Richard Nixon of the U.S. (1913-94) Leonid Brezhnev of the Soviet Union (1906-82) Kent State U., May 4, 1970 Nixon in China, 1972 Watergate Carl Bernstein (1944-) and Bob Woodward (1943-) Pol Pot of Cambodia (1928-98) Idi Amin Dada of Uganda (1925-2003) Munich Olympics 1972 Terrorist

TLW's 1970s Historyscope 1970-1979 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

All in the Family, 1971-83 'A Clockwork Orange, 1971 Davie Bowie (1947-) as Ziggy Stardust TI-3000, 1971 Intel 4004, 1971 Jane Fonda (1937-) in Hanoi, Aug. 22, 1972 Pioneer 10 Plaque, 1972 Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. of the U.S. (1913-2006) American POWs released in Hanoi, 1973

Gloria Steinem (1934-) Ozzy Osbourne (1948-) Elton John (1947-) Isaac Hayes (1942-2008) Atari Pong, 1972 The Thrilla in Manila, Oct. 1, 1975 Nadia Comaneci of Romania (1961-) Dorothy Hamill of the U.S. (1956-) Bjorn Borg (1956-)

Yitzhak Rabin of Irael (1922-95) Anwar Sadat of Egypt (1918-81) Helmut Schmidt of West Germany (1918-) Valery Giscard d'Estaing of France (1926-) Hua Guofeng of China (1921-) Margaret Thatcher of Britain (1925-) James Earl 'Jimmy' Carter of the U.S. (1924-) Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran (1902-89) Pope John Paul II (1920-2005)

Stephen King (1947-) Carlos the Jackal (1949-) Jimmy Hoffa (1913-75?) Jonestown Guyana, Nov. 18, 1978 Three Mile Island, Mar. 28, 1979 Billy Joel (1949-) Barry Manilow (1943-) Iggy Pop (1947-) 'Every Picture Tells a Story' by Rod Stewart (1945-), 1971

Dolly Parton (1946-) Helen Reddy (1941-) 'Tapestry' by Carole King (1942-), 1971 Carly Simon (1945-) 'Imagine' by John Lennon (1940-80), 1971 Paul McCartney (1942-) and Wings Fleetwood Mac Bruce Springsteen (1949-) KISS

Jimmy Buffett (1946-) 'The Wall' by Pink Floyd, 1979 'Happy Days', 1974-84 'The Godfather', starring Marlon Brando (1924-2004) and Al Pacino (1940-), 1972 'Deep Throat' (1972), starring Linda Lovelace (1949-2002) Jimmy Connors (1952-) Pete Rose (1942-) Earvin 'Magic' Johnson (1959-) Larry Bird (1956-)

Rubik's Cube Sid Vicious (1957-79) and Nancy Spungen (1958-78) 'The Exorcist', 1973 Rocky Horror Picture Show, 1975 Alex Haley's 'Roots' TV series, Jan. 23-30, 1977 Star Wars, 1977 'Grease', 1978 'Animal House', 1978 'Alien', 1979

1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

The 1970s (1970-1979 C.E.)

The Lucky Seven Seventies, Does It Bring a Flood of Memories to Ya Seventiesmaniacs? The Shake It to the Left, Shake It to the Right Bee Gees I Just Kissed Al Pacino Rocky Kent State Pol Pot Massacre No More Smallpox Try AIDS I'm Not Going to Be Home Tonight Saturday Night Live Massacre Fever Me Decade? The Only Nixon Can Visit China Decade? The Women's Lib L Word Coming Out J.R. Ewing Mork and Mindy Decade? A good decade to be an Arab sheik, be born to join al-Qaida, or have a Hokey Pokey secretary named Woods?

The Baby Boomers who left their parents and went hippie in the 1960s, grew long hair, smoked dope, and practiced free heterosexual love and experimented with Eastern mysticism get real, watching the once Jesus-eclipsing Beatles turn 30, get rich, break up and sell out to the killer rat race system, staying straight and getting married, leaving them with little but memorabilia and bills and the need for a job in the country that expects them to inherit the leadership of the Free World after they spent their lives trying to prove it isn't worth defending?

Just as the U.S. has about won the Vietnam War, a Democratic Congress begins cutting aid to South Vietnam, leaving it helpless by 1974?

But first one last little job, King Richard Nixon, who straddles the old WWII generation and the new Baby Boomer generation like a colossus at first, but proves to have feet of cellulose acetate tape, and turns into Humpty Dumpty after Vietnam War protesters have their last big hurrah when the U.S. invades Cambodia, causing massive student protests, and some weekend soldiers make a mistake of shooting sacred cow draft-dodging college students, making holy martyrs for the anti-Nixon cause, after which all he has to do is make one mistake and he's history? After his fall, the wiseup-smartass G.I. Bill rewards the Vietnam vets with college too, and the campuses finally settle down into job preparation factories with the corporate octopus waiting to absorb them on the conveyor belt, a fate far worse ultimately than a tour of duty in Vietnam?

Having dethroned a king, the Boomers are further appeased by the U.S. government's passing of all kinds of new benevolent legislation while letting them continue to smoke grass and party, view porno, buy contraceptives and have abortions, as long as they keep their jobs and show up sober to work for Ewing Oil? Too bad, the booming boomers get their first taste of what's to come when they go to the gasoline pumps and find block-long lines?

Exeunt drugged-out Janis Joplin (1943-70), Jimmy Hendrix (1942-70) and Jim Morrison (1943-71), and enter tamer Billy Joel (1949-), looking for an uptown girl, and Elton John (1947-), still hiding in the closet until 1976? Pop culture, suffering the loss of many rock gods to drugs abuse sinks into a funky rock period, country music rock, then a disco craze for the "me too" hippie-nots, accompanied by polyester suits, ugly shoddily-built cars, TV shows and movies, and interior decorations heavy on ugly browns and greens, complete with shag carpets that are fun to have sex on but hard to clean? The dark side of rock also begins to take off in the light?

A decade marked by a rash of major earthquakes, floods, storms, airplane and train accidents, etc., producing a flood of clean-cut, conservatively-dressed 1950s retro Jehovah's Witnesses door-knockers, the real knights who say Ni, who are ever ready to remind you of them while emphatically predicting that this is the last decade of the Satanic system and Armageddon is nigh, only to face their own shakeup in the 1980s? Meanwhile Great Satan U.S. raises the Twin Horns of its World Trade Center in New York City, flaunting its arrogance, to its later dismay?

Who-wants-to-live-forever Northern Ireland graduates from riots to terrorist bombings by the IRA and UDA as Catholics and Protestants alike stink themselves up for the undying love of Christ? Meanwhile insignificant far-away little carpet-making Afghanistan becomes the butterfly who flaps its wings and causes the U.S. to catch on fire?

The last decade when promiscuous sex isn't potentially lethal, during which the sexual revolution reaches Sodom and Gomorrah levels in parts of the Western world, resulting in the get-real HIV/AIDS epidemic by the end? Too bad, the porno has so much glorified oral sex that the gender of the mouth and the gender of the organ become optional to more and more, as does straight sex?

The Genomics Era begins?

Country Leader From To
United States of America Richard Nixon (1913-1994) Jan. 20, 1969 Aug. 9, 1974 Richard Nixon of the U.S. (1913-94)
United Kingdom Harold Wilson (1916-95) Oct. 16, 1964 June 19, 1970 Harold Wilson of Britain (1916-95)
United Kingdom Queen Elizabeth II (1926-) Feb. 6, 1952 Elizabeth II of Britain (1926-)
Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev (1906-82) Oct. 14, 1964 Nov. 10, 1982 Leonid Brezhnev of the Soviet Union (1906-82)
People's Republic of China Mao Tse-tung (Zedong) (1893-1976) 1943 Sept. 9, 1976 Mao Tse-tung of China (1893-1976)
India Indira Gandhi (1917-84) Jan. 24, 1966 Mar. 24, 1977 Indira Gandhi of India (1917-84)
Canada Pierre Elliott Trudeau (1919-2000) Apr. 20, 1968 June 4, 1979 Pierre Elliott Trudeau of Canada (1919-2000)
France Georges Pompidou (1911-74) June 15, 1969 Apr. 2, 1974 Georges Pompidou of France (1911-74)
West Germany Willy Brandt (1913-92) Oct. 21, 1969 May 7, 1974 Willy Brandt of West Germany (1913-92)
East Germany Walter Ulbricht (1893-1973) Sept. 12, 1960 Aug. 1, 1973 Walter Ulbricht of East Germany (1893-1973)
Romania Nicolae Ceausescu (1918-89) Mar. 22, 1965 Dec. 22, 1989 Nicolae Ceausescu of Romania (1918-89)
Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980) Nov. 29, 1945 May 4, 1980 Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia (1892-1980)
Spain Francisco Franco (1892-1975) Apr. 1, 1939 Nov. 20, 1975 Francisco Franco of Spain (1892-1975)
Philippines Ferdinand Marcos (1917-89) Dec. 30, 1965 Feb. 25, 1986 Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines (1917-89)
Mexico Gustavo Diaz Ordaz (1911-79) Dec. 1, 1964 Nov. 30, 1970 Gustavo Diaz Ordaz of Mexico (1911-79)
Nicaragua Anastasio Somoza Debayle (1925-80) May 1, 1967 July 17, 1979 Anastasio Somoza Debayle of Nicaragua (1925-80)
Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-70) Jan. 16, 1956 Sept. 28, 1970 Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt (1918-70)
Iran Mohammed Shah Pahlavi II (1919-80) Sept. 16, 1944 Feb. 11, 1979 Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi II of Iran (1919-80)
Iraq Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (1914-82) July 17, 1968 July 16, 1979 Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (1914-82)
Israel Golda Meir (1898-1978) Mar. 17, 1969 June 3, 1974 Golda Meir of Israel (1898-1978)
Papacy Pope Paul VI (1897-78) June 21, 1963 Aug. 6, 1978 Pope Paul VI (1897-78)
U.N. U Thant of Burma (1909-74) Jan. 1, 1962 Dec. 31, 1971 U Thant of Burma (1909-74)

1970 - The Beatles Breakup Four Dead in Ohio Unlucky Apollo 13 Year of the Cameras, Feminists, and Environmentalists? President Nixon tries to pull the U.S. out of Vietnam but is checkmated by Communist takeover of Cambodia, causing him to send in U.S. troops and turn the college students against him, which goes over the deep end at Kent State, but never fear, he sends Henry K-for-Kosher Kissinger in to shake hands with a North Vietnamese Commie for the cameras after a few secret rounds of ass-kissinger? The U.S. public turns against the Vietnam War, and quits trusting the government, which obliges by proving it's run by a crook? Speaking of, er, women's libbers try to make this their decade after getting off to a slow start in the 1960s, only to face, er, run up against the lezzie coming-out issue and self-destruct by Valentine's Day? Speaking of snatches, er, cameras, the pissed-off Palestinians watch the Apollo 13 show and finally figure it out and begin snatching hostages and calling for their own cameras?

Beatles Breakup, Apr. 10, 1970 Mary Ann Vecchio (1956-) Kneeling over Jeff Miller (1950-70) at Kent State U., May 4, 1970 Kent State Martyrs Greenwich Village Townhouse Explosion, Mar. 6, 1970) Henry Alfred Kissinger of the U.S. (1923-) Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia (1922-) Lon Nol of Cambodia (1913-85) Nimbus 4, 1970 Apollo 13 Apollo 13 Crew, 1970 Apollo 13 Crew, 1970 Ken Mattingly of the U.S. (1936-) Sir Edward Heath of Britain (1916-2005) Anwar Sadat of Egypt (1918-81) Louis Gossett Jr. (1936-) Yasser Arafat of Palestine (1929-2004) Hussein I bin Talal of Jordan (1935-99) Hafez al-Assad of Syria (1930-2000) Leila Khaled (1944-) Dawson's Field, Jordan, Sept. 12, 1970 Benjamin Mendoza y Amor Flores (1935-), Nov. 27, 1970 Gen. Philip Effiong of Biafra (1925-2003) David K.E. Bruce of the U.S. (1898-1977) Joseph A. Yablonski (1910-70) Dr. Jeffrey Robert MacDonald (1943-) Phillip Lafayette Gibbs (1948-70) James Earl Green (1952-70) William Warren Scranton of the U.S. (1917-) Harry Andrew Blackmun of the U.S. (1908-99) Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. of the U.S. (1902-85) Abraham Alexander Ribicoff of the U.S. (1919-98) Winton Malcolm Blount Jr. of the U.S. (1921-2002) Bruno Kreisky of Austria (1911-90) Robert Bourassa of Canada (1933-96) Salvador Allende of Chile (1908-73) Luis Echeverria Álvarez of Mexico (1922-) Jose Figueres Ferrer of Costa Rica (1906-90) Col. Manuel Carlos Arana Osorio of Guatemala (1918-2003) Lubomir Strougal of Czechoslovakia (1924-) Agha Mohammed Yahya Khan of Pakistan (1919-80) Col. Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya (1942-2011) Qaboos bin Said Al Said of Oman (1940-) Sultan Abdul Halim Muazzam of Malaysia (1927-) Abdul Razak of Malaysia (1922-76) Suleiman Frangieh (Sulayman Faranjiyya) of Lebanon (1910-92) Emilio Colombo of Italy (1920-) Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya (1897-1978) Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia (1922-2012) Arthur Raymond Chung of Guyana (1918-2008) British Guiana 1 Cent Magenta Stamp, 1856 Paul-Emile de Souza of Benin (1931-99) Justin Ahomadegbé-Tometin of Benin (1917-2002) Hubert Maga of Benin (1916-2000) Marcellin Joseph Apithy of Benin (1913-89) Son Ngoc Thanh of Cambodia (1908-77) Edward Gierek of Poland (1913-2001) Gen. Piotr Jaroszewicz of Poland (1909-82) G. Harrold Carswell of the U.S. (1919-92) William Doyle Ruckelshaus of the U.S. (1932-) Walter Joseph Hickel of the U.S. (1919-) Rev. Robert Frederick Drinan (1920-2007) Bernadette Devlin of Northern Ireland (1947-) Dan Mitrione of the U.S. (1920-70) Ronald Louis Ziegler of the U.S. (1939-2003) James Richard Cross of Britain (1921-) Pierre Laporte of Quebec (1921-70) Pierre Vallières of Quebec (1938-98) Lawrence Francis O'Brien Jr. (1917-90) Leonard Freed Woodcock (1911-2001) U.S. Army Capt. Ernest Medina (1936-) Kenneth Allen Gibson of the U.S. (1932-) Gen. Juan Jose Torres Gonzalez of Bolivia (1920-76) Clifford Walter Dupont of Rhodesia (1905-78) Misael Pastrana Borrero of Colombia (1923-97) Sir Dawda K. Jawara of Gambia (1924-) Saudi Prince Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz (1933-) Hedi Amira Nouira of Tunisia (1911-93) Habib Bourguiba of Tunisia (1903-2000) Charles McCurdy Mathias Jr. of the U.S. (1922-) J. William Fulbright of the U.S. (1905-95) Donald Milford Payne of the U.S. (1934-) William Orville Douglas of the U.S. (1898-1980) Allard Kenneth Lowenstein of the U.S. (1929-80) Franco Maria Malfatti of Italy (1927-91) Marcello Caetano of Portugal (1906-80) Alexander Dubcek of Czechoslavakia (1921-92) Andriyan Nikolaev of the Soviet Union (1929-2004) Vitaly Sevastyanov of the Soviet Union (1935-) Bashir Maan of Scotland (1926-) Mikis Theodorakis (1925-) Joseph Fielding Smith Jr. (1876-1972) John William Gardner (1912-2002 Kingman Brewster Jr. (1919-88) Daniel Patrick Moynihan of the U.S. (1927-2003) Moon Landrieu of the U.S. (1930-) Pat Nixon of the U.S. (1912-93) Betty Friedan (1921-2006) Gloria Steinem (1934-) Bella Abzug of the U.S. (1920-98) Kate Millett (1934-) Shirley Chisholm of the U.S. (1924-2005) Letty Cottin Pogrebin (1939-) Fannie Lou Hamer (1917-77) Rita Mae Brown (1944-) Germaine Greer (1939-) Arthur Janov (1924-) William Masters (1915-2001) and Virginia Johnson (1925-) Elizabeth Alvina Platz Barbara Louise Andrews Maggie Kuhn (1905-95) Robin Morgan (1941-) 'Sisterhood is Powerful' by Robin Morgan (1941-), 1970 Elvis Presley and Richard Nixon, Dec. 21, 1970 'McSorleys Bar' by John Sloan (1871-1951), 1912 Fred Silverman (1937-) Cesar Chavez (1927-93) Jimmy Breslin (1930-) Jimmy the Gent Burke (1931-96) Paul Vario (1914-88) Israel Shahak (1933-2001) Keith Stroup (1943-) Marjory Stoneman Douglas (1890-1998) Angela Davis (1944-) George Lester Jackson (1941-71) Fleeta Drumgo and John Clutchette Sterling Hall, Aug. 24, 1970 Karleton Armstrong (1953-) Richard Anderson Falk (1930-) Kienast Quintuplets, 1970 Jennifer Josephine Hosten (1953-) Sir Leo Victor de Gale of Grenada (1921-86) Sir Eric Matthew Gairy of Grenada (1922-97) Julia Morley (1941-) Yosef Mendelevitch (1947-) Swami Muktananda (1908-72) Casey Kasem (1932-2014) Ada Louise Huxtable (1921-) Archibald MacLeish (1892-1982) Robertson Davies (1913-95) Bud Grant (1927-) William Matthews (1942-) W.S. Merwin (1927-) Len Dawson (1935-) Hank Stram (1923-2005) Tim McKernan 'The Barrel Man' (1940-2009) Austin Carr (1948-) LaRue Martin (1950-) Bill Walton (1952-) Roone Arledge (1931-2002) Howard Cosell (1918-95) 'Monday Night Football', 1970- Tom Dempsey (1947-), Nov. 8, 1970 Red Holzman (1920-98) Walt Frazier (1945-) Willis Reed Jr. (1942-) Bobby Orr (1948-), May 10, 1970 Willie Shoemaker (1931-2003) Jim Bouton (1939-2019) Brooks Robinson Jr. (1937-) Heidi/Andreas Krieger (1966-) Billy Kidd of the U.S. (1943-) Karl Jochen Rindt (1942-70) Natalia Makarova (1940-) Joe Frazier (1944-2011) Jimmy Ellis (1940-) Billy Casper (1931-2015) Jack Nicklaus (1940-) Tony Jacklin (1944-) Pete Hamilton (1942-) Al Unser Sr. (1939-) Ken Rosewall (1934-) Jan Kodes (1946-) Margaret Smith Court (1942-) Bob Lanier (1948-) Dave Cowens (1948-) Nate Archibald (1948-) Marty Blake (1927-) Gary Muhrcke (1940-) Don Whillans (1933-85) Dougal Haston (1940-77) Johnny Moss (1907-95) Al Davis (1929-2011) Don Johnson (1940-2003) Gaylord Anton Nelson of the U.S. (1916-2005) John McConnell (1915-2012) Denis Hayes (1944-) William Wayne Justice of the U.S. (1920-2009) David Ruiz (1942-2005) Denis Hayes (1944-) Issey Miyake (1938-) Issey Miyake Example George Arthur Akerlof (1940-) Barrington J. Bayley (1937-2008) Norman Ernest Borlaug (1914-2009) Bikram Choudhury (1946-) Paul Jozef Crutzen (1933-) Stephen Gaskin (1935-) Har Gobind Khorana (1922-2011) Robert Distler Maurer (1924-), Donald Bruce Keck (1941-), and Peter Charles Schultz (1942-) Edward Lazear (1948-) Bengt Holmström (1949-) Hamilton Othanel Smith (1931-) Daniel Nathans (1928-99) Werner Arber (1929-) Yoichiro Nambu (1921-) Susumu Ohno (1928-2000) Leonard Susskind (1940-) Holger Bech Nielsen (1941-) Martin Rodbell (1925-98) Alfred Goodman Gilman (1941-) John Ernest Walker (1941-) Paul Delos Boyer (1918-) Howard Martin Temin (1934-94) David L. Baltimore (1938-) Renato Dulbecco (1914-2012) Vera Cooper Rubin (1928-) Norman Ernest Borlaug (1914-2009) Alexander Solzhenitsyn (1918-2008) Hannes Alfven (1908-95) Louis Neel (1904-2000) Luis Federico Leloir (1906-87) Julius Axelrod (1912-2004) Ulf Svante von Euler (1905-83) Sir Bernard Katz (1911-2003) Arthur Melvin Okun (1928-80) Paul Anthony Samuelson (1915-2009) Amartya Sen (1933-) Vitaly Efimov Gene Amdahl (1922-2015) Edgar Frank Codd (1923-2003) Louis Rukeyser (1933-2006) Garrick Ohlsson (1948-) Robert Joseph White (1926-2010) Yuri Matiyasevich (1947-) Niklaus Wirth (1934-) Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich (1914-87) Stephen Hawking (1942-2018) Edward Hance Shortliffe (1947-) Jean-Francois Borel (1933-) Jean Seberg (1938-79) Jean Seberg (1938-79) and Romain Gary (1914-80) Ingo Swann (1933-2013) Dale E. Graff Mircea Eliade (1907-86) Emil Ludwig Fackenheim (1916-2003) Anthony Grey (1938-) Amiri Baraka (1934-2014) Donald Barthelme (1931-89) Frederick Barthelme (1943-) Richard Nelson Bolles (1927-) Kenneth Ewart Boulding (1910-93) John Braine (1922-86) Timothy H. Breen (1942-) Harry Browne (1933-2006) James MacGregor Burns (1918-2014) Hortense Calisher (1911-2009) Andrei Codrescu (1946-) Pat Conroy (1945-2016) Joan Didion (1934-2021) James Dobson (1936-) Edward Dorn (1929-99) Mona Van Duyn (1921-2004) Mari Evans (1923-) George Fetherling (1949-) David Hacket Fischer (1935-) Diane von Fürstenberg (1946-) Diane von Fürstenberg Example Vera Wang (1949-) Vera Wang Example Nikki Giovanni (1943-) Gail Godwin (1936-) Lois Gould (1932-2002) Christopher Hampton (1946-) Peter Handke (1942-) David Hare (1947-) Michael S. Harper (1938-) Jim Harrison (1937-2016) Robert Hayden (1913-80) Patricia Highsmith (1921-95) Tony Hillerman (1925-2008) Russell Hoban (1925-) Sidney Hook (1902-89) Florence Howe (1929-) Irving Howe (1920-93) Tina Howe (1937-) Paul Huson (1942-) Elizabeth Jennings (1926-2001) Pamela Hansford Johnson (1912-81) Uwe Johnson (1934-84) Ismail Kadare (1936-) Patrick Kavanagh (1904-67) Etheridge Knight (1931-91) Maxine Kumin (1925-2014) Hal Lindsey (1929-) 'The Late Great Planet Earth' by Hal Lindsy (1929-), 1970 Audre Lorde (1934-92) Mary McCarthy (1912-89) Rod McKuen (1933-2015) Ainslie Meares (1910-86) William Meredith Jr. (1919-2007) Yukio Mishima (1925-70), Nov. 25, 1970 Toni Morrison (1931-2019) Albert Murray (1916-2013) Alwin Nikolais (1910-93) Larry Niven (1938-) Joyce Carol Oates (1938-) Edna O'Brien (1930-) Edith Pargeter (1913-95) Stanley Plumly (1939-) Hugh Porter (1940-) Reynolds Price (1933-) Wade Rathke (1948-) Jane Roberts (1929-84) William Lewis Safire (1929-2009) Ezra Pound (1885-1972) Terence Rattigan (1911-77) Charles A. Reich (1928-) Luis Omar Salinas (1937-2008) Sonia Sanchez (1934-) Jose Saramago (1922-2010) Anthony Shaffer (1926-2001) Sam Shepard (1943-) Irwin Shaw (1913-84) Isaac Bashevis Singer (1902-91) Dave Smith (1942-) Maggie Smith (1934-) Gary Snyder (1930-) Tom Stoppard (1937-) Mark Strand (1934-) May Swenson (1913-89) Albert Szent-Gyorgyi (1893-1986) James Tate (1943-) Telford Taylor (1908-98) Earl Thompson (1931-78) Lawrance Roger Thompson (1906-73) Alvin Toffler (1928-2016) John Toland (1912-2004) Michel Tournier (1924-) Anne Tyler (1941-) Barry Unsworth (1930-2012) Leon Uris (1924-2003) Peter de Vries (1910-93) Alice Walker (1944-) Jeremiah Tower (1942-) Jonathan Waxman (1950-) Margaret Walker (1915-98) Alec Waugh (1898-1981) Benjamin J. Wattenberg (1933-) Eudora Welty (1909-2001) Harold Weisberg (1914-2002) Patrick White (1912-90) Dave Wilkerson (1931-2011) Tennessee Williams (1911-83) Lanford Wilson (1937-) Tom Wolfe (1930-2018) Charles Wright (1935-) Gil Scott-Heron (1949-2011) Dee Alexander Brown (1908-2002) 'Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee' by Dee Alexander Brown (1908-2002), 1970 Bruce Jay Friedman (1930-) Howard Moss (1922-87) 'The Paper Chase' by John Jay Osborn Jr. (1945-), 1970 Diana Oughton (1942-70) Kathy Boudin (1943-) Cathy Wilkerson (1945-) Lawrence Sanders (1920-98) C.Y. Tung (1912-82) Linus Carl Pauling (1901-94) Paul Orfalea (1947-) Sir Kenneth MacMillan (1929-92) Gunther Schuller (1925-) John Hamilton Adams (1936-) Richard E. Ayres John E. Bryson (1943-) Gus Speth (1942-) Edward L. Strohbehn Jr. Ralph Steadman (1936-) Hunter S. Thompson (1937-2005) Garry Wills (1934-) Charles Wuorinen (1938-) Andrew Lloyd Webber (1948-) Tim Rice (1944-) Douglas C. Kenney (1947-80) Robert K. Hoffman (1947-20060 National Lampoon, 1970-98 Gerald Arpino (1923-2008) Burt Bacharach (1928-) Black Sabbath Ozzy Osbourne (1948-) Bread Johnny Cash (1932-2003) Alice Cooper (1948-) 'Cosmos Factory' by Creedence Clearwater Revival, 1970 Nick Drake (1948-74) Jose Feliciano (1945-) Carlisle Floyd (1926-) The Five Stairsteps 'Let It Be' by the Beatles, 1970 'All Things Must Pass' by George Harrison (1943-2001), 1970 Jimi Hendrix (1942-70) and Monika Dannemann (1946-96) The Jackson 5 'ABC Album' by The Jackson 5, 1970 Badfinger Bill Blass (1922-2002) The Moody Blues John Lennon (1940-80) and May Pang (1950-) Alan Wilson (1943-70) Jimi Hendrix (1942-70) Janis Joplin (1943-70) Elton John (1947-) Linda Ronstadt (1946-) The Band The Carpenters Joe Cocker (1944-2014) Bob Dylan (1941-) Captain Beefheart (1941-) Brewer and Shipley Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young Kenny Rogers (1938-) and the First Edition Rita Coolidge (1945-) Neil Diamond (1941-) Buffy Sainte-Marie (1941-) Blues Image Edison Lighthouse Mungo Jerry Mountain Redbone Seatrain Status Quo Sugarloaf Uriah Heep Uriah Heep debut album, 1970 Alive N Kickin' Bobby Bloom (1945-) Focus Free Funkadelic Humble Pie 'Humble Pie', 1970 Kraftwerk Gladys Knight (1944-) and the Pips Kris Kristofferson (1936-) Gordon Lightfoot (1938-) The Guess Who Steve Miller Band Joni Mitchell (1943-) Van Morrison (1945-) Phil Ochs (1940-76) Tony Orlando (1944-) and Dawn Pinkpop Festival, 1970- The Pipkins Melanie Safka (1947-) Shocking Blue Tangerine Dream Richard Dean Taylor (1939-) Hot Tuna Santana 'Abraxas' by Santana, 1970 Grand Funk Railroad Seals and Crofts Supertramp Three Dog Night Led Zeppelin 'Led Zeppelin III', 1970 Deep Purple 'Deep Purple in Rock', 1970 The Allman Brothers Band King Crimson Gypsy Edwin Starr (1942-2003) Cat Stevens (1948-) Eric Clapton (1945-) George Harrison (1943-2001) and Pattie Boyd (1944-) Ian Dallas (1930-) The James Gang The Kinks Loretta Lynn (1932-) Abdalqadir as-Sufi (1930-) Ray Stevens (1939-) James Taylor (1948-) Jethro Tull Diana Ross (1944-) Jean Terrell (1944-) Ocean War Fela Kuti (1938-97) Frederica von Stade (1945-) Kiri Te Kanawa (1944-) Lois McDonall (1939-) Judith Blegen (1941-) Marilyn Horne (1934-) Mo Siegel (1951-) Woodsy Owl Elliott Gould (1938-) 'Arnie', 1970-2 'Evening at Pops', 1970-2005 'Paris Is Out!', 1970 'NBC Nightly News', 1970- Susan Lucci (1946-) David Hoyt Canary (1983-) Agnes Nixon (1927-) 'The Flip Wilson Show', 1970-4 'The Odd Couple', 1970-5 'The Partridge Family', 1970-4 'The Mary Tyler Moore Show', 1970-77 'Somerset', 1970-6 'UFO', 1970-1 'Santa Claus Is Coming to Town', 1970 Charles Gordone (1925-95) 'Childs Play', 1970 'Applause', 1970 'The Aristocats', 1970 'Company', 1970 'The Dunwich Horror', 1970 'The Me Nobody Knows', 1971 'Purlie', 1970 'The Rothschilds', 1970 'Sleuth', 1970 'Two by Two', 1970 Donald John Trump (1946-) Sonny Curtis (1937-) 'Andy Warhol' by Alice Neel (1900-84), 1970 'Tanfastic Dark-Tanning' by Larry Rivers (1923-2002), 1970) 'Popcorn' by Larry Rivers (1923-2002), 1970 Jehovah's Witnesses in action '1970 Whole Earth Week Poster' by Peter Max, 1970 'The Jackson 5ive', 1971-2 'Josie and the Pussycats', 1970-1 Josie and the Pussycats 'Nanny and the Professor', 1970-1 'Up Pompeii', starring Frankie Howerd (1917-92), 1970-5 'Airport', 1970 'Catch-22', 1970 'Five Easy Pieces' starring Jack Nicholson (1937-), 1970 'Julius Caesar', 1970 Robert Downey Jr. (1965-) Don Johnson (1949-) James Dickey (1923-97) 'Deliverance' by James Dickey (1923-97), 1970 'Hercules in New York' starring Arnold Schwarzenegger (1947-), 1970 Erich Segal (1937-2010) 'Love Story' by Erich Segal 'Love Story' starring Ryan O'Neal (1941-) and Ali MacGraw (1938-), 1970 Tommy Lee Jones (1946-) 'Patton', 1970 'Performance', 1970 'The Railway Children', 1970 'Ryans Daughter', 1970 'Tora! Tora! Tora!', 1970 'Two Mules for Sister Sara', 1970 Maurice Sendak (1928-) 'In the Night Kitchen' Maurice Sendak (1928-), 1970 John Jay Osborn Jr. (1945-) Barbara Loden (1932-80) Garry Trudeau (1948-) Doonesbury Example Richard Bach (1936-) 'Jonathan Livingston Seagull' by Richard Bach, 1970 Romare Bearden (1911-88) 'The Calabash' by Romare Bearden (1911-88), 1970 Philip Guston (1913-80) 'Courtroom' by Philip Guston (1913-80), 1970 Horst Tappe (1938-2005) 'Vladimir Nabokov' by Horst Tappe, 1970 Recycling Symbol, 1970 Patrick Eugene Haggerty (1914-80) Pocketronic, 1970 Yutaka Katayama (1909-) Dale Ishimoto (1923-2004) Datsun 240Z, 1970 Grumman F-14 Tomcat, 1970 Venera 7, 1970 John Marco Allegro (1923-88) 'The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross' by John Marco Allegro (1923-88), 1970 Alex Katz (1927-) 'Son Vincent with Open Mouth', by Alex Katz (1927-) Roberto Matta (1911-2002) 'MAgriTTA Chair' by Roberto Matta (1911-2002), 1970 Robert Smithson (1938-73) 'Spiral Jetty' by Robert Smithson (1938-73), 1970 Xerox Alto Computer, 1973 NERF Ball, 1970 Cecil Burke Day (1934-78) Days Inn, 1970 'Riverfront Stadium, 1970 Three Rivers Stadium, 1970 Intourist Hotel, Moscow, 1970 Keller Fountain Park, 1970 Minoru Yamasaki (1912-86) World Trade Center (WTC), 1973

