless." In Sept. the Torquay Round of GATT sees 38 countries meet in Torquay, England and make 8.7K tariff concessions, reducing tariffs to 75% of the 1948 levels; with the U.S. rejection of the Havana Charter, the Gen. Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) of 1947 becomes recognized as a world governing body; followed by the Geneva II Round (1955-6). On Oct. 1 the 24th Infantry Regiment, the last all-black military U.S. unit is deactivated. On Oct. 1 U.S. ambassador to Denmark (1949-53) Eugenie (Helen Eugenie Moore) Anderson (1909-97) becomes the first U.S. woman ambassador to sign a treaty. On Oct. 4 Shopper's World in Framingham, Mass. opens, becoming one of the first shopping malls in the U.S. On Oct. 4-10 the New York Yankees (AL) (mgr. Casey Stengel) defeat the New York Giants (NL) (mgr. Leo Durocher) 4-2 to win the Forty-Eighth (48th) World Series; the last WS for Joe DiMaggio, who retires, and the first for rookies Willie Mays and Mickey Mantle (DiMaggio's replacement at center field). On Oct. 6 Communist insurgents in Malaya assassinate British cmdr. Sir Henry Lovell Goldsworthy Gurney (b. 1898) . On Oct. 6 WGBH radio station in Boston, Mass. debuts with a live broadcast of the Boston Symphony Orchestra after being founded by the Lowell Inst., headed by Maj. Ralph Lowell (1890-1978). On Oct. 10 the Mutual Security Agency is established by the U.S. to implement the Marshall Plan and extend military aid to non-Communist countries. On Oct. 15 the U.N. censures Israel for its heavy reprisals against Jordan for border raids. On Oct. 15 I Love Lucy (originally a radio show) (B&W) debuts on CBS-TV for 194 episodes (until May 6, 1957), starring red-headed (henna-dyed) Lucille Ball (1911-89) as Lucy Ricardo, Desi Arnaz (1917-86) as her Cuban hubby Ricky Ricardo, Vivian Vance (1909-79) as friend-landlord Ethel Mertz, and William Frawley (1887-1966) as her hubby Fred Mertz, going on to put on classic episodes incl. the Vitameatavegamin Episode, the Candy Factory Episode, and the Grape-Stomping Episode (the stone stomping trough is called a lagar); in season #2 son "Little Ricky" Ricardo Jr. is born, timed to coincide with the birth of Ball's real son Desi Arnaz Jr.; for four of its six seasons it is the #1 show in the U.S., and ends its run as #1. On Oct. 16 Pakistani PM #1 (since 1947) Liaquat Ali Khan (b. 1896) is assassinated by young political fanatic Said Akbar, and on Oct. 17 gov.-gen. #2 Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin (1894-1964) succeeds him as PM #2 of Pakistan (until Apr. 17, 1953), with the 1-party Muslim League remaining in power. On Oct. 20 CBS-TV begins using its Big-Brother-is-watching-you CBS-TV "Eye" Logo, designed by William Golden. On Oct. 21 a storm in S Italy kills 100+. On Oct. 24 the U.N. issues its first postage stamps. On Oct. 25, 1951 British gen. elections result in the Conservative Party regaining control from the Labour Party, and on Oct. 26 Conservative former PM (1940-5) Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (1874-1965) again becomes PM (until Apr. 5, 1955), with Anthony Eden as his foreign minister. On Oct. 27 King Farouk I of Egypt declares himself king of Sudan, but gains no support. On Nov. 1 the U.S. holds its first military exercises for a possible nuclear war in the Nev. desert, with troops witnessing an atomic explosion. On Nov. 1 the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan proclaims the 1951 Jordan Constitution, establishing a limited monarchy with a parliamentarian govt. On Nov. 1 Jet mag. (weekly) is founded by Ebony pub. John Harold Johnson (1918-2005) of Chicago, Ill., who goes on to become the first African-Am. to be listed on Forbes 400 in 1982. On Nov. 5 the cover story of Time mag. coins the term "Silent Generation" for the generation coming of age, born in 1925-42, sandwiched between the G.I. Generation and Baby Boomer Generation and numerically inferior. On Nov. 9 Norwegian PM (since June 25, 1945) Einar Gerhardsen resigns, and Labor Party leader Oscar Fredrik Torp (1893-1958) becomes PM (until Jan. 22 1955). On Nov. 10 Direct Distance Dialing begins in the U.S. at Englewood, N.J., with 90 area codes; on May 15 AT&T (founded 1876) becomes the first U.S. corp. with 1M shareholders; by the end of the decade it has 100M telephones in service (half the world total), and extends long distance to overseas calls. On Nov. 11 Juan Peron is reelected as pres. of Argentina (until Sept. 21, 1955). On Nov. 14 an agreement is signed in Belgrade giving U.S. military aid to Yugoslavia under the Mutual Security Program. On Nov. 18 See It Now, hosted by journalist Edward R. (Egbert Roscoe) Murrow (1908-65) and adapted from his 1950 radio news program "Hear It Now" debuts on CBS-TV (until July 7, 1958), along with This I Believe (until 1955); Pall Mall-smoking Murrow stuffs them into a Kent box to please his sponsor. On Nov. 20 the Po River in N Italy floods - too po' to pay attention? On Nov. 25 two passenger trains collide in Woodstock, Ala., killing 15 passengers and two employees. On Nov. 27 Korean truce delegates in a plenary session approve a provisional ceasefire line to go into effect if armistice terms can be negotiated within 30 days, but on Dec. 27 the talks stall on POW exchanges and the building of airfields in North Korea. On Nov. 27 the first rocket intercept of an airplane is performed at White Sands, N.M. On Nov. 27 the twice-weekly 15-min. The Dinah Shore Show debuts on NBC-TV (until July 18, 1957), sponsored by Chevrolet, sponsored by radio singing star Dinah (Frances Rose) Shore (1916-94), the first Jewish cheerleader at Vanderbilt U. On Dec. 4 Mt. Catarman in the Philippines erupts for the first time since 1875, emitting superheated gases that kill 500. On Dec. 4 the Gillingham Bus Disaster sees a bus plow into a column of marching marine cadets in Gillingham, Kent, England, killing 24 and injuring 18. On Dec. 6 Egypt declares a state of emergency after increasing riots. On Dec. 9 a referendum approves the merger of three states to form Baden-Wurttemberg (Baden-Württemberg) in West Germany. On Dec. 13 a water tank in Tucumcari, N.M. collapses, killing four and destroying 200 bldgs.; several witnesses claim to see a fireball plunge into or near it first. On Dec. 16 the 30-min. police procedural drama Dragnet, "a Mark VII Production", based on the 1949-57 NBC radio show debuts on NBC-TV for 276 episodes (until Aug. 23, 1959, then 1967-70, 1989-91, 1 hour show in 2003-4), displaying a badge with the number 714; John Randolph "Jack" Webb (1920-82) plays morally rigid Sgt. Joe Friday; the cool Dragnet Theme is by Walter Schumann; the opening says "This is the city, Los Angeles, California. Every 60 seconds a crime is committed in Los Angeles. In the Los Angeles Police Dept.'s communications center, the telephone rings every 20 seconds, 24 hours a day. Of the 3 million people who live in Los Angeles, 35 thousand of them are known murderers, rapists and thieves. They outnumber the police force seven to one. Every time a policeman answers a call, he takes a calculated risk. There will always be somebody out there who doesn't like him. There are over five thousand men in this city who know that being a policeman is an endless, thankless, glamorous job that's got to be done. I know it too, and I'm damn glad I'm one of them"; the wrapup says "The story you have just seen is true. Only the names have been changed to protect the innocent"; 15 shots are fired in the first 60 episodes. On Dec. 20 Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-)1 in Arco, Idaho opens, becoming the first nuclear power plant, producing 800 lousy watts. On Dec. 23 Belgium finally electrifies. On Dec. 24 the U.S. grants Libya independence from Italy under king #1 (nnly) Idris I (1890-1983) (until Sept. 1, 1969), grandson of Senussi movement founder (1837) Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi (1787-1859); he presides over a prosperous economy based on oil; too bad, he pisses-off Pan-Arabists by being too friendly with the U.S. (and its Wheelus AFB near Tripoli) and U.K., even during the 1956 Suez Crisis, ending up its last king. On Dec. 24 Hallmark Hall of Fame debuts on NBC-TV, based on the CBS Radio show "The Hallmark Playhouse" (1948), becoming the first TV series produced by a major corp. to promote its products (later the last); the first episode is the opera Amahl and the Night Visitors by Gian Carlo Menotti, starring Chet Allen and Rosemary Kuhlmann; in 1954- it is shown in color; in 1979 it switches to CBS-TV, followed by PBS-TV (1981), ABC-TV (1989-2014), and the Hallmark Channel (2014-), becoming the longest-running prime-time series in TV history. On Dec. 26 the freighter Flying Enterprise, with 10 passengers and 40 crew, captained by Henrik Kurt Carlsen (1914-89) of the U.S. hits a Force 12 storm with 60 ft. waves and ends up listing to 65 deg., causing all to be evacuated except the Capt., who remains alone waiting for a salvage tug while grabbing internat. headlines, becoming known as "Stay-Put Carlsen" and "Captain Courageous", and receiving a ticker tape parade in New York City next Jan. 17. On Dec. 24 black teacher Harry Tyson Moore (b. 1905), who founded the first branch of the NAACP in Brevard County, Fla. is killed by a bomb, becoming the first NAACP activist to be martyred. On Dec. 30 The Roy Rogers Show debuts on NBC-TV for 100 episodes (until June 9, 1957), starring Cincinnati, Ohio-born Roy Rogers (Leonard Franklin Slye) (1911-98) and his Uvalde, Tex.-born 2nd wife (since 1947) Dale Evans (Lucille Wood Smith) (Frances Octavia Smith) (1912-2001; the theme song Happy Trails is written by Dale Evans. In Dec. Am.-born Greek soprano Maria Callas (1923-77) makes her official debut at La Scala in "I Vespri Siciliani"; in 1954 she makes her U.S. debut in Chicago in Bellini's "Norma", followed in Nov. 1956 by the same role in the Metropolitan Opera in New York City. Robert Abercrombie Lovett (1895-1986), son of Union Pacific Railroad pres. Robert Scott Lovett (1860-1932) is appointed U.S. defense secy. (until Jan. 20, 1953), becoming known as "the architect of the Cold War", going on to reverse the U.S. disarmament policy begun at the end of WWII, uttering the soundbyte "Heretofore this country has only had two throttle settings, one, wide open for war, and the other, tight shut for peace. What we are really trying to do is to find a cruising speed" - lovett or leave it? Ernst Reuter (d. 1953) is reelected mayor of West Berlin. Ben-Gurion's govt. in Israel is dissolved, and a new coalition formed. Nigeria implements a new constitution providing for elected regional representation. Sierra Leone receives its first 1951 Sierra Leone Constitution. Red China forces its millions of Roman Catholics to cut ties with the Vatican; the pope can be recognized as a spiritual leader, but worship is allowed only in govt.-controlled churches, causing millions to meet illegally in underground churches. Campus Crusade for Christ (Cru) is founded at UCLA by Bill Bright and Vonette Zachary Bright, reaching 25K missionaries in 191 countries by 2011;in the 1960s it tries to counter the counterculture movement, holding concerts and sermons by Billy Graham et al., organizing counter-demonstrations against the New Left and Students for a Dem. Society (SDS), launching the Christian World Liberation Front (CWLF); in 1972 it holds Explo '72 at the Cotton Bowl in Dallas, Tex., attended by 80K (95% white) and becoming known as the Christian Woodstock; it is followed by Explo '74 in Seoul, South Korea, which attracts 300K; in 1991 it moves its HQ to Orlando, Fla. Gandhi disciple Vinobha Bhave begins a campaign in Hyderabad to beg for land to give to the landless, obtaining a total of 5M acres. The paranoid U.S. govt. begins the CONELRAD (Control of Electromagnetic Radiation) system of shifting AM station broadcast frequencies to prevent possible use of their radio beams by enemy aircraft for navigation (ends 1963). The 43-mi. Liberian Railroad links the Bomi Hills to the capital city Monrovia, a big step towards opening up the interior. A definitive agreement for the joint defense of Greenland within the framework of NATO is signed with Denmark. Royal Prince Souphanouvong of Laos, half-brother of Prince Souvanna Phouma organizes the Pathet Lao ("Land of Laos") Communist independence movement in North Vietnam. King Tribhubana Bir Bikram (1906-55) of Nepal proclaims a constitutional monarchy with a cabinet after taking all power from the Rana family, which has ruled under the office of PM since 1846. U.N. secy.-gen. Trygve Lie's term in office expires this year, but he is asked to stay in office until Apr. 1953. The entire Jewish community (130K+) flees Iraq for Israel, leaving behind assets estimated at over $150M; Cuba supplies planes and pilots to bring nearly 150K Jews to Israel from Iraq, Iran, Yemen, and India by 1953, although it is kept secret until 2010; meanwhile the Arab League establishes the Bureau for Boycotting Israel in Damascus, Syria, and Iraq joins it, banning dealings with Israeli cos. and those with Israeli shareholders; Israel's desire to get the sanctions lifted later causes them to pressure the U.S. into the 2003 Iraq War? Warrenton Training Center in Warenton, Va. is established by the CIA for signals intel et al., housing an underground relocation bunker for the U.S. govt. (until ?). After Cajun Dem. La. state senator (since 1948) Dudley Joseph "Coozan Dud" LeBlanc (1894-1971) unloads it to Yankee investors for $8.2M, LeBlanc Corp., maker of pricey Hadacol (a B-vitamin tonic containing 12% alcohol served in dry counties in shot glasses, named after his former Happy Day Co.) goes bankrupt after spending too much on advertising and after the FTC labels its ads "false, misleading and deceptive"; on the Feb. 28, 1951 episode of "You Bet Your Life", Groucho Marx (who appeared along with Chico Marx, Mickey Rooney and Judy Garland in his Southern traveling medicine show) asks him what Hadacol is good for, and he replies "It was good for five and a half million for me last year". Closet gay artist Emile Norman (1918-) holds his first major show at the Feingarten Gallery in New York City, later becoming one of the top artists and celebs in gay-friendly San Francisco, Calif., living in Big Sur (since 1946) with his gay partner Brooks Clement (-1973). Aden adopts a decimal currency system. The CIA warns Pres. Truman of possible sleeper cells that might smuggle nukes into the U.S. and set them off, saying they have "no scruples about employing any weapon or tactic". Ronald Reagan emcees the first Animal Humane Assoc. Patsy (Picture Animal Top Star of the Year) ceremony, which is won by Francis the Talking Mule, who joins Lassie and Higgins (Benji) in the Animal Hall of Fame. The term "fast food" first appears in the Merriam-Webster dictionary. Ida Goldstein and her son Jerome begin selling Scott's Liquid Gold a furniture polish (mixed from a formula bought from a door-to-door salesman) from their home in Congress Park in Denver, Colo. (known for its public swimming pool, which young TLW liked to hang around in during the summers). The term "blastoff" is coined. Topps Chewing Gum Co., maker of Bazooka Gum markets their first baseball cards. Hard-boiled detective Mike Hammer creator Mickey Spillane (1918-2006) does a Caligula and converts to the Jehovah's Witnesses - and knocks on doors without carrying a piece? Mike Wallace and wife Buff Cobb host Two Sleepy People, a weekday celebrity chit-chat TV show broadcast in color as an experiment. Grove Press is founded in New York City, becoming known for introducing risque authors incl. Samuel Beckett (1906-89), Eugene Ionesco (1909-94), Jack Kerouac (1922-69), and Antonin Artaud (1896-1948), and pub. the lit. mag. Evergreen Review; it pub. D.H. Lawrence's "Lady Chatterley's Lover" and goes to court all the way to a big V; in 1959 Richard Seaver (1926-2009) joins it, rising to ed.-in-chief, going on to pub. Henry Miller (1891-1980), William S. Burroughs (1914-97), Hubert Selby Jr. (1928-2004) et al.; in 1965 they pub. the French B&D novel "The Story of O" - your honor, we'd like to withdraw our plea of not guilty and enter a plea of screw you? TV replaces radio as the main popular entertainment in the U.S.; the first Nielsen TV Audience Ratings come out (1950-1 season), rating Milton Berle's "Texaco Star Theatre" (vaudeville comedy) as #1, "Fireside Theatre" (TV's first major filmed dramatic anthology) as #2, "Philco TV Playhouse" as #3, "Your Show of Shows" (Sid Caesar and Imogene Coca) as #4, "The Colgate Comedy Hour" (Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis) as #5, "Gillette Calvacade of Sports" as #6, "The Lone Ranger" as #7, "Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts" as #8, "Hopalong Cassidy" (William Boyd) as #9, and "Mama" (Peggy Wood and Dick Van Patten) as #10. The U.S. produces 200 tons of penicillin and 175 tons of streptomycin this year. The Shakespeare Inst. is founded at Mason Croft in Stratford-upon-Avon, England, home of British novelist Marie Corelli, moving in the 1970s to the U. of Birmingham, becoming the first center for postgraduate study of William Shakespeare and the lit. of the English Renaissance; in the 1980s it moves back to Mason Croft, and in 1996 it opens the Shakespare Inst. Library. The Freedom Trail is completed; it ends in Boston Common in Mass. Lebanese U. in Lebanon is founded on Dec. 3. Russian-born Am. capitalist imperialist pig-hating Neo-Marxist economist Paul Alexander Baran (1909-64) becomes the only tenured Marxist economist in the U.S. at Stanford U. (until 1964). After being contacted by Ascended Master El Morya in 1944 and anointed as a Messenger for the Great White Brotherhood, Geraldine Innocente (-1961) founds the Bridge to Freedom New Age church; next year she claims to receive the following message from Sanat Kumara: "I had nothing to work with but Light and Love, and many centuries passed before even two lifestreams applied for membership - One, later became Buddha (now, Lord of the World, the Planetary Logos Gautama Buddha) and the Other, became the Cosmic Christ (Lord Maitreya, now the Planetary Buddha). The Brotherhood has grown through these ages and centuries until almost all the offices are held now by those belonging to the evolution of Earth and those who have volunteered to remain among her evolution"; after she passes on June 21, 1961, Elizabeth Clare Wulf (Prophet) claims to be contacted by Master Morya and selected as the next Messenger. The Nat. Ballet of Canada in Toronto, Ont. is founded by British-born dancer Celia Franca (1921-2007), and debuts in Eaton Auditorium on Nov. 12 - coolest profile of the decade? Columbia Pictures announces that Mary Pickford, who retired in 1933 will make a comeback in the Stanley Kramer anti-censorship film "The Library", but she pulls out 1 mo. before filming begins, and Bette Davis replaces her under the new title "Storm Center" (released 1956). The 50-50 Club, a radio show founded in the 1930s, then aired on WLWT in Cincinnato, Ohio, hosted by lily-white Ruth Lyons (1905-88) debuts on NBC-TV as a daily 1-hour broadcast featuring 50 women invited to lunch and always wearing white gloves, becoming the first TV talk show and generating $2M a year in ad revenue, boosting the Kroger Co. et al.; in 1952 she dances with black opera singer Arthur Lee Simpkins "to put him at ease", shocking her mainly white women viewers, which she handles by criticizing them as chickens. Austrian actor-playwright Helmut Qualtinger (1928-86) stages a prank in Vienna, getting the newspapers to announce the arrival of famous Inuit poet Kobuk, then dressing up in fur and stepping off the train and announcing "It's hot here." Ukrainian-born Jewish-Am. actor Israel "Lee" Strasberg (1901-82) becomes dir. of the Actor's Studio, spawning a gen. of top Hollywood actors incl. Elia Kazan, James Dean, Montgomery Clift, Marlon Brando, Anne Bancroft, Dustin Hoffman, Paul Newman, Robert De Niro, and Al Pacino. Am. writer Philip Wylie (1902-71) pub. "Anyone Can Raise Orchids" in the Saturday Evening Post, causing mass growing of orchids by gardeners. The cartoon The Common Man by Rasipuram Krishnaswamy Laxman (1924-) debuts in the Times of India. Firestone Corp. is awarded a $7M contract for 200 MGM-5 Corporal surface-to-surface guided missiles, with a 139km range, which are later modified to carry a nuclear warhead, carried by six U.S. battalions in Europe despite being unreliable and inaccurate; in 1959 the Corgi Corporal die-cast toy is released to coincide with a British test-firing; it is replaced in 1964 by the MGM-29 Sergeant missile. The Chrysler Imperial becomes the first mass-produced automobile with power steering, called Hydraglide. Chinese-born computer researcher An Wang (1920-90) founds Wang Labs. in Tewskbury, Mass., later selling his 1955 core memory patent to IBM for $500K. Sports: On Jan. 6 Indianapolis defeats Rochester by 75-73 in six OT periods, becoming the longest NBA game (until ?). On Jan. 6 5'9" light heavyweight champion (1945) Isiah "Ike" Williams (1923-94) defeats popular Argentine boxer Jose Maria Gatica (1925-63) ("El Mono"), then is defeated in May by James Walter "Jimmy" Carter (1923-94), who becomes lightweight boxing champ (until 1952). On Feb. 14 after KOing George Costner last year in 2 min. 49 sec. for trying to steal his nickname, welterweight champ (since 1946) "the Prince of Harlem" Sugar Ray Robinson (Walker Smith Jr.) (1921-89) defeats "the Raging Bull" "the Bronx Bull" Giacobbe "Jake" LaMotta (1921-) in the "St. Valentine's Day Massacre" (their 6th and final bout) with a 13th round TKO to win the world middleweight title, then becomes a hero in Paris since they hate LaMotta for defeating Marcel Cerdan in 1949, then loses and regains the title in London to Randy Turpin, then next year defeats Rocky Graziano before being defeated by Joey Maxim in 103F heat, retiring with a 131-3-1-1 record (until 1955). On Mar. 2 the first NBA All-Star Game, brainchild of league public relations dir. (1950-69) Haskell Cohen (1914-2000) is held in Boston, Mass.; East (coach Joe Lapchick) defeats West (coach John Kundla) by 111-94 before 10,094 fans; players receive a $25 savings bond; 6'8" Boston Celtics center Charles Edward "Easy Ed" Macauley (1928-2011) (#22) scores 20 points and grabs six rebounds while holding Minneapolis Lakers star George Mikan to 4-for-17 shooting and 12 points; in 1953 the NBA decides to begin awarding a NBA All-Star Game MVP Award, retroactively awarding it to Ed Macauley for 1951 and Paul Arizin for 1952; in 1960 Macauley becomes the youngest male player admitted to the basketball hall of fame (until ?). In Mar. the U. of Ky. defeats Kansas State U. by 68-58 to win the NCAA title; too bad, on Feb. 18, 1951 the CCNY Point Shaving Scandal starts with the arrest of City College of New York players incl. Ed Warner, Ed Roman, and Al Roth after a sting operation uncovers organized crime hanky-panky in the 1950 NCAA Men's Div. 1 Basketball Tournament involving the CCNY Beavers, growing to 33 players in 6+ other schools, incl. the U. of Ky. in fall 1952 (accused over a 4-year period), causing the MVP award of 7'0" Wildcats senior (center) William Edwin "Bill" Spivey (1929-95) (#77) (who denies involvement, only to be charged with perjury, ruining his career and his life) to be vacated, and CCNY to be banned from playing at Madison Square Garden; coach Nat Holman is cleared of wrongdoing; the U. of Ky. Wildcats become the first college sports team to get the "death penalty" of being banned from the NCAA tournament, freezing-out sophomores Frank Vernon Ramsey Jr. (1931-) (#30), Clifford Oldham "Cliff" "Li'l Abner" Hagan (1931-) (#6), and Louis C. "Lou" Tsioropoulos (1930-) (#16), who are all selected by the Boston Celtics in the 1953 NBA Draft but return to the U. of Ky. for one more season after graduating, helping them to a perfect 25-0 record, gaining them a #1 AP ranking and an invitation to the NCAA tournament, which they decline because postgrads aren't allowed to participate; in 1951 college dropout Walter Byers (1922-) is hired as the NCAA dir. (until 1988) to clean up their image, immediately expanding the NCAA men's basketball tournament from 8 to 16 teams, then using his power to negotiate TV contracts that turn NCAA into a billion-dollar empire, leading to a 1984 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that frees schools to negotiate individual contracts; by 2011 the men's basketball tournament brings in $771M from CBS-TV and TBS. On Apr. 7-21 the 1951 NBA Finals sees the Rochester Royals (coach Les Harrison) defeat the New York Knickerbockers (coach Joe Lapchick) by 4-3; first finals for both teams. On Apr. 7-June 3 the first ABC Masters bowling tournament is held in St. Paul, Minn., with 32 bowlers invited incl. the 6-man African-Am. Allen and Sons Supermarket team from Inkster, Mich.; the winner is Lee Jouglard (1921-78); in 2000 it becomes one of the four majors. On Apr. 11-21 the 1951 Stanley Cup Finals see the Toronto Maple Leafs defeat the Montreal Canadiens 4-1, becoming their 9th title and last in a series of six titles starting in 1942; the first in a string of 10 straight appearances by Montreal; all five games go into OT. In Apr. Curtis Edward "Curt" Gowdy (1919-2006) becomes the radio voice of the Boston Red Sox (until 1965). On Apr. 25 the 1951 NBA Draft sees 10 teams select 87 players in 12 rounds; 5'11" guard Myler Upton "Whitey" Skoog (1926-) of the U. of Minn. is the territorial pick of the Minneapolis Lakers (#41); 5'8" point guard Eugene "Gene" "Squeaky" Melchiorre (1927-) of Bradley U. is selected #1 by the Baltimore Bullets, but prevented from playing due to the point-shaving scandal; 6'6" forward-center Melvin R. "Mel" Hutchins (1928-) of Brigham Young U. (brother of 1952 Miss America Colleen Kay Hutchins, and uncle of Kiki Vandewegh) is selected #2 by the Tri-Cities Blackhawks (#14), becoming co-leader of the NBA in total rebounds (880) as a rookie, sharing the sportswriters rookie of the year award with Bill Tosheff, switching to the Fort Wayne Pistons (#9) in 1957-8, and the New York Knicks (#46) in 1957-8; 6'1" guard Donald J. "Don" Sunderlage (1929-61) of the U. of Ill. is selected #9 by the Philadelphia Warriors, who trade him to the Tri-Cities Blackhawks (#11) in 1953, who trade him in 1954 to the Minneapolis Lakers (#18), playing for them only one season. On May 25 outfielder William Howard "Willie" Mays Jr. (1931-), "the Say Hey Kid" makes his ML debut in Philly with the New York Giants as #24 19 days after his 20th birthday after only 3 mo. with the Class AAA Minneapolis Millers; on May 24 he is sitting in a movie theater in Sioux City, Iowa when a message flashes across the screen reading "WILLIE MAYS CALL YOUR HOTEL"; after he retires the Giants open their HQ at 24 Willie Mays Plaza; his jersey, complete with a patch on the right arm is appraised at $60K at the end of the cent. On May 30 the 1951 (35th) Indianapolis 500 is won by Lee Wallard (1910-63) in his 99 Belanger Special despite bad brakes, damaged exhaust pipe, and broken shock absorber mounting, losing 15 lbs. from the fire retardant outfit sans undershirt; only eight cars finish the race; a week later Wallard gets in a fiery crash in Reading, Penn., ending his career. On June 15 Joe Louis (1914-81) scores his last KO vs. Lee Savold in Madison Square Garden in New York City; on Oct. 26 he is KOd at Madison Square Garden by Rocky Marciano (1923-69). On July 14 Citation (1945-70) becomes the first horse to win $1M. On July 18 "Jersey" Joe Walcott (Arnold Raymond Cream) (1914-94) KOs Ezzard Charles in round 7 in Pittsburgh, Penn. to become world heavyweight boxing champ #17 (until 1952) (oldest so far) (37) (until ?). On Aug. 19 coach Bill Veeck of the Cleveland Browns sends in 3'7" midget Edward Carl "Eddie" Gaedel (1925-61) (wearing uniform number 1/8) to pinch-hit after he jumps out of a cake. On Sept. 28 Los Angeles Rams QB Norman Mack "Norm" "the Dutchman" Van Brocklin (1926-83) passes for an NFL game record 554 yards, which stands until ?; he also leads the Rams to an NFL title against the Cleveland Browns with co-QB Bob Waterfield. Wayne Woodrow "Woody" Hayes (1913-87) becomes head coach of the Ohio State U. Buckeyes football team (until 1978), going on to compile a 205-61-10 record (76.1%) incl. three nat. titles (1954, 1957, 1968) and 13 Big Ten Conference championships. Don't Americans have interesting lives? On Oct. 3 (3:38 p.m. EST) during the first ML playoff for a pennant since the NL in 1946 and AL in 1948, "the Shot Heard 'Round the World", AKA "the Little Miracle at Coogans Bluff" (game score 4-1 Brooklyn) sees a bases-loaded walk-off homer scored on the 2nd pitch by Scottish-born New York Giants outfielder (#23) Robert Brown "Bobby" Thomson (1923-2010) ("the Flying Scot") ("the Staten Island Scot") off Brooklyn Dodgers pitcher (#13) Ralph Theodore Joseph Branca (1926-) in the last half of the 9th inning of the 3rd playoff game at the Polo Grounds, sailing into the lower left field stands and winning the game 5-4 along with the NL pennant 2-1 for the hapless Giants from the mighty Dodgers in a great Am. sports moment; on Aug. 11 Brooklyn was 13-1/2 games ahead of the Giants, but they won their next 16 games and finished the season on a 26-22 clip, winning 37 of the last 44 games incl. the last 7 in a row, then won a 14-inning V over last year's champions the Philadelphia Phillies, tying Brooklyn with a 96-58 season record to force the best-of-3 pennant series; sportscaster Russell Patrick "Russ" Hodges (1910-71) shouts "The Giants have won the pennant!" 3x in a row, and that evening Thomson appears on Perry Como's show on NBC-TV, acting soused; even though there was nobody on first, mgr. Charlie Dressen ordered Branca not to walk Thomson because 20-y.-o. black rookie Willie Mays was in the on-deck circle; Carroll Lockman "Whitey" Lockman (1926-2009) (whose 1-out double scored Alvin Dark, making the score 4-2 and knocking pitcher Don Newcombe out of the game, causing Branca to be called in as a relief pitcher) is on 2nd, and Clinton Clarence "Clint" "Floppy" Hartung (1922-2010) is on 3rd, subbing for Donald Frederick "Don" Mueller (1927-), who broke his ankle sliding into 3rd, missing seeing the big homer; the next day a dozen baseballs are claimed to be the home run ball, after which a mysterious Franciscan nun is found to have kept it in a shoebox for 50+ years, after which her biological sister sends it to a landfill; in Feb. 2001 the Wall Street Journal reports that the Giants began a legal sign-stealing scheme in July 1951, which might have helped Thomson know what pitch was coming. Robert Leo "Bob" Sheppard (1910-2010) becomes the announcer for the New York Yankees, announcing over 4.5K games before his 2007 retirement incl. 22 AL pennants and 13 WS titles. On Oct. 20 the Johnny Bright Incident in Stillwater, Okla. sees African-Am. Drake U. football player John D. "Johnny" Bright (1930-83) violently assaulted on the field after a play by white Okla. State U. player Wilbanks Smith, breaking his jaw; Drake loses 27-14; Smith is never disciplined. On Nov. 14 1949 Indy 500 winner Bill Holland (1907-84) is suspended from Indy racing for one year for competing in a 3-lap Lion's Club NASCAR charity race in Opa-locka Fla. On Dec. 11 despite receiving the highest salary in sports, New York Yankees center fielder (#5) (since May 3, 1936) Joseph Paul "Joe" DiMaggio (1914-99) announces his retirement; his last ML appearance was on Sept. 30; his career statistics incl. .325 batting avg., 361 home runs, and 1,537 RBI, plus 13 All-Star selections, 9 WS titles, 3 AL MVPs, and a ML record 56 consecutive games with a hit. Babe Didrikson Zaharias (1911-56), the best known female athlete of the first half of the 20th cent. is named best female athlete of the first half cent. by AP. Sicilian-born Enrico "Hank" Marino of Milwaukee, Wisc. is elected best U.S. bowler of the first half cent. This year is the first that the NFL championship game is televised; they don't make a rerun tape for it. Citation (1945-70) wins the Hollywood Gold Cup horse race, bringing his total winnings to over $1M, then retires. Billy Maxwell wins the U.S. Golf Assoc. amateur title, and Ben Hogan wins the U.S. Open. Australia defeats the U.S. to win the Davis Cup of tennis; Frank Sedgman wins the U.S. Lawn Tennis Assoc. men's singles title, and Maureen Catherine "Little Mo" Connolly (1934-) wins the women's singles title. The Jack LaLanne Show debuts on KGO-TV in San Francisco, Calif., airing on the ABC-TV network in 1959, and becoming the longest-running TV exercise program (until 1985); stars 5'6" Am. fitness guru Francois Henri "Jack" LaLanne (1914-2011), who wears a weird faggoty body-hugging nylon jumpsuit; in 1954 he swims the 1.7 mi. length of the Golden Gate Bridge underwater with 140 lbs. of equipment strapped on; in 1955 he swims from Alcatraz Island to Fisherman's Wharf while handcuffed; in 1956 he sets a world record of 1,033 pushups in 23 min.; in 1957 he swims Golden Gate Channel while towing a 2.5K-lb. cabin cruiser; in 1984 at age 70 he tows 70 rowboats handcuffed and shackled from Queen's Way Bridge in Long Beach Harbor to the Queen Mary, a distance of 1 mi. A record basketball crowd of 75K watch the Harlem Globetrotters perform at Berlin Olympic Stadium. Greek prof. gambler Nicholas Andreas "Nick the Greek" Dandolos (1883-1966) (known for escorting Albert Einstein around Las Vegas introducing him as "Little Al from Princeton", who "controls a lot of the action around Jersey") plays a 2-person poker match in Jan.-May against fellow pro Johnny Moss (1907-95), which later inspires the World Series of Poker; after losing $2M-$4M, Nick utters the soundbyte "Mr. Moss, I have to let you go." The Tri-Cities Blackhawks NBA team (founded 1946) becomes the Milwaukee Hawks; in 1955 it becomes the St. Louis Hawks; in 1968 it becomes the Atlanta Hawks. Dean Larsen is named the first Joe Bowler at the ABC Open Championships in his hometown of St. Paul, Minn. Architecture: On Jan. 8 the Secretariat Bldg. of the new windowy U.N. HQ (begun Sept. 14, 1948) officially opens in Manhattan, New York City for 3.3K employees on 17 acres of land on 1st Ave. between 42nd and 48th Sts. on rundown Turtle Bay overlooking the East River, donated by John D. Rockefeller Jr. and his son Nelson Rockefeller, allowing the U.N. to move on May 18 from temporary HQ in Lake Success, Long Island to its permanent home; architects incl. Le Corbusier, Oscar Niemeyer, and Harrison & Abramovitz; it is completed next Oct. 9 at a cost of $65M. Anchorage Internat. Airport is built; in 2000 it is renamed for U.S. Sen. (R-Alaska) (1968-2009) Ted Stevens; located equidistant from Tokyo, Frankfurt, and New York City, and lying within 9.5 hours by air of 90% of the industrialized world, it becomes a major hub for FedEx. The foundation stone of the British Nat. Theatre is laid at London's South Bank; Robert Matthew builds the Royal Festival Hall on the South Bank, and Gerald Barry and Hugh Cassin stage the Festival of Britain there. The Circle in the Square Theatre at 235 West 50th St. in Manhattan, N.Y. is founded by Theodore Mann et al. as a cabaret located at 5 Sheridan Square in Greenwich Village, moving in 1960 to 159 Bleecker St. in Greenwich Village, and the present location in 1972, opening on Nov. 15, 1972 with a revival of "Mourning Becomes Electra", becoming one of only two Broadway theaters with a thrust stage (after the Vivian Beaumont Theater in Lincoln Center). Marcel Breuer designs the dormitory at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe designs the Lake Shore Drive Apts. skyscraper bldg. in Chicago, Ill. After it was bombed on Nov. 14, 1940 by the Luftwaffe, Scottish architect Sir Basil Urwin Spence (1907-76) begins the new modernist Hollington sandstone Coventry Cathedral in England, with the ruins of the old cathedral kept in a garden of remembrance, and an 80-ft. (24m) fleche (spire); on Mar. 23, 1956 Elizabeth II lays the foundation stone; it is consecrated on May 25, 1962; the interior features a huge tapestry of Jesus Christ by Graham Sutherland, the Mater Dolorosa sculpture by John Bridgeman, and a Baptistry window designed by John Piper; on May 30, 1962 Benjamin Britten debuts his War Requiem, Op. 66 in honor of the occasion. The Peace Bridge (Friedensbrucke) (Friedensbrücke) in Frankfurt am Main, Germany is completed, becoming the last of the city's seven bridges (all destroyed during the war) to be restored. The College Football Hall of Fame is planned for Rutgers U. in New Brunswick, N.J., site of the first intercollegiate football game with Princeton U.; too bad, no bldg. is built until 1978 in Kings Mill, Ohio near Kings Island, which closes in 1992; on Aug. 25, 1995 a new bldg. opens in South Bend, Ind., and closes in 2012; on Aug. 23, 2014 a $68.5M 94,256 sq. ft. football-shaped bldg. opens in Atlanta, Ga. next to the Centennial Olympic Park and Ga. Tech. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Leon Jouhaux (1879-1954) (France) [Internat. Labor Org. (ILO)]; Lit.: Par Fabian Lagerkvist (1891-74) (Sweden); Physics: Sir John Douglas Cockcroft (1897-1967) (U.K.) and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (1903-95) (Ireland) [transmutation of atomic nuclei]; Chem.: Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-99) and Edwin Mattison McMillan (1907-91) (U.S.) [creation of transuranium elements]; Med.: Max Theiler (1899-1972) (South Africa) [yellow fever vaccine]. Inventions: Commercial computers are off to the races? Early this year the first Swimming Pool Type Nuclear Reactor (as seen in the 192 film Dr. No) goes into operation at Oak Ridge Nat. Lab in Tenn. In Feb. Manchester U. in England unveils its Manchester Ferranti Mark I Computer. On Mar. 31 Remington Rand Corp. sells the first UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) I to the U.S. Census Bureau in Sutland, Md., which dedicates it on June 14, cutting the work of humans from 200K to 28K hours; it is not delivered until 1952; machine #5 is used by CBS-TV to predict the 1952 U.S. pres. election, using a 1% sample to predict a landslide for Eisenhower; it is retired in 1963. On June 5 Ford automobile designer Gordon Miller Buehrig (1904-90) patents the removable T-top for cars. On Sept. 20 the swept-wing carrier-based Grumman F9F/F-9 Cougar makes its flight, replacing the Panther; 1,392 are produced by 1974. Poontang is the verge of being unchained worldwide, yi yi yi? On Oct. 15 the progestin Norethindrone (norethisterone), an artifical substitute for progesterone that is key to the creation of an oral contraceptive pill is synthesized by Carl Djerassi (1923-) of the U.S., Luis Ernesto Miramontes Cardenas (1925-2004) of Mexico, and George (Gyorgy) Rosenkranz (1916-) of Hungary at Syntex in Mexico City; Gregory Goodwin Pincus (1903-67) and Min Chueh Chang (1908-91) test it on animals, then John Rock (1890-1984) tests it on human women - chang the rock in djer miraculous rosy pincus assi? On Dec. 31 the first atomic battery is announced. Italian mathematician Corrado Boehm (Böhm) (1923-2017) pub. his dissertation at ETH Zurich, describing the first full meta-circular compiler, only 114 lines of code. Chrysler introduces the V6/V8 Hemi engine, using hemispherical combustion chambers, starting with the FirePower engine in 1951-8, followed by a 2nd series in 1964-71, and a 3rd in 2003-; Chrysler also introduces power steering. Am. chiropractor Volney G. Mathison (1897-1965) AKA Dex Volney files for a patent for the E-meter (Electropsychometer) (electronic lie detector), which measures Electrodermal Activity (EDA), receiving U.S. Patent #2,684,670 on July 27, 1954; L. Ron Hubbard adopts them for use in Dianetics and Scientology in 1951, drops them in late 1954, and resumes in May 1955 after a transistorized model comes out, adopting the Hubbard Mark II in 1960, followed by the Hubbard Mark III, Hubbard Mark IV, and Hubbard Mark V, which is patented on Dec. 6, 1966 as the "Hubbard Electropsychometer"; on Jan. 4, 1963 100+ U.S. marshals raid the Founding Church of Scientology in Washington, D.C. and confiscate several hundred E-meters, after which the FDA accuses the church of making false medical claims, causing it to fight back in court, losing in a jury trial on Apr. 3, 1967, then winning in 1969 in the U.S. Court of Appeals, which accepts Scientology as a religion, declaring E-meters useful in "bona fide religious counseling" as long as they carry a disclaimer, as follows: "The Hubbard electrometer is a reigious artifact. By itself, this meter does nothing. It is for religious use by students and Ministers of the church in Confessionals and pastoral counseling only"; later the $4.6K Mark VII Super Quantum E-meter comes out, followed by the Mark VIII Ultra E-meter. Bananas Foster, a desert made from bananas, butter, brown sugar etc. served on vanilla ice cream is created by Paul Blange of Brennan's Restaurant in New Orleans, La., named for Owen Brennan's friend Richard Foster, New Orleans crime commission chmn. The U.S. Army announces that combat troops in Korea have been testing Fiberglas armor which can stop missiles with speeds up to 1.5K fps. Miracle-Gro plant food hits the market. Am. computer scientist Marvin Lee Minsky (1927-) develops SNARC (Stochastic Neural Analog Reinforcement Calculator), the first randomly wired neural network learning machine. Am. super car salesman Earl "Madman" Muntz (1914-87) (who wears a black Napoleon hat and red BVD suspenders, and sold $47M worth of autos by 1947) begins producing the Muntz Jet sports car, shaped like a you know what, becoming the first serious attempt at catching up to Europe, becoming the precursor of cars like the Corvette; he gives up in 1953 after selling less than 400 units at $5.5K each (vs. $3.2K for a Cadillac), but makes up for it by figuring out how to take 13 of the 30 tubes out of the standard TV receiver chassis, which still works for homes in big cities, and selling the cheaper and more reliable Muntz TV, making another fortune. Top 40 Radio is invented by Todd Storz and Bill Stewart when they are hired by KOWH radio in Omaha, Neb. J. Andre-Thomas invents the heart-lung machine. Am. cinematographer Fred Waller (1886-1954) invents the Cinerama widescreen process, which projects three synchronized 35mm images onto a huge curved screen with 146 deg. of arc, plus a 6-track stereo sound system. White-Out typewriter eraser fluid is invented by secy. Bette Nesmith Graham (nee Bette Clair McMurray) (1924-80) (mother of Monkees member Michael Nesmith) for her IBM electric typewriter from white tempera water-based paint, and begins marketing it as "Mistake Out" in 1956; when she dies in 1980 he inherits half of her $50M estate. Science: On Jan. 8 a cahow is discovered in Bermuda after being thought extinct since 1615. On Apr. 4 a Navy inductee rushes into the Naval Hospital in Philly after giving himself an OD of rat poison based on the new anticoagulant drug Warfarin (developed by the Wisc. Alumni Research Foundation from sweet clover mold) to avoid induction, and is saved by administration of Vitamin K, after which doctors begin researching the use of Warfarin to prevent blood clots and restore blood flow in stroke victims. In May New York City-born social psychologist Morton Deutsch (1920-) pub. Interracial Housing: A Psychological Evaluation of a Social Experiment, producing scientific evidence that segregated housing is harmful, helping end it in the U.S. In Sept. Bluefield, W. Va. -born mathematician John Forbes Nash Jr. (1928-2015) pub. the article Non-Cooperative Games in The Annals of Mathematics, becoming the first to define a Nash Equilibrium for non-zero-sum games, winning a share of the 1994 Nobel Econ. Prize. The sedative-hypnotic drug Methaqualone is first synthesized in India by Indra Kishore Kacker and Syed Husain Zaheer for use as an antimalarial drug; by 1965 it becomes the most commonly prescribed sedative in Britain, sold under the names Mandrax, Malsed, Malsedin, and Renoval; in 1975 it becomes the 6th best-selling sedative in the U.S., marketed under the brand name Quaalude ("quiet interlude") by William H. Rorer Inc.; too bad in the 1960s and 1970s it becomes a popular date rape drug, called ludes and sopers (soaps) in the U.S., and mandrakes in the British Commonwealth. Am. archeologist Warsaw-born Am. Gestalt psychologist Solomon Eliot Asch (1907-96) pub. the Asch Paradigm (Conformity Experiments), proving that an individual's opinions are influenced by those of a majority group. Wendell Phillips (1921-75) digs up the Queen of Sheba's Temple to the Moon God Mahram Bilqis in N Yemen, then visits Oman next year on an archeological expedition, and becomes friends with sultan Said bin Taimur, who hands him the oil concession for Dhofar (an area the size of Ohio), after which he accumulates a $120M fortune before dying of a heart attack. Roanoke, Va.-born African-Am. cancer patient Henrietta Lacks (nee Loretta Pleasant) (b. 1920) dies of cervical cancer on Oct. 4 at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Md., and her cancer cells are discovered to be virtually immortal, causing them to be used in medical research under the name HeLa, incl. by Jonas Salk to develop his polio vaccine; too bad, she never consents, and her family isn't told until 1975. Nonfiction: Theodor W. Adorno (1903-69), Minima Moralia; aphorisms loved by Marxists everywhere. Kenneth Joseph Arrow (1921-), Social Choice and Individual Values; 2nd ed. 1963; announces Arrow's Impossibility Theorem, that there is no social choice rule that satisfies any given set of plausible requirements, leading to the Voting Paradox, that majority voting may fail to yield a stable outcome. Gaston Bachelard (1884-1962), L'Activite Rationaliste de la Physique Contemporaine; History of Science (L'Actualite de l'Histoire des Sciences. Marion Rombauer Becker (1903-76), The Joy of Cooking; daughter takes over from mother and adds a sense of humor; the 1975 ed. becomes the "gold standard"; the 1997 ed. dumps the family recipes for chef ones, then reverts in the 2000 ed.; Marion's son Ethan Becker takes over with the 2006 ed. Paul Blanshard (1892-1980), Communism, Democracy, and Catholic Power. John Morton Blum (1921-2011), Joseph Tumulty and the Wilson Era (2 vols.) (first book); about Woodrow Wilson's personal secy. Emory Stephen Bogardus (1882-1973), The Making of Public Opinion. David Bohm (1917-92), Quantum Theory. John Bowlby (1907-90), Maternal Care and Mental Health; pub. by WHO, causing changes in institutional care for infants and children; "The infant and young child should experience a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship with his mother (or permanent mother substitute) in which both find satisfaction and enjoyment." Omar N. Bradley (1893-1981), A Soldier's Story (autobio.). Sir Herbert Butterfield (1900-79), History and Human Relations; incl. the essay Moral Judgments in History, which asserts that historians shouldn't make you know what; Liberty in the Modern World; The Reconstruction of an Historical Episode: The History of the Enquiry into the Origins of the Seven Years' War. Erskine Caldwell (1903-87), Call It Experience (autobio.). Albert Camus (1913-60), L'Homme Revolte (Révolté) (The Rebel); "The entire history of mankind is, in any case, nothing but a prolonged fight to the death for the conquest of universal prestige and absolute power". Hereward Carrington (1880-1958) and Nandor Fodor, Haunted People. Rachel Carson (1907-64), The Sea Around Us. Bruce Catton (1899-1978), Mr. Lincoln's Army; first of his U.S. Civil War trilogy (ends 1953). Federico Chabod (1901-60), Italian Foreign Policy: The Statecraft of the Founders, 1870-1896 (Storia della politica estera italiana dal 1870 al 1896); becomes a std. work; English trans. pub. in 1996. James Bryant Conant (1893-1978), Science and Common Sense. Jo Davidson (1883-1952), Between Sittings (autobio.). Adelle Davis (1904-74), Let's Have Healthy Children. Morton Deutsch (1920-), Research Methods in Social Relations with Especial Reference to Prejudice; becomes a std. textbook. Mark Van Doren (1894-1972) (ed.), Introduction to Poetry. Mircea Eliade (1907-86), Shamanism: Archaic Techniques of Ecstasy. Sir William Empson (1906-84), The Structure of Complex Words. E.M. Forster (1879-1970), Two Cheers For Democracy. Erich Fromm (1900-80), Forgotten Language: An Introduction to the Understanding of Dreams, Fairy Tales, and Myths. Mary Garden (1877-) (with Louis Biancolli), Mary Garden's Story (autobio.); nice pair of lungs? Andre Gide (1869-1951), Et Nunc Manet in Te (autobio.). Maurice Grosser (1903-86), The Painter's Eye. Oscar Handlin (1915-2011), The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrations That Made the American People (Pulitzer Prize); 2nd ed. 2004; "Once I thought to write a history of the immigrants in America. Then I discovered that the immigrants were American history." Roy Harrod (1900-78), The Life of John Maynard Keynes. Jacquetta Hawkes (1910-96), A Land; bestseller proposing a synthetic cosmogony of consciousness, culture, and geology, reducing Earth's history to the "purpose" of demonstrating that we are all "creatures of the land"; "I have used the findings of the two sciences of geology and archaeology for purposes altogether unscientific"; "The image I have sought to evoke is of an entity, the land of Britain, in which past and present, nature, man and art appear all in one piece." William Hillman, Mr. President. Eric Hoffer (1898-1983), The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements; analyzes the psychological causes of fantatacism, making him a working class Am. star. Paul Gray Hoffman (1891-1974), Peace Can Be Won. Arthur Honegger (1892-1955), Je Suis Compositeur (autobio.) Leon Howard, Herman Melville: A Biography. Irving Howe (1920-93), Sherwood Anderson. L. Ron Hubbard (1911-86), Science of Survival: Simplified, Faster Dianetic Techniques (later subtitled "Prediction of Human Behavior"); a commentary to Alfred Korzybski's "Science and Sanity" and sequel to "Dianetics", endorsing the concept of past lives, and introducing theta and the emotional tone scale (-40 to +40), with the soundbyte: "In any event, any person from 2.0 down on the Tone Scale should not have, in any thinking society, any civil rights of any kind, because by abusing those rights he brings into being arduous and strenuous laws which are oppressive to those who need no such restraints." Merrill Jensen (1905-80), Regionalism in America; papers from a 2-day symposium at the U. of Wisc. in 1949 to celebrate the Wisc. Centennial; foreword by Felix Frankfurter. Pamela Hansford Johnson (1912-81), Ivy Compton-Burnett. Georg Katona (1901-81), Psychological Analysis of Economic Behavior; about his late 1940s U. of Mich. Consumer Index, which applies psychology to macroeconomics, and successfully predicted the post-WWII boom in the U.S. Sheila Kaye-Smith (1887-1956), Mrs. Galley. Alfred Kazin (1915-98), A Walker in the City (autobio.). Estes Kefauver (1903-63), Crime in America. George Frost Kennan (1904-2005), American Diplomacy, 1900-1950; rev. ed. 1984; lectures delivered at the U. of Chicago; big hit. Russell Amos Kirk (1918-94), Randolph of Roanoke; John Randolph. Arthur Koestler (1905-83), The Age of Longing. Joseph Wood Krutch (1893-1970), The Desert Year. Jack Lait and Mortimer Lee, U.S.A. Confidential. Georges Lefebvre (1874-1959), La Revolution Francaise. Jan Lukasiewicz (1878-1956), Aristotle's Syllogistic from the Standpoint of Modern Formal Logic. William Manchester (1922-2004), Disturber of the Peace: The Life of H.L. Mencken. Gabriel Marcel (1889-1973), The Mystery of Being (2 vols.); "Reflection and Mystery", "Faith and Reality"; Man Against Mass Society; Homo Viator. Angela du Maurier (1904-2002), It's Only the Sister: An Autobiography; sister of Daphne du Maurier. Richard McKeon (1900-85), Democracy in a World of Tensions: A Symposium Prepared by UNESCO. Marshall McLuhan (1911-80), The Mechanical Bride: Folklore of Industrial Man (first book). James Edward Meade (1907-95), The Theory of Internat. Economic Policy: The Balance of Payments; about the theory of domestic divergences (internal and external balance), promoting policy tools for govts. Arthur Mizener (1907-88), The Far Side of Paradise; first major bio. of F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940), reviving interest in him. Elting Elmore Morison (1909-95) and John Morton Blum (1921-2011) (eds.), The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt (8 vols.) (1951-4); incl. "The Years of Preparation, 1868-1898" (1951), "The Years of Preparation: 1898-1900" (1951), "The Square Deal: 1901-1903" (1951), "The Square Deal: 1903-1905" (1951), "The Big Stick, 1905-1907" (1952), "The Big Stick, 1907-1909" (1952), "The Days of Armageddon, 1909-1914" (1954), "The Days of Armageddon, 1914-1919" (1954). Sylvan Muldoon (1903-69) and Hereward Carrington (1880-1958), The Phenomena of Astral Projection. Vladimir Nabokov (1899-1977), Conclusive Evidence (autobio.).; rev. in 1966. Percy Howard Newby (1918-97), The Novel, 1945-50. David Niven (1910-83), Round the Rugged Rocks. Charles Norman (1904-96), Mr. Oddity: Samuel Johnson (1709-84), LL.D.. Howard W. Odum, American Sociology: The Story of Sociology in the United States through 1950. Jose Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955), Man as Utopist Creature. Talcott Parsons (1902-79), The Social System; Toward a General Theory of Action. Louise Peffer, The Closing of the Public Domain. Fritz Perls (1893-1970), Paul Goodman (1911-72), and Ralph Hefferline, Gestalt Therapy: Excitement and Growth in the Human Personality; explains Gestalt Therapy, which emphasizes enhanced awareness of the present moment. E. Perroy, The Hundred Years War. Jean Piaget (1896-1980), The Psychology of Intelligence. Michael Polanyi (1891-1976), The Logic of Liberty; claims that scientists need to cooperate in a free market manner. Charles Francis Potter (1885-1962), The Preacher and I (autobio.). Roger Price (1918-90), I'm for Me First; In One Head and Out the Other (first book); Clayton Slope popularizes the phrase "I had one grunch, but the eggplant over there". Merlo John Pusey (1902-85), Charles Evans Hughes (2 vols.) (Pulitzer Prize) (Bancroft Prize). Esme Stuart Lennox Robinson (1886-1958), Ireland's Abbey Theatre; first full-length treatment. Carl Rogers (1902-87), Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory; describes Client-Centered (Person-Centered) Therapy, which uses a comfortable non-judgmental environment filled with congruence (genuineness), empathy, and unconditional positve regard to help clients realize how their attitudes, feelings, and behavior are negatively affected and achieve their true positive potential. Sir Steven Runciman (1903-2000), A History of the Crusades (3 vols.) (1951-4); becomes a minor hit a la the days of Edward Gibbon, and the std. reference, arguing that the Crusaders were barbarian invaders comparable to the Visigoths, and incl. the Byzantine side; too bad, he fudges the history in an attempt to imagine that he's getting into the minds of the participants? Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), New Hopes for a Changing World. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Shakespeare vs. Shaw (posth.). Stanley Smith Stevens (1906-73), Handbook of Experimental Psychology; becomes std. textbook. Pitirim Sorokin (1889-1968), S.O.S., the Meaning of Our Crisis. Paul Tillich (1886-1965), Systematic Theology (3 vols.) (1951-63); "What Whitehead was to American philosophy, Tillich has been to American theology" (Georgia Harkness). A.S. Tritton, Islam; "The picture of the Muslim soldier advancing with a sword in one hand and the Qur'an in the other is quite false" - he never heard of Tamerlane? Freda Utley (1898-1978), The China Story; bestseller. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, What Has Religion Done for Mankind?; answer: nothing?; "Now, for the first time in human history, all the civilizations that have survived till today are in turmoil at the same time. This is most unusual. It must be very significant. Religion cannot be divorced from responsiblity for the situation, for from the beginning religion has been connected with every civilization that has arisen on the face of the earth. That is why it is sorely feeling the effects of the worsening situation. That is why it is under judgment. Is history now overtaking religion? Are its sins, long indulged in, catching up with it and finding it out while the whole world looks on? Is it now reaping the fruitage of what it has sown for centuries?" Alan W. Watts (1915-73), The Wisdom of Insecurity. Walter Prescott Webb (1888-1963), The Great Frontier; proposes the Boom Hypothesis, that the new lands discovered by Columbus in 1492 ran out by 1900, closing the frontier and giving the U.S. economic and ecological problems, threatening the future of individualism, capitalism, and democracy. Sidney Weintraub (1914-83), Income and Employment Analysis. Robert Welch Jr. (1899-1985), May God Forgive Us; claims that the U.S. govt. secretly backs Communists, launching him into the top rank of U.S. anti-Communist writers. Leonard Dupee White (1891-1958), The Jeffersonians, 1801-1829; pt. 2 of 4 of "A Study in Administrative History" (1948-58). Donald Woods Winnicott (1896-1971), Transitional Objects and Transitional Phenomena; how children use familiar inanimate objects to fight stress and anxiety. Thomas Wolfe (1900-38), Western Journal (posth.). C. Vann Woodward (1908-99), Origins of the New South, 1877-1913; disputes the Lost Cause Theory and the New South Creed, painting a sordid story; "The durability of Origins of the New South is not a result of its ennobling and uplifting message. It is the story of the decay and decline of the aristocracy, the suffering and betrayal of the poor whites, and the rise and transformation of a middle class. It is not a happy story. The Redeemers are revealed to be as venal as the carpetbaggers. The declining aristocracy are ineffectual and money hungry, and in the last analysis they subordinated the values of their political and social heritage in order to maintain control over the black population. The poor whites suffered from strange malignancies of racism and conspiracy-mindedness, and the rising middle class was timid and self-interested even in its reform movement. The most sympathetic characters in the whole sordid affair are simply those who are too powerless to be blamed for their actions." (Sheldon Hackney); Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction (rev. ed. 1991). Art: Karel Appel (1921-2006), Flowers and Animals. Balthus (1908-2001), Nude with Arms Raised. Salvador Dali (1904-89), Christ of St. John on the Cross. Otto Dix (1891-1969), Peasant Girl with Child. Andreas Feininger (1906-99), The Photojournalist (B&W photo). Lucian Freud (1922-), Girl With a White Dog (1951-2); his first wife Kathleen Epstein. Barbara Hepworth (1903-75), Group I (Concourse), Feb. 4, 1951 (marble sculpture). Roberto Matta (1911-2002), Ne Songe Plus a Fuir; Les Roses Sont Belles. Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), Massacre in Korea. Jackson Pollock (1912-56), No. 7, 1951. Graham Sutherland (1903-88), Lord Beaverbrook. Tony Bennett (1926-), Because of You (by Arthur Hammerstein and Dudley Wilkinson) (Apr. 4) (#1 in the U.S.) (1M copies); his first hit; Cold, Cold Heart (by Hank Williams) #1 in the U.S.); Blue Velvet (by Bernie Wayne and Lee Morris) (#16 in the U.S.). Pierre Boulez (1925-), Etudes (1951-2). Jackie Brenston (1930-79) and his Delta Cats, Rocket 88 (Mar.); produced by Ike Turner (1931-2007), and later billed as the first rock & roll record; the financial success helps studio owner Samuel Cornelius "Sam" Phillips (1923-2003) of 706 Union St. in Memphis, Tenn. launch Sun Records next Mar. 27, uttering the soundbyte "If I could find a white man who sings with the Negro feel, I'll make a million dollars." Benjamin Britten (1913-76), Billy Budd (opera) (Dec. 1) (Covent Garden, London); based on the Herman Melville novel; libretto by E.M. Forster and Eric Crozier; stars Theodor Uppman as Billy Budd (a seagoing Jesus Christ?). John Cage (1912-92), Music of Changes (for piano) (derived from the I Ching); Imaginary Landscape No. 4 (for 12 radios tuned randomly). Chester Arthur "Howlin' Wolf" Burnett (1910-76), How Many More Years (#4 in the U.S.); Moanin' at Midnight (#10 in the U.S.); 6'3" 275 lb. Chicago electric blues musician releases hits in Memphis, Tenn., allowing him to move to Chicago, Ill. Hoagy Carmichael (1899-1981), In the Cool, Cool, Cool of the Evening; written by Johnny Mercer. Ray Charles (1930-2004), Baby, Let Me Hold Your Hand (single) (Swingtime Records); his first top ten R&B hit; gets him a contract with Ahmet Ertegun of Atlantic Records next year. Rosemary Clooney (1928-2002), Come-on-a-My House (#1 in the U.S.); novelty hit brings her stardom. Nat King Cole (1919-65), Too Young (#1 in the U.S.); Unforgettable (#1 in the U.S.); becomes his signature song. Perry Como (1912-2001), If. Fats Domino (1928-2017), Rockin' Chair. The Dominoes, Sixty Minute Man (#17 in the U.S.); first black R&B act to crossover to the white pop charts? Tommy Edwards (1922-69), All Over Again. Eddie Fisher (1928-2010), I'll Hold You In My Heart. Stan Freberg (1926-), St. George and the Dragonet (#1 in the U.S.); "Dragnet" parody. John Lee Hooker (1917-2001), I'm in the Mood (Aug. 7). Burl Ives (1909-95), The Twelve Days of Christmas. Andre Jolivet (1905-74), Concerto for Piano. Jay Livingston (1915-2001) (music) and Ray Evans (1915-2007) (lyrics), Silver Bells; written for the film "The Lemon Drop Kid" (based on a Damon Runyon story), starring Bob Hope, and sung by Bing Crosby; one of the first carols celebrating Christmas in the city. Nick Lucas, Looking at the World Through Rose-Colored Glasses; I Love the Sunshine of Your Smile; Walkin' My Baby Back Home; Get Out Those Old Records. Gian Carlo Menotti (1911-2007), Amahl and the Night Visitors (1-act opera) (Dec. 24) (NBC-TV); the first opera written for TV; becomes a perennial Christmas favorite; incl. All That Gold, Shepherd's Chorus. Vaughn Monroe (1911-73), Sound Off. Douglas Stuart Moore, Giants in the Earth (opera) (Pulitzer Prize). Luigi Nono (1924-90), Tre Epitaffi per Federico Garcia Lorca (1951-3). Patti Page (1927-), Mockin' Bird Hill; by Vaughn Horton. Les Paul (1915-2009) and Mary Ford (1924-77), Mockin' Bird Hill; How High the Moon. Walter Piston (1894-1976), Symphony No. 4. Bud Powell (1924-66), Max Roach (1924-2007), and Curley Russell (1917-86), Un Poco Loco (Sp. "A Little Crazy") (Blue Note Records); one of the greatest works of 20th cent. Am. art according to Harold Bloom. Johnnie Ray (1927-90), Whiskey and Gin; Cry; The Little White Cloud That Cried; double-hit single sells 2M copies and makes him a teen idol; his performances incl. beating up his piano, writhing on the floor and crying, causing him to become known as "Mr. Emotion"; too bad, he has to cover up that he's bi by marrying Marilyn Morrison in 1952-4 while hooking up with his mgr. Bill Franklin. Roger Sessions (1896-1985), String Quartet No. 2. Carl Smith (1927-2010), If Teardrops Were Pennies; Let Old Mother Nature Have Her Way (#1); launches his chart-topping Am. country music career, which comes complete with June Carter (b. 1929), whom he marries next year (until 1956). Jo Stafford (1917-2008), Shrimp Boats. April Stevens (1936-), I'm In Love Again (written by Cole Porter). Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), W.H. Auden (1907-73) and Chester Kallman (1921-75), The Rake's Progress (opera) (Venice) (Sept. 11); based on William Hogarth's work (1733-5); Tom Rakewell deserts Anne Trulove in London for Nick Shadow and ends up i8n Bedlam; "For idle hearts and hands and minds the Devil finds a work to do". Sir Michael Tippett (1905-98), The Heart's Assurance; debut by Benjamin Britten and Peter Pears. The Weavers, Wimoweh/ The Lion Sleeps Tonight; cover of the 1939 song "Mbube" by Zulu musician Solomon Linda (1909-62) and the Evening Birds; too bad, they don't pay him proper royalties, causing him to lose millions until his family begins suing in 2004. Slim Whitman (1924-), Lovesong of the Waterfall. Hank Williams (1923-53), Cold, Cold Heart. Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958), The Pilgrim's Progress (opera) (Apr. 26) (Covent Garden, London); based on the 1678 work by John Bunyan, with the character of Christian changed to Pilgrim, featuring 41 individual singing roles. Meredith Willson (1902-84), It's Beginning to Look a Lot Like Christmas. Stefan Wolpe (1902-72), Waltz for Merle. Movies: John Huston's The African Queen (Dec. 23), written by James Agee based on the 1935 C.S. Forester novel and originally planned for Charles Laughton and Elsa Lanchester in the 1930s stars Humphrey Bogart as a steamer captain, and Katharine Hepburn as dead missionary's sister Rose Sayer battling the Ulanga River, the German patrol boat Louisa (Konigen Louise), and each other while falling in lu-u-u-v; does $10.8M box office on a $1M budget; first release by the British-based co. of Austrian-born Samuel P. "Sam" Spiegel (1901-85), (known as the Velvet Octupus for groping women), followed by "The Bridge on the River Kwai" (1957), "Lawrence of Arabia" (1962), "The Night of the Generals" (1967), "The Swimmer" (1968), and "Nicholas and Alexandra" (1971.) Walt Disney's animated Alice in Wonderland (July 26), based on the books by Lewis Carroll features the voices of Kathryn Beaumont as Alice, Ed Wynn as the Mad Hatter, Jerry Colonna as the March Hare, and Sterling Holloway as the Cheshire Cat; does $2.4M box office, which is so disappointing that it is shown as one of the first episodes of the TV series "Disneyland" in 1954, after which it is re-released in 1974, doing $3.5M box office. Vincente Minnelli's An American in Paris, (Oct. 4), written by Alan Jay Lerner with music by George Gershwin stars Eugene Curran (Gael. "hero") "Gene" Kelly (1912-96) as Am. expatriate painter Jerry Mulligan, Oscar Levant as his concert pianist friend Adam Cook, and Leslie Claire Margaret Caron (1931-) as Kelly's babe Lise Bouvier, whom he leaves his paramour patron Milo Roberts (Nina Foch) for, but who is attached to singer Henri Baurel (Georges Guetary) for saving her family in WWII; features the songs S Wonderful and Our Love is Here to Stay, and climaxes with the $500K 18-min. ballet, setting a record for longest movie dance number (until ?). Clarence Brown's Angels in the Outfield (Oct. 19) stars Paul Douglas as gruffy Pittsburgh Pirates mgr. Aloysius X. "Guffy" McGovern, who is lambasted by reporter Jennifer Paige (Janet Leigh) for a losing streak, after which you know whats begin appearing on the ballfield telling him to mend his ways and they win the NL pennant. Frederick de Cordova's Bedtime for Bonzo (Sept. 28), later becoming Ronald Reagan's bugaboo performance when he begins running for office; followed by Bonzo Goes to College (1952); the chimpanzee Jiggs (1934-), who prefers Milwaukee's Best brand beer becomes a star and lives to the ripe old age of at least 56. Budd Boetticher's Bullfighter and the Lady (Apr. 26) (working title "Torero"), produced by John Wayne's Batjac Productions and based on Boetticher's own experiences (his dir. debut) stars slim handsome bleached blonde Robert Stack as Yankee film producer Johnny "Chuck" Regan, who is taught bullfighting by aging Mexican matador Manolo Estrada (Gilbert Roland) to impress Mexican babe Anita de la Vega (Joy Page), ending in tragedy and a chance to make it right; a stunt man dies during production on location in Mexico; the film is drastically cut down, pissing-off Boetticher and causing him to switch to Westerns. Keisuke Kinoshita's Carmen Comes Home (Karumen Kokyo ni Kaeru) (Mar. 21) is about country girl Lily Carmen (Hideko Takamine), who goes to the big city, becomes a stripper, then returns home and causes a scandal; Japan's first color film; budget: 6.8B yen. John Cromwell's The Company She Keeps (Jan. 27), written by Ketti Frings is forgettable other than for the trivia question answer of what film did Jeff Bridges debut in as an infant, along with his brother Beau Bridges and mother Dorothy Dean Bridges. Robert Wise's B&W The Day the Earth Stood Still (Sept. 18) (20th Cent. Fox), based on the 1940 story "Farewell to the Master" by Harry Bates morphs the Christ story into an extra-terrestrial, played by too-cool Michael Rennie as Klaatu, who comes to Earth to save it from nukes, winning the pop. over, only to be attacked by the govt. while his robot Gort (Lock Martin) watches over him; Patricia Neal plays Helen Benson; Sam Jaffe plays Prof. Jacob Barnhardt; the soundbyte "Klaatu barada Nikto" gains sci-fi immortality; "In matters of aggression, we have given them absolute power over us. Your choice is simple: join us and live in peace, or pursue your present course and face obliteration. We will be waiting for your answer"; does $1.85M box office on a $995K budget; remade in 2008 starring Keanu Reeves as Klaatu. William Wyler's Detective Story (Nov. 6), based on the 1949 play by Sidney Kingsley is a film noir starring Kirk Douglas as Det. Jim McLeod of New York's 21st Precinct, who pursues abortionist Karl Schneider (George Macready), and discovers that his wife Mary (Eleanor Parker) had one; the film debut of Lee Grant (1927-), who plays a shoplifter, and wins a best supporting actress Oscar; too bad, her playwright hubby (1951-60) Arnold Manoff (1914-65) is targeted by HUAC, and when she refuses to testify against him she ends up blacklisted. Raoul Walsh's Distant Drums (Dec. 29) (Warner Bros.) stars Gary Cooper as Capt. Quincy Wyatt, who leads U.S. soldiers against pesky Seminoles in 19th cent. Fla.; features the short agonizing bloodcurdling Wilhelm Scream, voiced by Sheb Wooley, which is reused in "The Charge at Feather River" (1953) for Pvt. Wilhelm (Ralph Brooke), followed by many other Warner Bros. productions, after which Ben Burtt (1948-) makes it his signature sound effect in the "Star Wars" and "Indiana Jones" films, after which it is picked up by Richard L. Anderson for "Raiders of the Lost Ark" (1981), "Poltergeist" (1982), "Batman Returns" (1992), "Planet of the Apes" (2001), and many more. The U.S. govt. starts releasing the hilarious Duck and Cover films starring Bert the Turtle, written by Raymond J. Mauer (1916-2006), telling kids that if they see a bright flash they should duck under their desk, curl up in a fetal position and cover their head with their hands - and they will bake like store-bought turkeys? Frank Capra's Here Comes the Groom (Sept. 20) stars Bing Crosby as Paris-based foreign correspondent Pete Garvey, who adopts two orphans, flies to New York City, and has five days to win back his former fiancee Emmadel Jones (Jane Wyman) or lose them; too bad, he left her alone for three years, and now she's engaged to her rich boss Wilbur Stanley (Franchot Tone), so he tries to hook him up with his tall 4th "kissing cousin" twice removed Winifred Stanley (Alexis Smith), who steals him and the movie; film debut of 15-y.-o. sings-like-an-angel Anna Maria Alberghetti (1936-), who gives up films for theater in the 1960s and becomes a big star on the Ed Sullivan Show; Crosby and Wyman debut the Johnny Mercer and Hoagy Carmichael song In the Cool, Cool, Cool of the Evening. Guy Lefranc's Une Histoire d'Amour (Nov. 14) stars Louis Jouvet as Inspector Ernest Plonche, who investigates the mysterious deaths of 18-y.-o. Catherine Mareuil (Dany Robin) and her accountant lover Jean Bompart (Daniel Gelin). Ron Ormond's Kentucky Jubilee (May 18) stars Jerry Colonna as Jerry Harris, and Jean Porter as Sally Shannon. Charles Crichton's The Lavender Hill Mob (June 15) (Ealing Studios), set in Lavender Hill St. in Battersea, South London stars Alec Guinness as mousey bank clerk Henry "Dutch" Holland, who masterminds a gold bullion heist with accomplice Alfred Pendlebury (Stanley Holloway) and smuggle them to Paris disguised as Eiffel Tower paperweights, after which Holland escapes to live it up in Rio; film debut of Audrey Hepburn, Robert Shaw, and Patricia Garwood; "By Jove, Holland, its a good job we're both honest men"; "It is indeed, Pendlebury." Nicole Vedres' Life After Tomorrow (La Vie Commence Demain), a 1949 French film that debuts on Jan. 9 in London depicts artificial insemination, becoming the first film to receive an "X" rating by British film censors. Peter Lorre's The Lost One (Der Verlorene) (Sept. 7), based on a true story about a German scientist's lover being suspected of selling secrets to the Brits during WWII is Lorre's only dir. effort - who could act with that creep looking on behind the lens? David Butler's Lullaby of Broadway (Mar. 26) stars Doris Day as Melinda Howard and Gene Nelson as Tom Farnham; features the song I Love the Way You Say Goodnight by Eddie Pola (1907-95). John Boulting's The Magic Box (British Lion Films), produced by Ronald Name and written by Eric Ambler based on the bio. by Ray Allister is about English cinematography pioneer William Friese-Greene (1855-1921), played by Robert Donat, with cameos by Laurice Olivier anud Peter Ustinov; does Ł82K box office in the U.K. Donald Swanson's The Magic Garden (The Pennywhistle Blues) is filmed in Johannesburg, South Afica with an amateur cast, becming the first film with an all-black cast to be shown in white cinemas n Johannesburg. Alexander Mackendrick's The Man in the White Suit (Aug. 7) (Ealing Studios) (Gen. Film Distributors) stars Alec Guinness as genius chemist Sidney Stratton, who invents the perfect material, super-strong, dirt-repellant, and white and luminous because it contains radioactive elements, causing the English textile industry to blow a gasket until its short shelf life is discovered; also stars Joan Greenwood as Daphne Birnley, and Cecil Parker as Alan Birnley. Vittorio de Sica's Miracle in Milan (Miracolo a Milano) (Dec. 17), based on a story by Gabriel Garcia stars Frank Ramirez as Margarito Duarte, who digs up his dead daughter (Amalia Duque Garcia) after 12 years and finds her body miraculously preserved, then attempts to get her canonized. George Stevens' A Place in the Sun (Oct. 11), based on Theodore Dreiser's "An American Tragedy" stars Montgomery Clift as George Eastman, Elizabeth Taylor as Angela Vickers, and Shelly Winters as factory girl Alice Tripp, whom Clift seduces and abandons for Taylor, after which she gets pregnant and blackmails him into marrying her, causing him to take her out in a canoe, planning to drown her, only to have it tip over by accident, causing her to die by accident, which he can't later prove in court, since he went to such lengths to set her up; the love scenes between Clift and Taylor become the new standard in cinema, making him an idol of James Dean, who calls him just to hear his voice; an overacting Raymond Burr as DA Frank R. Marlowe; the film saves Winters' fading career, but not for long, as she sinks into B-roles and finally bolts to join the Actor's Studio and go Broadway while gaining enough weight and character to return to Hollywood and carve her niche. Mervyn LeRoy's Quo Vadis (Lat. "Where are you going?") (Nov. 8) (MGM), based on the 1896 novel about Nero by Henryk Siekiewicz stars Robert Taylor, Deborah Kerr, and Peter Ustinov, and is the major film debut of Sophia Loren (Sofia Scicolone) (1934-), who has a role (under the name Sofia Lazzaro) with her mother as extras playing Deborah Kerr's slaves; she then gets work as slave girls and maidens B-films, saying "I'm not ashamed of my bare-bottomed beginnings", after which Italian producer Geoffredo Lombardo gives her a stage name after Swedish actress Marta Toren; does $21M box office on a $7.6M budget. Stanley Donen's Royal Wedding (Mar. 23), about a brother-sister dance team (Fred Astaire, Jane Powell) who go to London for the royal wedding of Princess Elizabeth is memorable for Astaire's incredible Dancing on the Ceiling and Walls Scene (the trick: a set inside a huge rotating drum); Alan Jay Lerner's first screenplay. Brian Desmond Hurst's B&W Scrooge (A Christmas Carol) (Oct. 31) (Renown Pictures), written by Noel Langley based on Charles Dicken's 1843 "A Christmas Carol" stars perfect-fit Alastair Sim as Ebenezer Scrooge, Mervyn Johns as Bob Cratchit, Hermione Baddely as Mrs. Cratchit, Glyn Dearman as Tiny Tim, and Michael Hordern as Jacob Marley's Ghost. George Sidney's Show Boat (July 13), based on the Jerome Kern musical stars Howard Keel as Gaylord Ravenal, Kathryn Grayson as Magnolia Hawks, and Ava Gardner as Julie LaVerne; introduces baritone William Warfield as Joe, whose rendition of "Ol' Man River" makes him an overnight star. Samuel Fuller's The Steel Helmet (Feb. 2); one of the first films on the Korean War; the film debut of grizzly Gene Evans as cigar-chomping Sgt. Zack, who leads a ragtag group of GIs against the North Koreans in an abandoned Buddhist temple; his helmet has a hole in it throughout the flick; dir. Fuller gets attacked for alleged pro-Communist anti-American sentiments, incl. a Commie talking to a black soldier about how it is back home, and GIs executing a POW. Joseph Pevney's Robert Louis Stevenson's The Strange Door (Dec. 8) (Universal Pictures), based on the Robert Louis Stevenson short story "The Sire de Maletroit's Door" stars Charles Laughton as Alain, Sire de Maletroit, who has been imprisoning his brother Edmond (Paul Cavanagh) for 20 years for stealing his childhood sweetheart, and goes after his grown daughter Blanche (Sally Forrest) and her beau Denis de Beaulieu (Richard Stapley), tricking them into locking themselves in his prison chateau, and maneuvering them to their deaths until Alain's manservant Voltan (Boris Karloff) comes to their rescue. Alfred Hitchcock's Strangers on a Train (July 3), written by Raymond Chandler based on the 1950 Patricia Highsmith novel about the duality of human nature stars Robert Walker as nutso Bruno Anthony, and Farley Granger as tennis star Guy Haines, who meet on a train, where Anthony proposes "criss-cross murders" (his father for Haines' wife), then when Haines declines, goes ahead and strangles the wife at the Crafts 20 Big Shows amusement park's Magic Isle at 9:28 p.m. and tries to blackmail him into keeping the bargain, and when he won't, tries to frame him by placing his lighter "From A to G" at the crime scene, resulting in a dramatic runaway merry-go-round fight scene; Ruth Roman co-stars as Granger's fiancee Anne Morton, daughter of Sen. Morton (Leo G. Carroll), whom he wanted to leave his bespectacled wife Miriam Joyce Haines (Kasey Rogers) for, giving the police his motive; Hitchcock's only child Patricia Hitchcock plays Anne's inquisitive bespectacled sister Barbara Morton. Elia Kazan's A Streetcar Named Desire (Sept. 18) (Warner Bros.), based on the 1947 Tennessee Williams play stars Vivien Leigh as alcoholic fading Southern belle Blanche DuBois from Auriol, Miss., who suddenly moves in with her sister Stella Kowalski (Kim Hunter) on Elysian Fields Ave. in the French Quarter of New Orleans after taking the streetcar route named Desire, where she fights with Stella's abusive hubby Stanley Kowalski (Marlon Brando), who tries to find out her dirty laundry, climaxing when he is left alone with her when Stella goes to the hospital to have a baby, and rapes her, causing her to have a breakdown and gets committed to a mental institution, where she utters the line "I have always depended on the kindness of strangers" (she seduced a 17-y.-o. boy at the school where she taught English and got fired, and her hubby committed suicide); Brando utters the immortal line "Hey, Stella! Don't ever leave me baby!"; Karl Malden plays Blanche's beau Harold "Mitch" Mitchell, who is proud of his 207 lb. 6' 1.5" in. athletic physique and likes her to punch him in the belly, but is also an old buddy of Stanley, who turns him against her; the flick boosts Brando's career, even though he is the odd man out and doesn't win an Oscar like the others; during filming, David Niven sees Brando making out with Laurence Olivier in the swimming pool of Vivien Leigh's mansion?; does $8M box office on a $1.8M budget. Lee Sholem's B&W Superman and the Mole Men (Nov. 23) is a pilot for the upcoming TV series, starring George Reeves, Phyllis Coates, and Jeff Corey. Christian Nyby's and Howard Hawks' sci-fi horror film The Thing (from Another World) (Apr. 27) (RKO Radio Pictures), based on the story "Who Goes There?" by John W. Campbell (AKA Don A. Stuart) stars James Arness (brother of Peter Graves) as an 8-ft. carrot-like alien plant with green blood who terrorizes an Arctic research team; does $1.95M box office; refilmed in 1982 and 2011. Rudolph Mate's When Worlds Collide (Aug.), based on the 1933 novel by Edwin Balmer and Philip Wylie about a star and planet hurtling toward Earth stars Richard Derr as David Randall, and Barbara Rush as Joyce Hendron. Harry Watt's Where No Vultures Fly (Ivory Hunter) (Nov. 5) (Ealing Films) (Gen. Film Distributors) (Universal-Internat.), based on the story of "the recent struggle of Mervyn Cowie to form the National Parks of Kenya", starring Anthony Steel as game warden Bob Payton, who fights ivory poacher Mannering (Harold Warrender) to establish a wildlife sanctuary; Dinah Sheridan plays his wife Mary Payton; followed by "West of Zanzibar" (1954). Henry Hathaway's You're in the Navy Now (May 16), starring Gary Cooper and Jane Greer are the film debuts of Lee Marvin (1924-87) and Charles Bronson (Charles Dennis Buchinsky) (1921-2003). Plays: Robert Anderson, All Summer Long. Jean Anouilh (1910-87), Mademoiselle Colombe. Philip Barry (1896-1949), Second Threshold (posth.); completed by Robert Sherwood. John Van Druten, I Am a Camera; inspired by Christopher Isherwood's "The Berlin Stories"; inspiration for "Cabaret" (1966) by John Kander and Fred Ebb. Mircea Eliade (1907-86), 1241. Christopher Fry (1907-2005), A Sleep of Prisoners. Jan de Hartog, The Four Poster. Lillian Hellman (1905-84), The Autumn Garden. Laurence Housman (1865-1959), Old Testament Plays. Eugene Ionesco (1909-94), The Lesson. Pamela Hansford Johnson (1912-81) and C.P. Snow (1905-80), Family Party; Her Best Foot Forward; The Pigeon with the Silver Foot; Spare the Rod; The Supper Dance; To Murder Mrs. Mortimer - their 1950 marriage is really working out? Sidney Kingsley (1906-95), Darkness at Noon. Anita Loos (1889-1981), Gigi (Fulton Theatre, New York) (Nov. 24) (219 perf.); based on the 1944 Colette novel; stars newbie Audrey Hepburn, who was personally picked by Colette; filmed in 1958 starring Leslie Caron, Louis Jourdan, and Maurice Chevalier. Robert Nathan (1894-1985), Jezebel's Husband; King Ahab? John Patrick (1905-95), Lo and Behold. Kenneth Rexroth (1905-82), Beyond the Mountains: Four Plays in Verse. Richard Rodgers (1902-79) and Oscar Hammerstein II (1895-1960), The King and I (musical) (St. James Theatre, New York) (Mar. 29) (1,246 perf.); based on the 1944 Margaret Landon book "Anna and the King of Siam", about Welsh widow Anna Leonowens and King Mongkut of Siam in the 1860s; stars Gertude Lawrence (1898-1952) as Anna, who dies of cancer on Sept. 6, 1952, and Yuliy Borisovich "Yul" Brynner (Taidje Khan) (1920-85), who carries on with Marlene Dietrich offstage?; banned in Thailand; incl. the song Getting to Know You. Nelly Sachs (1891-1970), Eli. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80), Le Diable et le Bon Dieu. Arthur Schwartz (1900-84), Dorothy Fields (1905-74), George Abbott (1887-1995), and Betty Smith (1896-1972), A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (musical) (Alvin Theatre, New York) (Apr. 19) (267 perf.); based on the 1943 novel by Smith; dir. by Abbott; choreographed by Herbert Ross; stars Shirley Booth as Aunt Cissy, causing the role to be expanded to make use of her comedic talents. Derek Walcott (1930-), Harry Dernier (radio play). John Whiting (1917-63), A Penny for a Song (debut). Tennessee Williams (1911-83), The Rose Tattoo (Feb.) (New York); an Italian-Am. widow in La. loses her hubby and withdraws from the world, taking her daughter with her; dedicated to his lover Frank Merlo. Poetry: W.H. Auden (1907-73), Nones. Rene Char (1907-88), A une Serenite Crispee. Gunnar Ekelof (1907-68), In Autumn. Robert Frost (1874-1963), The Road Not Taken. Robert Ranke Graves (1895-1985), Poems and Satires. Langston Hughes (1902-67), Montage of a Dream Deferred; "What happens to a dream deferred?/ Does it dry up/ like a raisin in the sun?/ Or fester like a sore/ And then run?" Donald Rodney Justice (1925-2004), The Old Bachelor and Other Poems (debut). Philip Larkin (1922-85), XX Poems. Irving Layton (1912-2006), The Black Huntsmen. Walter de la Mare (1873-1956), The Listeners and Other Poems. James Merrill (1926-95), First Poems (debut). Marianne Moore (1887-1972), Collected Poems (Pulitzer Prize). John Enoch Powell (1912-98), Dancer's End and The Wedding Gift. Adrienne Rich (1929-2012), A Change of World; selected by W.H. Auden for the Yale Younger Poets Award. Nelly Sachs (1891-1970), Sternverdunkelung. Giuseppe Ungaretti (1888-1970), A Shout and Landscapes (Un Grido e Paesaggi). Derek Walcott (1930-), Poems. William Carlos Williams (1883-1963), Collected Earlier Poems. Novels: Nelson Algren (1909-81), Chicago, City on the Make; shows the seamy side of Polish Chicago, pissing-off the powers that be; "For the masses who do the city's labor and also keep the city's heart"; the Chicago Tribune calls it a "highly scented object", then after he dies flops and establishes the Nelson Algren Award for Short Fiction. Eric Ambler (1909-98), Judgment on Deltchev. Sholem Asch (1880-1957), Moses. Isaac Asimov (1920-92), The Stars, Like Dust; the rebels vs. the Tyranni for control of the Galaxy; Foundation; #1 of 7 in The Foundation Series; Hari "the Raven" Seldon, math prof. at Streeling U. in Trantor, father of psychohistory predicts the fall of the Galactic Empire. Nigel Balchin (1908-70), A Way Through the Wood. Samuel Beckett (1906-89), Molloy. Phyllis Eleanor Bentley (1894-1977), Quorum. Heinrich Boll (1917-85), Die Schwarzen Schafe (The Black Sheep); Nicht Nur Zur Weihnachtszeit (Christmas Not Just Once a Year); Wo Warst Du, Adam? (And Where Were You, Adam?). Arna Bontemps (1902-73) and Jack Conroy (1898-1990), Sam Patch, the High, Wide and Handsome Jumper. Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986), La Muerte y la Brujula (short stories). Kay Boyle (1902-92), Smoking Mountain; stories of postwar Germany. Ray Bradbury (1920-2012), The Illustrated Man (short stories); a tattooed dude; filmed in 1969. Louis Bromfield (1896-1956), Mr. Smith. John Brunner (1934-95), Galactic Storm (first novel); pub. under alias Gill Hunt. Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973), God's Men. Taylor Caldwell (1900-85), The Balance Wheel; more German immigrants. Hortense Calisher (1911-2009), In the Absence of Angels (short stories) (first book). Camilo Jose Cela (1916-2002), La Colmena (The Hive); has 300+ chars.; banned in Spain by Gen. Franco. Gabriel Chevallier (1895-1969), Clochemerle Babylon; sequel to "Clochemerle" (1934). Agatha Christie (1890-1976), They Came to Baghdad (Mar. 5); The Under Dog and Other Stories. Robertson Davies (1913-95), Tempest-Tost (first novel); first in the Salterton Trilogy. Taylor Caldwell (1900-85), Balance Wheel. John Dickson Carr (1906-77), The Devil in Velvet. Ivy Compton-Burnett (1884-1969), Darkness and Day. Maurice Druon (1918-2009), Rendez-vous aux Enfers. James T. Farrell (1904-79), This Man and This Woman. Howard Fast (1914-2003), Spartacus; written while in jail in 1950 for contempt of Congress; filmed in 1960 starring Kirk Douglas. William Faulkner (1897-1962), Requiem for a Nun. Kenneth Fearing (1902-61), The Loneliest Girl in the World. Lion Feuchtwanger (1884-1958), This Is the Hour. Shelby Foote (1916-2005), Love in a Dry Season. Janet Frame (1924-2004), The Lagoon and Other Stories (short stories) (debut); wins the Hubert Church Memorial Award in New Zealand, causing her scheduled lobotomy at the Seacliff Lunatic Asylum to be canceled; she is discharged in 1955 after eight years. Pat Frank (1908-64), Hold Back the Night; about the Korean War; filmed in 1956. Herbert Gold (1924-), Birth of a Hero (first novel). Paul Goodman (1911-72), Parents' Day. Catherine Gordon (1895-1981), The Strange Children. Julien Gracq (1910-2007), The Opposing Shore (Le Rivage des Syrtes); his biggest hit; a "Wagnerian prelude for an unplayed opera" set on the border between Orsenna and Farghestan, which have been at war for 300 years, causing the chars. to wonder whether any change will bring about the death of both civilizations. Graham Greene (1904-91), The End of the Affair. L.P. Hartley (1895-1972), My Fellow Devils. John Hawkes (1925-98), The Beetle Leg; a surrealistic Montana Western. Robert A. Heinlein (1907-88), The Puppet Masters. James Hilton (1900-54), Morning Journey. L. Ron Hubbard (1911-86), Fear; Typewriter in the Sky. William Bradford Huie (1910-86), The Revolt of Mamie Stover. Fannie Hurst (1889-1968), The Man with One Head. Margaret Irwin (1889-1967), The Heart's Memory. Shirley Jackson (1916-65), Hangsaman. Robin Jenkins (1912-2005), So Gaily Sinks the Lark (first novel). James Jones (1921-77), From Here to Eternity; bestseller; title comes from Rudyard Kipling's poem "Gentleman Rankers", which spawned the Yale Whiffenpoof drinking song; first use of the word "fuck" in a major U.S novel?; filmed in 1953. Molly Keane (1905-96), Loving Without Tears; socialite Angel copes with her son and daughter growing up. Margaret Kennedy (1896-1967), Lucy Carmichael. Sophie Kerr (1880-1965), The Man Who Knew the Date. Siegfried Lenz (1926-), Es Waren Habichte in der Luft (first novel). Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951), World So Wide (posth.); Hayden Chart of Colo. loses his wife in an automobile accident, runs away to Florence, Italy, becomes a historian, meets history prof. Olivia and falls for her, but loses him to another man. Helen MacInnes (1907-85), Neither Five Nor Three. Norman Mailer (1923-2007), Barbary Shore; Cold War leftist politics in a Brooklyn rooming house. Thomas Mann (1875-1955), Der Erwahlte (Erwählte) (The Holy Sinner). Felicien Marceau (1913-), Capri Petite Ile; Chair et Cuir. Catherine Marshall, A Man Called Peter. Francis Van Wyck Mason (1901-78), Proud New Flags. Francois Mauriac (1885-1970), Le Sagouin. Carson McCullers (1917-67), The Ballad of the Sad Cafe (short stories). Shepherd Mead (1914-94), Tessie, the Hound of Channel One. Nicholas Monsarrat (1910-79), The Cruel Sea; about "small ships" in WWII incl. corvettes and frigates; filmed in 1953 by Charles Frend. Brian Moore (1921-99), Wreath for a Redhead (Sailor's Leave) (first novel); The Executioners. Paul Morand (1888-1976), Le Flagellant de Seville. Charles Langbridge Morgan (1894-1958), A Breeze of Morning. Nicholas Mosley (1923-), Spaces of the Dark (first novel). Robert Nathan (1894-1985), The Innocent Eve; The Married Look. John Gneisenau Neihardt (1881-1973), When the Tree Flowered (short stories). Percy Howard Newby (1918-97), A Season in England. David Niven (1910-83), Once Over Lightly. Francois Nourissier (1927-), L'Eau Grise (first novel). Frank O'Connor (real name Michael O'Donovan), traveller's Samples (short stories). John O'Hara (1905-70), The Farmers Hotel. Charles Fulton Oursler (1893-1952), The Greatest Book Ever Written; Old Testament stories. Milton K. Ozaki (1913-89), The Deadly Lover; The Scented Flesh; The Dummy Murder Case. Aldo Palazzeschi (1885-1974), Bestie del '900. Edith Pargeter (1913-95), Lost Children; Fallen into the Pit; first in a series about Inspector George Felse and his son Dominic; pub. under the alias Ellis Peters. John Dos Passos (1896-1970), Chosen Country. Elliot Harold Paul (1896-1958), Murder on the Left Bank. Joseph Stanley Pennell, The History of Thomas Wagnal. Roger Peyrefitte (1907-2000), Les Ambassades. Robert Pinget (1919-97), Between Fantoine and Agapa (Entre Fantoine et Agapa) (first novel). Anthony Powell (1905-2000), A Question of Upbringing; first in the 12-vol. novel series "A Dance to the Music of Time" (1951-75). John Cowper Powys (1872-1963), Porius. V.S. Pritchett (1900-97), Mr. Beluncle. Ellery Queen, Origin of Evil. Vance Randolph (1892-1980), We Always Lie to Strangers (short stories). J.D. Salinger (1919-2010), The Catcher in the Rye (Aug. 12); first social commentary about U.S. pop culture; giant hit for students, selling 65M copies by 2008; two days in the life of preppie Holden Caulfield, who is about to be kicked out of Pencey Prep in New York City and runs away for three days, staying at the derelict Edmont Hotel, dancing with three tourist girls from Seattle, hiring a ho then chickening out, getting beaten up twice, visiting a museum to see the Eskimo statues, reminiscing about his dead brother Allie, visiting "perverty" English teacher Mr. Antolini, and taking his little sister Phoebe to the zoo, commenting on how the world is ruled by "phonies", and he wants to be a catcher in the rye to keep kids from falling off a cliff and having to face life, finally ending up in a psych ward; opening line: "If you really want to hear about it, the first thing you'll probably want to know is where I was born, and what my lousy childhood was like, and how my parents were occupied and all before they had me, and all that David Copperfield kind of crap, but I don't feel like going into it, if you want to know the truth"; "Life is a game, boy. Life is a game that one plays according to the rules"; in 1953 Salinger moves to Cornish, N.H. to live the live of a recluse; his obsession with privacy even extends to the book cover, which ends up plain red. William Sansom (1912-76), The Face of Innocence. Annemarie Selniko, Desiree. Peter Shaffer (1926-) and Anthony Shaffer (1926-2001), The Woman in the Wardrobe; pub. under the alias Peter Anthony. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Farfetched Fables (posth.). Irwin Shaw (1913-84), The Troubled Air; about the rise of McCarthyism; gets him put on the Hollywood Blacklist, causing him to move to Europe for the next 25 years. Nevil Shute (1899-1960), Round the Bend; a new religion centered around an aircraft mechanic. Clifford D. Simak (1904-88), Time and Again (First He Died) (Time Quarry); spaceman Ashter Sutton returns to Earth from 61 Cygni after visiting a planet with living "souls", causing a religious war; City; about a future Earth where only dogs and robots are left. Vern Sneider (1916-98), The Teahouse of the August Moon; democracy comes to an Okinawa village; filmed in 1956. C.P. Snow (1905-80), The Masters; Strangers and Brothers #4. Mickey Spillane (1918-2006), One Lonely Night. Howard Spring (1889-1965), The Houses in Between. William Styron (1925-2006), Lie Down in Darkness (first novel). Frank Swinnerton (1884-1982), The Bookman's London. Elizabeth Taylor (1912-75), A Game of Hide and Seek. Samuel Woolley Taylor (1907-97), The Grinning Gismo. Josephine Tey (1896-1952), The Daughter of Time; Inspector Alan Grant #5; title from the proverb "Truth is the daughter of time"; Grant is confined to a hospital bed with a broken leg, and uses the time to solve the historical mystery of who killed the princes in the Tower, clearing Richard III; greatest crime mystery novel ever published? Helen Traubel (1899-1972), The Metropolitan Opera Murders; soprano Elsa Vaughan (the author?) solves a mystery. John Van Druten, I Am a Camera. Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883-1970), Mechanism of Photosynthesis. Alec Waugh (1898-1981), Where the Clocks Chime Twice. Dennis Wheatley (1897-1977), The Man Who Killed the King. Hugh Callingham Wheeler (1912-87), The Crippled Muse. Henry Williamson (1895-1977), The Dark Lantern; first in the Phillip Maddison series "A Chronicle of Ancient Sunlight" (1951-69). Herman Wouk (1915-), The Caine Mutiny: A Novel of World War II (Mar. 19) (Pulitzer Prize); a minesweeper. Philip Wylie (1902-71), The Disappearance; the genders end up in parallel worlds. John Wyndham (1903-69), The Day of the Triffids; a meteor shower causes plant spores to mutate into giant carnivores; filmed in 1962. Frank Garvin Yerby (1916-91), A Woman Called Fancy. Marguerite Yourcenar (1903-87), Memoirs of Hadrian (Mémoires d'Hadrien); her biggest hit; his long letter to adoptive son Marcus Aurelius. Births: Egyptian "Out of Egypt", "Call Me By Your Name" novelist (Jewish) Andre (André) Aciman on Jan. 2 in Alexandria; Turkish-Italian descent Sephardic Jewish parents; educated at Lehman College, and Harvard U. Kazakhstani cosmonaut Talgat Amangeldyuly Musabayev on Jan. 7 in Kargaly. Am. theologian James Amon "Jim" Garrison on Jan. 7 in Huili, China; Baptist missionary parents; grows up in Taiwan; educated at Pepperdine U., the U. of Tel Aviv, Santa Clara U., Harvard U., and Cambridge U. Am. "Don't It make My Brown Eyes Blue" country singer Crystal Gale (Brenda Gayle Webb) on Jan. 9 in Paintsville, Ky.; sister of Loretta Lynn (1932-) and Peggy Sue Webb (1947-); distant cousin of Patty Loveless; named by Loretta Lynn for the Krystal hamburger chain. Palestinian Hamas leader Mousa Mohammed Abu Marzook on Jan. 9 in Rafah Refugee Camp, Gaza Strip. Am. "Rebecca Howe in Cheers", "Mollie Ubriacco in Look Who's Talking" actress (Scientologist) Kirsten Louise "Kirstie" Alley (nee Deal) on Jan. 12 in Wichita, Kan.; wife (1983-97) of Parker Stevnson (1952-). Am. rock musician Christopher Branford "Chris" Bell (d. 1978) (Big Star) on Jan. 12 in Memphis, Tenn. Am. conservative political commentator Rush Hudson Limbaugh III (d. 2021) on Jan. 12 in Cape Girardeau, Mo.; drops out from Southeast Mo. State U.; brother of David Limbaugh (1952-). English rocker Peter Rodney "Biff" Byford (Saxon) on Jan. 15 in Honley, West Yorkshire. Spanish entertainer ("cuchi-cuchi") Charo (Maria del Rosario Mercedes Pilar Martinez Molina-Baeza) (Sp. "ill-bred person") on Jan. 15 in Murcia; wife (1966-78) of Xavier Cugat (1900-90). U.S. Rep. (D-Md) (1996-2019) (black) Elijah Eugene Cummings (d. 2019) on Jan. 18 in Baltimore, Md.; educated at Baltimore City College, Howard u., and U. of Md. English "A Horse With No Name" singer-songwriter Dewey Bunnell (America) on Jan. 19 in Harrogate, Yorkshire. Am. "Only the Lonely" rock singer Martha Davis (Motels) on Jan. 15 in Berkeley, Calif. English rock bassist Ian Frank Hill (Judas Priest) on Jan. 20 in Yew Tree Estate, West Bromwich. U.S. atty.-gen. #82 (2009-15) (first African-Am.) (black) Eric Himpton Holder Jr. on Jan. 21 in Queens, N.Y.; Barbados immigrant parents; educated at Columbia U. Am. "Tribes With Flags" journalist Charles Glass on Jan. 23 in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at USC, and Am. U. of Beirut. Am. "Miracle on the Hudson" "Highest Duty", "Making a Difference" hero airline capt. Chesley Burnett "Sully" Sullenberger III on Jan. 23 in Denison, Tex. Am. comedian (Jewish) Yakov Smirnoff (Yakov Naumovich Pokhis) on Jan. 24 in Odessa, Ukraine; emigrates to the U.S. in 1977. Am. runner Steve Roland "Pre" Prefontaine (d. 1975) on Jan. 25 in Coos Bay, Ore.; one leg is longer than the other, which doesn't stop him from holding the U.S. record in every running event from the 2km to the 10km, sparking a running boom in the 1970s; known for his extremely aggressive "front-running" racing style - swings his arms instead of his hips? Australian "Lonesome Loser", "Happy Anniversary" rock musician-songwriter-roducer David John Briggs (Little River Band) on Jan. 26 in Melbourne. Irish rock drummer Brian Michael Downey (Thin Lizzy) on Jan. 27 in Dublin. English "Sussudio", "Another Day in Paradise", "Against All Odds (Take a Look At Me Now)" singer-songwriter-drummer-actor Philip David Charles "Phil" Collins (Genesis) on Jan. 30 in Chiswick, London; has a closeup as a screaming teenie in the Beatles' film "A Hard Day's Night". Am. "Alien 3" actor (black) Charles Stanley Dutton on Jan. 30 in Baltimore, Md.; becomes an actor while in prison for a fatal stabbing. Am. "That's the Way (I Like It"), "Give It Up", "Get Down Tonight" singer-songwriter-producer Harry Wayne "K.C." Casey (KC and the Sunshine Band) on Jan. 31 in Opa-Locka, Fla.; Irish-Am. father, Italian-Am. mother; wrote first song at age 12. English musician-producer Phil Manzanera (Philip Geoffrey Targett-Adams) (Roxy Music) on Jan. 31 in London. Burkina Faso pres. (1987-2014) (black) Blaise Compaore (Compaoré) on Feb. 3 in Ziniare. U.S. Dem. Wash. gov. #23 (2013-) Jay Robert Inslee on Feb. 9 in Seattle, wash.; educated at the U. of Wash., and Williamette U. Am. "Cindy in Crazy Like a Fox" actress Penny Peyser on Feb. 9 in Irvington, N.Y.; daughter of Peter A. Peyser (1921-); educated at Emerson College. Am. R&B musician (black) Dennis "DT" Thomas (Kool & the Gang) on Feb. 9. Am. Galley Furniture magnate James Franklin "Mattress Mack" McIngvale on Feb. 11 in Starkville, Miss.; educated at North Tex. State U. Am. Cajun singer-musician Michael Doucet (BeauSoleil) on Feb. 14 near Lafayette, La. Am. "You Should Hear How She Talks About You" singer-songwriter (Jewish) Melissa Manchester on Feb. 15 in Bronx, N.Y. English "Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman", "Solitaire in Live and Let Die" actress (Jewish) Jane Seymour (Joyce Penelope Wilhelmina Frankenberg) on Feb. 15 in Hayes, London; Polish Jewish descent father, Dutch Protestant mother; names herself after Henry VIII's 3rd wife; wife (1993-2013) of James Keach (1947-) - she ain't no hollaback girl? Am. "Tommy Ross in Carrie", "The Greatest American Hero" actor William Theodore Katt on Feb. 16 in Los Angeles, Calif. Iraqi intel chief Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti (d. 2007) on Feb. 17 in Tikrit; half-brother of Saddam Hussein. Am. tennis player Richard LaClede Stockton on Feb. 18 in New York City. Am. "Butterflies Are Free" actor Edward Albert (Edward Laurence Heimberger) (d. 2006) on Feb. 20 in Los Angeles, Calif.; son of Eddie Albert (1906-2005) and Margo (1917-85). British Labour PM (2007-10) (Freemason) James Gordon Brown on Feb. 20 in Giffnock, Renfrewshire, Scotland; youngest person since WWII to attend the U. of Edinburgh. Am. tennis player Edward George "Eddie" Dibbs on Feb. 23 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. "The Book of Awakening" poet-philosopher Mark Nepo on Feb. 23 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. "Jill Taylor in Home Improvement" actress Patricia Castle Richardson on Feb. 23 in Bethesda, Md. English rock bassist Steven "Dobby" Dawson (Saxon) on Feb. 24 in Sheffield, Yorkshire; model for Derek Smalls in "Spinal Tap". Am. "Kitty Forman in That '70s Show" actress Debra Jo Rupp on Feb. 24 in Glendale, Calif. Canadian "The Color of Money", "Desert Hearts" actress-dir. Helen Shaver on Feb. 24 in St. Thomas, Ont. Am. Repub. Nat. Committee chmn. #54 (1989-91) Harvey LeRoy Atwater (d. 1991) on Feb. 27 in Atlanta, Ga.; grows up in Aiken, S.C.; educated at Newberry College, and U. of S.C. Italian Alpine skier Gustavo Thoeni (Thöni) on Feb. 28 in Trafoi, South Tyrol. Egyptian grand mufti (2003-) Ali Goma'a on Mar. 3 in Bani Suwayf. Am. "Real Moments" writer Barbara De Angelis on Mar. 4 in ?; educated at Sierra U., and Columbia Pacific U. Czech rock bassist Milan "Mejila" Hlavsa (d. 2001) (Plastic People of the Universe) on Mar. 6 in Prague. Am. "Betrayers of the Truth" journalist William J. Broad on Mar. 7 in ?; educated at the U. of Wisc. Am. musician-composer William Richard "Bill" Frisell on Mar. 8 in Baltimore, Md.; grows up in Denver, Colo. Am. liberal "Crossfire" TV host Michael Kinsley on Mar. 9 in Detroit, Mich.; educated at Harvard U. Philippine Miss Universe 1969 Gloria Maria Aspillera Diaz on Mar. 10 in Manila. Australian "The Secret", "The Power" New Age writer-producer Rhonda Byrne on Mar. 12. Am. Ben & Jerry's co-founder (Jewish) Jerry Greenfield on Mar. 14 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; partner of Ben Cohen (1952-); educated at Oberlin College. Canadian "Prince of Tides" actress Patricia Colleen "Kate" Nelligan on Mar. 16 in London, Ont. Am. #1 B-movie action flick actor Kurt Vogel Russell on Mar. 17 in Springfield, Mass.; husband of Goldie Hawn (1945-); father of Kate Hudson (1979-). Am. Ben & Jerry's co-founder (Jewish) (anosmic) Bennett "Ben" Cohen on Mar. 18 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; partner of Jerry Greenfield (1951-); educated at Colgate U., Skidmore U., the New School, and NYU. Scottish drummer Derek Longmuir (Bay City Rollers) on Mar. 19 in Edinburgh. Am. blues musician (alcoholic drug addict) James Lawrence "Jimmie" Vaughan (Fabulous Thunderbirds) on Mar. 20 in Dallas, Tex.; brother of Stevie Ray Vaughan (1954-90). U.S. U.N. ambassador #26 (2007-9) (Sunni Muslim) Zalmay Mamozy Khalilzad on Mar. 22 in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan; educated at the Am. U. of Beirut, and the U. of Chicago. Soviet cosmonaut Musa Khiramanovich Manarov on Mar. 22 in Baku, Azerbijan. Am. fashion designer (Roman Catholic) Thomas Jacob "Tommy" Hilfiger on Mar. 24 in Elmira, N.Y.; Dutch-German descent father, Irish descent mother; descendant of Robert Burns. Scottish rock bassist Douglas Campbell "Dougie" Thomson (Supertramp) on Mar. 24 in Glasgow. Am. architect Randall Carlson on Mar. 26 in ?; grows up near Minneapolis, Minn. Am. physicist Carl Edwin Wieman on Mar. 26 in Corvallis, Ore.; educated at Stanford U.; 2001 Nobel Physics Prize. English "Sex Lives" writer Nigel Cawthorne on Mar. 27. Canadian ballerina Karen Alexandria Kain on Mar. 28 in Hamilton, Ont.; partner of Frank Augustyn (1953-). Vietnamese-Am. photographer Huynh Cong "Nick" Ut on Mar. 29 in Long An. Swedish Nov. 1972 Playboy centerfold model Lena Forsen (Forsén) (nee Soderberg) on Mar. 31. Am. economist Mark Lionel Gertler on Mar. 31; educated at the U. of Wisc., and Stanford U. U.S. gen. ("the Mad Arab") (Christian) John Philip Abizaid on Apr. 1 in Coleville, Calif.; Lebanese-Am. father, Palestinian-Am. mother; highest-ranking U.S. gen. of direct Arab descent. English geneticist Dame Kay Elizabeth Davies (nee Partridge) on Apr. 1 in Sourbridge, West Midlands; educated at Somerville College and Wolfson College, Oxford U.; created dame in 2008. Am. "Shannon" singer-songwriter Henry Gross (Sha Na Na) on Apr. 1 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. 5'11" football linebacker (black) (Denver Broncos #57, 1973-86) Thomas Louie "Tom" "Tommy" "TJ" Jackson on Apr. 4 in Cleveland, Ohio; educated at the U. of Louisville; part of the Denver Broncos Orange Crush defense. Am. "Restless Heart-Wheels" country musician John Dittrich on Apr. 7 in Union, N.J. Am. rock drummer Bruce Gary (d. 2006) (Knack) on Apr. 7 in Burbank, Calif. Am. "Society's Child" singer-songwriter (Jewish) (lesbian) Janis Ian (Janis Eddy Fink) on Apr. 7 in New York City; wife (2003-) of Patricia Snyder; pub. first song "Hair of Spun Gold" and changes her last name to her brother's middle name at age 13. Am. rock bassist Mel Schacher (Grand Funk Railroad, Question Mark and the Mysterians) on Apr. 8. Am. hall-of-fame bowler (Jewish) ("Father of the the Cranking Style") Mark Roth on Apr. 10 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. "Casey Ryback in Under Siege" 6'3" actor-dir.-writer Steven Frederic Seagal on Apr. 10 in Lansing, Mich.; husband (1987-96) of Kelly LeBrock (1960-). Am. "Freedom Beach" sci-fi novelist James Patrick Kelly on Apr. 11 in Mineola, N.Y.; educated at the U. of Notre Dame. Am. singer (black) (gay) Alexander "Alex" Briley (military man in The Village People) on Apr. 12. Algerian scientist (Muslim) Elias A. Zerhouni on Apr. 12 in Nedroma; educated at the U. of Algiers. Israeli economist (Jewish) Ariel Rubenstein on Apr. 13 in Jerusalem; educated at the Hebrew U. of Jerusalem. Am. rock drummer (Jewish) Maxwell Sachel "Max" Weinberg (E Street Band, Conan O'Brien) on Apr. 13 in Newark, N.J. English biochemist Sir Gregory Paul Winter on Apr. 14 in Leicester, Leicestershire; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge U.; 2018 Nobel Chem. Prize; English cellist Julian Lloyd Webber on Apr. 14; son of William Lloyd Webber (1914-82); 2nd sonof William Lloyd Webber (1914-82); brother of Andrew Lloyd Webber (1948-); educated at Royal College of Music. Am. columnist Heloise on Apr. 15 in Waco, Tex. Am. astronaut John Lynch Phillips on Apr. 15 in Ft. Belvoir, Va.; educated at UCLA. Anglo-Argentine "Juliet in Romeo and Juliet" actress Olivia Hussey (Osuna) on Apr. 17 in Buenos Aires. U.S. Rep. (D-Wisc.) (2005-) (black) Gwendolynne Sophia "Gwen" Moore on Apr. 18 in Racine, Wisc.; educated at Marquette U. Am. "Power of Love" soul singer-songwriter (black) (gay?) Luther Ronzoni Vandross Jr. (d. 2005) (Change) on Apr. 20 in Manhattan, N.Y. Am. "Tony Micelli in Who's the Boss?" actor Tony Danza (Anthony Salvatore Iadanza) on Apr. 21 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Sicilian immigrant mother. Soviet cosmonaut Alexander (Aleksandr) Ivanovich Laveykin on Apr. 21 in Moscow. Am. "A Patriot's History of the United States" historian Larry Earl Schweikart on Apr. 21 in Mesa, Ariz.; educated at Arizona State U., and UCB. English "Silent Running", "All I Need Is A Miracle" singer-songwriter Paul Carrack (Ace, Squeeze, Mike + the Mechanics, Roxy Music) on Apr. 22 in Sheffield, South Yorkshire. Am. "Being Nixon: A Man Divided" journalist-historian Evan Welling Thomas III on Apr. 25 in Huntington, N.Y.; educated at Phillips Academy, Harvard U., and U. of Va. Am. rock musician Paul Daniel "Ace" Frehley (Kiss) on Apr. 27 in Bronx, N.Y. Am. auto racer ("Mr. Restrictor Plate") ("The Intimidator") ("The Man in Black") ("Ironhead") Ralph Dale Earnhardt Sr. (d. 2001) on Apr. 29 in Kannapolis, N.C.; father of Dale Earnhardt Jr. (1974-). Am. "Prelude to a Kiss" playwright-dir.-actor (gay) Craig Lucas on Apr. 30 in Atlanta, Ga.; educated at Boston U. Am. photographer Sally Mann on May 1 in Lexington, Va. English chef Henry Antony Cardew Worrall Thompson on May 1 in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. Am. "Sailing", "Arthur's Theme" singer Christopher Cross (Christopher Charles Geppert) on May 3 in San Antonio, Tex. Am. singer (black) Sigmund Esco "Jackie" Jackson (Jackson Five) on May 4 in Gary, Ind.; 2nd child. Am. rock musician Nick Mars (Robert Alan Deal) (Motley Crue) on May 4 in Terre Haute, Ind.; grows up in Calif. U.S. special envoy for climate change (2009-16) (Jewish) Todd D. Stern on May 4 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Dartmouth College, and Harvard U. Am. "What Would Jefferson Do?" liberal writer-radio host Thom Hartmann on May 7 in Grand Rapids, Mich.; educated at Mich. State U. Am. "Epstein in Welcome Back, Kotter" actor Robert Hegyes on May 7 in Perth Amboy, N.J.; Hungarian-Am. father, Italian-Am. mother; cousin of Jon Bon Jovi (1962-). Am. rock drummer-producer Charlton Christopher "Chris" Frantz (Talking Heads) on May 8 in Ft. Campbell, Ky. English rock musician Bernard John "Bernie" Marsden (Whitesnake) on May 7 in Buckingham, Buckinghamshire. Am. Creek Muscogee poet-playwright Joy Harjo on May 9 in Tulsa, Okla. Am. "Norma Arnold in The Wonder Years" actress Alley Mills on May 9 in Chicago, Ill. Am. R&B singer (black) Ron Banks (Dramatics) on May 10 in Detroit, Mich. English rock drummer Paul Thompson (Roxy Music) on May 13 in Newcastle upon Tyne. English "Buddy: The Buddy Holly Story" writer-producer Alan Janes on May 16 in West Ham. French fashion designer Christian Marie Marc Lacroix on May 16 in Arles. Am. rock singer-songwriter ("the Godfather of Punk") Jonathan Michael Richman (Modern Lovers) on May 16 in Natick, Mass. French historian-sociologist Emmanuel Todd on May 16 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines; son of Olivier Todd; father of David Todd; educated at Cambridge U. Dutch organic chemist (Roman Catholic) Bernard Lucas "Ben" Feringa on May 18 in Barger-Compascuum; educated at the U. of Groningen; 2016 Nobel Chem. Prize. Am. "James T. Hart in The Paper Chase" actor James Stephens on May 18 in Mount Kisco, N.Y. Am. "Stuart Smalley in SNL" comedian and U.S. Sen. (D-Minn.) (2009-) (Jewish) Alan Stuart "Al" Franken on May 21 in New York City; grows up in Minneapolis, Minn.; scores a perfect 800 on his math SAT?; educated at Harvard U. Am. Hillside Strangler serial murderer Kenneth Alessio Bianchi on May 22 in Rochester, N.Y. Soviet-Russian world chess champ #12 (1975-85) Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov on May 23 in Ziatoust. Am. "Bilitis" actress-model Patti D'Arbanville on May 25 in New York City. Am. "Ogie Ogilthorpe in Slap Shot", "Apocalypto" actor-producer and hockey player Ned Dowd on May 26 in Boston, Mass. Syrian cosmonaut (1st Syrian and 2nd Arab in space) Muhammad Ahmed Faris on May 26 in Aleppo. Am. astronaut-astrophysicist (first U.S. woman in space, 1983) (first lesbian austronaut) ("Ride, Sally Ride") Sally Kristen Ride (d. 2012) on May 26 in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at Swarthmore College, and Stanford U.; partner of Tam O'Shaughnessy (1952-). Am. "Ned Ryerson in Groundhog Day" actor Stephen Harold Tobolowsky on May 30 in Dallas, Tex. Am. artist (designer of the Rainbow Flag) (gay) Gilbert Baker on June 2 in Chanute, Kan. Am. 5'4" "Justice with Judge Jeaning" Repub. TV commentator Jeaning Ferris Pirro on June 2 in Elmira, N.Y.; Lebanese immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Buffalo, and Union U. Canadian 6'2" hockey hall-of-fame player-coach Larry Clark "Big Bird" Robinson on June 2 in Marvelville, Winchester, Ont. French astrophysicist-poet Jean-Pierre Luminet on June 3 in ?. English writer-columnist (Jewish) Melanie Phillips on June 4; educated at St. Anne's College, Oxford U.; coins the term "Lemmingland" for England. U.S. Dem. Second Lady #47 (2009-17) Jill Tracy Biden (nee Jacobs) on June 5 in Hammonton, N.J.; 2nd wife (1977-) of Joe Biden (1942-); educated at the U. of Del., West Chester U., and Villanova U. Am. "The Laws of Money, the Lessons of Life" financial advisor (Jewish) (lesbian) Susan Lynn "Suze" Orman on June 5 in South Side Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill. English "A Pack of Lies" children's novelist Geraldine McCaughrean (pr. like Macorkran) on June 6. Welsh "Total Eclipse of the Heart" singer Bonnie Tyler (Gaynor Hopkins) on June 8 in Skewen, Wales. English rock drummer Peter "Pete" Gill (Saxon, Glitter Band, Motorhead) on June 9 in Sheffield. Am. football QB (San Diego Chargers #14, 1973-87) Daniel Francis "Dan" Fouts on June 10 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. Olympic shot-putter Maren Seidler on June 11 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. rock drummer Bun E. Carlos (Brad Carlson) (Cheap Trick) on June 12 in Rockford, Ill. Am. rocker Bradley E. "Brad" Delp (d. 2007) (Boston) on June 12 in Danvers, Mass. Am. actor Jonathan Hogan on June 13 in Chicago, Ill. Swedish "MIT math prof. in Good Will Hunting", "Russian Capt. Tupolov in The Hunt for Red October" actor Stellan Skarsgard on June 13 in Goteborg (Gothenburg). Am. "John-Boy in the Waltons" actor Richard Earl Thomas on June 13 in New York City - New York SITEE? Am. "Solid Gold" dancer (black) Darcel Wynne on June 13 in Pittsburgh, Penn. Iranian-Am. scholar (Shiite Muslim) Hamid Dabashi on June 15 in Ahvaz, Iran; educated at the U. of Penn. and Harvard U. Am. "Falling" singer-songwriter Lenny LeBlanc (Le Blanc and Carr) on June 17 in Leominster, Mass. Am. "The Spiral Dance" feminist neopagan writer-activist Starhawk (Miriam Simos) on June 17 in St. Paul, Minn.; Russian Jewish immigrant grandparents; educated at UCLA. Am. "Wild Hearts Can't Be Broken" dir.-producer-actor Steve Milner on June 18 in Westport, Conn. Egyptian al-Qaida leader (physician) Ayman Muhammed Rabaie al-Zawahiri (Dhawahiri) (d. 2022) on June 19 in Giza. Panamanian "No Mas" boxer Roberto Duran on June 16 in Panama City. Am. "Miller Beer" comedian Joseph Charles John "Joe" Piscopo on June 17 in Passaic, N.J. Syrian political cartoonist Ali Farzat on June 22 in Hama. Am. psychic psychiatrist Judith Orloff on June 25 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at USC. Am. "An American Family" singer-writer (gay) Alanson Russell "Lance "Loud (d. 2001) (The Mumps) on June 26 in La Jolla, Calif. Am. "Stephanie Vanderkellen in Newhart" actress Julia Duffy on June 27 in Minneapolis, Minn. Irish pres. #8 (1997-2001) Mary Patricia McAleese (nee Leneghan) on June 27 in Belfast, Northern Ireland; educated at Queen's U. Belfast, and Trinity College, Dublin. Am. jazz musician-composer (black) Stanley Clarke on June 30 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. diplomat (U.S. ambassador to Israel in 1995-7 and 2000-1) (Jewish) Martin Sean Indyk on July 1 in London, England; brother of Ivor Indyk; grows up in Australia; becomes a U.S. citizen in 1993; educated at the U. of Sydney, and Australian Nat. U. Am. rock singer Fred Schneider III (B-52's) on July 1 in Newark, N.J. Am. singer-songwriter Victor Edward Willis (cop and naval officer in the Village People) on July 1 in Dallas, Tex.; only non-gay member of the Village People other than Glenn Hughes. Haitian pres. #41 (1971-86) (black) Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier (d. 2014) on July 3 in Port-au-Prince; son of Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier (1907-71). Am. baseball hall-of-fame pitcher Richard Michael "Goose" Gossage on July 5 in Colorado Springs, Colo. Am. college football player (black) (U. of Neb. #20) Johnny Steven "the Jet" Rodgers on July 5 in Omaha, Neb.; 1972 Heisman Trophy winner. Australian "David Helfgott in Shine", "Barbarossa in Pirates of the Caribbean", "Philip Henslowe in Shakespeare in Love" actor Geoffrey Roy Rush on July 6 in Toowoomba, Queensland; raised in Brisbane. Am. "Maerose Prizzi in Prizzi's Honor", "Etheline Tenenbaum in The Royal Tenenbaums" actress Anjelica Huston on July 8 in Santa Monica, Calif.; daughter of dir. John Huston (1906-87) and 4th wife Enrica Soma (1930-69); raised in Ireland and England. Am. "John Hickam in October Sky", "Col. Frank Fitts in American Beauty" actor Christopher W. "Chris" Cooper on July 9 in Kansas City, Mo. Am. "Phyllis Lapin-Vance in The Office" actress Phyllis Smith on July 10 in Lemay (near St. Louis), Mo. Am. "Kris Munroe in Charlie's Angels", "Josie and the Pussycats" actress Cheryl Ladd (Cheryl Jean Stoppelmoor) on July 12 in Huron, S.D. Am. "Dr. John Sutton in Chicago Hope" actor James Patrick "Jamey" Sheridan on July 12 in Pasadena, Calif. U.S. Rep. (R-Utah) (2013-) (Mormon) Robert William "Rob" Bishop on July 13 in Kaysville; educated at the U. of Utah. Am. "Frenchie in Grease" actress (Jewish) Edith "Didi" Conn (nee Bernstein) on July 13 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. journalist Esther Dyson on July 14 in Zurich, Switzerland; daughter of Freeman Dyson (1923-); educated at Harvard U. Am. Minn. gov. #38 (1999-2003) and wrestler-actor (Lutheran) Jesse "the Body" Ventura (James George Janos) on July 15 in Minneapolis, Minn.; Slovak descent father, German descent mother. Am. Visicalc programmer (Jewish) Daniel Singer "Dan" Bricklin on July 16 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at MIT and Harvard U. Am. "Molly Bell in The Jazz Singer" actress Lucie Arnaz on July 17 in Los Angeles, Calif.; daughter of Lucille Ball (1911-89) and Desi Arnaz (1917-86); wife (1980-) of Laurence Luckinbill (1941-). Am. "A Nation Under Our Feet" historian Steven Hahn on July 18 in New York City; educated at the U. of Rochester, and Yale U. Am. "Mags Bennett in Justified" actress Margo Martindale on July 18 in Jacksonville, Tex. Am. Dem. mayor #44 of Denver, Colo. (2011) Guillermo "Bill" Vidal on July 19 in Camaguey, Cuba; emigrates to the U.S. in 1961; educated at the U. of Colo. Am. "Mork in Mork and Mindy", "Popeye", "Adrian Cronauer in Good Morning Vietnam", "John Keating in Dead Poet's Society", "Peter Banning in Hook", "Mrs. Doubtfire" comedian-actor (alcoholic) Robin McLaurin Williams (d. 2014) on July 21 in Chicago, Ill.; Episcopalian father, Christian Scientist mother; raised Episcopalian; English, Welsh, Irish, Scottish, German, and French ancestry; father of Zelda Williams (1989-); educated at Claremont McKenna College, Juilliard School (student of John Houseman); grows up in Bloomfield Hills, Mich., where he played with 2K toy soldiers; classmate-friend of Christopher Reeve - the Turdus migratorius of comedians? Am. Repub. nat. security advisor (2017-) Kathleen Troia "K.T." McFarland on July 22 in Madison, Wisc.; educated at George Washington U., Oxford U., and MIT. Am. "Wonder Woman" actress (alcoholic) Lynda Jean Cordova (Córdova) Carter on July 24 in Phoenix, Ariz.; English-Scots-Irish descent father, Mexican-Spanish-French descent mother; educated at Ariz. State U.; her stunts are performed by Jeannie Epper (1941-), who claims that Lynda runs like a woman. Am. "My Own Private Idaho", "Good Will Hunting", "Even Cowgirls Get the Blues" film dir. (gay) Gus Van Sant Jr. on July 24 in Louisville, Ky. Am. rock bassist (black) Verdine White (Earth, Wind & Fire) on July 25 in Chicago, Ill. Canadian hockey player Richard Lionel "Rick" Martin on July 26 in Verdun, Quebec. Am. astronaut William Surles McArthur Jr. on July 26 in Laurinburg, N.C.; educated at Ga. Inst. of Tech. Am. ballerina Janet Eilber on July 27 in Detroit, Mich. Am. 6'6" basketball player-coach (white) (Philadelphia 76ers #20, 1973-81) (Chicago Bulls, 1986-9) (Detroit Pistons, 1995-8) (Washington Wizards, 2001-3) (Philadelphia 76ers, 2010-13) Paul Douglas "Doug" Collins on July 28 in Christopher, Ill.; educated at Ill. State U. Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava Valls on July 28 in Benimamet, Valencia; educated at the Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. (ETH). Australian aborigine tennis player Evonne Fay Goolagong Cawley on July 31 in Griffith, N.S.W. U.S. Rep. (R-Utah) (2021-) and 6'2" football safety (New York Jets, 1973-9) (Oakland Raiders, 1980-2) (black) Clarence Burgess Owens on Aug. 2 in Columbus, Ohio; educated at the U. of Miami. Canadian hockey player Marcel Dionne on Aug. 3 in Drummondville, Quebec. Am. "Dennis the Menace" actor Jay Waverly North on Aug. 3 in Hollywood, Calif. Am. "Penny Gordon's mother in Good Times" actress-dir. (black) Laverne "Chip" Fields (Hurd) (Fields-Hurd) on Aug. 5 in New York City; mother of Kim Fields (1969-) and Alexis Fields (1979-). Australian "Emotion" singer Samantha Sang (Cheryl Gray) on Aug. 5 in Melbourne, Victoria. Am. "Dr. Gillian Taylor in Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home", "Annie Camden in 7th Heaven", "Karen Barclay in Child's Play" actress (Roman Catholic) Catherine Mary Hicks on Aug. 6 in Manhattan, N.Y.; educated at Cornell U. Am. Olympic swimmer Gary Wayne Hall Sr. on Aug. 7 in Fayetteville, N.C.; educated at Indiana U.; father of Gary Hall Jr. (1974-). Egyptian pres. #5 (2012-13) (Sunni Muslim) Gen. Mohamed Morsi (Morsy) (d. 2019) on Aug. 8 in El Adwah, Sharqia Governate; educated at the U. of Cairo, and USC. Indian prince of Arcot (1993) (Muslim) Muhammad Abdul Ali Khan Bahadur on Aug. 9. Colombian pes. #32 (2010-) Juan Manuel Santos Calderon (Calderón) on Aug. 10 in Bogota; educated at the U. of Kan., London School of Economics, Harvard U., and Tufts U.; 2016 Nobel Peace Prize. Am. murderer (black) William R. "Willie" Horton on Aug. 12 in Chesterfield, S.C. Am. 6'1" football QB (Denver Broncos #14, 1974-9) Norris Lee Weese (d. 1995) on Aug. 12 in Baton Rouge, La.; educated at the U. of Miss. Am. "Leader of the Band", "Same Auld Lang Syne" singer-songwriter Daniel Grayling "Dan" Fogelberg (d. 2007) on Aug. 13 in Peoria, Ill. Am. "Marcus Dixon in Alias" rock singer-musician-actor (black) Carl Lumbly on Aug. 14 in Minneapolis, Minn. Nigerian pres. #13 (#2) (2007-10) (black) (Sunni Muslim) Umaru Musa Yar'Adua (d. 2010) on Aug. 16 in Katsina; born into an aristocratic Fulani family; educated at Ahmadu Bello U. Canadian "Fallen", "Jim in Desperately Seeking Susan" actor Robert Joy on Aug. 17 in Montreal, Quebec; educated at Oxford U. English boxer (lefty) Alan Minter on Aug. 17 in Crawley. English rock bassist John Richard Deacon (AKA Deacon John) (Queen) on Aug. 19 in Oadby, Leicestershire. French leftist politician Jean-Luc Antoine Pierre Melenchon (Mélenchon) on Aug. 19 in Tangier. Am. medium Char Margolis on Aug. 21 in Detroit, Mich. Am. TV journalist Harry Smith on Aug. 21 in Lansing, Ill. Am. rock musician Jimmy Wayne "Jimi" Jamison (d. 2014) (Cobra, Survivor) on Aug. 23 in Memphis, Tenn. Chechen pres. #1 (2003-4) (Sunni Muslim) Akhmad (Akhmat) Abdulkhamidovich Kadyrov (d. 2004) on Aug. 23 in Karaganda, Kazakhstan; father of Ramzan Kadyrov (1976-). Jordanian queen Noor (Lisa Najeeb Halaby) on Aug. 23 in Washington, D.C.; daughter of Najeeb Halaby (1915-2003); 4th wife (1978-99) of King Hussein (1935-99); of English, Swedish, Scottish and Syrian descent; mother of Hamzah (1980-), Hashim (1981-), Iman (1983-), and Raiyah (1986-). Am. actor-producer Mark Hudson on Aug. 23. Am. singer Jimmy Wayne "Jimi" Jamison (Survivor) on Aug. 23 in Miss.; grows up in Memphis, Tenn. Am. "Ender's Game" sci-fi/fantasy writer (Mormon) Orson Scott Card on Aug. 24 in Richland, Wash.; descendant of Brigham Young. Am. "The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love" novelist Oscar Hijuelos on Aug. 24 in Morningside Heights, Manhattan, N.Y.; educated at CCNY. English rock singer ("the Metal God") Robert John Arthur "Rob" Halford (Judas Priest) on Aug. 25 in Walsall, West Midlands. Am. theoretical physicist (Jewish) Edward Witten on aug. 26 in Baltimore, md.; educated at Brandeis U., U. of Wisc., and Princeton U. Am. "Osmonds" singer (Mormon) Melvin Wayne Osmond on Aug. 28 in Ogden, Utah. Am. "Johnny in Johnny Got His Gun", "Sonny Crawford in The Last Picture Show" actor-producer Timothy James Bottoms on Aug. 30 in Santa Barbara, Calif.; brother of Joseph Bottoms (1954-), Sam Bottoms (1955-2008), and Ben Bottoms (1960-). Am. GFP molecular biologist Douglas C. Prasher on Aug. ? in ?; educated at Ohio State U. Am. "American Prometheus" biographer Kai Bird (Chin. "Kai" = mustard") on Sept. 2 in Eugene, Ore.; U.S. Foreign Service officer father; grows up in Jerusalem, Beirut, Dharan, Cairo, Mumbai, and Tamil Nadu; educated at Carleton College, Northwestern U. Am. "Leroy Jethro Gibbs in NCIS", "Chicago Hope, "St. Elsewhere", "Simon Donovan in West Wing" actor Thomas Mark Harmon on Sept. 2 in Burbank, Calif.; son of Heisman Trophy winner Tom Harmon (1919-90) and actress Elyse Knox (1917-); educated at UCLA, where he is starting QB for the Bruins in 1972-3, with a 17-5 record. Am. rock bassist Tony Fox Sales on Sept. 2 in Cleveland, Ohio; brother of Hunt Sales (1954-). Sri Lankan pres. (2015-) Maithripala (Pallewatte Gamaralalage Maithripala Yapa) Sirisena) on Sept. 3 in Yaoga, Western Province. Am. "History Detectives" anthropologist C. Wesley "Wes" Cowan on Sept. 4 in Louisville, Ky. Am. "Bruce Wayne in Batman", "Beetlejuice", "Gung Ho", "Johnny Dangerously", "Mr. Mom" actor Michael Keaton (Michael John Douglas) on Sept. 5 in Corapolis, Penn.; educated at Kent State U. Brazilian "Feelings" singer-songwriter Morris Albert (Mauricio Alberto Kaisermann) on Sept. 7 in Sao Paulo. Am. actress Georganne LaPiere Bartylak on Sept. 7 in Los Angeles, Calif.; half-sister of Cher (1946-); wife Michael Madsen (1957-). Am. "Brass in Pocket" rock singer-songwriter Christine Ellen "Chrissie" Hynde (The Pretenders) on Sept. 7 in Akron, Ohio. Am. conservative politician and neurosurgeon (black) Benjamin Solomon "Ben" Carson Sr. on Sept. 18 in Detroit, Mich.; educated at Yale U., and U. of Mich. Am. tennis player-coach Tim Gullikson on Sept. 8 in La Crosse, Wisc.; twin brother of Tom Gullikson (1951-). Am. "Luke Duke in the Dukes of Hazzard" actor Thomas Steven "Tom" Wopat on Sept. 9 in Lodi, Wisc. Mexican novelist-journalist Eliseo "Lichi" Alberto de Diego Garcia Marruz (d. 2011) on Sept. 10 in Arroyo Naranjo, Cuba; emigrates to Mexico in 1990. Irish PM #10 (1997-) Patrick Bartholomew "Bertie" Ahern on Sept. 12 in Drumcondra, Dublin. Am. "Cypher in The Matrix" actor Joseph Peter "Joe" "Joey Pants" Pantoliano on Sept. 12 in Hoboken, N.J. Am. 5'9-1/2" "Samantha's mother Regina Newly in Samantha Who?", "Lana Gardner in Frasier", "First Lady in 24" actress Jean Elizabeth Smart on Sept. 13 in Seattle, Wash.; educated at the U. of Wash. English physicist Frederick Duane Michael Haldane on Sept. 14 in London; educated at St. Paul's School, and Christ's College, Cambridge U.; 2016 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. football coach (USC, 2001-9) (San Francisco 49ers, 1995-6) (New England Patriots, 1997-9) (Seattle Seahawks, 2010-) Peter Clay "Pete" Carroll on Sept. 15 in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at the College of Marin, U. of the Pacific. Am. white supremacist "American Renaissance" writer-ed. Samuel Jared Taylor on Sept. 15 in Kobe, Japan; Christian missionary parents; educated at Yale U., and Paris Inst. of Political Studies. Am. actress Elvira, Mistress of the Dark (Cassandra Peterson) on Sept. 17 in Manhattan, Kan.; grows up in Colo. Springs, Colo.; graduates from Palmer H.S. in 1969. Am. 6'8" basketball player (black) (Los Angeles Lakers #24, 1973-7) (Boston Celtics #26, 1973-7) (San Diego Clippers #42, 1978-9) (Portland Trail Blazers #42, 1979-82) (Golden State Warriors #3, 1987) Kermit Alan "The Punch" Washington on Sept. 17 in Washington, D.C.; educated at American U. Am. neurosurgeon (black) Benjamin Solomon "Ben" Carson Sr. on Sept. 18 in Detroit, Mich.; educated at Yale U., and U. of Mich. Am. football WR (black) (New England Patriots #84, 1971-7) Darryl Floyd Stinley (d. 2007) on Sept. 18 in West Side Chicago, Ill.; educated at Purdue U. Canadian "Wrecking Ball" singer-producer Daniel Lanois on Sept. 19 in Hull, Quebec. Am. "Isis in The Shazam!/Isis Hour, The Secrets of Isis" actress Joanna (JoAnna) Kara Cameron on Sept. 20 in Aspen, Colo. Canadian 6'0" hall-of-fame hockey player Guy Damien "The Flower" "Le Demon Blond" Lafleur on Sept. 20 in Thurso, Quebec. English rocker David Coverdale (Whitesnake, Deep Purple) on Sept. 22 in Saltburn-by-the-Sea, North Yorkshire. Am. "Luke Skywalker in Star Wars" actor-producer-writer (Roman Catholic) Mark Richard Hamill on Sept. 25 in Concord, Calif.; grows up in Oakland, Calif.; educated at Los Angeles City College. Am. 6'9" basketball player (black) (Buffalo Braves #11, 1972-6) (New York Knicks #11, 1976-9) (Los Angeles Lakers #11, 1981-5) Robert Allen "Bob" McAdoo on Sept. 25 in Greensboro, N.C.; educated at the U. of N.C. Am. football player (Oakland Raiders, 1974-80) David John "Dave" "the Ghost" Casper on Sept. 26 in Bemidji, Minn.; educated at the U. of Notre Dame. Am. Amityville Murderer Ronald Joseph "Butch" DeFeo Jr.K on Sept. 26 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. "Bat Out of Hell" rock singer-actor Meat Loaf (Marvin Lee Aday) on Sept. 27 in Dallas, Tex. Chilean pres. #33 (2006-10) and #35 (2014-18) Veronica Michelle Bachelet Jeria on Sept. 29 in La Cisterna, Santiago; educated at the U. of Chile, Leipzig U., and Humboldt U. of Berlin. Australian physician Barry James Marshall on Sept. 30 in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia; 2005 Nobel Medicine Price. English "Roxanne" rock musician-actor-philanthropist Sting (Gordon Matthew Thomas Sumner) (The Police) on Oct. 2 in Wallsend, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Am. astronaut (first U.S. woman to spacewalk, 1984) Kathryn Dwyer "Kathy" Sullivan on Oct. 3 in Paterson, N.J.; educated at UC Santa Cruz, and Dalhouse U. Am. 6'6" baseball player Dave Winfield on Oct. 3 in St. Paul, Minn. Am. 6'7" basketball player (black) (Washington Bullets #33, 1974-7) (New Orleans Jazz #21, 1977-9) (Phoenix Suns #21, 1979-82) (New York Knicks #21, 1982-5) Leonard Eugene "Truck" Robinson on Oct. 4 in Jacksonville, Fla.; educated at Tenn. State U. Am. "Eli Levinson in L.A. Law", actor (Jewish) Alan Rosenberg on Oct. 4 in Passaic, N.J.; German Jewish immigrant parents; 1st cousin of Donald Fagen (1948-). Am. "Jackson Pollock" biographer (gay) Gregory White Smith (d. 2014) on Oct. 4 in Ithaca, N.Y.; colloaborator of husband Steven Naifeh (1952-). Am. "Marian Ravenwood in Raiders of the Lost Ark" actress Karen Jane Allen on Oct. 5 in Carrollton, Ill. Irish "Rat Trap", "I Don't Like Mondays" singer-songwriter Robert Frederick Zenon "Bob" Geldof on Oct. 5 in Dun Laoghaire; Belgian descent father. Am. "Keep On Loving You", "Can't Fight This Feeling" rock singer Kevin Cronin (REO Speedwagon) on Oct. 6 in Evanston, Ill. Tanzanian pres. #4 (2005-15) Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete on Oct. 7 in Msoga; educated at the U. of Dar es Salaam. Am. "Jack and Diane", "Our Country" singer John Cougar Mellencamp on Oct. 7 in Seymour, Ind. Am. rock bassist Ricky Phillips (Babys, Bad English, Styx) on Oct. 7. Am. sportscaster Jon Miller on Oct. 11 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. "Bashar" channeler Darryl Anka on Oct. 12 in ?. Egyptian politician-physician (Sunni Muslim) Abdel Moneum Aboul Fotouh Abdel Hady on Oct. 15. Am. 6'0" tennis player Leonard Roscoe Tanner III on Oct. 15 in Chattanooga, Tenn. English actor Daniel Gerroll on Oct. 16 in London; illegitimate son of German construction tycoon Heinrich Mendelssohn (1881-1959). Am. "Mindy McConnell in Mork & Mindy" actress Pamela Gene "Pam" Dawber on Oct. 18 in Detroit, Mich. Am. "Waiting to Exhale" novelist (black) Terry McMillan on Oct. 18 in Port Huron, Mich. Australian Christian fundamentalist Kenneth Alfred "Ken" Ham on Oct. 20 in Cairns, Queenland; educated at Queensland Inst. of Tech., and U. of Queensland. Am. "Devil Barnett", "Obama On My Mind" novelist-playwright-producer (black) Theodore "Teddy" Hayes on Oct. 20 in Cleveland, Ohio. Am. historian John Ricardo I. "Juan" Cole on Oct. 23 in Albuquerque, N.M.; educated at Northwestern U., and UCLA. Am. "Sweet Charity" actor-dir.-composer Michael Rupert on Oct. 23 in Denver, Colo. Kosovan pres. #2 (2006-10) (Muslim) Fatmir Sejdiu on Oct. 23 in Pakastica. Am. funk musician (black) William "Bootsy" Collins on Oct. 26 in Cincinnati, Ohio (Pacesetters); brother of Catfish Collins (1944-). Am. "Basquiat", "The Diving Bell and the Butterfly", "Painted Plates" neo-expressionist painter-filmmaker Julian Schnabel on Oct. 26 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Jewish mother; grows up in Brownsville, Tex.; educated at the U. of Houston. English rock musician Kenneth "K.K." Downing Jr. (Judas Priest) on Oct. 27 in Yew Tree Estate, Hill Top, West Bromwich. English "The Abolition of Britain", "The Rage Against God" conservative journalist-writer Peter Jonathan Hitchens on Oct. 28 in Sliema, Malta; brother of Christopher Hitchens (1949-2011); educated at Alcuin College, York U.; moves from Trotskyism to conservativism and theism. Am. art gallery owner Mary Boone on Oct. 29 in Erie, Penn.; Egyptian immigrant parents; educated at Hunter College; discoverer of Julian Schnabel. Am. "Clash of the Titans" actor Harry Robinson Hamlin on Oct. 30 in Pasadena, Calif. Am. R&B musician (black) Ronald Nathan Bell (Khalis Bayyan) (Kool and the Gang) on Nov. 1 in Youngstown, Ohio; grows up in Jersey City, N.J.; brother of Robert "Kool" Bell (1950-). Am. "The Age of Surveillance Capitalism" social psychologist (Jewish?) Shoshana Zuboff on Nov. 18; educated at the U. of Chicago, and Harvard U. Am. Olympic runner Kathy Hammond on Nov. 2 in Sacramento, Calif. English "Lord Andrew Lindsay in Chariots of Fire" actor Nigel Allan Havers on Nov. 6 in Edmonton, London. Am. "The Incredible Hulk" 6'5" actor-bodybuilder (hearing-impaired) Louis Jude "Lou" Ferrigno on Nov. 9 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. "Double Dare" TV host (Jewish) Marc Summers (Berkowitz) on Nov. 11 in Indianapolis, Ind. Am. golfer Frank Urban "Fuzzy" Zoeller Jr. on Nov. 11 in New Albany, Ind. Am. rock dummer Frankie Banalie (Quiet Riot, Faster Pussycat, Steppenwolf, W.A.S.P., Billy Idol) on Nov. 14 in Queens, N.Y. Am. rock bassist Alec John Such (Bon Jovi) on Nov. 14 in Yonkers, N.Y. Am. "Ellen Griswold in National Lampoon's Vacation", "Patsy Cline in Coal Miner's Daughter" actress Beverly Heather D'Angelo on Nov. 15 in Columbus, Ohio. Am. "How I Learned to Drive" playwright Paula Vogel on Nov. 16 in Washington, D.C.; educated at Cornell U. and Bryn Mawr College. Am. singer-actor-tennis player Dean Paul "Dino" Martin Jr. (d. 1987) (Dino, Desi and Billy) on Nov. 17 in Santa Monica, Calif.; son of Dean Martin (1917-95) and 2nd wife Jeanne Biegger; husband (1971-8) of Olivia Hussey and (1982-4) Dorothy Hamill. Indian guru Premananda (Prem Kumar) Giri (d. 2011) on Nov. 17 in Matale, Sri Lanka. Am. "The Man Who Hires Carson Wells in No Country for Old Men" actor Stephen Aaron Root on Nov. 17 in Sarasota, Fla. Am. Dem. Okla. gov. # 24 (1991-5) David Lee Walters on Nov. 20 in Canute, Okla.; educated at the U. of Okla., and Harvard U. Israeli Maj. Gen. (Jewish) Amos Yadlin on Nov. 20 in Kibbutz Hatzerim; educated at Ben Gurion U., and Harvard U. English 3'11" "Randall in Time Bandits" actor (Jewish) David Stephen Rappaport (d. 1990) on Nov. 23 in London. Italian politician and porn star Ilona (Anna Elena) "Cicciolina" ("cuddles") Staller on Nov. 26 in Budapest, Hungary. Am. "K-19: The Widowmaker", "The Hurt Locker", "Point Break", "Strange Days", "Near Dark" dir. Kathryn Ann Bigelow on Nov. 27 in San Carlos, Calif.; wife (1989-91) of James Cameron (1954-); educated at Columbia U. Am. teacher-astronaut Barbara Radding Morgan on Nov. 28 in Fresno, Calif.; educated at Stanford U. Am. fretless bass guitar jazz player John Francis Anthony "Jaco" Pastorius III (d. 1987) (Weather Report) on Dec. 1 in Norristown, Penn. Am. auto racer Rick Ravon Mears on Dec. 3 in Wichita, Kan. Am. Southern rock musician Gary Robert Rossington (Lynyrd Skynyrd) on Dec. 4 in Jacksonville, Fla. Canadian hockey club owner (Ottawa Senators) Bruce Firestone on Dec. 4; educated at McGill U., U. of N.S.W., and Australian Nat. U. Am. "Nancy Krieger Westin in thirtysomething", "Barbara Robbins in City Slickers", "Holly Harper in Brothers & Sisters" actress Patricia Wettig on Dec. 4 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Am. "Katherine Wentworth in Dallas" actress Morgan Brittany (Suzanne Cupito) on Dec. 5 in Los Angeles, Calif.; Opie Taylor asks her out for his first date in a 1967 episode of "The Andy Griffith Show". Am. "A Short History of Nearly Everything" writer William McGuire "Bill" Bryson on Dec. 8 in Des Moines, Iowa; educated at Drake U. Am. astronaut Steven Alan Hawley on Dec. 12 in Ottawa,Kan.; educated at UC Santa Cruz, and U. of Kan. Am. theoretical physicist Steven E. "Steve" Koonin on Dec. 12 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Caltech, and MIT. Am. "Jolene Hunnicutt in Alice", "Adele Delfino in Desperate Housewives" actress Celia Weston on Dec. 14 in Spartanburg, S.C. Am. pitcher-commentator (lefty) (Baltimore Orioles, 1975-87, 1991-2) Michael Kendall "Mike" Flanagan (d. 2011) on Dec. 16 in Manchester, N.H.; "You know you're having a bad day when the 5th inning rolls around and they drag the warning track." Am. neurobiologist Joseph S. Takahashi on Dec. 16 in Tokyo, Japan; educated at Swarthmore College, UTA, and the U. of Ore. Am. R&B singer (black) Wanda Hutchinson (Emotions) on Dec. 17. Am. 6'9" basketball player (white) (epileptic) (asthmatic) (Denver Nuggets #24, 1974-8) (Philadelphia 76ers #24, 1978-86) Robert Clyde "Bobby" Jones on Dec. 18 in Charlotte, N.C.; educated at the U. of N.C. Am. economist (Jewish) Alvin Elliot Roth on Dec. 18 in New York City; educated at Columbia U., and Stanford U.; 2012 Nobel Econ. Prize. Australian astronaut Andrew Sydney Withiel "Andy" Thomas on Dec. 18 in Adelaide; educated at the U. of Adelaide. English-Canadian "Hot Child in the City" rock musician Nicholas George "Nick" Gilder (Sweeney Todd) on Dec. 21 in London; raised in Vancouver, B.C. Am. actor Michael Heinrich Horse on Dec. 21 in Tucson, Ariz.; of Yaqui descent. Canadian "Moonheart" fantasy writer Charles de Lint (AKA Samuel M. Key) on Dec. 22 in Bussum, Netherlands; emigrates to Canada at age 4 mo. Australian golfer Jan Lynne Stephenson on Dec. 22 in Sydney. English rock guitarist Paul Anthony Quinn (Saxon) on Dec. 26 in Barnsley, West Yorkshire. Am. singer-songwriter Karla Bonoff on Dec. 27 in Santa Monica, Calif. Mexican pres. (1994-2000) Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon (León) on Dec. 27 in Mexico City; educated at Yale U. Am. singer-actress Yvonne Marianne Elliman on Dec. 29 in Honolulu, Hawaii; Irish father, Japanese-Chinese mother. Am. R&B musician (black) Christopher H. "Chris" Jasper (Isley Brothers) on Dec. 30 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Am. "It's Our Thing", "Fight the Power" R&B singer (black) Christopher "Chris" Jasper (Isley Brothers) on Dec. 31 in Cincinnati, Ohio; educated at Juilliard School, and Long Island U. Nicaraguan "Chiquita Bananas", "Never Say Never Again" actress Barbara Carrera on Dec. 31 in Bluefields; Am. father, Nicaraguan mother. Am. rock bassist Thomas William "Tom" Hamilton (Aerosmith) on Dec. 31 in Colorado Springs, Colo. Indian economist S. Rao Aiyagari (d. 1997) on ? in ?; educated at the U. of Minn.; student of Neil Wallace (1939-). Am. Hawaiian "Honolulu City Lights" musician Keolamaikalani Breckenridge "Keola" Beamer on ? in ?. Am. "American Prometheus" writer Kai Bird on ? in Eugene, Ore.; educated at Carleton College. Am. Meaning-Centered Therapy psychiatrist (Jewish) William A. Breitbart on ? in Lower East Side, Manhattan, N.Y.; Polish Jewish immigrant parents; educated at Stuyvesant H.S., and Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Israeli-Am. rabbi (Jewish) (pres., Internat. Fellowship of Christians and Jews) Yechiel Eckstein on ? in the U.S.; beccomes Israeli citizen in 2002. Am. "Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus" writer John Gray on ? in Houston, Tex.; gets a Ph.D. from diploma mill Columbia Pacific U. in 1982. Am. "The Wiccan Mysteries" neopagan writer Raven Grimassi on ? in ?. Am. Oneida Nation leader Arthur Raymond "Ray" Halbritter on ?; educated at Harvard U., and Syracuse U. Am. "Steel Magnolias", "The First Wives Club", "The Evening Star" playwright-dir.-actor Robert Harling on ? in La. French architect-Eygyptologist Jean-Pierre Houdin on ? in Paris; grows up in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Iranian politician-cleric-engineer (Shiite Muslim) Mohammad Javad Ardashir Larijani on ? in Najaf; educated at UCLA. South Sudan pres. #1 (2011-) (black) Salva Kiir Mayardit on ? in Bahr el Ghazal. Am. "Beetlejuice", "Mrs. Doubtfire", "Ed Wood" makeup artist Ve Neill (Mary Flores) on ? in Riverside, Calif. Am. "The Coming Storm", "White Plague", "The Eskimo and The Oil Man", "Black Monday" writer-journalist-novelist Bob Reiss (AKA Ethan Black) on ? in New York City. Am. Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez on ? in Rio Grande City, Tex; head of U.S. forces in Iraq (2003-); highest-ranking Hispanic in the U.S. Army. Palestinian Islamic Jihad Movement founder Fathi Shaqaqi (Shakaki) (d. 1995) in Rafah, Gaza Strip; educated at Beir Zeit U. Am. "Runaways" writer-composer-dir. Elizabeth Swados on ? in Buffalo, N.Y. Libyan economist Ali Abdussalam Tarhouni on ? in ?. English "Innocent Traitor" novelist-historian Alison Weir (Matthews) on ? in Lambeth.; not to be confused with Am. journalist Alison Weir. Deaths: Am. "Coxey's Army" leader Jacob Sechler Coxey Sr. (b. 1854) on May 18 in Massillon, Ohio. Branded, branded with the mark of shame, branded with the label of traitor attached to his family name? French Convicted life sentence traitor marshal Henri-Philippe Petain (b. 1856) on July 23 on Isle d'Yeu off the French coast; dies in prison; a right-wing political group steals his coffin in Feb. 1973, insisting that it be reburied among the honored war dead in the Douaumont military cemetery, but the police recapture it in a van parked in a courtyard garage near Paris and rebury it in its original place of shame. Canadian steamship line heir Sir Montagu Allan (b. 1860) on Sept. 26 in Montreal. Lithuanian-born Am. writer Abraham Cahan (b. 1860) on Aug. 31 in New York City. Am. breakfast cereal king and philanthropist Will Keith Kellogg (b. 1860) on Oct. 6: "I will invest my money in people." Am. advice columnist Dorothy Dix (b. 1861) on Dec. 16 in New Orleans, La. Am. artist Frank Weston Benson (b. 1862) on Nov. 15. Norwegian meteorologist Vilhelm Bjerknes (b. 1862) on Apr. 9. Am. newspaper mogul and "Lord of San Simeon" William Randolph Hearst (b. 1863) on Aug. 14 in Beverly Hills, Calif. Irish "The Blue Lagoon" novelist Henry De Vere Stacpoole (b. 1863) on Apr. 12 in the Isle of Wight. British field marshal William Birdwood (b. 1865) on May 17 in Hampton Court Palace, London. German gunsmith Wilhelm Brenneke (b. 1865) on Nov. 4 in Leipzig. Am. writer-diplomat Stephen Bonsal (b. 1865) on June 8. U.S. vice-pres. #30 (1925-9) Charles G. Dawes (b. 1865) on Apr. 23. Am. NAACP co-founder Mary White Ovington (b. 1865) on July 15. Am. "Goop", "Purple Cow" humorist author-illustrator Gelett Burgess (b. 1866) on Sept. 17. Am. sociologist Edward Alsworth Ross (b. 1866). Am. stage actor David Warfield (b. 1866) on July 27 in New York City. U.S. diplomat James Watson Gerard (b. 1867) on Sept. 6 in New York City. Finnish pres. (1944-6) Baron Karl Gustav Emil von Mannerheim (b. 1867) on Sept. 28. Am. educator Annie Nathan Meyer (b. 1867) on Sept. 23. Am. Baptist minister Benjamin Marcus Bogard (b. 1868) on May 29 in Little Rock, Ark. English dir. William Barker (b. 1868) on Nov. 6 in Wimbledon, Surrey. German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld (b. 1868) on Apr. 26 in Munich. Portuguese dictator pres. (1926-51) Antonio Carmona (b. 1869) on Apr. 18. French mathematician Elie Cartan (b. 1869) on May 6. French #1 literary man Andre Gide (b. 1869) on Feb. 19; 1947 Nobel Lit. Prize: "There are very few monsters who warrant the fear we have of them." Am. alleged hamburger inventor Hamburger Charlie Nagreen (b. 1870). Am. Mormon pres. #8 (1945-51) George Albert Smith (b. 1870) on Apr. 4 in Salt Lake City, Utah. English impresario Charles Blake Cochran (b. 1872) on Jan. 31 in London (dies in a scalding bath in his home). Am. Ashcan School painter-etcher John French Sloan (b. 1871) on Sept. 7 in Hanover, N.H. Dutch conductor Joseph Willem Mengelberg (b. 1871) on Mar. 21 in Zuort, Sent, Switzerland. Scottish statistician George Udny Yule (b. 1871) on June 26 in Cambridge, England. Am. FBI dir #1 (1908-12) Stanley Wellington Finch (b. 1872). Canadian feminist writer Nellie McClung (b. 1873) on Sept. 1. Am. New York City mayor #98 (1933) John Patrick O'Brien (b. 1873) on Sept. 21 in New York City. German industrialist Fritz Thyssen (b. 1873) on Feb. 8 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Russian-born Am. orchestral conductor Serge Koussevitzky (b. 1874). German-born Am. illustrator Joseph Christian Leyendecker (b. 1874) on July 25. Austrian triskaidekaphobic 12-tone composer Arnold Schoenberg (b. 1874) on Friday, July 13, at 13 min. before midnight in his 76th (7+6=13) year; last words: "Harmony". Am. judge William A. Vinson (b. 1874) on Oct. 26. Spanish gen. Gonzalo Queipo de Llano (b. 1875) on Mar. 9 in Seville. German surgeon Ferdinand Sauerbruch (d. 1875) on July 2 in Berlin. Am. composer John Alden Carpenter (b. 1876) on Apr. 26 in Chicago, Ill. Scottish diplomat Sir Eric Drummond (b. 1876) on Dec. 15. Canadian-born Am. fundamentalist preacher Harry A. Ironside (b. 1876) on Jan. 15 in Cambridge, New Zealand; leaves 100+ books and pamphlets. Soviet foreign minister (1930-9) Maxim Litvinov (b. 1876) on Dec. 31 in Moscow. French businessman Sir Antonin Besse (b. 1877) on July 2 in Gordonstoun, England. Am. "The Robe" novelist Lloyd Cassel Douglas (b. 1877) on Feb. 13 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. State Farm founder George Jacob Mecherle (b. 1877) on Mar. 10 in Bloomington, Ill. Am. actress Florence Kahn (b. 1878) on Jan. 13 in Rapallo, Italy. Am. author-educator John Erskine (b. 1879): "Music is the only language in which you cannot say a mean or sarcastic thing." German novelist Bernhard Kellermann (b. 1879) on Oct. 17 in Potsdam. Am. polar explorer Lincoln Ellsworth (b. 1880) on May 26. English songwriter George Henry Powell (b. 1880) on Dec. 3 in Hove, East Sussex. British Socialist politician Ernest Bevin (b. 1881) on Apr. 14 in London. Canadian-born Am. film pioneer Al Christie (b. 1881) on Apr. 14 in Hollywood, Calif. English feminist socialist activist Ethel Snowden, viscountess Snowden (b. 1881) on Feb. 22 in Wimbledon. Jordanian king Abdullah Ibn Hussein (b. 1882) on July 20 (assassinated). Austrian-born Am. pianist Arthur Schnabel (b. 1882) on Aug. 15 in Axenstein, Switzerland: "The notes I handle no better than many pianists. But the pauses between the notes - ah, that is where the art resides." German-Prussian lost crown prince William (b. 1882) on July 20 in Hechingen. Australian field marshal Sir Thomas Albert Blamey (b. 1884) on May 27 in Heidelberg, Victoria. Russian Communist Mikhail Borodin (b. 1884) on May 29 in Lefortovo Prison. German-born Am. biochemist Otto Meyerhof (b. 1884) on Oct. 6 in Philadelphia, Penn.; 1922 Nobel Medicine Prize. Am. black novelist-filmmaker Oscar Micheaux (b. 1884) on Mar. 25 in Charlotte, N.C. Am. novelist Sinclair Lewis (b. 1885) on Jan. 10 in Rome, Italy (alcoholism); 1930 Nobel Lit. Prize: "Intellectually, I know that America is no better than any other country; emotionally I know she is better than every other country"; "When Fascism comes to America it will be wrapped in the flag and carrying a cross." Irish-born New Thought leader Emmet Fox (b. 1886) on Aug. 13. French Sufi writer Rene Guenon (b. 1886) on Jan. 7; last words: "Allah". Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin (b. 1886) on May 3. Am. baseball player Eddie Collins (b. 1887) on Mar. 25 in Boston, Mass. Am. "The Mutiny on the Bounty" novelist James Norman Hall (b. 1887) on July 5 in Tahiti. French actor-producer Louis Jouvet (b. 1887) on Aug. 16 (heart attack). Hungarian-born Am. "Lover, Come Back to Me" composer Sigmund Romberg (b. 1887) on Nov. 9 in New York City. Scottish playwright James Bridie (b. 1888) on Jan. 29 in Edinburgh. Am. actor Jack Holt (b. 1888) on Jan. 18 in Sawtelle, Los Angeles, Calif. Am. FDR's press secy. Stephen T. Early (b. 1889) on Aug. 11. Am. "The Cisco Kid" actor Warner Baxter (b. 1889) on May 7 in Beverly Hills, Calif. Am. baseball player "Shoeless Joe" Jackson (b. 1889) on Dec. 5 in Greenville, S.C. (heart attack); first of the eight banned White Sox players to die - say it isn't sole, Joe? Am. Little Blue Books publisher E. Haldeman-Julius (b. 1889) on July 31 in Girard, Kan. (drowned in his swimming pool); his son Henry takes over the firm until it burns down on July 4, 1978. Am. auto racer Cyrus Patschke (b. 1889) on May 6 in Lebanon, Penn. Austrian-born British philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein (b. 1889) on Apr. 29 in Cambridge, England: "The human body is the best picture of the human soul"; "The limits of my language mean the limits of my world." German conductor Fritz Busch (b. 1890). Spanish poet Pedro Salinas (b. 1891) on Dec. 4 in Boston, Mass. Am. comedienne Fanny Brice (b. 1892) on May 29. Am. "New Yorker" founding editor Harold W. Ross (b. 1892) on Dec. 6. German SS Col. Paul Blobel (b. 1894) on June 7 in Landsberg Prison (hanged). Pakistani Muslim nationalist Choudhry Rahmat Ali(b. 1895) on Feb. 3 in Cambridge, England (influenza). Hungarian "The English Patient" aviator-explorer Laszlo Almasy (b. 1895) on Mar. 22 in Salzburg (amoebic dysentery). Pakistani PM #1 (1947-51) Liaquat Ali Khan (b. 1896) on Oct. 16 in Rawalpindi (assassinated). Am. novelist Louis Adamic (b. 1899) on Sept. 4 in N.J. (suicide). Hungarian-born Am. actor J. Edward Bromberg (b. 1903) on Dec. 6 in London (heart attack); dies after being put on the Hollywood Blacklist and getting a part in the London play "The Biggest Thief in Town" - I'm proud to be part of what? Russian-born Am. novelist-producer Val Lewton (b. 1904) on Mar. 14 in Los Angeles, Calif. English composer-conductor Constant Lambert (b. 1905) on Aug. 21. Am. country singer Judy Martin (b. 1917) on Nov. 17 in Nashville, Tenn. (suicide by sleeping pill OD). Am. "Bruno Anthony in Strangers on a Train" actor Robert Hudson Walker (b. 1918) on Aug. 28 in Los Angeles, Calif. (allergic reaction to sodium amytal administered by his pshrink). U.S. 1st Lt. Karl Heinrich Timmermann (b. 1922) on Oct. 1 in Ft. Logan, Colo.