1970 Doomsday Clock: 10 min. to midnight. Chinese Year: Dog (Feb. 6). Time Mag. Man of the Year: Willy Brandt (1913-92). The U.N. estimates world pop. at 3.6B (vs. 3B in 1960), increasing by 1.4M per week; People's Repub. of China: 760M; India: 550M; Soviet Union: 243M; East Asia incl. Japan: 930M; South Asia: 1.13B; Europe: 462M; Africa: 344M; Latin Am.: 283M; North Am.: 228M; Oceania: 19M. Pop. densities: China 305 per sq. mi; India 655; Japan 1,083. In this decade Chinese fertility rates drop from 5.9 to 2.1 children per woman. The Nineteenth (19th) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 203,302,031 in a land area of 3,540,023 (57.4 per sq. mi.) (the 4th time that the U.S. land area is less than in a prior census); white pop. is 87.6%, and the Census now categorizes people as "White, Negro or Black, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, American Indian, Hawaiian, Korean and other"; the ratio of men to women is 94.8%, lowest ever; the state of Oklahoma is 89.1% white, beginning a downward slide to 82.1% in 1990, 76.2% in 2000, and 72.0% in 2010; two or more races rises from 4.5% in 2000 to 6.0% in 2010. In this decade the Mexican Baby Boom begins, doubling its pop. by the end of the cent. U.S. GNP: $977B ($503B in 1960); govt. spending: 32% (27% in 1960). U.S. oil consumption: 17M barrels/day; U.S. domestic output: 10M barrels/day; top U.S. oil importers: Venezuela, Canada; U.S. oil production peaks this year, sliding to 5.7M barrels/day in 2005; oil production (M barrels/day): Saudi Arabia 6.5M, Iran: 5M, Kuwait: 3M, Libya: 2.2M, Abu Dhabi, 1.2M, Iraq: 1.1M, Qatar: 550K, Oman: 300K. This year 25.5M live below the poverty line ($3,908 per year for a family of four) in the U.S., with another 10.2M only slightly above; almost half live in the Am. South. Japanese women make 53.9% as much as men, French women 86.7%, Australian women 80.1%, Danish women 77%, West German women 69.9%, Swiss women 63.3%, British women 60.7%; in the U.S. women make a median of $5,323 per year, vs. $8,966 for men (59.4% as much as men, vs. 63.9% in 1955), and represent 7% of the doctors and 3% of the lawyers; Good Housekeeping's "Ten Most Admired Women" are identified only by their husbands' names; meanwhile in Feb. radical lesbian Eata, er, Rita Mae Brown (1944-) (lover of Martina Navratilova and Fannie Flagg) resigns from NOW after Friedan makes remarks in 1969 that the org. wants to distance itself from lesbianism, which she calls the "lavender menace", and forms the you-guessed-it Lavender Menace to protest at the Second Congress to Unite Women in New York City on May 1, where they present the er, position paper The Woman-Identified Woman, claiming that they'd like to eat, er, "The primacy of women relating to women, of women creating a new consciousness of and with each other.. is at the heart of women's liberation, and the basis for the cultural revolution", and that support for lezzies is "absolutely essential to the success and fulfillment of the women's liberation movement." There are 231M TV sets in use throughout the world. World crude steel production: 595M metric tons. World cotton production: 50M 50-lb. bales (vs. 21M in 1920); U.S: 10M bales (13M in 1920). The 1970 U.S. Corn Blight sees a new strain of fungus based on a single gene introduced to increase corporate profits kill 15% of the U.S. corn harvest, stirring fears of a new Irish potato famine since agriculture is dependent on only 20 of 80K plant varieties for 90% of the world's food, and 27K plant species become extinct each year; meanwhile only 1 in 22 Americans lives on a farm, vs. 1 in 3 in 1920; farmers make up less than 5% of the U.S. workforce for the 1st time (4.2%). Am. adult males begin giving up cigarette smoking, with 36.3% of Americans (42.3% of males and 30.5% of females) over age 21 still smoking vs. 42.5% (52.5% of males, 31.5% of females) in 1964; too bad, teenies begin smoking cigs to take up the slack, and in 1971 U.S. cigarette sales reach a record 547.2B, with the TV-radio ad ban making them more popular? This year over 40K Arabs from outside the region visit Israel under its summer visits program. In this decade spending by U.S. regulatory agencies grows from $5.2B to 13.5B, reaching $10.2B during the Nixon admin. In the next 30 years avg. tax rates on the richest 0.01% of Americans drop by half, while taxes on the middle class rise. The Me Decade (coined by Tom Wolfe) begins in the U.S. as Baby Boomers begin to graduate from college, have children, enter the corporate workforce and sell out to the joys of the almighty dollar, while perverting it narcissistically all the way; disco music, ugly low-quality drab-colored Detroit cars, drab interior decoration incl. shag rugs, and polyester suits stink up this decade (did I say shag carpets?). The U.S. reduces troop strength in Vietnam to 280K by the end of this year, while peace talks continue for a 2nd straight year without progress. By this year most U.S. states ban abortions, while four U.S. states and the District of Columbia have legalized them; some states permit exceptions to the ban; prostaglandin, which can be used to induce abortions is chemically synthesized. By this year U.S. hospital care costs an avg. of $81 a day, and $664 per avg. stay. A U.S. survey reports that rail travel is 2.5x as safe as air travel, 1.5x as safe as bus travel, and 22x as safe as automobile travel. World fish catch: 69.3M metric tons (vs. 22M before WWII); max catch possible: 180M tons? On Jan. 1 the U.S. Nat. Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) comes into effect, requring federal agencies to prepare Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. On Jan. 1 Pakistani pres. (1969-71) Agha Mohammed Yahya Khan (1917-80) lifts restrictions on political activity in effect since last Mar. On Jan. 1 the 3-member U.S. Council on Environmental Quality is established as a key step in fighting air pollution. On Jan. 1 a Cruzeiro do Sul Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravell VI R en route from Montevideo to Rio with 33 aboard is hijacked by six persons, arriving in Havana, Cuba on Jan. 3. On Jan. 1 (night) Fatah terrorists from Lebanon infiltrate Israel and kidnap night watchman Shmuel Rosenwasser from Metula, Israel, becoming the first Muslim terrorist kidnapping in Israel. On Jan. 1 USC defeats Mich. by 10-3 to win the 1970 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 3 Belgian Congo (Kinshasa) changes its name to People's Repub. of Congo, complete with a new constitution, and Gen. Joseph Desire Mobutu wins election to a 7-year term, inviting U.S., South African and Japanese investors to replace the Belgians; in 1972 after renaming Elisabethville to Lubumbashi in 1966, he renames Katanga to Shaba. On Jan. 4 (Sun.) the Beatles hold their last recording session at EMI Studios; on Apr. 7 (Tue.) after cryptic messages, the Beatles Breakup is announced by John Eastman, Paul McCartney's brother-in-law, and confirmed by Paul three days later on Apr. 10; they released a total of 10 hours 28 min. of music in their career; the breakup is caused by a combo of Yoko Ono, John Lennon wanting to step off the merry-go-round of stardom and "watch the wheels", and/or because John and George can't stand the arrogance of Paul McCartney anymore, with John using Yoko to drive the final wedge; "The dream is over" (Lennon). On Jan. 4 sectarian violence erupts in Londonderry, Northern Ireland, ramping up steadily throughout the year. On Jan. 4 New York City transit fares jump from 20 cents (since 1966) to 30 cents, then to 35 cents in Jan. 1972, then to 50 cents on Sept. 1, 1975; they started at 15 cents in 1953. On Jan. 5 (1:00:41 local time) the 7.1 1970 Tonghai Earthquake in Yunnan Province, China kills 10K-15.6K and injures 26.7K, and is covered up by authorities in the throes of the Cultural Rev. On Jan. 5 Joseph A. Yablonski (b. 1910), an unsuccessful candidate for pres. of the United Mine Workers (UMW) is found murdered with his wife and daughter in their Clarksville, Penn. home; nine people are later charged in the killing, incl. UMW pres. W.A. Boyle. On Jan. 5 the daytime soap opera All My Children, created by "One Life to Live" creator (1968) Agnes Nixon (1927-) debuts on ABC-TV Ountil Sept. 23, 2011; then again in Apr. 29-Sept. 2, 2013), set in Pine Valley (near Philly), Penn., and starring 5' 2" Susan Victoria Lucci (1946-) as Erica Kane; in 1983 villain David Hoyt Canary (1938-) begins appearing on the show as self-made billionaire Adam Chandler Sr., marrying, divorcing, and kidnapping Erica while having mucho affairs and progeny; "The great and the least, the rich and the poor, the weak and the strong, in joy and sorrow, in tragedy and triumph, you are all my children." On Jan. 11 Super Bowl IV (4) is held in Tulane Stadium in New Orleans, La. with record $15 ticket prices; 13-pt. favorite Kansas City Chiefs (AFL) defeat the Minn. Vikings (NFL) 23-7; Chiefs QB Leonard Ray "Len" Dawson (1935-) is MVP; Chiefs QB Thomas Raymond "Tom" Flores (1937-) becomes the first Hispanic starting QB to win a Super Bowl; Chiefs WR Otis Taylor (1942-) makes a big TD catch; Chiefs coach Hank Stram (1923-2005) becomes the first to wear a microphone for NFL Films during the game; Vikings coach (1967-83) Harry Peter "Bud" Grant Jr. (1927-) goes on to lead the Vikings to four straight SB losses; a hot air balloon bearing the Vikings' colors crashes inside the stadium during the pregame show; winning players get $15K, losers $7.5K. On Jan. 12, 1970 after pres. (since May 30, 1967) Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu flees to the Ivory Coast, the Igbos of Biafra (E Nigeria) under pres. #2 (since Jan. 8) Brig. Gen. Philip Effiong (Efiong) (1925-2003) surrender after 3M die of starvation caused by the Nigerian army's destruction of crops, and the 31-mo. civil war in Nigeria (begun May 30, 1967) ends with breakaway nation Biafra reabsorbed; Nigeria proceeds to keep the Igbos down in the Niger Delta while growing rich from oil revenues. On Jan. 14 Diana Ross (1944-) performs her last concert with the Supremes at the Frontier Hotel in Las Vegas, after which she is replaced by Jean Terrell (1944-), sister of boxer Ernie Terrell (1939-), who retires in 1978 after her Jehovah's Witness beliefs come in conflict. On Jan. 14 the U.S. Supreme Court sets Feb. 1 as a deadline for desegregation of public schools. On Jan. 14 anti-People's Repub. of China Japanese PM (since 1964) Eisaku Sato is reelected (until July 7, 1972), making him Japan's longest-serving PM (until ?). On Jan. 16 Israeli fighter jets attack the suburbs 37 mi. from Cairo, destroying power and telephone lines on the main road to Port Suez. On Jan. 16 daffy Col. Muammar al-Gaddafi (al-Qaddafi) (1942-2011) ends a power struggle and becomes dictator-PM of the Arab Repub. of Libya (until ?), nationalizing its oil industry; on Jan. 21 French defense minister Michel Debre announces that France will provide Libya with 100 military aircraft in return for ending support of rebels in Chad; Daffy goes on to expel the Jewish and Italian communities and pub. a 3-part 110-page Little Green Book (The Green Book: Democracy the Solution to the Problem of Power, Natural Socialism the Economic Solution to the Problem of Exploitation, and the Social Basis of the Third Universal Theory) imitating Mao Tse-tung, combining Socialism, Third Worldism and Muslim fundamentalism, calling it "heroic politics" and a "Third Universal Theory"; too bad, he got into questioning the Quran and Muhammad, with the soundbyte "What has Muhammad done that I haven't? It is I who liberated you [Libyans] and gave you international standing", causing the Supreme Council of the Ulema of Saudi Arabia in Nov. 1980 to condemn him as a deviator from the true principles of Islam - how am I supposed to compete with that? On Jan. 19 Pres. Nixon nominates Irwinton, Ga.-born Southerner (closet gay?) George Harrold Carswell (1919-92) to the U.S. Supreme Court, but his past racial views get the nomination in trouble, and he is rejected on Apr. 8 by a 51-45 vote, with 13 Repubs. flopping, after which Nixon nominates conservative Minn. judge Harry A. Blackmun. On Jan. 19 U.S. vice-pres. Spiro Agnew concludes his 21-day Asian Tour of 11 Pacific and Asian countries. On Jan. 19 the 2nd session of the 91st Congress convenes with 57 Dems. and 43 Repubs. in the Senate and 245 Dems. and 188 Repubs. (2 vacancies) in the House. On Jan. 19 400MW Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) near Bombay is dedicated, becoming India's first nuclear plant. On Jan. 20 China and the U.S. renew diplomatic talks in Warsaw, Poland, that had been recessed since Jan. 8, 1968. On Jan. 20 the govt. of Iraq crushes a right-wing coup against the Ba'th Socialist govt. of pres. Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr, causing the latter to announce a new 1970 Iraqi Constitution, advocating Arab Socialism and Islam, but only giving lip service to the latter until the 1980 Iran-Iraq War. On Jan. 21 after problems in the Pratt & Whitney JT-9D engines are revealed in Oct. 1969, causing a delay, during which four inflatable chutes are fitted allowing 80 passengers/min. to evacuate in an emergency, Pan Am Flight Two, the first regularly scheduled commercial flight of the 350-ton 400-passenger 2-story cabin Boeing 747 "Jumbo Jet" carrying 324 passengers begins in New York City, and ends in London's Heathrow Airport 6.5 hours later at 14:14 GMT after being delayed seven hours with technical problems, after which a faulty compressed air bottle in the emergency door causes a 4.5 hour delay during which 36 of 153 passengers transfer to other flights before the return trip to New York City takes off. On Jan. 21 (Wed.) the fantasy sitcom Nanny and the Professor debuts on ABC-TV for 54 episodes (until Dec. 27, 1971), starring Juliet Maryon Mills (1941-) (sister of Hayley Mills) as English nanny Phoebe Figalilly, who has psychic powers a la Mary Poppins, likes to wear a navy blue Inverness cape and deerstalker cap, and takes care of the three children of Prof. Harold Everett, played by Richard Long (1927-74). On Jan. 22 Pres. Nixon delivers his 1970 State of the Union Address, containing the soundbytes: "The moment has arrived to harness the vast energies and abundance of this land to the creation of a new American experience, an experience richer and deeper and more truly a reflection of the goodness and grace of the human spirit"; "As I look down that new road which I have tried to map out today, I see a new America as we celebrate our 200th anniversary six years from now. I see an America in which we have abolished hunger, provided the means for every family in the nation to obtain a minimum income, made enormous progress in providing better housing, faster transportation, improved health, and superior education. I see an America in which we have checked inflation, and waged a winning war against crime. I see an America in which we have made great strides in stopping the pollution of our air, cleaning up our water, opening up our parks, continuing to explore in space. Most important, I see an America at peace with all the nations of the world" - what have you been smoking? On Jan. 23 church historian and recorder Joseph Fielding Smith Jr. (1876-1972) (son of Joseph Fielding Smith Sr, and grandson of Hyrum Smith, brother of Joseph Smith Jr.) becomes pres. #10 of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (Mormons), succeeding pres. (since Apr. 9, 1951) David O. McKay (b. 1873), who died on Jan. 18, going on to centralize planning for all Mormon pubs., consolidating the mags. into Ensign, New Era, and Friend, and getting Hugh B. Brown removed from the First Presidency for supporting blacks in the priesthood. On Jan. 25 John Lennon and Yoko Ono shave their heads and declare 1970 "Year One", donating their hair to the interracial Black House community center in North London for auction. On Jan. 26 anti-govt. riots (the worst ever until ?) rock Manila, Philippines, followed by a Maoist revolt on Jan. 30. On Jan. 26 Pres. Nixon vetoes a $19B appropriation for health, education and antipoverty measures, citing inflation; the House of Reps. fails to override his veto - whatever he smoked, it wore off? On Jan. 27 landlocked Lesotho (2M pop.) holds its first election since gaining its independence from Britain in 1966, going on to establish its own nat. univ. and invite donors to help build a rural water supply system; Irish Aid founds a bilateral aid program with it. On Jan. 28 too-liberal Oldrich Cernik resigns, and is later forced out of the Communist Party, and Lubomir Strougal (1924-) becomes PM #20 of Czech. (until Oct. 12, 1988). On Jan. 29 India awards the capital city of Chandigarh (designed by Le Corbusier) (disputed for three years by Sikh Punjab and Hindu Haryana) to Punjab. In Jan. Yemen joins the World Bank. On Feb. 1 an express train crashes into a stationary commuter train near Buenos Aires, Argentina, killing 236, becoming the worst RR accident to date in that country (until ?). On Feb. 2 Pres. Nixon submits a $202.1B balanced budget to Congress. On Feb. 4 Pres. Nixon signs an executive order call for federal agencies to stop polluting the air and water, with a $359M budget and 3-year deadline. On Feb. 4 an express train crashes into a standng commuter train near Buenos Aires, Argentina, killing 236. On Feb. 7 Italian PM Mariano Rumor and his Christian Dem. minority govt. resign, and Pres. Giuseppe Saragat looks for a successor; on Mar. 28 Rumor leads a new 4-party coalition govt., but it resigns on July 6 in a dispute with the Socialists, and on Aug. 6 Christian Dem. Emilio Colombo (1920-) becomes PM #57 of Italy (until Feb. 17, 1972), with a new center-left coalition cabinet; meanwhile in Dec. demonstrations and strikes rock Italy; after becoming pres. of the European Parliament in 1977-9 and foreign minister in 1980-3 and 1992-3, followed by life senator in 2003, Colombo admits in Nov. 2003 that he used cocaine and is gay - no Indian giving? On Feb. 8 former (1963-7) Ala. gov. George Wallace promises to run for U.S. pres. again in 1972 "if Nixon doesn't do something about the mess our schools are in", urging Southern govs. to defy federal integration orders; meanwhile on Feb. 9 Jewish U.S. Sen. (D-Conn.) (1963-81) Abraham Alexander Ribicoff (1910-98) says that Northern liberals should drop their "monumental hypocrisy" and concede that de facto segregation exists in the North. On Feb. 9-11 Spanish foreign minister Gregorio Lopez Bravo meets with French officials in Paris - the first official visit since WWII. On Feb. 10-13 U.S. defense secy. Melvin R. Laird visits South Vietnam to discuss U.S. troop withdrawals with cmdrs.; at this point the South Vietnamese are winning the war with U.S. air support as the North Vietnamese become exhausted - scram light, and leave the hardware behind? On Feb. 11 Prince "Bigears" Charles assumes his seat in the British House of Lords in a ceremony setting him up as heir to the throney throne throne. The Laotian War gets out of hand? On Feb. 12 the North Vietnamese launch a major offense in NE Laos, driving the Laotians back from the Plaine des Jarres despite heavy U.S. air bombardment, and on Feb. 21 they capture their last military stronghold there; on Feb. 13 South Vietnamese troops invade S Laos, only to be driven back within six weeks with heavy casualties; by the end of the year 70K North Vietnamese troops occupy Laos, creating nearly 1M refugees, esp. from the highlands; despite congressional prohibition against the use of U.S. ground forces in Laos, on Feb. 25 liberal U.S. Sen. (R-Md.) (1969-87) Charles McCurdy "Mac" Mathias Jr. (1922-) reports that the CIA has hired hundreds of ex-Green Berets to fight there; only a few hundred students protest the U.S. invasion, causing the Nixon. admin. to believe that its strategy for pacifying the home front is working; on Mar. 11 U.S. Sen. (D-Ark.) (1945-75) James William Fulbright (1905-95) utters the soundbyte: "The Senate must not remain silent now while the president uses the armed forces of the United States to fight an undeclared and undisclosed war in Laos." On Feb. 13 GM announces it has redesigned automobiles to run on unleaded fuel; leaded fuel is phased-out between 1975-86. On Feb. 15 defense atty. William Kunstler gets a 4-year sentence on contempt charges, while on Feb. 18 his Chicago Eight defendants are found innocent of conspiring to incite riots at the 1968 Dem. Nat. Convention; too bad, on Feb. 20 five of the eight are convicted of the federal crime of crossing state lines to incite riots, and get five years each - the U.S. is 50 separate concentration camps? On Feb. 15 nationalists disrupt a U.N. session on the Congo. On Feb. 15 a Dominican DC-9 crashes into the sea on takeoff from Santo Domingo, killing 102. On Feb. 16 a Cuban ex-patriate along with his wife and two children hijack a Boeing 727 from Newark, N.J. to Cuba, becoming the first of the decade. On Feb. 16 (night) San Francisco, Calif. police Sgt. Brian McDonnell (b. 1925) is killed by a bomb planted outside the window filled with staples; no one is arrested until ?, although the Weather Underground is suspected, incl. Bernardine Dohrn and Howard Machtinger. Real-life Dr. Richard Kimble? On Feb. 17 at Ft. Bragg, N.C. wife Colette (26) and two daughters Kimberley (5) and Kristen (2) of former Green Beret Dr. Jeffrey Robert MacDonald( 1943-) are brutally murdered; he is convicted in 1979 of the murders despite his claims that drug-crazed Charles Manson-type hippie assailants, shouting "acid is groovy, kill the pigs" did it; the crime is later dramatized in the bestseller and miniseries Fatal Vision; in 2005 former deputy U.S. marshal Jimmy B. Britt says that he heard prosecutor James Blackburn tell drug addict Helena Stoeckley that he would indict her for murder if she told the court that she was inside MacDonald's home on the night of the killings, causing her to tell jurors that she couldn't remember where she was that night? On Feb. 18 3K students attack the U.S. embassy in Manila; 100+ are arrested and 50 injured. On Feb. 21 secret peace talks are held between U.S. nat. security advisor Henry Alfred Kissinger (1923-) and North Vietnamese diplomat Gen. Howard the Duck, er, Le Duc Tho (1911-90). On Feb. 22 teenie Australian stowaway Keith Sapsford (1955-) falls to his death from a wheelwell on a plane taking off from Sydney Airport en route to Tokyo. On Feb. 22 (midnight) 51% East Indian (Hindu) British Guiana on the N coast of South Am. becomes the Cooperative Repub. of Guyana, and ends its 139-year ties with Britain while remaining in the Commonwealth, with the gov.-gen. being replaced on Mar. 17 by an elected pres., Arthur Raymond Chung (1918-2008), with L.F.S. Burnham remaining as PM; Guyana becomes the first British possession in the Western Hempisphere to become a repub.; on Mar. 24 a unique 1856 British Guiana 1-cent magenta stamp sells for a record $280K at an auction in New York City, becoming the world's most expensive postage stamp - call now for a free brochure? First trivialize it, then marginalize it, then eradicate it for its opposite? After decades of preparation, one Jew can now tell the entire U.S. white Christian viewing public to shove it? Or is it all just free market economics and nothing sinister? On Feb. 22 (Sun.) after claiming to be offended by their rep as the "Country Broadcasting System", CBS-TV exec Fred Silverman (1937-) orders the Rural Purge, the cancellation at the end of the 1970-1 season of their "hillbilly network" (white conservative middle America family-centered straight non-race-mixing) image, to make way for a younger urban audience, axing The Red Skelton Hour, Jackie Gleason Show, and their hit show The Beverly Hillbillies, along with Green Acres, Petticoat Junction, Hee Haw, and Mayberry, R.F.D., Family Affair, Hogan's Heroes, and even The Lawrence Welk Show, which had practically built the network; ABC-TV soon follows suit; Pat Buttram (Mr. Haney in Green Acres) utters the soundbyte: "CBS killed everything with a tree in it"; CBS-TV fields a new generation of shows incl. All in the Family, M*A*S*H, and The Bob Newhart Show, and resurrects network game shows incl. The Price is Right; luckily the same year the FCC forces networks to devote one more hour of prime time to local shows, so that the Welk Show and Hee Haw survive in syndication - time for Jewish leftist, race-mixing, and gay-lez promotion shows to be let loose on the well-detached-from-their-parents white straight youngsters as fast as they can be forced down their throats, whoopee, how many years to President Obama? On Feb. 23 the first Juno Awards (originally Gold Leaf Awrds) are presented by the Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences to Canadian musical artists. On Feb. 23-24 French pres. Georges Pompidou visits the U.S., while crowds protest the sale of French jets to Libya. On Feb. 24 the lily white Kienast Quintuplets, Ted, Gordon, Abigail, Sara and Amy are born at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center New York City, becoming the first set of quints to be born in the U.S. after being conceived through the use of fertility drugs (Pergonal), and the 2nd set of surviving quints in the U.S.; in 1984 after suffering financial difficulties, daddy Bill Kienast commits suicide. On Feb. 26 five U.S. Marines are arrested on charges of murdering 11 South Vietnamese women and five children in Da Nang on Feb. 19. Guatemala slips and slides in urban war? On Feb. 26 Guatemalan foreign minister Alberto Fuentes Mohr (1927-79) is kidnapped by leftist guerrillas; on Mar. 1 right-winger army chief of staff Col. Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio (1918-2003) is elected pres. of Guatemala, and sworn-in on July 1 (until July 1, 1974); on Mar. 31 the West German ambassador is kidnapped and executed, causing West Germany to break off diplomatic relations on Apr. 6; on Nov. 3 Osorio declares a state of siege as in 1966, and blood flows - while the stars go whew? On Feb. 27 the 14th ordinary session of the council of ministers of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) convenes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In Feb. the Soledad Brothers, George Lester Jackson (1941-71), Fleeta Drumgo, and John Clutchette, three black inmates at San Quentin Prison in Calif. allegedly murder white prison guard John V. Mills in retaliation for the killing of three black prisoners by white guard O.G. Miller in Soledad Prison in Calif., after which Birmingham, Ala.-born black bushy Afro-loving Communist activist Angela Yvonne Davis (1944-) takes up their cause; on Aug. 7 black activist Jonathan P. Jackson (b. 1953), brother of George Jackson takes hostages at the Marin County Civic Center in Calif. with a 12-gauge shotgun, demanding the release of the Soledad Brothers, taping the gun to the neck of judge Harold Haley, followed by a shootout in the parking lot, which ends with four killed, incl. Haley and Jackson, and five injured; Davis, who has been dismissed from her teaching asst. job at UCLA for being a Communist is arrested on Oct. 16 for fleeing prosecution, then charged on Dec. 22 with murder, kidnapping, and conspiracy for buying the shotgun, and acquitted by an all-white jury on June 4, 1972; next Aug. 21 Jackson's brother George Jackson launches an uprising at San Quentin Prison, releasing an entire floor of prisoners in the maximum security wing while crying "This is it, gentlemen, the Dragon has come", after which three guards and three prisoners are killed, incl. Jackson; Cluchette and Drumgo are later acquitted by an all-white jury of killing the guard, and Drumgo is later killed after being released. On Mar. 1 the Austrian Socialist Party wins an unexpected V over the conservative ruling People's Party, and on Apr. 21 diplomat-politician (party chmn. since 1967) Bruno Kreisky (1911-90) is sworn-in as chancellor of Austria's first postwar all-Socialist govt. (until May 24, 1983) (first Jewish chancellor), replacing chancellor (since 1966) Josef Klaus, and restoring the old coalition between the People's Party and Socialist Party. On Mar. 1 Rhodesia proclaims itself a repub. and tells Great Britain to stuff it; on Mar. 2 British-born Cambridge-educated Clifford Walter Dupont (1905-78) is sworn-in as pres. #1 of the Rhodesian Repub. (until Dec. 31, 1975). On Mar. 1-2 Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Anne visit Ottowa and Vancouver in Canada; on Mar. 3 they begin a 2-mo. tour of the South Pacific incl. Australia, where they join the 200th anniv. of the visits of British Capt. James Cook; on Apr. 29 an unsuccessful attempt is made to derail their royal train with a log near Bowenfels, N.S.W., after which no suspects (the IRA?) are caught, causing it to be covered up until Jan. 2009. On Mar. 2 after trying to do it 4x since 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court approves the Great Northern, Northern Pacific et al. merger to form the Burlington Northern Railroad, becoming the longest railway system in the free world, with 25K mi. of track; in Nov. the 7-mi.-long Flathead Tunnel (begun 1968) near Whitefish, Mont. opens, becoming the 2nd longest tunnel in the U.S.; in 1995 it merges with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway to form the Burlington Northern Santa Fe (BNSF) Railway; meanwhile in Mar. the 2.5K-mi. Indian-Pacific Express between Sydney and Perth in Australia begins service, and on Apr. 11 the $400M 11-mi. 22-station Chapultepec-Juanacatlan Subway in Mexico opens, featuring bright orange cars. On Mar. 3 the Ladies Home Journal Protest sees 100 NOW women stage a sit-in in the ed. offices to protest its portrayal of women, causing them to pub. a special supplement in Aug. On Mar. 4 French sub Eurydice sinks in the Mediterranean, killing all 57 aboard, causing sales of French subs to er, tank. On Mar. 5 Lawrence Francis "Larry" O'Brien Jr. (1917-90) becomes Dem. nat. chmn. after Sen. Fred R. Harris of Okla. resigns; his office at the Watergate Complex in Washington, D.C. later becomes the primary target of the Watergate break-in. On Mar. 5 after 43 nations ratify it, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty comes into force; by 2010 189 states sign it, notable exceptions being Israel, India, Pakistan, and North Korea. On Mar. 6 the Greenwich Village Townhouse Explosion at 18 W. 11th St. in Greenwich Village, N.Y. of a nail bomb under construction to be used at a non-com officers dance at Ft. Dix, N.J. that night kills three members of the Weather Underground, Terry Robbins (b. 1947), Theodore "Ted" Gold (b. 1947), and Diana Oughton (b. 1942), and wounds members Kathy Boudin (1943-) and Cathlyn Platt "Cathy" Wilkerson (1945-) (whose father owns the house), after which the rest of the gang goes on the run from the feds, scoring bombings on New York City Police HQ in 1970, the U.S. Capitol in 1971, and the Pentagon on May 19, 1972, and the U.S. Dept. of State Bldg. on Jan. 29, 1975, with William Ayers later writing in his 2001 memoir Fugitive Days: "The sky was blue. The birds were singing. And the bastards were finally going to get what was coming to them"; Stalinist Clayton Van Lydegraf (1915-92) becomes the leader of the Weather Underground until he is captured in 1977 and sent to priz, after which most of the members quit or surender to authorities by 1980. On Mar. 8 the Nixon admin. discloses the deaths of 27 Americans in Laos. On Mar. 8 El Salvador's ruling Nat. Conciliation Party (NCP) retains power in nat. elections - they loved that 1969 border war? On Mar. 8 an attempt on the life of Cyprus pres. Archbishop Makarios III is foiled. On Mar. 9-15 the Atomic Sunrise Festival in London features Black Sabbath, David Bowie, Arthur Brown, Gypsy, and Quintessence. On Mar. 10 the Israeli Knesset by a 51-14 vote (9 abstentions) approves a bill establishing the legal definition of a Jew, which rules out any traitor who goes for that *!?!* Jesus? On Mar. 11 8.5 years of warfare ends as Iraq agrees to grant the Kurds limited autonomy, recognize Kurdish as an official language, and allow the appointment of a Kurdish vice-pres. On Mar. 11 a man hijacks a Boeing 727 from Cleveland, Ohio to Cuba; he is shot escaping from a Cuban prison on Mar. 26, 1973. On Mar. 12 Pres. Nixon sends Congress a plan to reorganize and modernize the Executive Office - built-in condom dispensers? On Mar. 13 Cambodia officially requests North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops (invited in 1969) to get out, but they prefer to polish their nails, causing conferences and peaceful protests to be held; on Mar. 18 Cambodian king ("head of state") (since 1960) Norodom Sihanouk (1922-2012) is deposed and ousted while visiting Beijing, and right-wing PM (since 1969) Gen. Lon Nol (1913-85) takes over as PM (until 1975), attempting to drive the 400K North Vietnamese Communist troops out of Cambodia, and inviting U.S. and South Vietnamese forces to enter. On Mar. 13 the U.S. Senate votes 64-17 to lower the voting age to 18. On Mar. 15 Expo 70 (Japan World Exposition) in the Senri Hills outside Osak) opens (until Sept. 13), becoming Japan's first world fair, with the motto: "Progress and Harmony for Mankind"; the U.S. pavilion, designed by David Geiger features the largest, lightest clear-span, air-supported roof ever built, an features a display of moon rocks from Apollo 12; "Tiger Child", the first-ever IMAX film debuts; the Nine Floating Fountains are designed by Isamu Noguchi. On Mar. 17 the U.S. Army charges 14 officers with suppression of facts in the My Lai Massacre case. On Mar. 17 the U.S. casts its first veto in the U.N. Security Council, killing a resolution that would have condemned Britain for failure to use force to overthrow the white-ruled govt. of Rhodesia. On Mar. 17 (7:30 p.m.) Eastern Air Lines Shuttle Flight 1320 en route from Newark, N.J. to Boston, Mass. is hijacked by John J. Divivo, who shoots Capt. Robert Wilbur Jr. and co-pilot James Hartley before Hartley grabs the gun and shoots Divivo, after which Wilbur lands at Logan Internat. Airport in East Boston, and the hijacker is arrested; Hartley dies. On Mar. 18-30 the U.S. Postal Strike (first nationwide strike of public employees) sees 152K postal workers strike 671 locations over low wages, causing the U.S. Army to be called in to sort the mail, after which the U.S. Post Office loses $6.3B this year on 85B pieces of mail, causing Pres. Nixon on Aug. 12 to sign the U.S. Postal Reorganization Act, creating the semi-independent U.S. Postal Service as an independent govt. agency to take over the 182-y.-o. U.S. Post Office and operate it as a business enterprise, with postmaster-gen. (1969-72) Winton Malcolm "Red" Bount Jr. (1921-2002) given orders to fix the problems - no automatic weapons this time? On Mar. 19 Willy Brandt and Willi Stoph meet for the first East-West Germany Summit in Erfurt. On Mar. 22 thanks to the 1965 Ralph Nader book "Unsafe at Any Speed", Pres. Nixon signs the U.S. Highway Safety Act, establishing the Nat. Highway Traffic Safety Admin. (NHTSA) under the U.S. Dept. of Transportation, succeeding the Nat. Highway Safety Bureau (founded 1966). On Mar. 23 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 5-3 in Goldberg v. Kelly that the govt. can't deprive anyone of welfare benefits without holding an evidentiary hearing (not formal trial) under the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment; dissenters incl. Justices Warren E. Burger, Potter Stewart, and Hugo Black; Justice Abe Fortas has already resigned. On Mar. 24 the govt. of Sudan arrests finance minister (since 1961) Ahmad Ben Salah, architect of its planned economy, and on Mar. 30 announces that a right-wing coup attempt led by Sufi Umma Party leader Sadik al-Mahdi (Al Siddiq) (1936-) in S Sudan has been crushed; the economy is made more open in order to attract foreign investment. On Mar. 25 the 100-passenger Concorde makes its first supersonic commercial flight; it doesn't begin regular service across the Atlantic until 1976; too bad, it's economically unprofitable, but is kept in service for nat. prestige by Britain and France. On Mar. 26 the U.S. explodes its 500th nuclear device at the AEC test site in Nev. - they're already used to the light and heat? On Mar. 27 1960s protest singer Phil Ochs (1940-76) holds a concert at Carnegie Hall in New York City, shocking fans by deciding that the Yippies and other leftist protesters are going in the wrong direction, and showing up in a gold lame Elvis Presley lookalike Nudie Cohn suit and singing covers of songs by Presley, Conway Twitty, Buddy Holly, and Merle Haggard; after a telephone bomb threat cuts it short, he tells pissed-off fans he will get them into a 2nd show for free, and breaks the glass to the box office, cutting his hand, then breaks into the lockbox, getting him banned for life after the 2nd show; after telling fans that Buddy Holly songs are "just as much Phil Ochs as anything else" and getting booed, he tells them to "not be like Spiro Agnew... You can be a bigot from all sides. You can be a bigot against blacks. You can be a bigot against music." On Mar. 28 the last British troops leave Libya after 25 years, becoming the first time since 1882 that they have no presence in North Africa. On Mar. 28 Cameroon's pres. (since 1960) Ahmadou Ahidjo is reelected to a 3rd 5-year term (unopposed). On Mar. 28 the 7.3 Gediz Earthquake, followed by a series of earthquakes in Turkey through Mar. 31 kill 1.1K and leave 90K homeless. On Mar. 30 (Mon.) the daytime soap opera Somerset (Another World in Somerset) debuts on NBC-TV for 1,710 episodes (until Dec. 31, 1976) as a spinoff of "Another World", starring Carol Roux as Missy Palmer Matthews, Elizabeth Ann Wedgeworth (1934-) as Lahoma Vane Lucas, and Jordan Charney (1937-) as convict-turned-atty. Sam Lucas, who move to Somerset near Detroit, Mich. and begin new lives with the Davis family, Buchanan family, Grant family, and Delaney family, ownersof Delaney Brands, the town's #1 employer. On Mar. 31 U.S. forces in Vietnam down a MiG-21, the first since Sept. 1968 - God bless America? On Mar. 31 Japan Airlines Flight 351 en route from Tokyo to Fukuoka carrying 131 passengers and seven crew is hijacked by nine Japanese Red Army members, who free 23 passengers in Fukuoka, then fly to Gimpo Airport near Seoul, followed on Apr. 3 after release of 103 hostages to Pyongyang, where they surrender to authorities. In Mar. the fNat. Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam organizes a trip to Hanoi to meet with the PM of North Vietnam, where Doug Down and Noam Chomsky are indirectly informed that the U.S. has invaded Cambodia. In Mar. three days of riots in Springfield Road in Belfast, North Ireland sees the British Army use CS tear gas for the 1st time. In Mar. the First Islamic Summit Conference of the new Org. of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is held; by 1999 it reaches 55 member states; in 1973 the Islamic Development Bank in Jedda, Saudi Arabia is founded by the OIC, opening for business on Oct. 20, 1975 with backing by King Faisal. By spring there have been 174 bombings on U.S. college campuses since last fall. In Mar. the BBC-TV comedy series Up Pompeii debuts (until 1975), based on the musical "A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum", starring Frankie Howerd (Francis Alick Howard) (1917-92) as funny slave Lurcio, who likes to give monologues to the camera. On Apr. 1 Pres. Nixon signs the U.S. Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act, banning cigarette advertising on radio and TV, to take effect next Jan. 2. On Apr. 1 the U.S. Army charges Capt. Ernest Medina (1936-) in connection with the My Lai Massacre; he is acquitted next Sept. 22. On Apr. 1 a grape pickers strike and nat. boycott ends with a labor contract signed in Los Angeles, Calif., becoming the first-ever. On Apr. 4 thousands of demonstrators stage a pro-war rally in Washington, D.C. - yep, the 60s are over? On Apr. 7 a Mass. grand jury fails to indict anyone in connection with the 1969 drowning of Mary Jo Kopechne - money talks? Hollyweird's best this year is artistic smut? On Apr. 7 the 42nd Academy Awards awards the best picture Oscar for 1969 to United Artists' (Jerome Hellman and John Schlesinger) Midnight Cowboy (first X-rated film to win best picture), along with best dir. to John Schlesinger; best actor goes to John Wayne for True Grit, best actress to Maggie Smith for The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie, best supporting actor to Gig Young for They Shoot Horses Don't They? (after which his career begins to tank), and best supporting actress to Goldie Hawn for Cactus Flower. On Apr. 10 the music dies for millions of Beatlemanics as the Beatles officially break up, ending an era; all four go on to separate musical careers; on Apr. 17 Paul Mcartney's debut solo album McCartney is released in Britain, and he forms the group Wings with his wife Linda and Denny Laine in 1971 (until Apr. 1981); on Nov. 23 George Harrison's My Sweet Lord becomes the first #1 single by an ex-Beatle, and on Aug. 1, 1971 he stages the Concert for Bangladesh at Madison Square Garden in New York City; John Lennon (while undergoing primal therapy with Dr. Arthur Janov?) poses with Yoko in front of a poster showing a U.S. flag with the stars replaced by skulls and crossbones, and the stripes replaced by a political message: "U.S.A. surpasses all the genocide records", noting that Kublai Khan massacred 10% of the pop. of the Near East, Spain 10% of the Am. Indians, Stalin 5% of the Russians, the Nazis 5% of occupied Europeans and 75% of European Jews, and the U.S. wins with 6.5% of South Vietnamese and 75% of Am. Indians. On Apr. 10 liberal Dem. Calif. grape grower (Jewish) Lionel Steinberg (1919-99) signs the first contract with Cesar Chavez (1927-93) and the United Farm Workers. NASA saves its poor TV ratings with its own I am the Walrus Paul is Dead publicity stunt, based on a Friday the 13th horror script about three juniors mattingly loving a swigert in the haze? The Great Satan U.S. Scientific Establishment tries to disprove ancient superstition, only to prove it? On Apr. 11 (Sat.) at 13:13 CST unlucky number Apollo 13 blasts off from Cape Kennedy, with astronauts James Arthur "Jim" Lovell Jr. (1928-), Fred Wallace Haise Jr. (1933-), and John Leonard "Jack" Swigert Jr. (1931-82) (first bachelor) (all, as L. Ron Hubbard would say, "unlucky enough to get a Junior tagged on"?); Command Module pilot Swigert replaces Thomas Kenneth "Ken" Mattingly II (1936-), who is grounded for observation for German measles (rubella); on Apr. 13 at a distance of 321.86km (199,990 mi.) from Earth (80% of the way to the Moon) the #2 (of 2) onboard LOX tank ruptures after the Teflon-insulated wires providing electricity to the stirrer motor spark, crippling it and causing the planned Moon landing at Frau Mauro to be aborted, with Lovell uttering the immortal soundbyte: "Houston, we've had a problem", followed by "We've had a Main B Bus undervolt", making the TV ratings go from a lackluster 3M viewers to all cherries, pass the popcorn; after using the Lunar Module as a lifeboat and using the Moon as slingshot, and going through all kinds of hair-raising drills, incl. constructing a carbon dioxide filter from duct tape to avoid imminent suffocation, it returns safely on Apr. 17 to an enthusiastic worldwide viewing audience, splashing down in the Pacific at 12:07:41 CST (5 days 22 hours 54 min. 41 sec.), and being labelled a "successful failure"; how lucky for the Apollo program, flagging ratings are reversed, and program funding renewed?; Haise becomes sick from Pseudomonas aeruginosa during the mission - Wall St. learns that failure should be rewarded from NASA? On Apr. 12 after daring to come near an all-white bar in Midnight, Miss., 1-armed black sharecropper Rainey Pool (b. 1916) is beaten to death by five white men, who dump his body into the Sunflower River, after which they are arrested and get all charges dismissed; in 1999 Dennis Newton is tried and acquitted for lack of evidence; 1999 Joe Oliver Watson pleads guilty to manslaughter in exchange for a 4-year sentence and his testimony against Hal Crimm and half-brothers James "Doc" Caston and Charles Caston, who are all convicted of manslaughter and get 20 years each. The YMCA/YWCA gets jets? On Apr. 13-18 2.5K delegates attend the 25th 25th YWCA Triennial Nat. Convention in Houston, Tex., voting to make the elimination of racism its top goal, and passing resolutions calling for the abolition of nukes, a clean environment, a change in society's expectations for women, and the involvement of youth in leadership and decision-making; on May 22 the YMCA Nat. Council holds its annual meeting in Pittsburgh, Penn., and elects its first black pres., Donald Milford Payne (1934-2012) of Newark, N.J. (in 1989 he becomes the first black N.J. congressman); the Canadian and U.S. YMCA had earlier agreed to begin administering internat. programs separately after 80 years of joint sponsorship. On Apr. 13 Greek "Zorba the Greek" composer Mikis Theodorakis (1925-), arrested in Greece on Aug. 21, 1967 for his political activities since 1964 is allowed to go into exile in Paris, and spends the next four years fighting to oust the Greek colonels, giving thousands of concerts worldwide and becoming a symbol; he triumphantly returns to Greece on July 24, 1974. On Apr. 14 the 8-y.-o. civil war in Yemen between the royalist supporters of ousted Imam Mohammed al-Badr and rebel republicans ends when Saudi Arabia agrees to recognize the republican regime; all Yemeni exiles except the imam and his family are allowed to return, and the first Saudi plane to land on Yemeni soil in eight years returns 30 royalist leaders from exile in Beirut; a new cabinet headed by PM Muhsin al-Ayni is installed. On Apr. 14 the U.S. Dept. of State announces a new 5-year agreement with Spain regarding U.S. military bases. On Apr. 15 after congressional Repubs. led by Mich. Repub. rep. Gerald R. Ford begin an effort to impeach U.S. Supreme Court justice (1939-75) William Orville Douglas (1898-1980) on the basis of financial irregularities, incl. his defense of the film "I Am Curious (Yellow)", getting paid $350 for an article in Avant Garde, the mag. that the court had deemed pornographic in 1966, and his presidency of the Parvin Foundation, financed by the sale of the Flamingo Hotel by Albert Parvin (really his liberal pro-environment, anti-monopoly, and pro-civil rights stances, and/or the failed nominations of Clement Haynsworth and/or G. Harrold Carswell?), Ford utters the soundbyte: "An impeachable offense is whatever a majority of the House considers it to be at a given moment in history", which is correct since the House decides the definition of "misdemeanors" (bad behavior) by a majority vote, after which the Senate can convict on a 2/3 vote; the effort fails after the coverstory allegations prove unfounds, but from now on all Supreme Court nomination hearings become more political. On Apr. 16 the U.S. and Soviet Union resume SALT talks in Vienna that recessed last Dec. On Apr. 16 an airplane crash at Johnson's Pasture Commune in Vt. kills four; like other communes, it later folds from its own excesses? On Apr. 19 former ambassador (to the U.S.) Misael Pastrana Borrero (1923-97) of the Conservative Party defeats dictator Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, and on Aug. 7 becomes pres. #31 of Colombia (until Aug. 7, 1974) amid charges of election fraud, becoming the last of the four presidents under the 16-year truce between the major political parties known as the Nat. Front.; he goes on to coddle large landowners, encourage housing construction, and try unsuccessfully to end the violence that has killed 200K; meanwhile the 19th of April (M-19) Movement guerrilla group is formed, gaining 1.5K-2K members and becoming the 2nd largest in Columbia after the Rev. Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC) (founded 1964). On Apr. 21-22 the centennial of Lenin's birth is celebrated in Communist countries - thanks, thanks, thanks for the memory? On Apr. 21-25 rioting and an army mutiny in Trinidad and Tobago are ended by a govt. state of emergency and curfew. On Apr. 22 (Lenin's birthday) the U.S. environmental movement is born with the first Earth Day, proposed in 1969 by UNESCO and founded by U.S. Sen. (D-Wisc.) (1963-81) and former Wisc. gov. #35 (1959-63) Gaylord Anton Nelson (1916-2005), organized by the Earth Week Committee of Philadelphia, Penn., and celebrated in the U.S. by 22M people with demonstrations against pollution of Spaceship Earth (coined by Adlai E. Stevenson) amid herds of massive leaded-gas-slurping V8 sedans, a nation filled with smoky industrial smokestacks, and a coverup of a fuel rod meltdown at the Savannah River Nuclear Plant near Aiken, S.C. (acknowleged in 1988); the idea was first proposed in 1969 by Davis City, Iowa-born John McConnell (1915-2012) (designer of the Earth Flag) to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, then coordinated by environmental activist Denis Allen Hayes (1944-), and supported by U Thant, Margaret Mead et al.; meanwhile on Jan. 14-23 Nelson goes for a double and holds the Nelson Hearings on the safety of combined oral contraceptive pills, resulting in the first side-effect disclosure for a pharmaceutical drug in the U.S.; too bad, zany incorrect predictions are made, incl. "Population will inevitably and completely outstrip whatever small increases in food supplies we made, the death rate will increase until at least 100-200 million people per year will be starving to death during the next ten years (Stanford U. biologist Paul Ehrlich); "Air pollution... is certainly going to take hundreds of thousands of lives in the next few years alone" (Ehrlich); "Civilization will end within 15 or 30 years unless immediate action is taken against problems facing mankind" (Harvard biologist George David Wald); "In a decade urban dwellers will have to wear gas masks to survive air pollution... By 1985 air pollution will have reduced the amount of sunlight reaching Earth by one half" (Life mag.); "By the year 2000, if present trends continue, we will be using up crude oil at such a rate... that there won't be any more crude oil. You'll drive up to the pump and say, 'Fill 'er up, buddy', and he'll say, 'I am very sorry, there isn't any'." (ecologist Kenneth Watt) On Apr. 22 former mental patientIra David Meeks hijacks a plane to Cuba, telling the Cuban authorities that "he felt persecuted as a black man in America and had heard that things would be better in Cuba"; he is deported as a suspected spy in 1976, jailed in the U.S., and freed in 1981. On Apr. 23 women receive the right to vote in adorable Andorra (pop. 47K), the only dual principality in Europe, whose princedom has been shared since 1278 by the pres. of France and the bishop of Urgell, and which enjoys the longest life expectancy on Earth. On Apr. 23 Pres. Nixon ends draft deferments for fathers and special occupations. On Apr. 24 Gambia (pop. 800K), the smallest country in Africa (20 mi. wide) becomes an independent repub. (surrounded on three sides by Senegal), with Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara (1924-) as pres. (until 1994). On Apr. 24-25 an unsuccessful revolt against pres. Francois Duvalier is signalled only by shelling of Port-au-Prince by three govt. coast guard cutters. On Apr. 27 Somalia announces that another coup attempt has been thwarted. On Apr. 27 the North Vietnamese govt. proclaims support for ousted prince Norodom Sihanouk, and Communist forces advance toward Phnom Penh; on Apr. 29 a large South Vietnamese force invades Cambodia with U.S. aerial support; on May 5 Sihanouk forms a govt. in exile in Beijing; on Apr. 30 Pres. Nixon announces that the U.S. is sending 32K U.S. and 48K South Vietnamese troops into Cambodia to clear their "headquarters" and "sanctuaries" near the South Vietnamese border to save U.S. lives and help his Vietnamization plan, with the soundbyte: "If, when the chips are down, the world's most powerful nation, the United States of America, acts like a pitiful, helpless giant, the forces of totalitarianism and anarchy will threaten free nations and free institutions throughout the world", adding "It is not our power but our will and character that is being tested tonight. The question all Americans must ask and answer tonight is this: Does the richest and strongest nation in the history of the world have the character to meet a direct challenge by a group which rejects every effort to win a just peace?"; the announcement sparks massive campus protests, which finally penetrate the more conservative and Roman Catholic campuses; the troops capture supplies and stop Cambodian seaports from supplying the Vietnamese Communists, causing the latter to rely more heavily on the portions of the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos; vice-pres. Spiro Agnew calls the invasion "the finest hour in the Nixon presidency", but defense secy. Melvin R. Laird and secy. of state William Rogers are opposed to it; on May 1 Nixon calls campus radicals who oppose his policies "bums"; the truth doesn't come out until 2005, when relevant documents are declassified; meanwhile the Khmer Rouge of Red Queen Pol Pot grows from 2K to 70K members. On Apr. 29 the Israeli govt. officially confirms that Russian pilots are flying missions in support of the UAR Air Force. In Apr. the Pentagon stops the use of Agent Orange (dioxin). In Apr. the Greek Colonel Govt. restores constitutional rights against arbitrary arrest and detention, suspended since 1967, and on Sept. 22 the U.S. terminates its embargo on heavy armaments - another V for Secret Agent Man? In Apr. Free the Army (FTA) is founded by actors Jane Fonda and Donald Sutherland, and mgr. Fred Gardner to stage countershows to the USO shows of Bob Hope. In Apr. the New Haven Nine Black Panther Trials in Conn. begin over the murder of suspected informer Alex Rackley on May 20, 1969 by fellow Black Panther members, turning into a media event as Yale U. students house tens of thousands of Black Panthers and supporters and hold daily protests, exploding two devices in the Yale hockey rink, rioting on May 1 and throwing rocks and bottles at the Nat. Guard, and going on strike from May 1 until the end of the term; on Apr. 24 Yale U. pres. (1963-77) Kingman Brewster Jr. (1919-88) utters the soundbyte "I'm appalled and ashamed that things should have come to such a pass that I am skeptical of the ability of Black revolutionaries to achieve a fair trial anywhere in the U.S." (insuring that they will get extra-light treatment?); after Lonnie McLucas is convicted only of conspiracy to commit murder and given 12-15 years in priz, and his two accomplices Warren Kimbro and George Sams Jr. plead guilty to 2nd degree murder (ending up released after 4 years), in Oct. Bobby Seale is tried along with Ericka Huggins, who boiled water to torture Rackley, and the jury deadlocks 11-1 for Seale's acquittal and 10-2 for Huggin's acquittal; the whole mess stinks up the Black Panthers, who begin a steep decline, becoming inactive by the middle of the decade; Yale Law School student Hillary Rodham Clinton (1947-) attends the trial to report violations of civil rights to the ACLU. In Apr. the Dump Nixon Movement is launched by liberal ex-rep. (D-N.Y.) (1969-71) Allard Kenneth Lowenstein (1929-80). In Apr. National Lampoon mag. (75 cents) debuts as a spinoff of the Harvard Lampoon (until 1998), featuring parodies of politics and pop culture, plus "Foto Funnies", along with nudity; the founders Henry N. Beard (1945-), Douglas C. Kenney (1947-80), and Robert K. Hoffman (1947-2006) sell their shares in 1975, and Kenney buys a Porsche with the proceeds, while Hoffman buys a Helen Frankenthaler painting, going on to become an art collector, and donating his 224-piece $150M collection to the Dallas Museum of Art in 2005. On May 1 the Days of Rage, a week of widespread protests against the U.S. invasion of Cambodia begin in Seattle, Wash., and spread nationwide to 441 colleges and univs., eventually causing the closure of 75 U.S. colleges for the rest of the term; meanwhile deputy White House counsel Tom Huston proposes the Huston Plan to engage in wiretapping, burglary, and other illegal activities to spy on anti-war groups, and Pres. Nixon approves it, but flops five days later after FBI dir. Hoover opposes it; his approval is later used as an article of impeachment by Congress? On May 1 Lt. Col. Paul-Emile de Souza (1931-99), chmn. of the military directorate of Dahomey in West Africa (pop. 4M) (former home to the Slave Coast) announces its replacement by a 3-man pres. commission, with each member coming from a specific region and having a 6-year term, and serving as pres. for two years in rotation; the first members are Coutoucou Hubert Maga (1916-2000), Justin Ahomadegbe-Tometin (Ahomadegbé-Tometin) (1917-2002), and Sourou-Migan Marcellin Joseph Apithy (1913-89), with Maga as pres. #1 (until Oct. 26, 1972). On May 2 Dem. Maurice Edwin "Moon" Landrieu (1930-) becomes mayor #56 of New Orleans, La. (until May 1, 1978), becoming the last white mayor until his son Mitch Landrieu in 2010. On May 2 an interview with LBJ is shown on CBS-TV, which incl. the message that certain material has been deleted at his insistence, which later is revealed to be his misgivings about the Warren Commission finding that Oswald acted alone, because he "suspected that a conspiracy had been involved" - hehe? On May 3 a rupture in Syria of an oil pipeline from Saudi Arabia, caused by a bulldozer cuts off 500K barrels a day, after which the Syrians refuse to allow repairs meanwhile Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya orders cutbacks in Libayan oil production to push up prices. Four dead in O-Hi-O brings Pres. Nixon down from his high horse? On May 4 (Mon.) (noon) 1K students stage a Days of Rage protest at Kent State U., and after throwing rocks, four students are killed and nine wounded by Ohio Nat. Guardsmen firing M-1 rifles (67 shots in 13 sec.), sparking outrage and disorder, escalating the existing rage and causing many U.S. campuses to be closed; the Kent State Martyrs incl. Allison Krause (b. 1951), Jeffrey Glenn "Jeff" Miller (b. 1950), Sandra Lee Scheuer (b. 1949) (pr. like Shawyer), and William Knox Schroeder (b. 1950); a photo by student John Paul Filo of the Valley Daily News showing 14-y.-o. Mary Ann Vecchio (1956-) kneeling beside dead Miller stirs worldwide indignation; on May 4 Robert Curtis "Bob" Lewis (1947-) graduates from Kent State U. with its first anthropology degree, then develops the theory of De-Evolution and in 1973 co-founds the New Wave group Devo; in May U.S. interior secy. (since 1969) Walter Joseph "Wally" Hickel (1919-) writes a Letter to Pres. Nixon critical of his Vietnam War policy and his views on students, as well as the views of vice-pres. Spiro Agnew, getting him fired on Nov. 25. On May 8 former pres. (1948-9, 1953-8) Jose Figueres Ferrer (1906-90) is sworn-in as pres. of Costa Rica (until May 8, 1974), succeeding Jose Joaquin Trejos Fernandez. On May 8 the Hard Hat Riot sees construction worker rednecks break up a Days of Rage protest on New York City's Wall St. and force City Hall officials to raise the U.S. flag back to full staff after they had lowered it to half staff in memory of the Kent State Martyrs, making a statement that it's not just hippies vs. the govt. anymore? - trust the Gorton's fisherman? On May 9 a Days of Rage Student Protest in Washington, D.C. brings 75K-100K peaceful protesters pissed-off at the Kent State Massacre; that night, after having trouble sleeping, Pres. Nixon drives to the Lincoln Memorial at 4:15 a.m. and talks with amazed student protesters for an hour, becoming known as the Nixon Pre-Dawn Visit, uttering the parting soundbyte: "I know you want to get the war over. Sure you came here to demonstrate and shout your slogans on the ellipse. That's all right. Just keep it peaceful. Have a good time in Washington, and don't go away bitter." On May 9 after making progress in Laos, the 70K-man North Vietnamese army approaches Luang Prahang. On May 9 Walter P. Reuther (b. 1907), pres. of the UAW for 24 years dies in a plane crash, and on May 22 Leonard Freel Woodcock (1911-2001) is chosen to succeed him (until 1977), after which on Nov. 2 the UAW begins a 67-day walkout of GM plants. On May 11 the Augusta Riot in Ga. starts after 16-y.-o. mentally disabled black prisoner Charles Oatman is tortured to death in jail and the police attempt a coverup; on May 12 the riot is quashed after six blacks are shot in the back and killed by the massahs, er, police, plus 80 more injured, 200 arrested, and 50 businesses burned. On May 12 the U.S. Senate votes unanimously to confirm chief justice Warren Burger's lifelong friend, Nashville, Ill.-born Harry Andrew Blackmun (1908-99) (Nixon's 3rd choice for Abe Fortas' seat) as U.S. Supreme Court justice #98; on June 9 he is sworn in (until Aug. 3, 1994), becoming known as the "Lone Ranger" for his 8-1 minority stands, although he does author the majority opinion in "Roe v. Wade" (1973) - at least he was born in a town called Nashville (Ill.)? On May 12 hotdog-loving Liberal Party leader Robert Bourassa (1933-96) becomes PM #22 of Quebec, Canada (until Nov. 25, 1976) on a "100K jobs" platform, becoming Quebec's youngest PM; he goes on to promote the James Bay hydroelectric project in 1971. On May 13 the Beatles movie Let it Be (dir. by Michael Lindsay-Hogg) debuts with an eerie timing? On May 14 Finland's Pres. Urho Kekkonen give up trying to form a cabinet, and forms a caretaker govt. On May 14-15 after a Days of Rage protest turns into a riot, police open fire on a dormitory at Jackson State College in Miss., killing black students Phillip Lafayette Gibbs (b. 1948) and James Earl Green (b. 1952), and wounding 15. On May 15 PM John G. Gorton's Liberal govt. defeats a no-confidence motion in the Australian parliament by a 63-57 vote. On May 16 Dominican Repub. pres. (since 1966) Joaquin Balaguer wins reelection to a 2nd term (until 1978). On May 17 Thor Heyerdahl's raft Ra II sails from Safi, Morocco, arriving in Bridgetown, Barbados on July 12 in an attempt to prove that North Am. states could have been founded by Egyptians (Ra I never completed its ocean voyage); unfortunately he cheats by carrying modern navigational and fishing equipment, and getting a tow at each end. On May 18 (Mon. after Pentecost) the first Pinkpop Festival (Dutch "Pinksteren" = Pentecost) is held in Geleen, Netherlands, featuring Golden Earring; later festivals are held on Sat.-Mon. on Pentecost weekend in Landgraaf; festival-goers like to wear pink hats. On May 20 100K stage a Pro-Vietnam War Demonstration in New York's Wall Street district. On May 20 House Speaker John W. McCormack (D.-Mass.) (congressman since 1928) announces his retirement at the end of the current session after the 2nd longest tenure since Sam Rayburn. On May 20 London-based Fleetwood Mac (founded July 1967) lead guitarist and founder (1967) Peter Green (Peter Allen Greenbaum) (1946-), who had contracted schizophrenia (from LSD?) quits the band after they fail to agree to give all their money to charity, and Christine McVie joins in his place; in Feb. 1971 member Jeremy Spencer quits to join the Children of God, causing Green to be invited back, bringing conga-playing friend Nigel Watson; on Jan. 26, 1977 Green is committed to a mental hospital in England after firing a pistol at a delivery boy. On May 20 Jacksonmania begins at a Jackson 5 concert perf. in the Forum in Los Angeles, Calif., with the 18.5K-person crowd rushing the stage while they're performing "The Love You Save". On May 21 U.S. atty.-gen. John Mitchell announces that the U.S. Justice Dept. will investigate the Kent State U. shootings. On May 22 Pres. Nixon's hatchet man Vice-Pres. Spiro Theodore "Ted" Agnew (1918-96) gives a speech in Houston, Tex., with the soundbyte: "The young... at the zenith of physical power and sensitivity, overwhelm themselves with drugs and artificial stimulants... Education is being redfined at the demand of the uneducated to suit the ideas of the uneducated. The student now goes to college to proclaim, rather than to learn. The lessons of the past are ignored and obliterated in a contemporary antagonism known as the generation gap. A spirit of national masochism prevails, encouraged by an effete corps of impudent snobs who characterize themselves as intellectuals"; on Sept. 11 he tells an audience at the Repub. State Convention in San Diego, Calif.: "We have more than our share of the nattering nabobs of negativism"; both of the clever characterizations of the press corps were written for him by etymology-loving speechwriter William Lewis Safire (1929-2009), who goes on to add alliterative phrases like "pusillanimous pussyfooting" and "hopeless hysterical hypochrondriacs of history" along with fellow speechwriter Pat Buchanan. On May 25 a man hijacks a Boeing 727 from Chicago, Ill. to Cuba. On May 26 (Tue.) the NYSE records its biggest 1-day decline since the assassination of JFK, ending an 8-year world bear market; the Dow Jones Industrial Avg. of 30 blue chips drops 20.81 points to 631; on May 27 (Wed.) the Dow jumps from 631 to 663.20 (32.04 points), becoming the largest 1-day increase so far; volume is 11.6M shares, vs. 3M in 1960 and 2.6M in 1955, causing brokerage houses to attempt to automate their back rooms. On May 28 Buddhists and students demonstrate in Saigon against the war and govt. repression. On May 28 Ceylon PM Dudley Senanayake resigns after election setbacks, and Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike becomes PM again (unti 1977) and forms a new coalition govt. On May 28-29 the 1970 Paris Student Riot begins after two Maoist student leaders are given prison sentences and their Maoist Proletarian Left splinter group is banned. On May 29 EEC foreign ministers choose Italian communications minister Franco Maria Malfatti (1927-91) (a descendant of French king Philip IV) as pres. #3 of their executive commission (until 1972). On May 29 PM Pierre Elliott Trudeau returns to Canada after a 19-day, 30K-mi. Pacific nation tour. On May 30 Pres. Nixon secretly meets his top military and nat. security aides at the Western White House in San Clemente, Calif., telling them to keep some 14K troops hunting down North Vietnamese in Cambodia, but to lie to the public that it's "all but over", and that they are merely providing support to South Vietnamese forces as necessary to protect U.S. troops; he also tells them to plan an offensive in officially neutral (but anything but) Laos, and work on a summer offensive in South Vietnam, saying, "Publicly we say one thing; actually, we do another"; Naval Ops. Chief Adm. Thomas H. Morrer comments that "If the enemy is allowed to recover this time, we are through"; 2 mo. later he becomes chmn. of the Joint Chiefs. On May 31 the 7.8 Great Peruvian (Ancash) Earthquake in the N mountain region causes the W face of Mt. Huascaran to come loose, pouring 50M cu. yards of rock and ice into the town of Yungay, burying it 20 ft. deep and killing 25K; nine other towns are destroyed, leaving 66K dead, 50K injured, 17K missing, and 800K homeless, destroying 186K bldgs., causing U.S. First Lady Thelma Catherine Ryan "Pat" Nixon (1912-93) to start a relief drive and fly in with supplies, touring the damaged regions and gaining world publicity, and earning the gratitude of the Peruvian people, plus a Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun from the Peruvian govt. In May the U.S. govt. shuts off power and fresh water supplies to the Native Am. activists on Alcatraz Island; a fire breaks out and each side blames the other. On June 1 the Soviet Soyuz 9 spacecraft blasts off, and returns on June 19 with seasick cosmonauts Col. Andriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev (1929-2004) and Vitaly Ivanovich Sevastyanov (1935-), who set a spaceflight endurance record of 17 days, 16 hours, 59 min. In May gun-loving LSD-popping gonzo journalist Hunter S. Thompson (1937-2005) (global affairs correspondent for Rolling Stone mag. in 1970-84), and Welsh artist Ralph Steadman (1936-) meet at the Kentucky Derby, and form a collaboration where Thompson "systematically screwed over" Steadman financially, starting with covering the Derby? On June 4 the 171-island kingdom of Tonga (AKA Friendly Islands) proclaims its independence after 70 years as a British protectorate while avoiding formal colonization, becoming the world's 147th independent nation. On June 5 the U.S. unemployment rate is announced as 5% (highest since 1965), caused by the winding down of the Vietnam War. On June 5 Quaker U.S. pres. Nixon names Episcopalian Repub. Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (1902-85) (who was narrowly defeated by JFK for Congressman from Mass. in 1952, and led the charge in the U.N. during the Cuban Missile Crisis) as his personal envoy to the Vatican (until 1977), becoming the first U.S. pres. envoy since FDR. On June 6 Robert H. Finch leaves as U.S. secy. of HEW, and on June 24 Elliot Lee Richardson (1920-99) becomes U.S. HEW secy. #9 (until Jan. 29, 1973). On June 6-10 Jordanian troops clash with Palestinian guerrillas again in the Amman area, killing and/or wounding hundreds. On June 7 the Swiss narrowly defeat a proposed constitutional amendment that would have expelled 350K foreign workers. On June 7 the U.S. TV industry strikes back at vice-pres. Spiro Agnew and his attack on slanted journalism by presenting a special Emmy award to three network news chiefs "for their leadership... against forces which strike at journalism's duty to preserve the free flow of information". On June 8 after making the mistake of asking industry, labor, and agriculture to form committees to advise his govt. Argentine pres. (since 1966) Juan Carlos Ongania is forced by the military to resign, and they set up a 3-man military junta in his place, with Roberto Marcelo Levingston Laborda (1920-) as de facto pres. (until Mar. 23, 1971). On June 9 there is a failed Palestinian attempt to assassinate king Hussein I of Jordan near Suweileh, W of Amman - remember, nobody beats the king, nobody? On June 9 the centennial of the death of British author Charles Dickens (1812-70) is celebrated by Dickens societies worldwide; the Queen Mother places a wreath on his grave in Poet's Corner in Westminster Abbey in London. On June 10 after the price of gold on the free market falls below the official U.S. price of $35 an oz., giving Tricky Dicky Nixon an idea, and he proposes it to Congress, the new U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) replaces the Bureau of the Budget, with the responsibility of devising and submitting the president's annual budget proposal to Congress; on July 1 U.S. labor secy. George Pratt Shultz (1920-) (son of Am. Internat. Corp. dir. Birl Shultz) becomes the new dir. (until June 11, 1972), going on to urge treasury secy. John B. Connally to remove the U.S. from the gold standard, then take his job; meanwhile he grooms his future protege Condoleezza Rice. On June 11 the U.S. presence in Libya comes to an end as the last detachment leaves Wheelus Air Base. On June 11 women receive degrees along with men at Harvard U. for the 1st time; Helen Homans Gilbert (1913-89) becomes the first woman overseer of Harvard U., followed by pres. of the board of overseers in 1975-6. On June 12 the Japanese nuclear-powered merchant ship Mutsu is launched in Japan, then loaded with nuclear fuel on Sept. 4, 1972, after which local fishermen immobilize it for fear of nuclear contamination; on Aug. 26, 1974 it finally departs, and indeed leaks some radiation, causing fishermen to block its return to port for 50 days, causing it to have to find a new home port, and it isn't launched again until Feb. 1991, when it travels 51K mi. and is then decommissioned in 1992 at a cost of 120B yen, after which the Japanese don't build another nuclear-powered ship until ?. On June 13 the Warren, er, President's Commission on Campus Unrest is appointed, with former Penn. Repub. gov. (1963-7) William Warren Scranton (1917-) as chmn., holding its first meeting on June 25, followed by 13 days of hearings at Jackson State in Miss., Kent State in Ohio et al.; no arrests of sacred cow pigs are ever made. On June 15 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 4-3 in Welsh v. U.S. to broaden the definition of conscientious objector to incl. people without belief in God who profess ethical or moral convictions against war - there were atheists in foxholes before? On June 15 the Dymshits-Kuznetsov Aircraft Hijacking Affair starts when a group of 16 Soviet Jewish refuseniks incl. Yosef Mendelevitch (Mendelovitch) (1947-) try to escape to Sweden to emigrate to Israel, boarding a flight and pretending to be a wedding party, but are found out and arrested at the Smolny Airport in Leningrad before they can hijack the plane, then charged with high treason and sentenced to death, and ending up with 4-15 year prison sentences; the affair causes the Soviets to crackdown on the Jewish dissident movement; Mendelevitch becomes known as "the Prisoner of Zion" until his 1981 release, after which he becomes a rabbi in Israel. On June 16 labor riots kill three and injured dozens, causing the Turkish govt. to declare martial law in Istanbul and Izmir. On June 16 after gaining the support of black Communist poet-playwright Amiri Baraka (1934-), Ala.-born Dem. Kenneth Allen Gibson (1932-), chief engineer for the Newark Housing Authority becomes the first African-Am. to win a mayoral election in a major NE U.S. city, Newark, N.J. (until 1986); too bad, in 1982 he is indicted for the "ghost employment" of a colleague, and in 2003 he is convicted of bribery. On June 17 North Vietnamese troops cut the last operating rail line in Cambodia. On June 17 Pres. Nixon addresses the nation on TV, asking business and labor for voluntary wage and profit controls, and announcing the creation of a new nat. commission to find ways to increase worker productivity. On June 18 the 1970 British gen. election sees the Conservative Party, led by "Britain's Minister for Europe" (pro-Common Market) Sir Edward Richard George "Ted" Heath (1916-2005) (son of a carpenter and a maid) upset the Labour Party led by PM (since Oct. 16, 1964) Harold Wilson, with 330 seats for the Conservatives, 288 for Labour, and 6 for the Liberal Party of Jeremy Thorpe; on June 19 Heath becomes British PM (until Mar. 4, 1974); Enoch Powell's Apr. 20, 1968 Rivers of Blood Speech helped the Conservatives stage the surprise V, after which Powell becomes one of the top rebels against Heath's govt.? On June 20 Venezuela and Guyana agree to postpone their border dispute in the 57K-sq.