1952 - The QE2 Year, as Britain gets its longest-reigning monarch and its first nukes, while the U.S. makes a smooth move with its B-52 Stratofortress? Thank God, Bolivia is Commie at last?

B-52 Stratofortress, 1952 Operation Hurricane, Oct. 3, 1952 Elizabeth II of Britain (1926-2022) Elizabeth II of Britain (1926-) Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt (1918-70) Fulgencio Batista of Cuba (1901-73) Eva Peron of Argentina (1919-52) Madonna (1958-) Juan Domingo Peron of Argentina (1895-1974) Vincent Massey of Canada (1887-1967) Sherman Adams of the U.S. (1899-1986) Ellis Ormsby Briggs of the U.S. (1899-1976) Edward Teller of the U.S. (1908-2003) Adlai Ewing Stevenson of the U.S. (1900-65) Stuart Hamblen (1908-89) John Jackson Sparkman of the U.S. (1899-1985) Matyas Rákosi of Hungary (1892-1971) Yitzhak Ben-Zvi of Israel (1884-1963) Edgar Faure of France (1908-88) Antoine Pinay of France (1891-1994) Ana Pauker of Romania (1893-1960) Sir Evelyn Baring of Britain (1903-73) Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Jotto Kenyatta of Kenya (1889-1978) Louis Leakey (1903-72) Camille Nimr Chamoun of Lebanon (1900-87) Dudley Shelton Senanayake of Sri Lanka (1911-73) Jigme Dorji Wangchuk of Bhutan (1928-73) Emil Zatopek of Czechoslovakia (1922-2000) Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej of Romania (1901-65) Josy Barthel of Luxembourg (1927-92) Muhammad Asad of Pakistan (1900-92) William Andrew Cecil Bennett of Canada (1900-79) U.S. Gen. Ralph J. Canine (1895-1969) U.S. Adm. Lynde Dupuy McCormick (1895-1956) Martha Cowles Chase (1927-2003) and Alfred Day Hershey (1908-97) Robert Briggs (1911-83) and Thomas J. King (1921-2000) Charles A. Hufnagel (1916-89) Nathan S. Kline (1916-82) Thomas John Watson Jr. (1914-93) IBM 701, 1952 John T. Mullin (1913-99) Jim Corbett (1875-1955) Joseph L. Mankiewicz (1909-93) Elia Kazan (1909-2003) Burl Ives (1909-95) Hans Werner Henze (1926-) Christine Jorgenson (1918-89) before Christine Jorgenson (1918-89) after Alain Bombard (1924-2005) Hannes Lindemann (1922-) John Davison Rockefeller III (1906-78) Elijah Muhammad (1896-1975) Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971) Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) Francois Mauriac (1885-1970) Edward Mills Purcell (1912-) Felix Bloch (1905-83) Sir Jack Cecil Drummond (1891-1952) J. Holcombe Laning Jr. (1920-2012) Harry Max Markowitz (1927-) William F. Sharpe (1934-) Archer John Porter Martin (1910-) Richard Laurence Millington Synge (1914-94) Selman Abraham Waksman (1888-1973) Richard Travis Whitcomb (1921-2009) Mortimer Jerome Adler (1902-2001) Virginia Apgar (1909-74) Generoso Pope Jr. (1927-88) Fritz Fanon (1925-61) George Dangerfield (1904-86) Donald Arthur Glaser (1926-) Ruby McCollum (1925-92) Sir Harold Nicolson (1886-1968) Howard P. Robertson (1903-61) Willie Sutton (1901-80) Yuri Knorosov (1922-99) Tropicana, Cuba Alan Freed (1921-65) Joe Stassi (1906-2002) E.B. White (1899-1985) Tom Wolfe (1930-2018) Billy Martin (1928-89) Mickey Mantle (1931-95) Duke Snider (1926-2011) Rocky Marciano (1923-69) Eddie Arcaro (1916-97) Bill Spivey (1929-95) Frank Ramsey (1931-) Cliff Hagan (1931-) Lou Tsioropoulos (1930-) Walter Byers (1922-) Bill Mlkvy (1931-) Mark Workman (1930-83) Clyde Lovellette (1929-) Don Meineke (1930-2013) Hjalmar Andersen of Norway (1923-2013) Dick Button of the U.S. (1929-) Dick 'Night Train' Lane (1928-2002) Troy Ruttman (1930-97) Bill Bigelow (1913-2005) Walt Lillehei (1918-99) Floyd John Lewis (1916-93) Alexander Vishnevsky (1906-75) Mortimer Adler (1902-2001) Louis Auchincloss (1917-) Clarence Edwin Ayres (1891-1972) Alan Bullock (1914-2004) Agatha Christie (1890-1976) Robert Maynard Hutchins (1899-1977) Bernard Malamud (1914-86) Ralph Ellison (1914-94) Hubert de Givenchy (1927-) Irving Lester Janis (1918-90) Raymond Fisher Jones (1915-94) Cyril Michael Kornbluth (1923-58) Mary McCarthy (1912-89) Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) Norman Vincent Peale (1898-1993) Paul Mark Scott (1920-78) Charles Callann Tansill (1890-1964) Eric Voegelin (1905-85) Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (1922-2007) William H. Whyte Jr. (1917-99) Angus Wilson (1913-91) J.B. Priestley (1894-1984) and Jacquetta Hawkes (1910-96) Annalee Skarin (1899-1988) Michael Wilding (1912-79) and Elizabeth Taylor (1932-2011) James Dean (1931-55) Bill Bast (1931-2015) Kitty Wells (1919-2012) Julie Harris (1925-) Colleen Kay Hutchins (1926-2010) Frederick Knott (1916-2002) Gail Kubik (1914-84) Totň (1898-1967) Slim Whitman (1924-) Bob Horn's Bandstand, 1952 Samuel Behrman (1893-1973) Samuel Beckett (1906-89) Italo Calvino (1923-85) Catherine Cookson (1906-98) Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) Gregorio Fuentes (1897-2002) Martin Gardner (1914-2010) David John Mays (1896-1971) Eustace Mullins (1923-2010) Flannery O'Connor (1925-64) John Steinbeck (1902-68) Wislawa Szymborska (1923-2012) Studs Terkel (1912-2008) William Appleman Williams (1921-90) Harry Everett Smith (1923-91) Jack Smith (1932-89) 'Singin in the Rain', 1952 Gene Kelly (1912-96) Donald O'Connor (1925-2003) Debbie Reynolds (1932-2016) Adolph Green (1914-2002) and Betty Comden (1917-2006) Thomas Bertram Costain (1885-1965) Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955) Rex Humbard (1919-2007) Cathedral of Tomorrow, 1958 Jackie Loughery (1930-) Johnny Ace (1929-54) Jimmy Boyd (1939-2009) Alma Cogan (1932-66) Percy Faith (1908-76) Georgia Gibbs (1919-2006) Amalia Hernández Navarro (1917-2000) Joni James (1930-) The Four Lads Al Martino (1927-) Ella Mae Morse (1924-99) Pat Weaver (1908-2002) Pat Weaver (1908-2002) and Sigourney Weaver (1949-) Dave Garroway (1913-82) Rosco Gordon (1928-2002) Marty Robbins (1925-82) Kay Starr (1922-) Gale Storm (1922-) Lloyd Price (1933-) Jean Ritchie (1922-2015) and George Pickow (1922-2010) Big Mama Thornton (1926-84) Jerry Leiber (1933-2011) and Mike Stoller (1933-) Oliver Messiaen (1908-92) Roy S. Harte (1924-2003) Harry Babasin Jr. (1921-88) Confidential Mag., 1952-78 The Abbott and Costello Show', 1952-5 Adventures of Superman, 1952-8 Art Linkletter (1912-2010) 'Death Valley Days', 1952-70 'The Guiding Light', 1952-2009 Irna Phillips (1901-73) Martin Ransohoff (1927-2017) 'Mister Peepers', 1952-5 'My Little Margie', 1952-5 I've Got a Secret', 1952-67 Ozzie Nelson (1906-75) and Harriet Nelson (1909-) and Family Ricky Nelson (1940-85) Christopher Reeve (1952-2004) Bob Hope (1903-2003) Roy Rogers (1911-98) and Dale Evans (1912-2001) Television City, 1952- 'Ramar of the Jungle', 1952-4 'The Mousetrap', 1952 'The Seven Year Itch', 1952 Meena Kumari (1932-72) 'The Bad and the Beautiful', 1952 'Castle in the Air', 1952 'Clash by Night', starring Marilyn Monroe (1926-62) and Keith Andes (1920-2005) Commando Cody in 'Radar Men from the Moon', 1952 'High Noon', 1952 Dimitri Tiomkin (1894-1979) Ned Washington (1901-76) 'Cry, the Beloved Country', 1952 'The Greatest Show on Earth', 1952 'Limelight', 1952 'The Man Who Watched Trains Go By', 1952 'Monkey Business', 1952 'Othello', 1952 'The Planter's Wife', 1952 'The Quiet Man', 1952 Commando Cody in 'Radar Men from the Moon', 1952 'The Sound Barrier', 1952 'Toto in Color', 1952 Saynatsalo Town Hall, 1952 John Randall Bratby (1928-92) Anthony David Bernard Sylvester (1924-2001) Derrick Greaves (1927-) 'Lady in Bed' by Lucian Freud (1922-), 1952 'Mountains and Sea' by Helen Frankenthaler (1928-), 1952 'Blue Poles' by Jackson Pollock (1912-56), 1952 'Convergence' by Jackson Pollock (1912-56), 1952 Kent Cigarettes, 1952 Swanson's TV Dinner, 1952 AMF Automatic Pinspotter, 1952 BMC Logo Lotus Cars Logo X-3 Stiletto Colonel Harland Sanders (1890-1980) Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), 1952 Ore-Ida Tater Tots, 1952 'Galatea of the Spheres' by Salvador Dali (1904-89), 1952 Richard Buckminster 'Bucky' Fuller (1885-1983) Alvar Aalto (1896-1976) L'Unité d'Habitation, 1952 Gordon Bunshaft (1909-90) Natalie de Blois (1921-2013) Lever House, 1952

1952 Doomsday Clock: 3 min. to midnight. Chinese Year: Dragon (Jan. 27) - the luckiest if you're Chinese? Time Woman of the Year: Queen Elizabeth II (1926-2022). Starting this year the Japanese economy begins growing at an avg. annual rate of 49.6% (until 1971). On Jan. 1 Illinois defeats Stanford by 40-7 to win the 1952 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 6 Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., chmn. of the Draft Eisenhower committee announces that Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower will allow his name to remain on the ballot in the first primary state, N.H. after Ike backer Gov. Sherman Adams files the petitions. On Jan. 9 Pres. Truman and visiting PM Winston Churchill issue a joint communique from Washington, D.C., promising unity in policies concerning Europe, the Middle East, and the Far East. On Jan. 11 the 1952 Jordanian Constitution proclaims a hereditary monarchy with a parliament, and permits labor unions to be formed, reaching 36 by 1969, reduced to 24 in 1971 and 17 in 1976 by the govt. On Jan. 14 the morning news and entertainment program The Today Show (AKA Today) debuts on NBC-TV (until ?), created by Sylvester Laflin "Pat" Weaver Jr. (1908-2002) (father of Sigourney Weaver), and hosted by David Cunningham "Dave" Garroway (1913-82) (until 1961), becoming #1 until ABC-TV's Good Morning America passes it up in the 1980s, regaining the #1 spot on Dec. 11, 1995 (until ?); too bad, Garroway suffers from depression plus an addiction to "The Doctor" (Vitamin B-12 and Dexedrine), and after his wife Pamela commits suicide in Apr. 1961 he lies down in the studio, refusing to get up until NBC meets his contract demands, causing them to fire him on June 16, after which he eventually commits suicide; Weaver becomes pres. of NBC in 1953-5, vainly striving to keep up its intellectual level by requiring all NBC shows to incl. at least one sophisticated cultural reference or performance per episode, pioneering the magazine style of advertising to keep one advertiser from controlling a show. On Jan. 20 Radical French historian Edgar Faure (1908-88) (whose arm became paralyzed in WWI) becomes PM #139 of France; on Mar. 8 conservative Antoine Pinay (1891-1994) becomes PM #140 of France (until Jan. 8, 1953), going on to stabilize the currency. On Jan. 24 Toronto-born Vincent Massey (1887-1967) is appointed gov.-gen. of Canada (until 1959), succeeding Viscount Alexander of Tunis, becoming the first native-born Canadian to hold the post. On Jan. 26 Egypt is placed under martial law after mobs destroy U.S. and British property in Cairo. On Jan. 30 U.S. Navy Adm. Lynde Dupuy McCormick (1895-1956) is named Supreme Allied Commander of Armed Forces in the Atlantic (SACLANT) (until 1954), opening a new HQ in Norfolk, Va. on Apr. 10, becoming equal in rank to the SACEUR, with the largest naval command given a single person since Christopher Columbus was appointed grand adm. of the Ocean Seas; on Sept. 20 NATO holds Operation Mainbrace, its first major naval exercises, commanded jointly by SACEUR and SACLANT, with 160 Allied ships testing their ability to support a Euro land battle should the Soviet Union invade West Germany, Denmark, and Norway; after it leaves something to be desired, Operation Mariner is held on Sept. 16-Oct. 4, 1953, involving 300 ships, 1K planes, and 500K men from 9 navies, showing the Soviets that NATO shouldn't be messed with. In Jan. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower finally reveals that he is a Republican; his hands-off-govt.-service Jehovah's Witnesses background is carefully covered-up? In Jan. N.H. Repub. Gov. (1949-53) Llewelyn Sherman Adams (1899-1986) gives his Augean Stables Speech, calling the Truman admin. a you know what of influence peddling and luxury, promising that Eisenhower will clean it up, saying "Here is the man to do it. The kind of people with whom he has surrounded himself is answer enough for that"; Ike later makes him his pres. asst. and White House chief of staff (1953-8). On Feb. 1 U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 505 is adopted 25-9-24 by the Sixth Session of the U.N. Gen. Assembly after the Repub. of China (Taiwan) complains, condemning the Soviet Union's violations of the Aug. 14, 1945 Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance and the U.N. Charter by assisting the Chinese Communist Party during the Chinese Civil War of Mar. 31, 1946 - May 1, 1950. On Feb. 5 the U.N. Gen. Assembly adjourns in Paris after voting to postpone action on the Korean conflict. A worthy successor to Elizabeth I takes over the U.K.? On Feb. 6 king (since Dec. 11, 1936) George VI (b. 1895) dies of lung cancer while his eldest daughter Princess Elizabeth Alexandra Mary is watching wildlife in Kenya, and she becomes Queen Elizabeth II (1926-2022) of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (60th monarch) (until Sept. 8, 2022); George VI's widow Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon becomes Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother (Mum) (1900-2002), and never forgives Edward VIII for abdicating and making him become king, thus hastening his death?; Edward and Wallis Simpson attend the funeral, and Edward comments "You've never seen such a bunch of worn-out old hags", referring to all the women who now run England and detest him?; on Feb. 5-6 Princess Elizabeth is staying at the Treetops Hotel near Nyeri in Kenya, where big game hunter Edward James "Jim" Corbett (1875-1955) is also staying, and he writes the in the hotel register: "For the first time in the history of the world, a young girl climbed a tree one day a Princess, and after having what she described as her most thrilling experience, she climbed down from the tree the next day a Queen - God bless her" - she did Barack Obama's father too? On Feb. 9 Chaim Weizmann (b. 1874) dies, and on Dec. 16 Yitzhak Ben-Zvi (1884-1963) becomes pres. #2 of Israel (until Apr. 23, 1963). On Feb. 12 (Lincoln's birthday) the city of Albuquerque, N.M. passes a civil rights ordinance prohibiting discrimination in places of public accommodations. On Feb. 14-25 the VI (6th) Winter Olympic Games are held in Oslo, Norway, with 694 athletes representing 30 countries in four sports and 22 events; bobsledders are limited as to bodyweight, changing the sport; bandy (primitive ice hockey) is a demo sport; Hjalmar Johan "Hjallis" "King Glad" Andersen (1923-2013 of Norway wins three of four speed skating events; Germany wins the four-man and two-man bobsleigh events; Richard Totten "Dick" Button (1929-) of the U.S. performs the first triple jump in internat. competition to win his 2nd straight figure skating title; Norway wins the most medals, 16 incl. 7 gold; the games close with the presentation of the Oslo Flag, which is passed to each new Winter Olympics host city (until ?). On Feb. 17 PM Winston Churchill announces that Britain will test an atomic weapon this year; on Mar. 5 Parliament gives Churchill's govt. an overwhelming vote of confidence in his rearmament program. On Feb. 18 Turkey joins NATO, and earns its seat by enthusiastic participation in the Korean War; by 1975 the U.S. gives it $4.3B in military and economic aid; meanwhile the Algerian-based Tijani Sufi order in Turkey is suppressed. On Feb. 22 Gen. Manuel Odria's Peruvian govt. and the U.S. sign a mutual military-assistance pact. On Feb. 25 Japan and Nationalist China break off peace treaty negotiations over Chinese insistence that 1937 be acknowledged as the date when hostilities broke out rather than 1941, and Japan's refusal to recognize their sovereignty over Communist-held territory; on Apr. 28 a peace treaty is signed in which Japan renounces title to Taiwan, the Pescadores, and China. On Feb. 26 Britain announces that it has developed its own atomic bomb; on Oct. 3 Operation Hurricane detonates the first British A-bomb in the Monte Bello (Montebello) Islands (Trimoulle Island) in West Australia; the British nuclear program is run from the Atomic Weapons (Research) Establishment on the WWI Aldermaston Airfield in Berkshire (founded Apr. 1950). In Feb. famed bank robber of 100 banks since the 1920s William "Slick Willie" Sutton (1901-80) is finally captured after a tip by Brooklyn clothing salesman and amateur dick Arnold Schuster (1928-), which pisses-off Gambino crime family boss Albert Anastasia, who puts out a hit on him, and he is murdered outside his home on Mar. 9; Sutton is sentenced to 30-120 years in Attica State Prison in N.Y., and released in Dec. 1969 for failing health. On Mar. 1 Uruguayan pres. Andres Martinez Trueba resigns, and a 9-man federal council replaces the presidency, calling for elections every four years under a 2-party system, after which a new 1951 Uruguyan Constitution is proclaimed on July 18. On Mar. 1 the former radio show (1930-45) Death Valley Days, based on real-life events debuts in syndication for 452 episodes (until 1970), sponsored by the Pacific Coast Borax Co., known for their 20 Mule Team Borax and Boraxo, featuring different actors in each episode; the first "Old Ranger" (host) is Stanley Andrews (1892-1969), who is replaced in 1964-5 by Ronald Reagan, then Robert Taylor (until 1969), and Dale Robertson (until 1970); Merle Haggard narrates previously-made episodes in 1975. On Mar. 4 Screen Actors Guild pres. Ronald Reagan (1911-2004) marries MGM actress Nancy Davis (Anne Frances Robbins) (1921-), who only considered her career as something to take up time until she gets married; they have 1 son Ronald Prescott Reagan Jr. (1958-) and 1 daughter Patricia Ann "Patti" Davis (nee Reagan) (1952-); they first met on Nov. 15, 1949, and their first date was in Jan. in Chasen's Restaurant in Beverly Hills, where he proposed to her; William Holden is best man. On Mar. 10 the U.S. Supreme (Vinson) Court rules in Harisiades v. Shaughnessy and Mascitti that Congress has an absolute (plenary) power to bar entry or deport persons (e.g. Communists) considered a threat to nat. security, and hence the courts have no power to question their motives. On Mar. 10 after taking over in a bloodless coup against pres. Carlos Prio 3 mo. before scheduled elections, Fulgencio Batista (1901-73) becomes pres. #17 of Cuba (until Jan. 1, 1959), and on Mar. 27 the U.S. recognizes his govt.; too bad, Batista opens Cuba up bigtime to U.S. Mafiosi, incl. Meyer Lansky, Santo Trafficante, and Albert Anastasia, who turn Havana into Sin City, featuring fancy nightclubs incl. the Cabaret Tropicana (founded 1939), and bordellos and burlesque clubs featuring live sex, all managed by mobster Joseph "Hoboken Joe" Stassi (1906-2002); Sen. John F. Kennedy is allegedly given a good time by three Cuban hos while visiting late in the decade. On Mar. 20 the U.S. Senate ratifies a peace treaty with Japan and approves Pacific security agreements contracted with it, the Philippines, Australia and New Zealand. One more boring year at the movies and the kids say "That's it!"? On Mar. 20 the 24th Academy Awards awards the best picture Oscar for 1951 to MGM's An American in Paris (first color pick since 1939's "Gone With the Wind"); best actor goes to Humphrey Bogart for The African Queen; best actress, supporting actor, and supporting actress go to Vivien Leigh, Karl Malden, and Kim Hunter for A Streetcar Named Desire; best dir. goes to George Stevens for A Place in the Sun. On Mar. 30 maharaja (since 1926) Jigme Wangchuck (b. 1905) dies, and on Oct. 27 his son Jigme Dorji Wangchuck (1928-72) becomes maharaja #3 of Bhutan (until July 21, 1972), ending feudalism and slavery, releasing all serfs, encouraging modernization incl. wheeled vehicles, and reorganizing the judicial system; next year he establishes the Tshogdu (nat. assembly), Bhutan's first unicameral parliament; in 1963 he promulgates a new constitution replacing his title of maharaja with dragon king. In Mar. after refusing to do so in Jan., then seeing his sure-thing 12-nomination film "A Streetcar Named Desire" get snubbed as a warning, Greek-Am. "theme of the damaged male" movie dir. Elia Kazan (1909-2003) (a Communist Party member in 1934-6, who broke with it and claims to detest it) names eight names before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), incl. Clifford Odets and Paula Strasberg, drawing intense fire from his colleagues even though the names had been named before, causing him (at the urging of wife Molly Day Thatcher Kazan) to take out a wordy self-serving newspaper ad in the New York Times two days later defending his actions and calling for others to name names, which only increases bitter feelings and makes him the outcast Hollywood celebrity rat fink; his bosom buddy Arthur Miller doesn't speak to him again for 10 years, while attacking him through his plays, causing him to counterattack through his films; meanwhile Marilyn Monroe, who was Kazan's mistress when she met the unhappily married Miller in 1951 waits in the wings for his inevitable divorce?; later allegations that he got a $500K contract from a major studio as a payoff for finking prove untrue?; meanwhile Santa Claus clone Burl Ives (1909-95) is dragged before whacked-out HUAC, and names fellow folk singer Peter Seeger to save his own career, after which they don't reunite onstage for 41 years - there's nothing wrong with a little confidence in your line of work? On Mar. 22 PM (since Sept. 24, 1947) Don Stephen Senanayake (b. 1883) dies in a riding accident, and on Mar. 26 his son Dudley Shelton Senanayake (1911-73) becomes PM #2 of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) (until Oct. 12, 1953). On Mar. 29 Pres. Truman shocks the nation by announcing that he won't seek reelection. In Mar. the New Musical Express (NME) popular music mag. debuts in the U.K., becoming the first to incl. a singles chart on Nov. 14, becoming the bestselling British music mag. during the 1970s. In Mar. Kent brand cigarettes (named for former exec Herbert Kent) are introduced by Lorillard Tobacco Co. to capitalize on the "cancer by the carton" series of articles is pub. by Reader's Digest, touting its "famous micronite filter" as "the greatest health protection in history", causing sales of 13B cigarettes by May 1956, although the filters contain carcinogenic blue asbestos, which is quietly changed to cellulose acetate in mid-1956; in 1970-90 Kent is the top brand in Romania, becoming big on the black market; on June 12, 2015 the brand is acquired by R.J. Reynolds. On Apr. 9 Pres. Truman seizes the nation's steel mills in order to prevent a nat. strike scheduled later that day, causing the steel cos. to sue; on Apr. 29 the U.S. district court of Washington, D.C. rules the seizure unconstitutional, and on June 2 the U.S. Supreme Court upholds its ruling 5-4 in Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer (AKA the Steel Seizure Case), causing Truman to order U.S. commerce secy. Charles Sawyer to return the steel mills to their owners, after which the steelworkers go on strike again for 53 days until July 24 after Truman threatens to use the U.S. Selective Service Act to seize them again; from now on the authority of the U.S. pres. to act "must stem either from an act of Congress or from the Constitution itself." On Apr. 9-11 the bloody Bolivian Rev. in La Paz, Bolivia by students, workers, and the nat. police, supported by tin miners and organized by the MNR overthrows Gen. Hugo Ballivan, and on Apr. 15 Victor Paz Estenssoro returns from exile, then on Apr. 16 is sworn-in as pres. (until 1956), promising in his first speech to nationalize the tin industry, then beginning major reforms incl. universal suffrage, the dismantling of the military and distribution of weapons to a civilian peasant-miner militia, and seizure of 10M hectares of land by peasant groups; on Oct. 31 the tin mines are nationalized into the state-controlled Mining Corp. of Bolivia (Comibol), causing the U.S. govt. to suspend purchases of tin (until 1953) until U.S. investors are compensated for their lost holdings; too bad that the new high altitude worker's paradise begins to disintegrate (helped along by U.S. subversion?), and Estenssoro soon ends worker participation in Comibol and invites foreign participation in the economy - we made it, and we were never sentimental the whole time, and by the way, don't touch me with those toxic fingers? On Apr. 11 Pan Am Flight 526-A en route to New York City crashes shortly after takeoff in San Juan, Puerto Rico, killing 52 of 64 passengers, after which pre-flight safety demonstrations are recommended for over-water flights. In mid-Apr. the British Motor Corp. (BMC) Ltd. in Longbridge (near Birmingham), England is formed from the merger of Morris Motors and the Austin Motor Co., controlling 39% of British car production incl. the Austin, Morris, MG, Austin-Healey, Riley, and Wolseley brands. On Apr. 17 Pres. Truman signs a bill proclaiming an annual Nat. Day of Prayer, after which each pres. gets to pick the date, until it is fixed on the first Thursday in May in 1988. On Apr. 18 the internat. occupation of Japan ends. On Apr. 26 the minesweeper USS Hobson collides with the aircraft carrier USS Wasp and sinks during night maneuvers in the mid-Atlantic; 179 are killed. On Apr. 26 the radio series Gunsmoke debuts, starring William Conrad as Matt Dillon, Parley Baer as Chester Wesley Proudfoot, Georgia Ellis as Kitty Russell, and Howard McNear as Doc Galen Adams. On Apr. 28 the Pacific War formally ends, and the U.S.-Japanese Mutual Security Pact goes into effect. In Apr. in Greece death sentences resulting from the 1946-9 civil war are commuted, and many political prisoners are freed. On May 1 East German Pres. Wilhelm Pieck announces that his country will be forced to rearm if West Germany integrates with Western Europe, and on May 7 announces plans to form an army. On May 2 the De Havilland Comet I, the first scheduled jet-powered airliner flies from London to Johannesburg in record time; too bad, the windows have square corners, focusing stresses that result in a number of crashes until it's figured out and corrected. On May 18 highly-educated Am. black singer-actor-activist Paul Robeson (1898-1976), who has been pro-Soviet Union since the 1930s and under investigation by the FBI since 1941 and was denied a passport in 1950 by the U.S. State Dept. for criticizing the treatment of blacks in the U.S. (claiming it should be kept a "family affair") holds a protest concert at the Internat. Peace Arch on the border between Wash. state and B.C. Canada, performing on the back of a flat bed truck before 20K-40K on the Canadian side; he holds more concerts next year, and finally gets his passport back in 1958; W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963), Howard Fast (1914-2003), Albert E. Kahn, and Richard Morford get similar treatment. On May 23 the U.S. govt. returns the railroads to private owners after 21 mo. of govt. management. On May 26 the Bonn (Transition) Agreement (Bonn-Paris Conventions) between West and East Germany is signed, ending Allied occupation of West Germany and granting sovereignty to the Federal Repub. of Germany while obligating it to pay restitution to the Jews, and restricting communications; talks with Jewish groups began in the Netherlands in Mar.; East Germany never agrees to pay reparations - they fucked with my beer and thought I don't care? On May 26 the U.S. Supreme (Vinson) Court rules unanimously in Joseph Burstyn Inc. v. Wilson (AKA the Miracle Decision) that motion pictures are protected by the First Amendment, overturning its Feb. 23, 1915 decision in Mutual Film Corp. v. Industrial Commission of Ohio, putting a damper on Puritanical censorship. On May 27 after the entry of China into the Korean War makes France reverse its position about German rearmament, the Benelux countries, France, Britain, West Germany, and the U.S. sign a series of treaties creating the European Defense Community (EVG); too bad, France rejects it in Aug. 1954. On May 30 Gen. Eisenhower resigns as military cmdr. of NATO and returns to the U.S. to seek the Repub. nomination for pres.; U.S. Gen. Matthew B. Ridgway, former cmdr. of U.N. forces in Korea replaces him as Supreme Allied Cmdr. of Europe (SACEUR); Ellis Ormsbee Briggs (1899-1976) is appointed U.S. ambassador to South Korea (until 1955). On June 16 My Little Margie debuts on CBS-TV as the summer replacement for "I Love Lucy", becoming a hit and running for 126 episodes (until Aug. 24, 1955), starring singer-actress Gale Storm (1922-) as 21-y.-o. Margie Albright, and silent film star Charles Farrell (1901-90) as her widowed 50-y.-o. father Vern Albright, who share an apt. at the Carlton Arms Hotel, phone #Carlton 3-8966; when Margie gets in trouble she emits an odd trilling sound; "Oh no, not Boomies again". On June 17 Guatemalan Pres. Jacobo Arbenz Guzman signs a land reform bill, giving holdings of over 223K acres to the landless, and attempting to prove it's not a Communist plot by paying for them with 25-year bonds. On June 18 Eisenhower comes out in favor of state claims to offshore petroleum deposits, and the Repub. platform incl. it as a plank - go sai-i-i-ling? On June 19 I've Got a Secret debuts on CBS-TV (until Apr. 3, 1967), hosted by Garry Moore (1915-93), with regular panelists incl. Bill Cullen, Henry Morgan, Faye Emerson, and Jayne Meadows, who is replaced in 1958 by Bess Myerson; in 1964 Steve Allen replaces Garry Moore. On June 21-22 Bob Hope and Bing Crosby host a combined coast-to-coast NBC-TV and CBS-TV Telethon for the U.S. Olympic Team. On June 27 the U.S. McCarran-Walter Immigration and Nationality Act, passed over Pres. Truman's veto eliminates race as a bar to immigration and naturalization in the U.S., and sets a quota for Japan at a whopping 185 immigrants per year, while permitting Mexicans to be admitted under the bracero (day worker) program, which is repealed in 1964; Puerto Rican immigration has no legal restriction; the act establishes deportable and excludable offenses, and establishes family and employment-based preferences. On June 27, 1952 the Miss USA 1952 (1st) beauty pageant is held in the Long Beach Municipal Auditorium in Long Beach, Calif.; the winner is Jacqueling "Jackie" Loughery (1930-) of N.Y. On June 30 the radio soap opera (since Jan. 25, 1937) The Guiding Light, created by Irna Phillips (1901-73) debuts on CBS-TV for 15,762 episodes (until Sept. 18, 2009), about the lower middle class German immigrant Bauer family' in 1975 it becomes "Guiding Light"; it goes on to become the longest-running TV drama in U.S. history, the longest-running soap opera, and the 5th longest-running program in broadcast history. In the summer the border between East and West Germany outside Berlin is closed; West Berlin reports taking in 16K refugees from East Berlin in Aug. On July 1 The Liberace Show (B&W) debuts on NBC-TV as a replacement for "The Dinah Shore Show" (until 1953), making West Allis, Wisc. closet gay pianist Wladziu Valentino Liberace (1919-87) household name as well as the highest-paid entertainer on Earth, earning him $7M in two years, plus 80% residuals; his violinist brother George often appears as a guest, with their mother seated in the front row. On July 1 7-y.-o. Gladys Knight (1944-) wins a trophy on The Original Amateur Hour TV show. On July 3 the sitcom Mister Peepers debuts on NBC-TV for 127 episodes (until June 12, 1955), starring Wallace Mayanard "Wally" Cox (1924-73) as bumbling Jefferson Junioer H.S. sience teacher Robinson J. Peepers, known for getting stuck in a basketball hoop, and Jack Warden (John Warden Lebzeleter Jr.) (1920-2006) as athletic coach Frank Whip. On July 5 the last tram in London runs from Woolwich to New Cross; trams are replaced by trolleybuses. On July 7-11 the 1952 Repub. Nat. Convention in Chicago, Ill. deserts "Mr. Republican" Robert Alphonso Taft (1889-1953) of Ohio (son of Pres. William Howard Taft) for sure-thing 5-star gen. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower, nominating him on the 1st ballot; Truman's secy. of state James F. Byres (gov. of S.C.) ditches the Dem. Party to support him; for vice-pres. they choose Calif. Sen. Richard M. Nixon, the leading anti-Commie subversion rat terrier of the U.S.; on July 8 ex-pres. Herbert Hoover gives a speech, with the soundbyte: "We have seen tax-and-tax spend-and-spend reach a fantastic total greater than in all the previous 170 years of our Republic. Behind this plush curtain of tax and spend, three sinister spooks or ghosts are mixing poison for the American people. They are the shades of Mussolini with his bureaucratic fascism; of Karl Marx and his Socialism; and of Lord Keynes with his perpetual government spending, deficits, and inflation. And we added a new ideology of our own. That is government giveaway programs. If you want to see pure socialism mixed with give-away programs, take a look at socialized medicine"; CBS newsman Walter Cronkite bugs the Credentials Committee room to learn more about the Taft-Eisenhower fight; Pres. Truman, although exempt from the 22nd Amendment's 3rd-term prohibition declines to run for reelection, selecting liberal Ill. Gov. Adlai Stevenson (1900-65) of Ill. over Estes Kefauver of Tenn. for pres. at the 1952 Dem. Nat. Convention in Chicago, Ill. on July 21-26; although he is hesitant to sacrifice himself against sure-thing Eisenhower, on July 21 his eloquent welcoming address is a hit, getting him nominated on the 3rd ballot on July 26; Ala. Sen. John Jackson Sparkman (1899-1985) is nominated for vice-pres.; the first U.S. pres. election in which both major candidates are bald (next 1956); campaign slogan is "We're Madly for Adlai" (reused in 1956); the word "egghead" is coined for Stevenson supporters, whom he likes to call his "Shakespearean vote", although after the election he says they failed the final exam. On July 13 the U.S. announces its decision to provide Yugoslavia with tanks, jet aircraft and heavy artillery - in return for paprika and goulash? On July 18 the Romanian Grand Nat. Assembly ratifies yet another new 1952 Romanian Constitution based on that of the Soviet Union, providing for an autonomous Hungarian region in SE Transylvania. On July 19-29 the Washington, D.C. UFO Invasion (Washington Flap) (Washington Nat. Airport UFO Sightings) sees a wave of UFO reports over two consecutive weekends, gaining headlines across the U.S. and becoming "the climax of the 1952 [UFO] flap... Never before or after did Project Blue Book and the Air Force undergo such a tidal wave of (UFO) reports" (Curtis Peebles); in Jan. 1953 as a result of the publicity and a CIA recommendation, the secret Robertson Panel, headed by Am. mathematician-physicist Howard Percy "Bob" Robertson (1903-61) meets, concluding that UFOs are not a direct threat to nat. security, but the reports could pose an indirect threat by overwhelming military communications, recommending a public education campaign; the panel's report is later contained in the internal CIA Durant Report by F.C. Durant of Jan. 14-18, 1953; the reports are later unclassified. The Mouse That Roared Year in the Olympics? On July 19-Aug. 3 the XV (15th) Summer Olympic Games are held in Helsinki, Finland (most northernly summer Olympics), with 4,955 athletes from 69 nations competing in 149 events in 17 sports; the first participation for the Soviet Union and Israel; Japan is invited, along with Germany, and West Germany attends, but East Germany doesn't; the U.S. wins 43 golds, the Soviet Union 22, Hungary 22; first time that Germany wins zero golds (until ?); Czech runner Emil Zatopek (Zátopek) (1922-2000) wins the 5K meters, the 10K meters, and the marathon in record time, becoming a legend; Joseph "Josy" Barthel (1927-92) of Luxembourg wins the 1500m, becoming the first Luxembourger to win Olympic gold (until ?). July 26 is Nasser-Peron-Stevenson day at the zoo? On July 23 after he invites Anwar el-Sadat to come to Cairo from Sinai on the evening of July 22, and he nearly misses the overthrow because he took his family to a movie, the Free Officers Movement of Egyptian military officers led by Gen. Gamal ("camel") Abdel Nasser Hussein (1918-70) (known for doing his plotting at the Cafe Riche in Cairo) launches the July 23, 1952 Egyptian Rev., and on July 26 King Farouk I is forced to abdicate in favor of his infant son Ahmed Fouad II (1952-) (until June 18, 1953), then go into exile in Italy, taking his priceless porno collection with him, and leaving behind a vast Am. comic book collection, another vast stamp collection, 50 walking sticks, a pocket radiation counter, 75 pairs of binoculars, 1K ties, photos depicting copulating elephants, and a $20 U.S. double eagle that had been stolen from the Philadelphia Mint museum; the radical fundamentalist Muslim Brotherhood at first backs Nasser, but when he refuses to impose Sharia or even ban alcohol, they turn on him; Nasser publicly calls the Palestinian issue unimportant, but privately pushes an anti-Zionist agenda to increase his power in the Arab world; the military rules Egypt until ?; next military coup in 2011. On July 24 the U.S. steel worker strike ends after 54 days. On July 25 Puerto Rico becomes a self-governing commonwealth of the U.S. On July 25 the Shuman Plan (signed the previous year) becomes effective; on July 28 the Allied High Commission lifts all restrictions on West German steel production; on Sept. 10 the first sovereign Supranat. Assembly of Europe comes into existence as part of the Western European Coal and Steel Community. In July J. Robert Oppenheimer resigns as chmn. of the AEC Gen. Advisory Commission, devoting his time to the Inst. for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J. (where he is dir.) after his Los Alamos "finite containment" group loses the war with the Livermore "infinite containment" group over the burgeoning U.S. nuclear arsenal, and the H-bomb goes on the fast track. On Aug. 1 the London Debt Agreement (Agreement on German External Debts) is signed by Britain and West Germany, resolving WWI reparations, which Hitler had quit paying in 1935; after token repayments are made, future loans will be available to help the West German economy. On Aug. 1 EL Boqueron ((Boquerón) Sp. "Big Mouth") (Barcena) on San Benedicto, 250 mi. S of Lower Calif. is discovered, becoming the newest volcano in the Western hemisphere. On Aug. 1 conservative W.A.C. (William Andrew Cecil) Bennett (1900-79) of the Social Credit League becomes PM #25 of British Columbia (until Sept. 15, 1972), going on to become its longest-serving PM grooming his son "Mini-WAC" to succeed him. On Aug. 3 wealthy black woman Ruby McCollum (1925-92), wife of gambling kingpin "Bolita Sam" McCollum shoots and kills her white lover Dr. C. Leroy Adams (b. 1908) in Live Oak, Fla., and is convicted by an all-white male jury and sentenced to death on Dec. 20 despite her testimony that he forced her to have sex and have his child, after which her conviction was overturned by the Fla. Supreme Court on July 20, 1954 on a technicality, and she is incarcerated in the Fla. state mental hospital in Chattahoochee, staying for life despite the efforts of Zora Neale Hurston and William Bradford Huie. On Aug. 4/5 (night) British nutrition biochemist Sir Jack Cecil Drummond (b. 1891) (known for naming Vitamins A and B and dropping the e from vitamine) is brutally murdered along with his wife Ann and 10-y.-o. daughter Elizabeth in their car near Lurs (75 mi. from Aix) in Provence, France; 18 mo. later 75-y.-o. French peasant farmer Gaston Dominici (1877-) is convicted and sentenced to the guillotine, which is reduced to life, and is let out in 1959 by Pres. Charles de Gaulle after cries of a a frameup and possible spy hanky-panky - take that for Dunkirk? On Aug. 5 diplomatic relations resume between Japan and Nationalist China. On Aug. 13 Canada announces a $150M mutual aid gift to Britain. On Aug. 14 Istvan Dobi resigns as PM, and is succeeded as PM #43 by pro-Stalin Hungarian Communist Party gen. secy. Matyas Rakosi (Mátyás Rákosi) (1892-1971) (until July 4, 1953). On Aug. 17 the Mau Mau Revolt (Uprising) in Kenya, East Africa (ends 1956) begins with a report received by the British colonial office in London about the secret Mau Mau society, formed in 1949 to fight white Euro settlers in the Kenyan highlands along with loyalist Kikuyus, who aren't accustomed to night meetings and forced oaths, esp. the Mau Mau Oath, which is often given at knifepoint to Kikuyu tribesman and calls for their murder if they don't evenly grin and bear it and kill a white farmer when ordered; on Oct. 6 Sir Evelyn Baring, 1st Baron Howick of Glendale (1903-73) (son of Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer, the first British gov. of Egypt (1878-9), known for mistreatment of Egyptians) arrives as the new British gov.-gen. of Kenya (until 1959); next Jan. 18 Baring declares a state of emergency, imposing the death penalty for anyone administering the Mau Mau Oath; next Jan. 24 the white settler Ruck family (father, mother, 6-y.-o. son) is rucked and murdered by Mau Maus, beginning a bloody uprising against the British by the Kikuyu, Embu, and Meru tribes, who use funky white-killer weapons incl. the panga and the ronga, made from the baobab root; "Uma Uma" means "Get out, get out"?; next Mar. 25-26 the Lari Massacre sees the Mau Maus kill up to 150 Kikuyus; next Apr. 8 Jomo Kenyatta (1897-1978) and five other Kikuyu are convicted of masterminding it, but the Kenyan supreme court quashes the convictions next July 15 because of lack of evidence linking them to the Mau Mau, and Kenyatta is sentenced to several years of hard labor and banned from Kenya; this doesn't stop the British, who form a home guard of 20K Kikiyus and imprison 100K+ in detention camps over the next few years, during which 2K Kikuyus loyal to the British are murdered; in 1954 Kenyan-born anthropologist Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey (1903-72) pub. Defeating Mau Mau, which recommends land reform and wage hikes for the Kikuyus, and a multi-racial govt., most of which are eventually adopted; in 1956 the Mau Mau are cleared of their bases under Mt. Kenya, but the state of emergency lasts until 1960; Jomo Kenyatta is finally banished in 1961 after a measly 33 Euros are killed - how do we change the world, one act of random kindness at a time? On Aug. 18 the Declaration of Santiago declares a 200 mi. territorial limit from the coast for Chile, Ecuador, and Peru. In Aug. after his leadership is challenged by the nat. assembly, causing Pres. Syngman Rhee to get constitutional amendments passed increasing his powers and making pres. elections the prerogative of the people rather than the assembly, he is reelected by an overwhelming majoriy. On Sept. 1 Art Linkletter's House Party moves from daytime CBS Radio (since Jan. 15, 1945) to daytime CBS-TV (until Sept. 5, 1969) (NBC-TV from Dec. 29, 1969 to Sept. 25, 1970); each show he interviews four kids; "Kids say the darnedest things." On Sept. 6 the Canadian Broadcasting Corp. opens Canada's first TV station in Montreal, followed by Toronto. On Sept. 10 the Luxembourg Treaty is signed, whereby West Germany agrees to pay Israel 3B marks as reparations for "material" damage suffered by Jews at the hands of the Nazis, along with 450M marks to Jewish orgs.; Germany begins paying reparations to the Jewish people in 1953, the payments reaching 56.3B German marks by the end of 1983. On Sept. 18 after the influx of 100K Palestinian refugees bogs the economy down, Lebanese pres. (since Nov. 22, 1943) Bechara el-Khoury is forced to resign amid corruption allegations and massive protests, and on Sept. 22 after Fuad Chehab becomes acting pres., Christian Marionite U.N. ambassador (since 1947) Camille Nimr Chamoun (1900-87) is elected pres. of Lebanon, assuming office on Sept. 23 (until Sept. 22, 1958). On Sept. 19 the B&W syndicated TV series Adventures of Superman debuts for 104 episodes (until Apr. 28, 1958); George Reeves (1914-59) plays Superman/Clark Kent, Phyllis Coates (1927-) (first season) and Noel Darleen Neill (1920-2016) play his girlfriend Lois Lane; John Hamilton (1887-1958) plays his boss Perry White, and Jack Edward Larson (1928-2015) plays cub reporter Jimmy Olsen; goes color in 1955; "Faster than a speeding bullet, more powerful than a locomotive, able to leap tall buildings with a single bound. Look! Up in the sky! Is it a bird? Is it a plane? It's Superman!"; watch intro. On Sept. 23 (Tues.) after the headline "Secret Rich Men's Trust Fund Keeps Nixon in Style Far Beyond His Salary" in the New York Post a few days after Ike chosen him as his running mate, Richard M. Nixon gives his Checkers Speech to a U.S. TV audience of 60M (largest to date), claiming that's it's unprecedented then detailing all his modest Quaker finances, mentioning his wife's "respectable Republican cloth coat", and admitting that he accepted a gift of a little cocker spaniel named Checkers (-1964) for his 6-y.-o. daughter Tricia, with the soundbyte "I want to say right now that regardless of what they say, we're going to keep him", using the press as his whipping boy; he then trumps his enemies, challenging them to divulge their finances, after which the Repub. Nat. Committee resoundingly approves him running, and Ike invites Nixon to campaign with him in W. Va., greeting him at the airport with the soundbyte "Dick, you're my boy"; the fund was public not secret, and for political purposes only; the disclosures embarrass his wife, but she Tammy Wynettes it and stands by her man. On Sept. 24 Henryville, Ind.-born Southern Chicken Col. Harland David Sanders (1890-1980), who founds Sanders Court & Cafe in North Corbin, Ky. on Mar. 20, 1930 begins franchising his "finger lickin' good" fried chicken with the secret blend of 11 herbs and spices with restaurateur Leon Weston "Pete" Harman (1919-2014) in Salt Lake City, Utah, fighting the dominance of hamburger restaurants, serving the fried chicken in cardboard buckets in 1957; in 1964 Sanders sells out for $2M to a group of investors led by John Y. Brown Jr. and Jack C. Massey, who expand globally, becoming the first Western (foreign devil) restaurnt chain to open in Red China, which goes on to become their #1 market; in the early 1970s it is acquired by Heublein, which is taken over by R.J. Reynolds, who sells it to PepsiCo; by 2013 it grows to 18K+ outlets in 118 countries. On Oct. 1 gen. elections in Japan give the conservative Liberal Party of PM Yoshida Shigeru 240 out of 466 seats in the Diet; the Communists win no seats. On Oct. 1-7 the New York Yankees (AL) defeat the Brooklyn Dodgers (NL) 4-3 to win the Forty-Ninth (49th) World Series, making four in a row (15 total) for the Yankees, and the 3rd defeat for the "Dem Bums" Dodgers in six years; Yankees 2B player Alfred Manuel "Billy" Martin Jr. (1928-89) makes a game-saving catch in Game 7; in Game 6 (8th inning) Mickey Charles Mantle (1931-95) of the Yankees scores his first of 18 WS homers; Dodgers center fielder Edwin Donald "Duke" "the Silver Fox" "the Duke of Flatbush" Snider (1926-2011) hits four homers, and four more in the 1955 WS. On Oct. 3 the lily-white sitcom The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet debuts on ABC-TV for 425 episodes (until Sept. 3, 1966), starring married former vaudeville players Oswald George "Ozzie" Nelson (1906-75) and Harriet Nelson (Hilliard) (Peggy Lou Snyder) (1909-), featuring the coming of age of America's first teen hearthrob Eric Hilliard "Ricky" Nelson (1940-85), whose portraits bear a striking resemblance to Superman actor Christopher Reeve (1952-2004)?; Donald John "Don" DeFore (1913-93) plays neighbor Thorny Thornberry. On Oct. 3 the sitcom Our Miss Brooks, based on the 1948 CBS Radio series debuts on CBS-TV in 1952 (until July 7, 1957), starring Eve Arden (Eunice Mary Quedens) (1908-90) as Constance "Connie" Brooks, an English teacher at Madison H.S., Gale Gordon (Charles Thomas Aldrich Jr.) (1906-95) as principal Osgood Conklin, handsome Robert Rockwell (1920-2003) as shy biology teacher Philip Boynton, whom Miss Brooks has the hots for, Jannie "Jane" Morgan (1880-1972) as Miss Brooks' absent-minded landlady Mrs. Davis, known for exotic inedible breakfasts and her cat Minerva, Richard Donald "Dick" Crenna (1926-2003) as student Walter Denton, who gives her rides to school; filmed in 1956. On Oct. 5 the first All-Union Communist Party Congress since 1939 convenes in Moscow; the Politburo and Orgburo are replaced by the Presidium (Praesidium) of the new Central Committee (until 1966), and a new 5-year plan is announced - more bureaucratic reports to falsify? On Oct. 7 Bob Horn's Bandstand debuts on WFIL-TV in Philadelphia with host Bob (Donald Loyd) Horn (1916-); after he is fired for drunk driving on July 9, 1956, Dick Clark takes over, and it evolves into "American Bandstand". On Oct. 8 negotiations at Panmunjom are broken off over U.N. refusal to repatriate North Korean and Chinese POWs against their will; negotiations are not resumed until next Apr. On Oct. 8 two express trains crash into a commuter train in Harrow-Wealdstone, England, killing 112. On Oct. 12 The Bob Hope Show debuts on NBC-TV (until Dec. 3, 1955), starring 50-y.