-mi. Essequibo Region for 12 years. On June 22 Ecuadorian pres. (since 1968) Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra assumes dictatorial powers to stop "subversion" by univ. students et al. On June 24 the U.S. Senate votes overwhelmingly to repeal the Aug. 7, 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, on which U.S. govt. involvement in the Vietnam War was largely based; the House follows suit next Jan. 13. On June 24 North Korean PM Kim Il-sung offers to sign a pact with South Korea leading to eventual reunification on certain conditions, mainly the pullout of U.S. troops, but Pres. Park Chung-hee rejects it, saying that the U.N. should be involved. On June 25 Syrian and Israeli forces fight over the Golan Heights in the biggest battle since 1967. On June 26 the U.N. observes its 25th birthday in a ceremony in San Francisco, Calif. On June 26 Bernadette Devlin (1947-) is arrested by the British, sparking riots in Derry and Belfast, followed by night gunfights between Protestants and Roman Catholics, killing five and wounding 240 by June 29, after which on July 3-5 the British Army imposes a curfew on the Falls Road area of Belfast to search for weapons, during which rioters shoot 15 soldiers, and five civilians are killed and 60 injured, while the army arrests 300. On June 27 the first Gay Pride March in San Francisco, Calif. is held to celebrate the 1st anniv. of the Stonewall Riots in New York City. On June 29-30 the last U.S. troops pull out of Cambodia after a 2-mo. military offensive, allowing the Commie takover armies to move into position. In June S Calif. experiences the worst brush fires in its history, driving thousands in San Diego County from their homes, and threatening the suburbs of Los Angeles; in late Sept. fires strike Sequoia Nat. Forest N of Bakersfield. In summer the first hippie-style rock & roll Glastonbury Festival (originally the Pilton Festival) is held at Worthy Farm in Pilton, Somerset, England; it takes the Rolling Stones until 2013 to perform there. On July 1 Kedah sultan Abdul Halim Muazzam (Muadzam) (1927-), nephew of PM (since 1957) Tunku (Prince) Abdul Rahman becomes king (yang di-pertuan agong) of Malaysia (until 1975), succeeding Ismail Nasiruddin; on Sept. 22 after elections officially oust Rahman (who has been de facto overthrown since last May) and Chinese parties score election gains, Abdul Razak (1922-76) becomes PM #2 of Malaysia (until Jan. 14, 1976), going on to dissolve the ruling Alliance Party in place of his new Barisan Nasional (Nat. Front) on Jan. 1, 1973 and launch the Malaysian New Economic Policy next year, with the goals of eliminating poverty while spreading the wealth among the races. On July 1 Pres. Nixon names aristocratic Va.-raised ambassador David Kirkpatrick Este Bruce (1898-1977) as head of the U.S. peace delegation in Paris. On July 1 the U.S. Selective Service System in Washington, D.C. holds its first lottery drawing since Nov. 1969. On July 1 the N.Y. Abortion Law, the most liberal in the U.S. goes into effect, setting a limit of 24 weeks after gestation for physician-assisted abortions, allegedly to stop coat-hanger abortions; 1.2K women line up to commit infanticide, er, get one; meanwhile in Jan. Santa Ana, Calif. judge Paul G. Mast rules that a woman has a constitutional right to not bear children, and dismisses abortion charges against physician R.C. Robb. On July 1 George Lopez hijacks a DC-8 from Las Vegas, Nev. to Cuba. On July 1 a Cruzeiro do Sol Sud Aviation SE-210 Caravelle VI R en route from Rio to Sao Paulo, Brazil with 31 aboard is hijacked by four persons, who demand the release of political prisoners; the plane is stormed and they are arrested. On July 3 a British charter jet crashes near Barcelona, Spain, killing 112. On July 4 thousands attend Honor America Day in Washington, D.C., backed by Pres. Nixon and Bob Hope; Billy Graham delivers the keynote address. On July 4 the Asbury Park Race Riot in N.J. sees 100 injured. On July 4 American Top 40 (AT40), created and hosted by Lebanese-Am. disc jockey Kemal Amin "Casey" Kasem (1932-2014) debuts on Los Angeles radio (until 2004); the show's first #1 hit song is Three Dog Night's "Mamma Told Me Not to Come". On July 5 after riding a wave of anger by citizens in NW Mexico over the misappropriation and salinization of the water from the Colorado River by the U.S., Institutional Rev. Party (PRI) candidate Luis Echeverria Alvarez (Álvarez) (1922-) (interior secy. who was head of internal security during the 1968 Tlatelolco Massacre, and enraged pres. Ordaz by calling for a moment of silence to remember the victims) is elected pres. of Mexico, succeeding Gustavo Diaz Ordaz; he is sworn-in on Dec. 1 (until Nov. 30, 1976), going on to promise to reach out to youth, and engaging in populist reforms incl. nationalization of the mining and electrical industries, redistribution of private land in Sinaloa and Sonora to peasants, condemning Zionism and opposing U.S. "expansionism", supporting Chilean pres. Salvador Allende, allowing the PLO to open an office in Mexico City, and creating a commission to destroy Mexico's remaining forests to create farmland; he also puts limits on foreign investment, and expands Mexico's territorial limit to 200 mi.; too bad, he pisses-off the right with his actions, and then alienates the left by refusing to prosecute the perps of the Corpus Christi Massacre next year - with what, a club? On July 5 Air Canada 621 (DC-8) crashes near Toronto, killing 108. On July 5 (Sun.) the concert series Evening at Pops, produced by WGBH-TV debuts on PBS-TV (until 2005), featuring performances by the Boston Pops Orchestra in the Symphony Hall in Boston, Mass. On July 10 the military 1970 Moroccan Coup against King Hassan II at the Skhirat summer palace on his birthday fails; on July 13 10 leaders of the revolt are executed. On July 11 after a July 8 U.S. announcement of its intention to reduce forces in South Korea, talks begin to withdraw 60K U.S. troops from South Korea starting in July 1971, with the ROK govt. demanding massive military equipment and training. On July 14 Finnish PM Ahti Karjalainen forms a new cabinet after a 3-mo. crisis. On July 15 the British family completes an 11-day tour of Canada to observe the centennial of the Northwest Territories and Manitoba Province. On July 17-23 6K Teamster drivers and packing workers in the Salinas Valley of Calif. strike, preventing delivery of the summer lettuce crop to consumers and causing prices to triple, pissing-off the United Farm Workers (UFW); on Aug. 23 the Salad Bowl Strike by 5K-7K UFW workers against the Teamsters begins, doubling the price of lettuce again, after which in Sept. the UFW asks consumers to boycott non-UFW-picked lettuce, leading to the largest farm worker strike in U.S. history (until ?); on Dec. 4 UFW leader Caesar Chavez is arrested by federal marshals (his first arrest), and after being visited by RFK's widow Ethel Kennedy and Olympic star Rafer Johnson he is released on Dec. 23, and calls for more strikes; the strike ends next Mar. 26 with a new jurisdictional agreement between the UFW and Teamsters, but their mutual animosity continues. On July 20 after drought in Afghanistan becomes the worst in known history, an urgent request is sent to the U.S. for 100K tons of wheat, which isn't approved until Aug. 1971, by which time the request is upped to 250K tons; it ends in 1971; the next worst is in 2000. On July 21 Tsinghua U. in Beijing, China, home of the 1966 Cultural Rev. resumes regular classes four years after it stopped admitting students - that bad class was flushed? On July 23 Qaboos (Qabus) bin Said Al Said (1940-) ousts his father Sultan Sa'id bin Taimur (who had ruled since 1932) in a palace rev., and rules as sultan of oil-rich, isolated Oman (until ?), promising to establish a modern govt. and use the new wealth of the state to aid the people; he is the 14th descendant of the Abu Sa'id Dynasty founded in 1749; the neat Nat. Anthem of Oman, which starts out "God save our Sultan Sa'id" was orginally a salute by British ship HMS Hawkins on Dec. 10, 1932. On July 23 Nixon admin. consultant ("citizen lobbyist") Robert Burnett Choate Jr. (1924-2009) testifies before a U.S. Senate subcommittee that 40 of 60 top dry cereals are nutritionally empty, and "The worst cereals are huckstered to children" on TV; within a year cereal manufacturers begin adding nutritional content and he reverses his opinion. On July 23-26 the UAR and Jordan accept a U.S. formula for a 90-day Arab-Israeli ceasefire and resumptions of peace negotiations; Israel accepts the formula on July 31; too bad Syria rejects it, and on July 31 25K Palestinians demonstrate in Amman, calling for the liberation of all Palestine from the pesky Jews and Crusaders; on Aug. 9 Israeli jets attack guerrilla bases in Lebanon, while diplomatic efforts begin in the U.N. to stop the war. On July 24 the U.S. Congress passes a law providing for the construction of 1.3M new rat-traps, er, public housing units. On July 25 King Hassan II's 1965 state of emergency ends as Moroccan voters approve a new constitution creating a unicameral 24-member parliament. On July 27 Antonio de Oliveira Salazar (b. 1889) dies in Lisbon without knowing that he has been supplanted as PM #101 (since Sept. 27, 1968) by Marcello Jose das Neves Alves Caetano (1906-80), who becomes the new dictator Portugal (until Apr. 25, 1974). On July 31 U.S. CIA man (torture expert) Daniel "Dan" Mitrione (b. 1920) is captured, held, then executed on Aug. 10 by the Tupamaros in Uruguay after the U.S. refuses to release 150 hostages, exposing how the CIA trains police to repress leftists with terrorist methods and severe interrogation methods, while simultaneously messing up the Robin Hood image of the leftists; Nixon White House press secy. (1969-74) Ronald Louis Ziegler (1939-2003) stinks himself up by calling Mitrione "devoted... to the cause of peaceful progress in an orderly world" and "an example for free men everywhere"; Frank Sinatra and Jerry Lewis perform at a benefit for his widow. In July Guyana and Suriname jointly agree to withdraw all troops from the disputed border area of the New River. In July the 57-mo. Japanese Izangi Boom (begun Oct. 1965) (longest expansion since WWII) ends as U.S. orders for the Vietnam War begin waning. In July PM Leonid Brezhnev pub. a report conceding that Soviet food supplies are inadequate despite a record 186M metric ton grain harvest because of lack of corn to support livestock; Moscow orders 500K tons of corn from Continental Grain in New York City, and after failing to obtain a waver of the rule that half of it must be shipped in U.S. bottoms it fills the order with grain from other countries. On Aug. 1 commercial airline pilot W. Lain Guthrie (1913-97) refuses to dump any more kerosene into the atmosphere as had been common practice, and is fired, but the support of other pilots gets him reinstated and the industry practice changed. On Aug. 2 a man hijacks a Pan Am. 747 bound for San Juan, Puerto Rico from New York City to Cuba, becoming the first hijacking of the 747, causing Fidel Castro to personally come out to Jose Marti Airport in Havana to inspect it, after which he meets with Capt. Augustus Watkins to discuss whether it can take off safely from the smallish airport, which it does. On Aug. 3 the U.S. military announces the first successful underwater firing of a Poseidon ballistic nuclear missile from the U.S. submarine USS James Madison (SSBN 627) (launched Mar. 15, 1963). On Aug. 3 Hurricane Celia hits Corpus Christi, Tex. with 130-180 mph winds, damaging 90% of the downtown area, causing $453M damage, killing nine and injuring 466. On Aug. 3 (Mon.) NBC Nightly News debuts on NBC-TV (until ?), anchored by Lester Holt, followed by David Brinkley, John Chancellor, Tom Brokaw, and Brian Williams. On Aug. 7 Armadillo World HQ in Austin, Tex. opens in an old rented Nat. Guard armory, rented by Eddie Wilson after his flagship rock music venue the Vulcan Gas Co. closes, becoming the center of the Austin hippie culture complete with toleration of marijuana use and huge Lone Star beer sales, launching the Austin Sound AKA Redneck Rock AKA Cosmic Cowboy, with acts incl. The Lost Gonzo Band, Michael Martin Murphy, and Jerry Jeff Walker; it goes bankrupt in 1977, and holds its last concert on New Year's Eve (Dec. 31), 1980, featuring Commander Cody and the Lost Planet Airmen, and Asleep at the Wheel; the music scene it created helps launch PBS-TVs "Austin City Limits"; in 1976 the first annual Armadillo Christmas Bazaar is held, becoming a top national arts and crafts show. On Aug. 9 (Sun.) LANSA Flight 502 crashes after takeoff from Cuzco, Peru, killing 101. On Aug. 9 the Mangrove Nine are arrested after a protest at the police station over harassment of the black-owned Mangrove Restaurant in Notting Hill, West London; after a 55-day trial they are all acquitted of the most serious charges after the first British judicial acknowledgement of behavior by the Metro police motivated by racial hatred. On Aug. 10 the triple-engine wide-body McDonnell Douglas DC-10 makes its maiden flight; 386 are delivered to airlines and 60 to the USAF when production ceases in Dec. 1988. On Aug. 10 after NOW files suit in district court, and New York City mayor John Lindsay signs a bill prohibiting sexual discrimination in public places, feminists liberate 116-y.-o. males-only McSorley's Bar (founded 1854) at the Biltmore Hotel, and leather shop owner Barbara Schaum (1929-) becomes its first woman patron - hold the onions? On Aug. 12 a series of sharp rolling earthquakes hit Calif. from Los Angeles to San Diego, breaking windows and blocking highways. On Aug. 17 Christian Suleiman Kalaban Frangieh (Sulayman Kalaban Faranjiyya) Kalaban (1910-92) is elected pres. of Lebanon (until 1976) in a close upset election which is decided by sending gunmen led by his son Tony into the nat. assembly to force the speaker to quit abstaining and cast the deciding vote to break the 49-49 tie; Frangieh promises to keep the Zayims and their semi-feudal system intact, but finds it impossible to keep the country from imploding. On Aug. 17 the Soviet Union launches the Venera 7 probe, which lands on Venus on Dec. 15, becoming the first manmade spacecraft to land on another planet and transmit data to Earth, broadcasting strong signals for 35 min. and weak signals for 23 min., with only the temperature channel working, confirming a surface temp of 460F-475F (237C-246C) (pressure of 93 atmospheres); they don't officially announce it until next Jan. 26. On Aug. 18 the U.S. Congress overrides Pres. Nixon's veto of a $4.4B appropriation for the Office of Education. On Aug. 18 a U.S. ship loaded with nerve gas is scuttled in the Atlantic 280 mi. off the coast of Fla. On Aug. 19 two Cubans and one Spanish man hijack a DC-3 bound to San Juan, Puerto Rico from Newark, N.J. to Cuba. On Aug. 20 a man hijacks a DC-9 from Atlanta, Ga. to Cuba. On Aug. 20 (Thur.) Pres. Nixon visits Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, uttering the soundbyte "We share a 2,000-mile common border, one of the longest in the world. That border we can say today is not a wall that divides us, but a bridge of friendship which unites us"; he also notes "the little donkeys along the street on either side of the road", telling pres. Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, "Your welcoming us with a few donkeys shows that this is a completely bipartisan trip." On Aug. 24 (3:42 a.m.) a bomb consisting of over a ton of ammonium nitrate fertilizer and fuel oil (most powerful car bomb in history until the 1993 Marine Barracks bomb in Lebanon) inside a stolen 1967 Ford Deluxe Club Wagon explodes outside Sterling Hall at U. of Wisc. in Madison, housing the U.S. Army Mathematical Research Center at the U. of Wisc. in Madison, damaging 26 bldgs., killing 33-y.-o. researcher Robert E. Fassnacht (b. 1937), injuring four, and destroying a $1.5M computer; the violent Weathermen faction of the SDS claims responsibility, but actually it's four campus radicals called the New Year's Gang, incl. Karleton Armstrong (1953-), Dwight Armstrong (1952-), David Fine (1952-), and Leo Burt (1948-); on Feb. 17, 1972 leader Karleton "Karl" Armstrong (1953-) is arrested, and pleads guilty to 2nd degree murder; Am. activist-writer Richard Anderson Falk (1930-) writes a letter to the New York Times citing the Nuremberg Trials as a precedent that private citizens have "a right, and perhaps a duty" to actively oppose war by any means incl. "by creating a lesser crime"; Burt is not caught (until ?). Here they come, walking down the street, not a skirt or bra among them, only shirts, pants and feet? They may be a little late, but the 1970s are gonna feel their wrath? On Aug. 26, 1970 (5:00 p.m.) the Women's Strike for Equality on the 50th anniv. of the passing of the 19th Amendment is held in New York City by 50K women led by Am. feminists Betty Friedan (1921-2006), Gloria Steinem (1934-), Bella Savitsky Abzug (1920-98), and Katherine Murray "Kate" Millett (1934-) (sans open lezzies, although Millett is still a closet one and that's OK) march down Fifth Ave. in New York City; signs read "Don't iron while the strike is hot", "Hardhats for soft broads", "I am not a Barbie Doll", "Storks fly - Why can't mothers", "We are the 51% minority", and "We have the right to vote for the man of our choice"; Friedan utters the soundbyte "Man is not the enemy; man is a fellow victim"; another march is held in Washington, D.C. by 1K, another in Boston, Mass. by 1K, and another in San Francisco, Calif. by 2K; the major TV networks ridicule the strike, with Eric Sevareid calling the feminist movement an infectious disease and the members "a band of braless bubbleheads"; Howard K. Smith denies the credibility and justification for the movement, which ABC-TV eventually retracts after the women's movement launches a boycott of all four major networks; meanwhile in July mainly-Jewish Dems. Friedan, Steinem, Abzug, Shirley Chisholm (1924-2005) (Baptist), Letty Cottin Pogrebin (1939-) et al. form the Nat. Women's Political Caucus, with the motto "A woman's place is in the House" (of Reps.), working for reproductive freedom, affordable child care, and passage of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA); Pres. Nixon issues a proclamation designing this day as Women's Equality Day at the bequest of House Rep. Abzug; co-founder Fannie Lou Hamer (1917-77) (a black activist from Miss.) utters the soundbyte: "I got a black husband, six feet three, 240 pounds, with a 14 shoe, that I don't want to be liberated from. We are here to work side by side with this black man in trying to bring liberation to all people." On Aug. 26-30 the Third Isle of Wight Festival (last) is attended by 600K (more than Woodstock), and features 50 acts, incl. Joan Baez, Jimi Hendrix, Procol Harum, The Doors, The Who, Jethro Tull, Chicago, Miles Davis, John Sebastian, Joni Mitchell, 10 years After, and Emerson, Lake and Palmer. On Aug. 29 30K march in East Los Angeles for the Chicano Moratorium, a coalition of Mexican-Am. groups who oppose the Vietnam War. On Aug. 31 Peter Yarrow (of Peter, Paul & Mary fame) is arrested for taking "immoral liberties" with a 14-y.-o. girl - tongue in cheek? In Aug. the Social Dem. and Labour Party (SDLP) is formed as an anti-violence alternative to Sinn Fein. In Aug. "the Hunger Doctor" Donald E. Gatch is convicted of maintaining improper records of drugs dispensed by his office in Beaufort County, S.C., despite loudly squawking that it is a railroad job to shut him up for reporting hundreds of cases of malnutrition diseases in 1967, incl. pellagra, rickets, scurvy and Kwashiorkor, mainly in blacks, plus parasite diseases; "They think maybe if they can discredit me they can somehow discredit the fact that there are 20 million malnourished people in this nation." On Sept. 1 Hugh J. Scott of Washington, D.C. becomes the first black suptd. of schools in a major U.S. city; in 1980 he writes the book The Black Superintendent: Messiah or Scapegoat?. On Sept. 1 Panamanian dictator Gen. Omar Torrijos Herrera rejects the 1967 draft agreements on the Panama Canal with the U.S., calling for full repatriation. On Sept. 3 a hailstone is found in Coffeyville, Kan. (get it?) measuring 5.67 in. (14.4 cm) diam. and weighing 1.67 lb. (758 g). The Month the Music Died? On Sept. 3 rock star Alan Christie "Blind Owl" Wilson (b. 1943) dies of an OD in Los Angeles, Calif.; on Sept. 18 rock star James Marshall (Johnny Allen) "Jimi" Hendrix (b. 1942) dies of an OD in London; on Oct. 4 rock star Janis Lyn Joplin (b. 1943) dies of an OD in LA; all die at the same fabled age of 27, joining the fabled 27 Club. On Sept. 3-7 an African People Congress meets in Atlanta, Ga. to study Afro-Am. culture and ideology. The Marxists go outback in South America, gaining a beachhead where the U.S. finds it hard to control the action for once? On Sept. 4 after losing in 1952, 1958, and 1964, avowed Marxist Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens (1908-73) wins the pres. election in Chile with 36.3% of the vote in a 3-way battle, despite CIA efforts to assassinate him, with the help of ITT (Internat. Telephone & Telegraph); he is sworn-in on Nov. 3 as pres. #29 of Chile (until Sept. 11, 1973), becoming the first Communist pres. freely elected by a non-Communist electorate and the first Marxist head of a govt. in the Western Hemisphere, going on to recognize the Cuban govt. of Fidel Castro and begin nationalizing the economy. On Sept. 6 the Marxist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (founded 1967) attempts to hijack El Al Flight 219 en route from Amsterdam to New York City, but Israeli skymarshals foil it, killing Nicaraguan terrorist Patrick Arguello, and capturing female Palestinian terrorist Leila Khaled (1944-), who is jailed in Britain then released on Oct. 1 in a prisoner swap, becoming the "Poster Girl of Palestinian Militancy". The Black September Crisis begins a neverending blood feud? On Sept. 6 and Sept. 9 after civil war breaks out in half-Palestinian Jordan between the govt. of king (since 1952) Hussein I bin Talal (1935-99) (whose army is all Bedouin) and Palestinian guerrillas of the PLO and PFLP, the latter hijack three jetliners containing 305 hostages, land them in "Revolution Airport" (Dawson's Field) in hard ground desert 30 mi. from PLO-controlled Amman, and invite televised negotiations with the West in an attempt to get Palestinian POWs released, while the Jordanian army surrounds them in a double standoff, becoming the 1st time that Palestinians attack innocents for political gain and publicity; the U.S. plays, but Israel won't negotiate with terrorists, and Jewish hostages are separated out, stirring outrage and almost leading to an Israeli attack; Pres. Nixon orders Palestinian sites in the area to be bombed, but defense secy. Melvin R. Laird fakes him out by claiming bad weather, later admitting he lied?; 105 women and children are released, and end up in a hotel in Amman in the middle of a shooting war before they are shepherded out of the country on Sept. 9; on Sept. 12 the stinking planes are blown up on the ground, and the Jordanian army moves in, but all the hijackers escape with the hostages, holding them for several weeks until PFLP terrorist Leila Khaled is released on Oct. 1; on Sept. 15 PLO leader (since 1968) Yasser Arafat (1929-2004) threatens to make a cemetery of Jordan, and on Sept. 16 Hussein launches a drive to push the PLO into Lebanon, sending his 60th Armored Brigade to attack the Palestinian HQ in Amman, along with Palestinian camps in Irbid, Salt, Sweileh, Baqaa, Wehdat and Zarqa; Yasser Arafat claims that the Jordanian army kills 10K-25K Palestinians, with the survivors being pushed out of the country; this action causes the PFLP to make repeated assassination attempts on Hussein, and hijack four airliners belonging to Swiss Air, Pan AM, TWA and BOAC (British Overseas Airways Corporation), after which they give up hijacking as a tactic by next year, helped by a secret deal with Switzerland to not attack it in return for diplomatic support?; the Syrians invade in Soviet-built tanks until threats of U.S. and Israeli intervention cause them to withdraw; the militant Palestinian Black Sept. Org. (BSO) is founded in response; on Sept. 21 Hussein sends a plea to Israel for air support via the British embassy, but they don't respond; on Sept. 26 after five Arab leaders led by UAR pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser meet in Cairo, blaming the U.S. for Israel's refusal to give up territory and building settlements, and accusing them of using captured Arab oil resources to help Israel, King Hussein appoints a new "govt. of national reconciliation", with Palestinian leader Ahmed Toukan (1903-81) as PM (until Oct. 28), and a ceasefire is signed on Sept. 27, after which Nasser dies of a heart attack in Cairo on Sept. 28; on Oct. 1 Jordan recognizes Al-Fatah alone among 10 guerrilla groups; the 13-day crisis leaves 2K dead, but Hussein keeps his wobbling crown - I think about it when I'm happy, and I think about it when I'm sad, and then I'm happy again? On Sept. 9 U.S. Marines launch Operation Dubois Square, a 10-day search for North Vietnamese troops near Da Nang. On Sept. 12 after being jailed for marijuana possession, LSD guru Timothy Leary escapes from the State Men's Colony in San Luis Obispo, Calif. with the help of his 3rd wife Rosemary and the Weather Underground, and goes to Algiers and joins Black Panther leader Eldridge Cleaver, who kidnaps the Learys after a political disagreement, after which they escape and flee to Afghanistan, where they are caught in 1974 as internat. fugitive weed wackers - what did Osama bin Laden have that Timothy Leary didn't? On Sept. 12 the supersonic Concorde airliner lands for the 1st time at Heathrow Airport. On Sept. 12 the Soviet Luna 16 spaceship blasts off for the Moon; on Sept. 20 it lands in Mare Fecunditatis and drills a core sample, then returns to Earth on Sept. 24, becoming the first unmanned round trip to the Moon. On Sept. 12 the Sat. morning animated series Josie and the Pussycats debuts for 18 episodes (until Jan. 2, 1971), based on the Archie Comics series about an all-girl pop-rock music band that tours the world and gets into adventures, incl. lead singer Josie, bubble-headed blonde drummer Melody, and intelligent tambourinist Valerie (first female black char. in a Sat. morning cartoon show), along with cowardly mgr. Alexander Cabot III, his conniving sister Alexandra, her cat Sebastian, and muscular roadie Alan; the girls wear leopard print leotards complete with long tails and ears; the opening theme is always played over a chase scene a la The Beatles and The Monkees; on Dec. 5 the album Josie and the Pussycats is released, featuring Cathy Douglas, Patrice Holloway, and Cherie Jean Stoppelmoor, later known as Cheryl Ladd. On Sept. 12-17 the World Congress on the Future of the Church in Brussels, Belgium is attended by 700 "far out" theologians, and ends up recommending democratization and decentralization of the Roman Catholic Church, plus a greater role for women; meanwhile on Sept. 27 Pope Paul VI declares St. Teresa of Avila (1515-82) the first woman doctor of the Church, followed on Oct. 4 by St. Catherine of Siena (1347-80), then on Oct. 12 sends a message to a convention of Catholic physicians, declaring legal abortion the equivalent of infanticide, and calling for "absolute respect for man from the first moment of his conception to his last breath of life" - what role? What democracy? Humanae vitae was just 2 years ago, remember? On Sept. 16 (Wed.) McCloud debuts on NBC-TV for 46 episodes (until Apr. 17, 1977), starring Dennis Weaver (1924-2006) as rustic country deputy marshal Sam McCloud from Taos, N.M., who is assigned to NYPD's 21st precinct, and rides his horse through Manhattan traffic wearing a sheepskin coat and Stetson hat, calling it "the most satisfying role of my career." On Sept. 16 the ITC Entertainment TV series UFO (pr. "you-foh"), debuts for 26 episodes (until July 24, 1971), set in 1980 when the Earth is attacked by aliens from outer space and defended by the Alien Defense Org. starring George Victor "Ed" Bishop (1932-2005) as Cmdr. Ed Straker, and Michael Billington (1941-2005) as Col. Paul Foster; the campy English series features shapely babes in skimpy tight silver suits and purple wigs; the Opening Theme features tank-tracked personnel carriers and 2-man space ships but shows them still using reel-to-reel tape computers. On Sept. 17 (Thur.) The Flip Wilson Show debuts on NBC-TV for 94 episodes (until June 27, 1974), starring Flip Wilson (Clerow Wilson Jr.) (1933-98), who cracks audiences up with his chars. incl. Geraldine Jones the ghetto drag queen, and Rev. Leroy of the Church of What's Happenin' Now; "The Devil made me do it," "I don't smoke and I don't do windows"; "When you're hot, you're hot, when you're not, you're not"; "What you see is what you get"; "Heah come de judge"; reaching #2 in the ratings, signaling the acceptance of blacks on prime-time U.S. TV. On Sept. 19 a man hijacks a Boeing 727 from Pittsburgh, Penn. to Cuba. On Sept. 19 (Sat.) the sitcom Arnie debuts on CBS-TV for 48 episodes (until Mar. 6, 1972), starring Herschel Bernardi (1923-86) as Arnie Nuvo, a blue collar worker at Continental Flange Co. who suddenly gets promoted to mgt., becoming a fish out of water. On Sept. 19 (Sat.) the sitcom The Mary Tyler Moore Show debuts on CBS-TV for 168 episodes (until Mar. 19, 1977), starring Very Smily Whore (Merry Smiler More?), er, Mary Tyler Moore (1936-2017) as Minneapolis, Minn. newspaper reporter Mary Richards, Edward "Ed" Asner (1929-) (Head In Asser?) as her boss Lou Grant ("You've got spunk; I hate spunk"), Valerie Kathryn Harper (1940-) (Very Harping?) as Mary's Jewish friend Rhoda Morgenstern, Ted Knight (Tadeusz Wladyslaw Konopka) (1923-86) (Dead Night?) as TV news anchor Ted Baxter, Gavin McLeod (Allan George See) (1931-) (Grumbling Out Loud?) as Murray Slaughter, Cloris Leachman (1926-) (Clorox Bleachman?) as Phyllis Lindstrom, and Georgia Bright Engel (1948-) (gorgeous bright angel?) as Georgette Franklin Baxter; the theme song is Love is All Around by Tex.-born Sonny Curtis (1937-), composer of "I Fought the Law". On Sept. 20 Sultan Ismail Nasiruddin of Terengganu (b. 1906) dies, and on Sept. 21 Sultan Abdul Halim (1927-) of Kedah becomes the 5th king (Yang di-Pertuan Agong) of Malaysia (until Sept. 20, 1975). On Sept. 21 the New York Times starts running an Op-Ed page for views opposing theirs. On Sept. 21 Monday Night Football, produced by Roone Arledge (1931-2002) debuts on ABC-TV, with hosts ("I'm just telling it like it is") Howard William Cosell (Cohen) (1918-95) (until 1983), former Dallas Cowboys QB (1960-8) Joseph "Dandy Don" Meredith (1938-), and Keith Jackson (1928-); the Cleveland Browns defeat the visiting New York Jets 31-21; on Nov. 23 ever-schmucky Cosell arrives drunk, slurring his speech and puking on Don Meredith's boots at halftime, leaving the stadium before the 2nd half (Cosell doesn't like ex-jocks who broke into sportscasting); in 1972 former NFL New York Giants star Francis Newton "Frank" Gifford (1930-2015) becomes a host (until 1997); in 1983 Cosell quits after calling football "a stagnant bore". On Sept. 22 Pres. Nixon signs a bill giving the District of Columbia one rep. in the U.S. Congress; Nixon requests 1K new FBI agents for college campuses. On Sept. 24 The Odd Couple, based on the 1965 Neil Simon play debuts on ABC-TV for 114 episodes (until Mar. 7, 1975), starring Tony Randall (1920-2004) as neat photographer Felix Unger, and Jack Klugman (1922-2012) as messy sportswriter Oscar Madison, who share an apt. after Unger is thrown out by his wife Gloria; in the play it's spelled Ungar; in the last episode Unger remarries Gloria and moves out. On Sept. 25 The Partridge Family, modeled after the Cowsills bubble gum music family and produced by Screen Gems (known for "The Monkees") debuts on ABC-TV for 96 episodes (until Mar. 23, 1974), starring Shirley Mae Jones (1934-) as a widowed mother in San Pueblo, Calif. with five children, incl. David Bruce Cassidy (1950-2017) (Jones' real-life stepson) as oldest son and heartthrob Keith, carrot-loving orthorexic Susan Hallock Dey (1952-) as Laurie, Dante Daniel "Danny" Bonaduce (1959-) as Danny, Jeremy R. Gelbwaks (1961-) as Chris, who is replaced in 1971-4 by Brian A. Forster (1960-), and Suzanne J. Crough (1963-2015) as tambourine-playing Tracy; Canadian-born David Joseph "Dave" Madden (1931-2014) plays their mgr. Reuben Kincaid; the Ron Hicklin Singers and Wrecking Crew dub their sound at first, then Cassidy and Jones are allowed to sing. On Sept. 26 the President's Commission on Campus Unrest (Scranton Commission) investigating the Kent State killings finds that "The indiscriminate firing of rifles into a crowd of students and the deaths that followed were unnecessary, unwarranted, and inexcusable"; too bad, a tape emerges, on which some claim they hear a Guard officer issue the command "Right here - get set - point - fire!" - he really said, "Write here, get some fire-red poinsettias"? On Sept. 27 a bus plunges off a cliff outside Myongju in South Korea, killing 15 and injuring 20. On Sept. 28 Egyptian pres. (since June 23, 1956) Gamal Abdel (Abd-Al) Nasser (b. 1918) dies in Cairo of a heart attack, and after an overwhelming vote he is replaced on Oct. 15 by his friend (who was jailed by the British during WWII as a pro-Nazi agent, and helped overthrow King Farouk in 1952) Mohamed Anwar Sadat (el-Sadat) (al-Sadat) (1918-81) as pres. #3 of Egypt (until Oct. 6, 1981), who releases all Muslim Brotherhood political prisoners and promises them that he will fully implement Sharia - his portrait bears a striking resemblance to Hollywood actor Louis Cameron Gossett Jr. (1936-)? On Oct. 2 after Pres. Nixon delivers a Special Message to Congress on July 9, with the soundbyte: "Our national government today is not structured to make a coordinated attack on the pollutants which debase the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the land that grows our food. Indeed, the present governmental structure for dealing with environmental pollution often defies effective and concerted action", the U.S. Clean Air Extension (Muskie) Act is passed, amending the 1963 U.S. Clean Air Act; on Dec. 2 Congress creates the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to monitor and protect the public from airborne contaminants, along with the Nat. Oceanic and Atmospheric Admin. (NOAA) on Oct. 3, growing to the largest U.S. regulatory agency by 1975, with 9K employees and a budget of $700M a year; on Dec. 12 William Doyle Ruckelshaus (1932-) becomes dir. #1 of the EPA (until Apr. 1973); after legislative pressure, on Dec. 31 Pres. Nixon signs amendments to the act, giving automakers six years to develop engines that are 90% emission-free; too bad, existing smokestack plants are grandfathered, and pollution standards only apply to new plants, causing greedy owners to extend the life of the smoky old plants as long as they can for decades to come - takes my breath away? On Oct. 2 (Fri.) a plane carrying the Wichita State U. football team crashes, killing 30. On Oct. 3 Hampshire College in Amherst, Mass. On Oct. 3 Hampshire College in Amherst, Mass. near Amherst College and the U. of Mass. Amherst (founded 1965) opens; Am. poet Archibald MacLeish (1892-1982) gives the inaugural address, with the soundbyte: "The only confident educational pronouncements of this troubled time have issued, not from the colleges or universities, but from Mr. Spiro Agnew. And all Mr. Spiro Agnew has had to tell us is that the whole thing is the doing of wicked boys and girls egged on by 'the disgusting and permissive attitude of the people in command of the campuses', by which Mr. Agnew means that the troubles would go away if only the troublemakers were eradicated." On Oct. 4 rock singer (Miss Piggy lookalike?) Janis Joplin (b. 1943) is found dead in her Highland Gardens Hotel room in Hollywood Heights, Calif. of a heroin OD, becoming the 2nd major rock star to die at age 27 after Brian Jones (next Jimi Hendrix); "Don't compromise yourself; you are all you've got." On Oct. 4 an army coup in Bolivia forces pres. Alfredo Ovando Candia to resign on Oct. 6, and army chief of staff Gen. Rogelio Miranda Valdivia appoints a ruling junta, but leftist Gen. Juan Jose Torres Gonzalez (1920-76), backed by students and workers overthrows the junta, and he becomes pres. on Oct. 7 (until Aug. 21, 1971); on Oct. 14 workers begin seizing the properties of the state mining corp. COMIBOL, while Torres begins nationalizing numerous foreign firms and expanding ties with the Soviet bloc. On Oct. 5 PBS (Public Broadcasting Service) becomes a network, with 197 stations, featuring high quality programming, incl. Sesame Street and The Forsyte Saga (last major TV series filmed in B&W), gaining a total audience of 45M for its first year. On Oct. 5 the October Montreal Crisis begins when British trade commissioner James Richard Cross (1921-) is abducted by terrorists of the left-wing Front for the Liberation of Quebec (FLQ), followed on Dec. 10 by Quebec labor minister Pierre Laporte (1921-70); the terrorists demand the liberation of 23 political prisoners and payment of a large ransom, which is refused; on Oct. 16 after a request by Quebec PM Robert Bourassa, Canadian PM Pierre Trudeau responds by invoking the War Measures Act in Quebec for 6 mo. (1st time in peacetime), sending 1K troops, while police arrest 450 suspected FLQ members; on Oct. 18 Laporte's strangled body is found in the trunk of an abandoned car; on Dec. 3 Cross is released after 59 days in captivity after the govt. provides an army plane for three kidnappers and four of their relatives to escape to Cuba; on Dec. 28 three suspects in the Laporte murder are arrested; after release, gay separatist leader Pierre Vallieres (Vallières) (1938-98) resigns, calling his separatist org. a "terrorist menace", and on Oct. 4, 1972 accepts a plea bargain of a 1-year suspended sentence for counselling political kidnapping, spending the rest of his life in Montreal's gay district. On Oct. 7 Pres. Nixon gives a televised speech proposing a ceasefire-in-place. On Oct. 8 Soviet dissident writer Alexander (Aleksandr) Solzhenitsyn (1918-2008) is named winner of the Nobel Lit. Prize "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"; too bad, he doesn't go to Oslo to receive the award due to fear they won't let him reenter the Soviet Union, which later proves to be correct when they expel him in 1974. On Oct. 9 the anti-Communist pro-U.S. Khmer Repub. of Cambodia declares independence; Son Ngoc Thanh (1908-77), cmdr. of the Khmer Serei guerrillas becomes PM, but is sacked on Oct. 15 Oct. 1972 by Gen. Lon Nol, who begins to rule with an iron hand in an attempt to stop the emerging Communist Khmer Rouge, which is trained and equipped by North Vietnam. On Oct. 10 the South Pacific island group of Fiji declares independence after 96 years of British rule; on Oct. 10 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 287 to admit Fiji. On Oct. 10-15 the Baltimore Orioles (AL) defeat the Cincinnati Reds (NL) 4-1 to win the Sixty-Seventh (67th) (1970) World Series; Orioles 3rd baseman Brooks Calbert Robinson Jr. (1937-), "the Human Vaccum Cleaner" puts in an amazing defensive performance, becoming MVP. On Oct. 12 Pres. Nixon announces the pullout of 40K more U.S. troops from Vietnam by Christmas. On Oct. 12 the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights pub. The Federal Civil Rights Enforcement Effort, concluding that a major breakdown has taken place in the implementation of civil rights legislation caused by a lack of interagency cooordination; meanwhile Daniel Patrick Moynihan tells Pres. Nixon that "the issue of race could benefit from a period of benign neglect". On Oct. 13 Canada establishes diplomatic relations with Communist China and severs relations with Nationalist China, but doesn't recognize the Communist claim to Taiwan. On Oct. 13 French pres. Georges Pompidou visits the Soviet Union, and concludes an agreement "to extend and deepen political consultations on major internat. problems of mutual interest" without prejudice to either party's commitments; meanwhile France begins a civilian nuclear energy program, expanding it rapidly in a vacuum of opposition. On Oct. 15 the U.S. Racketeering and Organized Crime (RICO) Control Act, which incl. the U.S. Organized Crime Control Act is passed, establishing federal jurisdiction over major gambling operations, interstate sale of explosives et al., and making the death penalty mandatory for bombings resulting in loss of life; designed to prosecute Mafia kingpins, it creates the witness protection program; too bad, the loose language and the super power of federal prosecutors leads to it being abused to prosecute white collar criminals incl. Wall Street traders caught using privileged info., and any little fish they want to squash with a steamroller. On Oct. 15 Aeroflot Flight 244 (An-24) is hijacked from Batumi, Adjar, Georgia to Trabzon, Turkey by a Lithuanian national Pranas Brazinskas and his son Algirdas, who in 1983 receive U.S. citizenship despite an air hostess and other crew being injured in a shootout; in 2002 Algirdas (Albert Victor White) is convicted of murdering his daddy Pranas in a family argument. On Oct. 21 777 Unification Church couples are wed simultaneously in Korea. On Oct. 22 the U.S. Merchant Marine Act provides for 300 ships to be built over the next 10 years to make the U.S. a first-rate maritime power; too bad, it fails to revitalize the U.S. merchant marine. On Oct. 24 U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 2625 is adopted, titled "The Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States", commemorating the 25th anniv. of the U.N., defining the most authoritative and comprehensive formulation of the principle of self-determination, with the soundbyte: "The principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations" embraces the right of all peoples "freely to determine, without external interference, their political status and to pursue their economic, social and cultural development" as well as the duty of every State "to respect this right in accordance with the provisions of the Charter; it adds: "The establishment of a sovereign and independent State, the free association or integration with an independent State, or the emergence into any other political status freely determined by a people constitute modes of implementing the right of self-determination", stressing as the critical issue the methods of reaching the decision rather than the result. On Oct. 24 Pres. Nixon repudiates the Sept. Report of the U.S. Nat. Commission on Obscenity and Pornography (founded 1967) that porno is not a contributing factor to crime and should be freely available to adults, calling it morally bankrupt, and stirring criticism that he has a cute, er, is biased?; meanwhile Jesuit priest Morton A. Hill (1917-85) calls it a "Magna Carta for pornography", and later gets his day when a 1986 report declares that porno can lead to violence. On Oct. 26 Doonesbury, by New York City-born cartoonist Garretson Beekman "Garry" Trudeau (1948-), about Michael J. Doonesbury (who comments on U.S. military involvement in Vietnam) begins pub. (until ?), starting in the Yale Daily News under the title "Bull Tales", then spreading to 25 newspapers through the new Universal Press Syndicate (UPS), founded by John McMeel and Jim Andrews, ultimately reaching over 300, and later becoming the first comic strip to win the Pulitzer Prize (1975). On Oct. 27 Pres. Nixon signs the U.S. Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act, which incl. the U.S. Controlled Substances Act, establishing five categories of regulated drugs, with Schedule I created for those with no accepted medical use incl. LSD, Mescaline, Psilocybin, DMT, DMT, and Marijuana, shutting down medical research - and criminalizing so much human behavior that it fills the Bill of Rights with more holes than a Swiss cheese? Should this be called a bailout? On Oct. 30 Pres. Nixon signs the U.S. Rail Passenger Service Act, creating the Nat. Railroad Passenger Corp. (Amtrak) to operate U.S. passenger trains under contract with U.S. railroads, who are only making money on freight runs; they take over next May 1, ending service to many cities. On Oct. 30 L. Rosas hijacks a DC-8 from Miami, Fla. to Cuba. In Oct. the 1st Bathurst Gaol Riot in N.S.W., Australia over poor living conditions is punished by officials with the "Bathurst Batterings", fomenting a bigger riot in Feb. 1974. On Nov. 1 a discotheque in Saint-Laurent-du-Pont (near Grenoble), France burns with all exits padlocked, killing 146. On Nov. 1 a Mexican man accompanied by his two children hijacks a Boeing 727 from San Diego, Calif. to Cuba. On Nov. 3 Pres. Nixon promises gradual troop removal from Vietnam. On Nov. 3 France enacts decentralizing admin. reform, giving local authorities more power. On Nov. 3 exiled Yugoslavian king (1934-45) Peter II (b. 1923) dies in a hospital in Los Angeles, Calif., and is buried in the Liberty Easter Serbian Orthodox Monastery in Liberty, Ill., becoming the first Euro monarch to die and be buried in the U.S. - most queens can't wait to take off their heels? On Nov. 3 antiwar activist Jane Fonda is arrested in Cleveland, Ohio for drug smuggling, and kicks an officer. On Nov. 3-13 the 150 mph 1970 Bhola Cyclone in E Pakistan and W Bengal results in a storm surge that floods the low-lying islands of the Ganges Dleta, killing 500K and causing $86.4M damage, becoming the deadliest tropical cyclone in history (until ?). On Nov. 4 Soviet nuclear physicists Andre Sakharov et al. form the Moscow Human Rights Committee, causing the govt. to begin putting him under increasing pressure to STF, er, shut up. On Nov. 4 the French Concorde exceeds Mach 2 for the 1st time. On Nov. 6 hardliner Hedi Amira Nouira (1911-93) becomes PM of Tunisia, and the designated successor to pro-Western Kemal Ataturk clone pres. (July 25, 1957-Nov. 7, 1987) Habib Bourguiba (1903-2000, who is declared pres. for life in Mar. 1975; too bad, after working to turn away from socialism to privatization, Nouira has a stroke in Mar. 1980, and steps down on Apr. 25, 1980. On Nov. 7 race riots take place in Daytona Beach, Fla. On Nov. 11 U.S. Army Special Forces raid the Son Tay Prison Camp in North Vietnam but find no POWs - a security leak? On Nov. 13 defense minister Lt. Gen. Hafez al-Assad (1930-2000), leader of the military wing of the Ba'th Party overthrows the civilian govt. of Syria in a bloodless coup, becoming PM on Nov. 21 (until Apr. 3, 1971), followed by pres. on Feb. 22, 1971 (until June 10, 2000), ruling with an iron hand with a huge secret service; while Syria's pop. is 70% Sunni, the minority (12%) are Shiite Allawites (Alawites) (Alawis) (Nusayris) (Ansaris), who don't practice Sharia and are viewed as heretics by both Sunnis and Shiites, and packed the military to stage the coup, and al-Assad Anwar al-Sadat of Egypt calls him Allawite first, Baathist second, and Syrian third. On Nov. 13 South Korean laborer Chon T'ae-il immolates himself to protest exploitation of labor, becoming a martyr for the growing labor union movement. On Nov. 13 the Colour Strike (ends Feb. 8) begins in the U.K. by technicians of ITV, who protest low pay by broadcasting only in black and white. On Nov. 13 a man hijacks an airliner from Raleigh, N.C. to Cuba. On Nov. 13-15 a cyclone in East Pakistan (Bangladesh) from the Bay of Bengal leaves 200K dead, 100K missing, and 3M homeless - as bad as if they were nuked? On Nov. 14 (7:36 p.m.) Southern Airways Flight 932 (DC-9), carrying 37 Marshall U. Thundering Herd football players plus coaches and boosters crashes in Huntington, W.V., killing all 75 aboard. On Nov. 17 the Soviet Union lands the Lunokhod I unmanned remote-controlled vehicle on the Moon. On Nov. 20 the 1970 Miss World Pageant in the Royal Albert Hall in London is won by black contestant Jennifer Josephine Hosten (1953-) of Grenada; black contestant Pearl Jansen from South Africa places 2nd; Irith Lavi from Israel places 3rd; too bad, judge Sir Eric Matthew Gairy (1920-97) (PM of Grenada since 1967) apparently rigs the results, making her the winner with only two firsts, while blonde white Swedish contestant Marjorie Christel Johansson, who received four firsts comes in #4, causing a protest outside the hall, after which dir. Julia Morley (1941-) resigns, and Johannsson later says she has been cheated; other judges incl. Glen Campbell, Joan Collins, and Nina. On Nov. 21 U.S. planes stage widespread bombing raids in North Vietnam - turn on the Wagner, boys? On Nov. 22 Elizabeth Alvina Platz becomes the first female pastor ordained by the Lutheran Church On Nov. 22 a bus plunges into a creek outside Reconquista, Santa Fe, Argentina, killing 56. On Nov. 23 Pope Paul VI issues the encyclical Motu Proprio, decreeing a voluntary retirement age of 75 for Curia officials and that cardinals past 80 should no longer vote for pope - their sperm motility is no longer appropriate, and that's as far as we'll go with democratization at this time? On Nov. 23-28 the Tenth Congress of the Hungarian Socialist Workers Party reaffirms its support of the Soviet Union, while attempting a cautious economic liberalization under the shadow of the Soviet tank nozzles. On Nov. 26-Dec. 6 Pope Paul VI goes on a journey through Southeast Asia, the Philippines, Samoa, and Australia; on Nov. 27 (9:30 a.m.) after disembarking from his chartered DC-8 jet he is slightly wounded at the Manila airport by kris-wielding surrealist Bolivian painter Benjamin Mendoza y Amor Flores (1935-), who later utters the soundbyte "I acted alone to save humanity from superstition"; on Apr. 21, 1971 Mendoza is sentenced to an indefinite prison sentence, and later released from Manila's Bilibid Prison and deported to Bolivia - disguised as a priest? On Nov. 27 Syria joins the pact linking Libya, Egypt, and Sudan. Divorce, Italian style? In Nov. in U.S. v. Texas, LBJ-appointee activist Texas judge William Wayne Justice (1920-2009) orders the Texas Education Agency to begin desegregating Tex. public schools, covering 1K school districts and 2M students; in 1978 he strikes down a Tex. law allowing them to charge tuition to the children of illegal immigrants, which is upheld 5-4 by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1982; in 1972 after a handwritten complaint about living conditions from Tex. prison inmate David Ruiz (1942-2005) in 1972, resulting in Ruiz v. Estelle, Justice begins a complete overhaul of the Tex. prison system. Welcome to Last Comic Standing? The once almighty Roman Catholic Church is reduced to soundbyte artists? In Nov. anti-war anti-desegregation human rights activist (dean of Boston College Law School since 1956) Rev. Robert Frederick Drinan (1920-2007) (a Jesuit who just returned from a trip to Vietnam where he claims to have discovered that the number of political prisoners being held in South Vietnam is rapidly increasing) becomes the first Roman Catholic priest elected to serve as a voting member of the U.S. Congress, over the objections of his superiors, after defeating longtime Dem. Rep. Philip J. Philbin in a primary; after urging the Church to condemn the Vietnam War as "morally objectionable" and becoming the first member of Congress to call for Nixon's impeachment (for the undeclared war against Cambodia) he steps down in 1980 after Pope John Paul II issues a worldwide directive barring priests from holding public office; he later testifies against Clinton's impeachment, saying that it should be for an official not private blow, er, act; the only other Roman Catholic priest to serve in Congress is Robert John Cornell (1919-) of the White Canon Norbertine Order, who is elected to two House Terms in Wisc. and serves from Jan. 1975-Jan. 1979. On Dec. 1 the Italian Parliament approves the first Italian Divorce Law; after attempts by Roman Catholic clergy to overturn it, the first constitutional referendum in Italian constitutional history on May 12, 1972 confirms it by 59.3%. On Dec. 1 the Canadian House passes the Public Order (Temporary Measures) Act, replacing the more stringent War Measures Act, allowing warrantless arrest and detention for up to a week. On Dec. 2 the U.S. Senate votes to give 48K acres of New Mexico back to the Taos Indians. On Dec. 7 Poland and West Germany sign a pact renouncing the use of force to settle disputes, recognizing the Oder-Neisse River as Poland's W frontier, assenting to repatriation of Germans living E of the frontier, and acknowledging transfer to Poland of 40K sq. mi. of former German territory, making Poland Europe's 5th largest country, compared with #1 in 1571 and 1771, and not even on the map in 1871; on Dec. 14 riots begin in Gdansk (Danzig) by shipyard and factory workers over high prices and shortages caused by several years of poor harvests, spreading throughout Poland, causing defense minister Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski to impose martial law; on Dec. 17 riot police under Jaruzelski's orders fire on protesting workers, killing 44; on Dec. 20 popular unrest forces Communist party chief Wladyslaw Gomulka to resign in favor of Edward Gierek (1913-2001) of Upper Silesia, who becomes first secy. of the Polish United Workers' Party (until Sept. 5, 1980); on Dec. 23 Gen. Piotr Jaroszewicz (1909-92) becomes PM of Poland (until Feb. 18, 1980). On Dec. 11 Pres. Nixon announces the appointment of not-a-CIA-man-not George Herbert Walker Bush as a U.S. delegate to the U.N. On Dec. 16 Rod Serling's horror-fantasy-scifi anthology series Night Gallery debuts for 43 episodes on NBC-TV (until May 27, 1973), with each episode introduced by Serling in an art gallery in front of a macabre painting by Thomas J. Wright, with the soundbyte: Good evening, and welcome to a private showing of three paintings, displayed here for the first time. Each is a collector's item in its own way - not because of any special artistic quality, but because each captures on a canvas, suspends in time and space, a frozen moment of a nightmare"; the pilot on Nov. 8, 1969 features the dir. debut of Steven Spielberg and one of the last performances by Joan Crawford. On Dec. 18 an atomic leak in Nevada forces hundreds to flee the test site. On Dec. 19 a man hijacks a DC-9 en route from Albuquerque, N.M., and is captured in Tulsa, Okla. before he can reach Cuba; he is sentenced to five years. On Dec. 21 Judo-loving Elvis Presley meets with Pres. Nixon, tells him the Beatles promote anti-U.S. interests, and asks to be made into a narc, receiving a badge - thank you very much? On Dec. 24 nine GIs are killed and nine wounded by friendly fire in Vietnam - SNAFU? On Dec. 27 Hello, Dolly! closes on Broadway after 2,844 perf. On Dec. 29 the Pres. Nixon signs the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, effective next Apr. 28, creating the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Admin. (OSHA) and Nat. Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to reduce workplace injuries, often at great expense. On Dec. 30 the U.S. Poison Prevention Packaging Act is passed, requiring childproof safety tops on containers by 1972, after which fatalities drop; meanwhile in Dec. the FDA recalls canned tuna with mercury levels over 0.5 PPM, affecting nearly 25% of all canned tuna; next spring they find that only 3% (200K out of 6M cases) exceeds their guidelines; meanwhile Alaskan fur seals are found to be contaminated with mercury, causing iron supplement pills made from seal liver to be taken off the market. On Dec. 31 the U.S. Congress passes the U.S. Bank Holding Co. Act (BHCA) Amendments, clarifying the 1956 BHCA, withdrawing silver from the dollar coin and replacing it with copper and nickel, requiring the Federal Reserve Board to regulate bank holding cos., and establishing permissible and non-permissible non-bank activities. On Dec. 31 the Dow Jones Avg. closes at 838.92 (vs. 800.36 at the end of 1969). In Dec. Pakistan holds its first gen. election ever; 171 of 300 seats go to Sheik Mujibur Rahman's Awami League in East Pakistan, which is fighting for greater autonomy from West Pakistan. In Dec. aging Croatian-born Yugoslav pres. (since 1945) Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980) announces that he will be succeeded by a collective leadership under a new constitution; after being reelected for the 6th time next year, he gets the new constitution passed on May 16, 1974, and on June 23, 1978 is named pres. for life. In Dec. OPEC meets in Caracas, Venezuela, and agrees to raise oil prices and taxes. In Dec. Barbara Louise Andrews becomes the first woman pastor of the sister Am. Lutheran Church, and they merge in 1988 to form the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Am. In Dec. a poll shows that 84% of Americans favor some kind of plan to withdraw U.S. troops from Vietnam, and 38% are willing to do it slowly or wait until the South Vietnamese are ready to take over, but almost 50% want it done immediately or at most within 18 mo.; meanwhile Pres. Nixon says that a quick withdrawal "would be a disaster not only for South Vietnam but for the United States and for the cause of peace", and would be the "first defeat in our nation's history and would result in a collapse of confidence in American leadership... throughout the world", wanting it to end "with honor"; privately he blames them *!?!? liberals, saying "They hate us, the country, themselves, their wives, everything they do - these liberals", and tells Henry Kissinger "They are a lost generation. They have no reason to live anymore" - soon he'll be saying that about himself? After being made Czech ambassador to Turkey last year in hopes that he would defect to the West, Prague Spring (1968-9) man Alexander Dubcek (1921-92) is expelled from the Communist Party and kicked out of the govt., ending up in the forestry service in Slovakia; after the 1 989 Velvet Rev. he makes a comeback as speaker of the federal assembly. Prince Nayef bin Abdul-Aziz (1933-) becomes internal minister of Saudi Arabia (until ?). Golda Meir visits London. Emperor Haile Selassie I embarks on his first official visit to Italy since the 1935 Italian takeover of Ethiopia - how does he like his food? Pakistani-born Bashir Maan (1926-) becomes the first Muslim elected to a public office in the U.K., becoming Labour councillor for the Kingston ward of Glasgow, Scotland. Ginnie Mae issues the first Mortgage-Backed Security (MBS) in the U.S.; eventually Ginnie Mae and Fanny Mae increase the rate of home ownership in the U.S. The Nat. Industrial Conference Board (NICB) (founded 1916) changes its name to the Conference Board, compiling info. on U.S. business activity - I just bought a small island? Raleigh, N.C. newspaper reporter Jesse Helms (b. 1921) switches from the Dem. to the Repub. Party - that way your armpits smell really good? The Calif. Environmental Quality Act is passed, requiring developers to produce an environmental impact report on any new project. The Nat. Confederation of Peasant Settlements (CONAC) is founded in Panama to facilitate the dispersal of 4.4% of the nation's agricultural lands. Uganda establishes gun control, leaving Christians unable to defend themselves from ethnic cleaning, which kills 300K 1979. The Philippines experiences an economic crisis accompanied by civil unrest. Japanese self-defense forces reach 250K, becoming the fastest growing military force in the world - just a yoctosecond? Bowdoin College in Maine begins admitting women. The shooting of tigers is banned in India - in the woods? Thunder Bay, Ont. in Canada on Lake Superior is created from the twin cities of Port Arthur and Fort William. Garrick Ohlsson (1948-) becomes the first U.S. citizen to win first prize in the Internat. Frederick Chopin Piano Competition. Off-Broadway Theater comes into its own this year, winning most of the drama awards, incl. the Pulitzer Prize for drama, which goes to black playwright Charles Gordone (1925-95) for No Place to Be Somebody (1969); the Manhattan Theatre Club at 311 West 43rd St. is founded as an Off-Off-Broadway showcase, growing into a top theater org. that wins 19 Tony Awards, 48 Obie Awards, 32 Drama Desk Awards, six Pulitzer Prizes et al. The first annual Pianola statuettes are awarded to composers and lyric writers of hit songs chosen for the Songwriters' Hall of Fame, founded last year by Johnny Mercer (1909-76), Abe Olman, and Howie Richmond. The Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame is founded in Nashville, Tenn. by the Nashville Songwriters Foundation. New York City reporter Jimmy Breslin (1930-) is beaten up at the Suite restaurant (owned by Lucchese crime family assoc. Henry Hill) by mobster James "Jimmy the Gent" Burke (1931-96) after getting pissed-off at an article he wrote about family member Paul Frank "Paulie" Vario (1914-88). Ga.-born Cecil Burke Day (1934-78) founds Days Inn on Tybee Island, Ga., going on to coin the slogan "budget luxury" - not Cecil Day-Lewis (1904-72), that's the British poet laureate? English singer John Robert "Joe" Cocker (1944-) makes his North Am. Mad Dogs and Englishmen Tour. The Nat. Org. for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) is founded in Washington, D.C. to lobby for legalization of marijuana by atty. Keith Stroup (1943-); meanwhile drug-sniffing dogs are first used on a large scale by the U.S. Bureau of Customs, locating over 6 tons of marijuana, 650 lbs. of hashish, 4K marijuana cigarettes, 35 lbs. of opium, and 300 grams of heroin. Early in this decade the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau popularizes the term "The Big Apple" in an ad campaign; it comes from New Orleans jazz slang for "the big time". Early in this decade the far leftist Green Party arose for push environmental issues; in 1972 the Popular Movement for the Environment is founded in Neuchatel, Switzerland, becoming the first in Europe; in Feb. 1973 the PEOPLE Party is founded in Britain, becoming the first nat. green party in Europe; in 1980 the German Green Party is founded to oppose nuclear power, forming the Red-Green (Watermelon?) Alliance with the Social Dem. Party in 1998-2005, reaching an agreement in 2001 to end reliance on nuclear power; they eventually all coalesce around the globalist Marxist program of the U.N. and its IPCC that pushes CO2-driven global warming as the golden ticket to foisting global Marxism; the German Green Party has roots in the Nazi Party, which hated nuclear power and loved wind power? In this decade the U.S. steel industry enters a steep decline, creating the Rust Belt in the Midwest and Great Lakes from W N.Y. through Penn., W. Va., Ohio, Ind., Lower Peninsula of Mich. to N Ill., E Iowa, and SE Wisc. In this decade the Tiny house movement begins, inspired by Henry David Thoreau's Walden", ramping up to a mass movement in the late 1990s, with houses of 400 sq. ft. or less that can be placed anywhere, with many being green and nearly self-sufficient. In this decade U.S. toilet paper manufacturers quit dying their product. Anthrax vaccine is approved by the USDA. The nonviolent socialist Liberty Union Party is founded by former U.S. Rep. (D-Vt.) (1959-61) William Henry Meyer (1914-83) (most leftist member of Congress in 1937-2002) et al. out of members of the anti-war and people's party movements; Bernie Sanders joins in 1971. Pope Paul VI declares priestly celibacy to be a fundamental principle of the Roman Catholic Church - send in the clowns or run for cover? James Finley of St. Paul, Minn. sues the U.S. govt. for $500K after treatment in a Veterans hospital turns his black skin white - where does Michael Jackson sign up? German photographer Horst Tappe (1938-2005) gains fame for a photo of Russian "Lolita" novelist Vladimir Nabokov wearing knee pants and holding a butterfly net near the Montreux Palace Hotel in Switzerland, where he met him in 1962 after an introduction by actor Peter Ustinov. MGM Studios sells its entire collection of props for $10M in a 10-day auction, incl. Judy Garland's ruby slippers and Clark Gable's trench coat, in an attempt to save itself from bankruptcy (they only net $1.4M after paying the auction house); by the end of the year MGM has only three pictures shooting, none on their home lot; meanwhile, 20th Century-Fox is also teetering, having only three pictures shooting in Dec., and lucking out when a bank decides not to foreclose on a multi-million dollar loan; studio head Richard D. Zanuck is ousted at the end of the year; both MGM and Warner Brothers give up their costly HQs in New York City. British censor John Trevelyan comments about the new sexual freedom in U.S. movies: "The Americans are nice people but right now they're behaving like small boys who've just discovered what sex is"; 10 years earlier he stated about his calling: "We are paid to have dirty minds." The U.S. Forest Service launches Woodsy Owl (a great horned owl) as an alternative to Smokey Bear for city kids, with the motto "Give a hoot. Don't pollute", also "Lend a hand - care for the land". In this decade the Language Poets postmodernist avant garde group of poets emerges in the U.S., incl. Bruce Andrews, Rae Armantrout, Charles Bernstein, Clark Coolidge, Alan Davies, Tina Darragh, Carla Harryman, Lyn Hejinian, Susan Howe, Tom Mandel, Bob Perelman, Ron Silliman, Barrett Watten, and Hannah Weiner, producing poetry that challenges the "natural" presence of a speaker behind the text, emphasizes disjunction and the materiality of the signifier, and likes long prose poetry; In 1971 they found This mag. (until 1982); in Feb. 1978 they found L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E mag. (until Oct 1981). Shanghai sea baron C.Y. Tung (1912-82) buys the Queen Elizabeth I to use as a floating univ. called Seawise U. - C will mean seasick? The U.S. House Education and Labor Committee holds the first-ever hearings on sex discrimination in education. With the soundbyte "Everybody's organized but the people", John William Gardner (1912-2002), (former U.S. HEW secy. under LBJ) founds Common Cause, a nonpartisan lobbying group based in Washington, D.C., and becomes its first. pres. (until 1977), gaining 100K contributors within a year to help it work for U.S. pullout from Vietnam, reform of the campaign financing system, and increased govt. transparency; by 1974 its membership is 320K, but it falls to 200K by the end of the cent. Despite legal action, U.S. Army engineers sink an obsolete Liberty Ship carrying 12,540 canisters of nerve gas off Abaco Shores in the Bahamas in 16K ft. of water; the canisters finally rust through in ? The Soviets begin building a naval base in Ras Banas in E Egypt on the Red Sea; it is kept secret until the Israelis expose it in 1972; in 1979 Egypt begins long drawn-out negotiations with the U.S. to use it. 87-y.-o. Am. environmentalist Marjory Stoneman Douglas (1890-1998) founds Friends of the Everglades, taking on a proposed jetport, Big Sugar, and the Army Corps of Engineers. New Yorker writer Rogers E.M. Whitaker (1900-81) AKA E.M. Frimbo, World's Greatest Railroad Buff testifies before the Interstate Commerce Commission to argue against the Penn Central's plan to elminate all 34 of its long distance passenger trains. Texaco begins dumping 18.5B gal. of toxic waste into rivers, estuaries and 650 pits, polluting 2.5M acres of pristine rain forest in 1970-92 while making $30B in profits; after merging with Chevron in 2001, 30K rain forest dwellers file a class action suit in 2003, which is settled in ?. Cuban pres. Fidel Castro announces a "10 Million Tons of Sugar Harvest" program, and sells 400K tons for cash on the world market. The Gray Panthers are founded by Maggie Kuhn (1905-95) after she is forced into retirement by a mandatory retirement age - watch those cake and pie bombs? Am. blonde white actress Jean Seberg (1938-79), who became an outspoken supporter of the NAACP and Native Am. groups, and also supports the Black Panther Party is framed by FBI dir. J. Edgar Hoover with Pres. Nixon's approval when she becomes 7 mo. pregnant, leaking a false story that the father is not her 2nd hubby, Russian-born white French film dir. Romain Gary (1914-80) but big black buck Bobby Seale from the Panthers; after the girl is born premature on Aug. 23 and dies on Aug. 25, she shows her photo to the press to prove that it ain't a mule ah toe, blaming the infant's death on the trauma of the publicity; the baby is later revealed to have been fathered by Carlos Navarra; she turns into a suicidal alcoholic and prescription drug addict, and doesn't last the decade before turning up dead in the back seat of her car in Paris. In this decade Israel begins using the term Hasbara to describe its "overseas image-building" public relations campaign to combat negative press. In this decade writer Norman Mailer turns into the Richard Burton of writers, sticking to the sauce and poontang and getting into debt, causing him to ruin his promise of being the next Henry Adams and descend into writing coffee-table books? In this decade the word Islamism is coined in France to describe Muslims who have turned Islam into a political system and seek world domination, spawning extremistsand terrorists. By this year almost all of the great old Hollywood movie corps. are taken over or being taken over by conglomerates; meanwhile Am. actor Elliott Gould (1938-) becomes the big new Hollywood star, and Maggie Smith (1934-) of England makes it big on the stage; Burt Bacharach (1928-) makes it big in popular music with Academy Awards for the score of "Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid" and the song "Raindrops Keep Falling on My Head". John Field retires as artistic dir. (since 1956) of the Royal Ballet in England, and is succeeded by Scottish-born Sir Kenneth MacMillan (1929-92) (until 1977). 94-y.-o. Spanish cellist Pablo Casals (1876-1973) conducts a rehearsal of an all-cello ensemble in his honor at New York's Philharmonic Hall. Russian ballerina Natalia Romanovna Makarova (1940-) defects to the West from the Kirov Ballet in London, going on to join the Am. Ballet Theater in New York City. The New York City Ballet stages its 500th perf. of Tchaikovsky's "Nutcracker". Dmitri Shostakovich's Symphony #13 is first conducted in the U.S. by Eugene Ormandy, and his Symphony #14 is first conducted in England by Benjamin Britten; he dies in 1975 at age 69. - the Russkies are mellowing out? Despite a decade of rock & roll, classical music is getting fresh infusions, incl. four sopranos in one year? Am. mezzo-soprano Frederica "Flicka" von Stade (1945-) makes her Metropolitan Debut on Jan. 11 as the Third Boy in Mozart's 1791 opera "Die Zauberflote"; next July 30 she and Kiwi soprano Kiri Te Kanawa (1944-) appear as Cherubino and the Countess in Mozart's "The Marriage of Figaro" at the Santa Fe Opera, causing their opera careers to take off, with Kanawa going on to repeat her perf. next Dec. 1 at Covent Garden, wowing the audience with Porgi Amor; meanwhile on Jan. 19 Am. soprano Judith Blegen (1941-) makes her Metropolitan Opera debut as Papagena in "Die Zauberflote", and Am. mezzo-soprano Marilyn Horne (1934-) makes her Metropolitan Opera debut on Mar. 3 as Adalgisa in Verdi's 1871 "Aida", starring Joan Sutherland. James Lawrence Levine (1943-) debuts on June 5 at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City as conductor for a perf. of "Tosca", becoming dir. in 1976 (until ?). Ada Louise Huxtable (1921-) of the New York Times wins the Pulitzer Prize for architecture criticism. Smithsonian Mag. begins pub. Aion is founded by Janice Mirikitani (1941-), becoming the first Asian-Am. lit. journal. Essence for black women begins pub. in New York City, with a circ. of 50K, growing to 1M by 1994. Wall $treet Week, hosted by Louis Rukeyser (1933-2006) begins airing on PBS-TV. British superstar actor Sir (since 1947) Laurence Olivier (1907-89) is created Baron Olivier of Brighton, becoming the first English actor to be promoted to lord. Beirut-born dyslexic Paul J. Orfalea (1947-) (nicknamed Kinko for his curly red hair) founds Kinko's copy machine store chain near the U. of Calif. in Santa Barbara for college students, having to drag the copy machine onto the sidewalk for space; by 1998 it grows to 900+ 24-hour shops producing 16B copies a year. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project to build a prototype modular liquid metal fast breeder reactor is authorized, and funded in 1972; able to provide power in increments of 125MW per hour, vs. 1.2K MW per hour of conventional reactors, it proves controversial, and after cost overruns, on Oct. 26, 1983 the U.S. Congress ends funding. After Adams became disgusted seeing raw sewage floating by on the Hudson River as he sat on a bench in Battery Park eating a liverwurst sandwich, the Nat. Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is founded in New York City by attys. John Hamilton Adams (1932-) (exec. dir.), Richard E. Ayres, John E. Bryson (1943-), James Gustave "Gus" Speth (1942-) (senior atty. until 1977), and Edward L. Strohbehn Jr. to fight for environmental causes, growing to 2.4M members and a staff of 500 lawyers, scientists, and policy experts by 2015, feeding its climate and clean air program, save the bees program, anti-nuclear weapons program, water quality program et al.; no surprise, starting in 2017 they begin soliciting donations to help them fight Pres. Trump. Betty Penrose of Phoenix, Ariz. files a $100K suit against God after her home is struck by lightning; she wins when the defendant fails to appear in court - now try to collect? The 1970 Nobel Peace Prize goes to U.S. plant breeder Norman Ernest Borlaug (1914-2009) for his development of high-yield wheat varieties, for which he becomes known as the "Father of the Green Revolution", which is a big success in India under agriculture minister Chidambaram Subramaniam (1910-2000); too bad, in his Dec. 10 Nobel Prize acceptance speech, he says that the battle is only won for maybe another 30 years and that only pop. control can save the Earth; longtime agriculture expert (U.S. adviser to South Vietnam from 1955-61) Wolf Isaac Ladejinsky (1899-1975) warns that Borlaug's high-yield grains require large amounts of chemical fertilizers and machines that will entice landlords to evict small farmers. Exeter College in Exeter, Devon, England is founded as England's first tertiary college. The Sorbonne (U. of Paris) (founded in the mid-12th cent.) is split into 13 autonomous univs. Conceptual Art and Conceptual Aspects, the first dedicated conceptual art exhibition is hosted in the New York Cultural Center. The City U. of New York (CUNY) (founded in 1847) adopts an open admissions policy to accommodate minorities, and by 2016 the student body comes from 200+ countries, with white, black, and Hispanic pops. each comprising 25%+, and Asians 18%; in 1976 after enrollment swells from 174K to 268K it begins charging tuition. Celestial Seasonings is founded in Boulder, Colo. by herb-flower nuts Mo Siegel (1951-), John D. Hay et al., who gather them from the local Flatirons in the Rocky Mts.; after major growth they are acquired by Kraft Foods in 1984. The Harlem Children's Zone in Harlem, N.Y. is founded for poor mostly black children. Canadian soprano Lois Jeanette McDonall (1939-) joins the Salder's Wells (English Nat.) Opera in London (until 1984), going on to debut at Covent Garden in 1975 in Richard Strauss' 1919 opera "Die Frau ohne Schatten" (The Woman without a Shadow). John Lennon hires Chinese-Am. personal asst. May Fung Yee (Chin. "Phoenix Bird") Pang (1950-), and in 1973 he leaves Yoko Ono and spends an 18-mo. "Lost Weekend" with her until 1975 - she may fung my pang too? Assoc. of Community Orgs. for Reform Now (ACORN) is founded in Little Rock, Ark. by Nat. Welfare Rights Org. member Wade Rathke (1948-) et al. as a grassroots neighborhood org. to help the working and non-working poor; it spreads to 20 cities by 1980, and 100 by 2009. Earth First! is founded in Jackson, Wyo. by Mike Roselle to use civil disobedience on public lands to try to save old growth forests through monkey-wrenching, tree-spiking etc.; in 1987 Roselle scales Mt. Rushmore and hangs a giant gas mask on Washington's face, spending 4 mo. in jail. The Feminist Press is founded by Florence Howe (1929-) to reprint books by feminist writers. The $50K biennial Neustadt Internat. Prize for Lit. is established by the U. of Okla., publisher of World Lit. Today, becoming known as the "American Nobel" after multiple awardees get awarded Nobels; the first U.S. winner is poet Elizabeth Bishop (1976). Haight-Ashbury hippie leader Stephen Gaskin (1935-) leads a 60-vehicle caravan to Tenn. and founds "The Farm" 60 mi. SW of Nashville, which the Wall St. Journal calls "the General Motors of American Communes"; in 1974 he founds Plenty Internat. to provide environmental, humanitarian, and human rights aid. Ford introduces the Boss 429 Lawman Mustang, with a 429 cubic in. hemi-head V-8, producing a total of 499 of them for lucky pluckers with unlimited insurance. After convincing Nissan to set up Nissan Motor Co. USA, Datsun 240Z (original name "Fairlady") affordable high performance sports car; in 1996-7 Nissan runs ads featuring Am. actor Dale Ishimoto (1923-2004) as Mr. K. Ralston Purina's Meow Mix cat food debuts, with the Meow Mix Jingle by Shelton Leigh "Shelly" Palmer: "I want tuna, I want chicken, Meow Mix flavors keep me lickin'", with the slogan "Tastes so good, cats ask for it by name". For the first time U.S. women balk at the dictates of the fashion industry, refusing to buy the new midiskirt; meanwhile Dupont's patent on polyester expires, allowing competitors to produce it, and polyester wins 41% of the U.S. fabric market vs. 40% for cotton; in 1960 manmade fabrics only had 28% of the market, and now have 56%. Like the movie says, "Plastic!" dominates the U.S. home furnishings market in this decade with the new curved look. Bill Blass (1922-2002) founds his own label Bill Blass Ltd., becoming known for wearable menswear, luggage and airline uniforms, growing to $700M sales in 1998. In this decade because of rising prices, High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS) AKA Glucose-Fructose Syrup begins replacing sugar as the primary sweetener in soft drinks, ice cream, canned and frozen foods, et al.; meanwhile obesity and Type 2 diabetes begin to rise to epidemic proportions (until ?); avg. annual U.S. per-capita consumption: 1 lb. in 1972, 10 lbs. in 1977, 62.2 lbs. in 2001; HFCS is no more unhealthy than table sugar? In this decade the Alaska Independence Party is founded, seeking secession from the U.S.; it is officially recognized as a political party by the state of Alaska in 1984. In this decade the elephant pop. of the Serengeti Nat. Park in NW Tanzania is decimated by ivory hunters, collapsing from 2,460 to 500 by 1990 until the internat. ivory ban allow them to come back. Hiroshima, Japan-born fashion designer Issey Miyake (1938-) founds the Miyake Design Studio in Tokyo to produce high-end women's fashion, pioneering memory pleating using heat-pressed layers of paper, going on to produce technology-driven clothing incl. the 1994 flying saucer dress, L'eau d'Issey cologne, and black mock turtleneck shirts for Steve Jobs of Apple. In this decade Am. economist Arthur Melvin "Art" Okun (1928-80) develops the Misery Index, which is used by U.S. presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan in their campaigns. In this decade Personnel Economics is founded by Edward Paul "Ed" Lazear (1948-), Bengt Robert Holmstrom (Holmström) (1949-), Sherwin Rosen (1938-2001) et al. to study the relationship between wages and productivity in a firm incl. pay structure and promotions. Early in this decade Indian yoga guru Bikram Choudhury (1946-) creates Bikram Yoga, a series of 26 Hatha "hot yoga" postures practiced in a 105F room with 40% humidity, becoming popular with celebs incl. Madonna, George Clooney, Jeff Bridges, Ashton Kutcher, and Daniel Craig. Early in this decade Telluride, Colo.-born psychic Ingo Douglas Swann (1933-2013) invents the psychic discipline of Remote Viewing (RV) at the Stanford Research Inst. (SRI), allegedly drawing interest from the CIA, causing the U.S. govt. to launch the $20M Stargate Project, led by physicist Dale E. Graff, which was terminated in 1995 after the CIA took it over and got a negative independent evaluation; the term was coined by SRI researchers Russell Targ (1934-) and Harold E. Puthoff (1936-) to distinguish it from clairvoyance; on Apr. 27, 1973 after being put off the target with a blindfold, Swann allegedly remote views Jupiter, accurately predicting the existence of rings, but getting details wrong; in 1972-9 he works on 25 criminal cases, allegedly solving three - it's always about the attitude? After marrying Prince Egon of Furstenberg in 1969, Brussels, Belgium-born Jewish fashion designer Diane von Furstenberg (Fürstenberg) (Diane Simone Michelle Halfin) (1946-) launches her career with $30K, moving to New York City and making a fan of Vogue ed. Diana Vreeland, going on to invent the knitted jersey wrap dress in 1974, which becomes a big success, causing Newsweek to put her on its cover in 1976 ahead of Gerald Ford; in 1974 she introduces Parfum Tatiana; in 1997 after selling $1.2M of her Silk Assets collection in two hours on QVC in 1992, she re-launches her co. New York City-born Vera Ellen Wang (1949-) leaves Vogue mag. to work for Ralph Lauren, becoming known for her wedding gowns, which make fans of Ivanka Trump, Sharon Stone, Jennifer Lopez, Jennifer Garner, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Uma Thurman, Kate Hudson, Holly Hunter, Chelsea Clinton, Kim and Khloe Kardashian et al.; she goes on to design the costume wore by figure skater Nancy Kerrigan in the 1994 Olympics. The Nat. Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is founded in New York City by John Adams, Richard Ayres, John Bryson, Gus Speth, and Edward Strohbehn to fight for environmental causes, growing to 2.4M members and a staff of 500 lawyers, scientists, and policy experts by 2015, feeding its climate and clean air program, save the bees program, anti-nuclear weapons program, water quality program et al.; of course, starting in 2017 they begin soliciting donations to help them fight Pres. Trump. I'll huff and puff and blow your history house down? Baltimore, Md.-born historian David Hackett Fischer (1935-) coins the term Historian's Fallacy (Historianism), where a historian assumes that Pearl, er, people in the past had the same info. they do now, which contrasts with Presentism (Presenter's Fallacy), where a historian projects modern ideas into the heads of the people of the past. In this decade radical Islamic preacher Maitatsine (Hausa "the one who damns") (Mohammed Marwa) (-1980) founds the Yan Tatsine in Nigeria, preaching against the Nigerian govt. and calling for a Sharia state. In this decade the girls' name Caitlin (pr. KAT-lin) (derived from ancient Greek Aikaterine and ultimately the goddess Hecate) b egins to be pronounced as KAYT-lin, causing an explosion of alternate spellings. Britain launches the top-secret Chevaline Program to improve the penetration of their Polaris sub-launched ballistic missiles toward Moscow; it is deployed in 1982 after cost overruns. The Inst. for Creation Research is founded in San Diego, Calif., later moving to Dallas, Tex. to promote belief in Young Earth Biblical creationism as a scientific possibility. The Israeli League for Human and Civil Rights is founded by Polish-born anti-Zionist Jewish chem. prof. Israel Shahak (1933-2001), who becomes pres. #1 (until 1990). The Southern Assoc. for Women Historians is founded; in 2013 it establishes the Willie Lee Rose Prize for the best book on Am. Southern history written by a woman or women. Early in this decade the Jim Nabors-Rock Hudson Rumor is spread by gays in S Calif. as a joke, to the effect that they're going to get married and be called Rock Pyle; meanwhile the real Nabors hooks up with Stan Cadwallader, and in 1976 they move to Maui, Hawaii and live happily ever after together, getting married on Jan. 15, 2013. Sports: The NHL expands from 12 to 14 teams; the Buffalo Sabres NHL team is founded in Buffalo, N.Y., playing their home games in Buffalo Memorial Auditorium; the Vancouver Canucks NHL team is founded in Vancouver, B.C., Canada, playing their home games at the Pacific Coliseum. Starting this season, every home game of the Denver Broncos football team is sold out (until ?), allowing local TV coverage and making the team's fortunes the main interest of the whole Colo. Front Range region, plus surrounding states; beginning with the 1977 season, superfan Tim McKernan (1940-2009) (a mechanic for United Airlines) gains fame as the Barrel Man, appearing at games in his shorts, shoes, hat, sunglasses, and a barrel with suspenders, even during snowstorms; he retires after the 2007 season. In this decade Communist Paradise East Germany begins pumping their female Olympic athletes with anabolic steroids with or without their knowledge in a misguided attempt to divert attention from their lousy economy and misery caused by lack of personal freedom, taking advantage of the backwardness of testing technology to avoid getting caught; too bad, the steroids ruin the women's reproductive organs and cause liver, heart, and other damage, making them into physical wrecks after their sports years; female shot putter Heidi Krieger (1966-) becomes so masculinized that she undergoes sex change therapy in 1997, changing her name to Andreas; the Stasi covers it up until the fall of the Berlin Wall, when extensive files covering 10K athletes are discovered; in 2000 former East German sports program dir. Manfred Ewald (1926-2006) and medical dir. Manfred Hoeppner are convicted of accessory to intentional bodily harm of athletes; only Hoeppner apologizes. On Feb. 7-15 the World Alpine Skiing Championships are held in Val Gardena, Italy; William Winston "Billy" Kidd (1943-) of Stowe, Vt. is the only skier from the U.S. to win a medal, after which he turns pro. On Feb. 16 Joseph William "Smokin' Joe" Frazier (1944-2011) KOs James Albert "Jimmy" Ellis (1940-) in round 5 in New York City to settle the title, becoming heavyweight boxing champ #23 (until 1973). On Feb. 22 the 1970 (12th) Daytona 500 is won by Peter "Pete" Hamilton (1942-) of Petty Enterprises in a winged Plymouth Superbird. On Mar. 23 the 1970 NBA Draft sees 17 teams select 239 players in 19 rounds; 6'11" center Robert Jerry "Bob" Lanier Jr. (1948-) is selected #1 overall by the Detroit Pistons (#16); in 1980 he is traded to the Milwaukee Bucks, leading them to div. championships each year until he retires in 1984; Newport, Ky.-born 6'9" center-forward David William "Dave" Cowens (1948-) of Fla. State U. is selected #4 overall by the Boston Celtics (#18) (until 1980), going on to lead his team in all five major statistical categories in the 1977-8 season; 6'1" point guard Nathaniel "Nate" "Tiny" Archibald (1948-) is drafted #19 overall by the Cincinnati Royals (#10), going on to lead the NBA in scoring and assists in the 1972-3 season for the first time (until ?), and setting a record of 910 assists; Atlanta Hawks mgr. (since 1954) Marty Blake (1927-2013) (known for discovering players at smaller colleges incl. Dennis Rodman, Scottie Pippen, Tim Hardaway, Karl Malone, and Joe Dumars) drafts Manuel Raga "Manolo" "the Flying Mexican" Navarro (1944-) of Mexico in the 10th round (167th overall), and 6'9" Dino Meneghin (1950-) of Italy in the 11th round (182nd overall), becoming the first NBA gen. mgr. to select a player from a foreign league; neither player ends up signing. On Mar. 31-Apr. 4 the 1970 PBA Firestone Tournament of Champions sees Don Johnson (1940-2003)roll the first two strikes in frame 10 to defeat Dick Ritger, then try for a 3rd strike to win $10K and a new Mercury Cougar, leaving a ringing 10-pin standing, causing him to lie face-down on the approach in disbelief, then rise to a thundering ovation. On Apr. 24-May 8 the 1970 NBA Finals (9th in a row featuring a losing Calif. team) sees the New York Knickerbockers (Knicks) (founded 1946), coached (1967-82) by William "Red" Holzman (1920-98) defeat the Los Angeles Lakers (coach Joe Mullaney) by 4-3 (first win); after starting Game 7 in Madison Square Garden with a severe thigh injury, with ABC-TV announcer Jack Twyman uttering the soundbyte "I think we see Willis coming out" as he walks down the tunnel to the court, spurring his team incl. Walter "Walt" Frazier (1945-) to win by 113-99 (later voted the greatest moment in Madison Square Garden history), center Willis Reed Jr. (1942-) becomes the first player in NBA history to be named all-star game MVP, regular season MVP, and playoff MVP in the same season (until ?). On May 3-10 the 1970 Stanley Cup Finals see the Boston Bruins defeat the St. Louis Blues 4-0, becoming their first win since 1941; despite being tripped by Noel Picard of the Blues, 6'0" Bruins defenceman (MVP) Robert Gordon "Bobby" Orr (1948-) scores an OT goal on Glenn Hall with an assist from Derek Sanderson at 00:00.40 to win the series; a photo of Orr flying through the air with arms raised in victory becomes the most famous hockey image of all time (until ?). William Earl "Billy" Casper Jr. (1931-2015) wins the Masters golf tournament; Jack William Nicklaus (1940-), "the Golden Bear" wins his 2nd British Open; Tony Jacklin (1944-) becomes the first British golfer to win the U.S. Open in 50 years. On May 16 14-.y.-o. fan Alan Fish (b. 1956) becomes the first spectator in ML baseball history to be killed by a foul ball (until ?), at Dodgers Stadium in Los Angeles, Calif., hit by Manny Mota off Giants pitcher Gaylor Perry; he is sitting in the 2nd row near the visitor's dugout; the Giants win by 5-4 after Mota makes the last out against Frank Reberger; the concussion takes four days to kill him; meanwhile 52 spectators have been killed by foul balls since 1887, but only two during prof. games. On May 21 Donald Desbrow "Don" Whillans (1933-85) of England and Dougal Haston (1940-77) of Scotland become the first persons to scale 26,504-ft. Annapurna I in the Himalayas by the S side. On May 30 the 1970 Indianapolis 500 is won by Alfred "Al" Unser Sr. (1939-). Kenneth Robert "Ken" Rosewall (1934-) of Australia wins the U.S. Open and Wimbledon, repeating his 1956 feat; the U.S. defeats West Germany 5-0 to win the Davis Cup of tennis; Jan Kodes (1946-) of Czech. wins the French Open of tennis, and repeats next year, defeating Ilie Nastase in the final; Margaret Smith Court (1942-), "the Arm" of Australia wins the grand slam of tennis; meanwhile on Sept. 23 the first Virginia Slims Tennis Tournament is held in Houston, Tex., sponsored by Philip Morris, with $7.5K in prize money, becoming the first women's prof. tennis tournament and leading to the formation of the cough-cough Women's Tennis Assoc. in 1973; the tournaments are picketed by anti-smoking groups carrying signs reading "Emphysema Slims"; the first Virginia Slims Internat. Tennis Tournament is held in Moscow on Aug. 10, 1989. On Sept. 7 Donald Boyles sets a record for the highest parachute jump from a bridge by leaping off the 1,053-ft. Royal George Bridge in Colo. In Sept. Am. jockey William Lee "Willie" Shoemaker (1931-2003) breaks the record of Johnny Longden with win #6,033; on Jan. 20, 1990 he racks up his last win, #8,833. On Oct. 3 ML baseball umpires begin their first-ever strike (ends ?). On Oct. 23 after returning from a 43-mo. exile, during which most boxing orgs. vacated his heavyweight title and awarded it to Joe Frazier, Muhammad Ali KOs Jerry Quarry in round 3 in Atlanta, Ga.; the match was approved by Atlanta mayor Sam Massell after black state senator Leroy Johnson pressured him, pissing-off segregationist Ga. gov. Lester Maddox, who proclaims a Day of Mourning and unsuccessfully calls for a boycott, after which black activist Julian Bond calls Atlanta "the black political capital of Amreica". In the 1970-1 season the NBA expands to 17 teams; the Buffalo Braves is founded, with Dolph Schayes as head coach #1, drafting Bob Kaufmann and Don May after passing on hometown hero Calvin Murphy, finishing 22-60; the Cleveland Cavaliers NBA team is founded, with the name selected via a competition sponsored by the Cleveland Plain Dealer, with Bill Fitch as head coach #1, drafting 6'4" Austin George "Mr. Cavalier" Carr (1948-) (#34), who injures his leg and doesn't do diddly the first season, finishing at the bottom of the league at 15-67; in 1974 they move to Richfield Coliseum 30 mi. S of Cleveland; the Portland Trail Blazers is founded, with Rolland Todd as head coach #1, going on to take seven years to make the playoffs, drafting LaRue Martin (1950-) (#35) in 1972 ahead of Julius Erving and Bob McAdoo after he outplays Bill Walton of UCLA in a single college game) (worst draft pick in NBA history?), and 6'11" center William Theodore "Bill" "Big Redhead" Walton III (1952-) (#32) in 1974, who wins two NBA championships before foot injuries tank his career. On Nov. 6 Charlie Hentz shatters two backboards in the same ABA game, causing it to be canceled. On Nov. 8 Thomas John "Tom" Dempsey (1947-) of the New Orleans Saints kicks a regular season record 63-yard field goal vs. the Detroit Lions, which stands until 1998. The Seattle Pilots of Wash. move to Milwaukee, Wisc. and become the Milwaukee Brewers. Allen "Al" Davis (1929-2011) becomes the principal owner of the Oakland Raiders (until 2011). The U.S. yacht Intrepid (1967 winner) (last classic wooden yacht to defend the Cup) defeats the Australian yacht Gretel II 4-1 to win the America's Cup. Brazil defeats Italy 4-1 to win the 9th FIFA World Cup of Soccer in Mexico City on May 31-June 21. A South African cricket tour of England is canceled - because apartheid isn't cricket? Hugh Porter (1940-) of Britain wins the world cycling championship in Leicester, England. The World Series of Poker is founded in Las Vegas at Binion's Horseshoe Casino, with seven poker players; the winner is Johnny Moss (1907-95), who awarded a silver cup; in 1976 it becomes a bracelet. Architecture: On June 30 $45M Riverfront Stadium in in the Golden Triangle (junction of the Monongahela, Allegheny, and Ohio Rivers) in Cincinnati, Ohio opens, becoming the home of the NFL Pittsburgh Steelers (until Dec. 16, 2000). becoming the home of the NFL Cincinnati Bengals (until 2002) and the ML Cincinnati Reds ("the Big Red Machine") (until 1999); Roy Rogers jokes that he was born at 2nd base; on June 30 their grand opening hosts the Atlanta Braves, and Hank Aaron hits the first homer; on July 14 it hosts the 1970 ML All-Star Game, in which Reds star Pete Rose collides with Cleveland Indians catcher Ray Fosse at home plate; in Sept. 1996-2002 it becomes Cinergy Field; it is demolished on Dec. 29, 2002. On July 16 $55M Three Rivers Stadium in Pittsburgh, Penn. opens, becoming the home of the NFL Pittsburgh Steelers and the ML Pittsburgh Pirates; it closes on Dec. 16, 2000, and is demolished on Feb. 11, 2001. On Oct. 1 the $40M 2,190-ft. Frontenac Bridge across the St. Lawrence River near Quebec City is opened, becoming Canada's longest suspension bridge. The Chinatown Gate on Grant Ave. in San Francisco, Calif. is built. The 517-room Dusit Thani Hotel in Bangkok near Lumpini Park opens, becoming the city's first luxury hotel in decades, and the city's tallest bldg. (until ?). Minoru Takeyama designs the Ichibankan dept. store in Tokyo. The 21-story 484-room well-bugged Intourist Hotel at 3 Tverskaya St. in Moscow half a block from the Kremlin opens for foreign visitors. Keller Fountain Park (originally Forecourt Fountain) in downtown Portland, Ore. across from the Civic Auditorium on land formerly occupied by Dot Tavern owned by future mayor (1985-92) Bud Clark opens, named after Portland Development Commission head (1958-72) Ira C. Keller, featuring a concrete water fountain designed by Angela Danadjieva modelled after waterfalls in the Columbia River Gorge to the E. The circular Three Rivers Stadium at the Golden Triangle (junction of the Monongahela, Allegheny, and Ohio Rivers) in Pittsburgh, Penn. opens in Sept., becoming the home of the NFL Pittsburgh Steelers (until 2000). In this decade the 211 ft. x 900 ft. Pueblo Dam on the Arkansas River in S Colo. is built, creating Pueblo Lake at the W edge of Pueblo, becoming the largest lake in S Colo., known for its big tasty trout. Got a strange magic? In Dec. the North Tower of the 1,368-ft./1,326-ft. 110-story $350M twin-towered World Trade Center (WTC) in Lower Manhattan, New York City, designed by Minoru Yamasaki (1912-86) is completed, followed by the South Tower next July; the excavated dirt is used to make Battery Park City on the W side of Lower Manhattan; it officially opens on Apr. 4, 1973 with a ribbon-cutting ceremony; its originally contains over 9M sq. ft. of office space; the Windows on the World Restaurant is established on the 106th-107th floors of the North Tower in late 1972; the Top of the World Observation Deck is established on the 107th floor of the South Tower; later four more bldgs. are added to the complex, incl. the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 World Trade Center (9 stories), 6 World Trade Center (8 stories) (1975) (housing the U.S. Customs), and 7 World Trade Center (47 stories) (1987); it becomes the world's highest bldg. until 1974; too bad, after becoming a symbol of the Great Satan to Muslim terrorists, it is totally destroyed on Sept. 11, 2001 (9/11) by al-Qaida terrorists in two spectacular implosions triggered by fully-laden Boston-to-LA Boeing 767 airliners rammed into each tower by flight school dropout pilots, changing the U.S. seemingly forever. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Norman Ernest Borlaug (1914-2009) (U.S.); Lit.: Alexander (Aleksandr) Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (1918-2008) (Soviet Union); Physics: Hannes Olof Gosta Alfven (1908-95) (Sweden) [plasma physics] and Louis Eugene Felix Neel (1904-2000) (France) [antiferromagnetism]; Chem.: Luis Federico Leloir (1906-87) (Argentina) [lactose metabolism] (first Spanish-speaking winner); Med.: Julius Axelrod (1912-2004) (U.S.), Ulf Svante von Euler (1905-83) (Sweden), and Sir Bernard Katz (1911-2003) (U.K.) [catecholamine neurotransmitters]; Econ.: Paul Anthony Samuelson (1915-2009) (U.S.) for "the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science". Inventions: On Apr. 8 the NASA Nimbus 4 weather satellite is launched from Vandenberg AFB in Lompoc, Calif., sending data until Sept. 30, measuring the infrared emission spectra of the Earth's atmosphere, along with vertical temperature profiles and water vapor, solar UV radiation, and atmospheric ozone, revealing a V-shaped notch in the outgoing longwave radiation spectrum at 13-17 microns, caused by the 325 ppm CO2 content, which only cuts 2/3 of the way into the surface radiation spectrum, allowing 1/3 of the energy to escape into space?; the notch is saturated, meaning that higher CO2 concentrations can't increase the so-called Greenhouse Effect? Speaking of a giant country with no environmental movement? On Apr. 24 the People's Repub. of China launches its first satellite, (5th nation to do so), the 381-lb. China 1 (Dong Fang Hong I) (Red East I), which repeatedly transmits the Red Communist torch song The East is Red (Dong Fang Hong). On May 8 Radio Shack releases the TRS-DOS (Trashdos) 2.3 (Tandy Radio Shack Disk Operating Ssytem) operating system for the Tandy TRS-80 line of 8-bit Zilog Z80 microprocessors. On June 30 IBM announces the IBM System/370 mainframe computer, their first with microchips, and introduces the Relational Database with Structured Query Language (SQL), which becomes the industry std. for database access programs; meanwhile British-born IBM (San Jose) computer scientist Edgar Frank "Ted" Codd (1923-2003) pub. the paper "A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks", inventing the Relational Database Mgt. System (RDBMS); too bad, IBM doesn't want to give up the revenue from their IMS/DB, but finally offers System R using the non-relational SEQUEL language, which is later copied by Larry Ellison for Oracle, beating IBM's SQL/DS to market. On Oct. 19 the Amdahl Corp. is formed in Sunnyvale, Calif. by former IBM employee Gene Myron Amdahl (1922-2015) to produce "plug compatible" computers to compete with Big Blue - and give it enough competition to pass for white? On Dec. 12 the 300-lb. NASA Uhuru (Swahili "freedom") (Small Atronomincal Satellite 1) satellite is launched from the Indian Ocean off the coast of Kenya on the 7th anniv. of Kenya's independence, becoming the first satellite devoted exclusively to observing cosmic X-ray sources. On Dec. 21 the supersonic twin-engine 2-seat variable-sweep wing Grumman F-14 Tomcat fighter makes its first flight, entering U.S. Navy service on Sept. 22, 1974 to replace the F-4 Phantom II and A-6 Intruder, and retired on Sept. 22, 2006 after being replaced by the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet; all U.S. teen-series fighters incorporate combat experience against MiG fighters during the Vietnam War; in 1976 the Iranian Air Force gets a shipment of them. The computer mouse is introduced commercially, with the two wheels replaced by a single ball - shouldn't it be called the Englebart? The film colorization process is invented by Canadian engineer Wilson Markle (1938-), who sells it to NASA for use on the Apollo space program, and applies for a patent on July 11, 1983, receiving U.S. Patent #4,710,805 on Dec. 1, 1987. The ground-based VLF (10-14 KHz) Omega Navigation System (ONS) becomes the first worldwide radio navigation system for aircraft, operated by the U.S. Coast Guard with six partner nations, with six of nine stations becoming operational by next year; meanwhile the Global Positioning System (GPS) begins development, with the USAF Central Inertial Guidance Test Facility at Holloman AFB set up in 1972, and the first experimental satellite launched in 1978; it becomes fully operational in 1993 with 24-32 medium-orbit satellites, and the ONS is shut down on Sept. 30, 1997. Xerox Corp. founds the Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) in Palo Alto, Calif., which goes on to develop the Graphical User Interface (GUI), the mouse, laser printer, and Ethernet, all of which are eagerly stolen by rivals Apple and Microsoft, while Xerox does little to take them to court; on Mar. 1, 1973 Xerox Corp. introduces the $15K Xerox Alto Computer, a personal computer (PC) with the first GUI (graphical user interface, complete with a mouse), licensed from Stanford Research Inst. for $45K; only 2K units are sold for research use; Steve Jobs visits the Xerox PARC facilities in 1979 and steals the GUI/mouse idea for the Apple Lisa and Macintosh. Charles A. Burrus (1927-) of Bell Labs develops the improved Burrus LED (light-emitting diode). Hewlett-Packard develops a Laser Interferometer, allowing microchip manufacturers to make more accurate measurements and keep on shrinking the circuitry in accordance with Moore's Law. Jacques Pankove, Herbert Paul Maruska et al. at RCA develop the first Blue-Light Laser using gallium nitride semiconductors. RCA introduces Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) technology for integrated circuit (IC) manufacture, which reduces costs and permits greater miniaturization. Patrick Eugene Haggerty (1914-80), pres. since 1958 of Texas Instruments along with Canon Corp. introduce the $150 Pocketronic, the first pocket calculator, using large scale integrated circuits (LSI). Robert Distler Maurer (1924-), Donald Bruce Keck (1941-), and Peter Charles Schultz (1942-) of Corning Glass Works in N.Y. patent the Fiber Optic Wire (Optical Waveguide Fiber), which can carry 65Kx more info. than copper wire with a loss of less than 99% (20 dB) per km, and becomes the choice for high-speed data transmission; the first 1.5-mi. system is installed in 1977 in downtown Chicago, Ill., with each fiber carying 672 voice channels. Control Data Corp. introduces the STAR 100 supercomputer, which processes numbers as vectors for speed in appropriate problems; in 1972 Texas Instruments announces the rival Advanced Scientific Computer (ASC) supercomputer; neither of them sell well. Harris Corp. of Cleveland, Ohio introduces the first electronic editing terminal for newspapers. The Recycling Symbol, three arrows meant to resemble a Moebius Strip is created for the Container Corp. of Am. by USC student Gary Dean Anderson (1946-), who participated in the first Earth Day in Apr. The 10 lb. PhoneMate Model 400 becomes the first commercially successful telephone answering machine, holding 20 messages on a reel-to-reel tape. The Bell System introduces the Picturephone, but it proves a flop. Optel Corp. introduces the Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) for commercial use after Hoffmann-LaRoche Labs in Switzerland invents it; George Theiss and Willy Crabtree of Electro-Data Inc. in Garland, Tex. use it to make the first quartz digital watch. Swiss computer scientist Niklaus Emil Wirth (1934-) pub. the simple and elegant ALGOL-based Pascal (originally ALGOL-W) programming language, which later becomes popular for PCs, but is abandoned as PCs become more powerful, after which it survives as a teaching language for newbies; "Whereas Europeans generally pronounce my name the right way, as Nick-Louse Veert, Americans invariably mangle it into Nickel's Worth. That is to say that Europeans call me by name, but Americans call me by value." The typewriter-like Daisy Wheel Impact Printer is invented by David S. Lee of Diablo Data Systems; in 1972 it is introduced for use with PCs and word processors, with a speed of 30-55 cps, compared to 15 cps for an IBM Selectric typewriter. Edward Hance "Ted" Shortliffe (1947-) of Stanford U. develops the MYCIN medical expert system to identify bacteria causing infections and recommend antibiotics - smarter than the avg. general practitioner? In this decade Victor Scheinman develops the Programmable Universal Mechanical Adapter (PUMA) (AKA Stanford Arm), a 6-axis electric articulated robotic arm. Personal Products Co. begins marketing Stayfree Beltless Pads, killing the sanitary napkin belt industry in the U.S.; next year Kimberly-Clark introduces New Freedom beltless pads. Nissin Food Products introduces Oodles of Noodles, later followed by Top Ramen and Cup of Noodles. In this decade NASA develops paint-smelling polyurethane Memory Foam, which reacts to body heat allowing it to mold itself to the shape of the body in a few min., never being used in the space program but ending up in hospitals to help decrease the occurrence of pressure sores. Founders Co. of Hickory, N.C. markets a Bean-Bag Chair, filled with Styrofoam pebbles; the waterbed (vinyl bag in a plastic frame) is introduced in Aug. The soft light spongy NERF Ball, the "first official indoor ball" is introduced by Parker Brothers, invented in 1969 by Reynolds Winsor "Reyn" Guyer (1935-) of Minn., who also invented Twister; the slogan is "It's Nerf or Nothin'"; in 1991 the NERF Bow 'N' Arrow is introduced by Hasbro, followed in 1992 by the NERF Blaster toy gun. Science: In this decade the Soviets begin digging the 9 in. diam. Kola Superdeep Borehole in the Kola Peninsula, which goes down 7.5 mi. (vs. 6.8 mi. for the Marianas Trench), becoming the deepest manmade hole on Earth. Starting this year the U.S. press begins carrying articles predicting a new ice age caused by global cooling (ends 1979). On Jan. 11 The Washington Post pub. the article Colder Winters Held Dawn of New Ice Age - Scientists See Ice Age in the Future by David R. Boidt, which starts out: "Get a good grip on your long johns, cold weather haters - the worst may be yet to come. That's the long-long-range weather forecast being given out by 'climatologists,' the people who study very long-term world weather trends. Some of them say the world is in a 'cold snap' that started in 1950 and which could last hundreds of years, even bringing on the start of another Ice Age. In the meantime, it would mean more snow, and more arctic freezes, like the one Washington is now shivering through"; actually, no peer-reviewed scientific journal in ths 1970s pub. an article predicting an imminent ice age? Big year for biochemists into three-letter acronyms? In Jan. after finding natural ATP (adenosine triphosphate) to be too small for X-ray crystallography, scientists at Cambridge U. first successfully grow single giant crystals of ATP, then determine the 3-dim. structure; Creationists jump on its structure to claim that it is an example of irreducible complexity that even the simplest forms of life can't survive without; John Ernest Walker (1941-) of Cambridge U. and Paul Delos Boyer (1918-) of the U.S. later elucidate the enzymatic mechanism underlying ATP synthesis, winning them the 1997 Nobel Prize. On June 3 U. of Wisc. researchers led by 1968 Nobel Med. Prize winner Har Gobind Khorana (1922-2011) announce the first complete synthesis of a yeast gene, alanine-transfer RNA, consisting of 77 nucleotide pairs (an avg. gene contains 1K); on Nov. 12 SUNY researchers James F. Danielli, Kwang W. Jeon, and I. Joan Lorch announce the first synthesis of a living cell by dismembering amoebas and making them into new amoebas, with Danielli noting the possibility of killer viruses being unleashed if abused. In June Am. geneticistsHoward Martin Temin (1934-94) of the U. of Wisc.-Madison, and David L. Baltimore (1938-) and Renato Dulbecco (1914-2012) of MIT report the discovery of Reverse Transcriptase, an enzyme in RNA that can synthesize DNA, winning Temin and Baltimore the 1975 Nobel Med. Prize; previously it was believed that only DNA can be used to manufacture more DNA; Retroviruses, which make DNA using an RNA template become a new field of research. New Haven, Conn.-born economist George Arthur Akerlof (1940-) of UCB pub. the paper The Market for Lemons: Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism, establishing the theory of info. assymetry in economics, e.g., when somebody won't pay a good price for a good car from a dealer because he thinks it might be a lemon, leading to the founding of the theory of Information Economics, winning him a share of the 2001 Nobel Econ. Prize along with Joseph E. Stiglitz. Dutch chemist Paul Jozef Crutzen (1933-) pub. a paper showing that nitrous oxide (NO2) produced by soil bacteria rises into the stratosphere, and is split by sunlight into reactive NO compounds that break ozone down into breathable oxygen (O2), winning him the 1995 Nobel Chem. Prize. Russian physicist Vitaly Efimov predicts a quantum mechanical version of the Borromean Rings, three linked rings that come apart if any one is removed; in 2009 his prediction is verified by Randy Hulet et al. of Rice U. using three lithium atoms. Francis Ivanhoe of the U. of London reports that European Neanderthals suffered from rickets, causing Creationists to jump and claim that they're really homo sapiens all along. After 32 years of research, Cho Hao Li (1913-87) and Donald Hiroshi Yamashiro (1928-2000) of the U. of Calif. Medical Center synthesize the 188 amino acid chain for somatropin, the human growth hormone (HGH) normally produced by the pituitary; next Mar. Hugh D. Niall et al. of the Mass. Gen. Hospital in Boston transpose 15 of the acids and add two more to make the chain more correct, but is still only 10% as effective as the natural hormone, but at least 650 cadavers aren't required to treat each pituitary dwarf child. Russian mathematician Yuri Vladimirovich Matiyasevich (1947-) proves that Hilbert's Tenth Problem (1900) is unsolvable. Am. physicists Yoichiro Nambu (1921-), Leonard Susskind (1940-), and Holger Bech Nielsen (1941-) independently suggest the possibility that a theory of relativistic 1-dim. vibrating strings can explain particle physics; Nielsen is the first to call it String Theory. Am. biochemist Martin Rodbell (1925-98) discovers that Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP) is required for signal transmission between cells; he and Alfred Goodman Gilman (1941-) then discover G Proteins, which act like molecular switches by alternating between the inactive GDP and active GTP states, winning them the 1994 Nobel Med. Prize. Jewish-Am. astronomer Vera Cooper Rubin (1928-) reports anomalies in measurements of the Andromeda Galaxy known as the Galaxy Rotation Problem, which leads to a hunt for "missing mass" in the Universe, the most popular solution being the existence of Dark Matter. After discovering in 1956 that the Barr body of mammalian female nuclei is a condensed X chromosome, Seoul, Korea-born Japanese-Am. geneticist Susumu Ohno (1928-2000) pub. the book Evolution by Gene Duplication, proposing gene duplication as playing a major role in evolution, with duplicate genes preserved by neofunctionalization; he also suggests that the vertebrate genome is the result of one or more (usually two) genome duplications, becoming known as the 2R (Ohno's) Hypothesis, resulting in modern vertebrate genomes reflecting paleopolyploidy (whole genomes) (vs. aneuploidy for whole chromosomes), going beyond that to Ohno's Law, that the gene content of mammalian species has been conserved in the DNA content and the genes themselves, claiming that the modern mammalian X chromosome traces to a primordial X chromosome of a common ancestor; in 1972 he formalizes the concept of non-coding "junk" DNA, finding an upper limit of 30K on the number of functional loci that can be expected for a given mutation rate in mammals to avoid an excessive mutational load leading to a decline in fitness and extinction; in 1986 he proposes a relationship between DNA genetic sequences and music, translating the SARC oncogene to Chopin's "Funeral March". Am. microbiologist Hamilton Othanel Smith (1931-) discovers Restriction Enzymes, which can break DNA molecules in predictable places, leading Am. microbiologist Daniel Nathans (1928-99) next year to break up a cancer virus, which eventually leads to its complete genetic mapping; Smith, Nathan, and Swiss microbiologist Werner Arber (1929-) later receive the 1978 Nobel Med. Prize for their work on restrictive enzymes. Am. surgeon Robert Joseph White (1926-2010) performs the first head transplant on rhesus monkeys. Soviet physicist Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich (1914-87) discovers that rotating black holes spontaneously emit electromagnetic radiation, leading to the discovery of Quantum Evaporation of Black Holes (Hawking Radiation) by English physicist Stephen William Hawking (1942-2018) in 1974, who shows that when quantum effects are taken into account they glow and eventually explode, leading to the 1995 discovery by Ted Jacobson of Israel that Einstein's Theory of Gen. Relativity is just another way of stating the laws of thermodynamics, and that black holes are like holograms, because all the info. about what has been lost inside them is encoded on their surfaces; in 1972 Zeldovich et al. create a beam of time-reversed light using Brillouin Scattering; next year he meets with English physicist Stephen Hawking in Moscow, showing how rotating black holes should create and emit particles due to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The U.S. FDA approves the use of Lithium as a treatment for bipolar disorder - superworld jokes here? The charred 1st cent. C.E. Ein Gedi Scrolls are discovered by archeologist Yosef Porath in an burned-down Essene synagogue near the Dead Sea; in 2015 the Israel Antiquities Authority's Dead Sea Scrolls Preservation Lab in Jerusalem uses 3-D X-ray computer tomography to reconstruct the text, finding it to be identical to the Book of Leviticus in use today. The 236.2 in. 80-ft.-long 935 ton reflecting Caucacus Telescope is begun in Oct. near Mt. Elbrus in the Soviet Union (finished in 1991), becoming the largest telescope in the world (until ?). The 100m Effelsberg Radio Telescope in Germany is completed, becoming the largest fully steerable radio dish for the next 30 years. The 150-in. reflecting telescope at Kitt Peak Observatory in Tucson, Ariz is completed, along with the 150-inch. telescope at the Inter-Am. Observatory in Cerro Tololo, Chile - I'm an astronomer and I got 300 inches? In this decade Soviet scientists begin developing secret Novichok (Russ. "newcomer") (a new way to choke?) nerve gas agents based on organophosphate "V" compounds, with the goal of making them undetectable by NATO. In this decade scientists first begin extensive studies of bonobos in Africa, discovering that females dominate society and are totally promiscuous, using sex to control male aggression - women's libbers flip their wigs? The Long Day of Joshua Hoax begins circulating, to the effect that NASA scientists have proved the divine inspiration of the Bible by confirming the missing day in the Bible Book of Joshua 10:12-13 using computers. Nonfiction: Mortimer Adler (1902-2001), The Time of Our Lives: The Ethics of Common Sense. John Marco Allegro (1923-88), The Sacred Mushroom and the Cross: A Study of the Nature and Origins of Christianity Within the Fertility Cults of the Ancient Near East; a Dead Sea Scrolls scholar sensationally reduces Biblical religion to an Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) psychedelic mushroom cult, with the text being a coverstory to fool outsiders; he ends up snubbed but never quite refuted by mainstream scholars?; "To the mystic, the little red-topped fungus must have seemed human in form and yet divine in its power to change men and give them an insight into the mysteries of the universe. It was in the world, but not of it. In the New Testament myth, the writers tried to express this idea of the duality of nature by portraying as its central character a man who appeared human enough on the surface but through whom there shone a godlike quality which manifested itself in miracle-working and a uniquely authoritative attitude to the Law"; "Suddenly almost overnight, the ancient world has shrunk. All religious roads in the Near and Middle East lead back to the Mesopotamian basin - to ancient Sumer." Uell Stanley Andersen (1917-86), Success Cybernetics: Practical Applications of Human Cybernetics. Robert Ardrey (1908-80), The Social Contract: A Personal Inquiry into the Evolutionary Sources of Order and Disorder. Robert Ardrey (1908-80) and Louis Leakey (1903-72), Aggression and Violence in Man: A Dialogue. Hannah Arendt (1906-75), On Violence; "The means used to achieve political goals are more often than not of greater relevance to the future world than the intended goals." W.H. Auden (1907-73), A Certain World: A Commonplace Book. A.J. Ayer (1910-89), Metaphysics and Common Sense. Roland Herbert Bainton (1894-1984), Erasmus of Christendom; Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536). Adolph Baker, Modern Physics and Antiphysics; the anti-scientific movement and the univ. response. Ian Graeme Barbour (1923-), Science and Secularity: The Ethics of Technology. Erik Barnouw (1908-2001), The Image Empire: A History of Broadcasting in the United States from 1953; vol. #3 of 3 (1966-70). Roland Barthes (1915-80), Empire of Signs; the role of Tokyo to Japanese as a silent and nondescript presence with "no terrible innerness as in the West, no soul, no God, no fate, no ego, no grandeur, no metaphysics, no 'promotional fever', and finally no meaning"; S/Z; his masterpiece?; deconstruction of the short story "Sarrasine" by Balzac, showing how the reader creates the meaning actively via the hermeneutic (enigma-solving), semic, symbolic, proairetic, and cultural codes. Simone de Beauvoir (1908-86), La Vieillesse (The Coming of Age); how she, er, humans become senile and lonely if they live past 60. Sir Gavin Rylands de Beer (1899-1972), Homology, An Unsolved Problem. Peter Ludwig Berger (1929-), A Rumor of Angels: Modern Society and the Rediscovery of the Supernatural. Marshall Berman (1940-), The Politics of Authenticity: Radical Individualism and the Emergence of Modern Society. Pierre Berton (1920-), The National Dream: The Great Railway, 1871-1881; the Canadian Pacific Railway. Wilfred Bion (1897-1979), Attention and Interpretation. Charles F. Blair Jr. (1909-78), Red Ball in the Sky (autobio.); by a USAF brig. gen. and hubby (1968-78) of actress Maureen O'Hara (1920-); "One sunny day in May 1951 a bareheaded man in tweeds streaked across the top of the world in one of the great flights of history. The pilot was Charles Blair; and this was the first long distance solo flight across any polar region, demonstrating that non-military transpolar flights were feasible. It proved too that the Arctic Ocean was no longer a barrier against air attack." Willi A. Boelcke, The Secret Conferences of Dr. Goebbels, Oct. 1939-Mar. 1943. Richard Nelson Bolles (1927-), What Color Is Your Parachute? (Dec. 1); bestseller (10M copies) for job-hunters; starting in 1975 it is revised and updated yearly (until ?). Kenneth Ewart Boulding (1910-93), Economics as a Science; A Primer on Social Dynamics: History as Dialectics and Development. James Alan "Jim" Bouton (1939-2019), Ball Four: My Life and Hard Times Throwing the Knuckleball in the Big Leagues (June); Houston Astros (former New York Yankees) pitcher tells all, incl. postgame carousing and baseball groupies, causing him to become a ML pariah for years until they finally kiss and make up. Fernand Braudel (1902-85), The Identity of France (2 vols.) (1970–85) (unfinished); incl. "History and Environment", and "People and Production". Timothy H. Breen (1942-), The Character of the Good Ruler: A Study of the Political Ideas in New England, 1630-1730 (first book). Dorris Alexander "Dee" Brown (1908-2002), Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West; bestesller (1M copies) about the paleface settlement of the Am. West from the Native Am. perspective; too bad, it's written by a white guy. Harry Browne (1933-2006), How You Can Profit from the Coming Devaluation; correctly predicts the dollar devaluation and subsequent inflation, making him a U.S. libertarian star. Frederick Buechner (1926-), The Alphabet of Grace (essays). James MacGregor Burns (1918-2014), Roosevelt: The Soldier of Freedom: 1940-1945 (Pulitzer Prize); sequel to "Roosevelt: The Lion and the Fox" (1956). William S. Burroughs Jr. (1947-81), Speed (autobio.). David Caute (1936-), Fritz Fanon. Shirley Chisholm (1924-2005), Unbought and Unbossed (autobio.). Noam Chomsky (1928-), At War with Asia; the Vietnam War will lead to an ever-expanding battle against the people of the world and increasing repression at home? George Eastland Christian, The President Steps Down, 1969-1972. Robert Conquest (1917-2015), The Nation Killers: The Soviet Deportation of Nationalities; Where Marx Went Wrong. Miles Copeland Jr. (1916-91), The Game of Nations. Robert Creeley (1926-2005), A Sense of Measure; A Quick Graph: Collected Notes and Essays; ed. Donald Allen. Lawrence Arthur Cremin (1925-91), American Education: The Colonial Experience, 1607-1783; vol. 1 of 3 of "American Education" (1970-88). Len Deighton (1929-), Bomber: Events Relating to the Last Flight of an RAF Bomber Over Germany on the Night of June 31st, 1943; the Ruhr. Eliot Deutsch, Between Philosophy and History. Vine Deloria Jr. (1933-2005), We Talk, You Listen: New Tribes, New Turf. James Dobson (1936-), Dare to Discipline; conservative Christian psychologist advocates dumping Dr. Spock and getting out the paddles, along with traditional hetero marriage, founding Focus on the Family on Mar. 26, 1977 in Colo. Springs, Colo. Maurice Druon (1918-2009), Lettres d'un Europeen et Nouvelles Lettres d'un Europeen, 1943-70; Splendeur Provencale. Peter Ferdinand Drucker (1909-2005), Technology, Management and Society. Don Edward Fehrenbacher (1920-97), Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War, 1840-1861. Nora Ephron (1941-), Wallflower at the Orgy (essays); by the future writer of the screenplays for "When Harry Met Sally" (1989) and "Sleepless in Seattle" (1993). Jason Epstein (1928-), The Great Conspiracy Trial: An Essay on Law, Liberty and the Constitution. Emil Ludwig Fackenheim (1916-2003), God's Presence in History; since Auschwitz there is a divine command to Jews to survive? James Thomas Flexner (1908-2003), George Washington and the New Nation, 1783-1793. Eric Foner (1943-), Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War; America's Black Past: A Study in Afro-American History. Erich Fromm (1900-80), The Crisis of Psychoanalysis: Essays on Freud, Marx and Social Psychology. R. Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983), Approaching the Benign Environment. R. Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983), Jerome Agel, and Quentin Fiore, I Seem to Be a Verb; "I live on Earth at present, and I don't know what I am. I know that I am not a category. I am not a thing - a noun. I seem to be a verb, an evolutionary process – an integral function of the universe." Fred Gardner (1941-), The Unlawful Concert; the court martial of 27 GIs for mutiny in San Francisco, Calif. in Oct. 1968. John William Gardner (1912-2002), The Recovery of Confidence. Jim Garrison (1921-92), A Heritage of Stone. William Howard Gass (1924-), Fiction and the Figures of Life; an artist's task is to create a self-governing artifice not reproduce reality? Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970), Memoires d'Espoir (Memoirs of Hope). Peter Gay (1923-2015), The Bridge of Criticism: Dialogues on the Enlightenment; a debate between Lucian, Erasmus, and Voltaire that argues on behalf of the Enlightenment. Willard Gaylin (1925-), In the Service of Their Country: War Resisters in Prison. Felix Gilbert (1905-91), The End of the European Era: 1890 to the Present. Sir Martin Gilbert (1936-2015), First World War Atlas. Charlie Gillett, The Sound of the City: The Rise of Rock and Roll; "Rock and roll was perhaps the first form of popular culture to celebrate without reservation characteristics of city life that had been among the most criticized." Paul Goodman (1911-72), Speaking and Language: Defence of Poetry; New Reformation: Notes of a Neolithic Conservative. Richard Gott (1938-), Guerrilla Movements in Latin America. Germaine Greer (1939-), The Female Eunuch; internat. bestseller about the long history of oppression of women; "I'm sick of pretending that some fatuous male's self-important pronouncements are the objects of my undivided attention." Anthony Grey (1938-), Hostage in Peking (first book); English Reuters correspondent is held hostage in Beijing from July 1967 to Oct. 1969 during the Cultural Rev.; in the late 1980s he founds Hostage Action Worldwide. Bray Hammond (1886-1968), Sovereignty and an Empty Purse: Banks and Politics in the Civil War. Geoffrey H. Hartman (1929-), Beyond Formalism: Literary Essays 1958-1970. Oscar Handlin (1915-2011), The American College and American Culture. Shirley Hazzard (1931-), Defeat of an Idea: A Study of the Self-Destruction of the United Nations. Seymour Myron Hersh (1937-), My Lai Four: A Report on the Massacre and Its Aftermath. Cover-Up: The Army's Secret Investigation of the Massacre at My My Lai 4. Charles Higham (1931-2012), The Films of Orson Welles. Christopher Hill (1912-2003), God's Englishman: Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution. Albert Otto Hirschman (1915-2012), Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Philip Khuri Hitti (1886-1978), Islam: A Way of Life. Abbie Hoffman (1936-89), Woodstock Nation. Richard Hofstadter (1916-70) and Mike Wallace (1918-) (eds.), American Violence: A Documentary History. Michael Holroyd (1935-) (ed.), Lytton Strachey by Himself: A Self-Portrait. Sidney Hook (1902-89), Academic Freedom and Academic Anarchy; his backing of Calif. gov. Ronald Reagan in firing Communist UCLA prof. Angela Davis. David Joel Horowitz (1939-) (ed.), Corporations and the Cold War. Irving Howe (1920-93), The Decline of the New; incl. "The New York Intellectual". William Bradford Huie (1910-86), He Slew the Dreamer: My Search with James Earl Ray for the Truth About the Murder of Martin Luther King. Beatrice Hunter (1919-), Consumer Beware - Your Food and What's Been Done to It. Paul Huson (1942-), Mastering Witchcraft: A Practical Guide for Witches, Warlocks and Covens; becomes std. work on the Tarot for non-Wiccan and non-feminist witches, feeding the 1970s Occult Explosion; he follows with "The Devil's Picturebook" (1971), "Mastering Herbalism" (1974), "How to Test and Develop Your ESP" (1975, "Mystical Origins of the Tarot" (2004), anud "Dame Fortune's Wheel Tarot" (2009). Harford Montgomery Hyde (1907-89), The Love That Dared Not Speak Its Name - ford here, mount the gomery and hyde? Clifford Irving (1930-), The Battle of Jerusalem: The Six-Day War of June, 1967. Arthur Janov (1924-), The Primal Scream: The Cure for Neurosis (first book); introduces Primal Therapy, an 8-mo. program of reexperiencing childhood pain and trauma, which he claims has a 100% success rate. Chalmers Ashby Johnson (1931-) and Jeremy R. Azrael (1935-2009), Change in Communist Systems. Ward Just (1935-), Military Men. Herman Kahn (1922-83), The Emerging Japanese Superstate: Challenge and Response. Boris Karloff (1887-1969), The Man with Nine Lives (autobio.) (posth.). John Alva Keel (1930-2009), UFOs: Operation Trojan Horse; claims that UFOs are phenomena produced by "ultraterrestrials", beings who are able to manipulate matter and our senses, and who in the past manifested themselves as fairies, demons, etc.; "Our skies have been filled with 'Trojan horses' throughout history, and like the original Trojan horse, they seem to conceal hostile intent." Linda K. Kerber (1940-), Federalists in Dissent: Imagery and Ideology in Jeffersonian America (first book). Ayatolla Ruhollah Khomeini (1902-89), Hukumat-i Islam (Islamic Governance); his philosophy of Islamic clerical rule of Iran via Shiite Sharia and Sharia police; calls the Jews "wretched" and a source of corruption among Muslims. Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971), Memoirs. Jon Kimche (1909-94), The Second Arab Awakening. Russell Amos Kirk (1918-94), Eliot and His Age. Paul Klepner, The Cross of Culture: A Social Analysis of Midwestern Politics, 1850-1900 (June). Raymond Klibansky (ed.), Contemporary Philosophy: A Survey. Kenneth Koch (1925-2002), Wishes, Lies and Dreams: Teaching Children to Write Poetry. Anne Koedt, The Myth of the Vaginal Orgasm. Nathan Kadison "Nick" Kotz (1932-), Let Them Eat Promises: The Politics of Hunger in America; quotes Pres. Nixon telling agriculture secy. Clifford M. Hardin that "You can say that this administration will have the first complete, far-reaching attack on the problem of hunger in history. Use all the rhetoric, so long as it doesn't cost any money"; meanwhile 1.3M Americans have no income and Congress won't authorize free food stamps. Freda Kramer, The Glen Campbell Story. Louis Kronenberger (1904-80), No Whippings, No Gold Watches (autobio.); The Cutting Edge: A Collection of Witty Insults and Wicked Retorts, of Polished Snubs and Homicidal Repartee. Philip B. Kunhardt Jr. (1927-2006), My Father's House. Joseph Lash (1909-87), Eleanor and Franklin: The Story of Their Relationship (Pulitzer Prize). Helen Leavitt, Superhighway: Super Hoax; criticizes the U.S. interstate highway system. Bernard Lewis (1916-2018) et al. (eds.), The Cambridge History of Islam (2 vols.); the 2011 ed. The New Cambridge History of Islam balloons to 6 vols. C.S. Lewis (1898-1963), God in the Dock: Essays on Theology and Ethics (posth.); "Mellontolatry, or the worship of the future, is a fuddled religion." Robert Jay Lifton (1926-), History and Human Survival: Essays on the Young and the Old, Survivors and the Dead, Peace and War, and on Contemporary Psychohistory. Charles Augustus Lindbergh (1902-74), Wartime Journals (June). Norman Lindsay (1879-1969) and Carole C. Carlson, My Mask (autobio.). Hal Lindsey (1929-) and Carole C. Carlson, The Late Great Planet Earth; bestselling book stoking Millennium Fever; filmed in 1976; "I was so excited I couldn't sleep for a week." (Lindsey) Seymour Martin Lipset (1922-2006), The Politics of Unreason: Right Wing Extremism in America, 1790-1970. Ali al-Amin Mazrui (1933-) and Robert I. Rotberg (eds.), Protest and Power in Black Africa. Dwight Macdonald (1906-82), Politics Past. Sir Fitzroy MacLean (1911-96), Concise History of Scotland. Norman Mailer (1923-2007), Of a Fire on the Moon; Apollo 11; pub. under alias "Aquarius". Golo Mann (1909-94), Von Weimar nach Bonn: Funfzig Jahre Deutsche Republik. Thomas Mann (1875-1955), Letters 1889-1955; English trans. Martin Emil Marty (1928-), Righteous Empire: The Protestant Experience in America. William Howell Masters (1915-2001) and Virginia Eshelman Johnson (1925-), Human Sexual Inadequacy; sequel to "Human Sexual Response" (1966); disputes the concept of vaginal orgasm, claiming it's all in the clitoris, and that orgasms from lesbian, er, dildoes, er, masturbation are more intense than from heterosexual intercourse, plus, unlike male organs, women can have multiple orgasms in rapid succession - I just won the Big O lotto? Mary McCarthy (1912-89), The Writing on the Wall and Other Literary Essays. Ainslee Meares (1910-86), Relief without Drugs: The Self-Management of Tension, Anxiety and Pain (bestseller); pub. after claiming to meet 134-y.-o. Shiva Puri Baba in Kathmandu, Nepal and learn his simple "stillness meditation" technique; in 1976 he pub. a medical journal article in Australia claiming that his patients have been able to achieve regression of their cancers. James Meller (ed.), The Buckminster Fuller Reader. Nancy Milford (1938-), Zelda: A Biography; F. Scott Fitzgerald's gifted mad wife Zelda Fitzgerald (1900-48). Yukio Mishima (1925-70), Sun and Steel (autobio.). Jacques Monod (1910-76), Chance and Necessity: An Essay on the Natural Philosophy of Modern Biology; the laws of evolution prove that life is the result of blind chance?; "Man at last knows that he is alone in the unfeeling immensity of the Universe, out of which he emerged only by chance. Neither his destiny nor his duty have been written down. The kingdom above or the darkness below: it is for him to choose." Ruth Montgomery (1912-2001), Hail to the Chiefs: My Life and Times with Six Presidents (autobio.). Kenneth More (1914-82), More or Less (autobio.). Robin Morgan (1941-), Goodbye to All That; radical Am. feminist completely splits with leftist males; "Let's run it down. White males are most responsible for the destruction of human life and environment on the planet today. Yet who is controlling the supposed revolution to change all that? White males (yes, yes, even with their pasty fingers back in black and brown pies again). It just could make one a bit uneasy. It seems obvious that a legitimate revolution must be led by, made by those who have been most oppressed: black, brown, and white women - with men relating to that as best they can. A genuine Left doesn't consider anyone's suffering irrelevant, or titillating; nor does it function as a microcosm of capitalist economy, with men competing for power and status at the top, and women doing all the work at the bottom (and functioning as objectified prizes or 'coin' as well). Goodbye to all that"; in 2008 she updates it to back the pres. bid of Hillary Clinton. Robin Morgan (1941-) (ed.), Sisterhood is Powerful: An Anthology of Writing from the Women's Liberation Movement; becomes the radical feminist Bible; the cover features a clenched fist inside the universal symbol for female - the female Robin Hoods? George Lachmann Mosse (1918-99), Germans and Jews: The Right, the Left, and the Search for a "Third Force" in Pre-Nazi Germany. Swami Muktananda (1908-82), GURU (Play of Consciousness): A Spiritual Autobiography; bestseller, making him a star, founding Siddha Yoga, with ashrams in Ganespuri, India and Upstate N.Y. Lewis Mumford (1895-1990), The Pentagon of Power; vol. 2 of 2 in "The Myth of the Machine". Daniel Patrick Moynihan (1927-2003), Maximum Feasible Misunderstanding: Community Action in the War on Poverty (May 31); how LBJ's Model Cities program tried to create a small number of non-profit community development orgs., but ended up in misuse of funds. Albert Murray (1916-2013), The Omni-Americans: New Perspectives on Black Experience and American Culture (first book); pisses-off black Am. nationalists by dissing "the folklore of white supremacy and the fakelore of black pathology", while calling African-Ams. "uncontestably mulatto", which makes them greater, making attempts to talk about "blacks" in the U.S. fundamentally flawed; calls the "blues idiom" the highest expression of Am. culture. Ralph Nader (1934-) and James S. Turner, The Chemical Feast: The Ralph Nader Study Group Report on Food Protection and the Food and Drug Administration; the unyummy chemicals added to U.S. food. Joseph Needham (1900-95), Clerks and Craftsmen in China and the West: Lectures and Addresses on the History of Science and Technology. Jacob Needleman (1934-), The New Religions. Michael Parenti (1933-), The Anti-Communist Impulse (first book). Raphael Patai (1910-96), Encyclopedia of Zionism and Israel; Tents of Jacob: The Diaspora, Yesterday and Today. Linus C. Pauling (1901-94), Vitamin C and the Common Cold; after concluding that prehistoric man ate enough leaves and fruit to get 2g-4g of it a day, he advocates "megadoses" of Vitamin C of up to 15g a day to prevent and fight colds; too bad, he makes no distinction between natural and synthetic, and disses bioflavonoids, but what does he care since he's making a fortune?; too bad, unscrupulous manufacturers begin putting sodium ascorbate instead of ascorbic acid in their pills, causing the FDA to step in and order their removal from stores in 1971. Harry Mark Petrakis (1923-), Stelmark: A Family Recollection (autobio.). Jean Piaget (1896-1980), Structuralism. Richard Pipes (1923-2018), Struve, Liberal on the Left, 1870-1905; Europe Since 1815. Michael Polanyi (1891-1976), Transcendence and Self-Transcendence; criticizes the Galilean mechanistic worldview, arguing for emergence, i.e., several levels of reality and causality, claiming that reductionism leads to moral inversion, the worse example being Marxism. George Edward Reedy (1917-99), The Twilight of the Presidency; LBJ's former press secy. criticizes the impact that war has had on the presidency, pissing-off LBJ, who never talks to him again. Charles A. Reich (1928-), The Greening of America; #1 bestseller by a Yale Law School prof. about how people are moving from Consciousness I (rural farmers) and Consciousness II (meritocracy) to Consciousness III (freedom, egalitarianism, recreational drugs), becoming more sensitive to basic human values and casting off commercial and social restrictions, singing the praises of rock music, marijuana and blue jeans, and becoming a bible to millions; he later comes out as gay and moves to San Francisco - gay green jean jokes here? Kenneth Rexroth (1905-82), The Alternative Society: Essays from the Other World. Paul Ricoeur (1913-2005), Freud and Philosophy; calls Freud, Marx, and Nietzsche the "School of Suspicion". Jane Roberts (1929-84), The Seth Material; chanelled starting in 1963; becomes the most influential New Age channeled text. Theodore Roszak (1933-), The Making of a Counter-Culture: Reflections on the Technocratic Society and Its Youthful Opposition. Murray Newton Rothbard (1926-95), Power and Market. Orville Hickok Schell (1940-) and Frederick Crews (1933-), Starting Over: A College Reader. Amartya Sen (1933-), Collective Choice and Social Welfare; proposes the Liberal Paradox which claims to disprove the claims of libertarians that markets are efficient and respect individual freedoms. Roger Sessions (1896-1985), Questions About Music. William F. Sharpe (1934-), Portfolio Theory and Capital Markets; the Capital Asset Pricing Model. Claude Simon (1913-2005), Orion Aveugle (Orion Blinded) (essays). Robert Sobel (1931-99), The Curbstone Brokers: The Origins of the American Stock Exchange. John D. Stamford, The Spartacus Internat. Gay Guide; 1st ed. of an annual internat. guidebook. George Steiner (1929-), Bluebeard's Castle: Some Notes Towards the Redefinition of Culture; the origins of Euro anti-Semitism; laments Nazi destruction of the "gardens of liberal culture" in Europe; Nazism is Europe's revenge on the Jews for inventing conscience? Fritz Stern (1926-) (eds.), The Varieties of History: From Voltaire to the Present. George R. Stewart (1895-1980), A Concise Dictionary of Place-Names. Leo Strauss (1899-1973), Xenophon's Socratic Discourse: An Interpretation of the Oeconomicus. Frank William Stringfellow (1928-95), A Second Birthday: A Personal Confrontation with Illness, Pain, and Death. Albert Szent-Gyori (1893-1986), The Crazy Ape (Jan.); science and the prospect of human survival. Gay Talese (1932-), Honor Thy Father; the Bonanno crime family. Telford Taylor (1908-98), Guilt, Responsibility and the Third Reich; Nuremberg and Vietnam: An American Tragedy (June); treatise on the development of the laws of war. Studs Terkel (1912-2008), Hard Times: An Oral History of the Great Depression; his first hit, causing him to begin cranking out sequels. Lawrence Roger Thompson (1903-73), Robert Frost: The Years of Triumph, 1915-1938 (Dec.) (Pulitzer Prize). Alvin Toffler (1928-2016), Future Shock; bestseller (6M copies) about "too much change in too short a period of time" as the industrial society goes super-industrial; coins the term "information overload". John Toland (1912-2004), The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1936-1945 (Pulitzer Prize); the War in the Pacific from the Japanese POV. Freda Utley (1898-1978), Odyssey of a Liberal: Memoirs. Sir Laurens van der Post (1906-96), The Night of the New Moon (The Prisoner and the Bomb); his experiences in a WWII Japanese POW camp on Java. Michael Walzer (1935-), Obligations: Essays on Disobedience, War and Citizenship. Alan W. Watts (1915-73), Does It Matter? Essays on Man's Relationship to Materiality. Benjamin J. Wattenberg (1933-) and Richard M. Scammon, The Real Majority: An Extraordinary Examination of the American Electorate; former LBJ speechwriter (1966-8) Wattenberg claims that the real U.S. electorate is centrist, i.e., economically liberal and socially conservative, thus the Dem. Party must shift from economic issues (Social Security, employment) to social issues (crime, drugs, morality) to remain viable against the Repubs.; becomes ammo for the 1972 Repub. pres. campaign. Harold Weisberg (1914-2002), Frame-Up: The Martin Luther King - James Earl Ray Case; evidence that Ray was another patsy in a conspiracy and coverup. Ida B. Wells-Barnett (1862-1931), Crusade for Justice: The Autobiography of Ida B. Wells (posth.); the anti-lynching crusader. Garry Wills (1934-), Nixon Agonistes: The Crisis of the Self-Made Man; analyzes Nixon's opinions, coming to the conclusion that he's actually a liberal, pissing-off Nixon, who puts him on his enemies list, making him more popular? Angus Wilson (1913-91), The World of Charles Dickens. Tom Wolfe (1930-2018), Radical Chic & Mau-Mauing the Flak Catchers; attends a party for liberals embracing fashionable radical causes hosted by Leonard Bernstein, causing him to coin the term "radical chic", then notes how black militant groups in San Francisco scramble for govt. funds. Robin Wood (1931-2009) and Michael Walker, Claude Chabrol. George Woodcock (1912-95), The Hudson's Bay Company. C. Vann Woodward (1908-99), American Counterpoint: Slavery and Race in the North-South Dialogue (essays). Howard Zinn (1922-2010), The Politics of History; the power-to-the-people view of history as contested terrain that is fair game for radical historians like him; explains U.S. history as a war between Am. ideals and lust for oligarchic power. Art: Romare Bearden (1911-88), The Calabash (collage); Patchwork Quilt (collage). Marc Chagall (1887-1985), Grey Crucifixion; Louisiana. Barbara Chase-Riboud (1939-), Monument to Malcolm X (sculpture). Jim Dine (1935-), Small Heart Painting No. 21. Beatriz Gonzalez, Lullaby. Philip Guston (1913-80), Courtroom. Barbara Hepworth (1903-75), Family of Man (sculpture). Eva Hesse (1936-70), Untitled Rope Piece (sculpture) - end of her rope jokes here? Alex Katz (1927-), Son Vincent with Open Mouth. Brice Marden (1938-), For Pearl; grey/red/orange vertical stripes. Roberto Matta (1911-2002), Elle Logela Folie; Je-ographie; El Hombre de la Lampara; MAgriTTA Chair. Joan Miro (1893-1983), Personnage (bronze sculpture). Alice Neel (1900-84), Andy Warhol. Philip Pearlstein (1924-), Male and Female Models Leaning on Chair. Fairfield Porter (1907-75), Under the Elms (1971-2). Bridget Riley (1931-), Orient 4. Larry Rivers (1923-2002), Popcorn; Tanfastic Dark-Tanning. James Rosenquist (1933-), Flamingo Capsule; Silver Skies. Terry Schoonhoven (1945-2002), Venice in the Snow (mural); placed on a bldg. on the boardwalk of Venice Beach, Calif.; too bad, a bldg. is erected next to it in 1972, obscuring it. Robert Smithson (1938-73), Spiral Jetty; earthwork sculpture on the Great Salt Lake in Utah, made of 6.5K tons of basalt, dirt and salt, becoming his trademark after his tragic early death. Music: Ten Years After, Cricklewood Green (album #5) (Apr. 17); named after a friend who lives in Cricklewood, London and grows a psychedelic plant; 45 rpm on one side, 33 rpm on the other; incl. Love Like a Man; Watt (album #6) (Dec.). The Allman Brothers Band, Idlewild South (album #2) (Sept. 23); named for their rented farmhouse in Ga.; incl. Midnight Rider, Revival. Jay and the Americans, Wax Museum (album) (Jan.); incl. Walkin' in the Rain (#19 in the U.S.) (last single to chart). Ed Ames (1927-), Sing Away the World (album); incl. Three Good Reasons, Chippewa Town. Argent, Argent (album) (debut) (Jan.); from England, incl. Zombies keyboardist Rod Argent (1945-), Russ Ballard (guitar), Jim Rodford (1941-) (bass), Robert "Bob" Henrit (1946-) (drums); incl. Liar, Dance in the Smoke. Gerald Arpino (1923-2008), Trinity (ballet choreographed to rock music). Aston, Gardner, and Dyke, Resurrection Shuffle. The Association, The Association Live (album); recorded in Salt Lake City on Apr. 3. Badfinger, Magic Christian Music (album) (debut) (Jan. 9) (#55 in the U.S.); from the 1969 film "The Magic Christian"; Come and Get It (written by Paul McCartney); No Dice (album #2) (Nov. 9) (#28 in the U.S.); first with guitarist Joey Molland; incl. No Matter What (#8 in the U.S.), Without You. Joan Baez (1941-), One Day at a Time (album #8) (Jan.); incl. Sweet Sir Galahad (first song she ever composed) (about her brother-in-law, hubby of Mimi Farina), Joe Hill (by Alfred Hayes and Earl Robinson). The Band, Stage Fright (album #3) (Aug. 17); they go rock; incl. Stage Fright, Daniel and the Sacred Harp, The Rumor. Nitty Gritty Dirt Band, Uncle Charlie & His Dog Teddy (album) (Feb.) (#66 in the U.S.); incl. Mr. Bojangles (by Jerry Jeff Walker) (#9 in the U.S.). Syd Barrett (1946-2006), The Madcap Laughs (album) (solo debut) (Jan.); incl. Terrapin; Barrett (album). The Beatles, Let It Be (May 8) (12th and last album); original title "Get Back"; the cover photo shows all of them with mustaches except John; Billy Preston plays electric piano and organ; the Beatles disband before its release; incl. Two of Us, Dig a Pony, Across the Universe, I Me Mine, Dig It, Let It Be, Maggie Mae, I've Got a Feeling, One After 909, The Long and Winding Road, For You Blue, Get Back. Captain Beefheart (1941-) and The Magic Band, Lick My Decals Off, Baby (album #4) (Dec.) (#20 in the U.K.); incl. Lick My Decals Off, Baby, Dr. Dark, Japan Is A Dishpan, Petrified Forest, I Love You, You Big Dummy. Brook Benton (1931-88), Rainy Night in Georgia (#4 in the U.S.); written by Tony Joe White. Chuck Berry (1926-2017), Tulane. Bobby Bloom (1945-74), Montego Bay (#8 in the U.S., #3 in the U.K.); 1-hit wonder co-written by Jeff Barry, who gets his life insurance when he accidentally shoots himself in 1974; it's in Jamaica. The Moody Blues, A Question of Balance (album #6) (Aug. 7); incl. Question (about the Vietnam War). Delaney, Bonnie & Friends, On Tour with Eric Clapton (album #3) (Mar.) (#29 in the U.S., #39 in the U.K.); incl. Things Get Better, Only You and I Know, I Don't Want to Discuss It. To Bonnie from Delaney (album #4) (Sept.) (#58 in the U.S.); incl. Soul Shake, Living on the Open Road. David Bowie (1947-2016), The Man Who Sold the World (album #3) (Nov.); cover features Bowie reclining in a "man's dress"; incl. The Man Who Sold the World. Bread, On the Waters (album #2) (July); incl. Make It with You. Edgar Broughton Band, Love in the Rain. James Brown (1933-2006), The Funky Drummer; becomes the most widely sampled rhythm in hip-hop; Get Up (I Feel Like Being A) Sex Machine; the longer length helps launch disco? Savoy Brown, Looking In (album #6); incl. Money