-o. super entertainer Bob Hope (1903-2003) entertaining guests. On Oct. 19 French physician Alain Bombard (1924-2005) sets off from the Canary Islands in a 15-ft. rubber cockleshell Zodiac boat called l'Heretique without food or water to disprove the myth that drinking seawater is fatal; drinking 1.5 pints a day, living on fish and plankton he sails 2,750 mi. in 65 days, reaching Barbados on Dec. 24, but loses 15 lbs. and is briefly hospitalized; later German physician Hannes Lindemann (1922-) tries to repeat the trip, finding that he needs fresh water from rain to survive, and claims that Bombard had secretly taken fresh water with him. On Oct. 25 Denmark, Colombia, and Lebanon replace the Netherlands, Brazil, and Turkey in the U.N. Security Council. On Oct. 29, 1952 after Viet Minh guerrilla forces gain control of the countryside in French-controlled Vietnam, French forces launch Operation Lorraine against Viet Minh supply bases in Indochina in order to lure them into an open battle; after they fail to bite, the operation is ended on Nov. 8. On Oct. 29 after Viet Minh guerrilla forces gain control of the countryside in French-controlled Vietnam, French forces launch Operation Lorraine against Viet Minh supply bases in Indochina in order to lure them into an open battle; after they fail to bite, the operation is ended on Nov. 8. In Oct. Ramar of the Jungle debuts for 52 episodes (until 1954), starring Jon Hall (1915-79) as jungle doctor (son of a missionary) Dr. Tom "Ramar" Reynolds. You don't have to live like a refugee, er, scratch that? On Nov. 1 at 7:15 a.m. the U.S. explodes the first Hydrogen Bomb (H-bomb), named Mike at Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands in the Pacific Ocean; on Nov. 16 the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) announces the tests to the public; Hungarian-Am. physicist Edward Teller (1908-2003) is instrumental in its design, making him the Father of the H-Bomb; his quirks and fanaticism make him the real Dr. Stangelove?; meanwhile J. Robert Oppenheimer, "the Father of the A-Bomb" goes nonlinear at the excess of destructive power, turning against the whole idea of nuclear war, after which he gets at the front of the line to become the Atomic Christ? On Nov. 4 (Tues.) after promising in the last week of the "I Like Ike" campaign to go to Korea (where the Korean War had stalemated), the 1952 U.S. Pres. Election sees Gen. Dwight D. Eisenwhower defeat Adlai Stevenson, becoming the first Repub. U.S. pres. in 20 years; the last election in which no sitting pres. or veep runs (until ?); Stevenson says he is "too old to cry"; UNIVAC predicts the election before the polls close; of the 61.6% of the electorate who vote for pres., Ike receives 33.9M popular votes (55.1%) and 442 electoral votes to Stevenson's 27.3M popular votes (44.4%) and 89 electoral votes; Stevenson carries only 9 Southern and border states; Prohibition Party candidate (singing cowboy) Carl Stuart Hamblen (1908-9) receives 72,949 popular votes and no electoral votes; the Repubs. win slim majorities in both houses of Congress; liberal Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Sr. (1907-98) is elected as Dem. Sen. from Tenn. (until Jan. 3, 1971), becoming one of the three Dem. Southern Sens. who refuse to sign the 1956 Southern Manifesto opposing integration, along with Lyndon B. Johnson of Tex. and Estes Kefauver of Tenn., and later opposing prayer in public schools and the Vietnam War. On Nov. 10 movie dir. Joseph L. Mankiewicz (1909-93) refuses to sign the Director's Guild Loyalty Oath, backed by the conservative anti-Communist Motion Picture Alliance, formed by Walt Disney (1901-66), Sam Wood, et al., and led by actors John Wayne and Ward Bond, and on Nov. 17 usually autocratic dir. John Ford (who has Danny Borsage play "Bringing in the Sheaves" on his accordion on the set to announce him, and insists on 4 p.m. English tea) turns hero and intervenes on his side, turning the tide? On Nov. 12 the U.S. agrees to lend Japan 18 frigates and 50 landing craft as a token first step toward defensive rearmament. On Nov. 14 mostly Jewish Czech Communists incl. Rudolf Slansky are sentenced to death for treason and Zionism and/or belonging to the Jewish Antifascist Committee; Stalin's death next Mar. saves them. On Nov. 14 the first British top singles chart is pub. by the New Musical Express, with the top 12, three of them tied, for a total of 15. On Nov. 16 the Greek Rally Party wins a sweeping victory in gen. elections, and gains a two-thirds majority in parliament, causing Gen. Alexander Papagos to become PM of Greece (until 1955). On Nov. 16 CBS-TV inaugurates Television City, its new Hollywood studios at Beverly Blvd. and North Fairfax Ave. (7800 Beverly Blvd.) with a live performance of the comedy series My Friend Irma (Jan. 8, 1952-June 1954); the next day it introduces its new live set in Burbank with the variety program "All Star Revue". On Nov. 17 Abba Eban offers the presidency of Israel to superbrain scientist Albert Einstein, who politely declines. On Nov. 23 the Iraq govt. uses strikes and riots as an excuse to outlaw all political parties and form a military govt. (until 1953). On Nov. 27 (Thurs.) the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York City (founded in 1924) is first televised by NBC-TV. On Nov. 29 pres.-elect Eisenhower keeps his campaign promise to visit Korea to assess the ongoing conflict. On Dec. 5 (Fri.) The Abbott and Costello Show debuts in syndication for 52 episodes (until May 1, 1954), starring William Alexander "Bud" Abbott (1897-1974) and Louis Francis "Lou" Cristillo (1906-59) ("Heeey, Abbott! I'm a baaad boy!"), later inspiring Jerry Seinfeld. On Dec. 5-9 the Great Smog (Big Smoke) of London kills 4K-12K and injures 200K, becoming the worst air pollution disaster in U.K. history (until ?), resulting in the 1956 British Clean Air Act. On Dec. 9 after pulling an 1852 Ontario law out of the hat that copied the N.Y. and U.S. Bill of Rights and had been all-but forgotten, the Jehovah's Witnesses get the Supreme Court of Canada to rule 5-4 in Saumur v. City of Quebec and Atty. Gen. of Quebec that Quebec City can't try to stop them by requiring a license to distribute their lit. after Roman Catholic-turned-JW Laurier Saumur was arrested 100x and fought back, causing cases against 1K+ other JWs to be dismissed, creating a nat. sensation over the triumph of freedom of religion. On Dec. 15 the U.S. Supreme (Vinson) Court rules 8-0 in Wieman v. Updegraff that an Okla. loyalty oath violates the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment because it does not give individuals the opportunity to abjure membership in subversive orgs., with Justice Tom C. Clark writing the soundbyte: "Membership may be innocent"; Juston Robert H. Jackson recuses himself. On Dec. 29 the U.S. Nat. Security Agency (NSA) (No Such Agency?) is established, with Gen. Ralph J. Canine (1895-1969) as top dog, er, dir. #1 (until 1956). In Dec. after seeing the high ratings of the Kefauver hearings on organized crime, the 25-cent conservative quarterly Hollywood gossip mag. Confidential ("Tells the Facts and Names the Names") begins pub. by Bronx, N.Y.-born girlie mag. publisher ("the King of Leer" - Humphrey Bogart) Robert Harrison (1905-78), becoming known for outing Rock Hudson and Liberace as "Lavender Lads", accusing Bing Crosby of wife-beating, publicizing Robert Mitchum's marijuana smoking, and exposing interracial affairs of celebs using a network of spies, reaching 4M circ. and spawning numerous lawsuits, causing Groucho Marx to pub. the soundbyte: "If you don't stop printing scandalous articles about me, I'll be forced to cancel my subscription"; on Nov. 12, 1957 after a big show trial Harrison announces that it will quit publishing stories about the private lives of Hollywood stars in exchange for a $5K plea bargain, and in May 1958 he sells out; it goes on to inspire a flock of new scandal mags. incl. Blast, Exclusive, Hush-Hush, Inside, The Lowdown, Naked Truth, On the Q.T., Private Affairs, Rave, Revealed, Side Street, Uncensored, and Whisper; it ceases pub. in 1978. Romanian dictator Gheorghe Gheorgiu-Dej (1901-65) purges Jewish rival, foreign minister Ana Pauker (Hannah Rabinsohn) (1893-1960) and her Soviet (Muscovite) faction, and consolidates his power, remaining a loyal puppet of Stalin, then later under Khrushchev becoming his own man. Turkey signs a treaty of friendship with Greece and Yugoslavia. Viet Minh guerrilla forces gain control of the countryside in French-controlled Vietnam. Communist Poland adopts a 1952 Polish Constitution similar to the Soviet Union's. Queen Elizabeth II of England becomes the chief of state of Fiji (until 1987). Peking reports that 40% of farm workers have been organized into cooperatives - the other 60% are uncooperative? British Guiana wins internal self-govt. from Britain. Muhammad Asad (1900-92), a Ukrainian-born Jew who converted to Islam in 1926 and moved to Pakistan is appointed Pakistani minister plenipotentiary to the U.N. The U.S. Army Special Forces (Green Berets) are founded at Ft. Bragg, N.C. The Internat. Planned Parenthood Federation is founded in Bombay, India, expanding by 2015 to 189 countries after moving the HQ to London, England. Germany becomes a member of the World Bank. Am. philanthropist John Davison Rockefeller III (1906-78) founds the Population Council to promote contraceptive research. Elijah Mohammed (Muhammad) (1896-1975) forms the black supremacist Nation of Islam. Dorothy Jane Krueger (1913-), daughter of U.S. gen. Walter Krueger fatally stabs hubby Col. Aubrey Dewitt Smith in their U.S. Army quarters in Japan, is court-martialed, and given hard labor for life, after which in 1957 the U.S. Supreme Court rules that military trials of civilians are unconstitutional, causing her release. George (Christine) Jorgenson (1918-89) (son of a Bronx carpenter) goes from a male G.I. to a woman after a highly-publicized sex-change (transsexual) operation in Denmark, with headline "Ex-GI Becomes Blonde Bombshell"; his endocrinologist is (well-named?) Christian Hamburger, who later receives so many applications from Americans that Denmark's minister of justice restricts sex-change operations to native Danes; foxy Christine returns to New York City next Feb. 13. The Recording Industry of Am. Assoc. (RIAA) is founded in Washington, D.C. to act as the police arm for enforcing copyrights and royalties. The Purple Onion cellar club at 140 Columbus Ave. (between Jackson and Pacific Sts.) North Beach, San Francisco, Calif. opens, becoming a home to the Beat movement and helping launch the careers of folk acts incl. The Kingston Trio and the Smothers Brothers, comedians Woody Allen, Lenny Bruce, Phyllis Diller, Bob Newhart, and Richard Pryor, and poet Maya Angelou. The National Enquirer is purchased for $75K by New York newspaperman Generoso Paul "Gene" Pope Jr. (1927-88) using a loan from mob boss Frank Costello, becoming a lurid tabloid filled with sex and violence, changing its name to The National Enquirer in 1957; in 1967 it drops the violence and gore and concentrates on celebs, the occult, and UFOs, being sold from supermarket checkout lanes; in 1975 the HQ moves to Lantana, Fla., followed in 1989 by Boca Raton, Fla. The FCC permits UHF-TV for the first time. Harvard pres. #23 (1933-53) James Bryant Conant (1893-1978) decides to end the tradition of a 90% of admission if your WASP daddy went there, causing the avg. verbal SAT score to jump from 583 this year to 678, along with a math score of 695, while keeping some of the traditional WASP freshmen to keep up a unique mix. Dylan Thomas becomes the first author to record an audiobook of his poems. Pacific Jazz Records in Los Angeles, Calif. is founded to release cool jazz and West Coast jazz music by producer Richard Bock (1927-88) and jazz drummer Roy S. Harte (Hartstein) (1924-2003), going on to sign Chet Baker, Paul Demond, the Jazz Crusaders, Gerry Mulligan, Joe Pass, and Gerald Wilson; in 1954 Harte co-founds Nocturne Records in Hollywood, Calif. with jazz bassist Yervant Harry "the Bear" Babasin Jr. (1921-88), which in 1954 releases the album Jazz in Hollywood before merging with Liberty Records on Mar. 2, 1955; in 1957 Pacific Jazz Records becomes World Pacific Records, signing Indian musicians incl. Ravi Shankar; in 1965 it is acquired by Liberty Records, producing the hit Elusive Butterfly by Bob Lind in 1966; in 1970 it is acquired by United Artists Records, which in 1979 is acquired by EMI. Elizabeth Taylor divorces Nick Hilton and marries English actor Michael Wilding (1912-79) (until 1957); they have two sons, Michael Howard Wilding Jr. (1953-) and Christopher Edward Wilding (1955-). Am. actor James Byron Dean (1931-55) is helped by gay roommate (future TV scriptwriter) William Edwin "Bill" Bast (1931-2015) to write a letter to the U.S. Draft Board declaring that he is a "practicing homosexual", winning him a draft exemption. Rex Humbard (1919-2007) becomes the first humbug, er, Christian evangelist with a weekly nat. U.S. TV show; in 1958 he builds the $4M Cathedral of Tomorrow in Cuyahoga Falls (near Akron), Ohio, with seating for 5.4K. The Ballet Folklorico de Mexico (Ballet Folklórico de México) is founded by Amalia Hernandez (Hernández) Navarro (1917-2000) with eight dancers, adapting village street fiestas and Indian religious rituals, going on to ramp up to 300 dancers and perform at the Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts) in Mexico City for the next four decades. Filmways (Pictures) is founded in Sonoma County, Calif. by Martin Ransohoff (1927-) and Edwin Kasper, going on to produce CBS-TV's "rural comedies" incl. "Mister Ed", "The Beverly Hillbillies", "Petticoat Junction", and "Green Acres", along with films incl. "The Sandpiper", "The Cincinnati Kid", "Ice Station Zebra", "Dressed to Kill" and "Blow Out", helping launch the careers of actresses Tuesday Weld, Ann-Margret, and Sharon Tate; by 1963 it makes $13M a year; in 1983 it is acquired by Orion Pictures, becoming Orion TV Productions. French aristocrat Count Hubert de Givenchy (1927-) founds the House of Givenchy, which goes on to become a favorite of Audrey Hepburn and Jackie Kennedy. Big Tex makes his appearance at the Texas State Fair. Kellogg's Sugar Frosted Flakes is introduced, with mascot Tony the Tiger, voiced by Dallas McKennon and Thurl Ravenscroft ("They're Grrrreat!), who was created in 1951 along with Katy the Kangaroo, Elmo the Elephant, and Newt the Gunu, who are dropped; Tony's son is Tony Jr.; in the 1970s he gets an Italian-Am. personality, Mama Tony, wife Mrs. Tony, and daughter Antoinette; in 1974 he is named Tiger of the Year; in 1975 Tony Jr. becomes the mascot for Frosted Rice. Mickey Spillane's 1947 novel "I, the Jury" becomes the first detective novel to make the New York Times bestseller list. Frank Sinatra's voice suddenly ruptures, causing him to be released from his MGM movie contract and dropped by his recording co. MCA. After marrying LA-born photographer George Pickow (1922-2010) in 1950, and winning a Fulbright scholarship to collect folk songs, Viper, Ky.-born folk singer-songwriter Jean Ritchie (1922-2015) releases her first album Traditional Songs of Her Kentucky Mountain Home, going on to revive Appalachian dulcimer playing and become known as "the Mother of Folk", composing songs incl. "My Dear Companion", "Black Waters", "Tender Ladies", and "Pretty Saro". Jewish atty. Louis "Studs" Terkel (1912-2008) (nicknamed after Studs Lonigan) debuts his daily 1-hour radio program in Chicago, Ill. (until 1997), going on to become a leading oral historian who can't drive a car. An art nouveau Jugendstil Exhibition is held in Zurich. The first train to run without motormen or conductors goes into service in New York City between Times Square and Grand Central City, but the Transit Workers' Union forces a do-nothing motorman to be present in the car. A Japan Air Lines (JAL) Martin 404 crashes, killing all 37 aboard, causing the privately-owned airline created two years ago to be reorganized as the govt.-owned Japan Airlines (JAL); the govt. switches to the DC-6; it returns to private ownership in 1987. Easter Seals adopts the lily (symbol of spring) as its logo. Babybel brand snack cheese is introduced, followed by Mini Babybel in 1977 in France, and in 1979 in the U.S. under the Laughing Cow umbrella brand. Mrs. Paul's Frozen Fish Sticks are first marketed. Ore-Ida Potato Products Inc. is founded by Mormon brothers F. Nephi Grigg and Golden Grigg, with the fields in Idaho and the processing facility in Ore. near the border; in 1953 they introduce "all-righta" Tater Tots, made from French fry leftovers; the slogan is "When it says Ore-Ida, It's All-Righta"; in 1965 it is acquired by H.J. Heinz Co., who in 1999 move the HQ from Boise, Idaho to Pittsburgh, Penn. Lipton begins marketing Lipton's Dry Onion Soup Mix, which becomes a popular ingredient in meat loaf, potato chip dip, stews, and other dishes. Lotus Cars is founded in Britain on the former site of WWII RAF Hethel airfield in Norfolk, going on to found the Formula 1 Team Lotus for its Espirit, Elan, Europa, and Elise sports cars, known for light weight and fine handling characteristics. BYU grad Colleen Kay Hutchins (1926-2010), sister of NBA star Mel Hutchins wins the 1952 Miss America contest, going on to marry NBA star Ernest Vandeweghe (1928-2014) and have NBA star Kiki Vandeweghe (1958-). Sports: On Jan. 27 the Federation (Fédération) Internationale des Quilleurs (FIQ) is founded at a meeting in Hamburg, Germany of Internat. Bowling Assoc. (IBA) officials from nine nations (Germany, Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Luxembourg, Sweden, Switzerland, and Yugoslavia) to coordinate internat. amateur competition in 10-pin and 9-pin bowling, growing to 15 nations in 1954, 17 nations in 1959, 52 in 1975, and 141 in 2010; in Mar. 1952 the IBA is dissolved; in Nov. 1952 the first FIQ Congress is held in Munich, Germany, in which the FIQ Constitution is adopted, which incl. German as the official language for meetings; in 1954 after Germany won't pay for them to be hosted at the 1952 Summer Olympics, the first FIQ World Bowling Championships are held in 1954 in Helsinki, Finland; in 1979 the Internat. Olympic Committee recognizes FIQ as the official governing body for bowling; in 2014 it is renamed World Bowling. On Apr. 10-15 the 1952 Stanley Cup Finals see the Detroit Red Wings sweep the Montreal Canadiens 4-0, shutting them out in two games and allowing only one goal in each of the other two games. On Apr. 12-25 after the NBA widens the foul lane from 6' to 12', the 1952 NBA Finals sees the Minneapolis Lakers (coach John Kundla) defeat the New York Knickerbockers (coach Joe Lapchick) by 4-3, becoming the first NBA 3-peat. On Apr. 26 the 1952 NBA Draft sees 10 teams select 106 players in 17 rounds; 6'4" forward ("the Owl without a Vowel") William P. "Bill" Mlkvy (1931-) of Temple U. (1951 NCAA scoring champion) is the territorial pick of the Philadelphia Warriors (#16), playing only one season; 6'9" forward-center Mark Cecil Workman (1930-83) of the U. of W. Va. is selected #1 by the Milwaukee Hawks (#12), but goes on a tour of Europe with the Harlem Globetrotters before playing for the Phildelphia Warriors (#24), switching to the Baltimore Bullets (#24) in 1953-4, ending his career with a measly 4.9 points, 2.9 rebounds, and 0.6 assists per game; 6'10" forward-center Clyde Edward Lovellette (1929-) of the U. of Kansas (MVP of the 1942 NCAA title team, leading the NCAA with a record 141 points, known for his 1-handed set shot) is selected #9 by the Minneapolis Lakers (#34), going on to help them win the 1954 NBA title, followed by the Cincinnati Royals (#89) in 1957-8, the St. Louis Hawks (#34) in 1958-62, and the Boston Celtics (#4) in 1962, helping them win the 1963 and 1964 titles; 6'7" forward-center Don "Monk" Meineke (1930-2013) of the U. of Dayton is selected #12 by the Fort Wayne Pistons (#17), going on to win the first NBA Rookie of the Year Award. On May 3 CBS-TV broadcasts the Kentucky Derby live for the first time; Eddie Arcaro (1916-97) rides Hill Gail (1949-68) to his 5th Derby win. On May 30 the 1952 (36th) Indianapolis 500 is won by Troy Ruttman (1930-97) after leader Bill Vukovich breaks a steering linkage with 9 laps to go, becoming the youngest winner (22 years 80 days) (until ?), and last dirt track car to win (until ?); he also becomes the youngest winner of a world drivers' championship race (until 2003). On June 21 ML baseball bans the signing of women to contracts, which they don't drop until 1992 with the drafting of Carey Schueler for the 1993 season by the Chicago White Sox. On Sept. 23 "Broxton Bomber" Rocky Marciano (Rocco Francis Marchegiano) (1923-69) KOs "Jersey" Joe Walcott in round 13 to become world heavyweight boxing champ #18 (until 1956). On ? rookie Los Angeles Rams defensive back Richard "Dick" "Night Train" Lane (1928-2002) gets a record 14 regular season interceptions, going on to become the #1 cornerback in the NFL. Joe DiMaggio's jersey number (#5) is officially retired by the New York Yankees. Pitcher Thomas Kinnerly "Tom" Wolfe Jr. (1931-) is cut by the New York Giants baseball team after only two days (weak fastball), prompting him to begin a writing career. Boxer Joe Louis (1914-81) breaks golf's color barrier by appearing under a sponsor's exemption in a PGA event; the PGA later grants him posth. honorary membership. James Cobb sets a water speed record of 206.89 mph on Loch Ness in Scotland, but is killed while doing it. The first black Miss District of Columbia USA pageant is held in Washington, D.C. in parallel with the white Miss District of Columbia pageant (founded 1921). Architecture: English architect Lionel Gordon Baliol Brett, 4th Viscount Esher (1914-2004) designs Hatfield New Town in England, featuring terraced houses with cozy gardens; too bad, the flat roofs approximate aerofoils, and on Nov. 3-4, 1957 a severe gale blows many of them off. The 307-ft. (94m) glass-box skyscraper Lever House at 390 Park Ave. in midtown Manhattan, NY. (designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill) is completed as the new HQ for Lever Brothers Co., designed in the Internat. Style of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, becoming the 2nd curtain wall skyscraper in New York City after the UN HQ, causing Park Ave. to begin changing from masonry apt. bldgs. to glass towers. Alvar Aalto (1896-1976) designs the internat. style Saynatsalo Town Hall in Finland. The 12-story 337-apt. L'Unite (L'Unité) d'Habitation apt. house in S Marseille, France designed by Le Corbusier (begun 1947) is finished, with a plan to become "social condensers", complete with day care and terrace on the roof, a shopping center on an upper floor, interior "streets", the whole thing resting on big legs (pilotis), raising it off the surrounding landscape; a hit, it is cloned in Nantes (1955), Berlin (1957), Briey (1963), and Firminy (1965), spawning the ugly Brutalist Architectural Style (Fr. "béton brut" = raw concrete), which tries to showcase the material used in a rough form, coined by Swedish architect Hans Asplund. Cirencester Park (pr. like sister) polo ground near Cirencester, Gloucestershire, England is reopened by Earl Bathurst. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) (French Equatorial Africa) (Oct. 30) (uses the $33K prize money to expand his hospital in French Equatorial Africa and build a leper colony); Lit.: Francois Charles Mauriac (1885-1970) (France); Physics: Edward Mills Purcell (1912-) and Felix Bloch (1905-83) (U.S.) [nuclear magnetic resonance]; Chem.: Archer John Porter Martin (1910-) and Richard Laurence Millington Synge (1914-94) (England) [chromatography]; Medicine: Selman Abraham Waksman (1888-1973) (U.S.) [streptomycin]. Inventions: On Apr. 15 the $8M straight-swept-wing 8-turbopro-engine Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, AKA BUFF (Big Ugly Fat Fucker) makes its first flight, replacing the Convair B-36 as a strategic nuclear weapons delivery platform in 1955, and inactivated in 1992, going on to drop only conventional munitions in combat; it can carry a payload of 25-40 tons nonstop at 50K ft. at almost Mach 1 for 8.8K mi. without refueling; it goes into daily operation in 1956, becoming the symbol of U.S. strength and know-how, ruling the Cold War, and spawning bouffant (beehive) "B-52" hairdos for women; the 3rd plane built becomes the first of several equipped to carry the X-15 rocket-propelled plane; a B-52 is the first plane to be refueled in the air, via a Boeing KC-135 tanker; the last of 744 production models, a B-52H is delivered in 1962; it goes on to become the world's longest-flying military aircraft, and is not scheduled for retirement until 2040, becoming the best military weapons investment in history? On Apr. 29 IBM introduces the IBM 701 Computer (Defense Calculator), becoming the first commercial scientific computer, with 2,048 to 4,096 36-bit words implemented by Williams tubes, relying on punched card input; after introducing the business-oriented IBM 702 Computer, the pres. of Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. tells new IBM pres. #2 (1952-71) Thomas John Watson Jr. (1914-93) that the *!?! punched cards take three floors of space to store, and threatens to cancel their contract, spurring development of the magnetic core and drum memory. On Oct. 15 the Douglas X-3 Stiletto makes its first flight, featuring a slender fuselage and long tapered nose, incl. the first use of titanium in major airframe components to achieve Mach 2.63 (1K mph); too bad, it fails to even achieve Mach 1, and is retired on May 23, 1956. Am. Machine and Foundry Co. (AMF) of Brooklyn, N.Y. (founded 1900) begins marketing the AMF Automatic Pinspotter (Pinsetter) for bowling alleys, eliminating pinboys, causing a rapid growth that makes the 1950s the Decade of the Bowler. Boehringer Ingelheim of West Germany begins marketing Dulcolax, a laxative preparation based on Bisacodyl. Evanston, Ill.-born aeronautical engineer Richard Travis Whitcomb (1921-2009) of Langley Memorial Aeronautical Lab in Va. discovers the Whitcomb Area Rule for Supersonic Aircraft Design, which reduces drag and increases speed without additional power by narrowing the fuselage at the wing location, revolutionizing supersonic aircraft; he later invents winglets for transport planes to increase the lift-to-drag ratio; too bad, the Area Rule was actually discovered by Junkers engineer Otto Frenzl in 1943, and the Germans had already used it in their designs, but since they lost WWII, a Yankee gets the credit? The U.S. Nat. Bureau of Standards develops the first cesium atomic clock. A contraceptive pill made of phosphorated hesperidin is developed. The Gibson Les Paul solid body electric guitar is first sold, becoming a worthy competitor to the Fender Stratocaster and Telecaster. J. Halcombe "Hal" Laning Jr. (1920-2012) of MIT develops George, the first algebraic compiler on the Whirlwind computer, translating algebraic expressions into programs for a floating-point interpreter. After Am. salesman Gerry Thomas (1922-2005) and Am. bacteriologist Betty Cronin invent TV Dinners to utilize 500K lbs. of unsold Thanksgiving turkeys, copying a food tray used in an airliner and increasing it to three compartments, then figuring out how to make the ingredients cook in unision, their employer C.A. Swanson & Sons of Omaha, Neb., run by Swedish immigrant Charles A. Swanson (1879-1949) and his sons Gilbert C. Swanson and W. Clarke Swanson introduce the first Swanson's TV Dinner, consisting of turkey, cornbread, gravy, buttered peas, and whipped buttered sweet potatoes, all for 98 cents (later as low as 69 cents); 5K are sold the first year, and 10M the next; the watery sweet potatoes are soon replaced with regular potatoes; fried chicken with a brownie, and Salisbury steak soon follow; the traditional family dinner is doomed, and homemaker women start getting ideas about going to work? An article in Collier's by Wernher von Braun predicts orbiting space stations. John T. "Jack" Mullin (1913-99) and Wayne R. Johnson invent hi-fidelity videotape. Richard Buckminster "Bucky" Fuller (1885-1983) invents the Geodesic Dome. Science: The Big 100 Year in Science? The synthetic elements Einsteinium (Es) (#99) and Fermium (Fm) (#100) are discovered in the debris of the first H-bomb explosion by Albert Ghiroso (1915-2010) et al. of UCB and the Argonne Lab. On Sept. 2 after Wilfred Gordon "Bill" Bigelow (1913-2005) of the U. of Toronto discovers that open heart surgeries are best done after the heart is stopped and drained of blood, Clarence Walton "Walt" Lillehei (1918-99) and Floyd John Lewis (1916-93) of the U. of Minn. perform the first successful open heart surgery to correct a congenital heart defect using hypothermia; in 1953 Soviet surgeon Alexander Alexandrovich Vishnevsky (1906-75) does it using only local anesthesia after making the patient's blood bypass his exposed heart. On Mar. 14 the Qumran Copper Scroll is discovered in Cave 3, the last of 15 scrolls discovered; it contains a list of locations where gold and silver items are hidden; it is dated to 50-100 C.E. The first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is pub. by the Am. Psychiatric Assoc. (APA); it is revised in 1968, 1980/7, 1994, and 2000. Westfield, N.J.-born obstetrical anesthesiologist Virginia Apgar (1909-74) devises the Apgar Test (Score) to assess the health of newborn children, incl. Appearance (Cyanosis), Pulse Rate, Grimace (Reflex Irritability), Activity (Muscle Tone), and Respiration, with each component having a score of 0, 1, or 2, and a total score of 3 and less being regarded as critical, and 7+ as normal. Am. physicist Donald Arthur Glaser (1926-) invents the Bubble Chamber for use in particle physics experiments, winning him the 1960 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. geneticists Alfred Day Hershey (1908-97) and Martha Cowles Chase (Epstein) (1927-2003) of Cold Spring Harbor Lab in N.Y. use radioactive tracing to prove that DNA is the true carrier of heredity in the Hershey-Chase Blender Experiment, inspiring James D. Watson and Francis Crick to search for the structure of DNA; too bad, Hershey wins the 1969 Nobel Medicine Prize along with his Italian-Am. research partner Salvador Luria and German partner Max Delbruck (1906-81), but Chase is snubbed. Am. biologists Robert Briggs (1911-83) and Thomas J. King (1921-2000) clone northern leopard frogs using nuclear transfer, becoming the first Cloned Animal, causing a research feeding frenzy. ? Cyram and ? Becker demonstrate a statistical connection between death frequency and weather. Am. surgeon Charles A. Hufnagel (1916-89) invents a plastic artificial heart valve, becoming the first functionally moving artificial body part. Am. physician Nathan S. Kline (1916-82) pioneers the drug Reperine (found in snakeroot) as an antidepressant drug, and Reserpine as an antihypertensive, which also used to treat schizophrenia. Russian linguist Yuri Knorosov (1922-99) cracks pesky Mayan writing, whose key had been lost since the burning of Mayan books by Spanish bishop Diego de Landa in the 1560s, ironically using an abridged vers. of a book he himself wrote trying to justify his actions to the Spanish govt., which he retrieved from the Berlin State Library in 1945 while in the Red Army; too bad, the Cold War causes Western scholars to disbelieve him for a decade. Chicago, Ill.-born economist Harry Max Markowitz (1927-) pub. the Harry Markowitz Model of Portfolios, which is based on the expected returns (mean) and standard deviation (variance); in 1961 Jack L. Treynor pub. the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), which is based on the Markowitz model, emphasizing diversification; in 1964 William Forsyth Sharpe (1934-) independently pub. the CAPM, followed by John Virgil Lintner Jr. (1916-83) in 1965, and Jan Mossin (1936-87) in 1966; in 1990 Markowitz and Sharpe share the 1990 Nobel Econ. Prize for it. In Mar. Am. journalist William Hollingsworth "Holly" Whyte Jr. (1917-99) coins the term "Groupthink"; in Nov. 1971 Buffalo, N.Y.-born psychologist Irving Lester Janis (1918-90) pub. the article "Groupthink" in Psychology Today, recoining the term. Nonfiction: Anon., Majestic-12 Preliminary Briefing for President-Elect Eisenhower (Nov. 18); an alleged top secret Truman panel reports on the 1947 Roswell, N.M. incident and others, and concludes that four "human-like beings" recovered near the wrecked craft are not human or of this Earth. Franklin Pierce Adams (1881-1960), The F.P.A. Book of Quotations. Mortimer Adler (1902-2001), Robert Maynard Hutchins (1899-1977) et al. (eds.), Great Books of the Western World (52 vols.); bestseller (1M copies), causing Adler to make the cover of the Mar. 17 issue of Time mag., becoming known as "the Supersalesman of Philosophy" and "the Charles Atlas of Western Intellection"; "Like a Socratic travelling salesman, he has moved up and down the country... causing acute attacks of thought in thousands of college students"; too bad, by the mid-1960s liberal academia begins chucking his program. Herbert Sebastian Agar (1897-1980), Abraham Lincoln. Conrad Aiken (1889-1973), Ushant: An Essay (autobio.). Frederick Lewis Allen (1890-1954), The Big Change: America's Transformation 1900-1950. Tommy Armour (1894-1968), How to Play Your Best Golf All the Time; bestseller. Isaac Asimov (1920-92), Foundation and Empire. Clarence Ayres (1891-1972), The Industrial Economy: Its Technological Basis and Insitutional Destiny; combines Thorstein Veblen's idea of the Darwinian struggle between technological (instrumental) and institutional (ceremonial) structure with John Dewey's concept of Instrumentalism to create Institutionalist Dualism AKA the Veblenian Dichotomy, where there is an "institutional lag" that keep socio-cultural institutions one step behind er, behind technological changes. Joe Staten Bain (1912-91), Price Theory. Roland Herbert Bainton (1894-1984), The Reformation of the Sixteenth Century. Tallulah Bankhead (1902-68), Tallulah (autobio.); "I'll go to my grave convinced that I could have drawn the cheers of Longstreet and Beauregard and Robert E. Lee had I been permitted to wrestle with Rhett Butler" (on her rejected screen test for Scarlett O'Hara). Paul Alexander Baran (1909-64), The Political Economy of Underdevelopment. William Jack Baumol (1922-), The Transactions Demand for Cash: An Inventory Theoretic Approach. Am. Bible Society, Revised Standard Version of the Bible (Sept. 30); revision of the 1901 Am. Standard Version, which is a revision of the 1611 King James Version; pub. after 32 Protestant scholars work on it for 15 years. Samuel Behrman (1893-1973), Joseph Duveen; English art dealer Joseph Duveen (1869-1939). Thomas Hart Benton (1889-1975), An Artist in America (autobio.). Emory Stephen Bogardus (1882-1973), Principles of Cooperation. Henri Cartier-Bresson (1908-2004), The Decisive Moment (Images a la Sauvette); title from the quote "There is nothing in this world that does not have a decisive moment" by Cardinal de Retz. Charles Dunbar Broad (1887-1971), Ethics and the History of Philosophy. Paul Brunton (1898-1981), The Spiritual Crisis of Man; "A million people will eagerly follow a glib leader who raises contentious clamour and leads them to ultimate destruction, when only a few people will follow an inspired spiritual leader who leads them to true blessedness. This shows the faulty sense of values which prevails among people who are entirely ignorant of the fact that if their inner attitude toward life is wrong, their outer personal, political and economic affairs will go wrong. It shows that the reason why the mass of mankind cannot make a success of their civilization is because they cannot make a success of themselves. Not having enough faith in, or leading by, higher forces, they put their faith in destructive ones." Martin Buber (1878-1965), The Chassidic Message. William F. Buckley Jr. (1925-2008), God and Man at Yale; criticizes his alma mater as a den of atheistic collectivism and argues for a new conservativism based on the nat. interest and a higher morality. social analysis are an indispensable part of literary history". Alan Bullock (1914-2004), Hitler: A Study in Tyranny; the first comprehensive bio. of the Fuhrer, based on the Nuremberg Trials transcripts, painting him as a machpolitiker (power politician) and an opportunistic "mountebank", with the soundbyte "Hitler was jobbed into power by backstairs intrigue", pissing-off fellow British historian Hugh Trevor-Roper (1914-2003), who claims that Hitler was motivated by beliefs not merely lust for powah, getting into a pissing contest with him; Bullock later admits that Hitler did have beliefs, viz., those expressed in "Mein Kampf", which makes him responsible for the Holocaust - it's not his fault it's his glands? James MacGregor Burns (1918-2014), Government by the People; becomes a a popular textbook (20th ed. in 2003). Sir Herbert Butterfield (1900-79), Christianity in European History. Hereward Carrington (1880-1959), Psychic Oddities: Fantastic and Bizarre Events in the Life of a Psychical Researcher. Bruce Catton (1899-1978), Glory Road; 2nd in the Civil War trilogy. Whittaker Chambers (1901-61), Witness (autobio.); how he became a Commie apostate in 1938. Frank Chodorov (1877-1966), One is a Crowd: Reflections of an Individualist; The Income Tax: Root of All Evil. Jim Corbett (1875-1955), My India; trigger-happy British hunter, known for killing man-eating tigers from 1910-38. A.C. Crombie, Augustine to Galileo: The History of Science, AD 400-1650 (2 vols). A.J. Cronin (1896-1981), Adventures in Two Worlds (autobio.). Ely Culbertson (1891-1955), Point-Count Bidding. Laraine Day (1920-2007), Day With the Giants; about her hubby (1947-60) Leo "The Lip" Durocher. Salvador Dali (1904-89), Diary of a Genius (1952-63). George Dangerfield (1904-86),The Era of Good Feelings (1952) (Pulitzer Prize) (Bancroft Prize),; covers from the start of the War of 1812 to the start of Andrew Jackson's admin. on Mar. 4, 1829, showing the political transition "from the great dictum that central government is best when it governs least to the great dictum that central government must sometimes intervene strongly on behalf of the weak and the oppressed and the exploited." Christopher Henry Dawson (1889-1970), Understanding Europe; calls for Europe to rediscover its Christian foundations. Bernard DeVoto (1897-1955), The Course of Empire. David Herbert Donald (1920-2009) et al., Divided We Fought: A Pictorial History of the War, 1861-1865. Norman Douglas (1868-1953), Footnote on Capri. W.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963), In Battle for Peace: The Story of My 83rd Birthday (June). Mircea Eliade (1907-86), Images and Symbols. Fritz Fanon (1925-61), Black Skin, White Masks (Peau Noire, Masques Blancs); the psychology of racism and colonialism. Louis Fischer (1896-1970), Stalin. Raymond Blaine Fosdick (1883-), The Story of the Rockefeller Foundation. Frank Freidel (1916-93), Franklin D. Roosevelt (5 vols.) (1952-1973); first major bio. of FDR, after he becomes one of the first scholars to work on his papers stored in the Roosevelt Library in Hyde Park, N.Y.; incl. "The Apprenticeship" (1952), "The Ordeal" (1954), "The Triumph" (1956), "F.D.R. and the South" (1965), and "Launching the New Deal" (1973); he dies leaving vol. 6 unfinished. Martin Gardner (1914-2010), Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science (In the Name of Science: An Entertaining Survey of the High Priests and Cultists of Science, Past and Present); goes after Dianetics, Velikovsky, Bridey Murphy, flying saucer nuts et al. Peter Gay (1923-2015), The Dilemma of Democratic Socialism: Eduard Bernstein's Challenge to Marx (first book). Alexander Gelfond (1906-68), Transcendental and Algebraic Numbers. Sir Lawrence Gowing (1918-91), Vermeer. Martyn Green (1899-1975), Here's a How-de-do (autobio.). James Norman Hall (1887-1951), My Island Home (autobio.). Mark Harris (1922-2007), City of Discontent: An Interpretive Biography of Vachel Lindsay [1879-1931], Being Also the Story of Springfield, Illinois, USA, and of the Love for the Poet for That City, That State, and That Nation, by Henry W. Wiggen; introduces his alter ego. J. Hawkes and C. Hawkes, Prehistoric Britain. Friedrich Hayek (1899-1992), The Sensory Order: An Inquirty into the Foundations of Theoretical Psychology; expands Hebbian synapse theory into a global brain theory; claims that perception cannot be accounted for by means of physical laws, since the effect of sensory stimulus is the first aspect of the complex order of perception, after which the mind maps the order of the external stimulus; this perceptual experience, however, is not identical to any other from a similar external stimulus since each has its own character in relation to the associations that the mind assigns to any particular sensory experience, and our perception of external objects are "never of all the properties which a particular can be said to possess objectively, not even only some of the properties which these objects in fact possess physically, but always on certain aspects, relations to other kinds of objects which we assign to all elements of the classes in which we place the perceived objects." Maurice Herzog (1919-), Annapurna; bestseller (11M copies); his June 3, 1950 climb of Mt. Annapurna without oxygen, making him the first to climb a peak over 8Km high, after which nobody else does it until 1970; "There are other Annapurnas in the lives of men". Hedda Hopper (1885-1966), From Under My Hat (autobio.). Irving Howe (1920-93), William Faulkner: A Critical Study. L. Ron Hubbard (1911-86), Scientology: A History of Man (July) (originally "What to Audit: A List and Description of the Principal Incidents to Be Found in a Human Being"); pub. by Hubbard's Scientific Press in Phoenix, Ariz.; "a coldblooded and factual account of your last sixty trillion years", describing incidents that occurred to the thetan (genetic entity) in past lives and cause engrams (neuroses) that have to be "run out" using an E-meter, incl. "The Atom"; "The Cosmic Impact"; "The Photo Converter"; "The Helper"; "The Clam", "a deadly incident" involving a "scalloped-lip, white-shelled creature" suffering from a "double-hinge problem. One hinge wishes to stay open, the other tries to close, thus conflict occurs", after which the Clam's hinges "later become the hinges of the human jaw", while the Clam's method of reproduction via spores causes toothaches, containing the famous soundbyte: "Should you desire to confirm this, describe to some uninitiated person the death of a clam without saying what you are describing. 'Can you imagine a clam sitting on the beach, opening and closing its shell very rapidly?' (Make a motion with your thumb and forefinger of a rapid opening and closing). The victim may grip his jaws with his hand and feel quite upset. He may even have to have a few teeth pulled: At the very least he will argue as to whether or not the shell stays open at the end or closed. And he will, with no hint of the death aspect of it, talk about the 'poor clam' and he will feel quite sad emotionally"; The Weeper/Boohoo; The Volcanoes; Being Eaten; The Birds; The Sloth; The Ape; The Piltdown Man; The Caveman; The Halver (sex vs. religious compulsion); Facsimile One (closing down the Pineal gland, Hinduism's third eye); the book bcomes required reading for the OT level; the cover features an eye-catching drawing of a hairy caveman eating off an animal's thigh bone; Scientology 8-80: The Discovery and Increase of Life Energy in the Genus Homo Sapiens (Nov.); describes the basic laws which the thetan can use to create energy and influence his environment and handle stuck (uncontrolled) energy; "Herein lies the substance of the legendary discoveries of Aesthetics, Beauty and Ugliness, Black and White, Agree and Disagree and, in total, the means by which to rehabilitate a thetan's inherent ability to create energy with sufficient output to overpower and explode the facsimiles that have enslaved him"; Scientology 8-8008 (Dec.); 8-8008 is a symbol for the reduction of the MEST Universe to zero along with expansion of one's personal universe to infinity. Aldous Huxley (1894-1963), The Devils of Loudun; about burned priest Urbain Grandier (1590-1634) and a convent of Ursuline nuns who became possessed after he made a pact with Satan; adapted for the stage in 1960, and filmed in 1971 by Ken Russell as "The Devils", starring Vanessa Redgrave and Oliver Reed; made into the opera "Die Teufel von Loudun" by Krzystof Pendereck; "No man can concentrate his attention upon evil, or even upon the idea of evil, and remain unaffected. To be more against the devil than for God is exceedingly dangerous." Burl Ives (1909-95), Wayfaring Stranger (autobio.). C.E.M. Joad (1891-1953), The Recovery of Belief: A Restatement of Christian Philosophy; his conversion from atheism to Christianity as he dies from cancer caused by being convicted in 1948 of riding on a train without paying. Augustus John (1878-1961), Chiaroscuro (autobio.). Alvin Saunders Johnson (1874-1971), Pioneer's Progress: An Autobiography. Carl Jung (1875-1961), Antwort auf Hiob. Adm. Ernest Joseph King (1878-1956) (with Walter Whitehill), Fleet Admiral King; top dog of the U.S. Navy in WWII - with a George Washington neck? John Frederick Lehmann (1907-87), Edith Sitwell. Claude Levi-Strauss (1908-2009), Race and History. C.S. Lewis (1898-1963), Mere Christianity; 1943 BBC broadcasts become a best-selling Christian apology; "A man who was merely a man and said the sort of things Jesus said would not be a great moral teacher. He would either be a lunatic - on the level with a man who says he is a poached egg - or he would be the devil of hell. You must take your choice. Either this was, and is, the Son of God, or else a madman or something worse... But let us not come with any patronizing nonsense about His being a great human teacher. He has not left that open to us. He did not intend to." Wyndham Lewis (1882-1957), The Writer and the Absolute; essays on George Orwell, Jean-Paul Sartre, Andre Malraux et al. Catherine Marshall, A Man Called Peter. John Masefield (1878-1967), So Long to Learn (autobio.). W. Somerset Maugham (1874-1965), Vagrant Mood (essays). David John Mays (1896-1971), Edmund Pendleton, 1721-1803 (2 vols.) (Pulitzer Prize). Agnes de Mille (1905-93), Dance to the Piper (autobio.). Richard McKeon (1900-85), Freedom and History: The Semantics of Philosophical Controversies and Ideological Conflicts. Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950), Letters (posth.). A.A. Milne (1882-1956) and E.H. Shepard, Year In, Year Out (essays) (last book). Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973), Planning for Freedom. Alan Moorehead (1910-83), The Traitors; Klaus Fuchs, Nunn May, Gillo Pontecorvo. Edmund Sears Morgan (1916-2013), Virginians at Home: Family Life in the Eighteenth Century. Grandma Moses (1860-1961), My Life's History (autobio). Eustace Mullins (1923-2010), Mullins on the Federal Reserve; repub. in 1983 as "The Secrets of the Federal Reserve"; a visit with Ezra Pound in 1949 starts him on a quest to trace out a gigantic internat. conspiracy of Jewish bankers, making him a top conspiracy theorist. Sir Harold Nicolson (1886-1968), King George V: His Life and His Reign; wins him a gay knighthood. Reinhold Niebuhr (1892-1971), Christ and Culture; The Irony of American History; criticizes the U.S. social gospel movement. Sean O'Casey (1890-1964), Rose and Crown (autobio.); vol. 5 of "Mirror in My House". Lord John Boyd Orr (1880-1971), The White Man's Dilemma. Elliot Harold Paul (1896-1958), The Black Gardenia. Cesare Pavese, Il Mestiere de Vivere (diary). Norman Vincent Peale (1898-1993), The Power of Positive Thinking; bestseller (5M copies); so appealing a mix of Christianity and materialism that it can't help but become a big bestseller?; "Change your thoughts and you change the world"; "When you become detached mentally from yourself and concentrate on helping other people with their difficulties, you will be able to cope with your own more effectively. Somehow, the act of self-giving is a personal power-releasing factor"; too bad in 1960 he stinks himself up as a spokesman for 150 Protestant clergymen who oppose the election of John F. Kennedy as U.S. pres., with the soundbyte: "Faced with the election of a Catholic, our culture is at stake." Dexter Perkins, The American Approach to Foreign Policy. Charles Petrie (1895-1977), Monarchy in the Twentieth Century. Jean Piaget (1896-1980), The Origins of Intelligence in Children; The Child's Conception of Number. Francis Poge (1899-1988), La Rage de l'Expression. Llewelyn Powys (1884-1939), Llewelyn Powys: A Selection (posth.); ed. Kenneth Hopkins. J.B. Priestley (1894-1984) and Jacquetta Hawkes (1910-96), Dragon's Mouth; they marry next year. Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1957), Structure and Function in Primitive Society (posth.). Archibald Robertson (1886-1961), How to Read History. Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), The Impact of Science on Society; "War has hitherto been disappointing in this respect [in accomplishing population reduction], but perhaps bacteriological war may prove effective. If a Black Death could spread throughout the world once in every generation, survivors could procreate freely without making the world too full." Erwin Schrodinger (1887-1961), Science and Humanism. Annalee Skarin (1899-1988), Ye Are Gods (first book); promotes love, praise, and gratitude to achieve "translation" directly to Heaven to avoid the "dreary backdoor entrance" of physical death, getting her excommunicated by the LDS Church. Charles Sackett Sydnor (1898-1954), Gentlemen Freeholders: Political Practices in Washington's Virginia; how the contending forces of aristocracy and democracy coexisted in gen. harmony, with the members of the House of Burgesses chosen so that they were "more or less acceptable both to the leaders and to the rank and file of the voters" after being screened "first by the gentry and then by the freeholders". Masaharu Taniguchi (1893-1985) and Fenwicke Holmes (1883-1973), The Science of Faith: How to Make Yourself Believe. Charles Callan Tansill (1890-1964), Back Door to War: The Roosevelt Foreign Policy 1933-1941; claims that FDR suckered Japan into Pearl Harbor to involve the U.S. in the Euro war through the you know what in order to preserve the British Empire, causing a firestorm of controversy, later getting him confused with Holocaust deniers. Telford Taylor (1908-98), Sword and Swastika: Generals and Nazis in the Third Reich. Paul Tillich (1886-1965), The Courage to Be; introduces his ideas to the gen. public; "Sociological analysis of the present period have pointed to the importance of anxiety as a group phenomenon. Literature and art have made anxiety a main theme of their creations, in content as well as in style. The effect of this has been the awakening of at least the educated groups to an awareness of their own anxiety, and a permeation of the public consciousness by ideas and symbols of anxiety. Today it has become almost a truism to call our time an 'age of anxiety.' This holds equally for America and Europe..."; "I suggest that we distinguish three types of anxiety according to the three directions in which nonbeing threatens being. Nonbeing threatens man's ontic self-affirmation, relatively in terms of fate, absolutely in terms of death. It threatens man's spiritual self-affirmation, relatively in terms of emptiness, absolutely in terms of meaninglessness. It threatens man's moral self-affirmation, relatively in terms of guilt, absolutely in terms of condemnation. The awareness of this threefold threat is anxiety appearing in three forms, that of fate and death (briefly, the anxiety of death), that of emptiness and loss of meaning (briefly, the anxiety of meaninglessness), that of guilt and condemnation (briefly, the anxiety of condemnation). In all three forms anxiety is existential in the sense that it belongs to existence as such and not to an abnormal state of mind as in neurotic (and psychotic) anxiety"; "The anxiety of meaninglessness is anxiety about the loss of an ultimate concern, of a meaning which gives meaning to all meanings. This anxiety is aroused by the loss of a spiritual center, of an answer, however symbolic and indirect, to the question of the meaning of existence"; "The distinction of the three types of anxiety is supported by the history of Western civilization. We find that at the end of ancient civilization ontic anxiety is predominant, at the end of the Middle Ages moral anxiety, and at the end of the modern period spiritual anxiety. But in spite of the predominance of one type the others are also present and effective"; "The breakdown of absolutism, the development of liberalism and democracy, the rise of a technical civilization with its victory over all enemies and its own beginning disintegration-these are the sociological presupposition for the third main period of anxiety. In this the anxiety of emptiness and meaninglessness is dominant. We are under the threat of spiritual nonbeing." Immanuel Velikovsky (1895-1979), Ages in Chaos: From the Exodus to King Akhnaton; controversial revised chronology of ancient Egypt. Eric Voegelin (1901-85), The New Science of Politics: An Introduction; his Walgreen Lectures; coins the phrase "Immanentize the eschaton", i.e., attempting to bring heaven to Earth now, bypassing the judgment day, which conservatives apply to Communism, Socialism, and Nazism, becoming a favorite of William F. Buckley. Walter Prescott Webb (1888-1963), Handbook of Texas (2 vols.); followed by "New Handbook of Texas" (6 vols.) (1996). William Appleton Williams (1921-90), American-Russian Relations, 1781-1947 (first book). Ola Elizabeth Winslow (1885-1977), Meetinghouse Hill, 1630-1738; religious life in colonial New England. Michael Young (1915-2002), Fifty Million Unemployed. Art: Milton Avery (1885-1965), Sheep. Balthus (1908-2001), The Room (Le Chambre) (1952-4); nude pubescent girl lounges on a chair in the light of a huge window whose curtains are being pulled back by a sinister dwarf? John Randall Bratby (1928-92), The Kitchen Sink; founds unheroic everyday life "kitchen sink realism", coined by Anthony David Bernard Sylvester (1924-2001), which incl. Royal College of Art artists Jack Smith (1928-), Derrick Greaves (1927-), and Edward Middleditch (1923-87). Marc Chagall (1887-1985), The Green Night. Mary Chenoweth, Yellow Abstract. Salvador Dali (1904-89), Galatea of the Spheres; his wife Gala Dali deconstructed into a series of spheres; his attempt to reconcile Roman Catholicism with nuclear physics? Raoul Dufy (1877-1953), The Pink Violin. Jacob Epstein (1880-1959), Madonna and Child (sculpture) (Cavendish Square, London). Helen Frankenthaler (1928-), Mountains and Sea; new Color Field technique of staining canvases with paint to create sensuous abstract works? Lucian Freud (1922-), Girl in Bed; his future wife (1953-8) Lady Caroline Blackwood (1931-96). Paul Hartman, Cityscape. Roberto Matta (1911-2002), Pecador Justificado; Eclosion. Bill Mauldin (1921-2003), Bill Mauldin in Korea; Korean War cartoons. Henry Moore (1898-1986), Sculptures for the Time-Life Bldg. in London (1952-3). Barnett Newman (1905-70), Prometheus Bound; Achilles; Onement V. Jackson Pollock (1912-56), Blue Poles (No. 11, 1952). No. 12, 1952; Convergence. Georges Rouault (1871-1958), End of Autumn. Jose David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896-1974), From the Dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz to the Revolution (mural) (Mexico City) (1952-56, 1966); uses synthetic resin paints. George Woodcock (1912-95), Ravens and Prophets. Music: Johnny Ace (1929-54), My Song (debut); first of 8 hits in a row. Samuel Barber (1910-81), Souvenirs, Op. 28; incl. Hesitation Tango (piano duet), Waltz, Galop. Sir Arnold Bax (1883-1953), Coronation March. Leonard Bernstein (1918-90), Trouble in Tahiti (opera) (Waltham, Mass.) Boris Blacher (1903-75), Preussisches Marchen (opera-ballet); Piano Concerto No. 2. Jimmy Boyd (1939-2009), I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus (July 25) (#1 in the U.S.) (#3 in the UK.); composed by Tommie Connor; commissioned by Saks Fifth Avenue to promote their Christmas card featuring artwork by Perry Barlow; banned in Boston, making it more popular?; watch video. Teresa Brewer (1931-2007), Gonna Get Along Without You Now; 'Til I Waltz Again With You. John Cage (1912-92), 4'33"; 4 min. 33 sec. in which no sound is called for; a 3-movement piece with silences of different lengths - I want my money back? Rosemary Clooney (1928-2002), Tenderly; pub. in 1946 by Walter Lloyd Gross (1909-67) and Jack Lawrence. Nat King Cole (1919-65), Penthouse Serenade. Perry Como (1912-2001), Don't Let the Stars Get In Your Eyes. Tommie Connor, I Saw Mommy Kissing Santa Claus. Alma Cogan (1932-66), To Be Worthy of You; launches her career, becoming the highest-paid female British entertainer of the decade; too bad, she proves too square for the Beatles era. Paul Creston (1906-85), Symphony No. 4. Bing Crosby (1903-77) and Jane Wyman (1917-2007), In the Cool, Cool, Cool of the Evening; from the film "Here Comes the Groom". Fats Domino (1928-2017), Goin' Home; Poor Poor Me; How Long. Tommy Edwards (1922-69), Please Mr. Sun. Percy Faith (1908-76), Delicado. Eddie Fisher (1928-2010), Lady of Spain; written in 1931 by Robert Hargreaves, Tolchard Evans, Stanley J. Damerell, and Henry Tisley; "Don't play Lady of Spain ever again!" (Paul Newman in "Slap Shot", 1977). Red Foley (1910-68) and the Cumberland Valley Boys, Midnight (#1 country). Georgia Gibbs (1919-2006), Kiss of Fire; #1 hit for Mercury Records. Rosco Gordon (1928-2002), Booted; No More Doggin'; invents the "ska" beat. Buddy Greco (1926-2017), I Ran All the Way Home (#30 in the U.S.). Alexei Haieff (1914-94), Piano Concerto (New York) (Apr. 27, 1952). Roy Harris (1898-1979), Symphony No. 7. Bob Haymes (1923-89), That's All. Hans Werner Henze (1926-), Boulevard Solitude (opera) (Hanover). Paul Hindemith (1895-1963), Cardillac (opera); new version of 1926 opera. Joni James (1930-), Why Don't You Believe Me? (#1); You Belong to Me; Purple Shades. Andre Jolivet (1905-74), Concerto for Harp and Chamber Orchestra. Bronislau Kaper and Helen Deutsch, Hi-Lili, Hi-Lo; sung by Leslie Caron in the 1953 film "Lili". Eartha Kitt (1927-2008), Usku Dara. Arthur Kreutz (1906-91), Acres of Sky (opera) (New York). Gail Kubik (1914-84), Symphony Concertante (Pulitzer Prize). The Four Lads, The Mocking Bird (debut); from Canada, incl. James F. "Jimmy" Arnold (1932-2004) (lead), John Bernard "Bernie" Toorish 91931-) (tenor), Corrado "Connie" Codarini (bass), Frank Busseri (baritone); previously called the Otnorots and Jordonaires; Somebody Loves Me (written in 1924 by George Gershwin et al.). Rolf Liebermann (1910-99), Leonore 40/45 (opera). Vera Lynn (1917-), Auf Wiederseh'n Sweetheart; If You Love Me (Really Love Me). Al Martino (1927-), Here in My Heart; #1 in the first U.K. singles chart pub. by New Musical Express on Nov. 14. Olivier Messiaen (1908-92), Blackbird (Le Merle Noir). Ella Mae Morse (1924-99), Blacksmith Blues (#1 in the U.S.) (1M copies). Les Paul (1915-2009) and Mary Ford (1924-77), Bye Bye Blues; pub. in 1930 by Fred Hamm, Dave Bennett, Bert Lown, and Chauncey Gray; I'm Sitting On Top of the World; pub. in 1925 by Ray Henderson, Sam M. Lewis, and Joe Young. Lloyd Price (1933-), Lawdy Miss Clawdy (#1 in the U.S.) (1M copies); first rock and roll hit from New Orleans. Johnnie Ray (1927-90), All of Me; Don't Blame Me. Johnnie Ray and Doris Day (1924-), Candy Lips. Gardner Read, The Temptation of St. Anthony. Marty Robbins (1925-82), I"ll Go On Alone (debut) (#1 country). Carl Smith (1927-2010), Are You Teasing Me (#1 country); It's a Lovely, Lovely World (Since I Met You) (#5 country). Harry Everett Smith (1923-91), Anthology of American Folk Music (6 albums) (Folkways Records); 84 recordings originally issued in 1927-32, helping spur the Am. folk music revival of the 1950s-1960s; too bad, Smith is also a leader in the psychedelic New Age Beat movement in New York City, giving Am. folk music smelly underwear? Kay Starr (1922-), Wheel of Fortune (#1 in the U.S.). Oscar Straus (1870-1954), Bozena. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Cantata. Alexandre Tcherepnin, The Farmer and the Fairy (opera) (Aspen, Colo.) Big Mama Thornton (1926-84), Hound Dog (2M copies); written by songwriting team Jerome "Jerry" Leiber (1933-2011) and Michael "Mike" Stoller (1933-), who go on to write hits for Elvis Presley incl. "Jailhouse Rock", then turn around and crank out hits for black rockers using white teen vernacular, incl. "Young Blood", "There Goes My Baby", and "Yakety Yak". Kitty Wells (1919-2012), It Wasn't God Who Made Honky Tonk Angels (#1 country); an answer to Hank Thompson's "The Wild Side of Life"; the first female country singer to top the U.S. country charts, making her the first female country star. Slim Whitman (1924-), China Doll; Indian Love Call; song by Rudolf Friml in 1924, lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein; made famous by the 1996 film Mars Attacks!. Hank Williams (1923-53) and His Drifting Cowboys, Jambalaya (On the Bayou) (July) (#1 country) (co-written by Moon Mullican based on the Cajun French song "Grand Texas"); Half As Much (#2 country) (MGM Records) (written by Curley Williams, who is listed as C. Williams on the label, causing people to consider it a misprint and give credit to Hank); I'll Never Get Out of This World Alive (co-written by Fred Rose) (#1 country); you guessed it, self-prophecy? Movies: Vincente Minnelli's The Bad and the Beautiful (Dec. 25) (MGM) is the story of despised Hollywood producer Jonathan Shields (Kirk Douglas) (partly based on Val Lewton), told through the eyes of movie star Georgia Lorrison (Lana Turner), writer James Lee Bartlow (Dick Powell), and dir. Fred Amiel (Barry Sullivan); "I took you out of the gutter... I can fling you back"; wins five Oscars out of six nominations, becoming a record (until ?) for a film that was not nominated for best picture or best dir.; does $3.37M box office on a $1.55M budget. Vijay Bhatt's Baiju Bawra is a Bollywood film starring Baij Nath as Bharat Bhushan, a young singer in the court of Akbar the Great who avenges his father; the breakthrough role for Meena Kumari (1932-72) as Gauri, who always puts her man first. Raoul Walsh's Blackbeard the Pirate (Dec. 24), based on the story by DeVallon Scott stars Robert Newton as yet another "arrgh" pirate Blackbeard, along with William Bendix and Linda Darnell; Torin Thatcher plays Henry Morgan; blonde built looker Keith Andes plays surgeon Robert Maynard. Harmon Jones' Bloodhounds of Broadway, based on a 1931 Damon Runyon story is a musical starring Mitzi Gaynor as a Ga. country girl trying to break into show biz, who meets New York bookmaker Scott Brady. Jack Smith's Buzzards Over Baghdad is the debut for gay underground New York City filmmaker Jack Smith (1932-89); the real Andy Warhol? Henry Cass' B&W Castle in the Air (Dec. 26) (Associated British-Pathe), based on the 1949 Alan Melville play is a comedy ghost flick starring David Tomlinson as the penniless 19th earl of Locharne, who turns his dilapidated Scottish castle, haunted by family ghost Ermyntrude (Patricia Dainton) into a hotel, and when few want to live there tries to sell it to wealthy Am. divorcee Mrs. J. Clodfelter Dunne (Barbara Kelly) before it is requisitioned by British Nat. Coal Board official Mr. Phillips (Brian Oulton); Margaret Rutherford plays Miss Nicholson, who believes that the earl is the rightful king of Scotland; and Helen Cherry (wife of Trevor Howard) plays the earl's asst. Boss Trent, who vies for his affections with Mrs. Dunne; does Ł116.7K box office; "Imagine going through life with a name like Clodfelter. She claims to be descendant of my family, which proves she's a crackpot"; "Behind this wall is a sealed-up dungeon where Eric Darndell the 6th earl had his wife's tongue cut out. I understand they lived happily ever after"; "You can't mistake the goat. He's got straight trousers, a face like a rabbit, and the air of a man who's drunk with power"; does Ł116.7K box office. Fritz Lang's Clash by Night (June 16), based on a play by Clifford Odets stars Barbara Stanwyck as Mae Doyle D'Amato, who returns from New York to her fishing village a cynical woman and marries Jerry (Paul Douglas), while her brother Joe (Keith Andes) hooks up with hot cannery worker Peggy (Marilyn Monroe); too bad, well-built blond hunk Keith Andes (1920-2005) never quite makes the Hollywood A-list, ending up a trivia question? Daniel Mann's Come Back, Little Sheba (Dec. 24), based on the 1950 play by William Inge stars Shirley Booth as worn-out housewife Lola Delaney, Burt Lancaster as her abusive alcoholic hubby Doc Delaney, and Terry Moore as handsome boarder Marie Buckholder, who causes marital tension, all while Booth keeps looking for her lost dog. Zoltan Korda's Cry, the Beloved Cuntry (Jan. 23) (British Lion Films) (United Artists), based on the 1948 Alan Paton novel stars Canada Lee as Stephen Kumalo, and Sidney Poitier as Rev. Msimangu, who confront apartheid in the black slums of Johannesburg; does Ł95K box office in the U.K. Henri Vermeuil's Forbidden Fruit (Le Fruit Defendu) (released in the U.S. on Feb. 21, 1959), based on "Letter a Mon Juge" by Georges Simenon stars Fernandel as a widowed country doctor who lives with his domineering mother Sylvie, marries Claude Nollier, and hooks up with young ho Francois Arnoul. Rene Clement's Forbidden Games (Jeux Interdits) is an anti-war drama set in WWII about a girl orphaned by an air raid. Cecil B. DeMille's The Greatest Show on Earth (Jan. 10) (Paramount Pictures) stars Charlton Heston as Ringling Bros and Barnum Baily Circus ringmaster Brad Braden, Cornel Wilde as the Great Sebastian, a trapeze artist with a claw hand, Betty Hutton as trapeze rival Holly, and James Stewart as Buttons, a clown on the run who never removes his makeup; also stars Dorothy Lamour and Gloria Grahame; "We bring you the circus - that Pied Piper whose magic tunes lead children of all ages into a tinseled and spun-candied world of reckless beauty and mounting laughter; whirling thrills; of rhythm, excitement and grace; of daring, enflaring and dance; of high-stepping horses and high-flying stars." (DeMille) Fred Zinnemann's High Noon (United Artists) is based on the story "The Tin Star" by John W. Cunningham, about Hadleyville town marshal Will Kane (Gary Cooper) facing four prof. killers alone while his wife Amy Fowler Kane, played by Grace Patricia Kelly (1929-82) (film debut) melts down and the gutless townfolk do nothing; the action runs from 10:30 a.m. to 12:15 p.m; the theme song The Ballad of High Noon (Do Not Forsake Me, Oh My Darlin'), sung by Tex Ritter (1905-74) is composed by Ukrainian-born Dimitri Tiomkin (1894-1979) and Ned Washington (1901-76); Tiomkin becomes the first composer to receive two Oscars (score and song) for the same dramatic film; does $12M box office on a $730K budget. Anthony Asquith's The Importance of Being Earnest (June 2), based on the 1895 Oscar Wilde play stars Michael Redgrave as John Worthing, Michael Denison as Algernon, Joan Greenwood as Gwendolen, Dorothy Tutin as Cecily, Edith Evans as Lady Bracknell, Margaret Rutherford as Miss Prism, and Miles Malleson as Canon Chasuble. Alfred E. Green's Invasion U.S.A. is about a Commie (Soviet) invasion of the U.S. Richard Thorpe's Ivanhoe (July 31), based on the 1819 novel by Sir Walter Scott involving Robin Hood and the ransoming of Richard Lionheart stars Robert Taylor as Ivanhoe, Finlay Currie as his estranged father Cedric, Joan Fontaine as his babe Lady Rowena, Felix Aylmer as Jewish leader Isaac of York, George Sanders (hubby of Zsa-Zsa Gabor) as Templar knight Sir Brian de Bois-Guilbert, and Robert Douglas as Sir Hugh de Bracy; Elizabeth Taylor plays Isaac's daughter Rebecca, whom Bois-Guilbert dies professing his love for in a duel with Ivanhoe. Charles Chaplin's Limelight (Oct. 16) stars Chaplin as failing comedian Calvero, and Claire Bloom as fading ballet dancer Terry; also features Buster Keaton; incl. the song Eternally (Terry's Theme); too bad, while attending the London debut, Chaplin is accused of "Communist sympathies" by J. Edgar Hoover and barred from reentering the U.S., after which he relocates to Vevey, Switzerland to avoid English taxes, sending his wife Oona back to the U.S. to close out his assets and sew $1K bills into the lining of her mink coat, after which she renounces U.S. citizenship. Harold French's The Man Who Watched Trains Go By (The Paris Express) (Dec.) (Eros Films), based on the 1938 Georges Simenon novel "The Man Who Watched the Trains Go By" stars Claude Rains as Dutch clerk Kees Popinga, who steals from his boss and flees to Paris with his boss' mistress Michele Rozier (Marta Toren). Edward Montagne's The Man With My Face (June 14) (United Artists), based on the 1948 novel by Samuel Woolley Taylor is set in Puerto Rico, becoming the first (only) film noir shot there; stars Barry Nelson as Charles "Chick" Graham, who finds that a bank robber named Albert "Bert" Rand has taken his place with the help of his wife Cora (Lynn Ainley), and hires a Doberman attack dog specialist to kill him. Fred Zinnemann's The Member of the Wedding (Dec. 30), based on the 1946 Carson McCullers novel stars Ethel Waters as Berenice Sadie Brown, Brandon De Wilde as John Henry, and Julie Harris (1925-) in her film debut as tomboy Frances "Frankie" Addams, who "became a woman in the middle of a kiss", getting her a nomination for best actress Oscar. John Huston's Moulin Rouge (Dec. 23), based on the Pierre La Mure novel stars Jose Ferrer as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), and Zsa Zsa Gabor as Jane Avril; the Song from Moulin Rouge (Where Is Your Heart) by Georges Auric becomes a hit. Henry Koster's My Cousin Rachel (Dec. 25), based on the 1951 Daphne du Maurier novel stars Olivia de Havilland as a suspected murderer; the first U.S. film appearance of Welsh actor Richard Burton. George Cukor's Pat and Mike (June 13), written by Ruth Gordon and Garson Kanin uses the war of the sexes as a vehicle for Spencer Tracy as Mike Conovan and Katharine Hepburn as golf champ Patricia "Pat" Pemberton, who plays against the real Babe Didrikson; features husky-voiced Aldo Ray (DaRe) (1926-91), who loses out to Richard Burton for a Golden Globe as best newcomer; Charles Bronson (Buchinski) (1921-2003) makes film debut, playing a crook: "Not much meat on her, but what's there is cherce" (Tracy). Max Ophuls' Le Plaisir (House of Pleasure), based on a trio of Guy de Maupassant stories about pleasure stars Simone Simon and Claude Dauphin, such as a man hiding his age behind a mask to keep courting young babes. Howard Hawks' B&w Monkey Business (Sept. 2) (not to be confused with the 1931 Marx Brothers film) stars Cary Grant as absent-minded chemist Dr. Barnaby Fulton, who develops an elixir of youth for his boss Oliver Oxly (Charles Coburn), and a monkey steals it and puts it into the water cooler; after Fulton drinks some, he turns into a hot teenie, going after his boss's secy. Lois Laurel (Marilyn Monroe), after which Fulton's wife Edwina (Ginger Rogers) drinks some, etc. Orson Welles' Othello (B&W) (May 10), based on the Shakespeare play is shot in Morocco, Venice, Tuscany, and Rome, starring Welles as Othello, Michael MacLiammoir as Iago, and Suzanne Cloutier as Desdemona, becoming a hit in Europe but not the U.S.; in 1992 it is restored and re-released. Ken Annakin's B&W The Planter's Wife (Outpost in Malaya) (Sept. 18) (Pinnacle Productions) (Gen. Film Distributors) (United Artists) stars Claudette Colbert and Jack Hawkins as Liz and Jim Frazer, whose rubber plantation in Malaya is attacked by Communist insurgents; a hit, causing the Rank Org. to call for scripts about the Mau Mau Uprising, resulting in "Simba" (1955). Clarence Brown's Plymouth Adventure (Nov. 28), based on the Ernest Gebler novel is a stagey recreation of the Mayflower voyage of 1620, starring Spencer Tracy as Capt. Christopher Jones, Van Johnson as John Alden, Noel Drayton as Miles Standish, Lowell Gilmore as Edward Winslow (1595-1655), Lloyd Bridges as Coppin, Gene Tierney as Dorothy Bradford, and Dawn Addams as Priscilla Mullins; "Ram your ball home". Richard Thorpe's The Prisoner of Zenda (Nov. 14) is a swashbuckling flick starring Stewart Granger as Englishman trout fisherman Rudolf Rassendyll, who is recruited to impersonate his drunken cousin King Rudolf V of Ruritania at his coronation, after which he is kidnapped by his envious half-brother Duke Michael of Streslau (Robert Douglas), causing to have to keep up the charade. John Ford's The Quiet Man (June 6) (Argosy Pictures) (Republic Pictures), written by Frank S. Nugent based on a 1933 short story by Maurice Walsh and filmed on location in W Ireland in County Galway and County Mayo stars John Wayne as Yankee boxing champ Trooper Sean Thornton, who quits after killing a man in the ring, and Maureen O'Hara as Red Head Mary Kate Danaher, who is matched in marriage to him, and gets "dragged by the black roots of her red hair", and has a great kissing scene in the cottage in the storm with the big stud, along with a great comic fight scene with her brother Squire Will "Red" Danaher (Victor McLaglen); also stars Barry Fitzgerald as whiskey-loving leprechaun-like Michaleen Oge Flynn, Mildred Natwick as Widow Sarah Tillane, and Ward Bond as Father Peter Lonergan; makes Ashford Castle in County Mayo, former country seat of the Guinness family (where the cast stays) into a tourist trap; does $3.2M box office on a $1.75M budget. Fred C. Brannon's Radar Men from the Moon (Jan. 9), produced by Republic Pictures, stars George Dewey Wallace (1917-2005), who has a neat rocket-powered flying suit, and takes on Moon dictator Retik in his rocket ship. King Vidor's Ruby Gentry (Dec. 25) stars Jennifer Jones as a sexy poor girl who marries a rich man Jim Gentry (Karl Malden) for his money while carrying a torch for young stud Boake Tackman (Charlton Heston). George Sidney's Scaramouche (June 27), based on the 1921 Rafael Sabatini novel set during the French Rev. stars Stewart Granger as noble bastard Andre-Louis Moreau, who hides out in a comedy troup and tries to poke the evil Marquis Noel de Maynes (Mel Ferrer) and protect the Third Estate; Nina Foche plays Marie Antoinette. Stanley Donen's Singin' in the Rain (Apr. 11) (MGM), the greatest musical ever made, written by lifelong Jewish screenwriting partners (not married) Adolph Green (1914-2002) and Betty Comden (Basya Cohen) (1917-2006), about a silent movie co. transitioning to sound stars Eugene Curran (Gael. "hero") "Gene" Kelly (1912-96) as Don Lockwood, Donald David Dixon Ronald O'Connor (1925-2003) as Cosmo Brown the piano player, and Mary Frances "Debbie" Reynolds (1932-2016) as Kathy Selden, making her a star; features the sensational Singin' in the Rain Scene starring Gene Kelly and Brick Sullivan (as the policeman); takes 1.5 years to make because Kelly has to teach Reynolds how to dance; O'Connor sings a memorable version of Make 'Em Laugh. Irving Brecher's Somebody Loves Me (Sept. 24) stars Betty Hutton as Blossom "Bloss" Seeley, and Ralph Meekerr as Benny Fields; after making it, she walks out on her contract with Paramount; Hutton sings the title song. David Lean's (Breaking Through) The Sound Barrier (July 22) (London Films) (British Lion Films) (United Artists) is Lean's 3rd and last film with wife Ann Todd, and first for Alexander Korda's London Films after the breakup of Cineguild; stars Ralph Richardson as John Ridgefield, pilot of the Prometheus, Nigel Patrick as test pilot Tony Garthwaite, Ann Todd as his wife Susan Garthwaite (John's daughter), and John Justin and Dinah Sheridan as test pilot Philip Peel and his wife Jess; does Ł227.97K box office on a Ł250K budget. Merian C. Cooper and Gunther von Fritsch's This is Cinerama (Sept. 30), narrated by Fox Movietone News commentator Thomas Lowell debuts at the Broadway Theatre in New York City, showing the history of mankind leading up to can't-touch-this-break-it-down-stop Cinerama, invented by Fred Waller. Steno's Toto in Color (Totň a Colori) is the first Italian color movie, using the Ferraniacolor system, starring Italian #1 actor Toto (Totň) (Prince Antonio Griffo Focas Flavio Angelo Ducas Comneno Porfirogenito Gagliardi De Curtis di Bisanzio) (1898-1967) as failed musician Antonio Scannagtti, who seeks his fortune in Naples; Toto's masterpiece? Elia Kazan's Viva Zapata! (Aug. 22), based on the novel "Zapata the Unconquered" by Edgcumb Pinchon stars Marlon Brando as Emiliano Zapata (1879-1919), with Mexican-born Anthony Quinn as his brother, fighting in the 1910 Mexican Rev. John Ford's What Price Glory? (Aug. 22), a remake of the 1926 film stars James Cagney as Capt. Flagg, Dan Dailey as Sgt. Quirt, and Corinne Calvet as Charmaine; William Demarest plays Col. Kiper, and breaks both legs in a motorcyle during filming. Michael Powell's and Emeric Pressburger's The Wild Heart (Gone to Earth) (May 29) stars Jennifer Jones as English Gypsy girl Hazel Woodus, who promises her father that she will marry the first man to ask, ending up with a parson, after which an English squire continues to go after. Lewis Seiler's The Winning Team stars Ronald Reagan as ML baseball player Grover Cleveland Alexander, who stages a comeback from alcoholism with the help of his loyal wife Aimee (Doris Day). Walter Lang's With a Song in My Heart (Apr. 4), about actress Jane Froman, who was crippled in an airplane crash on Feb. 22, 1943 stars Susan Hayward as Froman (who dubs the singing), and Thelma Ritter; the title song With a Song in My Heart is used as the theme of the BBC radio show "Family Favourites"; the film wins an Oscar for original music score. Plays: Marcel Achard (1899-1974), The Companions of Marjoram (Les Compagnons de la Marjolaine). Jean Anouilh (1910-87), La Valse des Toreadors (The Waltz of the Toreadors); L'Alouette (The Lark). George Axelrod (1922-2003), The Seven Year Itch (Fulton Theatre, New York) (Nov. 20) (1,141 perf.); about the itch to divorce after seven years; stars Vanessa Brown as The Girl, and Tom Ewell as Richard Sherman; filmed in 1955 starring Marilyn Monroe as The Girl, and Tom Ewell as Richard Sherman. Samuel Behrman (1893-1973), Jane (New York) (Feb. 1); adopted from the W. Somerset Maugham short story about middle-aged Liverpool widow Millicent Towers, who becomes the toast of London after marrying much younger architect Wiliam Towers; based on Maugham and his wife Syrie. Ugo Betti (1892-1953), The Burnt Flowerbed. Truman Capote (1924-84), The Grass Harp. Alice Childress (1920-94), Gold Through the Trees. Agatha Christie (1890-1976), The Mousetrap (Three Blind Mice) (murder mystery play) (Theatre Royal, Nottingham) (Oct. 6) (Ambassadors Theatre, West End, London) (Nov. 25) (St. Martin's Theatre, West End, London) (Mar. 25, 1974); written for Queen Mary, based the real-life case of Dennis O'Neill, who died after extreme abuse by his farmer foster parents in Shropshire; set after in a snowstorm after news of the murder of Maureen Lyon in Monkswell Manor, run by Giles and Mollie Ralston, with guests incl. Christopher Wren, Mrs. Boyle, Maj. Metcalf, Miss Casewell, Mr. Paravicini, and Det. Sgt. Trotter; audience is pledged to never reveal the twist ending; goes on to become the world's longest-running play; stars David Raven as Maj. Metcalf, Mysie Monte as Mrs. Boyle, and Sir Richard Attenborough as Det. Sgt. Trotter, who returns for its 20,000th perf. on Dec. 16, 2000; has its 25,000th on Nov. 18, 2012; it finally closes in ?. Noel Coward (1899-1973), Quadrille. William Douglas-Home (1912-92), The Bad Samaritan; Caro William. Friedrich Durrenmatt (1921-90), The Marriage of Mr. Mississippe. Gunter Eich (1907-72), Die Andere und Ich. Horton Foote (1916-), The Chase (New York). Michel de Ghelderode (1898-1962), Marie la Miserable. Walter Greenwood (1903-74), Too Clever for Love. Jan de Hartog, The Fourposter. Joseph Kramm, The Shrike (Pulitzer Prize). Eugene Ionesco (1909-94), The Chairs. Frederick Knott (1916-2002), Dial M for Murder (Westminster Theatre, London) (June). Louis MacNeice (1907-63), Ten Burnt Offerings. Henri de Montherlant (1896-1972), La Ville dont le Prince est un Enfant; his favorite hobby of pederasty? Charles Langbridge Morgan (1894-1958), The Burning Glass. Paul Osborn (1901-88), Point of No Return; based on the 1949 novel by John P. Marquand. Dorothy Parker (1893-1967), Ladies of the Corridor. Terence Rattigan (1911-77), The Deep Blue Sea. Lennox Robinson (1886-1958), Speed the Plough. Armand Salacrou (1899-1989), Sense Interdit, ou Les Ages de la Vie. George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), Don Juan in Hell (posth.). Robert Cedric Sherriff (1896-1975), The Kite. Dodie Smith (1896-1990), Letter from Paris; first play after returning to London from self-imposed exile in the U.S.; an adaptation of the Henry James novel "The Reverberator". Poetry: Earle Birney (1904-95), Trail of a City and Other Verse. Paul Celan (1920-70), Poppy and Remembrance. Robert Creeley (1926-2005), Le Fou (debut). Mark Van Doren (1894-1972), String Birth. Howard Mumford Jones (1892-1980), The Bright Medusa. Denise Levertov (1923-97), The Sharks. W.S. Merwin (1927-), A Mask for Janus (debut); W.H. Auden selects it for pub.; it wins the Yale Younger Poets Prize. Vladimir Nabokov (1899-1977), Poems 1929-1951. Theodore Roethke (1901-63), Praise to the End! Wislawa Szymborska (1923-2012), That's Why We Are Alive (debut). Dylan Thomas (1914-53), Collected Poems. Antonio Buero Vallejo (1916-2000), La Tejedora de Suenos; La Senal que se Espera. Paul West (1930-), Poems (debut). Yvor Winters (1900-68), Collected Poems. Novels: Margery Allingham (1904-66), The Tiger in the Smoke; Albert Campion chases serial killer Jack Havoc. Robert Ardrey (1908-80), The Brotherhood of Fear. Isaac Asimov (1920-92), The Currents of Space; last in Galactic Empire series. Louis Auchincloss (1917-), Sybil (first novel); not to be confused with the 1973 book by Flora Schreiber. Jacques Audiberti (1899-1965), Marie Dubois. H.E. Bates (1905-74), Love for Lydia. Ludwig Bemelmans (1899-1962), How to Travel Incognito. Phyllis Eleanor Bentley (1894-1977), Panorama. Pierre Boulle (1912-94), The Bridge Over the River Kwai (Le Pont de la Rivičre Kwai); English trans. pub. in 1954; British Lt. Col. Nicholson of POW Camp 16 vs. Japanese Col. Saito at the Mae Klong (Khwae Yai) River in Tha Ma Kham, Burma; filmed in 1957 by David Lean, starring William Holden and Sessue Hayakawa. Martin Boyd (1893-1972), The Cardboard Crown; first in the "Langton" series (ends 1962). Leigh Brackett (1915-78), The Starmen (of Llyrdis) (The Galactic Breed). Bryher (1894-1983), The Fourteenth of October. Frederick Buechner (1926-), The Season's Difference. Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973), The Hidden Flower. W.R. Burnett (1899-1982), Little Men Big World; Vanity Row; filmed in 1957 as "Accused of Murder". James Branch Cabell (1879-1958), Quiet Please. Taylor Caldwell (1900-85), The Devil's Advocate. John Dickson Carr (1906-77), Behind the Crimson Blind; The Nine Wrong Answers; Behind the Crimson Blind. Italo Calvino (1923-85), Our Ancestors (trilogy) (1952-9). Joyce Cary (1888-1957), The Second Trilogy (1952-5). Louis-Ferdinand Celine (1894-1961), Feerie pour une Autre Fois (Fable for Another Time). Agatha Christie (1890-1976), Mrs. McGinty's Dead (Feb.); Hercule Poirot #26; Ariadne Olivier begins to be a major player; They Do It With Mirrors (Murder with Mirrors) (Nov. 17); Miss Marple; A Daughter's Daughter (Nov. 24); pub. under alias Mary Westmacott (#5). Catherine Cookson (1906-98), The Fifteen Streets (first novel). Madison Alexander Cooper Jr. (1894-1956), Sironia, Texas; longest English novel so far (1.1M words). Thomas Bertram Costain (1885-1965), The Silver Chalice; bestseller about Simon Magus, and Basil, who is called to design the case to hold the Cup of Christ (Holy Grail); filmed in 1954 starring Paul Newman. Harold Lenoir Davis (1896-1960), Winds of Morning. Friedrich Durrenmatt (1921-90), The Judge and His Hangman; The Tunnel. Mircea Eliade (1907-86), Twelve Thousand Heads of Cattle. Ralph Ellison (1914-94), Invisible Man; "I am an invisible man. No, I am not a spook like those who haunted Edgar Allan Poe; nor am I one of your Hollywood-movie ectoplasms. I am a man of substance, of flesh and bone, fiber and liquids - and I might even be said to possess a mind. I am invisible, understand, simply because other people refuse to see me... I can hear you say, 'What a horrible, irresponsible bastard!" And you're right... But to whom can I be responsible, when you refuse to see me?" John Fante (1909-83), Full of Life. James T. Farrell (1904-79), Yet Other Waters. Edna Ferber (1885-1968), Giant; the Benedict Tex. ranching family from the 1920s through the 1940s; filmed in 1956. Shelby Foote (1916-2005), Shiloh: A Novel. C.S. Forester (1899-1966), Lieutenant Hornblower. Leonhard Frank (1882-1961), Links Wo das Herz Ist. Pamela Frankau (1908-67), The Offshore Light. Carlo Emilio Gadda (1893-1973), Il Primo Libro delle Favole (short stories). Romain Gary (1914-80), The Colors of the Day. William Goyen (1915-83), Ghost and Flesh: Stories and Tales. Walter Greenwood (1903-74), So Brief the Spring; first in the Treloo Trilogy ("What Everybody Wants", "Down by the Sea"). Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), The Old Man and the Sea (last major work pub. during his lifetime) (Pulitzer Prize); aging Cuban fisherman Santiago, based on Canary Islands-born Cuban fishing boat Capt. Gregorio Fuentes (1897-2002), who makes a living posing for photos until he finally dies of cigar smoking at age 104; "I would like to take the great DiMaggio fishing": "Then the fish came alive with his death in him"; "A man can be destroyed but not defeated"; filmed in 1958 starring Spencer Tracy. Patricia Highsmith (1921-95), The Price of Salt (Carol); bestseller (1M copies); first lesbian novel with a happy ending?; pub. under alias Claire Morgan. Chester Himes (1909-84), Cast the First Stone. Langston Hughes (1902-67), Laughing to Keep from Crying. Margaret Irwin (1889-1967), Hidden Splendour. Pamela Hansford Johnson (1912-81), Catherine Carter. Raymond Fisher Jones (1915-94) This Island Earth; filmed in 1955. Molly Keane (1905-96), Treasure Hunt; based on her 1949 play. Frances Parkinson Keyes (1885-1970), Steamboat Gothic. Ruth Kraus (1901-), A Hole is to Dig; children's hit. Halldor Kiljan Laxness (1902-98), Happy Warriors. Cyril Michael Kornbluth (1923-58), Takeoff. Cyril Michael Kornbluth (1923-58) and Frederik Pohl (1919-), The Space Merchants. Tom Lea (1907-2001), The Wonderful Country. Doris Lessing (1919-2013), Martha Quest. Sir Compton Mackenzie (1883-1972), The Rival Monster. Bernard Malamud (1914-86), The Natural (first novel); promising baseball player Roy gets shot, gives up his career, then comes back when he's too old and beats them all, woo woo woo?; best novel about baseball ever written? Felicien Marceau (1913-), L'Homme du Roi. Bruce Marshall (1899-1987), The White Rabbit; WWII secret agent F.F.E. Yeo-Thomas. Francis Van Wyck Mason (1901-78), Himalayan Assignment. Angela du Maurier (1904-2002), Shallow Waters. Daphne du Maurier (1907-89), My Cousin Rachel. Mary McCarthy (1912-89), The Groves of Academe. William McFee (1881-1966), The Adopted. Shepherd Mead (1914-94), How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying: The Dastard's Guide to Fame and Fortune; bestseller satire of corporate life written as a self-help book; later turned into a play, which debuts in 1961. Nicholas Monsarrat (1910-79), The Story of Esther Costello; a blind person's teachers and assistants run a sleazy racket playing on sympathy; pisses-off Hellen Keller, who tries to keep it off the shelves. Percy Howard Newby (1918-97), A Step to Silence. Kathleen Norris (1880-1966), Shadow Marriage. Patrick O'Brian (1914-2000), Testimonies (Three Bear Witness). Flannery O'Connor (1925-64), Wise Blood (first novel); Hazel Motes returns from the war to his hometown, finds it kaput, and goes to the big city of Taulkinham, shacking up with a 15-y.-o. girl and becoming a street corner preacher of the Church Without Christ, with the soundbyte "I'm going to preach there was no Fall because there was nothing to fall from and no Redemption because there was no Fall and no Judgment because there wasn't the first two. Nothing matters but that Jesus was a liar." Milton K. Ozaki (1913-89), No Way Out; Murder Doll. Edith Pargeter (1913-95), Holiday with Violence. John Dos Passos (1896-1970), District of Columbia. Robert Pinget (1919-97), Mahu or the Material (Mathu ou le Materiau). Theodor Plievier (1892-1955), Moscow. Katherine Anne Porter (1890-1980), The Days Before (short stories). Laurens van der Post (1906-96), Venture to the Interior. Richard P. Powell (1908-99), A Shot in the Dark. John Cowper Powys (1872-1963), The Inmates. Vance Randolph (1892-1980), Who Blowed Up the Church House? (short stories). Mary Roberts Rinehart (1876-1958), The Swimming Pool; The Wandering Knife. Erich Maria Remarque (1898-1970), Spark of Life; about Nazi concentration camps. Harold Robbins (1916-97), A Stone for Danny Fisher. Robert Ruark (1915-65), Grenadine's Spawn. William Sansom (1912-76), A Touch of the Sun (short stories). Gladys Schmitt (1909-72), Confessors of the Name. Paul Mark Scott (1920-78), Johnny Sahib (first novel); rejected by 17 publishers. Charles Shaw, Heaven Knows, Mr. Allison. Peter Shaffer (1926-) and Anthony Shaffer (1926-2001), How Doth the Little Crocodile?; pub. under alias Peter Anthony. Nevil Shute (1899-1960), The Far Country. Claude Simon (1913-2005), Gulliver. Elizabeth Spencer (1921-), This Crooked Way. Jean Stafford (1915-79), The Catherine Wheel. John Steinbeck (1902-68), East of Eden (Sept.); his magnum opus?; the Trasks and the Hamiltons in Salinas Valley, Calif.; twins Caleb "Cal" and Aron; "Say hello to your mother, Aron"; filmed in 1955. Han Suyin (1917-), A Many-Splendoured Thing. Frank Swinnerton (1884-1982), Master Jim Probity; Londoner's Post. Josephine Tey (1896-1952), The Singing Sands; Inspector Alan Grant #6 (last); based on the legend of Iram of the Pillars. Jim Thompson (1906-77), The Killer Inside Me; Cropper's Cabin. Gore Vidal (1925-2012), The Judgment of Paris. Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (1922-2007), Player Piano; "At this point in history, 1952 A.D., our lives and freedom depend largely upon the skill and imagination and courage of our managers and engineers..."; Ilium, N.Y. Peter De Vries (1910-93), No But I Saw the Movie. Mika Waltari (1908-79), The Dark Angel. Alec Waugh (1898-1981), Guy Renton. Evelyn Waugh (1903-66), Men at Arms; #1 in the Sword of Honour Trilogy (1952-61) about wandering disillusioned observer Guy Crouchback. Dennis Wheatley (1897-1977), The Star of Ill Omen. E.B. White (1899-1985), Charlotte's Web (Oct. 15); becomes the best-selling children's paperback of all time; after Wilbur the Pig is nurtured from infancy by Fern Arable and sold to her uncle Homer Zuckerman, his barnyard spider friend Charlotte A. Cavatica saves him from being slaughtered by writing messages ("Some Pig", etc.) in her web, which the neighbors ascribe to divine intervention, making him too popular to eat; Templeton the Rat helps them only when bribed with food; after exhausting herself laying eggs, Charlotte dies, and three of the hatchlings (Joy, Nellie, Aranea) become Wilbur's new friends; "'Where's papa going with that ax?' said Fern to her mother" (first line); "No one was with her when she died" (last line); filmed in 1973, 2003, and 2006. Henry Williamson (1895-1977), Donkey Boy. Angus Wilson (1913-91), Hemlock and After (first novel); aging closeted gay English liberal novelist Bernard Sands, who failed to live up to his ideals tries to found a writers colony without losing his sick wife. Bernard Wolfe (1915-85), Limbo. Frank Garvin Yerby (1916-91), The Saracen Blade. Births: Turkish army CIC (2015-) Gen. Hulusi Akar on Jan. 1 in Kaysei. Am. "Claire Greene in Touched By an Angel" actress Wendy Phillips on Jan. 2 in Brookyn, N.Y. Am. golfer Ben Daniel Crenshaw on Jan. 11 in Austin, Tex. Am. "Outlander" novelist Diana Jean Gabaldon (Watkins) on Jan. 11 in Ariz.; Mexican-Am. and English parents. Am. "Easy Rawlins and Mouse" crime novelist (black) Walter Ellis Mosley on Jan. 12 in Los Angeles, Calif.; black father, white Jewish mother. Am. 6'8" basketball player (black) (Cleveland Cavaliers #20/#21, 1974-80, 1984) (New York Knicks #21, 1980-2) Michael Campanella "Campy" Russell on Jan. 12 in Jackson, Tenn.; educated at the U. of Mich. Kiwi Olympic runner Sir John George Walker on Jan. 12 in Papakura; knighted in 2009. Am. Harlem Children's Zone educator (black) Geoffrey Canada on Jan. 13 in New York City; educated at Bowdoin College and Harvard U. Am. "Are Men Necessary?" columnist-writer Maureen Dowd on Jan. 14 in Washington, D.C. Egyptian king (1952-3) Ahmed Fouad (Fuad) II on Jan. 16 in Cairo; son of Farouk I (1920-65). Japanese "Energy Flow" composer-musician-producer-actor Ryuichi Sakamoto (Yellow Magic Orchestra) on Jan. 17 in Tokyo. Am. biochemist Michael J. Behe on Jan. 18 in Altoona, Penn.; educated at the U. of Penn. English-Am. "Horse With No Name" singer Dewey Bunnell (America) on Jan. 19 in Harrogate, Yorkshire; Am. parents. Am. "Starchild" rock musician Paul Stanley (Stanley Eisen) (Kiss) on Jan. 20 in Manhattan, N.Y. Am. "The Metaphysical Club" writer Louis Menand on Jan. 21 in Syracuse, N.Y.; grows up in Boston, Mass.; educated at Pomona College, Harvard U., and Columbia U. Am. economist Lawrence J. Chritiano on Jan. 22 in ?; educated at the U. of Minn., London School of Economics, and Columbia U. Am. "The Case for Christ" Christian apologist Lee Patrick Strobel on Jan. 25 in Arlington Heights, Ill.; educated at the U. of Mo., and Yale U. Am. tennis player Brian Edward Gottfried on Jan. 27 in Baltimore, Md. Pakistani human rights atty.-activist Asma Jilani Jahangir (d. 2018) on Jan. 27 in Lahore; educated at Punjab U. Am. tennis player-educator (lesbian) Tam Elizabeth O'Shaughnessy on Jan. 27 in San Andreas, Calif.; educated at George Stat U., and UCR; partner of Sally Ride (1952-2012). Am. rock singer Tommy Ramone (Thomas Erdelyi) (Ramones) on Jan. 29 in Budapest, Hungary; grows up in Queens, N.Y. Am. biochemist Roger Yonchien Tsien on Feb. 1 in New York City; educated at Harvard U.; 2008 Nobel Chem. Prize. U.S. Sen. (R-Tex.) (2002-) John Cornyn III on Feb. 2 in Houston, Tex.; educated at the U. of Va. South Korean pres. #11 (2013-) Park Geun-hye (pr. pahk kuhn-YEH) on Feb. 2 in Daegu. Am. cryptographer Ralph C. Merkle on Feb. 2; educated at UCB and Stanford U. Am. baseball player Frederic Michael "Fred" Lynn on Feb. 3 in Chicago, Ill. English rock drummer Jerry Shirley (Humble Pie, Fastway) on Feb. 4 in Waltham Cross, London. Am. Aryan Brotherhood leader Thomas Edward "Tommy" "Terrible Tom" Silverstein on Feb. 4 in Long Beach, Calif. Am. O.J. Simpson Trial detective-writer Mark Fuhrman on Feb. 5 in Eatonville, Wash. Am. Dem. Colo. gov. #42 (2011-) John Wright Hickenlooper on Feb. 7 in Narberth (near Philly), Penn.; educated at Wesleyan U.; mayor #43 of Denver, Colo. (2003-11); cousin of George Hickenlooper (1965-). Am. psychiatrist Rick Strassman on Feb. 8 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. R&B singer (white) Michael McDonald (Steely Dan, Doobie Brothers) on Feb. 12 in St. Louis, Mo. Kenyan track star (black) Harry Rono on Feb. 12 in Kapsabet. British Conservative journalist (climate change denier) Christopher Monckton, 3rd Viscount Monckton of Brenchley on Feb. 14; son of Maj.-Gen. Gilbert Monckton, 2nd viscount Monckton of Brenchley (1915-2006) and Marianna Letitia (nee Bower), dame of Malta (1929-); educated at Harrow School, Churchill College, Cambridge U., and Univ. College, Carrdiff. Am. "Black Is... Black Ain't" dancer-choreographer (black) Bill T. Jones on Feb. 15 in Bunnell, Fla. Serbian pres. (2012-) Tomislav Nikolic on Feb. 15 in Kragujevac, Yugoslavia. Am. 6'9" basketball player (black) (Portland Trail Blazers #20, 1976-80) Maurice "the Enforcer" Lucas (d. 2010) on Feb. 18 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Marquette U. Am. "Angel of the Morning", "The Sweetest Thing (I've Ever Known") country-pop singer Judith Kay "Juice" Newton on Feb. 18 in Lakehurst, N.J. Am. rock guitarist Richard Marc "Rick" Dufay (Aerosmith) on Feb. 19 in Paris; father of Minka Kelly (1980-), whom he abandons the same year he goes solo? Am. geophysicist Marcia Kemper McNutt on Feb. 19 in Minneapolis, Minn.; educated at Colo. College, and Scripps Inst. of Oceanography. Am. "The Joy Luck Club" novelist Amy Tan on Feb. 19 in Oakland, Calif. Am. "Gods and Generals", "The Killer Angels" novelist Jeffrey M. "Jeff" Shaara on Feb. 21 in New Brunswick, N.J.; educated at Fla. State U.; son of Michael Shaara (1928-88). U.S. Sen. (R-Tenn.) (1995-2007) and surgeon William Harrison "Bill" Frist Sr. on Feb. 22 in Nashville, Tenn.; educated at Princeton U., and Harvard U. Am. "thirtysomething", "Traffic", "Blood Diamond" dir.-producer-writer (Jewish) Marshall Schreiber Herskovitz on Feb. 23 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Brandeis u. Nepalese PM #38 (2015-16) Khagda Prasad Sharma Oli on Feb. 23 in Terhathum District. Am. economist Steven Pressman on Feb. 23 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; educated at Cyracuse U, and the New School. Am. rock musician Bradley Ernest "Brad" Whitford (Aerosmith) on Feb. 23 in Winchester, Mass.; not to be confused with actor Bradley Whitford (1959-). Irish motorcyclist ("King of the Road") William Joseph "Joey" Dunlop (d. 2000) on Feb. 25 in Ballymoney, County Antrim. Am. "Falsettos" composer-lyricist (Jewish) (gay) William Alan Finn on Feb. 28 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Williams College; collaborator of James Lapine (1949-). Philippine "Lane Ballou in Flamingo Road" actress Cristina Raines (Tina Herazo) on Feb. 28 in Manila. Am. 6'4" basketball player-coach (white) (Los Angeles Lakers #20, 1974-5) (Milwaukee Bucks #32, 1975-83) (Vancouver Grizzlies, 1995-7) Brian Joseph Winters on Mar. 1 in Rockaway, N.Y.; educated at the U. of S.C. English-Am. "The Wage Curve" economist David Graham "Danny" Blanchflower on Mar. 2; educated at the U. of Wales; emigrates to the U.S. in 1989. Am. SNL actress-comedian (Jewish) Laraine Newman on Mar. 2 in Los Angeles, Calif. Indonesian grand imam (2005-) (Sunni Muslim) Ali Musthafa Yaqub on Mar. 2 in Batang, Java. Am. 6'3" football linebacker (Denver Broncos #53, 1974-83) Randy Charles Gradishar on Mar. 3 in Warren, Ohio.; educated at Ohio State U.; part of the Denver Broncos Orange Crush defense. English rock keyboardist Alan Clark (Dire Straits) on Mar. 5 in Great Lumley, Durham. Am. "It's Your Thing" R&B musician (black) Ernest "Ernie" Isley (Isley Brothers) on Mar. 7 in Cincinnati, Ohio; brother of Ronald Isley (1941-) and Marvin Isley (1953-). Am. football hall-of-fame wide receiver (black) (Pittsburgh Steelers) (1974-82) and Repub. politician Lynn Curtis Swann on Mar. 7 in Alcoa, Tenn. Soviet cosmonaut Vladimir Vladimirovich Vasyutin (d. 2002) on Mar. 8 in Kharkiv, Ukraine. Israeli Labor Party politician (Jewish) Amir (Armand) Peretz on Mar. 9 in Boujad, Morocco; emigrates to Israel in 1956. Zimbabwe PM (2009-13) (black) Morgan Richard Tsvangirai (d. 2018) on Mar. 10 in Gutu. English "Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" sci-fi novelist Douglas Adams (d. 2001) on Mar. 11 in Cambridge. Am. "Susan Bradford in Eight is Enough" actress Susan Richardson on Mar. 11 in Coatesville, Penn. Am. judge (black) (not Muslim) Sheila Abdus-Salaam (nee Turner) (d. 2017) on Mar. 14 in Washington, D.C.; educated at Barnard College, and Columbia U.; classmate of Eric Holdier. Am. "Practical Magic", "The River King" novelist Alice Hoffman on Mar. 16 in New York City. Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) chief (2008-) Ahmad Shuja Pasha on Mar. 18 in ?. Am. 6'1" football center (Pittsburgh Steelers #53, 1974-88) Michael Lewis "Iron Mike" Webster (d. 2002) on Mar. 18 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at U. of Wisc. Am. "Pulp Fiction", "The Crying Game", "Shakespeare in Love" Miramax film producer (Jewish) Harvey Weinstein (pr. like wine-steen) on Mar. 19 in Flushing, Queens, N.Y.; Polish immigrant paternal grandparents; brother of Bob Weinstein (1954-); educated at the U. at Buffalo. Am. sportscaster Robert Quinlan "Bob" Costas on Mar. 22 in Queens, N.Y. Am. "The Mars Trilogy" sci-fi novelist Kim Stanley Robinson on Mar. 23 in Waukegan, Ill.; educatede at UCSD and Boston U. U.S. secy. of state #69 (2017-) and ExxonMobil CEO (2006-16) Rex Wayne Tillerson on Mar. 23 in Wichita Falls, Tex.; educated at UTA. German astrophysicist Richard Genzel on Mar. 24 in Bad Homburg vr der Hohe; educated at the U. of Freiburg, U. of Bonn, and Max Planck Inst.; 2020 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. America's/world's smartest man (IQ 200+) Christopher Michael Langan on Mar. 25 in San Francisco, Calif.; author of the Cognitive Theoretic Model of the Universe (CTMU); founder of the Internat. Society for Complexity, Information, and Design: "To have a high IQ, you tend to specialize, think deep thoughts. You avoid trivia." French "Jeanne in The Last Tango in Paris" actress (bi) (drug addict) Maria Schneider (Marie Christine Gélin) (d. 2011) on Mar. 27 in Paris; French father, Romanian immigrant mother. South Ossetian pres. #3 (2012-) Leonid Tibilov on Mar. 28 in Verkhny Dvan. Cuban 6'3" heavyweight Olympic boxer (black) Teofilo Stevenson Lawrence on Mar. 29 in Puerto Padre, Las Tunas. English rock keyboardist William Lee "Billy" Currie (Ultravox) on Apr. 1 in Huddersfield, West Yorkshire. Libyan intel officer and terrorist Abdelbaset Mohmed Ali al-Megrahi on Apr. 1 in Tripoli. Romanian politican and Calvinist bishop Laszlo Tokes on Apr. 1 in Cluj; of Hungarian descent. Am. 6'4" basketball player (black) (Golden State Warriors #20, 1974-80) Philip Arnold "Phil" Smith (d. 2002) on Apr. 22 in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at the U. of San Francisco. Am. "The Next Christendom: The Rise of Global Christianity" historian (Roman Catholic-turned-Episcopalian) Philip Jenkins on Apr. 3 in Port Talbot, Wales; educated at Clare College, Cambridge U. Am. blues rock guitarist-singer Gary (Robert William Gary) Moore (d. 2011) on Apr. 4 in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Am. "Elaine O'Connor-Nardo in Taxi" actress Mary Lucy Denise "Marilu" Henner on Apr. 6 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Det. Lester Freasomon in The Wire" actor (black) (Brahma Kumaris) Clarke Peters on Apr. 7 in New York City; grows up in Englewood, N.J. Romanian-German novelist Richard Wagner on Apr. 10 in Lovrin, Romania; husband of Herta Muller (1953-); edicated at Timisoara U.; not to be onfused with economist Richard E. Wagner (1941-), Am. pshrink Richard K. Wagner, Canadian chief justice Richard Wagner (1957-), or locomotive designer Richard Paul Wanger (1882-1953). Am. Chicano poet-novelist Gary Soto on Apr. 12 in Fresno, Calif.; Mexican-Am. parents; educated at UCI. Am. bluegrass musician (co-founder of Newgrass) Sam Bush (New Grass Revival) on Apr. 13 in Bowling Green, Ky. Am. football coach (Cleveland Browns, 1991-5) (New England Patriots, 2000-) William Stephen "Bill" Belichick on Apr. 16 in Nashville, Tenn. Am. entomologist Neal (Kornelus) Luit Evenhuis on Apr. 16 in Upland, Calif.; Dutch immigrant parents; educated at Cal. State Poly; namer of Phthiria relativitae, Camenelectra, Pieza kake, Pieza pie, Pieza dereistans, Reissa roni, and Campsicnemus popeye. Serbian crime boss Arkan (Zeljko Raznatovic) (d. 2000) on Apr. 17 in Brezice. Nicaraguan world boxing champ ("the Explosive Thin Man") Alexis Arguello (d. 2009) on Apr. 19 in Managua; mayor of Managua (2008-9). Am. novelist-writer Ralph Peters (AKA Owen Parry) on Apr. 19 in Pottsville, Penn. Am. "Behind the Green Door" porno actress Marilyn Chambers (Marilyn Ann Taylor/Briggs) (d. 2009) on Apr. 22 in Providence, R.I. English climatologist Philip Douglas "Phil" Jones on Apr. 22 in Redhill, Surrey; educated at Lancaster U., and U. of Newcastle upon Tyne. Am. "Why Americans Hate Politics", "Why the Right Went Wrong" journalist Eugene Joseph "E.J." Dionne Jr. on Apr. 23 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Harvard U., and Balliol College, Oxford U. English rock drummer Boris Peter Bransby-Williams (The Cure) on Apr. 24 in Verailles, France. French fashion designer (gay) Jean-Paul Gaultier on Apr. 24 in Arcueil, Val-de-Marne. Am. politician (Arab Muslim) Wasil Taha on Apr. 24 in Kafr Kanna. Russian 6'0" hockey hall-of-fame player Vladislav Tretiak on Apr. 24 in Orudyevo; Ukrainian parents. Am. 6'7" hall-of-fame basketball player (black) (San Antonio Spurs #44, 1974-85) George "the Iceman" Gervin on Apr. 27 in Detroit, Mich.; educated at Eastern Mich. U. Am. "Stands With a Fist in Dances With Wolves", "First Lady in Independence Day" actress Mary Eileen McDonnell on Apr. 28 in Wilkes-Barre, Penn.; educated at SUNY. English "The Biggest Secret" conspiracy theorist writer David Vaughan Icke (pr. ike) on Apr. 29 in Leicester. French "A Prophet" dir. Jacques Audiard on Apr. 30 in Paris. Am. light heavyweight boxing champ (1980-1) (black) (Muslim) Eddie Mustafa Muhammad (Edward Dean Gregory) on Apr. 30 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Pakistani army chief (2007-) Gen. Ashfaq Parvez Kayani on Apr. ? in Gujar Khan Tehsil, Punjab. British MP (first Muslim) (1997-2010) Mohammad Sarwar on Aug. 18 in Pirmahal, Pakistan. Am. "Addams Family Values", "Leonard's mom Dr. Beverly Hofstadter in The Big Bang Theory" actress Christine Jane Baranski on May 2 in Buffalo, N.Y.; of Polish descent; educated at Juilliard School; wife (1983-2014) of Matthew Cowles (1944-2014); mother of Isabel Cowles (1984-) and Lily Cowles (1987-). Am. "Valerian in Dragonslayer" actress Katherine Anne "Caitlin" Clarke (d. 2004) on May 3 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Yale U. Am. Roman Catholic cardinal (2016-) Joseph William Tobin on May 3 in Detroit, Mich. British Olympic sprinter Allan Wipper Wells on May 3 in Edinburgh, Scotland. English "Madhouse" comedian Michael Barrymore (Michael Ciaran Parker) on May 4 in Bermondsey, London. Am. astronaut Charles Joseph "Charlie" Camarda on May 8 in Queens, N.Y.; educated at Polytechnic Inst. of Brooklyn, George Washington U., and Va. Polytechnic Inst. Am. "Crimes of the Heart" actress-playwright Elizabeth Becker "Beth" Henley on May 8 in Jackson, Miss. English-Am. "Kate Winslet's mother Rose DeWitt Bukater in Titanic" actress (redhead) Frances Fisher on May 11 in Milford on Sea, Hampshire. Am. Repub. Ohio gov. #69 (2011-) John Richard Kasich Jr. on May 13 in McKees Rocks (near Pittsburgh), Penn.; educated at Ohio State U. Scottish musician-composer-dir.-actor David Byrne on May 14 in Dumbarton. Am. "Back to the Future", "Forrest Gump" film dir. Robert Lee "Bob" Zemeckis on May 14 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at USC. Am. "Dave Kujan in The Usual Suspects, "Sonny LoSpecchio in A Bronx Tale", "Elleroy Coolidge Mulholland Falls" actor-dir.-producer Calogero Lorenzo "Chazz" Palminteri on May 15 in Bronx, N.Y.; of Sicilian-Italian descent. Irish "Remington Steele", "James Bond 007" actor (high school dropout) Pierce Brendan Brosnan on May 16 in Drogheda, County Louth. Am. "Pure Country" country singer ("the King of Country") ("King George") George Harvey Strait on May 18 in Poteet, Tex.; educated at Southwest Tex. State U.; daughter Jennifer Lyn Strait (1973-86) dies in a car crash at age 13; in 2009 his 44 Billboard country #1 singles surpasses Conway Twitty's record of 40, reaching 60+ #1s and selling 100M records. Am. aviator Jeana Yeager on May 18 in Ft. Worth, Tex.; collaborator of Dick Rutan (1938-); no relation to Chuck Yeager (1923-). British "Empires of the Word" linguist-historian Nicholas Ostler on May 20 in ?; educated at Balliol College, Oxford U. Am. football WR (Denver Broncos #80, 1975-83) (black) Ricky "Rick" Upchurch on May 20 in Toledo, Ohio; educated at the U. of Minn. Am. "Sgt. B.A. (Bosco Albert or Bad Attitude) Baracus in The A-Team", "Clubber Lang in Rocky III" "I pity the fool", "Shut up, fool", "Quit your jibba-jabba" actor-wrestler-bodyguard-icon (black) Mr. T (Laurence Tureaud) (Laurence Tero) on May 21 in Chicago, Ill.; four sisters and seven brothers; grows up in Robert Taylor Homes housing projects in Chicago (also childhood home of Kirby Puckett); in 1980 changes his first name to "Mr", middle name to ".", and last name to "T"; diagnosed with, er, T-cell lymphoma in 1995; wears $300K worth of gold jewelry until 2005, when he calls it "an insult to God" after seeing the effects of Hurricane Katrina. Am. "Carl in My Three sons" actor-dir. Kevin Brodie on May 31 in Burbank, Calif.; son of Steve Brodie (1919-92) and Lois Andrews (1924-68). Am. NHL commissioner (1993-) Gary Bruce Bettman on June 2 in Queens, N.Y.; educated at Cornell U., and NYU. Am. Southern rock keyboardist William Norris "Billy" Powell (Lynyrd Skynyrd) on June 3 in Corpus Christi, Tex. English (Welsh) Aston Martin chmn. (2007-) David Pender Richards on June 3 in Wales. Am. "Craig Pomeroy in Baywatch" actor-dir. Parker Stevenson (Richard Stevenson Parker) on June 4 in Philadelphia, Penn.; husband (1983-97) of Kirstie Alley (1951). Irish "Oskar Schindler in Schindler's List", "Qui-Gon Jinn in Star Wars" 6'4" actor Liam John Neeson on June 7 in Ballymeena, County Antrim, North Ireland. Pakistani PM #17 (2008-) (Sunni Muslim) Yousuf (Yousaf) Raza Gillani on June 9 in Karachi. Am. 6'6" basketball player (black) (Indiana Pacers #25, 1974-7, 1979-83) William R. "Billy" Knight on June 9 in Braddock, Penn.; educated at the U. of Pittsburgh. Swiss musician Carlos Peron (Yello) on June 9 in Zurich. Am. Southern rock singer Donnie Van Zant (.38 Special) on June 11 in Jacksonville, Fla.; brother of Ronnie Van Zant (1948-) and Johnny Van Zant (1959-). Am. country singer-musician Jamieson "Junior" Brown on June 12 in Kirksville, Ind.; inventor of the "guit-steel" double-necked guitar (1985). Am. "Carmine Ragusa in Laverne and Shirley" actor Eddie Mekka (Mekjian) on June 14 in Worcester, Mass. Am. college basketball coach (U. of Tenn., 1974-) Patricia Sue Head "Pat" Summitt on June 14 in Clarksville, Tenn. Greek politician George Andreas Papandreou on June 16 in St. Paul, Minn.; son of Andreas Papandreou (1919-96); grandson of George Papandreou (1888-1968). Canadian-Italian "Wild Horses" pop singer-songwriter Gino Vannelli on June 16 in Montreal, Quebec. Am. "Simka Dahblitz-Gravaz in Taxi" actress (Jewish) Carolyn Laurie "Carol" Kane on June 18 in Cleveland, Ohio. Italian actress Isabella Rossellini on June 18 in Rome; daughter of Ingrid Bergman (1915-82) and Roberto Rossellini (1906-77); twin sister of Ingrid Rosselini. Am. "Jackson Pollock", "Vincent van Gogh" biographer (gay) Steven Naifeh on June 19 in Tehran, Iran; educated at Princeton U., and Harvard U.; collaborator of husband Gregory White Smith (1951-2014). Am. "Dan Conner in Roseanne", "King Ralph" actor (alcoholic) John Stephen Goodman on June 20 in Affton, St. Louis, Mo.; father is a postal worker, mother is a waitress at Jack and Phil's Bar-B-Cue; educated at Mo. State U. Canadian "Kicking Bird in Dances with Wolves" actor Graham Greene on June 22 in Six Nations Reserve, Brantford, Ont.; full-blooded Oneida. Am. mathematician Robert Scott Rumely on June 23 in Pullman, Wash.; educated at Grinnell College, and Princeton U. Kiwi singer-songwriter Brian Timothy "Tim" Finn (Split Enz, Crowded House) on June 25 in Te Awamutu; brother of Neil Finn (1958-). Canadian musician-songwriter-producer Brian "Too Loud" MacLeod (Chilliwack, Headpins) on June 25 in St. John's Newfoundland. Am. "Steve Rhoades in Married With Children" actor David Gene Garrison on June 30 in Long Branch, N.J. Canadian "Elwood Blues in The Blues Brothers", "Dr. Raymond Stantz in Ghost Busters" 6'1" actor-writer-producer Daniel Edward "Dan" Aykroyd on July 1 in Ottawa, Ont.; son of Peter H. Aykroyd; brother of Peter J. Aykroyd; great-grandson of spiritualist Samuel Augustus Aykroyd (1855-). Am. writer and CIA officer Robert Booker "Bob" Baer on July 1 in Los Angeles, Calif.; raised in Aspen, Colo.; educated at Georgetown U., and UCB. Algerian PM (1995-8, 2003-6, 2008-) Ahmed Ouyahia on July 2 in Bouadnane. Am. "Gloria", "Self Control" singer-songwriter Laura Ann Branigan (d. 2004) on July 3 in Mount Kisco, N.Y; of Irish descent; alto w/4-octave range; grows up in Armonk, N.Y.; wife of Lawrence Kruteck (-1996). English "All Right Now" rock bassist-songwriter Andrew McLan "Andy" Fraser (d. 2015) (Free) on July 3 in Paddington, West London. Am. rock musician Domingo Ortiz (Widespread Panic) on July 4. Am. country musician Charles Ventre (River Road) on July 5. Am. rock musician John Bazz (Blasters) on July 6 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "David in Eight Is Enough" actor Grant Goodeve on July 6. Am. "Tiffany Welles in Charlie's Angels" actress Shelley Hack on July 6 in Greenwich, Conn. English "Wolf Hall" novelist-writer Dame Hilary Mary Mantel (nee Thompson) on July 6 in Glossop, Derbyshire; educated at the U. of Sheffield; created dame in 2014. English rock guitarist Graham Oliver (Saxon) on July 6 in Mexborough, South Yorkshire. Israeli cryptographer (Jewish) Adi Shamir on July 6 in Tel Aviv; educated at the Weizmann Inst. Chinese Falun Gong founder Li Hongzhi on July 27 (May 13, 1951?) in ?. Luxembourgian chemist Francois Diederich on July 9 in Ettelbruck. Am. "True Thing" liberal jouralist-novelist Anna Marie Quindlen on July 8 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Barnard College. Am. "The Age of Miracles" New Age writer Marianne Williamson on July 8; educated at Pomona College. Am. "Sideways" novelist-screenwriter-dir. Rex Pickett on July 9. Am. 6'6" Christian music pianist-composer John Frank Tesh on July 9 in Garden City, N.Y.; husband (1992-) of Connie Sellecca (1955-). Am. mass murderer Larry Gene Ashbrook (d. 1999) on July 10. Canadian 6'0" hockey player William Charles "Bill" Barber on July 11 in Callander, Ont. Am. "Maj. Gen. George E. Pickett in Gettysburg", "Col. Miles Quaritch in Avatar" actor Stephen Lang on July 11 in New York City; Jewish father, Roman Catholic Irish-German descent mother; educated at Swarthmore College. Am. Christian evangelist William Franklin Graham III on July 14 in Asheville, N.C.; son of Billy Graham (1918-2018) and Ruth Graham; educated at LeTourneau College, and Montreat College. Am. "Dave Killer Carlson in Slap Shot" actor Jerry Houser on July 14 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. actor-dir. (black) Eric Laneuville on July 14. Am. "Fried Greed Tomatoes" actor (black) Stan Shaw on July 14 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Lethal Weapon" producer (Jewish) Joel Silver on July 14 in South Orange, N.J.; educated at Northfield Mount Hermon School in Mass., where he invents Ultimate Frisbee in 1968, followed by Lafayette College and NYU. U.S. Rep. (R-Fla.) (2013-) (Roman Catholic-turned-Episcopalian)Ileana Ros-Lehtinen (nee Ros y Adato) on July 15 in Havana, Cuba; Turkish Jewish maternal grandparents; of first Cuban-Am. and first Latina elected to the U.S. Congress, also first Repub. elected to the U.S. House from Fla.; educated at Miami Dade College, Internat U., and U. of Miami. Am. "John Locke in Lost" actor Terrance "Terry" O'Quinn on July 15 in Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.; grows up in Newberry, Mich. Am. football WR (Pittsburgh Steelers #82, 1974-87) John Lee "Johnny" Stallworth on July 15 in Tuscaloosa, Ala. Am. rock-punk musician-songwriter Johnny Thunders (John Anthony Genzale Jr.) (d. 1991) (New York Dolls, Heartbreakers) on July 15 in Queens, N.Y. Am. rock drummer Stewart Armstrong Copeland (The Police) on July 16 in Alexandria, Va.; son of Miles Copeland Jr. (1916-91). Am. "Michael Knight in Knight Rider", "Mitch Buchannon in Baywatch" actor David Michael Hasselhoff on July 17 in Baltimore, Md. Am. "Lotta Love" singer Nicolette Larson (d. 1997) on July 17 in Helena, Mont. Am. Southern rock musician Larkin Allen Collins Jr. (d. 1990) (Lynyrd Skynyrd) on July 19 in Jacksonville, Fla. Am. "Black Tickets" novelist Jayne Anne Phillips on July 19 in Buckhannon, W. Va.; educated at West Va. U. Am. musician Jay Jay French (John French Segall) (Twisted Sister) on July 20 in New York City. Am. Mormon priest (black) (first African-Am.) Joseph Freeman Jr. on July 24 in Vanceboro, N.C. Am. "Highlander" actress Roxanne Hart on July 27 in Trenton, N.J. Thai Chakri pres. #10 (2016-) Rama X (Maha Vajiralongkorn) on July 28 in Bangkok; son of Rama IX (Bhumibol Adulyadej) (1927-2016). Am. billionaire Abraxane surgeon Patrick Soon-Shiong on July 29 in Port Elizabeth, South Africa; Chinese immigrant parents; educated at UCLA. Am. 6'7" basketball player (white) (Kansas City Kings #15, 1974-81) (Cleveland Cavaliers #8, 1981-3) (Boston Celtics #20, 1983-6) Scott Dean "the Incredible Hulk" Wedman on July 29 in Harper, Kan.; educated at the U. of Colo. Am. "I Was Country When Country's Wasn't Coul" songwriter Dennis Morgan on July 30 in Tracy, Minn. Am. "Lt. Det. Steve Sloan in Diagnosis: Murder" actor Barry Van Dyke on July 31 in Atlanta, Ga.; son of Dick Van Dyke (1925-). Am. rock singer Joe Lynn Turner (Joseph Arthur Nark Linquito) (Fandango, Rainbow, Deep Purple) on Aug. 2 in Hackensack, N.J. Am. "Harold Sport Baxter in Hazel" actor Robert W. "Bobby" Buntrock (d. 1974) on Aug. 4 in Denver, Colo; grows up in Whittier, Calif. Am. "Baby Love" rock singer-guitarist Pat McDonald (Timbuk3) on Aug. 6 in Green Bay, Wisc.; husband of Barbara K. MacDonald (1958-). English comedian-actor-writer Alexei David Sayle on Aug. 7 in Anfield, Liverpool. Norwegian "Sophie's World" novelist Jostein Gaarder on Aug. 8 in Oslo. Am. "Mark Skid McCormick in Hardcastle and McCormick" actor Daniel Hugh Kelly on Aug. 10 in Elizabeth, N.J. Colombian pres. #32 (2010-) Juan Manuel Santos Calderon (Calderón) on Aug. 10 in Bogota. Am. "Chan Parker in Bird", "Justine Hanna in Heat" actress Diane Venora on Aug. 10 in East Hartford, Conn.; educated at Juilliard School. Am. rock musician Robert Leroy "Bob" Mothersbaugh Jr. (Devo) on Aug. 11; brother of Mark Mothersbaugh (1950-). Am. fashion photographer (Richard Gere, Brooke Shields, Olivia Newton-John, Madonna) (Jewish) (gay) Herbert "Herb" Ritts Jr. (d. 2002) on Aug. 13 in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at Bard College; likes to take B&@ photos in the style of classic Greek sculpture. Am. writer-ed. (Christian) (founder of "Wired" mag.) Kevin Kelly on Aug. 14 in Penn.; educated at the U. of R.I. Am. Olympic swimmer Deborah Elizabeth "Debbie" Meyer on Aug. 14 in Annapolis, Md.; first swimmer to win three individual golds (1968). Argentine tennis player Guillermo Apolinario Vilas on Aug. 17 in Buenos Aires. Am. "Dirty Dancing" actor Patrick Wayne Swayze (d. 2009) on Aug. 18 in Houston, Tex.; 6th cousin once removed of John Cameron Swayze (1906-95). Am. "Cmdr. William T. Riker in Star Trek: TNG" actor Jonathan Scott Frakes on Aug. 19 in Bethlehem, Penn. Am. "Forge of God" sci-fi novelist Gregory Dale "Greg" Bear on Aug. 20 in San Diego, Calif.; educated at San Diego State U. Am. "Have a Little Faith", "Warming Up to the Ice Age", "Sure As I'm Sittin' Here" rock-blues-country-New Wave singer-songwriter John Robert Hiatt on Aug. 20 in Indianapolis, Ind. English rock singer-bassist Glenn Hughes (Black Sabbath) on Aug. 21 in Cannock, Staffordshire. English punk rocker Joe Strummer (John Graham Mellor) (d. 2002) (The Clash) on Aug. 21 in Ankara, Turkey. German astronaut Klaus-Dietrich Flade on Aug. 23 in Budesheim. U.S. Sen. (R-Tenn.) (2007-) Robert Phillips "Bob" Corker Jr. on Aug. 24 in Orangeburg S.C.; educated at the U. of Tenn. Am. soul singer-bassist John Cowan (New Grass Revival) on Aug. 24 in Evansville, Ind. Am. football coach (Oakland Raiders, 1989-9) (Denver Broncos, 1990-1, 1995-2008), San Francisco 49ers (1992-4), Washington Redskins (2010-13) Michael Edward "Mike" Shanahan on Aug. 24 in Oak Park, Ill.; educated at Eastern Ill. U. Am. ping-pong player Glenn L. Cowan (d. 2004) on Aug. 25. English rock musician Geoffrey "Geoff" Downes (Asia, Buggles, Yes) on Aug. 25 in Stockport, Cheshire. Am. virologist Charles Moen Rice on Aug. 25 in Sacramento, Calif.; educated at UCD, and Caltech; 2020 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. Olympic swimmer John Pitann Kinsella on Aug. 26 in Oak Park, Ill. Am. "Eduard Del Delacroix in The Green Mile" actor (gay) Michael Jeter (d. 2003) on Aug. 26 in Lawrenceburg, Tenn. Am. crossword puzzle creator Will Shortz on Aug. 26 in Crawfordsville, Ind.; educated at Indiana U. Am. "Pee-Wee Herman" actor-comedian (Jewish) Paul Reubens (Rubenfeld) on Aug. 27 in Peekskill, N.Y. Am. "Though the Ivory Gate" poet-novelist (black) Rita Frances Dove on Aug. 28 in Akron, Ohio; educated at the U. of Iowa; 2nd African-Am. to win the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry; first African-Am. and youngest U.S. poet laureate (1993-95). Am. "Mercy in The Warriors", "Reva in Streets of Fire", "Jackie Rush in Too Close for Comfort" actress Deborah Gaye Van Valkenburgh on Aug. 29 in Schenectady, N.Y. Am. "The Peacemaker" journalist-filmmaker and Dem. politician Leslie Cockburn (nee Leslie Corkhill Redlich) on Sept. 2 in San Mateo, Calif.; grows up in Hillsborough, Calif.; educated at Yale U., and U. of London; wife (1977-) of Andrew Cockburn (1947-). Am. tennis player (lefty) James Scott "Jimmy" "Jimbo" Connors on Sept. 2 in East St. Louis, Ill. Am. "Late Show with David Letterman" bassist Will Lee on Sept. 8 in San Antonio, Tex. Am. "Linda Williams in Make Room For Daddy", "Penny Robinson in Lost in Space" actress Angela Margaret Cartwright on Sept. 9 in Altrincham, Chesire; sister of Veronica Cartwright (1949-). English "Sweet Dreams Are Made of This" musician-songwriter David Allan "Dave" Stewart (Eurythmics) on Sept. 9 in Sunderland; husband (1987-) of Siobhan Fahey (1958-). Am. activist (co-founder of Code Pink) Medea (Susan) Benjamin on Sept. 10 in Freeport, N.Y.; educated at Tufts U., Columbia U., and the New School; wife of Kevin Danaher. Am. singer-musician Gerald Linford "Gerry" Beckley (America) on Sept. 12 in Ft. Worth, Tex.; Am. father, English mother. Canadian rock drummer Neil Ellwood Peart (d. 2020) (Rush) on Sept. 12 in Hamilton, Ont.; grows up in Port Dalhouse, Ont. Am. singer (gay) Randy Jones (cowboy in the Village People) on Sept. 13 in Raleigh, N.C. Am. "Sister Christian" rock drummer-singer Kelly Keagy (Night Ranger) on Sept. 15. Qatari diplomat (U.N. Gen. Assembly pres., 2011-) Nassir Abdulaziz Al-Nasser on Sept. 15 in Doha. Am. "John Grey in 9-1/2 Weeks", "Harry Angel in Angel Heart" actor-boxer Philip Andre "Mickey" Rourke Jr. on Sept. 16 in Schenectady, N.Y. Am. 5'6" tennis player (Jewish) ("the Human Backboard") Harold "Solly" Solomon on Sept. 17 in Washington, D.C. Am. "Le Freak" musician-producer (black) Nile Gregory Rodgers (Chic) on Sept. 19 in New York City. German exorcism patient (Roman Cathoic) Anneliese Michel (d. 1976) on Sept. 21 in Leiblfing, Bavaria; educated at the U. of Wurzburg. U.S. Rep. (D-Mass.) (1987-99) Joseph Patrick Kennedy II on Sept. 24 in Brighton, Mass.; eldest son of Robert F. Kennedy (1925-68) and Ethel Kennedy (1928-); nephew of JFK; educated at the U. of Mass.; not to be confused with Patrick Joseph Kennedy II (1967-). Australian "Malcolm" actor Colin Friels Sept. 25 in Kilwinning, Ayrshire, Scotland; husband (1984-) of Judy Davis (1955-). Am. "Superman", "The Remains of the Day" actor-dir.-producer-writer-activist Christopher D'Olier Reeve (d. 2004) on Sept. 25 in New York City. Am. Muslim feminist scholar (black) Amina Wadud on Sept. 25 in Bethesda, Md.; Methodist minister father; educated at the U. of Penn., and U. of Mich.; converts to Islam in 1972. Romanian cosmonaut (first Romanian in space) Dumitru Dorin Prunariu on Sept. 27 in Brasov. Dutch "Emmanuelle" actress-singer Sylvia Kristel (pr. kri-STELL) on Sept. 28 in Utrecht. Am. rock guitarist John Lombardo (10,000 Maniacs, John & Mary)) on Sept. 30 in Jamestown, N.Y. English "H.R. Pufnstuff", "Artful Dodger in Oliver!" actor Jack Wild (d. 2006) on Sept. 30 in Royton, Lancashire. Am. football coach (Arizona Cardinals, 2013-) Bruce Arians on Oct. 3 in Paterson, N.J. English "Books of Blood", "Hellraiser", "Candyman" horror writer-dir.-artist Clive Barker on Oct. 5 in Liverpool. Pakistani cricketer-politician (Sunni Muslim) Imran Khan Niazi on Oct. 5 in Lahore, Punjab; educated at Keble College, Oxford U. Tajikistan pres. #1 (1992-) (Sunni Muslim) Emomalii (Imomalii) Rahmon(ov) on Oct. 5 in Kulob. Am. "Jean Louise Scout Finch in To Kill a Mockingbird" actress Mary Badham on Oct. 7 in Birmingham, Ala.; sister of John Badham (1939-). Russian pres. #2 (1999-2008) and PM (2008-) Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (pro. POOH-tyin) on Oct. 7 in Leningrad. Kiwi "If Women Counted" feminist activist-economist (lesbian) Marilyn Joy Waring on Oct. 7 in Ngaruawahia, Waikato; educated at Victoria U. of Wellington, and U. of Waikato. Am. "Glory", "Legends of the Fall", "The Siege", "Shakespeare in Love", "The Last Samurai" dir.-producer-writer (Jewish) Edward M. Zwick on Oct. 8 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Harvard U. English economist John Blundell (d. 2014) on Oct. 9 in congleton, Cheshire; educated at the London School of Economics. English "The X Factor", "America's Got Talent" celeb Sharon Rachel Osbourne (nee Levy) on Oct. 9 in Brixton, London; wife (1982-) of Ozzy Osbourne (1948-). Canadian 6'1" hockey right-winger Robert Thore "Bob" "Bobby" Nystrom on Oct. 10 in Stockholm; emigrates to Canada at age 4. Am. glider pilot-bicyclist Bryan L. Allen on Oct. 13 in Visalia, Calif. Am. "Judge Harold T. Harry Stone in Night Court", "Harry the Hat Gittes in Cheers" actor-magician Harry Laverne Anderson on Oct. 14 in Newport, R.I. Am. House Rep. (R-Calif.) (1989-2005) and SEC chmn. #28 (2005-9) Charles Christopher Cox on Oct. 16 in St. Paul, Minn.; educated at USC, and Harvard U. Am. "Grace Under Fire", "Dharma & Greg", "Two and a Half Men", "The Big Bang Theory", "Roseanne" TV writer-producer-composer (Jewish) Chuck Lorre (Charles Michael Levine) on Oct. 18 in Plainview, N.Y.; educated at SUNY. Am. "Melissa Steadman in thirtysomething" actress Melanie Mayron on Oct. 20 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. celeb Patricia Ann "Patti" Davis (nee Reagan) on Oct. 21 in Los Angeles, Calif.; daughter of Pres. Ronald Reagan (1911-2004) and 2nd wife Nancy Reagan (1921-2016); sister of Maureen Reagan (1941-2001), Michael Reagan (1945-), and Ron Reagan (1958-); educated at Northwestern U., and USC. Am. "Seth Brundle in The Fly", "Dr. Ian Malcolm in Jurassic Park" actor and jazz pianist (Jewish) Jeffrey Lynn "Jeff" Goldblum on Oct. 22 in West Homestead (near Pittsburgh), Penn.; of Russian Jewish descent. Lebanese Marionite gen. Samir Farid Geagea (Ja'Ja') on Oct. 25 in Ain El Remmaneh. Chinese economist Justin Yifu Lin on Oct. 25 in Yilan, Taiwan; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. economist Lars Peter Hansen on Oct. 26 in Champaign, Ill.; educated at Utah State U., and the U. of Minn.; 2013 Nobel Econ. Prize. British poet laureate (1998-) Andrew Motion on Oct. 26 near Braintree, Essex; educated at Radley College. Italian "Life Is Beautiful" actor-writer-dir. Roberto Remigio Benigni on Oct. 27 in Manciano, Castiglion Fiorentino. Am. "The End of History and the Last Man" political scientist Yoshihiro Francis Fukuyama on Oct. 27 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Cornell U., and Harvard U. Am. "Janine Melnitz in Ghostbusters", "Mary Jo Jackson in Designing Women" actress Anne Hampton "Annie" Potts on Oct. 28 in Nashville, Tenn.; educated at Stephens College; gets in a car accident at age 21 that breaks every bone below her waist. Russian cosmonaut Valeri (Valery) Ivanovich Tokarev on Oct. 29 in Kap-Yar, Astrakhan Oblast. Am. rock bassist-producer (black) Bernard Edwards (d. 1996) (Chic) on Oct. 31; grows up in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. scholar John Ricardo I. "Juan" Cole on Oct. ? in Albuquerque, N.M.; educatd at Northwestern U., Am. U. in Cairo, and UCLA. Am. "Roseanne Conner in Roseanne" comedian-actress (h.s. dropout) (Jewish) Roseanne Cherrie Barr (Roseanne Barr Pentland Arnold Thomas) on Nov. 3 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Am. AIDS researcher Dr. David Dai-i Ho on Nov. 3 in Taichung, Taiwan; emigrates to the U.S. at age 12; educated at Caltech, and Harvard U. Egyptian Coptic pope #118 (2012-) Tawadros II (Wagih Subhi Baqi Sulayman) on Nov. 4 in Mansoura. Am. 6'11" basketball center (white) (Portland Trail Blazers #32, 1974-87) (San Diego/Los Angeles Clippers #32, 1979-85) (Boston Celtics #5, 1985-7) William Theodore "Bill" "Big Redhead" Walton III on Nov. 5 in La Mesa, Calif.; educated at UCLA. Am. "The Hours" novelist (gay) Michael Cunningham on Nov. 6 in Cincinnati, Ohio; educated at Stanford U. and U. of Iowa. U.S. gen. (Afghan War CIC, 2010-) (CIA dir., 2011-2) David Howell Petraeus on Nov. 7 in Cornwall-on-Hudson (near West Point), N.Y.; Dutch immigrant father. Am. Playboy Enterprises CEO Christie Ann Hefner on Nov. 8 in Chicago, Ill.; daughter of Hugh Hefner (1926-2017). Am. baseball player-sportscaster (Boston Red Sox, 1978-84) Gerald Peter "Jerry" Remy (d. 2021) on Nov. 8 Fall River, Mass.; of French Canadian descent; grows up in Somerset, Mass.; educated at Roger Williams U. Am. "Dill in To Kill a Mockingbird", "Bonk Bonk on the Head Little Boy in the 'Miri' episode of Star Trek: TOS" actor John Megna (d. 1995) on Nov. 9 in Queens, N.Y.; brother of Connie Stevens (1938-); brother-in-law of Eddie Fisher (1928-2010); uncle of Joely Fisher (1967-). Polish-British biologist Jack William Szostak on Nov. 9 in London, England; grows up in Canada; educated at McGill U., and Cornell U.; 2009 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. businessman ("Billionaire Party Boy" - New York Post) Ronald Wayne Burkle on Nov. 12 in Pomona, Calif. Am. judge Merrick Brian Garland on Nov. 13 in Chicago, Ill.; educasted at Harvard U. Kenyan "Lords of Finance: The Bankers Who Broke the World" writer-banker (Nizari Ismaili Shia Muslim) Liaquat Ahamed on Nov. 14. Turkish Islamist leader (in Germany) Metin Kaplan on Nov. 14 in Erzurum; emigrates to Germany in 1983. Am. wrestler Macho Man Randy Savage (Randall Mario Poffo) (d. 2011) on Nov. 15 in Columbus, Ohio. Am. "The Guns at Last Light" journalist-military historian Lawrence Rush "Rick" Atkinson IV on Nov. 16 in Munich, Germany; educated at East Carolina U., and U. of Chicago. Japanese Nintendo game designer (Mario, Donkey Kong, Legend of Zelda) ("Father of Modern Video Games") ("the Walt Disney of Electronic Gaming") Shigeru Miyamoto on Nov. 16 near Kyoto. Welsh fashion designer David Emanuel on Nov. 17 in Bridgend; educated at Royal College of Art; husband (1976-90) of Elizbeth Emanuel (1953-). South African pres. #5 (black) (2018-) Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa on Nov. 17 in Soweto; member of the Venda ethnic group; educated at the U. of Limpopo, and U. of South Africa. English "Bo Catlett in Get Shorty", "Arthur Rose in The Cider House Rules", "Det. Castlebeck in Gone in 60 Seconds", "Stop eating my sesame cake" actor (black) Delroy George Lindo on Nov. 18 in Eltham, London; Jamaican immigrant parents; grows up in Lewisham, and San Francisco, Calif. Am. actress-singer Lorna Luft on Nov. 21 in Santa Monica, Calif.; daughter of Sidney Luft and Judy Garland (1922-69); half-sister of Liza Minnelli (1946-). Am. astronomer Nicholas B. Suntzeff on Nov. 22 in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at Stanford U., and UC Santa Cruz. U.S. ambassador to the U.N. #31 (2021-) (black) Linda Thomas-Greenfield on Nov. 22 in Baker, La.; educated at La. State U., and U. of Wisc. Am. "Soul: An Archaeology" writer-filmmaker Phil Cousineau on Nov. 26 in Columbia, S.C. Am. Olympic track star Francie Larrieu Smith on Nov. 28 in Palo Alto, Calif. Am. "Lt. Anita Van Buren in Law and Order", "Lackawanna Blues", "Reba the Mail Lady in Pee Wee's Playhouse" actress (black) Sharon Epatha Merkerson on Nov. 28 in Saginaw, Mich. English cosmologist-physicist John David Barrow on Nov. 29 in London; educated at Magdalen College, Oxford U. and UCB. Am. "Yentl", "Alien Nation", "Chicago Hope", "Criminal Minds" actor-singer (Jewish) Mandel Bruce "Mandy" Patinkin on Nov. 30 in Chicago, Ill. Am. "Anatomy of the Spirit New Age writer Caroline Myss (pr. like mace) on Dec. 2 in Chicago, Ill. English "Alias Smith and Jones" actor-comedian-dir.-writer-producer Mel Smith on Dec. 3 in Chiswick, London; educated at New College, Oxford U. Austrian "Colors of a New Dawn" New Age composer Gandalf (Heinz Strobl) on Dec. 4 in Pressbaum, Vienna. Canadian "Rock Me Gently" singer Andy Kim (Andrew Youakim) on Dec. 5 in Montreal, Quebec. Am. "Craig's List" computer entrepreneur (Jewish) Craig Alexander Newmark on Dec. 6 in Morristown, N.J. U.S. Sen. (R-Maine) (1997-) Susan Margaret Collins on Dec. 7 in Caribou, Maine; educated at St. Lawrence U. French "Cuervo Jones in Escape from L.A." actor-producer Georges Corraface on Dec. 7 in Paris. Syrian TV actor (Shiite Muslim) Abbas al-Noury (al-Nouri) on Dec. 8 in Damascus. Am. "Lt. Worf in Star Trek: DS9" actor (black) Michael Dorn on Dec. 9 in Luling, Tex.; grows up in Pasadena, Calif. Am. "Laurie in The Partridge Family", "Grace Van Owen in L.A. Law" actress Susan Hallock Dey on Dec. 10 in Pekin, Ill. Am. conservative commentator-writer David Limbaugh on Dec. 11 in Cape Girardeau, Mo.; educated at the U. of Mo.; younger brother of Rush Limbaugh (1951-). Am. wrestler (black) Junkyard Dog (Sylvester Ritter) (d. 1998) on Dec. 13 in Wadesboro, N.C.; displays the word "thump" on his wrestling trunks. Panamanian "Michelle Hue in Magnum, P.I.", "Sgt. Roberta Hansen in McBride" actress Marta DuBois on Dec. 15 in David. Am. geographer Robert C. Balling Jr. on Dec. 16 in Uniontown, Penn.; educated at Wittenberg U., Bowling Green State U., and U. of Okla. Am. "Sex & Power" feminist atty.-commentator Susan Estrich on Dec. 16 in Marblehead, Mass.; educated at Wellesley College, and Harvard U.; first woman ed. of "Harvard Law Review" (1976). Am. "Worf in Star Trek: TNG" actor (black) Michael Dorn on Dec. 19 in Luling, Tex. Am. "A Fifth of Beethoven" musician Walter Anthony Murphy Jr. (AKA Uncle Louie) on Dec. 19 in New York City. English "Nurse Alex Price in An American Werewolf in London", "Jessica in Logan's Run" actress Jennifer Ann "Jenny" Agutter on Dec. 20 in Taunton, Somerset. Am. "Titus", "The Lion King", "Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark" dir. Julie Taymor on Dec. 25 in Newton, Mass.; educated at Oberlin College. Am. "There's a Customer Born Every Minute" writer ("the Buddha of the Internet") Joseph "Joe" Vitale on Dec. 29 in Niles, Ohio; educated at Kent State U. Am. neocon political analyst William "Bill" Kristol on Dec. 23 in New York City; educated at Harvard U. Am. theoretical physicist Paul Joseph Steinhardt on Dec. 25 in Washington, D.C.; educated at Caltech, and Harvard U. Scottish "I Want My MTV" musician (Jewish) David Knopfler (Dire Straits) on Dec. 27 in Glasgow; Hungarian Jewish father, English mother; brother of Mark Knopfler (1949-). Am. opera soprano June Anderson on Dec. 30 in Boston, Mass. English mathematical physicist Timothy Noel "Tim" Palmer on Dec. 31 in ?; educated at the U. of Bristol, and Oxford U. English brewing scientist Charles William "Charlie" Bamfort on ? in Lancashire; educated at the U. of Hull. Bosnian-Herzegovinan grand mufti (1999-) (Muslim) Mustafa Ceric on ? in Visoko. Am. climatologist Judith A. Curry on ? in ?; educated at Northern Ill. U., and U. of Chicago. Am. economist (black) William A. "Sandy" Darity Jr. on ? in ?; raised in Amherst, Mass.; educated at Brown U., London School of Economics, and MIT. Am. economist Barry Julian Eichengreen on ? in ?. Palestinian PM (2007-) (Sunni Muslim) Salam Fayyad on ? in Deir-al-Ghusun, West Bank; educated from Am. U. of Beirut, St. Edward's U., and U. Tex. Austin. Am. "Barbarian Days: A Surfing Life" journalist William Finnegan on ? in New York City; grows up in Los Angeles, Calif. and Hawaii; educated at UCSC. U.S. ambassador to Ireland (2006-) Thomas Coleman Foley on ?. Canadian geneticist James Francis Gusella on ? in Ottawa, Ont. British "A Journey to Ladakh" New Age writer (founder of Sacred Activism) Andrew Harvey on ? in India; educated at Oxford U. French theoretical physicist Bernard Julia on ? in Paris; educated at the U. of Paris-Sud. Am. geologist Dexter Perkins on ? in Boston, Mass. British-Am. biologist Venkatraman "Venki" Ramakrishnan on ? in Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu; 2009 Nobel Chem. Prize. Australian economist Martin Ravallion; educated at the London School of Economics. Mexican "The Four Agreements" New Age writer Don Miguel Angel Ruiz on ? in ?. Am. artist David Salle on ? in Norman, Okla. Am. "Imperial Hubris" historian Michael F. Scheuer on ? in Buffalo, N.Y.; educated at Niagara U., Carleton U., and the U. of Manitoba. Am. poet (Jewish) Alan Shapiro on ? in ?. Egyptian PM (2011-) Essam Abdel-Aziz Sharaf on ? in Giza; educated at Cairo U. and Purdue U. Am. "The Clintons' War on Women" riter-activist (Repub.) (Roman Catholic) Roger Jason Stone Jr. on ? in Norwalk, Conn. German dark energy theoretical physicist Christof Wetterich on ? in Freiburg; educated at the U. of Freiburg. Polish surreal artist Jacek Yerka (Kowalski) on ? in Torun. Deaths: English physiologist Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (b. 1889) on Mar. 4 in Eastbourne, Sussex; 1932 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. educator John Dewey (b. 1859) on June 1 in New York City: "Democracy and the one, ultimate, ethical ideal of humanity are to my mind synonymous." Norwegian novelist Knut Hamsun (b. 1859) on Feb. 19 in Grimstad, Norholm; 1920 Nobel Lit. Prize. English artist Arthur John Elsley (b. 1860). Am. actor Charles K. French (b. 1860) on Aug. 2 in Hollywood, Calif. Italian PM (1917-19) Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (b. 1860) on Dec. 1 in Rome. Australian PM #11 (1915-23) William Morris Hughes (b. 1862) on Oct. 28 in Sydney. English Bible scholar Sir Frederic George Kenyon (b. 1863) on Aug. 23. Am. soprano Charlotte Maconda (b. 1863) on May 14 in New York City. Spanish-Am. philosopher-poet George Santayana (b. 1863) on Sept. 26 in Rome: "Life is not a spectacle or a feast, it is a predicament"; "What man strives to preserve, in preserving himself, is something which he has never been at any particular moment"; "A country without a memory is a country of madmen"; "Those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it"; "History is a pack of lies about events that never happened told by people who weren't there"; "Historical investigation has for its aim to fix the order and character of events throughout past time and in all places. The task is frankly superhuman." Dutch poet Lodewijk van Deyssel (b. 1864) on Jan. 26 in Haarlem. Swedish explorer-scientist Sven Anders Hedin (b. 1865) on Nov. 26. Finnish pres. Kaarlo Juho Stahlberg (b. 1865). Italian philosopher Benedetto Croce (b. 1866) on Nov. 20: "The deed of which the history is told must vibrate in the soul of the historian." Am. vacuum cleaner manufacturer Fred Wardell (b. 1866) on ? in Detroit, Mich. German actor Albert Bassermann (b. 1867) on May 15 in Zurich, Switzerland. Canadian politician Henri Bourassa (b. 1868) on Aug. 31 in Outremont, Quebec. English novelist Annie Sophie Cory (b. 1868) on Aug. 2. Am. photographer Edward Sheriff Curtis (b. 1868) on Oct. 19 in Los Angeles, Calif. Austrian-born "South Wind" Scottish novelist-essayist Norman Douglas (b. 1868) in Capri, Italy (OD): "Justice is too good for some people and not good enough for the rest." French poet-critic Charles Maurras (b. 1868) on Nov. 16 in Tours. Japanese PM #31 (1934-6) Keisuke Okada (b. 1868) on Oct. 7. Am. magician Joseph Francis Rinn (b. 1868) on Oct. 13 in Brooklyn, N.Y. German art historian Wilhelm Voge (b. 1868) on Dec. 30 in Ballenstedt. German cardinal Michael von Faulhaber (b. 1869) on June 12 in Munich. Am. inventor Edward Hebern (b. 1869) on Feb. 10. Dutch poet Henriette Roland Holst (b. 1869) on Nov. 21. Italian educator-physician Maria Montessori (b. 1870) on May 6. Ukrainian-born Am. historian Michael Rostovtzeff (b. 1870) on Oct. 20 in New Haven, Conn. Am. Tex. gov. #28 (1921-5) Pat Morris Neff (b. 1871) on Jan. 20 in Waco, Tex. German paleontologist Ernst Stromer (b. 1871) on Dec. 18 in Munich; he leaves his fossil collection, incl. skeletons of Spinosaurus and Aegyptosaurus to the Munich Museum, which is bombed by the Allies in 1944, destroying it. Am. painter Howard Chandler Christy (b. 1872) on Mar. 3 in New York City. English feminist writer Cicely Hamilton (b. 1872) on Dec. 6. Italian statesman Count Carlo Sforza (b. 1872) on Sept. 4 in Rome. Am. labor leader William Green (b. 1873) on Nov. 21. Austrian fashion designer Emilie Louise Floge (b. 1874) on May 26 in Vienna. U.S. interior secy. #32 (1933-46) Harold LeClair Ickes (b. 1874) on Feb. 3 in Washington, D.C. English Titanic 2nd mate Charles Herbert Lightoller (b. 1874) on Dec. 2 in Richmond, London. Israeli pres. #1 Chaim Weizmann (b. 1874) on Feb. 9. Japanese Mazda Motor Co. founder Jujiro Matsuda (b. 1875) on Mar. 27 in Hiroshima. Italian composer Italo Montemezzi (b. 1875) on May 15 in Vigasio. German historian Walter von Brunn (b. 1876) on Dec. 21 in Leipzig. Canadian aviation pioneer Clement Melville Keys (b. 1876). Am. artist Katherine Sophie Dreier (b. 1877) on Mar. 29. Am. Baptist preacher J. Frank Norris (b. 1877) on Aug. 20 in Jacksonville, Fla. (heart attack). German aviation pioneer Oskar Ursinus (b. 1877) on July 16. Hungarian playwright-novelist Ferenc Molnar (b. 1878) on Apr. 1 in New York City. Greek PM (1925-6) and pres. (1926) Gen. Theodoros Pangalos (b. 1878) on Feb. 26 in Athens. Am. actress Ethel Wales (b. 1878) on Feb. 15 in Hollywood, Calif. Am.-born British politician Waldorf Astor, 2nd Viscount Astor (b. 1879) on Sept. 30 in Brighton, Sussex. English economist Clifford Hugh Douglas (b. 1879) on Sept. 29 in Fearnan, Scotland. Hungarian-born Am. movie mogul William Fox (b. 1879) on May 8; the other Hollywood producers skunk his funeral. Swedish economist Eli Heckscher (b. 1879) on Dec. 23 in Stockholm. Canadian-born Am. Detroit Red Wings owner (1932-52) James E. Norris (b. 1879) on Dec. 4 in Chicago, Ill. (heart attack). English "Dakin's Solution" chemist (in the U.S.) Henry D. Dakin (b. 1880) on Feb. 10 in Scarsdale, N.Y. Am. artist Fred Gardner (b. 1880). French jurist Henri Donnedieu de Vabres (b. 1880) on Feb. 14 in Paris. Icelandic pres. (1944-52) Sveinn Bjornsson (b. 1881). Czech novelist Ivan Olbracht (b. 1882) on Dec. 20 in Prague. Am. sculptor Jo Davidson (b. 1883) on Jan. 2. Am. pschologist Clark Leonard Hull (b. 1884) on May 10 in New Haven, Conn. English novelist-poet Gilbert Frankau (b. 1884) on Nov. 4. Sri Lankan PM (1947-52) Don Stephen Senanayake (b. 1884) on Mar. 22 in Colombo (riding accident). German psychoanalyst Karen Horney (b. 1885) on Dec. 4. German writer Alfred Neumann (b. 1895) on Oct. 3 in Lugano, Switzerland. French actor-dir. Pierre Renoir Jr. (b. 1885) on Mar. 11 in Paris. German Atlantropa architect Herman Soergel (b. 1885) on Dec. 5 in Bavaria. Am. cartoonist H.T. Webster (b. 1885). Am. Higgins Boat manufacturer Andrew Jackson Higgins (b. 1886) on Aug. 1 in New Orleans, La. Australian polio nurse Elizabeth Kenny (b. 1886). Am. labor leader Philip Murray (b. 1886). Anglo-Am. "Oh, You Beautiful Doll" composer Nathaniel Davis Ayer (b. 1887) on Sept. 19 in Bath, England. Am. dir.-producer Jack Conway (b. 1887) on Oct. 11 in Pacific Palisades, Calif. U.S. Rep. (D-Ala.) (1935-51) Samuel Francis Hobbs (b. 1887) on May 31 in Selma, Ala. French aviation pioneer Maurice Prevost (b. 1887) on Nov. 27 in Neuilly-sur-Seine. German Gen. Heinrich von Vietinghoff (b. 1887) on Feb. 23 in Pfronten-Ried. British Labour politician Sir Richard Stafford Cripps (b. 1889) on Apr. 21 in Switzerland. French Gen. Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (b. 1889) on Jan. 11 in Paris. Austrian Nazi sculptor Josef Thorak (b. 1889) on Feb. 26 in Hartmannsberg, Germany. English actor-dir.-producer Leslie Banks (b. 1890) on Apr. 21. German-born Am. violinist-composer Adolf Busch (b. 1891) on June 9. English biochemist Sir Jack Cecil Drummond (b. 1891) on Aug. 4/5 near Lurs, Provence, France (murdered). Am. blues musician Luke Jordan (b. 1891) on June 25 in Lynchburg, Va. Am. Empire State Bldg. architect William Frederick Lamb (b. 1893) on Sept. 8 in New York City. Am. "Mamie in Gone With the Wind" actress Hattie McDaniel (b. 1893) on Oct. 26 in Woodland Hills, Calif. Am. "The Greatest Story Ever Told" writer Charles Fulton Oursler (b. 1893) on May 24 in New York City. Polish painter Wladyslaw Strzeminski (b. 1893) on Dec. 28 in Lodz. Indian yogi Paramahansa Yogananda (b. 1893) on Mar. 7 in Los Angeles, Calif.; dies at the Biltmore Hotel. Russian physicist Yakov Ilyich Frenkel (b. 1894) on Jan. 23 in St. Petersburg. French ed. Eugene Jolas (b. 1894) on May 26. Australian historian Capt. John Linton Treloar (b. 1894) on Jan. 28 in Canberra. French poet Paul Eluard (b. 1895) on Nov. 18 in Charenton-le-Pont (heart attack); thousands accompany his casket to the Pere-Lachaise Ceremony; "The whole world was mourning." (Robert Sabatier) British king (1936-52) George VI (b. 1895) on Feb. 6. German Waffen-SS Gen. Jurgen Stroop (b. 1895) on Mar. 6 in Warsaw, Poland (hanged). Scottish novelist Josephine Tey (b. 1896) on Feb. 13 in London (liver cancer). Am. jazz bandleader Fletcher Henderson (b. 1897) on Dec. 28 in New York City. German SS chief Richard Hildebrandt (b. 1897) on Mar. 10 in Warsaw, Poland (executed). English actress Gertrude Lawrence (b. 1898) on Sept. 6. French poet Roger Vitrac (b. 1899) on Jan. 22 in Paris. German Nazi scumbag Albert Forster (b. 1902) on Feb. 28 in Warsaw (hanged). Am. "Three Stooges" actor Curly Howard (b. 1903) on Jan. 18 in San Gabriel, Calif. (cerebral hemorrhage). Am. children's writer Margaret Wise Brown (b. 1910) on Nov. 13 in Nice, France; dies from an embolism after kicking up a leg to show a physician how fit she was and dislodging a leg clot formed while hospitalized for an ovarian cyst. German SS gen. Walther Schellenberg (b. 1910) on Mar. 31 in Turin, Italy (cancer); dies penniless, and ex-lover Coco Chanel pays for his funeral. Am. JPL co-founder Jack Parsons (b. 1914) on June 17 (home lab explosion) (govt. hit?); namesake of Parsons Crater on the dark side of the Moon. Argentine first lady Maria Eva "Evita" Duarte de Peron (b. 1919) on July 26 in Buenos Aires (cancer); her body remains remarkably preserved for years, and is kept in Juan Peron's dining room until his death in 1974? - don't cry for me Argentina on the balcony of Casa Rosada? Am. child molestation victim Florence Sally Horner (b. 1937) on Aug. 18 near Woodbine, N.J. (automobile accident).

1953 - The Watson-Crick H-Bomb Casino Royale Piltdown Hoax Alfred C. Kinsey REM Playboy Marilyn Monroe TLW Birth Year? The focal point year of the second half of the Twentieth Century? The year in which TLW enters stage left sees America the King of the World, at its peak of whiteness, rightness, churchiness, affluence, and straightness, a man's world filled with happy satisfied women who prefer being housewives and mothers in a vast and rich land with secure borders and a feeling of total immunity from terrorism, with only distant bricks and blank walls figuring into grim Red Scare politics, defused by the death of mean old dictator Stalin? The Great White Father who led the West to victory in WWII becomes U.S. president, and brings in a new generation of white old farts to run the federal government? On the moral front, Marilyn Monroe and James Bond are born, bedding the beautiful by the scores, yet somehow never getting together, while the Kinsey Report reveals that white American women may like to appear to be June Cleavers but sometimes choose nasty lezzie TLC like Marsha and Jan Brady, especially in college? Meanwhile the most scary weapon ever known, the H-bomb makes its appearance on both sides of the Iron Curtain almost simultaneously?