Can't Save Your Soul. Jimmy Buffett (1946-), Down to Earth (album) (debut). Iron Butterfly, Metamorphosis (album #4); Erik Brann is replaced by Mike Penera and Larry "Rhino" Reinhardt; incl. Free Flight. The Byrds, Untitled (double album) (Sept. 16). The Carpenters, Close to You (album #2) (Aug. 19) (#2 in the U.S., #23 in the U.K.); incl. (They Long to Be) Close to You, We've Only Just Begun (written by Paul Williams and Roger Nichols for a Crocker Nat. Bank TV commercial). Clarence Carter (1936-), Patches. Johnny Cash (1932-2003), Hello, I'm Johnny Cash (album); incl. Sunday Morning Coming Down ("Wishing, Lord, that I was stoned"; "Cursin' at a can that he was kickin'"); I Walk the Line - Movie Soundtrack (album); incl. I Walk the Line. Blue Cheer, The Original Human Being (album #5) (Sept.); incl. Babaji (Twilight Raga). Chicago, Chicago (album #2) ((double album) (Jan. 26) (#4 in the U.S.) (#6 in the U.K.) (1M copies); incl. 25 or 6 to 4 (#4 in the U.S.), Make Me Smile (#9 in the U.S.) (part 1 of "allet for a Girl in Buchannon"), Coulour My World (#7 in the U.S.), Where Do We Go From Here?. Ray Charles (1930-2004), If You Were Mine. Chilliwack, Chilliwack (album) (debut); formerly the Collectors; from Vancouver, B.C., Canada. Gene Clark (1944-91), White Light (Gene Clark) (album). Strawberry Alarm Clock, California Day; Girl From the City; flops, and they're now kaput. Joe Cocker (1944-2014), Mad Dogs and Englishmen (album) (Aug.) (#16 in the U.K.); produced by Leon Russell; incl. The Letter (by the Box Tops), She Came in Through the Bathroom Window (by John Lennon/Paul McCartney), Let It Be (by John Lennon/Paul McCartney) (w/Claudia Lennear), Something (by George Harrison), With a Little Help From My Friends (by John Lennon/Paul McCartney). Judy Collins (1939-), Whales & Nightingales (album #9) (Aug.) (#17 in the U.S.) (500K copies); incl. Amazing Grace (by John Newton), Farewell to Tarwathie (complete with humpback whale sounds), A Song for David (by Joan Baez). Honey Cone, Want Ads. The Peanut Butter Conspiracy, For Children of All Ages (album #3) (last album). Marius Constant (1925-2007), Candide (ballet (Hamburg); stars Marcel Marceau. Alice Cooper (1948-), Easy Action (album #2) (Mar.); title taken from "West Side Story". King Crimson, In the Wake of Poseidon (album #2) (May 15); from London, incl. Robert Fripp (1946-) (guitar), Robert Steven "Adrian" Belew (1949-), Michael Rex Giles (1942-) (drums), Ian MacDonald (1946-) (sax), Gregory Stuart "Greg" Lake (1947-) (bass), and Peter John Sinfield (1943-) (synthesizer, lyrics); cover features Tammo De Jongh's 1967 "12 Archetypes (Faces of Humankind)"; Lake leaves to join Emerson, Lake and Palmer; incl. Cat Food, The Devil's Triangle (based on Gustav Holst's "The Planets", 1914-16); Lizard (album #3) (Dec. 11); Gordon Haskell (1946-) (bass), Andy McCulloch (1945-) (drums); heavy jazz influence; incl. Lizard. Seals and Crofts, Down Home (album #2). Miles Davis (1926-91), Bitches Brew (double album) (Mar. 30) (500K copies); experiments with the electric piano and guitar, pioneering jazz rock; incl. Bitches Brew. Paul Davis (1948-2008), A Little Bit of Paul Davis (album) (debut); incl. A Little Bit of Soap (#52 in the U.S.), I Just Wanna Keep It Together. The Grateful Dead, Workingman's Dead (June 14) (album #4); incl. Uncle John's Band; American Beauty (album #5) (Nov. 1); incl. Truckin', Box of Rain, Friend of the Devil, Sugar Magnolia. Edison Denisov (1929-96), Painting (Peinture); for orchestra. Sandy Denny (1947-78), It's Sandy Denny (album); recorded in London on Mar. 22 and Apr. 26, 1967. John Denver (1943-97), Take Me to Tomorrow (album #2) (May); incl. Take Me to Tomorrow, Amsterdam, Carolina In My Mind; Whose Garden Was This? (album #3) (Oct.). Derek and the Dominos, featuring Eric Clapton (1945-), Layla and Other Assorted Love Songs (album); incl. Layla, inspired by his unrequired love for George Harrison's wife (since 1966) Patricia Anne "Pattie" Boyd (1944-) (a former model who has rabbit-like front teeth), along with swinging 60s Scottish-born London bohemian Ian Dallas (1930-), who gave him a copy of the ancient Persian Sufi parable"Layla" by Nezami Ganjavi (1141-1209), about a man who went crazy when a beautiful woman wouldn't marry him; Clapton finally marries her in 1979, and divorces her in 1989; meanwhile having converted to Sufi Islam in 1967 and changed his name to Abdalqadir as-Sufi, in the 1980s Dallas founds the Rabbit, er, Murabitun Worldwide Movement, with 10K followers by 2010, which preaches that the Islamic world will conquer the "Jewish dominated West", and also preaches against Capitalism. Neil Diamond (1941-), Cracklin' Rosie (Aug. 22) (#1 in the U.S.); He Ain't Heavy... He's My Brother (Nov. 7) (#20 in the U.S.). Donovan (1946-), Open Road (album #9); his first Celtic rock album. Bo Diddley (1928-2008), The Black Gladiator (album). The 5th Dimension, Portrait (album #5) (Apr.); incl. One Less Bell to Answer (#2 in the U.S.) (by Burt Bacharach and Hal David). The Doors, Morrison Hotel (Hard Rock Cafe) (album #5) (Feb.); incl. Roadhouse Blues. Tangerine Dream, Electronic Meditation (album) (debut); from Germany, incl. Edgar Wilmar Froese (1944-); incl. Journey Through A Burning Brain. Bob Dylan (1941-), Self Portrait (album #10) (double album) (June 8); last with his affected country crooning voice; incl. Copper Kettle, Blue Moon; New Morning (album #11) (Oct. 19); incl. New Morning, If Not for You. Cass Elliot (1941-74), Mama's Big Ones (album). Alton Ellis (1938-2008), Sunday Coming (album). Brian Eno (1948-) and Robert Fripp (1946-), (No Pussyfooting) (album) (Nov.); pioneers Frippertronics, a tape delay system that creates musical effects. Georgie Fame (1943-), Georgie Does His Thing with Strings (album). Family, A Song for Me (album #3) (June 13); incl. A Song for Me; Old Songs New Songs (album #4); Anyway (album #5). Jose Feliciano (1945-), Feliz Navidad (Sp. "Merry Christmas") (original title "Jose Feliciano") (album) (Nov.); incl. Feliz Navidad, which becomes one of the most popular Xmas songs ever. Roberta Flack (1937-), First Take (album). Carlisle Floyd (1926-), Of Mice and Men (opera) (Seattle, Wash.) (Jan. 22); based on the 1937 John Steinbeck novel. Pink Floyd, Atom Heart Mother (album) (Oct. 10); incl. Atom Heart Mother (used in "A Clockwork Orange"), Alan's Psychedelic Breakfast, Summer '68, Fat Old Sun; The Best of the Pink Floyd (album). Flying Burrito Brothers, Burrito Deluxe (album #2) (May); incl. Wild Horses (by Mick Jagger and Keith Richards), If You Gotta Go (by Bob Dylan), Farther Along. Focus, Focus Plays Focus (In and Out of Focus) (album) (debut); from Netherlands, incl. Thijs van Leer (keyboards), Jan Akkerman (guitar), Martin Dresden (bass), and Hans Cleuver (drums). Free, Fire and Water (album #3) (June) (#13 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.); their first hit; incl. All Right Now (#4 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.); Highway (album #4) (Dec.). The Fugs, Golden Filth (Live at the Fillmore East) (album). Funkadelic, Funkadelic (album) (debut); George Clinton (1941-); Free Your Mind... and Your Ass Will Follow (album #2) (July) (#92 in the U.S.); incl. Free Your Mind... and Your Ass Will Follow. The James Gang, The James Gang Rides Again (album #2) (July); Dale Peters (bass); incl. Funk #49, The Bomber. Paul Simon (1941-) and Art Garfunkel (1941-), Bridge Over Troubled Water (album #5) (last album) (Jan. 26) (#1 in the U.S.) (#1 in the U.K.); named after their frequent fights; sells 25M copies; album has 11 tracks because they can't agree on a final cut; having cashed in bigtime, they part ways next year; incl. Bridge Over Troubled Water (#1 in the U.S.) (#1 in the U.K.), El Condor Pasa (If I Could) (#6 in the U.S.), Cecilia (#4 in the U.S.), The Boxer, Bye Bye Love, Baby Driver (featured in the 2017 film "Baby Driver"), Keep the Customer Satisfied. Marvin Gaye (1939-84), That's the Way Love Is (album #7) (Jan. 7); incl. That's the Way Love Is, Gonna Give Her All the Love I've Got. Bee Gees, Cucumber Castle (album #7) (Apr.); sans Robin Gibb; incl. Cucumber Castle, Don't Forget to Remember, I.O.I.O.; 2 Years On (album #8) (Dec.); incl. 2 Years On. Genesis, Trespass (album #2) (Oct. 23); drummer John Mayhew (1947-2009); last with Anthony Phillips; incl. White Mountain, The Knife, Visions of Angels. Bobbie Gentry (1944-), Fancy (album #8); incl. Fancy; I'll Never Fall In Love Again (album #9); incl. I'll Never Fall in Love Again. Norman Greenbaum (1942-), Canned Ham. Gypsy, Gypsy (double album) (debut); incl. Gypsy Queen Part 1, Gypsy Queen Part 2, Dead and Gone, The Vision; from Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minn., incl. Enrico Rosenbaum (1944-79) (vocals), James Walsh (keyboards), and Bill Lordan (drums). Merle Haggard (1937-2016), The Fightin' Side of Me. George Hamilton IV (1937-), She's a Little Bit Country. Herbie Hancock (1940-), Mwandishi (album #9). Edwards Hand, Stranded (album). Roy Harper (1941-), Flat Baroque and Beserk (album #4) (Jan.) (#20 in the U.K.); incl. I Hate the White Man, Another Day, Tom Tiddler's Ground. George Harrison (1943-2001), All Things Must Pass (triple album) (Nov. 27); first triple album by a solo artist; 3rd disk is called "Apple Jam"; incl. All Things Must Pass, My Sweet Lord (Sept. 4), What Is Life, Isn't It a Pity, If Not for You (by Bob Dylan), Beware of Darkness. Procol Harum, Home (album #4). Richie Havens (1941-), Stonehenge (album); incl. Open Our Eyes. Isaac Hayes (1942-2008), The Isaac Hayes Movement (album #3) (Mar.); incl. One Big Unhappy Family; To Be Continued (album #4) (Nov.); incl. The Look of Love. Canned Heat, Future Blues (album #5) (Aug. 3); last with Alan Wilson; incl. Let's Work Together, The Chipmunk Song (Christmas Don't Be Late) (with the Chipmunks); Canned Heat '70 Concert Live in Europe (album). Uriah Heep, Very 'eavy... Very 'umble (album) (debut) (June); formerly Spice and The Stalkers; from London, England, incl. Michael Frederick "Mick" Box (1947-) (guitar), David Byron (Garrick) (1947-85) (vocals), Kenneth William David "Ken" Hensley (1945-), Paul Newton (bass), and Alex Napier/ Ian Clarke (1946-) (drums); David Byron is drenched in cobwebs on the cover; "If this group makes it I'll have to commit suicide. From the first note you know you don't want to hear any more." (Melissa Mills, Rolling Stone); incl. Gypsy, Dreammare, Real Turned On, Bird of Prey. Hans Werner Henze (1926-), El Cimarron (Aldeburgh). Mott the Hoople, Mad Shadows (album); incl. Thunderbuck Ram, When My Mind's Gone. Mary Hopkin (1950-), Temma Harbour; Knock Knock Who's There. Hotlegs, Neanderthal Man (#2 in the U.K.) (2M copies). Alan Hovhaness (1911-2000), And God Created Great Whales, Op. 229. Brian Hyland (1943-), Gypsy Woman (#3 in the U.S.) (1M copies); by Curtis Mayfield. Blues Image, Open (album #2) (Apr.); sells 1M copies; incl. Ride Captain Ride (#4 in the U.S.); "73 men sailed up from the San Francisco Bay/ Rolled off of their ship/ And here's what they had to say/ We're calling everyone to ride along/ To another shore/ We can laugh our lives away and be free once more/ But no one heard them callin'/ No one came at all/ Cause they were too busy watchin'/ Those old raindrops fall/ As a storm was blowin'/ Out on the peaceful sea/ 73 men sailed off to history/ Ride, captain ride/ Upon your mystery ship/ Be amazed at the friends/ You have here on your trip/ Ride captain ride/ Upon your mystery ship/ On your way to a world/ That others might have missed"; refers to Sir Francis Drake on his first voyage to America the Golden Hind in 1572?; Red White & Blues Image (album #3) (last album) (May). Ballin' Jack, Super Highway. Wanda Jackson (1937-), Two Separate Bar Stools; Who Shot John?; A Woman Lives for Love. Jackson 5, ABC (album #2) (May); incl. ABC (Feb.) (4.1M copies, #1 in the U.S., #8 in the U.K.), The Love You Save (replaces the Beatles "The Long and Winding Road" as #1 in the U.S.), I'll Be There (6M copies, #1 in the U.S. and #4 in the U.K., making them the first group whose first four singles all go #1 in the U.S.); Third Album (album #3) (Sept.); incl. Mama's Pearl (2M copies, becoming #2 in the U.S.); The Jackson 5 Christmas Album (album #4) (Oct.). Jaggerz, The Rapper. Mungo Jerry, In the Summertime (#1 in the U.S. and U.K.) (debut); becomes a phenomenon, selling 30M copies worldwide and reaching #1 in 26 countries, sparking Mungomania; Raymond Edward "Ray" Dorset (1946-) (vocals); the lyrics "Have a drink, have a drive/ go out and see what you can find" piss-off anti-drunk driving activists; the lyrics "If her daddy's rich, take her out for a meal/ If her daddy's poor, just do what you feel/ Speed along the lane", is widely misunderstood as "Screw her on the lake"? Elton John (1947-), Elton John (album #2) (Apr. 10); lyrics by Bernie Taupin; incl. Your Song (takes a gay to really know a woman?); Tumbleweed Connection (album #3) (Oct. 30); incl. Ballad of a Well-Known Gun, Country Comfort. Alive N Kickin', Tighter, Tighter (#7 in the U.S.); from Brooklyn, N.Y., incl. Bruce Charles Sudano (1948-), Woody Wilson (bass), John Parisio (guitar), Ron Pell/Vito Albano (drums). B.B. King (1925-), The Thrill is Gone. The Kinks, Lola Versus Powerman and the Moneygoround, Part One (album #8) (Nov. 27) (#35 in the U.S.); incl. Lola (#9 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.), Apeman (#5 in the U.K.). Gladys Knight (1944-) and the Pips, If I Were Your Woman (#9 in the U.S.). Kraftwerk, Kraftwerk (album) (debut) (Nov.); German for power plant; pioneer electronic music band from Dusseldorf, Germany, incl. Ralf Hutter (Hütter) (1946-) and Florian Schneider-Esleben (1947-); incl. Ruckzuck, Stratovarius. Kris Kristofferson (1936-), Kristofferson (album) (debut); incl. Me & Bobby McGee, For the Good Times, Sunday Morning Coming Down. Fela Kuti (1938-97), Live! (album) (debut); with Ginger Baker; Why Black Man Dey Suffer (album #2). John Lennon (1940-80), John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band (album) (solo debut) (Dec. 11); incl. God ("God is a concept by which we measure our pain... I don't believe in the Beatles, I just believe in me... The dream is over, what can I say... I was the dreamweaver, but now I'm reborn. I was the Walrus, but now I'm John. And so dear friends, you just have to carry on. The dream is over"), Working Class Hero. Gordon Lightfoot (1938-), If You Could Read My Mind (#5 in the U.S.). Edison Lighthouse, Love Grows (Where My Rosemary Grows) (#5 in the U.S., #1 in the U.K.) (1M copies); from England, incl. Anthony "Tony" Burrows (1942-) (formerly of the Flower Pot Men); 1-hit wonder. Love, False Start (album #6) (Dec.). Darlene Love (1941-) and the Blossoms, One Step Away; I Ain't Got to Love Nobody Else. Loretta Lynn (1932-), Coal Miner's Daughter (album) (Dec. 28); incl. Coal Miner's Daughter (#1 in the U.S.). Fleetwood Mac, Kiln House (album #4) (Sept. 18); incl. Earl Gray. Charles Manson (1934-2017), Lie: The Love and Terror Cult (album) (Mar. 6) (Awareness Records); released the same day the court revokes its decision to permit Manson to represent himself. Bob Marley (1945-81) and the Wailers, Soul Rebels (album) (Dec.); incl. Soul Rebel. Donald Martino (1931-2005), Pianississimo. Peter, Paul and Mary, The Best of Peter, Paul and Mary: 10 years Together (album); that out of the way, the group splits. Dave Mason (1946-), Only You Know and I Know. Curtis Mayfield (1942-99), Curtis (album) (debut); becomes known for his social conscience. MC5, Back in the USA (album #2) (Jan. 15); flops, and they go kaput, along with the 1960s? Paul McCartney (1942-), McCartney (album) (solo debut) (Apr. 17); incl. Maybe I'm Amazed, Lovely Linda (for Linda Eastman), Junk. Gene McDaniels (1935-), Outlaw (album #9). Rod McKuen (1933-2015), Greatest Hits 2 (album); incl. Jean from the 1969 film "The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie"; Soldiers Who Wanna Be Heroes; "Soldiers who wanna be heroes/ number practic'lly zero/ But there are millions/ who wanna be civilians". Christine McVie (1943-), Christine Perfect (album) (solo debut) (Dec. 6); next solo album in 1984. Melanie (1947-), Look at What They've Done to My Song, Ma; Candles in the Rain (album #3); incl. Lay Down (Candles in the Rain) (#6 in the U.S.); Leftover Wine (Live at Carnegie Hall) Sept.). Steve Miller Band, Your Saving Grace (album #4) (Mar.); incl. Little Girl; Number 5 (album #5) (Nov.). Little Christy Minstrels, You Need Someone to Love (album #16). Joni Mitchell (1943-), Ladies of the Canyon (album #3) (Apr.); incl. Big Yellow Taxi ("They paved paradise and put up a parking lot") ("big yellow taxi took away my old man"), Woodstock, The Circle Game. Russell Morris (1948-), Rachel; anti-war song. Van Morrison (1945-), Moondance (album #3) (Feb. 28); incl. Moondance, Come Running, Crazy Love; His Band and the Street Choir (album #4) (Nov. 15); original title "Virgo's Fool"; incl. Domino. Mountain, (Mountain) Climbing! (album) (debut) (Mar. 7) (#17 in the U.S.); from Long Island, N.Y., incl. Leslie West (Weinstein) (1945-) (vocals), Felix A. Pappalardi Jr. (1939-83) (bass, piano), and Laurence Gordon "Corky" Laing (1948-) (drums); incl. Mississippi Queen (#21 in the U.S.). The Move, Shazam (album #2); incl. Hello Susie; Looking On (album #3); incl. Looking On, Turkish Tram Conductor Blues; Brontosaurus (Apr.); When Alice Comes Back to the Farm (Oct.). Anne Murray (1945-), Honey, Wheat and Laughter (album #3); incl. Put Your Hand in the Hand; Snowbird (album); Straight, Clean and Simple (album #4). Michael Nesmith (1942-), Joanne. The Nice, Five Bridges (album #4) (June) (#2 in the U.S.); commissioned by the Newcastle Arts Festival, and named after the five bridges spanning the Tyne River; incl. The Five Bridges Suite. Nico (1938-88), Desertshore (album #3) (Dec.); incl. Janitor of Lunacy, Le Petit Chevalier. Three Dog Night, It Ain't Easy (originally titled "The Wizards of Orange") (album #4) (Apr.); incl. It Ain't Easy, Mama Told Me (Not To Come). Naturally (album #5) (Nov.) ; incl. Joy to the World (by Hoyt Axton) (#1 in the U.S.) ("Jeremiah was a bullfrog, was a good friend of mine,/ I never understood a single a word he said, but I helped him drink his wine"), Liar (by Russ Ballard), One Man Band. Harry Nilsson (1941-94), Nilsson Sings Newman (album) (Feb.); songs by Randy Newman. Laura Nyro (1947-97), Christmas and the Beads of Sweat (album #4) (Nov. 25) (#51 in the U.S.); incl. Beads of Sweat, Up on the Roof (by Gerry Goffin and Carole King) (#92 in the U.S.). Ocean, Put Your Hand in the Hand (#1 in the U.S.); written by Gene MacLellan, and first performed by Anne Murray; from London, Ont., Canada, incl. Jance Brown (guitar, vocals), Greg Brown (keyboard, vocals), Jeff Jones (bass, vocals), Dave Tamblyn (guitar), and Chuck Slater (drums). Phil Ochs (1940-76), Greatest Hits (album #7) (Feb.). Oliver (1945-2000), Sunday Mornin'. Yoko Ono (1933-), Yoko Ono/Plastic Ono Band (album) (debut) (Dec. 11); incl. Why; so bad it's good, laying the foundation for talentless punk rock? Roy Orbison (1936-88), She Cheats On Me/ How Do You Start Over Again (Jan.); So Young/ If I Had a Woman Like You (Apr.). Tony Orlando (1944-) and Dawn, Candida (album) (debut); Tony Orlando, Telma Hopkins (1948-), and Joyce Vincent Woilson (1946-); group named after a Columbia Records exec.'s daughter; spawn their own Tony Orlando and Dawn Show in 1973-6; incl. Candida. Gilbert O'Sullivan (1946-), Nothing Rhymed. Freda Payne (1942-), Band of Gold. The Mamas and the Papas, People Like Us (album); produced after the record co. sues them for breach of contract, after which they permanently split; incl. Step Out. Pickettywitch, Same Old Feeling. Humble Pie, Humble Pie (album #3) (July); first with A&M Records; cover features a drawing of a woman exposing her breasts and you know what; incl. Only a Roach, I'm Ready. The Pipkins, Gimme Dat Ding (by Albert Hammond and Mike Hazlewood) (#9 in the U.S., #6 in the U.K.); 1-hit wonder from England; incl. Anthony "Tony" Burrows (1942-) and Roger John Reginald Greenaway (1938-). Jean-Luc Ponty (1942-), King Kong: Jean-Luc Ponty Plays the Music of Frank Zappa (album). Elvis Presley (1935-77), Kentucky Rain/ My Little Friend (#1 country) (#16 in the U.S.); written by Eddie Rabbitt, featuring Ronnie Milsap on piano; Let's Be Friends (Apr.); Wonder Of You/ Mama Like the Roses (May); On Stage February 1970 (album) (June); incl. (Ghost) Riders in the Sky; I've Lost You/ Next Step Is Love (July); Worldwide 50 Gold Hits, Vol. 1 (album) (Aug.); You Don't Have To Say You Love Me/ Patch It Up (Oct.) (1st time shown with big sunglasses); Almost In Love (album) (Nov.); incl. Almost in Love from the 1968 film "Live a Little, Love a Little"; Elvis' Christmas Album (Nov.); Elvis in Person at the International Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada (album) (Nov.); recorded live on July 31, 1969; Back in Memphis (album) (Nov.); I Really Don't Want to Know/ There Goes My Everything (Dec. 8) (#23 country) (#21 in the U.S.); Elvis: That's the Way It Is (album) (Nov 11). Billy Preston (1946-2006), Encouraging Words (album #5) (Jan. 7); incl. My Sweet Lord. Bubble Puppy, Demian (album #2) (last album). Deep Purple, Deep Purple in Rock (album #4) (June) (#4 in the U.K.); incl. Speed King, Into the Fire, Child in Time, Black Night. Josie and the Pussycats, Josie and the Pussycats (album) (debut) (last album); incl. Cathy Douglas, Patrice Holloway, and Cherie Jean Stoppelmoor, later known as Cheryl Ladd. Paul Revere and The Raiders, Collage (album) (Mar. 4); incl. We All Gotta Get Together. Lou Rawls (1933-2006), Natural Man. Martha Reeves (1941-) and the Vandellas, Bless You. Grand Funk Railroad, Closer to Home (album #3) (July); a block-long $100K billboard ad for the album is placed in Times Square in New York City; incl. Nothing is the Same, I'm Your Captain ("Everybody, listen to me/ And return me my ship/ I'm your captain, I'm your captain/ Although I'm feeling mighty sick/ I've been lost now, days uncounted/ And it's months since I've seen home,/ Can you hear me, can you hear me/ Or am I all alone"); about Sir Frances Drake between Apr. 1579 when he left the Pacific Coast of Mexico to Nov. 1579 when he arrived in the East Indies? Redbone, Potlach (album) (debut); Nativ Am./Cajun rock band from Los Angeles, Calif., incl. Native Am. (Yaqui, Shoshone, Mexican) brothers Lolly Vegas (Candido Albelando Vasquez-Vegas) (1939-2010) (vocals) and Patrick "Pat" Vegas (Vasquez-Vegas) (vocals, bass), and Peter "King Kong Beat" DePoe (drums); the group's name means a mixed-race person; incl. Maggie. Otis Redding (1941-67), Tell the Truth (album) (July 1) (posth.). Steve Reich (1936-), Four Organs. Creedence Clearwater Revival, Cosmo's Factory (album #5) (June 25); named for the Berkeley, Calif. warehouse where they rehearsed it; big hit on the Billboard soul albums chart; incl. Lookin' Out My Back Door, Up Around the Bend; Travelin' Band (a ripoff of Little Richard's "Good Golly, Miss Molly"?), Who'll Stop the Rain, Run Through the Jungle (Apr.), Long As I Can See the Light, I Heard It Through the Grapevine, Ramble Tamble ("police on the corner, garbage on the sidewalk, actors in the White House"); Pendulum (album) (Dec.); incl. Have You Ever Seen the Rain?, Hey, Tonight, Rude Awakening #2; too bad, mgr. John Fogerty puts all the members' money in the tax dodge scam of his producer Saul Zaentz, losing it to the Castle Bank of Nassau, and they are about ready to call it quits. Marty Robbins (1925-82), My Woman, My Woman, My Wife (#1 country) (#42 in the U.S.). Smokey Robinson (1940-) and the Miracles, The Tears of a Clown. Tommy Roe (1942-), Stir It Up and Serve It; We Can Make Music. Kenny Rogers (1938-) and the First Edition, Something's Burning (album #5); incl. Something's Burning (#11 in U.S.); Tell It All Brother (album #6); incl. Tell It All Brother. Linda Ronstadt (1946-), Silk Purse (album #2) (Mar.); incl. Long, Long Time. Grass Roots, Temptation Eyes; Sooner or Later. Diana Ross (1944-), Diana Ross (album) (debut) (May); incl. Reach Out and Touch (Somebody's Hand), Ain't No Mountain High Enough; Barry Ryan (1948-), Magical Spiel; Kitsch. Black Sabbath, Black Sabbath (album) (debut) (Fri., Feb. 13) (#8 in the U.K., #23 in the U.S.); original name Earth (1968); from Birmingham, England, incl. "the Prince of Darkness", "Godfather of Heavy Metal" John Michael "Ozzy" Osbourne (1948-) (vocals), Frank Anthony "Tony" Iommi (1948-) (guitar), Terence "Geezer" Butler (1949-) (bass), William Thomas "Bill" Ward (1948-) (drums); Iommi downtunes his Gibson from E to C-sharp for that "heavy" sound; incl. Black Sabbath, The Wizard, N.I.B., Evil Woman; Paranoid (album #2) (Sept. 18); incl. Paranoid, War Pigs, Iron Man, Electric Funeral, Rat Salad, Fairies Wear Boots. Buffy Sainte-Marie (1941-), The Circle Game; from the 1970 film "The Strawberry Statement" dir. by Stuart Hagmann. Santana, Abraxas (album #2); incl. Black Magic Woman, Oye Como Va, Gypsy Queen, Singing Winds, Crying Beasts. Gill Scott-Heron (1949-2011), A New Black Poet: Small Talk at 125th and Lenox (album) (debut); "A volcanic upheaval of intellectualism and social critique" (John Bush), causing him to become known as the Black Bob Dylan and the Godfather of Rap; incl. The Revolution Will Not Be Televised. Bog Seger System, Mongrel (album #3) (Aug.); incl. River Deep - Mountain High, Lucifer. Pharoah Sanders (1940-), Deaf Dumb Blind (Summun Bukmun Umyun) (album #6); features Woody Shaw on trumpet; incl. Summun, Bukmun, Umyun (from the Quran's Sura Bakara); Let Us Go into the House of the Lord. Gunther Schuller (1925-) and Charles Ives (1874-1954), The Yale-Princeton Football Game (Carnegie Hall, New York) (Nov. 29). Seatrain, Seatrain (album #2); produced by George Martin (first record after the Beatles); incl. 13 Questions (#49 in the U.S.). Quicksilver Messenger Service, Shady Grove (album #3); incl. Shady Grove; Nicky Hopkins replaces Gary Duncan, who returns along with Dino Valenti to make the "Hawaiian albums" Just For Love (album #4) (Dec.) and What About Me (album #5) (Dec.), incl. What About Me, after which the band breaks up, leaving Valenti to form the new band Quicksilver. Roger Sessions (1896-1985), Rhapsody for Orchestra. Sandie Shaw (1947-), By Tomorrow; Wight is Wight. Brewer and Shipley, Tarkio (album #3); named after Tarkio, Mo.; incl. One Toke Over the Line (song about smoking marijuana causes Pres. Nixon to label them subversive to U.S. youth, after which clueless Gail Farrell and Dick Dale perform it on the Lawrence Welk Show, and Welk calls it a "modern spiritual"), Tarkio Road, Shake Off the Demon. Little Sister, You're the One; Vaetta "Vet" Stone (1950-) (sister of Sly Stone). Memphis Slim (1915-88), Messin' Around with the Blues (album). Edwin Starr (1942-2003), War!; "War! What is it good for? Absolutely nothing!" The Five Stairsteps, O-oh-h Child (#8 in the U.S.); from Chicago, Ill., incl. five of Betty and Clarence Burke Sr.'s six children, Alohe Jean, Clarence Jr., James, Dennis, Kenneth "Keni", and Cubie, who had a string of low-charting Billboard 200 singles in the 1960s, earning them the title "The First Family of Soul" until the Jackson family supersedes them. Ringo Starr (1940-), Sentimental Journey (album) (solo debut) (Mar. 27) (#22 in the U.S., #7 in the U.K.); all covers; incl. Dream, You Always Hurt the One You Love, Beaucoups of Blues (album #2) (Sept. 25); incl. It Don't Come Easy, Back Off Boogaloo. Status Quo, Down the Dustpipe (Mar.); first with their new boogie shuffle; Ma Kelly's Greasy Spoon (album #3) (Aug.); first to switch from psychedlic to hard rock style. Steppenwolf, Steppenwolf Live (album) (Apr.); Steppenwolf 7 (album #5); first with bassist George Biondo. Cat Stevens (1948-), Mona Bone Jakon (album); (Apr. 1); incl. Lady D'Arbanville, Pop Star, Katmandu (with Peter Gabriel); Tea for the Tillerman (album); incl. Tea for the Tillerman, Wild World, Father and Son, Hard-Headed Woman. Ray Stevens (1939-), Everything is Beautiful (album); incl. Everything is Beautiful; sells 3M copies. Al Stewart (1945-), Zero She Flies (album #3). Rod Stewart (1945-), Gasoline Alley (album #2); incl. Gasoline Alley. Sly and the Family Stone, Greatest Hits (album) (Nov. 21). The Rolling Stones, Get Yer Ya-Ya's Out! The Rolling Stones in Concert (album) (Sept. 4). The Stooges, Fun House (album #2) (July); loudest album ever?; incl. 1970 (I Feel Alright), L.A. Blues. Lally Stott, Chirpy Chirpy Cheep Cheep. Sugarloaf, Green-Eyed Woman (#3 in the U.S.) (originally Chocolate Hair); from Denver, Colo.; named after the mountain outside Boulder, Colo.; fronted by keyboardist Jerry Corbetta, incl. Bob Webber (formerly of the Moonrakers) (guitar), Veeder Van Dorn III (guitar), and Bob MacVittie (drums). Supertramp, Supertramp (album) (debut) (July); from England, incl. Roger Hodgson, Richard Palmer, and Robert Millar; backed by Dutch millionaire Stanley August "Sam" Miesegaes, who gets them signed to A&M Records. Richard Dean Taylor (1939-), Indiana Wants Me (#5 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.); 1-hit wonder from Canada. James Taylor (1948-), Sweet Baby James (album #2) (Feb.); incl. Fire and Rain (#3 in the U.S.), Sweet Baby James. Livingston Taylor (1950-), Livingston Taylor (album) (debut); incl. Carolina Day. The Nashville Teens, Ella James (last release). The Temptations, Ball of Confusion (That's What the World is Today) (May 7); "Round and around and around we go, where the world's headed, nobody knows (and the band played on)". The Pretty Things, Parachute (album #5) (June); incl. She Was Tall, She Was High, In the Square, Sickle Clowns. Randall Thompson (1899-1984), Bitter-Sweet. Mel Tillis (1932-), Heart Over Mind (#3 country). Sir Michael Tippett (1905-98), The Shires Suite (1965-70) (Cheltenham) (July 8); Symphony No. 3. Spooky Tooth, The Last Puff (album #3) (July); incl. I Am the Walrus (by John Lennon and Paul McCartney); Ceremony (album #4) (Dec.); Luther Grosvenor leaves to go to Moot The Hoople under the alias Ariel Bender, and is replaced by Mick Jones, who later co-founds Foreigner. The Four Tops, Still Waters Run Deep (album) (Mar.); incl. Everybody's Talkin', Still Water (Love), Still Water (Peace), In These Changing Times. The Four Tops and the Supremes, The Magnificent Seven (album); incl. River Deep, Mountain High. T.Rex, A Beard of Stars (album #4) (Mar. 13); first with Mickey Finn (drums); first use of electric instruments; incl. By the Light of a Magical Moon, Fist Heart Mighty Dawn Dart, Pavillions of Sun, Ride a White Swan; T.Rex (album #5) (Dec. 18); first use of the abbreviated name for Tyrannosaurus Rex. Traffic, John Barleycorn Must Die (album #4) (July) (#5 in the U.S.); incl. Glad, John Barleycorn. Jethro Tull, Benefit (album #3) (Apr. 20) (#3 in the U.K.); last with John Evan and Glenn Cornick; incl. With You There to Help Me, Play in Time; Aqualung (album #4) (Mar. 19); last with Clive Bunker, first with John Evan and Jeffrey Hammond; theme is how organized religion keeps you from God; incl. Aqualung, Cross-Eyed Mary, Mother Goose, Locomotive Breath. Hot Tuna, Hot Tuna (album) (debut) (May) (#30 in the U.S.); formed by Jefferson Airplane members John William "Jack" Casady (1944-) and Jorma Ludwik Kaukonen Jr. (1940-), along with Sammy Piazza (drums) when Grace Slick is recovering from throat node surgery; incl. Hesitation Blues, How Long Blues, I Know You Rider, Come Back Baby. Ike Turner (1931-2007) and Tina Turner (1939-), Workin' Together (album). Conway Twitty (1933-93), Hello Darlin (Mar.) (#1 in the U.S.). UFO, Boogie for Georgie. Frankie Valli (1934-) and the Four Seasons, You've Got Your Troubles. Frankie Vaughan (1928-99), With These Hands. The Velvet Underground, Loaded (album); incl. Sweet Jane, Rock and Roll; they disband while recording the album. The Ventures, 10th Anniversary Album (album) (Oct.). Bobby Vinton (1935-), No Arms Can Ever Hold You (#93 in the U.S.), My Elusive Dreams (#46 in the U.S.). The Vogues, The Vogues Sing the Good Old Songs and Other Hits (album #6) (last album); incl. The Good Old Songs. Junior Walker (1931-) and the All Stars, Gotta Hold On To This Feeling; Do You See My Love (For You Growing); Holly Holy. War (with Eric Burdon), Eric Burdon Declares War (album) (debut) (Apr.) (#18 in the U.S., #50 in the U.K.); formerly The Creators and Nightshift; multiracial funk rock grup from Long Beach, Calif., incl. Howard E. Scott, Harold Brown, Charles Miller, Morris "B.B." Dickerson, Lonnie Jordan, Lee Oskar, Papa Dee Allen, Deacon Jones, and Eric Burdon (formerly of The Animals); cover says "We the People, have declared War against the People, for the right to love each other"; incl. Spill the Wine, Tobacco Road; The Black-Man's Burdon (album #2) (double album) (Dec.); last with Eric Burdon. Dionne Warwick (1940-), Paper Mache; The Wine is Young. Andrew Lloyd Webber (1948-) and Tim Rice (1944-), Jesus Christ Superstar (double album) (Sept.) (#1 in the U.S.); sells $40M by the end of the year; banned by the BBC for being sacreligious, making it more popular?; incl. Superstar I Don't Know How to Love Him, King Herod's Song, Pilate's Dream, Hosanna, Gethsemane (I Only Want to Say), Simon Zealotes/Poor Jerusalem, Jesus Must Die. Roger Whittaker (1936-), New World in the Morning (album); incl. New World in the Morning. The Guess Who, American Woman (album); incl. No Time, American Woman; first #1 U.S. hit by a Canadian band - I'm from WannapegubutnotmarryuandtakeuhometomotheruYankeebitch? The Who, Live at Leeds (May 16); their first live album; released in place of tapes recorded at Hull U., which have tech problems; best live rock album of all time? Andy Williams (1927-), Raindrops Keep Fallin' on My Head (Can't Help Falling in Love) (album) (#43 in the U.S.); The Andy Williams Show (#81 in the U.S.). Jackie Wilson (1934-84), (I Can Feel These Vibrations) This Love is For Real. Edgar Winter (1946-), Entrance (album) (debut) (Nov.); incl. Entrance, Fire and Ice. Johnny Winter (1944-), Johnny Winter And (album #4) (Sept.). Stevie Wonder (1950-), Signed, Sealed, & Delivered (album #12) (Aug. 7) (#25 in the U.S.); incl. Signed, Sealed, Delivered I'm Yours; Never Had a Dream Come True, Heaven Help Us All, We Can Work It Out. Charles Wuorinen (1938-), Time's Encomium (Pulitzer Prize) - that means eulogy? Tammy Wynette (1942-98), The Wonders You Perform; Ornella Vanoni's vers. becomes a big hit in Italy; He Loves Me All the Way; Run Woman, Run. Yes, Time and a Word (album #2) (June); lat with Peter Banks; incl. No Opportunity Necessary, No Experience Needed, The Prophet. Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, Deja Vu (Déjà Vu) (album #2) (Mar. 11) (#1 in the U.S.); incl. Our House. Teach Your Children, Woodstock (written by Joni Mitchell); Ohio (June); about the Kent State Massacre of May 4, 1970; the lyrics are quickly adopted by the anti-Nixon student movement; "Tin soldiers and Nixon coming/We're finally on our own/ This summer I hear the drumming/ Four dead in Ohio/ Gonna get down to it/ Soldiers are cutting us down/ Should have been done long ago/ What if you knew her and/ Found her dead on the ground?/ How can you run when you know?"; too bad, after Still's part-Cherokee singer babe Rita Coolidge (1945-) leaves him for Nash, the band breaks up after their summer tour. Neil Young (1945-) and Crazy Horse, After the Gold Rush (album #3) (Sept. 19); incl. Only Love Can Break Your Heart, When You Dance I Can Really Love. Frank Zappa (1940-93) and The Mothers of Invention, Burnt Weeny Sandwich (Feb. 9) (album); Frank Zappa (1940-93) and The Mothers of Invention, Weasels Ripped My Flesh (album) (Aug. 10); incl. Weasels Ripped My Flesh; Chunga's Revenge (album) (solo) (Oct. 23); named after an industrial Gypsy vacuum sweeper?; incl. Chunga's Revenge. Led Zeppelin, Led Zeppelin III (album #3) (Oct. 5); incl. The Immigrant Song. Movies: The genre-making decade in horror film? George Seaton's Airport (Mar. 5), based on the Arthur Hailey novel stars Dean Martin, Burt Lancaster et al. in a trend-setting ticket-selling disaster flick that spawns three sequels, all of which star George Kennedy as Joe Patroni, who gets a promotion each time; #2 grossing film of 1970 ($100.4M). Wolfgang Reitherman's animated The Aristocats (Dec. 21) (Walt Disney Productions) is about a family of aristocratic cats who are kidnapped by the butler to blackmail his mistress into giving him the family fortune instead of them; features the voices of Eva Gabor, Sterling Holloway, Phil Harris, Hermione Baddeley, and Catman Crothers; a Disney animated flick; #5 grossing film of 1970 ($55.6M U.S. and $191M worldwide box office on a $4M budget). Curtis Hanson's The Arousers, starring closet gay Dick, er, Tab Hunter as a Calif. psycho who kills any woman who fails to arouse him (ha ha) becomes a cult hit and puts dir. Hanson on the map. Francois Truffaut's Bed and Board (Domicile Conjugal) stars Jean-Pierre Leaud and Claude Jade as marrieds Antoine and Christine. Robert Stevenson's Bedknobs and Broomsticks (Oct. 7), a Walt Disney musical based on the Mary Norton books stars Angela Lansbury as English witch Eglantice Price in WWII, who turns her father's brass bred into a magic carpet for kids Charlie (Ian Weighill), Carrie (Cindy O'Callaghan) and Paul Rawlins (Roy Snart), and travels with them and Prof. Emelius Browne (David Tomlinson) to the Lost Isle of Naboombu in search of the substitutiary locomotion spell "Traguna, Macoites, Tracorum Satis De" on the Star of Astoroth medallion worn by the lion king; starts the noggin of J.K. Rowling working? Ted Post's Beneath the Planet of the Apes (May 26), a sequel to "The Planet of the Apes" (1968) stars James Franciscus as human astronaut Brent, who discovers the ape planet and hooks up with cave babe Nova (Linda Harrison) then discovers the last city of mutant humans. Russ Meyer's Beyond the Valley of the Dolls (June 17), a vulgar remake of the 1967 Tinseltown "Valley of the Dolls", shot for $1M, written by Roger Ebert and starring Playboy Playmates Dolly Read and Cynthia Myers and actress Marcia McBroom as the femme trio Carrie Nations rakes in $7.5M in 6 mo., saving 20th Century Fox after a spate of costly flops, despite being panned by critics for its outrageous Robert Ebert dialogue, faux rock by Stu Phillips of Monkees TV show fame, a party scene with the pop band Strawberry Alarm Clock (Paul Marshall et al.), lezzie love scenes, quadruple Tate-like murder and triple wedding; Jacqueline Susann sues Fox to distance herself from the production; it later becomes a cult classic AKA BVD. William Friedkin's The Boys in the Band (Mar. 17), based on the play by Mart Crowley about a hetero accidentally invited to a gay party stars Kenneth Nelson as Michael, Peter White as Alan McCarthy, and Robert La Tourneaux as Cowboy Tex. Mike Nichols' Catch-22 (June 24) (Filmways) (MGM), an adaptation by Buck Henry of the 1961 Joseph Heller anti-war satire novel about USAF fliers in the Mediterranean in 1944 stars Alan Arkin as Yossarian, and Bob Newhart as squadron cmdr. Maj. Major, who never flew in a plane; also features Martin Balsam as Col. Cathcart ("Atheism is against the law, isn't it?"), Jon Voight as Lt. Milo Minderbinder ("Cotton made me sick"), Richard Benjamin as Maj. Danby ("Take him out and shoot him"), Buck Henry, Paula Prentiss, Martin Sheen, Charles Grodin, Anthony Perkins as Anabaptist chaplain Capt. Fr. A.T. Tappman, Orson Welles as Gen. Dreedle ("Get back in the car you smirking slut"), and Jack Gilford; the film debut of singer Art Garfunkel as Lt. Nately; does $24.9M box office on an $18M budget. Andrew V. McLaglen's Chisum (July 29), based on a short story by Andrew J. Fenady stars John Wayne and an ensemble cast in the Lincoln County War of 1878. Peter Handke's Chronicle of Current Events is a TV film featuring the debut of Rudiger Vogler (1942-). Erick Rohmer's Claire's Knee is a French talking heads movie about a man's fixation for a young girl's you know what. Federico Fellini's The Clowns (Dec. 26) allows him to dote in childhood. Daniel Haller's The Dunwich Horror (Jan. 14) (Am. Internat. Pictures) debuts, based on the 1929 H.P. Lovecraft story, starring Ed Begley as Dr. Henry Armitage, and Dean Stockwell (after Peter Fonda turns it down) as Wilbur Whatley of Dunwich, Mass., who has a monstrous twin that attacks student Nancy Wagner (Sandra Dee); does $1.043M box office; "A fewyears ago in Dunwich, a half-witted girl bore illegitimate twins. One of them was almost human!" Aram Avakian's End of the Road (Feb. 10), based on the 1967 John Barth novel stars Stacy Keach as Jacob Horner, who is put in the Remobilization Farm, an insane asylum run by Doctor D (James Earl Jones), who cures him and releases him on the condition of no personal relationships, which doesn't stop him from having an affair with Rennie (Dorothy Tristan), a colleague's wife. Bob Rafelson's Five Easy Pieces (Sept. 12) stars Jack Nicholson as a failed pianist working on oil rigs, who steers a dense waitress into giving him toast by ordering a chicken salad sandwich on toast without the chicken salad; the easy pieces are piano music not sandwiches or waitresses; Ralph Waite plays Jack's brother Carl; also stars Karen Black, Susan Anspach, and Billy Green Bush (1935-), father of the Greenbush twins Lindsay and Sidney (b. 1970), who star as Carrie in "Little House on the Prairie" under the alias Lindsay Sidney Greenbush. Bernardo Bertolucci's The Garden of the Finzi-Continis, based on the 1962 Giorgio Bassani novel about the Italian Jewish community in 1938-43 stars Dominique Sanda. Albert and David Yasles and Charlotte Zwerin's Gimme Shelter (Dec. 6) is a documentary of the 1969 Rolling Stones Altamont concert. Tom Gries' The Hawaiians (Master of the Islands) (June 17) (United Artists), based on the 1979 novel "Hawaii" by James A. Michener stars Charlton Heston as pineapple farmer Whipple "Whip" Hoxworth, Geraldine Caplain as his wife Purity, Tina Chen as Nyuk Tsin, and Mako as her hubby Mun Ki. Marcel Ophuls' The Harvest of My Lai is a documentary. The Austrian Love Story, starring himself in love with himself? Arthur Allan Siedelman's Hercules in New York (Feb. 25) stars Arnold Stang, James Karen, Deborah Loomis, Ernest Graves and Tony Carroll, and is the Hollywood film debut of Am. actor Richard Herd Jr. (1932-) along with Austrian import Arnold Schwarzenegger (1947-), "the Austrian Oak", AKA Ahnuld and Arnold Strong, complete with a thick accent, 62" chest and 23" biceps (kinda chickeny legs though?), who wins the first of seven Mr. Olympia bodybuilding titles this year (1970-5, 1980), and wows U.S. audiences with his pectoral acting ability and dubbed-over voice in the film, becoming the male Marilyn Monroe, known for hypertrophied secondary sexual characteristics (muscles), big gap-toothed grin, and an appearance of straw for brains, but in fact known for cagey professionalism and business sense, going on to take business courses in college and make wise real estate investments; he secretly takes steroids before they have the ability to test for them? Leonard Kastle's The Honeymoon Killers (Feb. 4) (Roxanne Co.) stars Rony Lo Bianco and Shirley Stoler as 1940s Lonely Hearts Killers Raymond Fernandez and Martha Beck; Marin Scorsese is the initial dir. until getting fired; achieves cult status, and becomes Francois Truffaut's "favorite American film"; does $11M box office on a $200K budget. Gilbert Cates' I Never Sang for My Father (Oct. 18), based on the Robert Anderson play stars Gene Hackman as prof. Gene Garrison, who plans to marry and move to Calif., but is held back by his parents. Elio Petri's Investigation of a Citizen Above Suspicion stars Gian Maria Volonte as a police inspector who kills his mistress and deliberately leaves clues to himself to prove that he's O.J., er, can get away with because of who he is. John G. Avildsen's Joe (July 15) stars Peter Boyle, Dennis Patrick, and Susan Sarandon (who went to the audition with her actor-husband Chris Sarandon) in her debut as an exec and blue collar worker looking for the exec's runaway junkie daughter in the counterculture. Stuart Burge's Julius Caesar (June 4) stars starring Charlton Heston as Mark Antony, Richard Chamberlain as Octavius, Jason Robards as Brutus, John Gielgud as Caesar, Robert Vaughn as Casca, and Diana Rigg as Portia; after Robards' performance is panned, it flops at the box office; "No grander Caesar... No greater cast". Brian G. Hutton's Kelly's Heroes (June 23) is an oddball bank heist flick set in WWII, starring Clint Eastwood as Pvt. Kelly, Telly Savalas as MSgt. Big Joe, Don Rickles as SSgt. Crapgame, Donald Sutherland as Sgt. Oddball, and Carroll O'Connor as Maj. Gen. Colt; filmed in Yugoslavia because they still use WWII-era tanks; the Kelly's Heroes Theme by the Mike Curb Congregation, composed by Lalo Schifrin hits #34 in the U.S.; All for the Love of Sunshine by Hank Williams Jr. becomes his first #1 country hit. Hal Ashby's The Landlord (May 20), based on the Kristin Hunter novel stars Beau Bridges as Elgar Winthrop Julius Enders, who runs away from home at age 29 and buys a black-occupied slum bldg. in Brooklyn and decides to kick them out and make it into a posh flat for whites, until he grows too fond of them; also stars Pearl Bailey as Marge. John Boorman's Leo the Last (May 11), based on "The Prince" by George Tabori stars Marcello Mostroianni as Prince Leo, and Billie Whitelaw as Margaret. Arthur Penn's Little Big Man (Dec. 23) (Nat. Gen. Pictures), based on the 1964 Thomas Berger novel stars Dustin Hoffman as 121-y.-o. Jack Crabb, who reminisces about his life starting at age 17, ending with his days with vainglorious golden haired Gen. George Armstrong Custer (Richard Mulligan); Chief Dan George plays Old Lodge Skins, and Faye Dunaway plays Mrs. Louise Pendrake AKA Lulu Kane; takes the Native Am. side against the U.S. Cavalry, indirectly protesting the Vietnam War; Hoffman sets a record for portraying a 104-year age span (until ?); does $31.6M box office on a $15M budget; "Little Big Man was either the most negelected hero in history or a liar of insane proportion!" Arthur Hiller's Love Story (Dec. 16) (Paramount), written by Erich Wolf Segal (1937-2010) stars Romeo, er, Charles Patrick Ryan O'Neal (1941-) as rich Harvard student Oliver Barrett IV, and Alice "Ali" McGraw (1938-) as poor Juliet, er, Jenny Cavilleri, jerking big tears with her pathetic death, woo-woo-woo; the novel is later written from the script; the film debut of San Saba, Tex.-born real Harvard U. student (roommate of Al Gore) Tommy Lee Jones (1946-) as Hank Simpson; features the song Where Do I Begin? (Love Story); #1 grossing film of 1970 ($106.3M); the word cancer is never mentioned in the film; using bubblebrain McGraw to portray a brainy Radcliffe babe is outrageous miscasting, but perfect for the crowds who only want to see her bod? - brilliant? Jacques Demy's The Magic Donkey (The Donkey Skin) (Peau d'Ane) is a musical adapted from the Charles Perrault fairy tale, starring Catherine Deneuve and Jean Marais, with music by Michel Legrand. Leonard Horn's The Magic Garden of Stanley Sweetheart (MGM) is the film debut of Hopewell, Mo.-born Donny Wayne "Don" Johnson (1949-); too bad, it's a flop, causing Johnson to utter the soundbyte: "It damn near sent me back to Missouri." Robert Altman's M*A*S*H (Apr. 6), adapted from the 1968 novel by Richard Hooker (AKA Dr. H. Richard Hornberger and William Heinz), about the 4077th Military Air Surgical Hospital Unit in the Korean Conflict is a hilarious anti-war blast filled with zany anti-heroes who are smarter than the govt. who got them into this mess; stars Donald Sutherland as Capt. Benjamin Franklin "Hawkeye" Pierce, Elliott Gould as Capt. John Francis Xavier "Trapper John" McIntyre, Robert Duvall as Maj. Frank Burns, and Sally Kellerman as Maj. Margaret "Hot Lips" O'Houlihan; #3 grossing film of 1970 ($81.6M). Lamont Johnson's The McKenzie Break (Oct. 28) (United Artists) stars Brian Keith as British Army Capt. Jack Connor, who arrives at McKenzie POW Camp in Scotland to investigate U-Boat Capt. Willi Schluter (Helmut Griem), who is taking on commandant Major. Perry (Ian Hendry), learning too late that they're planning an escape in a truck, with a U-boat waiting. Alan Cooke's The Mind of Mr. Soames, based on the 1961 novel by Charles Eric Maine stars Terence Stamp as Joan Soames, who suffers from a brain injury that keeps him in a deep sleep, and is operated on by doctors Maitland (Nigel Davenport) and Bergen (Robert Vaughn) in a hospital turned into a reality TV show; "Can this baby kill?"; "...displays an emptiness and a falseness of response that is beneath even the inadequacy of its ideas and the banality of its plot" (NYT). Michael Sarne's Myra Breckinridge (June 24) is a woof version of the 1968 Gore Vidal novel, starring Raquel Welch as Myra (who started out as Myron before the sex change operation by a stoned surgeon), John Huston as Uncle Buck Loner, and Mae West as nympho Leticia Van Allen, who runs a talent agency for "leading men" only; "As funny as a child molester" (Time mag.); so bad it's withdrawn by the studio; the unmemorable film debut of Thomas William "Tom" Selleck (1945-) and Farrah (Ferrah Leni) Fawcett (1947-2009). Arthur Hiller's The Out-of-Towners (May 28) stars Jack Lemmon and Sandy Dennis as George, and Gwen Kellerman, who take a trip to New York City and end up getting attacked by softball players in Central Park. Ingmar Bergman's The Passion of Anna (May 28) stars Liv Ullmann, Bibi Andersson, and Max von Sydow in a psychodrama on isolated Faro Island. Franklin J. Schaffner's Patton (Feb. 4) (20th Cent. Fox) stars vain, grumpy George C. Scott (after Rod Steiger turns it down) as grumpy, vain bitch-slapping Old Blood and Guts, an 18th-cent. general living in the wrong era, giving war and patriotism a good name by blaming it all on him?; Karl Malden plays sane reserved Gen. Omar N. Bradley; "Ten hut! Be seated" (opening); #4 grossing film of 1970 ($61.8 U.S. box office on a $12.6M budget). Donald Cammell's and Nicolas Roeg's Performance (Aug. 3) (Goodtimes Enterprises) (Warner Bros.) stars James Fox as Chas, a member of an East London gang led by Harry Flowers (Johnny Shannon), who hides out in the London house of Turner (Mick Jagger in his film debut), a reclusive former rock star who lives in a bisexual menage a trois with Pherbert (Anita Pallenberg) and Lucy (Michele Breton), ending up shooting him; "Vice. And Versa"; its dark sex, drug use, and violence gets its debut delayed two years; Cammell ends up committing suicide by shotgun. Robert Downey Sr.'s Pound, (United Artists), based on his 1961 play "The Comeuppance" about animals waiting to be put to sleep is the film debut of Downey's 5-y.-o. son Robert John Downey Jr. (1965-) as Puppy. Roberto Rossellini's La Prise de la Pouvoir par Louis XIV (The Rise of Louis XIV) (Dec. 20) is a TV movie starring Jean-Marie Patte that captures the John Mark Karr experience centuries ahead of time? Billy Wilder's The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes (Oct. 29), based on the Arthur Conan Doyle works stars Robert Stephens as Holmes and Colin Blakely as Watson, who end up meeting the Loch Ness monster. Waris Hussein's Quackser Fortune Has a Cousin in the Bronx (July 13) stars Gene Wilder as good-for-nothing horse dung-selling Quackser Fortune, whose Dublin working class family can't talk him into getting a real job, and who meets Am. exchange student Zazel (Margot Kidder) and wants to go back with her. Jack Smight's Rabbit, Run (Oct.), based on the 1960 John Updike novel stars James Caan as Rabbit Angstrom, who 3 mo. ago ran out to buy his wife Janet (Carrie Snodgress) cigarettes, and hasn't decided to come home yet. Lionel Jeffries' The Railway Children (Dec. 21) (EMI Elstree) (MGM-EMI) (Universal Pictures), based on the 1906 children's novel by Edith Nesbit stars Dinah Sheridan as Mrs. Waterbury, mother of the Waterbury children incl. Roberta "Bobbie" (Jenny Agutter), Phyllis (Sally Thomsett), and Peter (Gary Warren), who are forced to move from their luxurious Edwardian villa in London to the cruddy Three Chimneys house in Yorkshire near the Great Northern and Southern Railway after the father (Ian Cuthbertson) is wrongly imprisoned for selling secrets to the Russians, going on to rescue Russian dissident Mr. Szczepansky (Gordon Whiting) and others while trying to prove daddy's innocence. Rene Clement's Rider on the Rain (La Passager de la Pluie) (Jan. 21) stars Charles Bronson as U.S. Army Col. Harry Dobbs, who tracks down an escaped sex maniac in France; also stars Marlene Jobert as Melancolie "Mellie" Mau, and Jill Ireland as Nicole. David Lean's Ryan's Daughter (Nov. 9) (MGM), loosely based on Gustave Flaubert's 1856 novel "Madame Bovary", set in 1916 stars Sarah Miles as Rosy Ryan Shaughnessy, who is in love with schoolmaster Charles Shaughnessy (Robert Mitchum, after first pick Paul Scofield has other commitments, and Gregory Peck lobbies for it in vain), then secretly hooks up with newly-arrived PTSD-suffering English officer Maj. Randolph Doryan (Christopher Jones, after first pick Marlon Brando has other commitments), who works with her secret traitor pub owner father Tom (Leo McKern) in Kirrary, County Kerry, Ireland, who tips him off about some gun-running by the IRA, allowing him to ambush them, getting her labeled as a traitor when the affair is discovered, after which she takes the rap to protect her daddy; Trevor Howard (after Alec Guinness) plays Father Hugh Collins; John Mills plays village idiot Michael; does $30.8M box office on a $13.3M budget; too bad, scathing criticism by film critics Pauline Kael, Roger Ebert, and Richard Schickel causes Lean to quit making films for the next 14 years, although it is later considered a classic. Arthur Rankin Jr.'s and Jules Bass' animated Christmas TV special Santa Claus Is Comin' to Town (Dec. 14), made using Japanese Animagic stop motion animation stars Fred Astaire as narrator S.D. Kluger, Mickey Rooney as Kris Kringle/Santa Claus, Keenan Wynn as the Winter Warlock, and Paul Frees as Burgermeisterr Meisterburger of Sombertown, featuring Santa's birth and infancy; it goes on to be aired every year on ABC-TV followed by ABC Family Channel (until ?). Ralph Nelson's Soldier Blue (Aug. 12), written by John Gay based on the 1969 Theodore V. Olsen novel "Arrow in the Sun"tells the story of the 1864 Colo. Sand Creek Massacre from a revisionist POV, and stars Candice Bergen, Peter Strauss, and Donald Pleasance; the title song Soldier Blue is by Buffy Sainte-Marie. Bud Yorkin's Start the Revolution Without Me (Aug. 14), starring Gene Wilder and Donald Sutherland as identical twins who are separated at birth and meet just before the French Rev. is a box office flop but later becomes a cult classic. Stuart Hagmann's The Strawberry Statement (June 15), based on the book by Columbia U. student James Simon Kunen stars Bruce Davison as Simon, and Kim Darby as Linda in a movie about the 1968 Columbia U. protests, with Amerindian beauty-brain babe Marie Sainte-Marie singing "The Circle Game". Otto Preminger's Tell Me That You Love Me, Junie Moon (May 11), based on the 1968 Marjorie Kellogg novel stars Liza Minelli as disfigured Junie Moon, who leaves the hospital and sets up housekeeping with disabled Arthur (Ken Howard) and Warren (Robert Moore). Joseph L. Mankiewicz's There Was a Crooked Man... (Dec. 25) stars Kirk Douglas as criminal Paris Pitman Jr., who does a 10-year stretch in Ariz. while squirreling away $500K in loot then trying to escape; Henry Fonda plays Woodward L. Lopeman, Warren Oates plays Floyd Moon, Hume Cronyn plays Dudley Whinner, and Burgess Meredith plays the Missouri Kid; "Once upon a time there was a crooked man. When he was good, he was very, very good. And when he was bad, it was murder." Laurence Olivier's Three Sisters (Nov. 2), based on the 1900 Anton Chekhov play about the Prozoroff sisters stars Jeanne Watts as Olga, Joan Plowright as Masha, and Louise Purnell as Irina. Richard O. Fleischer's Tora! Tora! Tora! (Sept. 23) (20th Cent. Fox) stars Martin Balsam as Adm. Husband E. Kimmel, Joseph Cotten as U.S. secy. of war Henry L. Stimson, E.G. Marshall as Col. Rufus S. Bratton, James Whitmore as Vice-Adm. William F. Halsey, and Japanese actors Takahiro Tamura as Cmdr. Mitsuo Fuchida and Eijiro Tono as Vice-Adm. Chuichi Nagumo in a retelling of the Dec. 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor attack; Japanese dirs. Toshio Masuda and Kinji Fukasaku are given a crack at the film to make it balanced?; does $29.5M box office on a $25.5M budget. Luis Bunuel's Tristana (Apr. 29) stars Catherine Deneuve as a girl who moves in with a benefactor after her mother dies, is seduced, then runs away with an artist, depicting fascist Spain's attempt to find its place in the 20th cent. Joseph Strick's Tropic of Cancer (Feb. 27), based on the Henry Miller novel stars Rip Torn as Henry Miller, James T. Callahan as Fillmore, and Ellen Burstyn as Mona Miller, pursuing art, food and sex in gay Paris. Don Siegel's Two Mules for Sister Sara (June 16) (The Malpaso Co.) (Universal Pictures) stars Clint Eastwood as ex-Civil War soldier Hogan, and Shirley MacLaine (who replaced Elizabeth Taylor) as a nun, who get in an adventure over a French fort in Mexioo and then hook up; does $4.7M box office on a $2.5M budget. Barbara Loden's Wanda; written by Loden (wife of Elia Kazan), who stars as a woman who abandons her family and flees to petty criminal Michael Higgins. Michael Wadleigh's Woodstock (Mar. 26) packages the dying Hippie movement with a nice safe video for the survivors, who are busy selling out to the system; split-screen montage edited by Martin Scorsese advances the art. Michelangelo Antonioni's Zabriskie Point (Feb. 9) is Antonioni's first U.S. feature film, examining the swinging 69, er, 60s-70s American way of life via an orgy in Death Valley, Calif.; Mark Frechette stars as Mark, and Daria Halprin as Daria. Plays: Richard Seff (1927-), Paris Is Out! (comedy) (Brooks Atkinson Theatre, New York) (Feb. 2) (96 perf.); stars Molly Picon and Sam Levene; produced by David Black and New York City-born Donald John Trump (1946-); after it flops, recent Wharton School of the U. of Penn. grad Trump decides to go into real estate. Jean Anouilh (1910-87), Les Poissons Rouges ou Mon Pere, ce Heros (The Goldfish). Alan Ayckbourn (1939-), How the Other Half Loves (Lyric Theatre, London) (Aug. 5); stars Robert Morley, Joan Tetzel, and Elizabeth Ashton. Daniel Berrigan (1921-), The Trial of the Cantonsville Nine (Los Angeles); the 1968 burning of Selective Service files by the Berrigan brothers. Jerry Bock (1928-), and Sheldon Harnick (1924-), and Sherman Yellen (1932-), The Rothschilds (musical) (Lunt-Fontanne Theatre, New York) (Oct. 19) (505 perf.); based on the book by Frederic Morton, set in the 1770s; last work by Bock and Harnick; stars Hal Linden as Mayer Rothschild, Leila Martin as Gutele, Jill Clayburgh as Hannah Cohen, Chris Sarandon as Jacob Rothschild, and Robby Benson as young Solomon Rothschild. Robert Bolt (1924-95), Vivat! Vivat Regina! (Chichester); Elizabeth I gives up love for power, while Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots does the reverse? Howard Brenton (1942-), Wesley. Lee Breuer (1937-), The Red Horse Animation; first in the Animation Trilogy, incl. "The B. Beaver Animation" (1974), "The Shaggy Dog Animation" (1978). Ed Bullins (1935-), The Duplex: A Black Love Fable in Four Movements; a tenant hooks up with his abused landlady and fights her hubby. Alice Childress (1920-94), Mojo: A Black Love Story. Thomas Covington Dent (1932-98), Negro Study No. 34A (debut); Snapshot. William Douglas-Home (1912-92), The Jockey Club Stakes; Uncle Dick's Surprise. Dario Fo (1926-), The Accidental Death of an Anarchist (Morte Accidentale di Un Anarchico) (Vio Coletta, Milan) (Dec. 10); written after a terrorist attack on the Nat. Agriculture Bank in Milan. Nancy Ford (1935-) and Gretchen Cryer (1935-), The Last Sweet Days of Isaac (rock musical) (Eastside Playhouse, New York) (Jan. 26) (465 perf.); stars Austin Pendleton as Isaac Bernstein gets stuck in an elevator with Ingrid (Fredericka Weber) (later Alice Playton), and attempts to teach him his life philsophy; later they are locked in separate prison cells and use TV cameras and monitors to make love, until Alice learns of Isaac's death in a demonstration, questioning reality; features Overture, A Transparent Crystal Moment, Love You Came to Me, My Most Important Moments Go By, I Can't Live in Solitary, Touching Your Hand Is Like Touching Your Mind, Finale Part I: The Elevator, Somebody Died Today, Finale Part II: I Want to Walk to San Francisco. Gary Geld (1935-), Peter Udell (1929-), Ossie Davis (1917-2005), and Philip Rose (1921-2011), Purlie (musical) (Broadway Theatre, New York) (Mar. 15) (Winter Garden Theatre, New York) (ANTA Theatre, New York) (688 perf.); based on Davis' 1961 play "Purlie Victorious" and the 1963 film "Gone Are the Days!", about Jim Crow era Southern traveling preacher Purlie Victorious Judson (Cleavon Little) (later Robert Guillaume), who returns to a small Ga. town to save the Big Bethel Church and help free cotton pickers from the Ol' Cap'n Cotchipee Plantation; features the song I Got Love. Paul Goodman (1911-72), Tragedy and Comedy: Four Cubist Plays. Simon Gray (1936-2008), The Idiot (Old Vic, London); adapted from the novel by Fyodor Dostoyevsky. Peter Handke (1942-), Wind and Sea: Four Radio Plays. Michael Frayn (1933-), The Two of Us (four 1-act plays). Bruce Jay Friedman (1930-), Steambath; God is portrayed by a Puerto Rican steamroom attendant. Gary William Friedman and Will Holt (1929-), The Me Nobody Knows (rock musical) (Orpheum Theatre, New York) (May 18) (208 perf.) (Helen Hayes Theatre, New York) (Dec. 18) (Longacre Theatre, New York) (Nov. 14, 1971) (378 perf.); first Broadway hit to voice the sentiments of inner-city Am. youth, with a cast of eight blacks and four whites; stars Irene Cara (1959-) as Lillie Mae, Beverly Bremers (1950-) as Catherine, Hattie Winston (1945-) as Nell, and Northern J. Calloway (1948-70) (David in "Sesame Street"); features the songs If I Had a Million Dollars, Light Sings, Robert, Alvin, Wendell and Jo Jo - Rhoda, Lillian, Lillie Mae and William. Christopher Fry (1907-2005), A Yard of Sun (Nottingham Playhouse); #4 (summer) in his four seasonal plays (begun 1948). Romain Gary (1914-80), Chien Blanc. Charles Gordone (1925-95), Gordone is a Mutha. Paul Eliot Green (1894-1981), Trumpet in the Land; Ohio's first outdoor production. Christopher Hampton (1946-), The Philanthropist (Royal Court Theatre, London) (Aug. 3) (Ethel Barrymore Theatre, New York (Mar. 15, 1971; stars Alec McCowen. Lorraine Hansberry (1930-65), Les Blancs; another collection of her unfinished dramatic works by ex-hubby Robert Nemiroff. David Hare (1947-), Slag (debut); three teachers at a girls school decide to abstain from sex as a protest. Rolf Hochhuth (1931-), Guerrillas. Tina Howe (1937-), The Nest (first play). Eugene Ionesco (1909-94), The Killing Game (Jeux de Massacre). Ann Jellicoe (1927-), The Giveaway: A Comedy. Clare Boothe Luce (1903-87), Slam the Door Softly (last play); "When a man can't explain a woman's actions, the first thing he thinks about is the condition of her uterus". Robert Marasco (1936-98), Child's Play (Royale Theatre, New York) (Feb. 12) (342 perf.) (first play); original title "The Dark"; produced by David Merrick; dir. by Joseph Hardy; big hit about demonic doings at the St. Charles Roman Catholic boys boarding school, inspired by a newspaper story about a teacher who gave kids some homework and jumped out of the window; stars Pat Hingle as Joseph Dobbs, Fritz Weaver as Jerome Malley, Ken Howard as Paul Reese, and Michael McGuire as Father Frank Mozian; filmed in 1972 by Sidney Lumet. David Mercer (1928-80), After Haggerty (Aldwych Theatre, London); stars Frank Finlay, John White, Billie Dixon, and David Wood; Flint. Ronald Millar (1919-98), Abelard and Heloise. Jason Miller (1939-2001), Nobody Hears a Broken Drum. John Mortimer (1923-2009), A Voyage Round My Father. Alwin Nikolais (1910-93), Structures. Zoe B. Oldenbourg (1916-2002), La Joie des Pauvres (The Heirs of the Kingdom). John Osborne (1929-94), West of Suez. Rochelle Owens (1936-), Kontraption. Terence Rattigan (1911-77), A Bequest to the Nation (Theatre Royal, Haymarket) (Sept. 23); British adm. Horatio Nelson (Ian Holm), his mistress Emma Hamilton, and his wife Frances Nisbet before and after the Oct. 21, 1805 Battle of Trafalgar; filmed in 1973 starring Peter Finch, Glenda jackson, and Margaret Leighton. Richard Rodgers (1902-79), Martin Charnin (1934-), and Peter Stone (1930-2003), Two by Two (musical) (Imperial Theatre, New York) (Nov. 10) (352 perf.); based on the 1954 Clifford Odets play "The Flower Peach"; the story of Noah and his preprations for the Great Flood; dir. by Joe Layton; stars Danny Kaye, Marilyn Cooper, Joan Copeland, Harry Goz, Madeline Kahn, Tricia O'Neil, and Walter Willison; Kaye keeps it alive by hamming it up differently in each performance. Willy Russell (1947-), Keep Your Eyes Down On the Road (first play). Francoise Sagan (1935-2004), Un Piano dans l'Herbe (A Piano in the Grass). Sonia Sanchez (1934-), The Bronx is Next (debut). Anthony Shaffer (1926-2001), Sleuth (Music Box Theatre, New York) (Nov. 12) (1,222 perf.); stars Anthony Quayle as mystery writer Andrew Wyke of Wiltshire (based on game-lover Stephen Sondheim), and Keith Baxter as his wife's lover Milo Tindle, whom he talks into staging a robbery of her jewelry in order to trap him, ending up in a cat-and-mouse game; filmed in 1972 starring Laurence Olivier and Michael Caine, in 2007 starring Jude Law and Michael Caine, and in 2014. Peter Shaffer (1926-), The Battle of Shrivings. Sam Shepard (1943-), Operation Sidewinder; an experimental computer in the form of a rattlesnake; his first major production. Neil Simon (1927-2018), The Gingerbread Lady (Plyouth Theatre, New York) (Dec. 13) (193 perf.); written for and starring Maureen Stapleton. Stephen Sondheim (1930-) and George Furth (1932-2008), Company (musical) (original title "Threes") (Alvin Theatre, New York) (Apr. 26) (705 perf.); dir. by Harold Prince; stars Dean Jones as single male Bobby, who has three girlfriends, Donna McKechnie, Susan Browning, Pamela Myers, and celebrates his birthday as five married couples who are his best friends tell about their gripes, giving the audience a lesson in adult relationships; "Broadway Theatre has been for many years supported by upper-middle-class people with upper-middle-class problems. These people really want to escape that world when they go to the theatre, and then here we are with Company talking about how we're going to bring it right back in their faces" (Sondheim); features the songs Company, Company, Sorry-Grateful, The Little Things You Do Together, You Could Drive a Person Crazy. Tom Stoppard (1937-), After Magritte; so many bad puns it's good?; "I never took a semaphore as a sophomore, morse the pity." David Storey (1933-), Home (Royal Court Theatre, London) (June 17); stars John Gielgud and Ralph Richardson. Charles Strouse (1928-), Lee Adams (1924-), Betty Comden (1917-2006), and Adolph Green (1914-2002), Applause (musical) (Palace Theatre, New York) (Mar. 30) (896 perf.); based on the 1950 film "All About Eve", and the Mary Orr story "The Wisdom of Eve"; choreographed by Ron Field; stars Lauren Bacall (later Anne Baxter, and Arlene Dahl, after Rita Hayworth proves to have Alzheimer's) as Margo Channing, and Penny Fuller as Eve Harrington. Megan Terry (1932-), Approaching Simone; French Jewish female philosopher Simone Weil (1909-43), who died from a hunger strike in England while protesting treatment of soldiers in WWII. Antonio Buero Vallejo (1916-2000), The Sleep of Reason (El Sueno a la Razon) (Teatro Arena Vitoria, Madrid) (Feb. 6); oppression under Ferdinand VII in 1823 Spain. Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (1922-2007), Happy Birthday, Wanda June; big game hunter Harold Ryan, his wife Penelope, and young Wanda, who speaks to the audience from Heaven while playing shuffleboard. Derek Walcott (1930-), In a Fine Castle. Peter Weiss (1916-82), Trotzky im Exil (Trotsky in Exile). Arnold Wesker (1932-), The Friends. Tennessee Williams (1911-83), Small Craft Warnings; a self-loathing gay artist disses the "deadening coarseness" of most gays at an oceanside Calif. bar. Lanford Wilson (1937-), Lemon Sky; Serenading Louie. Sandy Wilson (1924-), His Monkey Wife (musical). Poetry: Walter Abish (1931-), Duel Site (debut). Archie Randolph Ammons (1926-2001), Uplands. Maya Angelou (1928-), Just Give Me a Cool Drink of Water 'Fore I Diiie. John Ashbery (1927-2017), The Double Dream of Spring. Margaret Atwood (1939-), Procedures for Underground; The Journals of Susanna Moodie. Amiri Baraka (1934-2014), It's Nation Time. John Berryman (1914-72), Love and Fame. Paul Blackburn (1926-71), The Assassination of President McKinley; Three Dreams and an Old Poem; Gin: Four Journal Pieces. Richard Brautigan (1935-84), Rommel Drives on Deep into Egypt; cover shows model Beverley Allen sitting in a sandbox in Golden Gate Park; "Rommel is dead./ His army has joined the quicksand legions of history where the battle is always/ a metal echo saluting a rusty shadow./ His tanks are gone./ How's your ass?"; "An amalgam of Zen Buddhism, William Carlos Williams, and the stoned comic strips of R. Crumb." (Carey A. Horowitz) Gwendolyn Brooks (1917-2000), Family Pictures; incl. The Life of Lincoln West. Jim Carroll (1949-2009), 4 Ups and 1 Down. Paul Celan (1920-70), Lichtzwang (Light-Compulsion). Agatha Christie (1890-1976), Poems (Oct.). Andrei Codrescu (1946-), License to Carry a Gun (debut). Gregory Corso (1930-2001), Elegiac Feelings. Robert Creeley (1926-2005), In London. Cecil Day-Lewis (1904-72), The Whispering Roots and Other Poems. James Dickey (1923-97), Eye-Beaters, Blood, Victory, Madness, Buckhead and Mercy. Thomas Michael Disch (1940-2008), Marilyn Hacker (1942-), and Charles Platt, Highway Sandwiches (debut). Edward Dorn (1929-99), Songs Set Two: A Short Count. Mona Van Duyn (1921-2004), To See, To Take; incl. The Voyeur, The Creation. William Eastlake (1917-97), A Child's Garden of Verses for the Revolution. Gunter Eich (1907-72), Ein Tibeter in Meinem Buro (Büro), 49 Maulwurfe (Maulwürfe). Mari Evans (1923-), I Am a Black Woman. George Fetherling (1949-), My Experience in the War. Nikki Giovanni (1943-), Re: Creation; incl. Ego Tripping; "I was born in the Congo./ I walked to the Fertile Crescent and built the sphinx./ I designed a pyramid so tough that a star/ that only glows every one hundred years falls/ into the center giving divine perfect light./ I am bad." Paul Goodman (1911-72), Homespun of Oatmeal Gray: Poems. Robert Ranke Graves (1895-1985), Poems 1968-1970. Ramon Guthrie (1896-1973), Maximum Security Ward and Other Poems. Michael S. Harper (1938-), Dear John, Dear Coltrane (debut). Jim Harrison (1937-2016), Outlyer and Ghazals. Robert Hayden (1913-80), Words in the Mourning Times. Seamus Heaney (1939-2013), A Boy Driving His Father to Confession. Sandra Hochman (1936-), Earthworks: Poems 1960-1970. John Hollander (1929-), Images of Voice. Richard Howard (1929-), Untitled Subjects (Pulitzer Prize). Ted Hughes (1930-98), Crow: From the Life and Songs of the Crow; "Crow realized God loved him --/ Otherwise, he would have dropped dead./ So that was proved." David Ignatow (1914-97), Poems: 1934-1969. Elizabeth Jennings (1926-2001), Lucidities. Donald Rodney Justice (1925-2004), Sixteen Poems. Patrick Kavanagh (1904-67), The Great Hunger (posth.); "Clay is the word and clay is the flesh/ Where the potato-gatherers like mechanised scarecrows move." Carolyn Kizer (1925-), Midnight Was My Cry: New and Selected Poems. Etheridge Knight (1931-91), Black Voices from Prison. Maxine Kumin (1925-2014), The Nightmare Factory. Irving Layton (1912-2006), Poems to Color. Denise Levertov (1923-97), Relearning the Alphabet. Audre Lorde (1934-92), Cables to Rage. William Matthews (1942-97), Running the New Road (debut). Rod McKuen (1933-2015), Caught in the Quiet (Jan.). William Meredith Jr. (1919-2007), Earth Walk: New and Selected Poems. W.S. Merwin (1927-), The Carrier of Ladders (Pulitzer Prize); he goes on to pub. "On Being Awarded the Pulitzer Prize" in the June 3 issue of the New Yorker Review of Books, dissing the Vietnam War and donating his prize money, causing mentor W.H. Auden to respond with a letter "Saying No" on July 1 stating that the Pulitzer Prize for poetry isn't political. Kenneth Patchen (1911-72), Aflame and Afun of Walking Faces. Stanley Plumly (1939-), In the Outer Dark (debut). Ezra Pound (1885-1972), The Cantos; an 800-page unfinished poem he worked on for 50 years, claiming to trace the fall of civilization to the conflict between artistic spirit and materialistic greed, building up his heroes John Adams and Thomas Jefferson; becomes the #1 work of modernist poetry. Luis Omar Salinas (1937-2008), Crazy Gypsy (debut); incl. Nights and Days, Aztec Angel. Sonia Sanchez (1934-), We a BaddDDD People. Nathalie Sarraute (1900-99), Isma, ou Ce Qui s'Appelle Rien. Dave Smith (1942-), Bull Island (debut). Gary Snyder (1930-), Regarding Wave. Mark Strand (1934-), Darker: Poems; incl. The New Poetry Handbook; "If a man understands a poem,/ he shall have troubles./ If a man lives with a poem,/ he shall die lonely./ If a man lives with two poems,/ he shall be unfaithful to one." May Swenson (1913-89), Iconographs. James Tate (1943-), The Oblivion Ha-Ha. Margaret Walker (1915-98), Prophets for a New Day. William Carlos Williams (1883-1963), Imaginations (posth.). Charles Wright (1935-), The Grave of the Right Hand (debut) (Apr. 1). Louis Zukofsky (1904-78), Little: For Careenagers; Initial. Novels: Catherine Aird (1930-), A Late Phoenix; Detective Inspector Sloan #4. Brian W. Aldiss (1925-), The Hand-Reared Boy, about male masturbation; #1 in the Horace Stubbs Saga (1971, 1978); The Moment of Eclipse (short stories). Louis Auchincloss (1917-), Second Chance: Tales of Two Generations (short stories). Richard Bach (1936-), Jonathan Livingston Seagull; 10K-word story about a fast-flying seagull who flies for love of flying rather than just to catch food; bestseller for 1972-3, selling 1M copies in 1972, then passing "Gone With the Wind" with 3M copies sold; rejected by 18 pubs. before Macmillan takes a chance. Toni Cade Bambara (1939-95) (ed.), The Black Woman; first anthology of works of black woman writers, incl. Alice Walker (1944-), Nikki Giovanni (1943-) et al. Donald Barthelme (1931-89), City Life (short stories). Frederick Barthelme (1943-), Rangoon (short stories) (debut); brother of Donald Barthelme (1931-89). Roland Barthes (1915-80), Empire of Signs. Barrington J. Bayley (1937-2008), Star Virus (first novel). Samuel Beckett (1906-89), More Pricks Than Kicks (short stories); The Lost Ones; a 50m x 16m flattened cylinder world and its pathetic inhabitants. Saul Bellow (1915-2005), Mr. Sammler's Planet; Holocaust survivor Arthur Sammler contemplates life in New York City's ddWest Side, and encounters a black pickpocket. Thomas Berger (1924-), Vital Parts. Thomas Bernhard (1931-89), Das Kalkwerk (The Lime Works). Judy Blume (1938-), Iggie's House; about Winnie, whose best friend Iggie moves away, after which black people move into her house, and she makes friends with them, facing racism from parents et al.; Are You There God? It's Me, Margaret; about a pre-teenie who has to cope with her first brad, first period, boys, etc. Arna Bontemps (1902-73), Mr. Kelso's Lion. Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986), El Informe de Brodie (short stories). John Braine (1922-86), Stay With Me Till Morning. Richard Brautigan (1935-84), The Abortion: An Historical Romance 1966; his last hit; Revenge of the Lawn: Stories 1962-1970 (short stories) (Oct. 1). Frederick Buechner (1926-), The Entrance to Porlock. James Lee Burke (1936-), To the Bright and Shining Sun. Augustin Buzura (1938-), The Absent Ones (Absentii); a young doctor has a spiritual crisis. Louis Carbonneau, Barrier World; a closed society where people are killed when they reach 30. John Dickson Carr (1906-77), The Ghosts' High Noon. James Hadley Chase (1906-85), There's a Hippie on the Highway; Frank Terrell #5. Agatha Christie (1890-1976), Passenger to Frankfurt: An Extravaganza (Sept.). John Christopher (1922-2012), The Guardians; about 2052 England, which is polarized into the Conurbs and the County. Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio (1940-), The War (La Guerre). The Boo (first novel). Catherine Cookson (1906-98), The Invitation. Susan Cooper (1935-), Dawn of Fear. Harry Crews (1935-), This Thing Don't Lead to Heaven. Robertson Davies (1913-95), Fifth Business; #1 in Deptford Trilogy ("The Manticore", "World of Wonders"); based on Jungian archetypes. R.F. Delderfield (1912-72), God is an Englishman; first in the Swann Family Saga, about Indian vet Dam Swann, who returns from the Crimean War to seek his fortune in Victorian England in the transport biz, and hooks up with mill owner's daughter Henrietta. James Dickey (1923-97), Deliverance (first novel); Atlanta businessmen Lewis Medlock, Ed Gentry, Drew Ballinger, and Bobby Trippe decide to skip golfing and take a trip down the Cahulawassee River in N Ga. and get messed up by lonely horny homo inbred hillbillies, then conspire to get away with homicide after they get back to civilization because a dam is scheduled to flood the area and they couldn't get a fair trial from more hillbillies; filmed in 1972. Joan Didion (1934-2021), Play It As It Lays; model-turned-actress Maria Wyeth drives aimlessly on Los Angeles' endless freeways, then commits suicide in a mental institution; "I know what 'nothing' means." Allen Drury (1918-98), The Throne of Saturn; the first manned mission to Mars and its dirty politics. Lawrence Durrell (1912-90), Nunquam; pt. 2 of 2 of "The Revolt of Aphrodite" (1968-70). Allan W. Eckert (1931-), The Conquerors. Mircea Eliade (1907-86), The Endless Column. Harlan Ellison (1934-), Over the Edge (short stories). James T. Farrell (1904-79), Invisible Swords; Troubles; set in 1919; wins the Booker Prize in 2010 after its rules are changed next year from a prize for novels pub. the previous year to the current year, leaving it out in the cold. Jack Finney (1911-95), Time and Again; Simon Morley goes on a time travel adventure in 1880s New York City; followed by "From Time to Time" (1995). Margaret Forster (1938-), Fenella Phizackerley. Paula Fox (1923-), Desperate Characters; childless Brooklyn couple Sophie and Otto Brentwood. Janet Frame (1924-2004), Intensive Care. Bruce Jay Friedman (1930-), The Dick - I'll take eight fingers worth? Carlo Emilio Gadda (1893-1973), La Meccanica. John Gardner (1933-82), The Wreckage of Agathon; a philosopher and his disciple are imprisoned in ancient Sparta, giving them time to talk shop. Romain Gary (1914-80), White Dog (Chien Blanc); a French couple try to deprogram an Ala. police dog trained to attack blacks; filmed in 1982 by Samuel Fuller. Gail Godwin (1937-), The Perfectionists (first novel); a "perfect but unhappy marriage". Nadine Gordimer (1923-), A Guest of Honour. Lois Gould (1932-2002), Such Good Friends (first novel); bestseller about Julie Messinger, who learns of her hubby's affairs as he is dying in a hospital, causing her to pop amphetamines and masturbate; the female Alex Portnoy?; her real hubby Philip Benjamin died in 1966, after which she found his diary telling about his affairs. Winston Graham (1908-2003), Angel, Pearl & Little God; William Angell and Pearl Friedel. Julien Gracq (1910-2007), The Peninsula (La Presqu'île); incl. "The Road", "The Peninsula",and "King Cophetua" (filmed in 1971 by Andre Delvaux as "Rendezvous at Bray"). Gunter Grass (1927-), Local Anaesthetic. Shirley Ann Grau (1929-), The Condor Passes; should have won the 1971 Pulitzer, which was awarded to nobody? Joanne Greenberg (1932-), In This Sign; a deaf family. John Gunther (1901-70), The Indian Sign (Quatrain). Arthur Hailey (1920-2004), Wheels; bestseller about life in the Detroit auto industry. Earl Hamner Jr. (1923-2016), The Homecoming: A Novel About Spencer's Mountain; sequel to "Spencer's Mountain" (1961-). Peter Handke (1942-), Stories from the Wienerwald by Odon von Horvath; Short Letter, Long Farewell. Jim Harrison (1937-2016), Wolf: A False Memoir (first novel). L.P. Hartley (1895-1972), My Sisters' Keeper. John Hawkes (1925-98), The Blood Oranges; two couples on a Greek island get into swapping. Shirley Hazzard (1931-), The Bay of Noon. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), Islands in a Stream (posth.) (Oct.); autobio. novel about a lonely painter; "A gallant wreck of a novel" being "paraded as the real thing" (John Updike). Patricia Highsmith (1921-95), The Snail-Watcher and Other Stories (Eleven); Ripley Under Ground (Ripley #2) (May 31); Ripley tries to keep his lovely French countryside lifestyle going despite all his crimes; filmed in 2005 by Barry Pepper. Susan Hill (1942-), I'm the King of the Castle; filmed in 1989 by Regis Wargnier as "Je suis le seigneur du chateau". Tony Hillerman (1925-2008), The Blessing Way (first novel); Navajo detective Joe Leaphorn; spawns a series. Russell Hoban (1925-), Emmet Otter's Jug-Band Christmas; Ma Otter and her son Emmet try to win a talent show. Paul Horgan (1903-95), Whitewater. Storm Jameson (1891-1986), Parthian Words. Pamela Hansford Johnson (1912-81), The Honours Board; a liberal boys' prep school in Downs Park, S England. Uwe Johnson (1934-84), Jahrestage: Aus dem Leben von Gesine Cresspahl (4 vols.) (1971-83) (Anniversaries: From the Life of Gesine Cresspahl). Ward Just (1935-), A Soldier of the Revolution. Ismail Kadare (1936-), The Castle (The Siege); Scanderbeg of Albania vs. the Ottoman Turks. Sue Kaufman (1926-77), Life with Prudence: A Chilling Tale. Emma Lathen, Pick Up Sticks; John Putnam Thatcher #11. Elmore Leonard (1925-2013), Valdez is Coming. Ira Levin (1929-2007), This Perfect Day; Chip lives in a future society run by computer; "Don't thank me, thank Uni." Richard Llewellyn (1906-83), But We Didn't Get the Fox; Edmund Trothe #2. Graham Lord (1943-), Marshmallow Pie. Malcolm Lowry (1909-57), October Ferry to Gabriola (posth.); ed. by his widow Margerie Bonner; Ethan Lleweyllen and his wife go to Gabriola Island near Vancouver, B.C. Wallace Markfield (1926-2002), Teitlebaum's Widow; Simon Sloan (b. 1924) from age 8 to the 1941 Pearl Harbor attack. Bruce Marshall (1899-1987), The Bishop. Larry McMurtry (1936-), Moving On. Stanley Middleton (1919-2009), Apple of the Eye. Yukio Mishima (1925-70), The Decay of the Angel; #4 (last) in the Sea of Fertility (1968-70); delivers the ms. right before trying to take over the govt. and committing seppuku. Brian Moore (1921-99), Fergus. Toni Morrison (1931-2019), The Bluest Eye (first novel); a poor abused black girl wishes for blue eyes - and blondest hair? Alice Munro (1931-), Lives of Girls and Women (short stories). Iris Murdoch (1919-99), A Fairly Honorable Defeat. Robert Nathan (1894-1985), Mia. Larry Niven (1938-), Ringworld; set in 2850; first in a super-popular hard sci-fi series; 200-y.-o. boosterspice-taking Louis Gridley Wu bar-hops the world westward to celebrate his birthday, then travels to Known Space, where he meets Pierson's Puppeteer Nessus (3 legs, 2 heads, 0 arms), and joins him, Kzin, and Teela Brown on a mission to Ringworld in order to win the superfast ship Long Shot. Francois Nourissier (1927-), La Creve (Crève). Joyce Carol Oates (1938-), The Wheel of Love and Other Stories. Edna O'Brien (1930-), A Pagan Place; her repressive literature-hating Irish parents; a James Joyce "Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man" with a woman? John O'Hara (1905-70), The Ewings. Michael Ondaatje (1943-), The Collected Works of Billy the Kid. John Jay Osborn Jr. (1945-), The Paper Chase; 1st-year Harvard law student Hart and his contracts class instructor Prof. Charles Kingsfield (John Houseman), who he discovers is the daddy of his girlfriend; Osborn graduated from Harvard Law School in 1970, and writes the first novel to realistically describe student life in U.S. law schools, founding the genre of lawyers-turned-writers? Cynthia Ozick (1928-), The Pagan Rabbi and Other Stories. Edith Pargeter (1913-95), The Knocker on Death's Door; George Felse. Marge Piercy (1936-), Dance the Eagle to Sleep. Reynolds Price (1933-), Permanent Errors (short stories); a blocked writer after his mother's death and his wife's suicide. James Purdy (1914-2009), Jeremy's Version; first of the Sleepers in Moon-Crowded Valleys Trilogy, incl. "Mourners Below" (1981), "The House of the Solitary Maggot" (1986); "No one hated more dearly my home town of Boutflour, planked down in the far south in this Yankee state, than my Uncle Matt Lacey." Jean Raspail (1925-), Welcome Honorable Visitors. Joanna Russ (1937-2011), And Chaos Died. Lawrence Sanders (1920-98), The Anderson Tapes; a gang of criminals plots to rob a luxury apt. bldg.; introduces New York City cop Edward X. Delaney; launches his bestselling novel-writing career at age 50, becoming the Robin Leach of crime novels as he uncovers their dirty laundry. Jose Saramago (1922-2010), Provavelmente Alegria. Thomas Savage (1915-), Daddy's Girl. Erich Segal (1937-2010), Love Story (Feb. 14); a bestselling (9M copies) (41 weeks on the NYT best seller list) novelization of his screenplay for the film, released on Dec. 16; WASP Harvard student Oliver Barrett IV meets working class Radcliffe student Jennifer Cavilleri, who gets rejected by his establishment dad but p-whips him into marrying him, after which she supports him through Harvard Law School, then dies of leukemia, woo-woo-woo; opening lines "What can you way about a twenty-five-year-old girl who died? That she was beautiful and brillant. That she loved Mozart and Bach. The Beatles. And me."; "Love means never having to say you're sorry"; by Nov. the paperback ed. sells 4.35M copies. Maurice Sendak (1928-), In the Night Kitchen; young Mickey's dream journey through the surrealistic Night Kitchen, where he helps the baker create a cake that has to be ready by morning; nude illustrations of toddlers piss-off U.S. PC police? Mary Lee Settle (1918-2005), The Clam Shell. Irwin Shaw (1913-84), Rich Man, Poor Man; bestseller (6M copies) about the Jordache children Rudolph, Thomas, and Gretchen, who are followed along with the U.S. social scene from the 1940s-1960s; later adapted as the first TV miniseries; sequel is "Beggarman, Thief" (1977). Gail Sheehy (1937-), Lovesounds (first novel); a couple drift apart and separate. Alan Sillitoe (1928-2010), A Start in Life. Isaac Bashevis Singer (1902-91), A Friend of Kafka and Other Stories; Enemies: A Love Story; his first novel set in the U.S., about a Polish Jew who marries the woman who helped him escape from the Nazis, then finds that his first wife is still alive. John Thomas Sladek (1937-2000), The Muller-Fokker Effect; Bob Shairp volunteers to be turned into a computer. Martin Cruz Smith (1942-), Indians War (first novel). C.P. Snow (1905-80), Last Things; 11th and last vol. of "Strangers and Brothers" (first in 1940). Gilbert Sorrentino (1929-2006), Steelwork. Terry Southern (1924-95), Blue Movie; Boris "B" Adrian films "The Faces of Love" about the full range of human sexual experience; dedicated "To the great Stanley K." (Kubrick) Muriel Spark (1918-2006), The Driver's Seat. Norman Spinrad (1940-), The Last Hurrah of the Golden Horde (short stories). Frank Swinnerton (1884-1982), On the Shady Side. Earl Thompson (1931-78), A Garden of Sand (first novel); semi-autobio. novel about young boy Jacky MacDeramid, who goes on a journey from Wichita to Corpus Christi. Roderick Thorp (1936-99), The Music of Their Laughter: An American Album; teenies talk about balling et al. Michel Tournier (1924-), Le Roi Des Aulnes. Anne Tyler (1941-), A Slipping-Down Life. Barry Unsworth (1930-2012), The Hide; seaside pleasure palace employee Josh quits and becomes a gardener for widowed Audrey Wilcox, digging a trench to spy on women. John Updike (1932-2009), Bech: A Book; blocked Jewish-Am. New York writer Henry Bech. Leon Uris (1924-2003), QB VII; a Polish doctor in a Nazi concentration camp sues a writer for libel in Britain, and wins a half-penny damages after they only prove he operated on 1K POWs without anesthesia instead of 15K; based on Uris' experience being sued by Polish Auschwitz surgeon Wladislaw Dering over his novel "Exodus", who wins you know what. Peter Ustinov (1921-2004), Krumnagel; crabby New York City cop Bartram Krumnagel. Gore Vidal (1925-2012), Two Sisters; a screenwriter writes about two sisters in 3rd cent. B.C.E. Ephesus, along with a diary, after which his old friend Vidal writes a memoir. Peter De Vries (1910-93), Mrs. Wallop. Alice Walker (1944-), The Third Life of Grange Copeland (first novel). Alec Waugh (1898-1981), A Spy in the Family; Treasury official Victor's wife Myra takes a vacation to Malta, and is initiated into eroticism by another innocent maiden. Eudora Welty (1909-2001), Losing Battles; three generations of Granny Vaughn's descendants gather at her Miss. home to celebrate her 90th birthday, and swap stories. Paul West (1930-), I'm Expecting to Live Quite Soon. Donald E. Westlake (1933-2008), The Hot Rock. Dennis Wheatley (1897-1977), Gateway to Hell; the duke de Richeleau and Rex van Ryan in Argentina. Patrick White (1912-90), The Vivisector; artist Hurtle Duffield dissects people's weaknesses. Laura Ingalls Wilder (1867-1957), The First Four Years (posth.). Arthur Wise (1923-82), Leatherjacket; Who Killed Enoch Powell? (last novel); beat out for the Edgar Award by Frederick Forsyth's "Day of the Jackal". Al Young (1939-), Snakes (first novel); black jazz musician MC. Roger Zelazny (1937-95), Nine Princes in Amber; #1 of 10 of the Chronicles of Amber (1970-91). Births: Am. 6'3" volleyball player (black) Gabrielle Allyse Reece on Jan. 6 in La Jolla, Calif.; Afro-Trinidadian father, white mother; raised in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Am. "Griffin Vesey in Cosby" actor (black) Doug E. Doug (Douglas Bourne) on Jan. 7 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. rapper (black) Raekwon (the Chef) (Corey Quontrell Woods) (Wu-Tang Clan) on Jan. 12 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. musician-poet-activist Zacarias Manuel "Zack" de la Rocha (Rage Against the Machine) on Jan. 12 in Long Beach, Calif.; of Mexican, German, and Irish descent. Am. "Adventures in Babysitting" actor Keith Coogan (Keith Eric Mitchell) on Jan. 13 in Palm Springs, Calif.; grandson of Jackie Coogan. Am. "Grey's Anatomy", "Private Practice", "Scandal" writer-dir.-producer (black) Shonda Rhimes on Jan. 13 in Chicago, Ill.; educated at Dartmouth College, and USC. Am. rapper (black) DJ Quik (David Marvin Blake) on Jan. 18 in Compton, Calif. Am. "Billy Loomis in Scream" actor-model Brian Ray "Skeet" Ulrich (Trout) on Jan. 20 in Lynchburg, Va.; raised in Concord, N.C.; Skeet is short for Mosquito. Am. "Shaggy in Scooby-Doo" actor Matthew Lyn Lillard on Jan. 24 in Lansing, Mich. Am. R&B singer (black) Patrick "Sleepy" Brown (Society of Soul) on Jan. 24. Swedish chef (black) Marcus "Joar" Samuelsson (Kassahun Tsegie) on Jan. 25 in Ethiopian; Ethiopian Orthodox parents. Am. gospel-R&B singer (black) Kirk Franklin on Jan. 26 in Riverside, Tex. Russian Dem. Party of Russia politician Andrei Vladimirovich Bogdanov on Jan. 27 in Mozhaysk. Am. "Nadine in Drugstore Cowboy", "Dr. Judy Robinson in Lost in Space", "Felicity Shagwell in Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me" actress Heather Joan Graham on Jan. 29 in Milwaukee, Wisc.; of Irish descent. U.S. Rep. (R-Wisc.) (1999-) and House Speaker #54 (2015-9) Paul Davis Ryan on Jan. 29 in Janesville, Wisc.; educated at Miami U. English "Skylar in Good Will Hunting" actress-singer Amelia Fiona Jessica "Minnie" Driver on Jan. 31 in Finsbury Park, London; grows up in Barbados; Welsh-born father; educated at Collingham College. English "Willow", "Leprechaun" 3'6" actor Warwick Ashley Davis on Feb. 3 in Epsom, Surrey. English "Scent of a Woman" actress (pagan) Gabrielle Anwar on Feb. 4 in Laleham, Middlesex; Indian immigrant father, English mother. Am. musician James Murphy (LCD Soundsystem) on Feb. 4 in Princeton Junction, N.J. Am. 5'10" golfer Timothy Daniel "Tim" Herron on Feb. 6 in Minneapolis, Minn.; educated at the U. of N.M. Am. "Flo in Progressive Insurance ads", "Marge in Mad Men", "Diane in "Cavemen" actress-comedian Stephanie Courtney on Feb. 8 in Stony Point, N.Y. Am. 6'10" hall-of-fame basketball center (black) (Charlotte Hornets #33, 1992-5) (New Jersey Nets #33, 2003-4) (Miami Heat #33, 1995-2002, 2005-8) Alonzo Harding "Zo" "the Ultimate Warrior" Mourning Jr. on Feb. 8 in Chesapeake, Va.; educated at Georgetown U. Canadian rock bassist James Raymond "Jim" Creeggan (Barenaked Ladies) on Feb. 12 in Scarborough, Ont.; brother of Any Creeggan (1971-). English "Scotty in Star Trek 2009", "Benji Dunn in MI:3" comedian-dir.-producer-writer Simon John Pegg (nee Beckingham) on Feb. 14 in Brockworth, Gloucestershire; educated at Stratford-upon-Avon College, and U. of Btistol. Am. rock musician Timothy Jerome Mahoney (311) on Feb. 17. Tahitian celeb Tarita Cheyenne Brando (d. 1995) on Feb. 20 in Papeete, Tahihi; daughter of Marlon Brando (1924-2004) and Tarita Teriipia Brando (1941-); mother of Tuki Brando (1990-). Am. rock bassist Eric John Wilson (Sublime) on Feb. 21. Am. "Raineesha Williams in Reno 911!", "Desna Simms in Claws" comedian-actress (black) Carol Denise "Niecy" Nash (nee Ensley) on Feb. 23 in Compton, Calif.; educated at CSU Dominguez Hills. Am. bowler Chris Barnes on Feb. 25 in Topeka, Kan.; educated at Wichita State U.; husband (1999-) of Lynda Barnes (1967-). Am. "Lemony Snicket" novelist (epileptic) Daniel Handler on Feb. 28 in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at Wesleyan U. Am. "Carol Vessey in Ed" actress Julie Bowen Luetkemeyer on Mar. 3 in Baltimore, Md.; educated at Brown U. Am. rock musician John Anthony Frusciante (Red Hot Chili Peppers) on Mar. 5 in Astoria, Queens, N.Y. Am. "Laurie on That '70s Show" actress Lisa Robin Kelly (d. 2013) on Mar. 5 in Southington, Conn.; grows up in Mooresville, N.C. Am. R&B singer (black) Rome (Jerome Woods) on Mar. 5 in Benton Harbor, Mich. Am. blogger (founder of TechCrunch) J. Michael Arrington on Mar. 13 in Orange, Calif.; educated at UCB, Claremont McKenna College, and Stanford U. Am. country musician Kristian Merrill Bush (Sugarland) on Mar. 14 in Knoxville, Tenn. Colombian dancer-choreographer (Zumba founder) Alberto "Beto" Perez (Pérez) on Mar. 15 in Cali; emigrates to the U.S. in 1999. Am. mayor #49 of Baltimore (2010-) (black) Stephanie C. Rawlings-Blake on Mar. 17 in Baltimore, Md.; educated at Oberlin College, and the U. of Md. Am. 5'10" "Matron Mama Morton in Chicago", "Augusta Boatwright in The Secret Life of Bees", "Ellie in Ice Age" rapper-singer-actress (black) Queen Latifah (Arab. "delicate", "very kind") (Dana Elaine Owens) on Mar. 18 in Newark, N.J. Am. "Donald Self in Prison Break", "Frank in My Name is Earl" actor Michael Rapaport on Mar. 20 in New York City. Am. rock bassist John Humphrey (The Nixons) on Mar. 23. Am. "Donna Hayward in Twin Peaks", "Asst. DA Helen Gamble in The Practice" actress Lara Flynn Boyle on Mar. 24 in Davenport, Iowa; named after a char. in Boris Pasternak's "Dr. Zhivago". Irish singer Sharon Helga Corr (Corrs) on Mar. 24 in Dundalk, County Louth; sister of Caroline Corr (1973-) and Andrea Corr (1974-). Am. "Dr. Juliet Burke in Lost" actress Elizabeth Mitchell on Mar. 27 in Los Angeles, Calif. English rock drummer Brendan Colin Charles Hill (Blues traveller) on Mar. 27 in London. Am. "Trent Walker in Swingers", "Reese Feldman in Starsky & Hutch", "Jeremy Grey in Wedding Crashers" Frat Pack actor-comedian-writer-producer Vincent Anthony "Vince" Vaughn on Mar. 28 in Minneapolis, Minn. Am. "Laurie Forman in That '70s Show" actress Lisa Robin Kelly (d. 2013) on Mar. 5 in Southington, Conn. English "Sheriff Hugh Beringar in Brother Cadfael" actor Anthony Green on Apr. 4 in Blackburn, Lancashire. Canadian "Pvt. Daniel Jackson in Saving Private Ryan" actor Barry Robert Pepper on Apr. 4 in Campbell River, B.C. Am. rock musician-actor Josh Todd (Joshua Todd Gruber) (Buckcherry) on Apr. 4 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. rock singer Craig Honeycutt (Everything) on Apr. 8. Am. journalist Michele R. McPhee on Apr. 8 in Wakefield, Mass.; educated at the U. of Mass. Am. "Det. Jack Hale in Killer Instinct" actor Johnny Messner on Apr. 11 in Syracuse, N.Y. Danish "Saturday Night" singer Whigfield (Sannie Charlotte "Naan" Carlson) on Apr. 11 in Skaelskor. Am. rock musician Nicholas Lofton "Nick" Hexum (311) on Apr. 12 in Madison, Wisc. Am. "T.J. in The Champ", "Ricky Stratton in Silver Spoons" actor Richard Bartlett "Ricky" "Rick" Schroder on Apr. 13 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; grows up in Staten Island, N.Y. Am. rapper-DJ-actor Redman (Reginald "Reggie" Noble) (Method Man & Redman) on Apr. 17 in Newark, N.J. Am. White House comm. dir. (2017) Michael D. "Mike" Dubke on Apr. 18 in Hamburg, N.Y.; educated at Hamilton College. Am. "Malcolm Winters in The Young and the Restless" actor (black) Shemar Franklin Moore on Apr. 20 in Oakland, Calif. Am. "Randal Graves in Clerks" actor Jeffrey Allan "Jeff" Anderson on Apr. 21 in Monmouth County, N.J. Irish singer Glen Hansard (The Frames) on Apr. 21 in Ballymun, Dublin. Am. "Holly Shumpert in The King of Queens" comedian-actress Nicole Julianne Sullivan on Apr. 21 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. "Earl Hickey in My Name is Earl" actor-skateboarder (Scientologist) Jason Michael Lee on Apr. 25 in Orange, Calif. Slovenian-born 5'11" U.S. Repub. First Lady (2017-) (Roman Catholic) Melania Trump (Knauss) (Knauss-Trump) (Melanija Knavs) on Apr. 26 in Novo Mesto, Yugoslavia (Slovenia); Communist parents; wife (2005-) of Donald Trump (1946-); educated at the U. of Ljubljana. Am. R&B singer (black) Tionne Tenese "T-Boz" Watkins (TLC) on Apr. 26 in Des Moines, Iowa. Swedish 6'1" hockey hall-of-fame player (Detroit Red Wings, 1989-2012) ("Mr. Perfect") Nicklas Erik Lidstrom (Lidström) on Apr. 28 in Krylbo. Am. tennis player Andre Kirk Agassi on Apr. 29 in Las Vegas, Nev.; husband (1997-9) of Brooke Shields (1965-). Am. "Mia Wallace in Pulp Fiction", "Kill Bill" 6' actress (high school dropout) (agnostic) Uma Karuna Thurman (Tibetan "Dbuma Chenpo" = Great Middle Way) on Apr. 29 in Boston, Mass.; one of four children of Columbia U. Tibetan Buddhism prof. Robert Alexander Farrar Thurman (1941-), who names her after a Hindu goddess; Mexican-born mother Nena von Schlebrugge (1941-) fled Germany after her father was briefly jailed by the Nazis, then became a model at age 16, and became Timothy Leary's 3rd wife in 1964; balks at daddy's plans for her in academia and begins modeling in New York at age 15; wife (1990-2) of Gary Oldman and (1998-2004) Ethan Hawke; her portrait bears a striking resemblance to actress Evelyn Keyes? Am. rapper (black) Master P (Percy Robert Miller) (b. 1967?) on Apr. 29. English rock guitarist Bernard Joseph Butler (Suede) on May 1 in Stamford Hill, North London. Canadian serial murderer Karla Leanna Homolka (Teale) (AKA Leanne Bordelais) on May 4 in Port Credit, Ont.; wife (1991-4) of Paul Bernardo (1964-). English grossly fat woman painter Jenny Saville on May 7 in Cambridge. Canadian "The Shock Doctrine" writer-activist-filmmaker (Jewish) Naomi Klein on May 8 in Montreal, Quebec; parents fled to the U.S. to escape the Vietnam War draft; educated at the U. of Toronto; wife of Avi Lewis (1968-). Canadian meteorologist Janice Dean on May 9 in Toronto, Ont. Am. rapper (black) Ghostface Killah (Dennis Coles) (Wu-Tang Clan) on May 9 in Staten Island, N.Y. Am. "Milton Mamet in The Walking Dead" actor Dallas Mark Roberts on May 10 in Houston, Tex.; educated at Juilliard School. Am. Dem. politician (black) Harold Eugene Ford Jr. on May 11 in Memphis, Tenn.; son of Harold E. Ford Sr. (1945-); educated at the U. of Penn. Am. "Det. Vitale in The Brave One" actor-producer Nicky Katt on May 11 in S.D. Am. "Nora in Pump Up the Volume" actress (vegetarian) Samantha Mathis on May 12 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; daughter of Bibi Besch (1940-96). Am. "The State" actor-writer-dir. Michael Patrick Jann on May 15 in Albany, N.Y. Argentine 5'9" tennis player Gabriela Beatriz Sabatini on May 16 in Buenos Aires. Am. singer-songwriter Jordan Nathanial Marcel Knight (New Kids on the Block) on May 17 in Worcester, Mass. Am. "Liz Lemon in 30 Rock", "Sarah Palin in SNL" comedian-writer Elizabeth Stamatina "Tina" Fey on May 18 in Upper Darby, Penn.; German-Scottish descent father, Greek descent mother; educated at the U. of Va. Canadian "Lt. Randy Disher in Monk" actor Jason Gray-Stanford on May 19 in Vacouver, B.C.; educated at the U. of British Columbia. Am. 5'11" basketball player (black) (Cleveland Cavaliers #11/#1, 1991-7) (Milwaukee Bucks #1, 1997-9) (Minnesota Timberwolves #7, 1999-2002) Thomas Terrell Brandon on May 20 in Portland, Ore.; educated at the U. of Ore. English 5'9" supermodel (black) Naomi Campbell on May 22 in Streatham, London; Chinese Jamaican father named Ming, Jamaican mother. Am. rock drummer Matthew "Matt" Flynn on May 23 in Woodstock, N.Y. Am. "Carrie in Little House on the Prairie" actresses Lindsay Sidney Greenbush (Rachel Lindsay Rene Bush and Sidney Robyn Danae Bush) on May 25 in Los Angeles, Calif.; daughter of Billy Green Bush (1935-). Am. "Ballazack in Spring Break '83" actor-comedian James Harvey "Jamie" Kennedy on May 25 in Upper Darby, Penn. Am. rapper (black) B-Real (Louis Freese) (Cypress Hill) on June 2 in Los Angeles, Calif.; Mexican father, Afro-Cuban mother. Polish-Swedish "Natalya Fyodorovna Simonova in GoldenEye" actress Izabella Dorota Scorupco on June 4 in Bialystok. Indonesian Javanese Jemaah Islamiyah/Abu Sayyaf Muslim terrorist Dulmatin (d. 2010) on June 6 in Pemaang. Am. rock musician James Christian "Munky" "The Gorilla" Shaffer (Korn) on June 6 in Bakersfield, Calif. Russian 5'11" hockey player Andrei Nikolaevich Kovalenko on June 7 in Balakovo. U.S. Rep. (D-Ariz.) (2007-) (Jewish) Gabrielle Dee "Gabby" Giffords on June 8 in Tucson, Ariz.; Jewish father, Christian Scientist mother; wife (2007-) of Mark Edward Kelly (1964-). Am. Dem. Detroit, Mich. mayor (black) (2002-8) Kwame Malik Kilpatrick on June 8 in Detroit, Mich. Am. "Lindsay Dole Donnell in The Practice" actress Kelli Renee Williams on June 8 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. musician-songwriter Rivers Cuomo (Weezer) on June 13 in Manhattan, N.Y; named for being born between the East and Hudson Rivers; raised on an ashram run by Sri Swami Atchidananda in Pomfret, Conn. Am. "Carrie Heffernan in The King of Queens" actress (Scientologist) Leah Marie Remini on June 15 in Bensonhurst, Brooklyn, N.Y.; Sicilian descent father, Austrian Jewish descent mother; starts out Roman Catholic until age 9. Am. 6'3" golfer (lefty swing) Philip Alfred "Phil" Mickelson on June 16 in San Diego, Calif. Am. "Phil Miller in The Last Man on Earth" actor-comedian-writer-producer Orville Willis "Will" Forte IV on June 17 in Alameda County, Calif.; educated at UCLA. Am. rock musician Brian Philip "Head" Welch (Korn) on June 19 in Bakersfield, Calif. Israeli Olympic judo athlete (Jewish) (2nd Israeli to win an Olympic medal) Shay-Oren Smadja on June 20. Am. "Jake Perry in Sweet Home Alabama", "Don Haskins in Glory Road" actor-producer Josh Lucas (Joshua Lucas Easy Dent Maurer) on June 20 in Little Rock, Ark.; named for a birth so easy that the doctor his his head on the bedpost; brother of Devin Maurer (1977-). Canadian musician Steven Jay Page (Barenaked Ladies) on June 22 in Scarborough, Ont. Am. "Three Amigos" comedian-actor-writer Alfred "Freddy" Soto Jr. (d. 2005) on June 22 in El Paso, Tex. Am. R&B singer (black) Johnathan Arthur "Chico" DeBarge (DeBarge) on June 23 in Grand Rapids, Mich. Am. "Boogie Nights", "There Will Be Blood", "Phantom Thread" dir. Paul Thomas "P.T." Anderson on June 26 in Studio City, Calif. Am. "Robin in Batman & Robin", "Charlie Simms in Scent of a Woman" actor Christopher Eugene O'Donnell on June 26 in Winnetka, Ill. Am. "Gossip Girl" novelist Cecily Brooke von Ziegesar on June 27 in New York City; educated at the U. of Ariz. Am. "Rochelle in Everybody Loves Chris" actress (black) Tichina Rolanda Arnold on June 28 in Queens, N.Y. Dutch singer (black) Raymond Lothar "Ray" Slijngaard (2 Unlimited) on June 28 in Amsterdam; Dutch mother, Surinamese father. Am. "Chuck & Buck" dir.-writer-actor-producer (bi) Michael Christopher "Mike" White on June 28 in Pasadena, Calif.; son of Dr. Mel White. Am. actor Brian Keith Bloom on June 30 in Long Island, N.Y; brother of Scott Bloom (1973-). U.S. Sen. (R-Iowa) (2015-) Joni Kay Ernst (nee Culver) on July 1 in Red Oak, Iowa; educated at Columbus College. Am. rock musician (inventor of the copperphone) Mark Pirro (Polyphonic Spree, Tripping Daisy) on July 1 in Dallas, Tex. Am. "Baldwin Jones in NYPD Blue" actor (black) Henry Oswald Simmons Jr. on July 1 in Stamford, Conn. Am. "Dr. Naomi Bennett in Private Practice" actress-singer (black) Audra Ann McDonald on July 3 in Berlin, Germany; raised in Fresno, Calif. Finnish hockey player ("the Finnish Flash") Teemu Ilmari Selanne (Selänne) on July 3 in Helsinki. Malian soccer referee (black) Koman Coulibaly on July 4. Am. singer (Scientologist) (high school dropout) Beck Hansen (Bek David Campbell) on July 8 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. country singer Gary LeVox (Gary Wayne Vernon Jr.) (Rascal Flats) on July 10 in Columbus, Ohio. Irish actress-writer-dir.-producer Sharon Horgan on July 13 in Hackney, London; Kiwi father, Irish mother; educated at Brunel U. Australian tennis player Sandon Stolle on July 13 in Sydney; son of Fred Stolle (1938-). Am. "Katie in Benson" child actress Missy Gold (Melissa Fisher) on July 14 in Great Falls, Mont. Scottish PM #5 (2014-) Nicola Sturgeon on July 19 in Irvine, North Ayrshire; educated at the U. of Glasgow. Am. "Cordelia Chase in Buffy the Vampire Slayer" actress Charisma Lee Carpenter on July 23 in Las Vegas, Nev. Am. R&B singer (black) Sam Watters (Color Me Badd) on July 23 in Camp Springs, Md. Scottish rock drummer Richard "Rico" Colburn (Belle & Sebastian) on July 25 in Perth. British-Am. "Inception", "Memento", "Batman Begins", "The Dark Knight", "Interstellar", "The Prestige", "Insomnia" dir.-writer-producer Christopher Jonathan James Nolan on July 30 in London; English father, Am. mother; brother of Jonathan Nolan (1976-); husband of Emma Thomas; educated at Univ. College London. Am. "Silent Bob in Clerks" writer-dir.-actor Kevin Smith on Aug. 2 in Red Bank, N.J. Am. "Eddie's Bastard" novelist William John Kowalski III on Aug. 3 in Parma, Ohio. Am. "The Sixth Sense", "Unbreakable", "Signs", "The Village" writer-dir. M. Night Shyamalan (Manoj Nelliyattu Shyamalan) on Aug. 6 in Mahe, Pondicherry, India; raised in Penn. - all his movies have a secret sham? Am. "Hysteria" dir. (gay) Tanya Wexler on Aug. 6 in Chicago, Ill; educated at Yale U.; wife (2004-) of Amy Zimmerman. Am. TV journalist Christopher Charles "Chris" Cuomo on aug. 9 in Queens, N.Y.; son of Mario Cuomo (1932-2015); brother of Andrew Cuomo (1957-); educated at Yale U., and Fordham U. Am. baseball pitcher (Minn. Twins, 1992-6) Patrick Lavon "Pat" Mahomes Sr. on Aug. 9 in Bryan, Tex.; father of Patrick Mahomes II (1995-). Am. rock bassist Arion Salazar (Third Eye Blind) on Aug. 9. Am. "Girl Next Door" porno star Stacy Valentine (Baker) on Aug. 9 in Tulsa, Okla.; appears in her first porno on Feb. 14, 1996. Am. 6'6" serial murderer (black) Paul Durousseau on Aug. 11 in Beaumont, Tex.; grows up in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Antwon Mitchell in The Shield" actor-comedian (black) Anthony Alvin Anderson on Aug. 15 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. 6'1" tennis player James Spencer "Jim" Courier Jr. on Aug. 17 in Sanford, Fla. Am. economist Jason Furman on Aug. 18 in New York City; educated at Harvard U., and the London School of Economics. Am. Doom, Wolfenstein 3-D, Quake video game programmer (id Software co-founder) John D. Carmack II on Aug. 20 in Roseland Park, Kan. Am. musician-actor-dir. William Frederick "Fred" Durst (Limp Bizkit) on Aug. 20 in Gastonia, N.C. Am. chef Giada (It. "jade") Pamela De Laurentiis on Aug. 22 in Rome, Italy; educated at UCLA, and Le Cordon Bleu; daughter of Veronica De Laurentiis (1950-), daughter of Dino De Laurentiis (1919-2010). Am. "Jerry Maguire", "Christopher Walken in SNL", "Last Comic Standing" actor-comedian Jon Ferguson "Jay" Mohr on Aug. 23 in Verona, N.J. Am. "Stand By Me" actor (Jewish) River Jude Phoenix (Bottom) (d. 1993) on Aug. 23 in Metolius (near Madras), Ore.; Roman Catholic father, Jewish Hungarian-Russian mother, both members of the Children of God; named after the River of Life in Hermann Hesse's "Siddhartha" and "Hey Jude" by the Beatles; brother of Joaquin Phoenix (1974-), Rain Phoenix (1972-), Summer Phoenix (1978-), and Liberty Phoenix. Am. TV journalist (Jewish) David Michael Gregory on Aug. 24 in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at Am. U. Am. country singer Jo Dee Marie Messina on Aug. 25 in Holliston, Mass.; Italian descent father, Irish descent mother. German 6' Guess? jeans supermodel (Brigitte Bardot lookalike) Claudia Schiffer on Aug. 25 in Rheinberg/Dusseldorf; discovered at a disco in Dusseldorf by Michel Leviton. Am. "Sookie St. James in Gilmore Girls", "Dena in Samantha Who?", "Tammy" actress Melissa Ann McCarthy on Aug. 26 in Plainfield, Ill.; Irish Roman Catholic descent father; cousin of Jenny McCarthy (1972-) and Joanne McCarthy (1974-); wife (2005-) of Ben Falcone (1973-). Am. "Chicken and Biscuits" country musician-songwriter Colt Ford (Jason Farris Brown) on Aug. 27 in Athens, Ga. Am. rock bassist-songwriter-producer Tony Ashwin Kanal (No Doubt) on Aug. 27 in Kingsburgy, London; Indian immigrant parents; emigrates to the U.S. in 1981. Am. "AutoNation ad girl" actress Monica Lacy (nee Creel) on Aug. 27 in Los Angeles, Calif.; one of triplets with "Tori Scott in Saved by the Bell" actress Leanna Creel and Joy Creel; educated at UCLA. Am. "Dog Whisperer" TV host Cesar Millan on Aug. 27 in Culiacan, Mexico; sneaks into the U.S. in 1991 and heads for Hollywood. Australian "Streets of Heaven" country singer-actress Sherrie (Sherrié) Austin (Sherrié Veronica Krenn) (Colorhaus) on Aug. 28 in Sydney, N.S.W. Am. "If I Ever Fall in Love" R&B singer (black) Carl "Groove" Martin (Shai) on Aug. 29. Jordanian queen Rania Al Abdullah (nee Al Yassin) on Aug. 31 in Kuwait; Palestinian parents; queen consort (1999-) of Abdullah II; mother of Prince Hussein (1994-), Princess Iman (1996-), Princess Salma (2000-), and Prince Hashem (2005-). Am. "Foolish Beat" singer (Roman Catholic) Deborah Ann "Debbie" Gibson on Aug. 31 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. rock musician Greg Richling (Wallflowers) on Aug. 31. German physicist Jan Hendrik Schon (Schön) on Aug. ? in Verden an der Aller, Lower Saxony. Indian-Am. "Top Chef" host Padma (Sans. "lotus") (Angie) Parvati Lakshmi, Lady Rushdie on Sept. 1 in Chennai (Madras), Tamil Nadu; wife (2004-7) of Salman Rushdie (1947-). Am. rap DJ (black) Spigg Nice (Lost Boyz) on Sept. 1. Am. "Diane Court in Say Anything", "Elyse in Wayne's World" actress (bi) Ione Skye Lee (nee Leitch) on Sept. 4 in Hertfordshire, England; daughter of Scottish singer Donovan (1946-) and Jewish-Am. mother Enid Karl (nee Stulberger); sister of Donovan Leitch Jr. (1967-); raised in Hollywood, Calif. Am. rock bassist Steve "Fuzz" Kmak (Disturbed) on Sept. 5. English "Last Chance Harvey" dir.-writer Joel Hopkins on Sept. 6 in London. Am. rock drummer Chad Ronald Sexton (311) on Sept. 7 in Lexington, N.Y. Am. singer-songwriter Neko Case on Sept. 8 (New Pornographers) in Alexandria, Va.; of Ukrainian descent. English "Bilbo Baggins in The Hobbit" actor (Roman Catholic) Martin John Christopher Freeman on Sept. 8 in Aldershot, Hampshire. Am. jihadist (Sunni Muslim) Maj. Nidal Malik Hasan on Sept. 8 in Arlington County, Va.; Palestinian immigrant parents. Am. "Avenue Q" composer-lyricist (Jewish) Jeff Marx on Sept. 1; grows up in Hollywood, Fla.; educated at the U. of Mich., and Yeshiva U.; collaborator of Robert Lopez (1975-). Am. progressive activist Neera Posadas Tanden on Sept. 10 in Bedford, India; Indian immigrant parents; educated at UCLA, and Yale U. Am. "Queenie in The Curious Case of Benjamin Button", "Think Like A Man" 5'5" actress (black) Taraji (Swahili "hope, faith") Penda (Swahili "love") Henson on Sept. 11 in Washington, D.C.; educated at Howard U. Am. football coach (Atlanta Falcons, 2015-) Daniel Patrick "Dan" Quinn on Sept. 11 in Morristown, N.J.; educated at Salisbury U. Am. "Cassie Layne Winslow in Guiding Light", "Carly Corinthos in General Hospital" actress Laura Wright (nee Sisk) on Sept. 11 in Clinton, Md. English "Lady Anne Davenport in Hidalgo" actress Louise Lombard (Louise Maria Perkins) on Sept. 13 in London; Irish immigrant parents. Am. jurist (black) Ketanji Brown Jackson (nee Ketanji Omyika Brown) on Sept. 14 in Washington, D.C.; educated at Harvard U. Am. "Idlewild", "Edenborn, "Everfree" sci-fi novelist Nick Sagan on Sept. 16 in Boston, Mass.; son of Carl Sagan and Linda Salzman. Am. football QB Mark Allen Brunell on Sept. 17 in Santa Maria, Calif. Am. "Charlie Wheeler in Friends", "Andrea Marino in Ghost Whisperer" comedian-actress (black) Aisha N. Tyler on Sept. 18 in San Francisco, Calif.; educated at Dartmouth College. Am. "A Problem from Hell" journalist and U.S. U.N. ambassador #28 (2013-17) Samantha Jane Power on Sept. 21 in Dungarvan, County Waterford; emigrates to the U.S. in 1979; educated at Yale U., and Harvard U.; wife (2008-) of Cass Sunstein (1954-). Am. bowler (lefty) Patrick "Hoss" Allen on Sept. 23 in Tarrytown, N.Y. Am. "32 Flavors" feminist singer-songwriter-poet (bi) (atheist) Angela Maria "Ani" DiFranco on Sept. 23 in Buffalo, N.Y. English rock drummer Peter Anthony Salisbury (The Verve) on Sept. 24 in Bath. Am. "I Meant To" country singer Thomas Bradley "Brad" Cotter on Sept. 29 in Opelika, Ala. Canadian comedian Russell Dominic Peters on Sept. 29 in Brampton, Ont.; Indian immigrant parents. Israeli Likud party politician (Jewish) Gilad Erdan on Sept. 30 in Ashkelon; educated at Bar-Ilan U. Am. "Hayley Vaughan in All My Children" actress (cheerleader) Kelly Maria Ripa on Oct. 2 in Berlin, N.J.; Italian father, Irish-Italian mother; wife (1996-) of Mark Consuelos (1971-). Am. "Becky Arnett in Boogie Nights", "Teri Joseph in Soul Food" actress-model Nicole Ari Parker Kodjoe on Oct. 7 in Baltimore, Md.; wife (2005-) of Boris Kodjoe (1973-). Am. "Good Will Hunting", "Pvt. Ryan in Saving Private Ryan", "Jason Bourne in The Bourne Identity" actor Matthew Paige "Matt" Damon on Oct. 8 in Cambridge, Mass.; educated at Harvard U. British Labour politician (Muslim) (mayor of London, 2016-) (Sunni Muslim) Sadiq Aman Khan on Oct. 8 in Tooting, London; Pakistani immigrant parents; educated at the U. of North London. Am. celeb Soon-Yi Previn (Farrow) on Oct. 8 in South Korea; adopted daughter of Mia Farrow (1945-) and Andrew Previn (1929); wife (1997-) of Woody Allen. Am. 6'0" basketball player (black) (New Jersey Nets #7, 1991-6) (Charlotte Hornets #12, 1996) (Portland Trail Blazers #7, 1996-8) (Boston Celtics #7, 1998-2002) Kenneth "Kenny" Anderson on Oct. 9 in Queens, N.Y.; educated at Georgia Tech. Swedish golfer Annika Sorenstam on Oct. 9 in Stockholm; becomes a golfer after burning out at tennis at age 15. Saudi 9/11 hijacker Ahmed Ibrahim al-Haznawi (d. 2001) on Oct. 11 in Al Bahah Province. Am. "Mike Seaver in Growing Pains" actor and Christian evangelist Kirk Thomas Cameron on Oct. 12 in Panorama City, Calif.; brother of Candace Cameron (1976-); husband (1991-) of Chelsea Noble. Am. 9-1/2" porno actor Julian Rios (Ruiz) (Andretti) (Rivers) on Oct. 12 in West Covina, Calif.; of Lebanese and Latin Am. descent. English tenor Paul Robert Potts on Oct. 13 in Kingswood, Bristol; first winner of "Britain's Got Talent" (2007). Am. "Chris in Selena" actor Jonathan "Jon" Seda on Oct. 14 in Manhattan, N.Y; Puerto Rican parents. Am. "Undead or Alive" actor-comedian Christopher Lee "Chris" Kattan on Oct. 19 in Sherman Oaks, Calif.; father Kip King is Iraqi Jew; mother Hajni Biro is a Hungarian-born Buddhist who appeared in Playboy in the 1960s. Am. "Twitchy", "Hot Air" conservative writer (Roman Catholic) Michelle Malkin (nee Maglagang) on Oct. 20 in Philadelphia, Penn.; Philippine immigrant parents; raised in Absecon, N.J.; educated at Oberlin College; wife (1993-) of Jesse D. Malkin. Am. "The Theme (It's Party Time") rapper (black) Tracey Lee on Oct. 22 in Philadelphia, Penn.; educated at Howard U., and Southern U. Law Center. Am. "Mellish in Saving Private Ryan" actor-dir.-producer (Jewish) Adam Charles Goldberg on Oct. 25 in Santa Monica, Calif.; Jewish father, Roman Catholic mother; educated at Sarah Lawrence College. Canadian rock musician-songwriter Lloyd Edward "Ed" Elwyn Robertson (Barenaked Ladies) on Oct. 25 in Scarborough, Ont. Am. "Single White Female" country singer (lesbian) Richell Rene "Chely" Wright on Oct. 25 in Kansas City, Mo.; first major country music artist to come out on May 3, 2010. Am. "The War Within", "American Dervish" actor-writer (Muslim) Ayad Akhtar on Oct. 28 in Milwaukee, Wisc.; Pakistani immigrant parents; educated at Brown U. English "Virtual Insanity", "Emergency on Planet Earth" musician-songwriter Toby Grafftey-Smith (Jamiroquai) on Oct. 29 in London. Am. rock singer Douglas Vincent "SA" Martinez (311) on Oct. 29 in Omaha, Neb.; SA means "ese" or "spooky apparition"? Am. "The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air" actress (black) Nitara Carlynn "Nia" Long on Oct. 30 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; grandparents are from Trinidad and Tobago; "Nia" (Swahili "purpose") is one of the 7 days of Kwanzaa. Am. "Twin Falls Idaho", "Jackpot", "The Astronaut Farmer" dir. Michael Polish on Oct. 30 in El Centro, Calif.; father of Jasper Polish; twin brother of Mark Polish. Swedish rock singer Malin Sofia Katarina "Linn" Berggren (Ace of Base) on Oct. 31 in Gothenburg. Am. celeb Lorena Bobbitt (nee Gallo) on Oct. 31; wife (1989-95) of John Wayne Bobbitt (1967-). Brazilian model Luciana Gimenez Morad on Nov. 3 in Sao Paolo, Brazil; has son Lucas Maurice Morad Jagger (1999-) with Mick Jagger (1943-). Am. "Platoon Sgt. Shot in Head in Tropic Thunder" actor Anthony Michael Ruivivar on Nov. 4 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Am. "Gattaca" actor-writer-dir. Ethan Green Hawke on Nov. 6 in Austin, Tex. Am. "Super Size me" filmmaker (Methodist) Morgan Valentine Spurlock on Nov. 7 in Parkersburg, W. Va.; educated at NYU; of Scottish, English, and Irish descent. Am. rapper (black) Scarface (Akshen) (Brad Terrence Jordan) (Geto Boys) on Nov. 9 in Houston, Tex. Am. "Still Alice" novelist-neuroscientist Lisa Genova on Nov. 11; educated at Bates College, and Harvard U. Am. figure skater Tonya Harding on Nov. 12 in Portland, Ore. Am. "Wherever You Are" country singer-songwriter Jack Owen Ingram on Nov. 15 in The Woodlands, Tex. Am. "The Goonies" model-actress Martha Campbell Plimpton on Nov. 16 in New York City; daughter of Keith Carradine (1949-) and Shelley Plimpton (1947-); niece of David Carradine (1936-2009). Am. "The Kelly File" journalist-atty. Megyn Marie Kelly on Nov. 18 in Syracuse, N.Y.; educated at Syracuse U., and Albany Law School. Australian "La Femme Nikita" 5'10" actress Peta Gia Wilson on Nov. 18 in Sydney. Am. actor John Boyd West on Nov. 19 in Memphis, Tenn.; son of Elvis' driver-bodyguard Red West (1936-), whom he plays in the 1993 Memphis Melody - July 3, 1954 episode of "Quantum Leap". Am. rock musician Chad Taylor (Live) on Nov. 24 in Baltimore, Md. Am. 6'10" basketball player (black) (Cleveland Cavaliers #13, 1995-6) (Orlando Magic #13, 1999-2001) (Utah Jazz #26, 2001-3) John Uzoma Ekwugha Amaechi on Nov. 26 in Boston, Mass.; Nigerian Igbo father, English mother; raised in England; educated at Vanderbilt U., and Penn State U. U.S. Sen. (R-Ga.) (2020-) Kelly Lynn Loeffler on Nov. 27 in Bloomington, Ill.; grows up in Stanford, Ill.; educated at the U. of Ill., and DePaul U. Am. economist Susan Carleton Athey on Nov. 29 in Boston, Mass.; educated at Duke U., and Stanford U. Canadian "Dr. Cristina Yang in Grey's Anatomy", "Eve Polastri in Killing Eve" actress Sandra Miju Oh on Nov. 30 in Napean (near Ottawa), Ont.; South Korean immigrant parents; becomes U.S. citizen in 2018. Finnish "Odo in Kingdom of Heaven" actor-strongman Jouko Ahola on Dec. 1 in Hameenlinna; world's strongest man 1997, 1999. Am. actress-comedian (Jewish) Sarah Kate Silverman on Dec. 1 in Bedford, N.H. Am. comic book writer Frank Tieri on Dec. 1 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. "Stuart Bloom in The Big Bang Theory", "Walter in Ugly Betty" actor-comedian (Jewish) Kevin Sussman on Dec. 4 in Staten Island, N.J. Swedish rock musician Ulf Gunnar "Buddha" Ekberg (Ace of Base) on Dec. 6 in Goteborg. Am. "Rich Girl", "Walk Away" singer-songwriter Kara Elizabeth DioGuardi on Dec. 9 New Rochelle, N.Y.; of Italian and Albanian descent; daughter of N.Y. Repub. Rep. (1985-9) Joseph J. DioGuardi (1940-); educated at Duke U. Am. "Shelly Johnson in Twin Peaks" actress Madchen (Mädchen) Elaina Amick on Dec. 12 in Sparks, Nev. Am. "Alicia Nash in A Beautiful Mind" actress Jennifer Lynn Connelly on Dec. 12 in Catskill Mountains, N.Y. Am. "Save the Last Dance" actor Sean Patrick Thomas on Dec. 17 in Wilmington, Del. Am. "Corey in Addicted" actor (black) Tyson Beckford on Dec. 19 in Rochester, N.Y.; African-Panamanian descent father, Chinese-African-Jamaican descent mother. Canadian "Ezri Dax on Star Trek: Deep Space Nine" actress Nicole deBoer on Dec. 20 in Toronto. U.S. Sen. (R-Tex.) (2013-) (first Hispanic) Rafael Edward "Ted" Cruz on Dec. 22 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Spanish-descent Cuban immigrant father, Am. Irish-Italian descent mother; educated at Princeton U., and Harvard U. Am. "You Are Not a Stranger Here" novelist Adam Haslett on Dec. 24 in Port Chester, N.Y.; grows up in Oxfordsire, England and Wellesley, Mass. educated at Swarthmore College, U. of Iowa, and Yale U. Dutch singer (black) Anita Danielle Doth (2 Unlimited) on Dec. 28 in Amsterdam. Am. singer Glen Phillips (Toad the Wet Sprocket) on Dec. 29 in Santa Barbara, Calif. French "Arnold Bluhm in The Constant Gardener" actor-dir. (black) Herbert Kounde (Koundé) on Dec. 30; Benin immigrant parents. Am. Repub. Trump admin. official Michael Anton on ? in Loomis, Calif.; educated at UCD, St. John's College, and Claremont Graduate U. Am. "Proof" playwright David Auburn on ? in Chicago, Ill.; educated at the U. of Chicago. North Korean "Dear Leader" writer Jang Jin-sung on ? in Sariwon; defects to South Korea in 2004. German "The Neglected Sun" geologist Sebastian Luning (Lüning) on ? in ?; educated at the U. of Gottingen, and U. of Bremen. Am. rock drummer Raymond "Ray" Luzier (Army of Anyone, Korn) on ? in Penn. English-Libyan "In the Country of Men" novelist Hisham Matar on ? in Manhattan, N.Y.; father is a Libyan U.N. employee; moves to England in 1986. Palestinian "Diasp/Renga" poet-writer Deema Shehabi on ? in Kuwait; educated at Tufts U., and Boston U. Deaths: Am. pathologist ("Founder of Occupational Medicine") Alice Hamilton (b. 1869) on Sept. 22 in Hadlyme, Conn.; first woman faculty member of Harvard U. (1919). British pipe-smoking agnostic philosopher-logician-pacifist Bertrand Russell (b. 1872) on Feb. 2 in Plas Penrhyn, Penrhyndeudraeth, Wales (influenza); pub. 50+ books; 1950 Nobel Lit. Prize: "It is undesirable to believe a proposition when there is no ground whatever for supposing it true"; "Men are born ignorant, not stupid. They are made stupid by education"; "Advocates of capitalism are very apt to appeal to the sacred principles of liberty, which are embodied in one maxim: The fortunate must not be restrained in the exercise of tyranny over the unfortunate"; "A process which led from the amoeba to man appeared to the philosophers to be obviously a progress though whether the amoeba would agree with this opinion is not known"; "War doesn't determine who's right, only who's left"; "If fifty million people say a foolish thing, it is still a foolish thing"; "Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: The longing for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind"; "The time you enjoy wasting is not wasted time"; "On the one hand, philosophy is to keep us thinking about things that we may come to know, and on the other hand to keep us modestly aware of how much that seems like knowledge isn't knowledge"; "Religion is something left over from the infancy of our intelligence. It will fade away as we adopt reason and science as our guidelines"; "I resolved from the beginning of my quest that I would not be misled by sentiment and desire into beliefs for which there was no good evidence"; "Unless you assume a God, the question of life's purpose is meaningless"; "Many people would sooner die than think; in fact, they do so"; "If a man is offered a fact which goes against his instincts, he will scrutinize it closely, and unless the evidence is overwhelming, he will refuse to believe it. If, on the other hand, he is offered something which affords a reason for acting in accordance to his instinct, he will accept it even on the slightest evidence. The origin of myths is explained in this way"; "Liberty is the right to do what I like; license, the right to do what you like"; "The secret to happiness is to face the fact that the world is horrible"; "To understand the actual world as it is, not as we should wish it to be, is the beginning of wisdom"; "There is something feeble and a little contemptible about a man who cannot face the perils of life without the help of comfortable myths"; "A happy life must be to a great extent a quiet life, for it is only in an atmosphere of quiet that true joy dare live"; "To fear love is to fear life, and those who fear life are already three parts dead"; "The whole problem with the world is that fools and fanatics are always so certain of themselves and wiser people so full of doubts"; "It is not what the man of science believes that distinguishes him, but how and why he believes it. His beliefs are tentative, not dogmatic; they are based on evidence, not on authority or intuition"; "Man is the product of causes which had no prevision of the end they were achieving... his origin, growth, hopes and fears, his loves and beliefs, are but the outcome of accidental collocations of atoms... no fire, heroism, intensity of thought and feeling can preserve an individual life beyond the grave. All the labours of the ages, the devotion, the inspiration, the noonday brightness of human genius, are destined to extinction in the vast death of our solar system, and the temple of man's achievement must inevitably be buried beneath the debris of a universe in ruins." Am. Mormon Church pres. #9 David McKay (b. 1873) on Jan. 18 in Salt Lake City, Utah. Am. painter Romaine Brooks (b. 1874) on Dec. 7 in Nice, France; her lezzie partner Natalie Clifford Barney (b. 1876) survives until 1972. Am. arctic explorer Donald Baxter MacMillan (b. 1874) on Sept. 7 in Provincetown, Mass. Am. philosopher Harry Allen Overstreet (b. 1875) on Aug. 17 in Falls Church, Va.; "A person remains immature, whatever his age, as long as he thinks of himself as an exception to the human race"; "Christianity as an institutionalized religion has laid no stress on the pursuit of truth. Indeed, for the most part it has been suspicious of the truthseeking process. The truthseeker might overturn accepted beliefs." Am. Curtis Inst. of Music founder Mary Louise Curtis Bok Zimbalist (b. 1876) on Jan. 4 in Philadelphia, Penn. Russian patriarch #13 (1945-70) Alexy I (b. 1877) on Apr. 17 in Peredelkino (near Moscow) (heart failure). Am. "Peter Rabbit" illustrator Walter Harrison Cady (b. 1877). Am. gen. Benjamin Oliver Davis Sr. (b. 1877) on Nov. 26 in Chicago, Ill.; first African-Am. U.S. gen. English artist Dame Laura Knight (b. 1877) on July 7 in London. German Reichsbank pres. (1933-9) Hjalmar Schacht (b. 1877) on June 3 in Munich; only WWII concentration camp survivor tried at Nuremberg (acquitted). Am. newspaper publisher Raymond Cyrus Hoiles (b. 1878) on Oct. 31. English "A Room with a View", "Howards End", "A Passage to India" novelist E.M. Forster (b. 1879) on June 7 in Coventry, Warwickshire: "Death destroys a man; the idea of Death saves him"; "Will it really profit us so much if we save our souls and lose the whole world?"; "Only connect." Am. physician Francis Peyton Rous (b. 1879) on Feb. 16 in New York City; 1966 Nobel Med. Prize. French aviation pioneer Louis Bechereau (b. 1880) on Mar. 18 in Paris. U.S. Sen. (R-Vt.) Ralph Edward Flanders (b. 1880) on Feb. 19 in Springfield, Vt. Am. philanthropist Catherine Eddy Beveridge (b. 1881) on May 28. Russian Rev. provisional govt. leader Alexander Kerensky (b. 1881) on June 11 in New York City (heart disease). Am. businesswoman Hortense McQuarrie Odlum (b. 1881) on Jan. 12. Am. Piper Aircraft founder ("the Henry Ford of aviation") William T. Piper (b. 1881) on Jan. 15 in Lock Haven, Penn. (kidney failure). German-born British quantum physicist Max Born (b. 1882) on Jan. 5 in Gottingen, West Germany (heart failure); 1954 Nobel Physics Prize; the annual Max Born Prize is established in his honor by the German Physical Society and British Inst. of Physics. Scottish-born British air marshal Hugh Dowding (b. 1882) on Feb. 15 in Royal Tunbridge Wells, Kent; member of the Fairy Investigation Society. Scottish-born Am. sociologist Robert Morrison MacIver (b. 1882) on June 15. Am. Samsonite Co. (Colo.) founder Jesse Shwayder (b. 1882) on July 25 in Denver, Colo. Am. boxer Abe Attell (b. 1883) on Feb. 7 in New Paltz, N.Y. Am. contraption cartoonist Rube Goldberg (b. 1883) on Dec. 7 in New York City (cancer). German expressionist painter Erich Heckel (b. 1883) on Jan. 27 in Radolfzell. Am. "Think and Grow Rich" writer Napoleon Hill (b. 1883) on Nov. 8 in S.C. Italian-born French fashion designer Nina Ricci (b. 1883) on Nov. 30 in Paris. German physiologist-biochemist Otto Heinrich Warburg (b. 1883) on Aug. 1 in West Berlin. French PM (1933, 1934, 1938-40) Edouard Daladier (b. 1884) on Oct. 10 in Paris. Am. Dem. Colo. gov. #26 (1933-7) and #26 (1955-7) Edwin C. Johnson (b. 1884) on May 30 in Denver, Colo. Am. financier-yachtsman Harold S. Vanderbilt (b. 1884) on July 4 in Newport, R.I. German chancellor (1930-2) Heinrich Bruening (b. 1885) on Mar. 30 in Norwich, Conn. Am. "Glinda the Good Witch in the Wizard of Oz" actress Billie Burke (b. 1885) on May 14 in Los Angeles, Calif.; widow of Florenz Ziegfeld; once a renowned Broadway beauty, she had to become a film comedian to stay employed: "Oh, that sad and bewildering moment when you are no longer the cherished darling, but must turn the corner and try to be funny." Am. novelist Frances Parkinson Keyes (b. 1885) on July 3 in New Orleans, La. French Roman Catholic novelist-essayist Francois Mauriac (b. 1885) on Sept. 1 in Paris; 1952 Nobel Lit. Prize. Am. Communist journalist-activist Anna Louise Strong (b. 1885) on Mar. 29 in Beijing ( heart attack). Israeli novelist Anzia Yezierska (b. 1885) on Nov. 21 in Ontario, Calif. (stroke). Belgian dramatist Fernand Crommelynck (b. 1886) on Mar. 17 in Saint-Germaine-en-Laye. Am. comedic actor Edward Everett Horton (b. 1886) on Sept. 29 in Encino, Calif. (cancer). Am. comedic actor Charlie Ruggles (b. 1886) on Dec. 23 in Santa Monica, Calif. (cancer). Canadian hockey-lacrosse star newsy Lalonde (b. 1887) on Nov. 21 in Montreal, Quebec. Scottish writer Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart (b. 1887) on Feb. 27. Am. Christ of the Ozarks sculptor Emmet Sullivan (b. 1887) on Nov. 3 in Rapid City, S.D. Israeli novelist Shmuel Yosef Agnon (b. 1888) on Feb. 17 in Rehovoh; 1966 Nobel Lit. Prize. English geophysicist Sydney Chapman (b. 1888) on June 16 in Golden Colo. (heart attack). Indian physicist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (b. 1888) on Nov. 21 in Bangalore; 1930 Nobel Physics Prize. Italian writer Giuseppe Ungaretti (b. 1888) on June 2 in Milan. English historian Christopher Dawson (b. 1889) on May 25 in Budleigh Salterton. Am. "Perry Mason" author Erle Stanley Gardner (AKA A.A. Fair) (b. 1889) on Mar. 11 in Temecula, Calif.; founds the Court of Last Resort to help the unjustly imprisoned. Russian-born Am. labor activist Bessie Abramowitz Hillman (b. 1889) on Dec. 23 in New York City. Am. actress Marjorie Rambeau (b. 1889) on July 6. Portuguese dictator Antonio de Oliveira Salazar (b. 1889) on July 27 in Lisbon (pulmonary embolism). French pres. (1959-69) Charles de Gaulle (b. 1890) on Nov. 9 in Colombey-les-Deux-Eglises (aortic aneurysm); founder of the French Fifth Repub. (1958); NBC-TV reporter Edwin Newman wins a Legion d'Honneur for his coverage of the funeral: "The state is a cold monster"; "How can you govern a country that has 400 varieties of cheese?"; "The better I get to know men, the more I find myself loving dogs." U.S. treasury secy. #55 (1953-7) George Magoffin Humphrey (b. 1890) on Jan. 20 in Cleveland, Ohio (heart failure). Lithuanian-born Am. bassoonist Simon Kovar (b. 1890) on Jan. 17 in Encino, Calif. Polish-born Am. actor Menasha Skulnik (b. 1890) on June 4 in New York City. Am. Va. gov. #57 (1954-8) Thomas B. Stanley (b. 1890) on July 10 in Stanleytown, Va. Am. U.S. Capitol architect (1954-70) John George Stewart (b. 1890) on May 24 in Washington, D.C. Am. philosopher (founder of Logical Empiricism) Rudolf Carnap (b. 1891) on Sept. 14 in Santa Monica, Calif. Am. modern bra inventor Caresse Crosby (Mary Phelps Jacob) (b. 1891) on Jan. 26 in Rome, Italy (pneumonia and heart disease). Swiss writer John Knittel (b. 1891) on Apr. 26 in Maienfeld, Graubunden. German-born Swedish "O the Chimneys" poet-playwright Nelly Sachs (b. 1891) on May 12 in Stockholm; 1966 Nobel Lit. Prize. British Field Marshal William J. Slim (b. 1891) on Dec. 14 in St. Marylebone, London. Am. geneticist Alfred Sturtevant (b. 1891) on Apr. 5 in Pasadena, Calif. Am. "Billy the Kid vs. Dracula" dir.-actor William "One Shot" Beaudine (b. 1892) on Mar. 18 in Canoga Park, Calif. (uremic poisoning); the film industry's oldest working prof. at time of death. Hungarian-born Am. Dolly Sister Rosie Dolly (b. 1892) on Feb. 1 in New York City (heart attack); interred with her sister Jenny Dolly (d. 1941) at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Glendale, Calif. Am. "Middletown" sociologist Robert Straughton Lynd (b. 1892) on Nov. 1 in New York City. Austrian-bornu Am. architect Richard Joseph Neutra (b. 1892) on Apr. 16 in Wuppertal, West Germany; designed the Orange County Courthouse in Santa Ana, Calif. British air chief marshal Sir Richard Peirse (b. 1892) on Aug. 5. Am. actress Lenore Ulric (b. 1892) on Dec. 30 in Orangeburg, N.Y. Canadian economist Jacob Viner (b. 1892) on Sept. 12. Soviet field marshal Andrey Yermenko (b. 1892) on Nov. 19 in Moscow. English feminist writer Vera Brittain (b. 1893) on Mar. 29 in Wimbledon: "Politics are usually the executive expression of human immaturity." U.S. Marine Corps commandant #19 (1948-51) gen. Clifton B. Cates (b. 1893) on June 4 in Annapolis, Md.; in WWI he utters the soundbyte "I have no one on my left and only a few on my right; I will hold." Am. critic-essayist-naturalist Joseph Wood Krutch (b. 1893) on May 22 in Tucson, Ariz. (colon cancer): "If you drive a car at 70 mph, you can't do anything but keep the monster under control"; "Civilizations die from philosophical calm, irony, and the sense of fair play quite as surely as they die of debauchery" - say again? German-born Am. Gestalt Therapy psychiatrist Fritz Perls (b. 1893) on Mar. 17 in Chicago, Ill. Austrian mathematician-physicist Marietta Blau (b. 1894) on Jan. 27 in Vienna (cancer). English welterweight boxing champ (1915-6, 1917-9) Ted "Kid" Lewis (b. 1893) on Oct. 20; 193-32-14 incl. 80 KOs. German philosopher Friedrich Pollock (b. 1894) on Dec. 16 in Montagnola, Ticino, Switzerland. Am. microwave oven inventor (1945) Percy Lebaron Spencer (b. 1894) on Sept. 8 in Newton, Mass.; his invention still costs too much for the masses until the 1990s. Am. helicopter designer Henry Berliner (b. 1895) on May 1. Mexican reformer pres. (1934-40) Lazaro Cardenas (b. 1895) on Oct. 19. Am. archbishop of Boston (1944-70) Cardinal Richard Cushing (b. 1895) on Nov. 2 in Boston, Mass. German Vice-Adm. Friedrich Frisius (b. 1895) on Aug. 30 in Lingen. French "Pan Trilogy" novelist Jean Giono (b. 1895) on Oct. 8 in Manosque, Provence. English military strategist Capt. Basil Liddell Hart (b. 1895) on Jan. 29: "The chief incalculable in war is the human will." Am. silent film actress Edna Mayo (b. 1895) on May 5 in San Francisco, Calif. Am. whacked-off Repub. rep. and HUAC chmn. J. Parnell Thomas (b. 1895) on Nov. 19 in St. Petersburg, Fla.; convicted in 1948 of padding congressional payrolls and pardoned by Pres. Truman on Xmas Eve 1952. Soviet Field Marshal Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (b. 1895) on Mar. 30 in Moscow. Mexican archeologist Alfonso Caso y Andrade (b. 1896) on Nov. 30 in Mexico City. Am. journalist Louis Fischer (b. 1896) on Jan. 15 in Princeton, N.J. Am. Manhattan Project Gen. Leslie R. Groves (b. 1896) on July 13 in Washington, D.C. (heart disease). Am. "Life is Just a Bowl of Cherries", "The Thrill is Gone", "I'm Sitting on Top of the World", "Button Up Your Overcoat", "Keep Your Sunny Side Up" songwriter Ray Henderson (b. 1896) on Dec. 31 in Greenwich, Conn. Am. Calif. gov. #31 (1953-9) Goodwin Knight (b. 1896) on May 22 in Inglewood, Calif. (stroke). Am. historian Oliver Waterman Larkin (b. 1896) on Dec. 17. Am. "U.S.A." novelist John Dos Passos (b. 1896) on Sept. 28 in Baltimore, Md. Am. "Hollywood, the Dream Factory" anthropologist Hortense Powdermaker (b. 1896) on June 15 in Berkeley, Calif. (heart attack). Am. "Try a Little Tenderness" songwriter Harry M. Woods (b. 1896) on Jan. 14 in Glendale, Ariz. Am. poet Louise Bogan (b. 1897) on Feb. 4 in New York City: "I cannot believe that the inscrutable universe turns on an axis of suffering; surely the strange beauty of the world must somewhere rest on pure joy!" Am. "The Mysterious Lady" actor Conrad Nagel (b. 1897) on Feb. 24 in New York City (heart attack). Hungarian-born Am. Cleveland Orchestra (since 1946) conductor George Szell (b. 1897) on July 30 in Cleveland, Ohio (heart attack); greatest conductor since Toscanini, preferring democracy in politics and aristocracy in music? Norwegian novelist Tarjei Vesaas (b. 1897) on Mar. 15. French gen. Marie-Pierre Koenig (b. 1898) on Sept. 2 in Neuilly-sur-Seine. German expatriate "All Quiet on the Western Front" novelist Erich Maria Remarque (b. 1898) on Sept. 25 in Locarno, Switzerland (aortic aneurysm); buried near Lake Maggiore. Am. "Merrily We Roll Along" songwriter Charles Tobias (b. 1898) on July 7 in Manhasset, Long Island, N.Y. Hungarian-born Am. architect Roland Anthony Wank (b. 1898) on Apr. 22 in New Rochelle, N.Y.; designed Cincinnati Union Terminal. British conductor Sir John Barbirolli (b. 1899) on July 29 in London; left the New York Philharmonic Symphony to conduct the Halle Orchestra in Manchester. Am. financier Richard King Mellon (b. 1899) on June 3 in Pittsburgh, Penn. (heart failure); last leader of the Mellon empire in Pittsburgh. French gen. (CIC in Vietnam) Jean-Etienne Valluy (b. 1899) on Jan. 4 in Paris. Am. actor Preston Foster (b. 1900) on July 14 in La Jolla, Calif. Am. country musician Clayton McMichen (b. 1900) on Jan. 4 in Battletown, Ky. Am. "Old Farmer's Almanac" and "Yankee" mag. publisher Robb Sagendorph (b. 1900) on July 4. Am. Tenn. Scopes Monkey Trial schoolteacher John Thomas Scopes (b. 1900) on Oct. 21 in Shreveport, La. (cancer). English silent film actor Patrick Aherne (b. 1901) on Sept. 30 in Woodland Hills, Calif. Am. "Sweet Bird of Youth" actor Ed Begley (b. 1901) on Apr. 28 in Hollywood, Calif. (heart attack). Am. journalist-novelist John Gunther (b. 1901) on May 29 in New York City (cancer). Am. "Boston Blackie" actor Chester Morris (b. 1901) on Sept. 11 in New Hope, Pa. (sleeping pill OD). Am. composer-conductor Alfred Newman (b. 1901) on Feb. 17 in Hollywood, Calif.; composed 300+ movie scores and won eight Academy Awards - what, me worry? Indonesian pres. #1 (1945-67) Sukarno (b. 1901) on June 21 in Jakarta. Am. "Good Will Hour" radio personality John J. Anthony (b. 1902) on July 16 in San Francisco, Calif. (heart attack). English "The Inn of the Sixth Happiness" Protestant missionary (to China) Gladys Aylward (b. 1902) on Jan. 3 in Taipei, Taiwan (pneumonia). Am. Penguin Books founder Sir Allen Lane (b. 1902) on July 7 in Northwood, Middlesex. Am. banjo player Eddie Peabody (b. 1902) on Nov. 7 in Covington, Ky. (brain hemorrhage). Am. poet Lorine Niedecker (b. 1903) on Dec. 31 in Black Hawk Island near Fort Atkinson, Wisc. (cerebral hemorrhage). Am. auto racer Kelly Petillo (b. 1903) on June 30 in Los Angeles, Calif. Latvian-born Am. abstract expressionist painter Mark Rothko (b. 1903) on Feb. 25 in New York City (OD/suicide): "The only thing I care about is the expression of man's basic emotions: tragedy, ecstasy, destiny." English historian A.H.M. Jones (b. 1904) on Apr. 9 (heart attack); dies at sea en route to Thessaloniki. English-born Hollywood makeup artist Perc Westmore (b. 1904) on Sept. 30 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Singin' in the Rain' composer Roger Edens (b. 1905) on July 13 in Los Angeles, Calif. (cancer). Soviet MiG aircraft designer Artem Ivanovich Mikoyan (b. 1905) on Dec. 9. Am. abstract expressionist painter-sculptor Barnett Newman (b. 1905) on July 4 in New York City (heart attack): "What is the explanation of the seemingly insane drive of man to be painter and poet if it is not an act of defiance against man's fall and an assertion that he return to the Garden of Eden? For the artists are the first men." Am. "Appointment in Samarra" novelist John O'Hara (b. 1905) on Apr. 11 in Princeton, N.J. (heart disease); dies bitter that he didn't get a Nobel Lit. Prize. South African writer Nicolaas Petrus van Wyk Louw (b. 1906) on June 18 in Johannesburg. Am. actor Sully Mason (b. 1906) on Nov. 27 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. labor leader Walter P. Reuther (b. 1907) on May 9 (plane crash en route from Detroit to Blake Lake, Mich.). Russian-born French dramatist Arthur Adamov (b. 1908) on Mar. 16 in Paris (suicide by OD). English "The Small Back Room" novelist Nigel Balchin (b. 1908) on May 17 in London. Am. "G.I. Joe" cartoonist Dave Breger (b. 1908) on Jan. 16. Am. "Hierarchy of Human Needs" humanistic psychologist Abraham Harold Maslow (b. 1908) on June 8 in Menlo Park, Calif. (heart attack); dies after completing 1 year of a 4-year program to investigate the nature of evil in man - fell through the trap door in the hierarchy? Am. golfer Johnny Goodman (b. 1909) on Aug. 8 in South Gate, Calif. Canadian psychiatrist Eric L. Berne (b. 1910) on July 15 in Monterrey, Calif. (heart attack). British author-explorer Adrian Conan Doyle (b. 1910) on June 3; son of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Am. country musician Salty Holmes (b. 1910) on Jan. 1. Singapore's pres. #1 (1965-) Yusof bin Ishak (b. 1910) on Nov. 23. Am. poet Charles Olson (b. 1910) on Jan. 10. Am. UMW leader Joseph A. Yablonski (b. 1910) on Jan. 5; found shot dead in his home. Am. stripper-actress-author Gypsy Rose Lee (b. 1911) on Apr. 26 in Los Angeles, Calif. (lung cancer). Am. actor Sonny Tufts (b. 1911) on June 4 in Santa Monica, Calif. (pneumonia). Am. singer-violinist Aladdin (b. 1912) on June 9 in Van Nuys, Calif. Am. Olympic bobsledder Stan Benham (b. 1913) on Apr. 22 in Miami, Fla. (heart attack). Am. actress Frances Farmer (b. 1913) on Aug. 1 in Indianapolis, Ind. (cancer). Am. football coach Vince Lombardi (b. 1913) on Sept. 3 in Washington, D.C. (intestinal cancer); coached the Green Bay Packers to six div. and five NFL titles in nine seasons between 1959-67, leading the Washington Redskins to their first winning season in 14 years: "Winning isn't everything, it's the only thing." British Conservative politician Ian Macleod (b. 1913) on July 20 (heart attack). Am. anthropologist Oscar Lewis (b. 1914) on Dec. 16 in New York City (heart attack). Am. "He Ain't Heavy, He's My Brother" songwriter Bob Russell (b. 1914) in Feb. (cancer). Am. actor-dir. Frank Silvera (b. 1914) on June 11 in Pasadena, Calif. (accidentally electrocuted). Am. country singer Curley Williams (b. 1914) on Sept. 5 in Montgomery, Ala. Am. historian Richard Hofstadter (b. 1915) on Oct. 24/25 in New York City (leukemia): "I offer trial models of historical interpretation"; "I hate capitalism and everything that goes with it." Am. actress Anita Louise (b. 1915) on Apr. 25 in West Los Angeles, Calif. (stroke). Am. atty. James Britt Donovan (b. 1916) on Jan. 19 in Brooklyn, N.Y. Am. Chinese history scholar Mary Clabaugh Wright (b. 1917) on June 18; first female full prof. at Yale U., and first female trustee of Wesleyan U. (1969). Egyptian pres. #2 (1956-70) Gamal Abd-Al Nasser (b. 1918) on Sept. 28 in Cairo (heart attack). Am. humorist Herb Shriner (b. 1918) on Apr. 23 near Delray Beach, Fla. (automobile accident). Romanian poet Paul Celan (b. 1920) on Apr. 20 in France (drowns himself in the Seine River after being accused of plagiarism by Yvan Goll). Am. "Jethro" enterainer Henry D. Haynes (b. 1920) on Aug. 7 in Hammond, Ind. Austrian-born British physicist Hans Kronberger (b. 1920) on Sept. 29. Am. TV comedian Hal March (b. 1920) on Jan. 19 in Los Angeles, Calif. (lung cancer); MC of "The $64,000 Question" in 1955-8. Am. physician-wrestler Sam "the Killer" Sheppard (b. 1923) on Apr. 6 (liver failure); the coroner finds two quarts of vodka, six phenobarbitols, and 100 mg. of Librium in his stomach. Yugoslavian king (1934-45) Peter II (b. 1923) on Nov. 3 in Los Angeles, Calif. (liver failure). Am. economist Alfred Haskell Conrad (b. 1924) on Oct. 18 in Peacham, Vt. (suicide). Soviet cosmonaut Pavel Ivanovich Belyayev (b. 1925) on Jan. 10 in Moscow (peritonitis). Japanese writer Yukio Mishima (b. 1925) on Nov. 25 in Tokyo (suicide); commits seppuku after founding the imperialist Shield Society, a private army opposed to Japan's anti-war constitution, then invading the HQ of the Self-Defense Forces in downtown Tokyo with four followers and giving a balcony speech seeking to restore the emperor's power and avenge the disgrace of WWII, and getting laughed off; wrote 40 novels, 18 plays, 20 books of short stories, and 20 books of essays - the good gut themselves young? Am. blues musician Earl Hooker (b. 1929) on Apr. 21 in Chicago, Ill. (TB). Swedish-Am. actress Inger Stevens (b. 1933) on Apr. 30 in Hollywood, Calif. (suicide via OD on Tedral and alcohol) - going my way? Am. basketball player Maurice Stokes (b. 1933) on Apr. 6, 1970 (heart attack). Am. jazz musician Albert Ayler (b. 1936) on Nov. 25 in East River, N.Y. (suicide after jumping off the Statue of Liberty ferry): "Trane was the Father, Pharoah was the Son, I am the Holy Ghost." German-born Am. sculptor Eva Hesse (b. 1936) on May 29 in New York City (brain tumor). Dominican world lightweight "gentleman of the ring" boxing champ Carlos (Teo) Cruz (b. 1937) on Feb. 15. Austrian auto racer Karl Jochen Rindt (b. 1942) in Monza (near Milan), Italy; killed in practice for the Italian Grand Prix, becoming the first driver to win the Formula One World Drivers' Championship posth. (until ?) - the good die young? The Fabled 27 Club gets three new members in a month? Am. drugged-out rock star Jimi Hendrix (b. 1942) on Sept. 18 in London (OD); his German figure skater girlfriend Monika Dannemann (1945-96) calls Eric Burdon from their basement apt. in the Samarkand Hotel on 22 Lansdowne Crescent to tell him that he won't wake up, and he tells her to call an ambulance; he took nine Vesperax sleeping pills and choked on his own vomit?; she is later accused of killing him because there was a scarf tied around his neck, and ends up committing suicide; Hendrix leaves an estate worth only $500K; an auction of his personal belongings brings only $21K: "When the power of love overcomes the love of power, the world will know peace." Am. drugged-out rock star Janis Joplin (b. 1943) on Oct. 4 in Los Angeles, Calif. (OD at Highland Gardens Hotel in Hollywood Heights). Am. Canned Heat singer Alan Wilson (b. 1943) on Sept. 3 in Los Angeles, Calif. (OD). German assassin Josef Bachmann (b. 1944) on Feb. 23/24 (suicide in prison). Am. football player Brian Piccolo (b. 1943) on June 16 in New York City (cancer) - the good die young? Am. soul singer Tammi Terrell (b. 1945) on Mar. 16 in Philadelphia, Penn. (brain tumor); her death causes her singing partner Marvin Gaye to quit the music biz for two years - the good die young? British Olympic athlete Lillian Board (b. 1948) on Dec. 26 in Munich, Germany (colon cancer) - the good die young?