T.L. Winslow (TLW) (1953-) Little Ricky (1953-) Keith Thibodeaux (1950-) Coppertone Girl, 1959 Dwight David Eisenhower of the U.S. (1890-1969) Mamie Geneva Doud Eisenhower of the U.S. (1896-1979) Richard Milhous Nixon of the U.S. (1913-94) U.S. Sen. John William Bricker (1893-1986) John Foster Dulles of the U.S. (1888-1959) Allen Welsh Dulles of the U.S. (1893-1969) Donald Ewen Cameron (1901-67) Charles Eustis 'Chip' Bohlen of the U.S. (1904-74) Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. of the U.S. (1902-85) Charles Erwin Wilson of the U.S. (1890-1961) Martin Patrick Durkin of the U.S. (1894-1955) George Magoffin Humphrey of the U.S. (1890-1970) Ezra Taft Benson of the U.S. (1899-1994) James Douglas McKay of the U.S. (1893-1959) James Paul Mitchell of the U.S. (1900-64) Charles Sinclair Weeks of the U.S. (1892-1972) Frank Carlson of the U.S. (1893-1987) Ivy Baker Priest of the U.S. (1905-75) Clare Boothe Luce of the U.S. (1903-87) and Henry Robinson Luce (1898-1967) Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia (1892-1980) Imre Nagy of Hungary (1896-1958) Georgi Malenkov of the Soviet Union (1902-88) Lavrenti P. Beria of the Soviet Union (1899-1953) Kliment E. Voroshilov of the Soviet Union (1881-1969) Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union (1894-1971) Antonin Zapotocky of Czechoslovakia (1884-1957) Dag Hammarskjöld of Sweden (1905-61) Sidney Gottlieb of the U.S. (1918-99) Roy Marcus Cohn of the U.S. (1927-86) Julius Raab of Austria (1891-1964) Daniel Francois Malan of South Africa (1874-1959) Iranian Shah Mohamed Reza Pahlavi (1919-80) Fazlollah Zahedi of Iran (1896-1963) Iranian Gen. Nematollah Nassiri (1911-79) Muhammad Naguib of Egypt (1901-84) U.S. Gen. Maxwell Davenport Taylor (1902-87) René Coty of France (1882-1962) Joseph Laniel of France (1889-1975) French Gen. Christian De Castries (1902-91) North Vietnamese Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap (1911-2013) Moshe Sharett of Israel (1894-1965) Mohammed V of Morocco (1909-61) Ramon Magsaysay of the Philippines (1907-57) Cheddi Berret Jagan (1918-97) and Janet Jagan (1920-2009) of Guyana Linden Forbes Sampson Burnham of British Guyana (1923-85) King Talal I of Jordan (1909-72) Hussein I of Jordan (1935-99) Giuseppe Pella of Italy (1902-81) Gen. Gustavo Rojas Pinilla of Colombia (1900-75) Maria Eugenia Rojas de Moreno of Colombia (1932-) U.S. Gen. Arthur G. Trudeau (1902-91) Edward Mutesa II of Buganda (1924-69) Sir Edmund Hillary (1919-2008) Mount Everest Sir Edmund Hillary (1919-2008) and Tensing Norkay (1914-86) Baron Henry Cecil John Hunt (1910-98) King Ibn Saud (1876-1953) and King Saud (1902-69) Muhammad Sardar Daoud of Afghanistan (1910-78) Vladimir Semyonov of the Soviet Union (1911-92) Earl Warren of the U.S. (1891-1974) Oveta Culp Hobby of the U.S. (1905-95) U.S. Gen. Mark Wayne Clark (1896-1984) Oliver Payne Bolton (1917-72) and Frances Payne Bolton (1885-1977) of the U.S. British Col. Henry Cecil John Hunt (1910-98) Bouvier-Kennedy Wedding, Sept. 12, 1953 John F. Kennedy (1917-63) and Jackie Kennedy (1929-94) Jose Ferrer (1912-92) and Rosemary Clooney (1928-2002), 1953 George Catlett Marshall Jr. (1880-1959) Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965) William Fife Knowland (1908-74) J. Howard Pyle of the U.S. (1906-87) U.S. Sgt. Ola Lee Mize (1931-) Goodwin Knight of the U.S. (1896-1970) James Bryant Conant of the U.S. (1893-1978) McGeorge Bundy of the U.S. (1919-96) U.S. Adm. Lewis Lichtenstein Strauss (1896-1974) Arthur Hobson Dean of the U.S. (1898-1980) Edward Louis Bernays (1891-1995) Nathan Marsh Pusey (1907-) Sir John Lionel Kotelawala of Sri Lanka (1897-1980) Fidel Castro of Cuba (1926-2016) G. David Schine (1927-96) Richard Dimbleby (1913-65) Walter Hubert Annenberg (1908-2002) I.F. Stone (1907-89) Lawrence Ferlinghetti (1919-) Jack Kerouac (1922-69) Allen Ginsberg (1926-97) William Seward Burroughs II (1914-97) Herbert Huncke (1915-96) Joe Appiah (1918-90) and Peggy Cripps Appiah (1921-2006) Francoise Giroud (1916-2003) Jean Jacques Servan-Schreiber (1924-2006) Joseph Herman Hirshhorn (1900-81) Jackie Cochran (1906-80) Douglas DC-7, 1953 Carl Erskine (1926-) U.S. Capt. Joseph 'Joe Mac' McConnell Douglas D-558-2 Skyrocket USMC Maj. Gen. Marion Eugene Carl (1915-98) Scott Crossfield (1921-2006) Sir Norman Hartnell (1901-79) Bill Vukovich (1918-55) Gordie Howe (1928-2016) Fernie Flaman (1927-2012) Ted Kennedy (1925-2009) Ben Hogan (1912-97) Maureen Connolly (1934-69) Joan Violet Robinson (1903-83) Vic Seixas Jr. (1923-) Tony Trabert (1930-) Sir Gordon Richards (1904-86) Tenley Emma Albright (1935-) Willie Thrower (1930-2002) Toni Stone (1931-96) Ernie Beck (1931-) Walter Dukes (1930-2001) Ray Felix (1930-91) Bob Houbregs (1932-2014) Richie Regan (1930-2002) Frank Ramsey (1931-) Cliff Hagan (1931-) Jack George (1928-89) Ken Sears (1933-) Carroll Rosenbloom (1907-79) Florence Chadwick (1918-95) Stanley Matthews (1915-2000) Ernie Banks (1931-) Graz Castellano (1917-64) Nandor Hidegkuti (1922-2002) David Clarence McClelland (1917-98) Lee J. Cobb (1911-76) The Danny Thomas Show, 1953-64 The Life of Riley, 1953-8 'Name That Tune', 1953-9 'George DeWitt (1922-79) The Romper Room, 1953-94 Arthur Godfrey (1903-83) Julius La Rosa (1930-) Soupy Sales (1926-) Loretta Young (1913-2000) Norman Cousins (1915-90) William Inge (1913-73) Alain Robbe-Grillet (1922-2008) James D. Watson (1928-) and Francis H.C. Crick (1916-2004) Maurice H.F. Wilkins (1916-2004) Rosalind Elsie Franklin (1920-58) Harold Clayton Urey (1893-1981) Stanley Lloyd Miller (1930-2007) Ernst Ludwig Wynder (1922-99) Evarts Ambrose Graham (1883-1957) Vincent du Vigneaud (1901-78) Karl Ziegler (1898-1973) Jacques Lacan (1901-81) Giulio Natta (1903-79) Charles Hard Townes (1915-) Nikolai G. Basov (1922-2001) Alexander M. Prokhorov (1916-2002) Robert Frank Borkenstein (1912-2002) Charles Stark Draper (1902-) Alastair Pilkington (1920-95) John H. Gibbon Jr. (1903-73) J. Holcombe Laning Jr. (1920-) Taqiuddin al-Nabhani (1909-77) Said Ramadan (1926-95) Derek William Bentley (1933-53) Playboy issue #1, Dec. 1953 Hugh Hefner (1926-2017) Alfred C. Kinsey (1894-1956) John Wilder Tukey (1915-2000) Gregory Bateson (1904-80) John Weakland (1919-95) Donald deAvila Jackson (1920-68) Jay Haley (1923-2007) Meyer Howard Abrams (1912-) James Baldwin (1924-87) Alfred Bester (1913-87) Daniel Joseph Boorstin (1914-2004) Raymond Chandler (1888-1959) Ian Fleming (1908-64) Louis L'Amour (1908-88) Elmore Leonard (1925-2013) Jerome Robbins (1918-98) Theodore Roethke (1901-63) Richard Wright (1908-60) Laura Ashley (1925-85) Helen Bonfils (-1972) Ann Ree Colton (1898-1984) Mary Church Terrell (1863-1954) Tom Patterson (1920-2005) Sir Tyrone Guthrie (1900-71) Elizabeth Jennings (1926-2001) Jeannie Robertson (1908-75) Lola Beltran (1932-96) Welthy Honsinger Fisher (1879-1980) Leonard H. Goldenson (1905-99) Joseph Papp (1921-91) Guccio Gucci (1881-1953) Aldo Gucci (1905-90) André Michael Lwoff (1902-94) Sir Peter Brian Medawar (1915-87) Allan Seager (1906-68) Josef Shklovsky (1916-85) Harry Stack Sullivan (1892-1949) Max Frisch (1911-91) Maurice Girodias (1919-90) Isaac Bashevis Singer (1902-91) Jack Odell (1920-2007) Albert Ghiorso (1915-) Stanley Gerald Thompson (1912-76) Charles Greeley Abbot (1872-1973) Melvin Ellis Calvin (1911-97) Andrew Benson (1917-2015) Nathaniel Kleitman (1895-1999) Jerzy Neyman (1894-1981) Elizabeth Leonard Scott (1917-88) Max Ferdinand Perutz (1914-2001) Sir John Carew Eccles (1903-97) Henry Swan II (1913-96) Henry Taube (1915-2005) Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (1917-) Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (1914-98) Fritz Zernike (1888-1966) Hermann Staudinger (1881-1965) Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899-1986) Hans Adolf Krebs (1900-81) Murray Gell-Mann (1929-) IBM 650, 1953 Univac 1103, 1953 Clair Cameron Patterson (1922-95) Sir John Henry Gaddum (1900-65) Gilbert Norman Plass (1920-2004) Margaret Louise Coit (1919-2003) Bernard Baruch (1870-1965) Harold Elstner Talbott Jr. of the U.S. (1888-1957) Simon Ramo (1913-) and Dean Wooldridge (1913-2006) Arthur Krock (1886-1974) John Franklin Enders (1897-1955) Hans Eysenck (1916-97) Louis Isadore Kahn (1901-74) Thomas Huckle Weller (1915-2008) Frederick Chapman Robbins (1916-2003) Russell Amos Kirk (1918-94) Eugen Sänger (1905-64) William Maurice Ewing (1906-74) Arthur Adamov (1908-70) Harry Elmer Barnes (1889-1968) David Warren (1925-2010) Theodore W. Schultz (1902-98) Saul Bellow (1915-2005) Frank Chodorov (1877-1966) William H. Danforth (1870-1955) Jean Giono (1895-1970) Davis Grubb (1919-80) Robert L. Heilbroner (1919-2005) Maurice Herzog (1919-) Christopher Isherwood (1904-86) and Don Bachardy (1936-) Ira Levin (1929-2007) Charles Eric Maine (1921-81) Czeslaw Milosz (1911-2004) Henry Molaison (1926-2008) Robert Ruark (1915-65) R.W. Southern (1912-2001) Umm Kulthum (1904-75) John Reginald Halliday Christie (1899-1953) Uell Stanley Andersen (1917-86) Michael DeBakey (1908-2008) Richard Pike Bissell (1913-77) Horton Foote (1916-) Leicester Hemingway (1915-82) David Wagoner (1926-) John Barrington Wain (1925-94) Greasers Teddy Boys, 1953 Jose Luis Sert (1902-83) Hank Williams Sr. (1923-53) Epic Records Vee-Jay Records Chevy Corvette, 1953 Myron E. Scott (1907-98) Hans Conried (1917-82) Sir John Gielgud (1904-2000) Sir John Gielgud (1904-2000) Richard Adler (1921-) and Jerry Ross (1926-55) Les Paul (1915-2009) and Mary Ford (1924-77) Pierre Boulez (1925-) Rene Char (1907-88) Jim Reeves (1923-64) Jean Shepard (1933-) Alex Bradford (1927-78) Dizzy Gillespie (1917-93) Ray Price (1926-2013) Nelson Riddle Jr. (1921-85) Cyd Charisse (1922-2008) June Haver (1926-2005) Anthony Perkins (1932-92) Brandon de Wilde (1942-72) Ray Harryhausen (1920-) Alwin Nikolais (1910-93) Dorothy Dandridge (1922-66) Harry Belafonte (1927-) Clyde McPhatter (1932-72) Tom Lehrer (1928-) Eleanor Steber (1914-90) Art Tatum (1909-56) Theodor Uppman (1920-2005) Phyllis Curtin (1923-) 'Cloud Shepherd' by Jean/Hans Arp (1886-1966), 1953 Vickers Viscount, 1953 Dorian Leigh (1917-2008) Annunzio Mantovani (1905-80) Jack LaLanne (1914-2011) Mamie Van Doren (1931-) John Patrick (1905-95) 'Make Room for Daddy', 1953-64 'The Man Behind the Badge', 1953-5 'Person to Person', 1953-61 'The United States Steel Hour', 1953-63 You Are There', 1953-7 Sandy Wilson (1924-2014) 'The Boy Friend', 1953 'Divorce Me, Darling!', 1964 'Can-Can', 1953 'John Murray Andersons Almanac', 1953 Walt Disney's 'Our Friend the Atom', 1953 'Picnic', 1953 'The Sleeping Prince', 1953 'The Teahouse of the August Moon', 1953 'Waiting for Godot', 1953 'Wonderful Town', 1953 'Appointment in London', 1953 'Genevieve', 1953 'Bwana Devil', 1953 'The Big Heat', 1953 'Calamity Jane', 1953 'Cat-Women of the Moon', 1953 'The Cruel Sea', 1953 Sir Donald Sinden (1923-2014) 'A Day to Remember', 1953 'Escape by Night', 1953 'From Here to Eternity', 1953 'Glen or Glenda', 1953 Ed Wood Jr. (1924-78) 'Gentlemen Prefer Blondes', starring Marilyn Monroe (1926-62), 1953 'House of Wax', 1953 'Invaders from Mars', 1953 'Julius Caesar', 1953 'Kiss Me Kate', 1953 'The Magnetic Monster', 1953 'Malta Story', 1953 'The Master of Ballantrae', 1953 'Miss Sadie Thompson', 1953 'Phantom from Space', 1953 'Robot Monster', 1953 'The Robe, 1953 Henri Chretien (1879-1956) 'Roman Holiday', starring Audrey Hepburn (1929-93) and Gregory Peck (1916-2003), 1953 'Walt Disneys Peter Pan', 1953 'Shane', 1953 'Stalag 17', 1953 'Titanic', 1953 'War of the Worlds', 1953 'Cloud Shepherd', by Jean (Hans) Arp (1886-1966), 1953 'Droodles' by Roger Price (1918-90), 1953 'Acrobat and Horse on Blue Background' by Fernand Leger (1881-1955), 1953 'Woman IV' by William de Kooning (1904-97), 1953 'Woman V' by William de Kooning (1904-97), 1953-4 'The Listening Room' by Rene Magritte (1898-1967), 1953 'King and Queen' by Henry Moore (1898-1986), 1953 'Easter and the Totem' by Jackson Pollock (1912-56), 1953 'Easter Greyness' by Jackson Pollock (1912-56), 1953 'Portrait and a Dream' by Jackson Pollock (1912-56), 1953 'Washington Crossing the Delaware' by Larry Rivers (1923-2002), 1953 'Mother Bathing Child' by Jack Smith (1928-), 1953 Yad Vashem, 1953 Crest Toothpaste, 1953 Sam Born (1891-1959) Peeps, 1953 Dorian Leigh (1917-2008) Richard Avedon (1923-2004) Ferrari 250 Porsche Spyder Lufthansa Logo MiG-19, 1953 F-100 Super Sabre Martin B-57 Canberra Matchbox Cars, 1953 Burger King, 1953 Denny's Restaurants, 1953- L&M Cigarettes, 1953 Maruchan, 1953 Coco Palms Hotel, 1953 Coco Palms Hotel Torch-Lighting Ceremony

1953 Doomsday Clock: 2 min. to midnight - H-bomb wild chronicle year? Chinese Year: Snake (Feb. 14). Time Mag. Man of the Year: Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967). Smog in New York City is believed to be responsible for 200 deaths. U.S. TV ad revenues: $538M; radio ad revenues: $451M, going down for the first time since the Great Depression; cigarette ads account for ?%. On Jan. 1 civil rights are restored to several thousand former fascists in Italy, allowing them to vote and hold office. On Jan. 1 country singer Hiram "Hank" Williams (b. 1923) dies near Oak Hill, W. Va. of heart failure in the back seat of a Cadillac en route from Knoxville, Tenn. to Canton, Ohio after an engagement in Charleston, W. V. is canceled due to an ice storm; 15K-25K attend his funeral on Jan. 4 in Montgomery, Ala. at the Montgomery Auditorium, where Red Foley, Ernest Tubb, and Roy Acuff perform. On Jan. 1 USC defeats Wisconsin by 7-0 to win the 1953 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 2 The Life of Riley (originally a 1941 CBS Radio show, then an ABC Radio show in 1944-5, and an NBC Radio show from Sept. 8, 1945 to June 29, 1951, then an NBC-TV show starring Jackie Gleason and Rosemary DeCamp from Oct. 4, 1949 to Mar. 28, 1950) debuts on NBC-TV (until May 23, 1958), starring William Bendix (1906-64) as L.A. Cunningham Aircraft worker Chester A. Riley ("What a revoltin' development this is!"), and Marjorie Reynolds (1917-97) as his wife Peg; a Dumont TV Network version was tried in 1949 starring Jackie Gleason, and flopped in 6 mo.; Wesley Morgan (1939-) stars as Riley's son Junior, and Tom D'Andrea (1909-98) stars as his next-door-neighbor Gillis, and Joan Blondell's sister Gloria Blondell (1915-86) as his wife Honeybee; John Brown (1904-57) stars as "friendly undertaker" Digby "Digger" O'Dell ("I'd better be shoveling off"). On Jan. 3 Frances Payne Bolton (1885-1977) (1940-69) (R-Ohio) and her son Oliver Payne Bolton (1917-72) (1953-57) from Ohio become the first mother-son combo to serve at the same time in the U.S. Congress. On Jan. 5 U.S. Sen. (R-Ohio) John William Bricker (1893-1986), in alliance with 62 other senators, incl. all but three Repubs., introduces the Bricker Amendment, modifying Art. 6 of the U.S. Constitution to the effect that a treaty or other internat. agreement shall only become effective after legalization by the Congress, in an attempt to limit the power of the pres. and prevent another Yalta; Pres. Eisenhower opposes it, and in 1954 it comes within one vote of adoption, but is finally dropped in 1957. On Jan. 5 West Germany extends the patent of J.A. Topf and Son of Wiesbaden for the crematorium furnace model used in Auschwitz - 6 million served? On Jan. 6 jazz trumpeter John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie (1917-93), known for playing with pouched cheeks throws a party for his wife Lorraine at Snookie's in Manhattan, and his trumpet's bell gets bent upward in an accident, but he likes the sound so much he has a special trumpet made with a 45 deg. raised bell, becoming his trademark. On Jan. 6 Lufthansa Airlines is founded in Cologne, Germany, based on the pre-war Deutsche Luft Hansa A.G. (Deutsche Lufthansa), founded in Berlin in 1926 and closed in 1945 after Germany's defeat; its first domestic flights are flown on Apr. 1, 1955, followed by internat. flights on May 15; since flights to Berlin are barred until 1989, Frankfurt Airport develops into their major hub. On Jan. 7 Pres. Truman gives his 1953 State of the Union Address, giving Americans a glowing feeling by announcing that the U.S. has developed the hydrogen bomb (H-bomb) - making America the World Lion, while those pesky Commie hyenas will never get one? On Jan. 9 the decrepit 146-ton South Korean ferry Chang Tyong-Ho sinks off Pusan, killing 249 passengers and crew. On Jan. 12 Yugoslavia adopts a new Yugoslavian Constitution, and on Jan. 14 Marshal Josip Broz Tito is elected pres. #1 of the Federal People's Repub. of Yugoslavia (founded 1946) by a joint session of parliament, going on to ramp up his nonalignment policy while trying to smooth over the differences between Serbs, Croats, Macedonians and Montenegrins. On Jan. 12 Estonian emigrees found a government in exile in Oslo, Norway. On Jan. 14 Roy Marcus Cohn (1927-86), special asst. to U.S. atty.-gen. James McGranery since Sept. 1952 resigns from the Justice Dept. to become chief counsel for Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy's Permanent Investigations Subcommittee, while Senate staffer Hiram Ralph Burton (1882-1971) eagerly works to dig up dirt on people. On Jan. 14 the CIA-sponsored Robertson Panel first meets to discuss the UFO phenomenon, going on to "debunk" sightings and ridicule UFO witnesses, er, believers, er, nuts. On Jan. 15 East Germany's first foreign minister (since 1949) Georg Dertinger (1902-68) is arrested for spying, put on a show trial next year, and sentenced to 15 years hard labor, then given amnesty in 1964. On Jan. 15 the First Asian Socialist Conference agrees on alliances with the West and land for the peasants. On Jan. 15 a passenger train approaching Washington, D.C. with carloads of passengers coming to see Eisenhower's inauguration loses its brakes and crashes into Union Station, injuring 87, but there are no fatalities since the passengers first move to the rear cars and the station is cleared in advance. On Jan. 16 lame duck pres. Harry Truman issues Executive Order 10426, establishing offshore lands as a naval petroleum reserve under the U.S. Navy secy., but on Jan. 18 the new U.S. Congress reverses him, and on May 22 Pres. Eisenhower signs the U.S. Tidelands Oil Act giving ownership of submerged oil lands to the coastal states, with a 10.5 mi. limit into the Gulf of Mexico, and a 3 mi. limit into the Pacific, and the U.S. Supreme Court upholds it within a year. A studly car, a studly author, a boy TV star, and a glue factory war horse president are all born in three days? On Jan. 17 Chevrolet's new 2-seater Corvette is first displayed to the public, becoming the first production car with a "revolutionary fiberglass body", and the first Am. sports car; the first unit rolls off the assembly line in Flint, Mich. on June 30; it was named by Am. Soap Box Derby founder (1933) Myron E. "Scottie" Scott (1907-98) after a corvette (fast ship). On Jan. 18 (Sun.) TLW is born in Rocky Mountain Osteopathic Hospital in Denver, Colo., delivered by Dr. William Brown; the previous year mother Wilma (1925-2010) miscarried a baby boy they were going to name Gregory, since daddy Thomas Sr. resembles Gregory Prick, er, Peck; TLW goes on to spend most of his life in Denver, finally warping the entire state govt. to his grate mental powah while nobody except the powerful ever know who he is, and he never wastes time trying to gain great wealth but prefers to gain great knowledge, quack quack get out the word processor? On Jan. 18 (TLW's birthdate) the birth of Little Ricky on TV's I Love Lucy, played by Lafayette, La.-born kid drummer Keith Thibodeaux (1950-) upstages (44M viewers, a 72% share) the inauguration of U.S. pres. Eisenhower, who later this year utters the immortal soundbyte: "There is one thing about being president: nobody can tell you when to sit down" - forever giving TLW a feeling that he's running the U.S., along with a penchant for a sedentary lifestyle with upper body exercises? On Jan. 19 Giuseppe Verdi's opera "Il Trovatore" is first performed at Teatro Apollo in Rome. The general who later warns of the grate powah of the U.S. Military-Industrial Complex Tribe oughta know, since he packs his cabinet with its chiefs? On Jan. 20 bridge-playing Repub. 5-star gen. Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969) becomes the 34th U.S. pres. (until Jan. 20, 1961) in the 49th U.S. Pres. Inauguration in Washington, D.C.; anti-Commie poker-playing Quaker Richard Milhous Nixon (1913-94) becomes the 36th U.S. vice-pres. (youngest so far); Ike becomes the first pres. in the 20th. cent. without a double letter in his name, unless you count initials; the first U.S. pres. to ride in a helicopter; the inaug. theme (first-ever?) is "Crusade in America"; Second Lady is Thelma Catherine Patricia "Pat" Ryan Nixon (1912-93) (Secret Service codename: Starlight) (a smoker); the Nixons have a pet cocker spaniel named Checkers (1952-64), who woulda been First Dog if he lived until 1969; the inaugural parade is the most elaborate ever held (until ?), with 22K service men-women and 5K civilians in the parade, which incl. 50 state floats costing $100K, along with 65 bands, 350 horses, 3 elephants, an Alaskan dog team, and the new Atomic Annie atomic cannon, plus a 642-plane flyover; First Lady is Mamie Geneva Doud Eisenhower (1896-1979) (Secret Service codeword: Springtime), who brings pink back with her fashion tastes; Aaron Copland's 1942 "A Lincoln Portrait" is withdrawn from the inaugural concert because of his alleged Communist connections; Ike's favorite books are Zane Grey Westerns, since he once considered working as a cowboy in Argentina; his Jehovah's Witnesses background is covered-up?; the unnamed balcony on the White House South Lawn becomes Truman's legacy; he renames Camp Shangri-La to Camp David in honor of his grandson Dwight David Eisenhower II; Robert A. Taft of Ohio becomes Senate majority leader, but in June has to give it up because of cancer, and dies on July 31; Ike appoints GM pres. (since 1941) Charles Erwin "Engine Charlie" Wilson (1890-1961) as U.S. defense secy. #5 (until Oct. 8, 1957) (known for the soundbyte: "What's good for General Motors is good for the country", and for telling the U.S. in 1944 that it needs a "permanent war economy"), M.A. Hanna steel manufacturing firm pres. George Magoffin Humphrey (1890-1970) as U.S. treasury secy. #55 (until July 29, 1957) (takes a pay cut from $300K to $22.5K), John Foster Dulles (1888-1959) as U.S. secy. of state #52 (until Apr. 22, 1959) (becoming known for his policy of brinkmanship, holding the nuclear club over other countries' heads), labor leader Martin Patrick Durkin (1894-1955) (a Dem.) as U.S. labor secy. #7 (who resigns on Sept. 10 and goes back to being pres. of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Union of the U.S. and Canada), Ezra Taft Benson (1899-1994) of Utah (a Mormon Quorum of the Twelve member, who becomes LDS pres. #13 on Nov. 10, 1985) as U.S. agriculture secy. #15 (until Jan. 20, 1961) (starting the custom of beginning cabinet meetings with prayer and calling govt. price supports and other aid to farmers unvarnished Socialism), and James Douglas McKay (1893-1959) as U.S. interior secy. (until 1956); Mormon Ivy Baker Priest (1905-75) (mother of Pat Priest of The Munsters fame) becomes U.S. treasurer #30 (until Jan. 29, 1961); a few days before his retirement date comes up, Arthur Joseph Altmeyer's office of commissioner for social security (since 1937) is abolished in favor of a new commissioner of social security, causing a public outcry, but in a delicious gotchya, Altmeyer refuses the offer of a 1-mo. job with no responsibilities; Kan. Repub. Sen. (1950-69) Frank Carlson (1893-1987) (a buddy of Ike) brokers a deal through Ohio Sen. Robert Taft to become Senate majority leader, and organizes the first pres. prayer breakfast, going on to coin the phrase "worldwide spiritual offensive" in 1955 for Christian evangelicals fighting the Commies. On Jan. 20 Turkey's foreign minister meets with Tito in Belgrade to talk about forming a Balkan defense alliance. On Jan. 20 Marilyn Monroe wannabe Mamie Van Doren (1931-) signs with Universal Studios, changing her name from Joan Lucille Olander to jive with Ike's wife Mamie Eisenhower along with the brainy Van Doren brothers Carl and Mark, and going on to marry bandleader Ray Anthony in 1955-61; too bad, when Charles Van Doren stinks himself up in the 1958 Quiz Show Scandal, it backfires, and Universal dumps her in 1959, which turns out good when she doesn't end up dead by 40 like other sex symbols and ages gracefully? On Jan. 21 Charles Sinclair Weeks (1893-1972) is appointed U.S. commerce secy. #13 (until Nov. 10, 1958), immediately getting involved in the Russian Butter Scandal, which began last year when future Archer Daniels Midland CEO (former Cargill salesman) Dwayne Orville Andreas (1918-) of Mankato, Minn. agreed to sell Moscow 75K tons of butter and an equal amount of cottonseed oil; although both Ike and Sen. Joseph McCarthy approve the deal, U.S. anti-Communists attack it, claiming that Russian housewives who have been paying $3.25 (13 rubles) a pound for butter will be able to get it for 50 cents a pound, while Americans must pay 80 cents, causing weak Weeks to nix an export license, after which the Russians buy cottonseed oil from Rotterdam, and the U.S. butter, which costs 67 cents a pound to store ends up going rancid and is made into soap - let them eat cottonseed cake? On Jan. 22 new elections in Iraq are organized, causing the military govt. to step down. On Jan. 26 Walter Ulbricht announces that East German agriculture will be collectivized - big surprise? On Jan. 26 after losing his reelection to John F. Kennedy in a close race because of spending too much time supporting Ike's candidacy, former U.S. Sen. (R-Mass.) (1937-44, 1947-53) Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (1902-85), grandson of U.S. Sen. (R-Mass.) (1893-1924) Henry Cabot Lodge Sr. (1850-1924) (who went on a tour of duty in WWII as a senator then was forced to resign to stay fighting) becomes U.S. U.N. rep. #3 (until Sept. 3, 1960), with his position elevated to cabinet rank, becoming the longest-serving in that position (until ?); his granddaddy defeated JFK's granddaddy John F. Fitzgerald for the same Senate seat in 1916, and later in 1962 Lodge's son George Cabot Lodge is defeated for the same seat by JFK's brother Ted Kennedy; Lodge Sr. hated the League of Nations, but Lodge Jr. is pro-U.N., uttering the soundbyte "This organization is created to prevent you from going to Hell; it isn't created to take you to Heaven." On Jan. 28 epileptic illiterate retarded Derek William Bentley (1933-53) is hanged in Wandsworth Prison for murdering policeman Sidney Miles in Croydon, Surrey, England on Nov. 2, 1952; trouble is, he was in police custody at the time of the murder, which was done by his partner Christopher Craig, and all he did was shout "Let him have it, Chris", which he later claimed meant he was telling him to hand the gun to him and surrender; after the justice-to-the-police prosecution railroads the poor sucker through a jury to a death sentence for killing a sacred pig, er, cow, even though his hands are literally tied at the time by the police, and he has a great alibi (I was not there at the time, I was someplace else, in police custody, and I never killed anybody?), his lawyers' appeals are denied, and pro-death penalty Edinburgh-born home secy. David Maxwell Fyfe, 1st Earl of Kilmuir (1900-67) (co-drafter of the European Convention on Human Rights, who cross-examined Herman Goering in the Nuremberg Trials) stinks himself up by refusing to ask the queen for clemency despite a petition by 200+ MPs, and Parliament is not allowed to debate whether he should be hanged until after the fact; Craig, being under 18 is released in 10 years; in 1993 Bentley is pardoned, and on July 30, 1998 his murder conviction is quashed; filmed in 1991 by Peter Medak as "Let Him Have It" - proving you can kill a cop and get away with it in Britain if you're underage and a good ventriloquist, but somebody always has to die for killing a cop? On Jan. 30 Pres. Eisenhower announces that he will pull the Seventh Fleet out of Formosa to permit the Nationalists to attack Communist China. On Jan. 31-Feb. 1 the huge North Sea Flood of 1953, caused by winter storms kills 2,551 incl. 1,836 in SW Netherlands (esp. Zeeland) and Belgium, 307 in England, 28 in Belgium, 19 in Scotland, and 361 at sea, incl. 133 on the British ferry MV Princess Victoria (launched Aug. 27, 1946) in the Irish Sea on Jan. 31, becoming the deadliest maritime disaster in U.K. waters since WWII; 4K bldgs. are destroyed, and 70K are left homeless, causing the govt. to spend $8B over the next 30 years fortifying the coastline with a system of sophisticated dikes, incl. a 6-mi.-long movable hydraulic steel curtain that closes when the water rises 6 ft., after which there are no flood deaths in the Netherlands until ?; meanwhile London builds new flood gates on the Thames Estuary; it is found that gypsum (calcium sulfate) can undo the effect of seawater on flooded areas of Holland and Britain when spread on the ground to be later washed in by rainwater. In Jan. the U.S. resumes tin purchases from Bolivia after negotiations for compensation of U.S. investors begin; an agreement is announced in June. In Jan. U.S. Gen. Omar Bradley tells outgoing Pres. Truman that a criminal investigation into the internat. oil cartel threatens nat. security, causing Truman to drop his attack on Standard Oil of New Jersey, Gulf Oil, the Texas Co., Socony-Mobil, Standard Oil of Calif., and their foreign allies Anglo-Iranian and Royal Dutch-Shell; in Apr. the U.S. Justice Dept. drops its grand jury probe and files a civil complaint, accusing them of monopoly tactics; meanwhile in Oct. Brazilian pres. Getulio Vargas creates the govt. oil monopoly Petroleo Brasileiro (Petrobras), with the soundbyte: "The oil is ours"; by 2010 it is the largest co. in Latin Am. and 2nd largest publicly listed co. on Earth. On Feb. 1 the Japanese Broadcasting Corp. begins broadcasting as the nonprofit NHK network airs its first programs. On Feb. 1 Goodman Ace's You Are There (a CBS Radio show on July 7, 1947-Mar. 19, 1950) debuts on CBS-TV for 147 episodes (until June 9, 1957), starring Walter Leland Cronkite Jr. (1916)-2009), with his newsroom transported into the past to report on historical events; episodes feature Paul Newman as Marcus Brutus and Nathan Hale, Rod Steiger as Richard Burbage, James Dean as Robert Ford, Jeanette Nolan as Sarah Bernhardt, Beatrice Straight as Anne Boleyn, and John Cassavetes as Plato; it is revived as a Sat. morning color show in 1971-2, hosted by Cronkite; at the end of each episode, Cronkite utters the soundbyte: "What sort of day was it? A day like all days, filled with those events that alter and illuminate our times... All things are as they were then, and you were there" - TLW was born on Jan. 18, 1953, so he definitely wasn't there, no wonder he became a historyscoper? On Feb. 2 Ike's First State of the Union Address admits that "no single country, even one so powerful as ours, can alone defend the liberty of all nations threatened by Communist aggression from without or subversion from within", calling for mutual cooperation. On Feb. 6 controls on U.S. wages, salaries, and some consumer goods are lifted, and on Mar. 17 all price controls are removed. On Feb. 9 the French destroy six Viet Minh war factories hidden in the jungles of Vietnam. On Feb. 10 operations of the European Coal and Steel Community begin with the creation of a common market for coal, followed by a common market for steel on May 1; Britain denationalizes its steel industry and establishes an Iron and Steel Board to supervise the privately-owned cos., which remain associated with the British Iron and Steel Federation (created 1934). On Feb. 11 Pres. Eisenhower refuses clemency to convicted spies Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, causing Pope Pius XII to ask him to reconsider on Feb. 13; on June 19 despite a worldwide campaign on their behalf, they are executed at Sing Sing Prison in N.Y., becoming the first U.S. civilians executed for wartime spying; pro and anti-Rosenberg demonstrators face-off in front of the Ike White House, with tne anti placards reading "Two fried Rosenbergers coming right up." On Feb. 12 the Soviets break off diplomatic relations with Israel after the bombing of the Soviet legation. On Feb. 12 Britain and Egypt sign an Anglo-Egyptian Agreement providing for the immediate introduction of self-govt. in Sudan under an appointed gov.-gen.; an all-Sudanese parliament is elected in Nov.-Dec. On Feb. 12 the Nordic Council is formed by Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, consisting of parliamentary members who meet annually to discuss common problems; Finland joins in 1955. On Feb. 14 (Valentine's Day) true love happens when gay English-born writer Christopher Isherwood (1904-86) (former lit. mentor of W.H. Auden) meets 16-y.-o. Don Bachardy (1936-) at a beach in Santa Monica, Calif., and they move in together for the rest of Isherwood's life. On Feb. 19 Ga. approves the first lit. censorship board in the U.S. On Feb. 21 the Soviets cause a purge of 30 Jewish Communist leaders in Hungary. On Feb. 24 the South African Parliament votes PM (1948-54) Daniel Francois Malan (1874-1959) of the Nat. Party dictatorial powers to oppose black and Indian anti-apartheid movements. On Feb. 25 Gen. Charles de Gaulle condemns the European Defense Community. On Feb. 25 a plan is announced in Guatemala to expropriate half of the United Fruit Co.'s 500K acres, only 15% of which are under cultivation, but despite this, on Oct. 14 the U.S. State Dept. declares that Guatemala is "openly playing the Communist game", and refuses cooperation, instead sending the CIA to help the United Fruit Co. overthrow Arbenz. Just the man for them pesky Commie banana republics? On Feb. 26 Gen. Walter Bedell Smith resigns, and his deputy (since Aug. 1951) Allen Welsh Dulles (1893-1969) (brother of John Foster Dulles) is appointed dir. #5 of the CIA (until Nov. 29, 1961) (first civilian and longest serving dir. until ?), rising to the top of the U.S. spy chain during the Cold War; on Apr. 13 he authorizes the CIA's secret MKUltra mind control project was authorized by new CIA dir. #5 (1953-61) (first civilian and longest serving) Allen Welsh Dulles (1893-1969), which went on to use humans as guinea pigs in an attempt to "crush the human psyche to the point that it would admit anything", "depatterning" and "psychic driving" patients by torturing them with electroshocks and drug-induced comas into a permanent coma etc.; in July 1963 it pub. the KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation Manual; the tortures are run by Scottish-born psychiatrist Donald Ewen Cameron (1906-67), pres. of the Am. Psychiatric Assoc. (APA) in 1952-3. On Feb. 27 F-84 Thunderjets raid a North Korean base on the Yalu River; the first-ever jet air dogfight occurs in the Korean War. On Feb. 28 Yugoslavia, Greece, and Turkey sign a 5-year Treaty of Friendship and Collaboration defense pact in Ankara. On Feb. 28 a German De-Nazification Court grants a posth. pardon to German Gen. Alfred Jodl. In Feb. U.S. Pres. Eisenhower removes the U.S. Seventh Fleet from the straits between Formosa (Taiwan) and Communist China, freeing Formosa to invade or bomb the mainland; Chicken Kai-shek chooses la bomba. In Feb. the Eisenhower admin. orders all U.S. federal agencies to curtail new requests for personnel and construction and recommend ways to cut the Truman-era budget while postponing federal tax reductions until the budget is balanced; meanwhile the Census Bureau reports that per capita state taxes have increased from $29.50 to $68.04 since 1943. In Feb. Gallup takes its first poll on the U.N., finding that a majority of Americans believe it's doing a good job; the polls turn negative next year, except for 1990-1, 2000-2002 (with the highest approval rating of 58% in Feb. 2002), and 2013; on Feb. 1-10, 2018 only 34% say the U.N. is going a good job, becoming the 22nd time with less than 50%. In Feb. The Romper Room TV show for Baby Boomer children debuts in Baltimore, Md. on station WBAL-11 (until Sept. 1994); starting in Apr. it features Nancy Claster (nee Goldman) (1915-97), wife of the producer as Miss Nancy, who trains hosts for franchised versions in 160 U.S. cities; "I have to go potty, and I'm doing it right now." On Mar. 1 Kiwi hero Bernard Freyberg (b. 1889, former lt. gov. of New Zealand (1946-52) is appointed lt.-gov. of Windsor Castle, where he stays for life (until 1963); as a former swimming champ and dentist he might come in handy? On Mar. 3 conservative anti-Communist Repub. playwright Clare Boothe Luce (1903-87), wife (1935-) of Time Mag. publisher Henry Robinson Luce becomes U.S. ambassador to Italy, helping to settle the Trieste dispute with Yugoslavia; too bad, arsenic in paint chips in her bedroom causes her to resign in 1956. Ding dong the witch is dead? Or don't stop believing? On Mar. 5 the 25-year (since 1928) assassination-attempt-free reign of Joseph Stalin ("Koba") (b. 1879) is ended by his death at age 73 (6 weeks after the birth of TLW), four days after having a stroke in his Kremlin apt. during an all-night dinner with Beria, Malenkov, Bulganin, and Khrushchev which paralyzes the right side of his body; his death is not announced until Mar. 6 (after the piranhas feed); on Mar. 6 he is succeeded as PM by WWII aircraft and tank production chief Georgi (Georgy) Maximilianovich Malenkov (1902-88) (until 1958), with secret police chief Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria (1899-1953) as deputy PM (until July 10); marshal Klimenti Efremovich Voroshilov (1881-1969) becomes pres. (until 1960); on Mar. 14 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (1894-1971) replaces Malenkov as first secy. of the Soviet Communist Party, then moves up to head of the Central Committee on Sept. 7 after Beria is out of the way; Stalin leaves a list of names, with the handwritten note "Execute everyone"; exiled Chechens are allowed to return home, and sick and disabled Korean War POWs are exchanged following Stalin's funeral; happy Eastern Europeans begin a de-Stalinization agitation - they'll be baaack? On Mar. 10 North Korean gunners in Wonsan fire on the USS Missouri, which responds by firing 998 rounds at the enemy position. On Mar. 11 a U.S. B-47 accidentally drops a nuclear bomb on S.C., but it fails to detonate thanks to several safety catches? - it is only to be used in case the South tries to rise again? On Mar. 16-21 Tito visits Britain, and on Mar. 31 announces that PM Winston Churchill has promised to protect Yugoslavia in return for his pledge of resistance to any aggression. On Mar. 17 the U.S. holds a nuclear test in Nevada, with 1,620 spectators 3.4 km away. On Mar. 18 an earthquake hits Yenice-Goenen in W Turkey, killing 250. On Mar. 19 West Germany ratifies the European Defense Community Treaty, and a peace contract with the Western powers. On Mar. 19 the 25th Academy Awards (televised for the first time) in Los Angeles, hosted by Bob Hope awards the best picture Oscar for 1952 to Cecil B. De Mille-Paramount's The Greatest Show on Earth; best actor goes to Gary Cooper for High Noon, best actress to Shirley Booth for Come Back, Little Sheba, best supporting actor to Anthony Quinn for Viva Zapata!, best supporting actress to Gloria Grahame for The Bad and the Beautiful, and best dir. to John Ford for The Quiet Man. On Mar. 21 Antonin Zapotocky (1884-1957) is elected pres. #6 of the Czechoslovak Repub. (until Nov. 13, 1957) after Klement Gottwald dies on Mar. 14 in Prague of pneumonia contracted while attending Stalin's funeral; not that anybody misses this Stalin zock puppet who purged 180 party officials Stalin-style with show trials (Gottwald not Zapotocky). On Mar. 21 the rock and roll frenzy begins when a riot breaks out at the Moondog Coronation Ball, the first-ever rock and roll concert, promoted by former Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan "Moondog" Freed (1921-65) of New York radio station WINSLOW, er, WINS 1010. On Mar. 25 the USS Missouri fires on targets in Kojo, North Korea, becoming the last time its guns fire until the Persian Gulf War. On Mar. 25-26 the Lari Massacre sees Kenyan Mau Mau rebels kill up to 150 Kikuyu. On Mar. 26 Eisenhower offers increased aid in Vietnam to France. On Mar. 26 Moscow suspends reparation payments by East Germany. On Mar. 26 Dr. Jonas Salk of the U. of Pittsburgh announces that a vaccine for polio has been successfully tested in a small group of adults and Baby Boomer children; little TLW's mother had polio before he was born so he's already covered. On Mar. 27 Charles Eustis "Chip" Bohlen (1904-74) is named U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union (until Apr. 18, 1957). On Mar. 27 a referendum in Denmark permits female succession to the throne, setting Frederick IX's daughter Margrethe II (1940-) up as his heir apparent, after which she graduates from Cambridge U., Aarhus U., the Sorbonne, and the London School of Economics to prepare herself. On Mar. 28 Maruchan (Jap. "little round face") brand packaged food exporting co. is founded in Tokyo, Japan by Toyo Suisan, founded by Kazuo Mori, starting out with marine products and expanding to fish sausage in 1956 and noodles in 1961; in 1978 it begins manufacturing ramen at its new factory in Irvine, Calif.; in ? it introduces Maruchan Instant Lunch ramen with broth in a styrofoam cup, becoming the #1 selling dry soup in the U.S. by 1994 - TLW's favorite - the little pea, the little carrots, the broth? On Mar. 31 the U.N. Security Council elects Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjold (Hammarskjöld) (1905-61) of Sweden as U.N. secy.-gen. #2, taking office on Apr. 10 (until Sept. 18, 1961); after being reelected unanimously to a 2nd term in 1957, the Soviet Union gets pissed-off at this handling of the Congo Crisis, and tries unsuccessfully to get him replaced by a 3-man troika; he never marries and is never seen in the company of the opposite gender - that makes him a metrosexual, or a workaholic? JFK's regretted marred coitus with Margaret Coit leads directly to his assassination? In spring after Baruch's friend Joseph P. Kennedy ran her off, recent Pulitzer Prize winner Margaret Louise Coit (1919-2003) gives an interview to horndog JFK for a new book about Camden, S.C.-born Jewish banker Bernard Mannes Baruch (1870-1965), and he ends up in her apt. making moves on her, to which she protests "This is only our first date. We have plenty of time", to which he replies "I can't wait, you see. I'm going to grab everything I want. You see, I haven't any time"; the next day she interviews NYT columnist ("Dean of American Newsmen") Arthur Bernard Krock (1886-1974), a known sycophant of Joseph P. Kennedy who acted as his ghostwriter and as a secret lit. agent for JFK, who utters the soundbyte: "John Kennedy - what a tragedy that boy is", explaining: "Don't you know he is going to die? His father told me that he had only four years to live." On Apr. 3 pocket-size weekly TV Guide, created by Wharton School of Finance-educated anti-McCarthy Jewish-Am. moneybags Walter Hubert Annenberg (1908-2002), owner of the Philadelphia Inquirer begins pub., becoming the first TV program mag. in the U.S.; the cover shows Lucille Ball and her baby Desi Arnaz Jr.; it becomes the most successful periodical of the decade, reaching 1.5M circ. with 10 regional eds. by the end of the year, and 7M circ. with 53 regional eds. by the end of the decade; in 1998 he sells it along with his other holdings for $3B, and gives $1B of it away - comment about Jews controlling the media here? On Apr. 4 Roy Marcus Cohn (1927-86) and anti-Communist hotel chain millionaire Gerard David Schine (1927-96) (who in 1952 pub. a pamphlet called "Definition of Communism" and had it placed in every room of his family's hotel chain), both working for Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy arrive in Paris for an 18-day trip to European capitals as reps. of the U.S. Congress; the press lionizes them, chanting "Positively, Mr. Cohn! Positively, Mr. Schine!" The welfare state U.S. develops an expensive hobby? On Apr. 11 Killeen, Tex.-born Oveta Culp Hobby (1905-95) (who organized the WACs in 1941) becomes the first cabinet secy. in charge of the new U.S. Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), superseding the 1939 Federal Security Agency (FSA) and the 1798 U.S. Public Health Service (PHS), becoming the first U.S. govt. agency created by a pres. via his reorganizational authority; the U.S. Food and Drug Admin. (FDA) is transferred to it as part of the FSA; Nelson A. Rockefeller, who conducted the study that resulted in its creation becomes under-secy. (until 1954); in 1955 she resigns after her husband, former (1917-21) Tex. Gov. #27 William Pettus Hobby (1878-1964) becomes ill; in 1979 it is renamed to Dept. of Health and Human Services (HHS), with the Dept. of Education split off; by the end of the cent. its budget grows to $17B. On Apr. 16-18 the Battle of Pork Chop Hill in Korea 50 mi. N of Seoul pits the U.S. 7th Div. under Roswell Coverup Gen. Arthur G. Trudeau (1902-91) against Chinese Communist forces under Gen. Peng Dehuai (Te-huai), who have seized the non-strategic hill to test Chinese cooking, er, U.N. resolve, being driven off with heavy losses on both sides after nine U.S. artillery battalions fire 77,349 rounds. On Apr. 19 gen. elections in Japan substantially narrow the Liberal majority in the Diet. On Apr. 20-May 3 Operation Little Switch, the exchange of sick and wounded POWs after Stalin's death takes place in Korea. On Apr. 24 British nudist statesman Winston Churchill is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II at Buckingham Palace. On Apr. 26 negotiations are resumed at Panmunjom following the death of Stalin and after discreet warnings from Pres. Eisenhower implying the use of nukes; by mid-June agreement is reached on repatriation of POWs; meanwhile South Korean pres. Syngman Rhee remains atom, er, adamantly opposed to a truce. A greedy Korean pilot proves that Soviet jets suck? On Apr. 26 in Korea two U.S. Air Force B-29s drop leaflets behind enemy lines offering a $50K reward and political asylum to any pilot delivering an intact MiG-15 to the U.S. for study; on Sept. 21 North Korean pilot Lt. Ro Kim Suk (No Kum Sok) lands his MiG-15 at Kimpo Air Base outside Seoul, collecting the reward after claiming to have been unaware of it; flight tests reveal that the MiG-15 is not supersonic, causing the Kremlin to cover its tracks by ordering development of a next-gen. Mach 2 craft with a 20 km ceiling. On Apr. 28 French troops evacuate N Laos. In Apr. British Guiana is granted a new 1953 Guyanan Constitution, and East Indian dentist (son of a sugar plantation foreman) Cheddi Berret Jagan (1918-97) of the leftist People's Progressive Party (PPP) (founded 1950) is elected PM, ruling with his Chicago-born Jewish wife (related to Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, hence a Marxist or Zionist plot?) Janet Rosalie Jagan (nee Rosenberg) (1920-) and Linden Forbes Sampson Burnham (1923-85); too bad, on Oct. 6 after strikes and demonstrations Britain sends warships to prevent a suspected Communist coup, and deposes Cheddi and suspends the new constitution on Oct. 9, charging that he and his party had Soviet ties and "were under the complete control of a Communist clique"; Jagan is jailed for 6 mo. In Apr. Frank Sinatra (1915-98), his career revived by his Oscar, signs with Capitol Records, and begins a collaboration with Nelson Riddle Jr. (1921-85), pioneering the concept album. On May 2 a British Overseas Airways (BOAC) De Havilland DH 106 Comet jet crashes soon after taking off from Calcutta; after another breaks up in midair next Jan., followed by a 3rd next Apr., the entire Comet fleet is grounded until engineers discover that the square corners of the plane's large windows create tiny cracks in the thin metal of the fuselage, leading to sudden depressurization; although it is extensively resdesigned, competitors use the chance to pass them up. On May 9 after exiled king Norodom Sihanouk gets his troops to seize all govt. bldgs., French colonial officers sign protocols giving Cambodia "full sovereignty" in military, judicial, and economic matters on Nov. 9, after which Norodom Sihanouk triumphantly returns from exile. On May 9 a series of 33+ tornadoes begins hitting 10 different U.S. states from Minn. to Tex.; on May 11 an F-5 tornado hits downtown Waco, Tex., killing 114, becoming the worst U.S. tornado since 1947. On May 10 the town of Chemnitz in East Germany becomes Karl Marx Stadt (until 1990). On May 15 Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker stage a bebop concert at Massey Hall in Toronto, Ont., Canada, becoming their last together; it also incl. Bud Powell, who suffers from schizophrenia and alcohol-drug addiction, and is in and out of the hospital, after which his playing career tanks; Max Roach and Charles Mingus also join, then release it on their new label Debut Records as Jazz at Massey Hall (1953). On May 18 Douglas Aircraft makes the first flight of its $1.5M Douglas DC-7 propeller plane, introducing it on Nv. 29, and selling 338 by 1958 while dragging its feet on a private jet. On May 18 Jacqueline "Jackie" Cochran (1906-80) becomes the first woman to break the sound barrier as she pilots a North Am. F-86 Canadair Sabrejet over Rogers Dry Lake, Calif. at an avg. speed of 652.337 mph, only six years behind Chuck Yeager. On May 19 a nuclear test in Nev. yields fallout which winds carry 100 mi. E, exposing St. George, Utah to radiation levels of 6K rems, highest ever measured in a populated area, leading to increases of birth defects, childhood leukemia, and thyroid and other cancers - let me see your butterfly tattoo? On May 25 47-ton 20-mi.-range Atomic Annie, the first (last?) atomic cannon (nuclear artillery) is tested in Nev. On May 28 the Soviet Control Commission in East Germany is abolished, and Soviet diplomat Vladimir Semyonovich Semyonov (1911-92) is appointed to the new post of high commissioner. On May 28 the first animated 3-D cartoon in Technicolor, Melody by Walt Disney debuts. Because it's there? On May 29 34-y.-o. Kiwi beekeeper Edmund Percival "Ed" Hillary (1919-2008) and his Nepalese Sherpa guide Tenzing Norgay (Norkay) ("wealthy fortunate follower of religion") (Namgyal Wangdi) (1914-86) become the first to scale 29K ft. Mt. Everest (Chomolungma) on the Nepal-Tibet border in the Himalayas (world's highest mountain), leaving the flags of the U.N., U.K., India, and Nepal; the news is announced on the day of Elizabeth I's coronation (June 2), and Hillary is knighted along with Col. Henry Cecil John Hunt (1910-98) of the British Army, leader of the Royal Geographical Society-sponsored expedition. On May 31 the GE Mark I, the first nuclear reactor to produce substantial amounts of electrical power goes online at the Nuclear Reactor Testing Station in Idaho. In May Charles de Gaulle's RPF Party (founded 1947) is dissolved, and he goes into retirement. In May U.S. planes bomb North Korean dams, flooding rice fields. In May Britain denationalizes road transport. Donde esta la lapiz? Francis Bellamy is alive and well in East Germany? In May the Soviet Politburo passes a resolution suggesting (ordering) that East German 14-year-olds take part in Jugendweihe (youth consecration) ceremonies, an atheist secular alternative to Catholic or Protestant confirmation, complete with prep classes and a pledge of allegiance to the state, coercing them by issuing their ID papers at the same time, along with a propaganda book Weltall Erde Mensch (Universe, Earth and Man), which in 1974 is changed to Der Sozialismus - Deine Welt (Socialism - Your World), then Vom Sinn Unseres Lebens (Of the Meaning of Our Lives). Feast your eyes, Brits, it's the last coronation you'll see in your lifetimes? Ancient history comes alive in color like Dorothy in Oz? On June 2 (Tue.) "Peoples' Queen" Elizabeth II of Britain is crowned (don't say coronated, that's not the Queen's English?) in Westminster Abbey 16 mo. after the death of her father George VI; it is televised, and many Brits buy their first TV to watch it, with commentator Richard Dimbleby (1913-65) becoming a BBC-TV star, going on to cover the funerals of George VI (1895-1952), JFK (1917-63), and Winston Churchill (1874-1965), and appear in the first live TV broadcast from the Soviet Union in 1961; ex-king Edward VIII and his taboo Yankee babe Wallis Warfield Simpson are not invited; the coronation dress is designed by closet gay London couturier Norman Bishop Hartnell (1901-79); replicas of the 10 6'-tall plaster Queen's Beasts (Supporters of the Royal Arms) are made for the coronation, incl. the lion of England, unicorn of Scotland, white horse of Hanover, white greyound of Richmond, red dragon of the Tudors (Wales), griffin of Edward III, black bull of Edward III's son Clarence, white lion of the Mortimers, falcon of the Plantagenets, and yale of the Beauforts, which are displayed next to Westminster Abbey for the coronation then moved to Hampton Court Palace followed in 1957 by St. George's Hall in Windsor Castle; in the summer the new queen and her husband Prince Philip stage a royal tour of wowed New Zealand. On June 4 the North Koreans accept the U.N. peace proposals in all major respects. On June 5 the status of Greenland is changed from a colony to a province of Denmark, with two reps. in the Danish Folketing, which becomes the only (unicameral) legislative body after the Rigsdag (in session since 1849) is abolished; the Thule U.S. Air Base in the far far north is completed - if you try to pee you'll freeze your thule? On June 7 gen. elections are held in Italy. On June 8 Austria and the Soviet establish diplomatic relations. On June 8 the Beecher Tornado hits Flint, Mich. (home of the new Corvette), killing 115, becoming the last tornado to kill 100+ until ?; on June 9 a tornado from the same front system hits Worcester County, Mass, killing 94 and leaving 10K homeless, becoming the deadliest tornado in New England (until ?); tornadoes kill 519 this year, setting a record (until ?). On June 8 the Floyd River in Sioux City, Iowa floods, killing 14. On June 8 the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules in District of Columbia v. John R. Thompson Co. Inc. that an 1873 law prohibiting District of Columbia restaurants from refusing to serve black patrons is still in force. On June 9 CIA Technical Services Staff head Sidney Gottlieb (Joseph Schneider) (1918-99), "the Black Sorcerer", "the Dirty Trickster" approves of the use of LSD in Project MKULTRA. On June 10 U.S. Sgt. Ola Lee Mize (1931-), becomes a hero in Korea, winning the Medal of Honor. On June 12 currency reform causes riots in Czech. On June 13 after a rural-backed military coup in Colombia (first in the 20th cent.) ousts fascist anti-Protestant pres. (since 1950) Laureano Eleuterio Gomez, causing him to flee to Spain, Gen. Gustavo Rojas Pinilla (1900-75) becomes dictator-pres. of Colombia (until 1957), working with his daughter Maria Eugenia Rojas de Moreno (1932-) AKA "La Capitana" to end "La Violencia" (begun 1947) and stimulate the economy, appealing to the masses at first but ending up as yet another repressive and incompetent govt. licking the boots of the oligarchy; meanwhile the Green War begins in Boyaca and Cundinamarca, Colombia over emeralds, with a 3-way grab by left wing guerrillas, right wing guerrillas, drug cartels, and the govt., displacing millions and killing of thousands until it ends in ? On June 14 Yugoslavian pres. Tito announces that the Soviet Union has requested resumption of normal diplomatic relations, calling it a "great victor