1971 - The 420 Topcoat Ping-Pong Bang-a-Gong Bangladesh Pentagon Papers Floppy Disk Grammy Workaholic American Pie Year? The international political system changes forever as Sleeping Giant China ends its centuries of isolation and takes off its topcoat, coming out swinging Commie ping-pong paddles and handing out irresistible little pandas, nevert mention the bamboo die-off? Meanwhile the fledgling U.S. microprocessor industry begins its blastoff to exponential growth, ending up employing a large share of Baby Boomer brains by the end of the century?

Zhuang Zedong (1940-2013) and Glenn Cowan (1952-2004) John Kerry (1943-), Apr. 22, 1971 Daniel Ellsberg (1931-) Daniel Ellsberg (1931-) and Anthony Russo (1936-2008) Neil Sheehan (1936-) Attica Prison Riot, Sept. 9-13, 1971 Samuel Melville (1934-71) Kurt Josef Waldheim of Austria (1918-2007) Idi Amin Dada of Uganda (1925-2003) Jean-Claude 'Baby Doc' Duvalier of Haiti (1951-2014) Sheik Mujibur Rahman of Bangladesh (1920-75) Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan (1928-79) Ismail Nihat Erim of Turkey (1912-80) Siaka Probyn Stevens of Sierra Leone (1905-88) Trygve Martin Bratteli of Norway (1910-84) Thanom Kittikachorn of Thailand (1911-2004) Dzemal Bijedic of Yugoslavia (1917-77) Sir William McMahon of Australia (1908-88) Arthur Briane Deane Faulkner of North Ireland (1921-77) Col. Hugo Banzer Suarez of Bolivia (1926-2002) Ramon Ernesto Cruz of Honduras (1903-85) Adam Malik of Indonesia (1917-) Kim Dae-jung of South Korea (1925-) Carl Bert Albert of the U.S. (1908-2000) John B. Connally Jr. of the U.S. (1917-93) Romana Acosta Bañuelos of the U.S. (1925-) George Herbert Walker Bush of the U.S. (1924-) U.S. Gen. John Daniel Lavelle (1916-79) South Vietnamese Gen. Hoang Xuan Lam (1928-2017) Giovanni Leone of Italy (1908-2001) Gen. Alejandro Agustin Lanusse of Argentina (1918-96) Gen. Emilio Garrastazu Medici of Brazil (1905-85) Gen. Liber Seregni of Uruguay (1916-2004) Juan Maria Bordaberry Arocena of Uruguay (1928-) Sheik Isa ibn Salman al-Khalifa of Bahrain (1933-99) Sheik Ahmed bin Ali bin Abdullah Al-Thani of Qatar (1917-77) Sheik Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan of Abu Dhabi (1918-2004) Prince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa of Bahrain (1935-) Dominic Mintoff of Malta (1916-) Philip Francis Berrigan (1923-2002) Ted Kennedy of the U.S. (1932-2009) Charles Mathias Jr. of the U.S. (1922-2010) John Daniel Ehrlichman of the U.S. (1925-99) Lewis Franklin Powell Jr. (1907-98) William Hubbs Rehnquist of the U.S. (1924-2005) Mildred Lillie (1915-2002) Bob Dole of the U.S. (1923-) Robert Samuel Kerr of the U.S. (1896-1963) John Little McClellan (1896-1977) William Grenville Davis of Canada (1929-) Margaret Trudeau of Canada (1948-) Sir William McMahon of Australia (1908-88) Erich Honecker of East Germany (1912-94) Hastings Kamuzu Banda of Malawi (1896-1997) William Richard Tolbert Jr. of Liberia (1913-80) Rev. Ian Paisley of North Ireland (1926-2014) Olafur Johannesson of Iceland (1913-84) Earl Lauer Butz of the U.S. (1909-2008) Martha Wright Griffiths of the U.S. (1912-2003) Efraim Elrom of Israel (-1971) Sheikh Abdullah Nimar Darwish of Israel (1948-) Raed Salah of Israel (1958-) Apollo 14 Crew Apollo 15 Crew James Dillet Freeman (1912-2003) Vladimir Shatalov of the Soviet Union (1927-) Alexei Yeliseyev of the Soviet Union (1943-) Nikolai Rukavishnikov of the Soviet Union (1932-2002) The Wilmington Ten Moses Carl Holman (1919-88) Rev. Jerry Falwell (1933-2007) Jesse Jackson (1941-) Coretta Scott King (1927-2006) Iron Eyes Cody (1905-99) Renner LeRoy Forbes (1929-) David Fraser Nolan (1943-2010) U.S. Vice-Adm. Samuel Lee Gravely Jr. (1922-2004) Barend Willem Biesheuvel of Netherlands (1920-2001) Russian Orthodox Patriarch Pimen I (1910-90) Pope Shenouda III (1923-2012) Daniel Schorr (1916-2010) Chuck Dederich (1913-97) Robert Christian Hansen (1939-2014) Jim Morrison (1943-71) and Pamela Susan Courson (1946-74) Richard Nixon (1913-94) and Tricia Nixon Cox (1946-), June 12, 1971 Edward Ridley Finch Cox (1946-) Dr. Alex Comfort (1920-2000) George Crile Jr. (1908-92) Leon Howard Sullivan (1922-2001) Fight of the Century, Mar. 8, 1971 Chuck Howley (1936-) Lee Trevino (1939-) Richard Petty (1937-) Brian Piccolo (1943-70) Gale Sayers (193-2020) Ken Dryden (1947-) Guy Lafleur (1951-) Lester B. Pearson Trophy Mike Limongello (1945-) Steve Prefontaine of the U.S. (1951-75) Bob Dandridge (1947-) John David Newcombe (1944-) Evonne Goolagong (1951-) Stanley Roger Smith (1946-) Antonio Ordonez (Ordóñez) (1932-98) Pierre Ramond (1943-) André Neveu (1946-) John Henry Schwarz (1941-) Jean-Loup Gervais (1936-) Bunji Sakita (1930-2002) Yuri Golfand (1922-94) Frank Serpico (1936-) Joseph Colombo (1914-78) Joseph 'Joey' 'Crazy Joe' Gallo (1929-72) Frank Sheeran (1920-) Sgt. John V. Young (1920-71) Thomas Hart Benton (1889-1975) Willem van Eijk (1941-) Andrew Wyeth (1917-2009) Joan Baez (1941-) Jules Feiffer (1929-) Thomas McGuane (1939-) Bruce Nathan Ames (1928-) Leon Ong Chua (1936-) Stephen Hawking (1942-2018) Ilya Prigogine (1917-2003) Robert Trivers (1943-) Sir John Robert Vane (1927-2004) Robert Burns Woodward (1917-79) Yoshio Masui (1931-) L. Dennis Smith Ray Tomlinson (1941-) Bowmar Brain, 1971 Intel 4004, 1971 Ted Hoff (1937-) Federico Faggin (1941-) Masatoshi Shima (1943-) Stanley Mazor (1941-) TI-3000, 1972 Gary Boone (1945-2013) John V. Blankenbaker (1930-) Kenbak-1, 1971 Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield (1919-2004) William Henry Oldendorf (1925-92) Raj Reddy (1937-) V.S. Naipaul (1932-2018), Michael Stern Hart (1947-) Gerhard Herzberg (1904-99) Frank Gasparro (1909-2001) Willy Brandt of West Germany (1913-92) Herman Bell Pablo Neruda (1904-73) Dennis Gabor (1900-79) Gerhard Herzberg (1904-99) Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr. (1915-74) Simon Smith Kuznets (1901-85) Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97) Daniel Keith Ludwig (1897-1992) J.C. Bhattacharyya (1930-2012) Oscar Zeta Acosta (1935-74) Saul David Alinsky (1909-72) Raymond Andrews (1934-91) J.G. Ballard (1930-2009) Sandra Bem (1944-) Earle Birney (1904-95) William Peter Blatty (1928-2017) Robert Bloch (1917-94) Peter Breggin (1936-) Peter Brown (1935-) Frederick Buechner (1926-) Charles Bukowski (1920-94) Barry Commoner (1917-) Michael Cook (1933-94) Stephen Arthur Cook (1939-) Paulette Marcia Cooper (1942-) Didier Decoin (1945-) Midge Decter (1927-) Carl Neumann Degler (1921-2004) Norman Dubie (1945-) Loren Eiseley (1907-77) Werner Erhard (1935-) Philip Jose Farmer (1918-2009) Jacques Forestier (1890-1978) E.M. Forster (1879-1970) Frederick Forsyth (1938-) 'The Day of the Jackal' by Frederick Forsyth (1938-), 1971 Nicholas Gage (1939-) John Gardner (1933-82) George Garrett (1929-2008) William Howard Gass (1924-) Addison Gayle Jr. (1932-91) Paul Goma (1935-) Simon Gray (1936-2008) Lester Grinspoon (1928-) Ursula K. Le Guin (1929-2018) Thom Gunn (1929-2004) Lars Gustafsson (1936-) Dorothy Hewitt (1923-2002) S.E. Hinton (1950-) Sandra Hochman (1936-) John Hollander (1929-) P.D. James (1920-) Michael F. Jacobson (1943-) B.S. Johnson (1933-73) Madison Jones (1925-) John Oliver Killens (1916-87) Jerzy Kosinski (1933-91) Hans Küng (1928-) Pascal Lainé (1942-) Gavin Lambert (1924-2005) Frances Moore Lappé (1944-) David Levering Lewis (1936-) Robert Ludlum (1927-2001), Alistair MacLean (1922-87) Naguib Mahfouz (1911-2006) Norman Mailer (1923-2007) Bernard Malamud (1914-86) Ana Maria Matute (1926-) James A. Michener (1907-97) Robert L. Middlekauff (1929-) Merle Miller (1919-86) Gilbert Moore (1936-) Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976) David Niven (1910-83) Wayne E. Oates (1917-99) Charles Olson (1910-70) Linda Pastan (1932-) Alice Paul (1885-1977) Martha Wright Griffiths of the U.S. (1912-2003) Melvin Van Peebles (1932-) V.S. Pritchett (1900-97) 'The Anarchist Cookbook' by William Powell (1950-), 1971 John Rawls (1921-2002) John Rechy (1934-) Tomas Rivera (1935-84) Philip Roth (1933-2018) Ali Salem (1936-2015) Jesus Fernandez Santos (1926-88) Alice Schwarzer (1942-) Hubert Selby Jr. (1928-2004) Karl Shapiro (1913-2000) B.F. Skinner (1904-90) Wallace Stegner (1909-93) Muriel Spark (1918-2006) Mickey Spillane (1918-2006) George Steiner (1929-) Irving Stone (1903-89) Jonathan Strong (1944-) Sir Keith Thomas (1933-) Thomas Tryon (1926-91) Gore Vidal (1925-2012) Joseph Wambaugh (1937-) David Williamson (1942-) Herman Wouk (1915-) James Arlington Wright (1927-80) Jay Wright (1934-) Frank McGee (1921-74) Frederick Wallace Smith (1944-) Federal Express Logo Philip George Zimbardo (1933-) John Casablancas (1942-) Paulina Porizkova (1965-) Jay Wright Forrester (1918-2016) Ernest J. Gaines (1933-) Eduardo Galeano (1940-) Thaddeus Golas (1924-97) Irving Lester Janis (1918-90) Don DeLillo (1936-) Assar Lindbeck (1930-) Golo Mann (1909-94) Samuel Menashe (1925-) John O'Keefe Jonathan O. Dostrovsky Terry Pratchett (1948-) Marcus Raskin (1934-) Angelo Rinaldi (1940-) Jerome Irving Rodale (1898-1971) Robert David Rodale (1930-90) Ida Pauline Rolf (1896-1979) Mike Royko (1932-97) Willy Russell (1947-) Klaus Martin Schwab (1938-) Stephen Lawrence Schwartz (1948-) Ramon Sender (1934-) Delia Smith (1941-) Gerald Stern (1925-) Diane Wakoski (1937-) Alice Waters (1944-) G.A. Wells (1926-2017) Frank Garvin Yerby (1916-91) Mick Jagger (1943-) and Bianca Jagger (1950-) David Geffen (1943-) Den Fujita (1926-2004) Marc Bolan (1947-77) Steve Tilson (1950-) 'American Pie', by Don McLean (1945-) Charley Pride (1934-2020) The Doobie Brothers Eagles Billy Joel (1949-) Tom Jones (1940-) Helen Reddy (1941-) 'Tapestry' by Carole King (1942-), 1971 'Imagine' by John Lennon (1940-80), 1971 John Lennon's Pig Postcard, 1971 'Ram' by Paul McCartney (1942-) and Linda McCartney (1941-98), 1971 Paul McCartney (1942-) and Wings Olivia Newton-John (1948-2022) Bonnie Raitt (1949-) Carly Simon (1945-) 'Every Picture Tells a Story' by Rod Stewart (1945-), 1971 'Sticky Fingers' by the Rolling Stones, 1971 REO Speedwagon Yes Earth, Wind and Fire 'Led Zeppelin IV', 1971 ELO Little Feat Loggins and Messina Sandy Denny (1947-78) Dolly Parton (1946-) Herbie Mann (1930-2003) Commander Cody and His Lost Planet Airmen Tom Clay (1929-95) Mahavishnu Orchestra Lee Michaels (1945-) Pharoah Sanders (1940-) Jimmie Spheeris (1949-84) Bill Withers (1938-) Thin Lizzy Pierre Boulez (1925-) Bay City Rollers New Riders of the Purple Sage Brownsville Mockingbird Middle of the Road Cheech (1946-) and Chong (1938-) 'Soul Train', 1971-2006 Jon Voight (1938-) and Marcheline Bertrand (1950-2007) Mario Davidovsky (1934-) Gian Carlo Menotti (1911-2007) Julius Rudel (1921-) James Lawrence Levine (1943-) Arthur Mitchell (1934-) Artie Mitchell (1945-91) and Jim Mitchell (1944-2007) Vivienne Westwood (1941-) Malcolm McLaren (1946-2010) 'The Plastic Ono Band Tim Rice (1944-) and Andrew Lloyd Webber (1948-) 'Jesus Christ Superstar' (musical), 1971 Alistair Cooke (1908-2004) 'All in the Family', 1971-83 'Cannon', 1971-8 'Columbo', starring Peter Falk (1927-), 1971-8 'McMillan and Wife', starring Rock Hudson (1925-85) and Susan Saint James (1946-), 1971-7 'McCloud', starring Dennis Weaver (1924-2006), 1970-7 'Owen Marshall: Counselor at Law', 1971-4 'The Smith Family', 1971-2 'The Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour', Sonny Bono (1935-98) and Cher (1946-), 1971-4 Sandy Duncan (1946-) Fay Weldon (1931-) 'Upstairs, Downstairs', 1971-5 David Rabe (1940-) 'The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel', 1971 'Follies', 1971 'No Sex Please, Were British', 1971 'Sticks and Bones', 1971 '10 Rillington Place', 1971 'The Andromeda Strain', 1971 'Big Jake', 1971 'Billy Jack', starring Tom Laughlin (1931-), 1971 'A Clockwork Orange', 1971 'Dirty Harry', starring Clint Eastwood (1930-), 1971 'Diamonds Are Forever' starring Sean Connery (1930-) and Jill St. John (1940-), 1971 'Dracula v. Frankenstein', 1971 'The French Connection', 1971 'Get Carter', 1971 'The Go-Between', 1971 'Johnny Got His Gun' starring Timothy Bottoms (1951-), 1971 'Johnny Got His Gun' starring Timothy Bottoms (1951-), 1971 'Johnny Got His Gun' starring Timothy Bottoms (1951-), 1971 'King Lear', 1971 John Gavin (1931-) 'Macbeth', 1971 'Mary, Queen of Scots', 1971 'The Last Picture Show', 1971 'McCabe & Mrs. Miller', 1971 'The Omega Man', 1971 'Shaft', 1971 Isaac Hayes (1942-2008) 'Stork', 1971 'Summer of 42', 1971 'Sunday Bloody Sunday', 1971 'THX 1138', 1971 'Together', 1971 'Vanishing Point', 1971 Wes Craven (1939-2015) Philip H. Knight (1938-) Nike Logo, 1971 'Elegy to the Spanish Republic, No. 110' by Robert Motherwell, 1971 'I Am Coming, Henry Henry' by Larry Rivers (1923-2002), 1971 The Tasadays, 1971 'Sugar Shack' by Ernie Barnes, 1971 W. Eugene Smith (1918-78) 'Minamata' by W. Eugene Smith (1918-78), 1971 'Thanksgiving Leaf' by Mark Tobey (1890-1976), 1971 Robert Paxton McCulloch (1911-77) London Bridge, Lake Havasu City, Arizona, 1971 New York Islanders Logo Denis Potvin (1953-) WHA Winnipeg Jets Logo Arizona Coyotes Logo Hartford Whalers Logo Carolina Hurricanes Logo World Hockey Assoc. Logo Calgary Broncos Logo Cleveland Crusaders Logo Edmonton Oilers Logo Minnesota Fighting Saints Logo St. Paul Civic Center, 1973 Denver Art Museum, 1971 Gio Ponti (1891-1979) Avco Cup Wonka Bar, 1971 Starbucks, 1971 Howard Schultz (1953-) Armand Vaillancourt (1929-) Vaillancourt Fountain, 1971 T.L. Winslow (TLW) (1953-), 1971

1971 Doomsday Clock: 10 min. to midnight. Chinese Year: Pig (Jan. 27). Time Mag. Man of the Year: Richard Milhous Nixon (1913-94). The U.S. balance of payments tanks this year, causing the balance of trade to go negative for the 1st time since 1888 ($2.05B), setting off a chain reaction that shakes internat. trade and finance by the end of the year. Japan's GNP per capita: $2,195 (vs. $9,925 in 1981); trade surplus with the U.S.: $3.2B (vs. $15.8B in 1981); private sector employment: 51M (vs. 54M in 1981). U.S. troops in Vietnam by end of year: 200K (vs. a peak of 534K in mid-1969); Henry Kissinger talks Pres. Nixon out of withdrawing all of them because it might cost him reelection next year. The avg. U.S. taxpayer gives the govt. $400 for defense, $125 for the Vietnam War, $315 for health care ($7 for medical research), $40 for highways, and $30 to explore outer space. The U.S. EPA begins a 25-year program to phase-out lead in gasoline by 1996. The worst drought in Afghan history begins (ends 1972), killing 100K - why should anybody care about that remote corner of the world? This year the U.S. airline accident rate is the lowest in 23 years, and the 3rd year in a row in which there is a reduction; pressured by the Assoc. of Flight Attendants (AFA), U.S. courts rule that United Airline's no-marriage rule for stewardesses is illegal, as is the no-male rule. Jewish feminists Gloria Steinem, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, and Patricia Carbine found Ms. Mag., a preview issue being pub. as a sample insert in New York (not New Yorker) mag., which sells out 300K copies in eight days, and contains the soundbyte "Ms. is being adopted as a standard form of address by women who want to be recognized as individuals, rather than being identified by their relationship with a man. After all, if Mr. is enough to identify male, then Ms. should be enough to identify female!... It's symbolic and important. There's a lot in a name"; the first regular issue, featuring Wonder Woman is pub. in July 1972, reaching a circ. of 350K within a year, going on to pub. a list of women who had abortions in 1972, causing the Manifesto of 343 Sluts (Bitches) to be pub. on Apr. 5, 1973 in France, signed by guess how many women celebs who all claim to have had an abortion, incl. Simone de Beauvoir (actually she hadn't?), Catherine Deneuve, and Delphine Seyrig, pointing out that 1M women a year in France have one. On Jan. 1 (midnight) after one last spending orgy on the Rose Bowl and other college football games, advertising of cigarettes on U.S. TV and radio ceases as the U.S. Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act (passed last Nov.) goes into effect; Philip Morris spends $12M for commercials from 11:30-11:59 p.m.; the last ad, aired on the Tonight show at 11:59 p.m. is for Virginia Slims, and stars Veronica Hamel; the ad money is rechanneled into print media and billboards. On Jan. 1 a 3-day New Year's ceasefire marked by sporadic fighting ends in Vietnam. On Jan. 1 Stanford defeats Ohio State by 27-17 to win the 1971 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 2 the 91st U.S. Congress adjourns its 2nd session, the longest held since 1950. On Jan. 2 the stairway collapses at the IBROX Soccer Stadium in Edinburgh, killing 66 spectators. On Jan. 3 the 92nd U.S. Congress (ends Jan. 3, 1973) convenes with Dem. majorities in both houses, incl. new N.Y. Dem. Rep. (until Jan. 3, 1977) Bella Savitsky Abzug (1920-98) - and Capt. Tricky Dicky in the con, with Klingons closing in on the viewscreen? On Jan. 4 Philly activist minister Rev. Leon Howard Sullivan (1922-2001) becomes the first black dir. on the board of General Motors Corp., the world's largest industrial corp. On Jan. 6 the first gay rights bill in the U.S. is introduced to the New York City council by Shirley Carter Burden Jr. (1941-96) and Eldon R. Clingan; it dies in committee, and a similar bill is not passed until 1986. On Jan. 7 France establshes a new ministry of the environment. On Jan. 10 Masterpiece Theater (originally "The First Churchills") debuts on PBS-TV, hosted by dignified English-born Am. journalist Alistair Cooke (1908-2004); the theme music is Fanfare-Rondeau by Jean-Joseph Mouret (1682-1738). On Jan. 11 Holy Cross College of Worcester, Mass. (founded 1843) becomes the last of 28 U.S. Jesuit colleges to announce the admission of women students (beginning in Sept. 1972). On Jan. 11 an attempted coup against Pres. Juan Jose Torres of Bolivia is announced. On Jan. 11 John MacLeod Fraser arrives in Beijing, China to set up a Canadian embassy; on Feb. 1 a 10-man delegation headed by Hsu Chung-fu arrives in Ottawa to set up a Chinese embassy. On Jan. 11-17 violence breaks out in two Roman Catholic areas of Belfast, North Ireland. On Jan. 12 Roman Catholic anarchist peace activist Philip Francis Berrigan (1923-2002) (a priest in 1955-73, who in 1972 married Sister Elizabeth McAlister) and five others are indicted for conspiring to kidnap U.S. security advisor Henry Kissinger. On Jan. 12 after the British Industrial Relations Act (BIRA) of the Conservative govt. of Edward Heath is passed, limiting wildcat strikes and prohibiting limitations on legitimate strikes, establishing the Nat. Industrial Relations Court, the British Trade Union Congress campaigns against it, holding a protest in London, followed by 1.5M members of the Amalgamated Engineering Union striking for one day in Mar.; next July the Pentonville Five are imprisoned for refusing to appear before the court, and on Sept. 3, 1973 the BTUC expels 20 members for registering under the act; in 1974 after the Heath govt. falls, the British Trade Union and Labour Relations Act repeals the BIRA. On Jan. 12 (Tue.) Jewish-Am. Norman Lear's leftist political sitcom All in the Family, based on the British series "Till Death Do Us Part" debuts on CBS-TV for 202 episodes (until Apr. 8, 1979), starring John Carroll O'Connor (1924-2001) (who successfully holds out for more money in 1974) as bigoted blue collar worker Archie Bunker, Jean Stapleton (nee Murray) (1923-) as his wife Edith "the Dingbat", who suffers from menopause, Robert "Rob" Reiner (1947-) as his Jewish liberal son-in-law Michael "Meathead" Stivic, and Sally Ann Struthers (1948-) as his daughter Gloria, who becomes the victim of attempted rape and has a miscarriage; Meathead and Gloria go on to have son Joey Stivic in Dec. 1975, after which in 1976 the Ideal Toy Co. releases the 14-in. Joey Stivic doll, complete with an uncircumcised penis, billing it as the "first anatomically correct male doll", becoming a collector's item; on May 13 after Quaker Pres. Nixon watches it, he denounces an episode on homosexuality, telling his Christian Scientist asst. John Daniel Ehrlichman (1925-99): "Why it outrages me because I don't want to see this country go that way... You know what happened to the Greeks. Homosexuality destroyed them. Sure Aristotle was a homo, we all know that. So was Socrates, but he never had the influence that television had... Do you know what happened to the Romans? The last six Roman emperors were fags... You know what happened to the popes? It's all right that popes were laying the nuns. That's been going on for years, centuries. But when the popes, when the Catholic Church went to Hell in, I don't know, three or four centuries ago, it was homosexual, and it had to be cleaned out. Now, that's what happened to Britain. It happened earlier to France." On Jan. 13 after efforts by liberal Repub. Md. Sen. (1969-87) Charles McCurdy "Mac" Mathias Jr. (1922-2010), Congress repeals the Aug. 7, 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, ending the president's unlimited war powers along with the de facto declaration of war on North Vietnam, with a House vote of 414-0 and a Senate vote of 88-2; by the end of the year 6.2M tons of bombs have been dropped on lovely Vietnam by U.S. aircraft, 3x the amount dropped in all of WWII. On Jan. 15 the 2.1GWAswan High Dam is inaugurated, ending the age-old annual flooding of the Nile River that deposits rich silt on fields, causing farmers to begin using fertilizer. On Jan. 15 the Repub. Nat. Committee approves Kansas Sen. (1969-96) Robert Joseph "Bob" Dole (1923-) as the party's nat. chmn. (until 1973). On Jan. 17 Super Bowl V (5) (1971) ("Blunder Bowl") (11 total turnovers) is held in Miami, Fla., becoming the first to be played on artificial turf; for the 1st time the winners of the Am. (AFC) and Nat. (NFC) Football Conferences of the NFL (instead of the winners of the AFL and NFL) play in it; the Baltimore Colts (AFC) (coach Don McCafferty), led by QB Johnny Unitas defeat the Dallas Cowboys (NFC) 16-13 on a 32-yard field goal by toe-kicking rookie Jim O'Brien (1947-) with 5 sec. left, becoming the first team with the most turnovers to win the SB; Cowboys linebacker (1961-73) Charles Louis "Chuck" Howley (1936-) is MVP, the first from a losing team; Unitas retires in 1974. On Jan. 18 two Standard Oil tankers, the SS Arizona Standard and the SS Oregon Standard collide in the fog 1/4-mi. W of the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, Calif., spilling a double standard 1.9M gal. of heavy bunker oil. On Jan. 19 after being proposed by Pres. Nixon in 1969, the Overseas Private Investment Corp. (OPIC) is established to advance U.S. foreign policy by financing projects incl. the $200M Project Salavador solar plant in Chile. On Jan. 20 (Wed.) the comedy-drama series The Smith Family debuts on CBS-TV for 39 episodes (until June 7, 1972), starring Henry Jaynes "Hank" Fonda (1905-82) as Det. Sgt. Chad Smith, "a man you'll like", Janet Blair (Martha Janet Lafferty) (1921-2007) as his wife Betty Smith, Darleen Carr (1950-) as eldest daughter Cindy Smith, and Ronald William "Ron" Howard (1954-) as eldest son Bob Smith. On Jan. 20-Mar. 8 (47 days) the first nationwide British postal strike idles 220K Union of Post Office Workers, costing $65M in lost revenue. On Jan. 21 the 100th session of the U.S.-North Vietnam peace talks takes place in Paris. On Jan. 21 U.S. Rep. (D-Okla.) (1947-77) Rhodes scholar Carl Bert Albert (1908-2000) becomes U.S. House Speaker #54 (until Jan. 3, 1977), going on to preside over the Agnew scandal and Nixon impeachment. On Jan. 22 Communist troops shell Phnom Penh, Cambodia for the 1st time. On Jan. 22 Pres. Nixon delivers his 1971 State of the Union Address, with the soundbyte: "In these troubled years just past, America has been going through a long nightmare of war and division, of crime and inflation. Even more deeply, we have gone through a long, dark night of the American spirit. But now that night is ending. Now we must let our spirits soar again. Now we are ready for the lift of a driving dream. The people of this nation are eager to get on with the quest for new greatness. They see challenges, and they are prepared to meet those challenges. It is for us here to open the doors that will set free again the real greatness of this nation, the genius of the American people." On Jan. 22 a man hijacks a Boeing 727 from Milwaukee, Wisc. to Cuba; he wanted to go to Algeria, but settles for the Commie Paradise. On Jan. 23 Prospect Creek Camp in N Alaska (N of the Arctic Circle) sets a U.S. record with a low temp. of -80 F (-62 C) - what month is the coldest in the northern hemisphere? On Jan. 23 U.S. Senate Dem. whip (asst. leader) (since 1969) Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (1932-2009) is appointed to the Dem. Steering Committee by Sen. majority leader Mike Mansfield, and in Aug. he says he will be content to play an "active role" in party affairs, although his chances for the pres. nomination were ruined by the 1969 Chappaquiddick fiasco. On Jan. 25 Uganda's beloved pres. #2 (since Apr. 15, 1966) Apollo Milton Obote, who has turned the economy into his personal bank account and is about to arrest Amin for misappropriating army funds is overthrown while attending a conference in Singapore by a military junta led by 6'4" British-trained Muslim-convert gourmet cannibal and light heavyweight boxing champ (1951-60), Maj. Gen. Idi Amin (1925-2003), with Israeli backing, using Amin's army of Nubian soldiers recruited from the West Nile region bordering Sudan; Obote flees to exile in neighboring Tanzania, and is eventually joined by 20K exiles; a popular man of the people big boy from around here type at first, Amin, who joined the King's African Rifles in 1946 as an asst. cook and worked his way up to a James Bond 007 killer soon begins ruling with an iron fist in a boxing glove, wearing a chef's hat as he cooks his own countrymen, killing 100K-500K, esp. members of the Acholi and Langi tribes, while his promises of free elections prove false before he is driven out in 1979 amid a gob of horror stories, becoming a favorite of the white man's newspapers since he fits every stereotype of big black banana-eating apes dressed up in Euro clothes unable to keep the savage inside from coming out; not that he's all bad: having served under Scottish officers in the British army, he develops a love for all things Scottish, and proclaims himself "the Last King of Scotland", offering to help them throw off the "British Conqueror", and dresses his parade troops in kilts; he claims to know the date on which he will die. On Jan. 25 the U.S. Supreme Court rules unanimously in Phillips v. Martin Marietta Corp. that Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits "not only overt discrimination but also practices that are fair in form, but discriminatory in operation", outlawing separate hiring policies for men and women, becoming the first Title VII sex discrimination case to reach the Court. On Jan. 26 Charles Manson and three female followers are convicted in Los Angeles of murder and conspiracy in the 1969 slayings of seven people in the longest trial in Calif. history; on Mar. 29 the jury recommends the death penalty for them, but the sentences are later commuted. On Jan. 29 Canadian PM #15 (1968-79) Pierre Elliott Trudeau (1919-2000) ends a 24-day tour of Asia, in which he attends the Commonwealth Conference of PMs in Singapore. On Jan. 30 an Indian Airlines Fokker F27 en route from Srinagar to Jammu is hijacked by two Kashmir separatists to Lahore; on Feb. 2 the passengers are released and the plane is blown up, causing all air travel between India and Pakistan to be banned until 1976. On Jan. 31 (4:03 p.m. EST) astronauts Stuart Allen Roosa (1933-94), "Smiley Al and Icy Commander" Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (1923-98), and Edgar Dean "Ed" Mitchell (1930-20916) blastoff aboard Apollo 14 on a mission to the Moon; on Feb. 5 Shepard and Mitchell land the lunar module Antares in Frau Mauro (3rd manned landing on the Moon) (most accurate landing), broadcasting the first color TV pictures from the lunar surface, with Shepard uttering the soundbyte after stepping on the surface: "It's been a long way, but we're here", followed by the soundbyte about the Earth as seen from the Moon: "You can see the blue water of the ocean. You can see the ice caps. I got a little misty-eyed thinking of all my friends on that beautiful planet"; 47-y.-o. Shepard becomes the first WWII vet and oldest man to walk on the Moon; on the last day of the mission Shepard hits two golf balls in the Fra Mauro region using a tool used to sample lunar material with a Wilson 6-iron attached, and one of the balls travels for about 50 ft., the other "miles and miles and miles"; they splashdown in the Pacific on Feb. 9 at 4:05 p.m. EST, bringing back 98 lbs. of lunar rocks; paranormal and UFO believer Mitchell tries an ESP experiment with friends back on Earth, which doesn't work out. On Jan. 31-Feb. 2 the Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) (founded 1967) hold their Winter Soldier Investigation in a Howard Johnson motel in Detroit, Mich., with vets and civilians testifying about Vietnam War atrocities; U.S. Sen. (R-Ore.) Mark Hatfield enters the testimony into the Congressional Record, and causes a Senate Committee on Foreign Relations hearing in Washington, D.C. on Apr. 22 where VVAW leader, Yale grad., and decorated Vietnam vet John Kerry (1943-) (who on Jan. 6, 2009 becomes chmn. of the committee as Dem. Sen. from Mass. since 1985) alienates many Vietnam vets with his insistence that atrocities are commonplace, calling the Vietnam War "the biggest nothing in history", with the immortal soundbyte: "How do you ask a man to be the last man to die for a mistake?" - did he mention he had lost his glasses? In Jan. after heavy monsoon rains the 1971 Kuala Lumpur Floods in Malaysia kill 32 and affect 180K, becoming the worst in Malaysia since 1926, causing a flood control project to be set up. On Feb. 3 OPEC decides to set oil prices without consulting buyers - how long did it take to get that smart? On Feb. 4 Rolls-Royce Lt. declares bankruptcy, claiming cost overruns on the 60K lb. thrust RB 211 turbofan engine being developed for Lockheed Aircraft Corp. for the L-1011, which enters service next year; the British govt. nationalizes the co., and the engine later powers the Boeing 747/757/767 as well as the Russian Tupolev Tu-204 until being superseded by the 95K lb. thrust Trent engine in 1990. On Feb. 4 a man hijacks a DC-9 from Chicago, Ill. to Cuba. On Feb. 4-9 leftist SDK students take over the U. of the Philippines, forming the Diliman Commune, until the govt. scares them into giving up by blowing up drums filled with flammable liquid near the women's south dorm; this doesn't stop their First Quarter Storm (Jan.-Mar.) of the 70s, which lasts three years until pres. Ferdinand Marcos imposes martial law. On Feb. 5 Egypt and Israel extend their ceasefire another 30 days, the 3rd time since June 1970. On Feb. 5 Red Cross officials from Japan and North Korea reach an agreement in Moscow to repatriate 15K North Koreans from Japan, which is completed in Nov. On Feb. 6 Robert Curtis becomes the first British soldier to die in the Troubles in North Ireland after he is shot by the IRA. On Feb. 6 white-owned Mike's Grocery in Wilmington, N.C. is firebombed, after which snipers on the roof of nearby Gregory Congregational Church shoot at firefighters, causing the Nat. Guard to be called in, resulting in two deaths, six injuries, and $500K in property damage; black desegregation activist Rev. Benjamin Franklin Chavis Jr. (1948-) (later Benjamin Chavis Muhammad) is railroaded along with eight other black men and one white woman for conspiracy, becoming known as the Wilmington Ten, ending up in priz with multi-decade sentences until an internat. outcry and a call by the U.S. Dept. of Justice in 1978 for reversal of the convictions, along with a friend of the court brief signed by 55 members of Congress helps their convictions get overturned on Dec. 4, 1980; meanwhile they are unable to challenge racial segregation in the Wilmington public schools while spending up to four years in prison. On Feb. 7 Switzerland votes to allow female suffrage at the federal but not the cantonal level. On Feb. 8 South Vietnamese ground forces commanded by Gen. Hoang Xuan Lam (19282017-), backed by U.S. air power begin Operation Lam Son 719, a 17K man incursion into Laos, amid internat. debate; too bad, it ends on Mar. 25 in a disaster, with the ARVN losing half its forces, turning from a graduation exercise in taking charge of the war to proof they're not ready; somehow Lam keeps his job; too bad, Pres. Nixon lies to the Am. people, claiming the ARVN is now ready. On Feb. 8 Pres. Nixon calls on Congress for a "program to save and enhance the environment" - just don't mess with my friends? On Feb. 8 Wall Street's Over-the-Counter Market becomes NASDAQ (Nat. Assoc. of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation System) for stocks not listed on the NYSE or Am. (Curb) Exchange (Amex); the Nasdaq-100 is launched on Jan. 31, 1985. On Feb. 9 (6:00:41 a.m. PST) the 6.5-6.7 San Fernando (Sylmar) Earthquake in Calif. kills 58-65 and injures 200-2K, becoming the inspiration for the 1974 film "Earthquake". On Feb. 10 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 292 to admit Bhutan; on Aug. 18 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 296 to admit Bahrain; on Sept. 15 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 297 to admit Qatar; on Sept. 30 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 299 to admit Oman; on Dec. 8 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 304 to admit the United Arab Emirates (UAE). On Feb. 11 the Seabed Arms Control Treaty, barring the installation of nuclear weapons on the ocean seabed is signed by 63 nations in Washington D.C., Moscow and London. On Feb. 11 former Dem. Tex. gov. #3 (1963-89) and U.S. Navy secy. (1961) John Bowden Connally Jr. (1917-93) becomes U.S. treasury sec. #61 (until June 12, 1972). On Feb. 14 Moscow announces a new Five-Year Plan geared to expanding consumer production - more of them ugly cars and shoes, and no jeans? Not a berry broad political base? On Feb. 14 the center-left Frente Amplio (Broad Front) is formed by progressives (Socialists, Christian Dems., Communists) in Uruguay to support candidate Gen. Liber Seregni (1916-2004); on Nov. 28 ultraconservative Colorado Party military-puppet candidate Juan Maria Bordaberry Arocena (1928-) is elected, then declared pres. on Dec. 2 amid allegations of fraud, replacing pres. (since 1967) Jorge Pacheco Areco; he is sworn-in next Mar. 1 (until June 12, 1976), going on to deal with inflation and violent strikes, plus assassinations and kidnappings by leftist Tupamaro guerrillas that cause him to declare martial law in 1973 until the military deposes him in 1976. On Feb. 15 after 1.2K years Britain decimalizes its coinage, changing the pound sterling from 20 shillings (bob) to 100 new pence, and demonetizing the penny, sixpence, and threepence coins, along with the shilling (12 pence), guinea, and sovereign (20 shillings), crown (5 shillings), and half-crown; the new 5-pence coin has the same size and weight as a shilling and also becomes known as a bob; the gold sovereign (first minted in 1489) continues to be minted (until ?). On Feb. 15 a voice-activated taping system is activated in the Oval Office of the White House (until July 18, 1973) - if we ever get into trouble, we can destroy the tapes, duh? The U.S. health care cost crisis begins in the early 1970s, and doesn't end until ? On Feb. 18 Pres. Nixon delivers his Special Message to Congress Proposing a Health Strategy, with the soundbyte: "In the last 12 months alone, America's medical bill went up 11%, from $63B to $70B. In the last 10 years, it has climbed 170%, from the $26B level in 1960. Then we were spending 5.3% of our GNP on health. Today we devote almost 7% of our GNP to health expenditures. This growing investment in health has been led by the federal government. In 1960 Washington spent $3.5B on medical needs, 13% of the total. This year it will spend $21B, or about 30% of the nation's spending in this area"; after recommending the Health Maintenance Org. (HMO) concept, and noting the increase in malpractice insurance rates, he directs U.S. HEW secy. Elliot Richardson to create a Commission on Medical Malpractice, which on Jan. 16, 1973 pub. its 2-vol. Report of the Secretary's Commission on Medical Malpractice, which reports that of 12K malpractice cases studied, claimaints received a total of $80.3M plus $10.4M for legal fees, with the avg. award only $2K, and 3% greater than $100K; too bad, in 1974 U.S. insurance cos. begin raising malpractice rates for physicians and hospitals, with some stopping the writing of malpractice policies altogether; in the first week of July rates rise 95% in New York, making it the state with the highest avg. rates, passing Calif.; too bad, by 2009 the U.S. spends 16% of GNP on health care - no one mentions that the AMA limits medical school enrollments to keep the supply of doctors artificially low, and that building more medical schools would increase the supply, after which competition would drive rates down? On Feb. 19 the Nat. Operations Council, which ran Malaysia for 22 mo. is dissolved, the suspended parliament is reconvened, and PM Abdul Razak lifts the ban on public rallies for election campaigns; the constitution is reinstated, but is amended to avoid discussion of "sensitive issues", esp. the special position of the Malays vis a vis the Chinese; in June the 2nd 5-year New Economic Plan is begun to further equalization of wealth among racial groups; meanwhile Communist guerrillas establish camps in the S at Perak and Ipoh, causing the tin mines in Perak to be closed for awhile. On Feb. 20 young people in Athens, Greece protest having to cut their long hair - look at Alexander the Great? On Feb. 21 after 30 hours of torrential rain incl. 11.4 in. (.29m) in 24 hours, New Plymouth, Tarnaki, New Zealand experiences its largest flood ever, after which dams are built on the Huatoki, Waimea, and Mangaotuku Rivers. On Feb. 22 Hafez al-Assad becomes pres. of Syria (until June 10, 2000); on Apr. 3 he steps down as PM in favor of puppet Abdul Rahman Kleifawi (until Dec. 21, 1972). On Feb. 23 the CBS-TV documentary The Selling of the Pentagon is aired, touching off controversy over its accuracy and merits - we hit the bullseye for an attack on a federal building? On Feb. 24 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 5-4 in Harris v. New York that its 1966 Miranda decision still makes a suspect's statement inadmissible as evidence if he has not been read his rights, but that the prosecution may still use the statement to contradict his testimony if he gives up the right to remain silent at a trial - in other words, poor people without attorneys can be legally gang-raped? On Feb. 25 a man hijacks a Boeing 727 from San Francisco, Calif. to Canada; after being deported on Mar. 8 he is sentenced to 10 years. On Feb. 28 the male electorate of the principality of Liechtenstein refuses to give voting rights to women; meanwhile most Swiss cantons cave in; Liechtenstein finally caves in 1984 after rejecting it again in 1973 - lick my stein jokes here? In Feb. the 1971 Kenyan Drought sees a severe food shortage caused by a severe drought sweep Kenya, causing 75% of its cattle regions to be quarantined, followed by cholera in the rural east. He smells his end coming? In Feb.-Mar. Pres. Nixon grants four long interviews with journalists in 1 mo., starting with the London Sunday Telegraph in Feb., claiming he is a "progressive" unable to embrace the New Deal welfare philosophy because of his Puritan Quaker upbringing; the 2nd is with The New York Times, declaring that he doubts if the U.S. "would ever have another war"; the 3rd is with nine female correspondents in the Oval Office on Mar. 11, in which he praises his wife for her character in supporting him "in that tradition"; the final is with NBC-TV's Today show, in which he admits he's "rather stuffy", but has no plans for "image making". March becomes the Month of the U.S. College Student as they score epic Vs against their own all-powerful government, cutting it down to size, starting with getting them where they live? On Mar. 1 (1:32 a.m.) the 1971 U.S. Senate Bombing sees a ground floor restroom in the Senate wing of the U.S. Capitol bombed in protest of U.S. involvement in Laos, causing $300K in damage after a 30-min. telephone warning; the Weather Underground claims responsibility; Capitol police begin searching all visitors - which Lethal Weapon episode was that? Muslim Pakistan, split in two by Hindu India finally becomes two Muslim nations with India's help? On Mar. 1 Pakistani pres. Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan postpones the opening of the country's first popularly elected nat. assembly over a disagreement over the proposed new all-Pakistan constitution; meanwhile after the Bengal-based Awani League wins 167 of 313 seats, a revolt in East Pakistan simmers, with widespread riots and strikes; on Mar. 7 Bengali Sheik Mujibur Rahman (1920-75) of the Awami League gives a historic speech at the Race Course Ground in Dhaka (Dacca) before 1M, calling for civil disobedience and armed resistance, resulting in murders of non-Bengalis, pissing-off Yahya Khan, who calls him a traitor and on Mar. 25 orders the army sent in under bloody Operation Searchlight, which becomes known for systematically raping hundreds of thousands of Bengali women to make them unmarriageable, causing many suicides, assisted by the fanatical local Muslim paramilitary Razakars (Pers. "volunteers"), who consider that dismemberment of "Pure" Muslim Pakistan would be an offense against Islam itself; on Mar. 26 (midnight) East Pakistan proclaims independence, and Rahman is arrested and hauled off to Faisalabad (Lyallpur), West Pakistan (until Jan. 8, 1972), beginning the Bangladesh Liberation War (ends Dec. 17); on Apr. 25 the new bang-a-dish country takes the name Bengali Dish, er, Bangladesh ("Country of Bengal") (modern pop. 150M) (#7 most populous country on Earth), with capital at Dhaka (Dacca) (modern pop. 14.4M/18.9M) on the Buriganga River, known as the "the City of Mosques", with 90% of the country being Muslims (96% Sunni, 3% Shiite), and 9% Hindus; despite an Apr. 2 plea from the U.S., Soviet Union and other nations to settle it peacefully, Indian-Pakistani troops clash along the East Pakistani frontier on Apr. 24-25; 200K-3M East Bengalis are eventually killed in the fighting, while 8M-10M refugees flee to India; on Aug. 1 (2:30 p.m. and 8:00 p.m.) (Sun.) the Concert for Bangladesh is held by ex-Beatle George Harrison in Madison Square Garden in New York City, with help from Bob Dylan, Ravi Shankar, Eric Clapton, Ringo Starr, Billy Preston, Leon Russell, Badfinger et al., to a crowd of 40K, becoming the first large benefit concert in history; it raises $243,418.51, which is administered by UNICEF, after which sales of the triple album and concert film bring in more bucks; on Dec. 6 after failing to come to an agreement, the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-4 for Resolution 303 (France, Poland, U.K., U.S.S.R.) referring the matter to the U.N. Gen. Assembly; meanwhile the Pakistani govt. begins persecuting the 5K-sq.-mi. Chittagong Hill Tracts, committing genocidal acts against its mainly Buddhist pop. while attempting to resettle the area with Bengalis, killing 10K in 1980-97. On Mar. 1 Progressive Conservative William Grenville "Bill" Davis (1929-) is sworn-in as PM #18 of Ontario (until Feb. 8, 1985), the most populous and industrialized province of Canada; in 2012 he is voted the 2nd best Canadian PM of the last 40 years after Peter Lougheed. On Mar. 1 the Peace Corps celebrates its 10th anniv., with almost 50K Americans serving for up to five years each in up to 60 countries; on July 1 it is incorporated into Action, a new antipoverty agency of volunteer orgs. On Mar. 1 after being appointed by Pres. Nixon and unanimously confirmed by the U.S. Senate, Milton, Mass.-born U.S. Rep. (R-Tex.) (since Jan. 3, 1967) George Herbert Walker Bush (1924-) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #10 (until Jan. 3, 1971). On Mar. 3 the People's Repub. of China launches its Shi Jian 1 satellite (its 2nd), carrying scientific instruments this time. On Mar. 3-5 the E Canadian Blizzard of Mar. 1971 sees the worst 24-hour snowfall on record in Montreal, Quebec (17 in.) (.43m), killing 30 incl. 17 in Montreal and becoming known as "Quebec's Storm of the Century". On Mar. 4 52-y.-o. Canadian PM #15 (1968-79) Pierre Elliott Trudeau (1919-2000) shocks his country by marrying 22-y.-o. "flower child" Margaret Sinclair (1948-), who utters the soundbyte "I want to be more than a rose in my husband's lapel" after he makes her convert to Roman Catholicism, going on to have son Justin Trudeau (1971-); too bad, they separate on May 27, 1977, with Pierre retaining custody of the children; she becomes a jet-setter and is seen dancing at Studio 54 in New York City in 1979, and they divorce in 1984. On Mar. 5-7 Aretha Franklin performs at the Fillmore West in San Francisco, Calif., pulling Ray Charles out of the crowd on Mar. 7 and performing Spirit in the Dark, becoming a major moment in pop-rock history; on May 19 Atlantic Records releases the album Aretha Live at Fillmore West. On Mar. 6 4K demonstrate in London for women's rights. On Mar. 7 approx. 1K U.S. planes bomb Cambodia and Laos. On Mar. 8 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 8-1 in Gillette v. U.S. that conscientious objectors must show that they are opposed to all wars not just the Vietnam War to get draft exemption. On Mar. 8 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 8-0 in Griggs v. Duke Power Co. that Title VII of the 1964 U.S. Civil Rights Act prohibits "objective" criteria such as a high school diploma or IQ score minimum for hiring employees if they result in a "disparate impact", i.e., a relative disadvantage to dumb, er, blacks without a "compelling business interest", and the employer has the burden of proof that the tests are "reasonably related" to the job for which they are required, with the soundbyte: "Congress has now provided that tests or criteria for employment or promotion may not provide equality of opportunity merely in the sense of the fabled offer of milk to the stork and the fox"; William J. Brennan Jr. recuses himself; in 1991 the 1964 U.S. Civil Rights Act is amended to eliminate the employer's burden of proof. On Mar. 8 Pres. Nixon vents his bigotry against women, blacks, Jews, Mexicans, and Italians on tape recordings that are not made public until 1998; "The only two non-Jews in the Communist conspiracy were Chambers and Hiss. Every other one was a Jew and it raised hell with us." The U.S. govt. gets another lesson that the media is a powerful sword with two edges, that cuts both ways? On Mar. 8 anon. activists in Media, Penn. break into the local FBI office and steal 1K documents that reveal the agency's illegal spying, infiltration, and media manipulation activities against radical groups, then send them anonymously to the er, media, causing the Washington Post to break the story on Mar. 24 despite a power play by U.S. atty.-gen. John Mitchell; despite compiling a 33K-page file, the FBI doesn't figure out who broke in (until ?). Them pesky college students didn't win on Vietnam, but they did get accepted by the system? On Mar. 10 the U.S. Senate by 94-0 approves the Twenty-Sixth (26th) (XXVI) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, giving 18-year-olds the vote, which they have been clamoring for ever since FDR lowered the military draft age to 18 in WWII; on Mar. 23 it is passed by the House of Reps by 401-19, and sent to the states for ratification by the 92nd Congress, and it is ratified on July 1 (fastest ratification ever) after Ohio becomes the 37th state to approve it on June 30, followed by N.C. and Okla. on July 1; Pres. Nixon certifies it on July 5, talking about his "confidence that America's young generation will provide what America needs as we approach our 200th birthday, not just strength and not just wealth but the Spirit of '76, a spirit of moral courage, a spirit of high idealism in which we believe in the American Dream, but in which we realize that the American Dream can never be fulfilled until every American has an equal chance to fulfill it in his own life"; it goes into effect on July 7; Fla., Ky., Miss., Nev., N.M., N.D., S.D. and Utah never ratify it - TLW turned 18 on January 18, and doesn't care since he never votes, preferring to influence votes with his mind instead and avoid jury duty? On Mar. 10 PM Indira Gandhi's New Congress Party wins a landslide V in nat. elections for the Lok Sabha (lower house of parliament). On Mar. 10 Australian PM (since 1968) Sir John Grey Gorton of the Liberal Party resigns as PM Australia and leader of the party over the Mar. 8 r esignation of defense minister John Malcolm Fraser (1930-2015) after a high-ranking army official accuses him of disloyalty and Gorton backs the army; 49er Liberal and former external affairs minister Sir William "Billy" McMahon (1908-88) becomes PM #20 of Australia (until Dec. 5, 1972). On Mar. 10 Dr. Seuss' animated The Cat in the Hat debuts on CBS-TV. On Mar. 12 South Korean troops replace U.S. troops along their 151-mi. armistice border for the 1st time. On Mar. 12 the Turkish military pub. a memorandum demanding a "strong and credible" govt. to curb violence and implement reforms, causing PM (since Oct. 27, 1965) Suleyman Demirel to resign on Mar. 16, after which a series of weak caretaker civilian govts. rule Turkey until 1973, with Demirel returning as PM in 1975-7, 1977-8, 1979-80, and 1991-3, then pres. #9 in 1993-2000; on Mar. 26 Ismail Nihat Erim (1912-80) becomes PM of the first caretaker govt. (until Apr. 17, 1972), going on to form a ministry of culture, prohibit opium poppy harvesting in June (effective June 29, 1972) under U.S. pressure, and outlaw the Turkish Workers' Party. On Mar. 12 Pres. Nixon hands his son-in-law Ensign Dwight David Eisenhower II (1948-) (grandson of former pres. Ike) his naval commission at the Naval Officers Training School in Newport, R.I., giving a speech warning against the nation's "new isolationists"; the new ensign begins a 3-year tour of duty on a guided-missile cruiser; his wife Julie cuts her career as an elementary school teacher in Fla. short after a cartload of books crushes a toe on her left foot. On Mar. 14 Sen. Edward Kennedy estimates that 25K Vietnamese civilians were killed in 1970. On Mar. 14 The New York Times pub. an article about drought in Argentina causing a beef crisis; the next worst drought happens in 2009. On Mar. 15 the requirement that all U.S. citizens obtain specially validated passports for travel to China is dropped by the U.S. On Mar. 15 (00:45 hours) an enlisted man frags the officers barracks, killing white lts. Richard Harlan and Thomas Dellwo, and wounding a 3rd in the U.S. army base in Bien Hoa, Vietnam, after which black Pvt. Billy Dean Smith (1948-) ( from Watts, and known for hating the army and the war) is court-martialed for it, and held in a cage for over a year before being found innocent, with Pres. Nixon refusing to intervene like he did for white Lt. Calley; 96 fragging cases were reported in 1969, and 209 in 1970, killing 101 total. On Mar. 16 Ceylon PM Sirimavo Bandaranaike declares a nationwide state of emergency against terrorism, and on Apr. 5-23 the Maoist People's Liberation Front (Janata Vimukti Peramuna) (JVP) in Ceylon attempts a coup against the leftist coalition govt. dominated by the Ceylonese Communist Party and the Trotskyite Party, but the army regains control with the help of 24K Soviet troops, aided by an unusual coalition of Britain, the U.S., India, Pakistan, East and West Germany, Egypt, and Yugoslavia supplying weapons. On Mar. 16 the first live nat. Grammy Award telecast (produced by Pierre Cossette) kicks off with the Osmonds singing "Everything Is Beautiful"; Marie Osmond (1959-) isn't a member; the first awards were presented on May 4, 1959 as the Gramophone Awards. On Mar. 17 Pres. Nixon signs a 10% increase in Social Security benefits. On Mar. 17 Trygve Martin Bratteli (1910-84) of the minority Labor Party is sworn-in as PM of Norway (until 1972) after Per Borten (PM since 1965) resigns under a scandal. On Mar. 18 U.S. helis airlift 1K South Vietnamese soldiers out of lousy Laos. On Mar. 21 two U.S. platoons in Vietnam refuse orders to advance. On Mar. 22 a week of rioting in Cordoba ends with a bloodless coup in Argentina, deposing pres. (since 1970) Roberto Marcelo Levingston; a 3-man junta headed by armed forces CIC Lt. Gen. Alejandro Agustin Lanusse Gelly (1918-96) takes power, and Lanusse is sworn-in as pres. on Mar. 26 (until May 25, 1973), becoming the 9th change of govt. since Juan Peron's ouster in Sept. 1955; Lanusse abolishes wage increase ceilings, reestablishes ties with China, and allows Peron to return after 15+ years of forced exile; on Apr. 1 all political parties except the Peronists (which controls the labor movement) are legalized; in July he meets with Chile's Marxist Pres. Salvador Allende; in Oct. an armed uprising is put down with the help of the air force and navy. On Mar. 23 Arthur Brian Deane Faulkner, Baron Faulkner of Downpatrick (1921-77) becomes PM #6 (last) of Northern Ireland (until Mar. 30, 1972), succeeding James D. Chichester-Clark, who resigned over a dispute over Catholic terrorists;; on Jan. 1, 1974 he becomes pres. #1 (last) of the devolved power-sharing Northern Ireland Assembly Executive until it collapses on May 28; on Mar. 3, 1977 Faulkner dies from a fox hunting accident 24 days after being granted a life peerage as Baron Faulkner of Downpatrick. On Mar. 24 the U.S. Senate votes 51-46 to end federal sponsorship of the supersonic transport (SST), one week after the House voted ditto, causing Boeing Co. in Seattle, Wash. to lay off 62K workers, and leaving France and Britain free to develop their Concorde SST sans U.S. competition. On Mar. 28 after Honduran dictator (since 1963) Gen. Oswaldo Lopez allows elections, Ramon Ernesto Cruz Ucles (Uclés) (1903-85) and his Nationalist Party win a decisive V over Jorge Buesco Aria and his Liberal Party, and on June 7 Cruz becomes pres. of Honduras (until Dec. 4, 1972). On Mar. 29 Army 1st Lt. William L. Calley Jr. is convicted of murdering at least 22 Vietnamese civilians in the My Lai Massacre, and on Mar. 31 is sentenced to life in prison at hard labor, after which on Apr. 6 Pres. Nixon frees him to appeal, after which he ends up spending three years under house arrest - learning how to eat with chopsticks and like rice noodles? On Mar. 29 Yugoslav pres. Tito becomes the first Communist leader to officially meet with the pope (Paul VI) during a formal state visit to Italy - titopapa jokes here? On Mar. 31 a Venezuelan man hijacks a DC-8 from New York City to Cuba; he returns to the U.S. on Oct. 8, 1974. Speaking of black, done white-style? On Mar. 31 Starbucks (named by Gordon Bowker after a char. in Herman Melville's "Moby Dick" - second choice Pequod) is founded in Seattle, Wash. at 2000 Western Ave. by three former students of the U. of San Francisco, incl. Gerald "Jerry" Baldwin, Zev Siegl (1955-), and Gordon Bowker, moving to 1912 Pike Place Market, starting out with whole coffee beans and expanding to expresso in 1986 before selling-out in 1987 to former employee Howard Schultz (1953-), launching Second Wave Coffee, introducing Italian-style espresso drinks to the U.S. and other countries, opening its first store outside North Am. in Tokyo, Japan in 1996, and growing to 23.5K locations incl. 12.9K in the U.S. by 2015; the logo is a mermaid or melusine on a green background (colors of their alma mater); in 2005 Russian atty. Sergei A. Zuykov (1966-) squats on their trade name, demanding $600K for it - that and $600K will get you a cup of coffee? In Mar. after 90K are relocated and 1K workers are killed, the $1.6B 350-ft.-high Aswan High Dam in Egypt (begun 1960) opens 6 mo. after the death of pres. Abdel Gamal Nasser, supplying half of Egypt's energy needs incl. the first electricity to millions of poor farmers with its 12 hydroelectric turbines; too bad, mosquitoes breed, causing an outbreak of Rift Valley viral fever that infects 200K and kills 600. A legitimate concern for the leaking of U.S. defense secrets causes Tricky Nixon to go too far and authorize crimes, leading to his downfall when the same press he has pissed-off goes in for the kill? In Mar. U.S. Defense Dept. employee Daniel Ellsberg (1931-) obtains a copy of the Pentagon Papers (United States - Vietnam Relations, 1946-1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense) AKA "History of the United States Decision-Making Process on Vietnam Policy", a secret 3K-page 47-vol. official history of the Vietnam War commissioned in 1967 by U.S. defense secy. Robert McNamara from his former Pentagon colleagues, and gives it to New York Times reporter Cornelius Mahoney "Neil" Sheehan (1936-), who writes a series on the secret history of the Vietnam War from it, incl. how U.S. officials have been lying to the public, telling them thaty were trying to help South Vietnam but actually working to contain Red China, winning him a Pulitzer Prize; meanwhile the NYT begins pub. excerpts on June 13 giving a history of U.S. involvement Vietnam from the end of WWII to 1968, pissing-off U.S. atty.-gen. John Mitchell, who asks them to stop, saying that the info. in it will cause "irreparable injury to the defense interests of the United States"; after they tell him to buzz off, a federal judge issues the first-ever prior restraint order on the press, causing a legal battle to the U.S. Supreme Court; meanwhile on June 16 the Washington Post gets a copy, and begins pub. excerpts on June 18, causing the Nixon admin. to come down on them too; on June 26 the U.S. Justice Dept. issues a warrant for Daniel Ellsberg, and he surrenders in Boston, Mass., admitting his heroic deeds, getting indicted on Dec. 29 along with co-worker Anthony J. "Tony" Russo Jr. (1936-2008) for espionage and conspiracy; meanwhile on June 30 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 6-3 against the govt., allowing the pub. of the Pentagon Papers to proceed, pissing-off Pres. Nixon, who the same day tells his chief of staff H.R. Haldeman and his White House Plumbers to break into the Brookings Inst. and bring out files collected on the Vietnam War; after prosecutors discover the hanky-panky, they get the charges dismissed; on June 13, 2011 the entire document is declassified and published - no funnies in the back? In late Mar. U.S. dollars flood into West Germany, and the fit begins hitting the shan with the U.S. dollar. In Mar. Oginga Odinga, leader of the Kenya People's Union (KPU) and political prisoner since 1969 is released, easing political tensions. In Mar. Canadian-born U.S. Jewish writer Saul Bellow (1915-2005) becomes the first to receive three Nat. Book Awards: The Adventures of Augie March (1954), Herzog (1965), Mr. Sammler's Planet (1971). On Apr. 1 Britain lifts all restrictions on gold ownership. On Apr. 1 Argentina ends a 1964 ban on political party activity. On Apr. 4 Chilean Pres. Salvador Allende wins 49.7% of the votes cast in 280 municipal elections. On Apr. 5 a Cuban expatriate hijacks a Cessna 402 from Key West, Fla. to Cuba. On Apr. 6 Richard J. Daley wins his 5th term as mayor of Chicago (first 1955) (until Dec. 20, 1976). On Apr. 7 Pres. Nixon pledges a withdrawal of 100K more men from Vietnam by Dec., and announces an increase in the withdrawal rate. On Apr. 8 (Thur.) the Off-Track Betting Corp. (OTB) in New York City is created to legalize off-track betting and reduce organize crime revenues in favor of the city and state; too bad, the numbers racket continues to flourish for smaller bets. On Apr. 10 the 43rd Academy Awards awards the best picture Oscar for 1970 to 20th Century-Fox's Patton, along with best dir. to Franklin J. Schaffner and Frank McCarthy, and best actor to George C. Scott (who refuses it; 2nd time ever; first time was in 1936); best actress goes to Glenda Jackson for Women in Love, best supporting actor to John Mills for Ryan's Daughter, and best supporting actress to Helen Hayes for Airport. That's my name, don't wear it out? On Apr. 10 after being unexpectedly invited to compete in the 31st World Table Tennis Championship, the 9-member U.S. Table-Tennis (Ping-Pong) Team arrives in China (until Apr. 17), with white hippieish member Glenn L. Cowan (1952-2004) forced to become an impromptu diplomat after missing his bus and taking the Chinese team's, causing equally big-smiling world champ Zhuang Zedong (Chuang Tse-tung) (1940-2013) to greet him and present him with a silkscreen portrait of the Huangshan Mts., launching ping-pong diplomacy, which thaws relations, causing Pres. Nixon on Apr. 14, 1972 to end the 20-y.-o. U.S. trade embargo against China after visiting it in Feb., allowing the Chinese team to visit the U.S on Apr. 18-30 - how many years till China owns the U.S.? On Apr. 15 North Vietnamese troops ambush a co. of Delta Raiders from the 101st Airborne Division near Fire Support Base Bastogne in Vietnam. On Apr. 17 Egypt, Libya, and Syria sign an agreement to form a federation subject to plebiscite approval; the news causes a coup attempt against Egyptian pres. Anwar al-Sadat by vice-pres. Aly Sabri and interior minister Sharawy Gomma, but Sadat foils them in May. On Apr. 18-24 Earth Week is observed nationwide in the U.S., spurring the ecological movement; in a clever psycho reverse on the decades of propaganda about the great white V over the horrible pagan redskinned savages by John Wayne et al. so that decent Christan white folk could create a New Jerusalem in the New World, Amerindian Iron Eyes Cody (1905-99) becomes famous as the Crying Indian in a public service TV commercial first aired on Earth Day (Apr. 22). On Apr. 19 the Soviet Union launches the Salyut 1 orbiting space station using a Proton rocket, becoming the first space station; on Apr. 23 Soyuz 10 is launched, carrying cosmonauts Vladimir Aleksandrovich Shatalov (1927-), Alexei S. Yeliseyev (1943-), and Nikolai Nikolayevich Rukavishnikov (1932-2002), locking but not docking with Salyut 1, after which their capsule fills with toxic fumes during reentry, causing Nikolai R. to pass out, although they all survive; on June 6 Soyuz 11 lifts off, carrying cosmonauts Vladislav Nikolayevich Volkov (b. 1935), Viktor Ivanovich Patsayev (b. 1933), and Georgy Timofeyevich Dobrovolsky (b. 1928) (flight cmdr.); on June 30 after setting a 23-day endurance record for space flight in the Salyut 1 space lab, all three die during reeentry from cabin depressurization after a fire in space, being found BBQed and dead in the craft after an apparently successful automatic landing, a govt. coverup not stopping the Soviet space program from stinking to high heaven for its disregard of life. On Apr. 19-23 Operation Dewey Canyon III is carried out by the Vietnam Veterans Against the War in Washington, D.C., a mock "limited incursion in the country of Congress", with 1.1K veterans marching across the Lincoln Memorial Bridge to the Arlington Cemetery and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, where a bunch of Gold Star mothers are locked out, placing their wreaths at the gate; on Apr. 20 200 veterans listen to hearings of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee on proposals to end the war; on Apr. 21 50+ march to the Pentagon and unsuccessfully attempt to surrender as war criminals; on Apr. 22 a large group of veterans demonstrate on the steps of the U.S. Supreme Court, saying that they should have ruled on the Vietnam war's constitutionality, after which 110 are arrested; on Apr. 23 (Fri.) 800+ veterans throw their medals away on the steps of the U.S. Capitol. On Apr. 20 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules unanimously in Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, to uphold the busing of students to achieve racial desegregation when segregation has been officially sanctioned and/or school authorities offer no acceptable alternative; Justices incl. William O. Douglas, William J. Brennan Jr., Thurgood Marshall, Hugo Black, Byron White, Harry Blackmun, John M. Harlan II, Potter Stewart, and Warren E. Burger; the last time the court is unanimous about racial makeup of schools until ?; in May the U.S. govt. imposes a Big Brother busing plan on yee-haw Austin, Tex., requiring 13K students to be bused at an annual cost of $1M, causing a massive court fight; in July a federal judge rejects it, causing Ala. gov. George Wallace to complain that the Adolf Nixon admin. has done more to desegregate public schools than any previous admin., after which on Aug. 3 Nixon repudiates the plan, ordering that busing be limited "to the minimum required by law". On Apr. 20 (Adolf Hitler's birthday) the 420 Movement begins in San Rafael, Calif. to smoke pot at 4:20 p.m. as a protest to legalize it; ends ? On Apr. 21 PM #3 (since May 17, 1967) Siaka Probyn Stevens (1905-88) (Limba ethnic group) becomes pres. #1 of the new Repub. of Sierra Leone (until 1985), with his APC the sole legal party, going on to rule with an iron hand while incorporating multiple ethnic groups into the APC. On Apr. 21 Haitian pres. (since 1957) Francois "Papa Doc" Duvalier (b. 1907) dies after using his Tonton Macoutes to kill 30K and exile thousands more, and on Apr. 22 his 19-y.-o. chip-off-the-block son Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier (1951-2014) succeeds him as pres. #41 for life of Hell-on-Earth Haiti (until Feb. 7, 1986); too bad, the U.S. decides to transform Haiti into the "Taiwan of the Caribbean", tailoring aid to create low-paying jobs assembling baseballs and other cheap products, while reshaping agriculture into export-based production and flooding Haiti with surplus U.S. agricultural products, causing people to flood to the cities looking for non-existent jobs and end up in overcrowded slums with low quality construction that make them easy prey for hurricanes and earthquakes. On Apr. 24 PM Ahti Karjalainen and Soviet PM Aleksei Kosygin agree to economic cooperation and a new 440 KW nuclear power plant for Finland. On Apr. 25 Socialist Pres. Franz Jonas is reelected in Austria for another six years. On Apr. 26 an agreement is signed easing the travel restrictions between East and West Germany in effect since 1961. On Apr. 27 South Korean pres. (since 1961) Park Chung-hee is reelected to a 3rd 4-year term, defeating New Dem. Party candidate Kim Dae-jung (Tae-jung) (1924-2009), who receives 45% of the vote despite Park portraying him as a pro-North Korean radical, and an assassination attempt via a truck crashing into his car, injuring him; his opposition grows so strong that Park declares a state of emergency in Dec. On Apr. 28 Samuel Lee Gravely Jr. (1922-2004) becomes the first African-Am. to be promoted to admiral in the history of the U.S. Navy; in Jan. 1962 he was the first black officer to command a U.S. Navy warship, the USS Theodore E. Chandler, and he goes on to rise to vice-adm. (3-star) and command the U.S. 3rd Fleet - at least the ridiculous Sambos on the sea will never make full admiral? In Apr. the Netherlands economy has a balance of payments surplus of $500M while capital floods in from abroad, causing a money supply surplus; elections cause the govt. of Piet de Jong to lose its majority, and after 63 days of negotiations a new coalition is formed with Barend Willem Biesheuvel (1920-2001), leader of the Anti-Rev. Party as PM #36 on July 6 (until May 11, 1973), with the Dem. Socialist Party, led by Dr. Willem Drees Jr. (1922-98) (whose father Drees Sr. was PM from 1948-58) breaking from the Dutch Labour Party (which it considers too leftist) and joining the ruling coalition for the 1st time. Amtrak goes into service between about 300 cities, combining and streamlining the operations of 18 intercity passenger railroads of the former Southern Pacific Railroad; the U.S. Dept. of Transportation owns all the preferred shares, constituting a majority of the stock; on May 13 the Brotherhood of Loafing, er, Locomotive Engineers agrees to scrap their 19th cent. divisional rule that requires freight trains to stop every 100 mi. to change crews, who call 100 mi. a day's work even though they only worked 2.5 hours. On May 1 U.S. secy. of state William P. Rogers begins a 5-nation tour of the Middle East to try to settle you know who's endless dispute. On May 1 the 1971 May Day Protests begin in Washington, D.C. leading to mass arrests and cries of civil rights violations, disturbing the Nixon admin. as damaging. On May 3 James Earl Ray is caught in a jailbreak attempt. On May 3 Walter Ulbricht, hardliner first. secy. of the East German Socialist Unity (Communist) Party (since 1960) resigns, and his hardliner (hard-necker?) disciple (since 1945) and security chief (since 1958) Erich Honecker (1912-94) is unanimously elected to succeed him (until 1989); Ulbricht continues as head of state. On May 3 All Things Considered debuts on U.S. public radio (until ?), hosted by Robert Conley, with daily in-depth news analyses supposedly not controlled by the govt. or major corps.; the first broadcast to 90 stations is about anti-Vietnam War protests in Washington, D.C. On May 3-5 thousands of anti-Vietnam War protesters calling themselves the Mayday Tribe stage demonstrations in Washington, D.C. aimed at (duh?) shutting the govt. down; on Jan. 16, 1975 the ACU wins a $12M damage suit on behalf of 1.2K protesters whose rights were violated when they were arrested during the demonstrations. On May 4 the U.S. dollar faces a massive speculative assault in European money markets, causing several countries to refuse to accept it; West Germany becomes the first to break ranks and float its currency. On May 8 the first U.S. 8-cent stamp is issued, commemorating the state of Mo. (1821-1971), with art work by Mo.-born muralist Thomas Hart "Tom" Benton (1889-1975). On May 10 the Soviet Kosmos 419 Mars probe is launched, but fails to leave Earth orbit. On May 10 a bus plunges off a 30-ft. cliff into a reservoir outside Kapyong, South Korea, killing 75. On May 10 two local buses on the Pinotepa Nat. Highway in Florencio Villareal, Guerrero, Mexico collide head-on, killing 30 and injuring 30. On May 12 the Communist Chilean govt. nationalizes the U.S.-owned copper industry, pissing-off the fatcats bigtime and causing them to pressure the U.S. govt. into overthrowing Salvador Allende. On May 12 the British Parliament passes the Courts Act of 1971, modernizing the court system of England and Wales, establishing the Crown Court while abolishing all assize curtws, quarter sessions et al. On May 12 British Rolling Stones singer Mick Jagger (1943-) marries French-speaking Nicaraguan activist Bianca Perez-Mora Macias (1950-) in St. Tropez, France; they divorce in 1980 after having daughter Jade Jezebel Jagger (1971-). On May 12 the 6.3 Burdur Earthquake (220 mi. SW of Ankara) in Turkey kills 100; on May 22 the 6.9 Bingol Earthquake (410 mi. SE of Ankara) kills 1K+ and leaves 15K homeless. On May 13 Pres. "Tricky Dicky" Nixon makes taped private comments exposing his private prejudices and vices, starting with his new IRS commissioner, saying "I want to be sure he is a ruthless son of a bitch, that he will do what he's told, that every income tax return I want to see I see, that he will go after our enemies and not go after our friends", followed by homos, with the soundbyte: "You see, homosexuality, dope, immorality in general, these are the enemies of strong societies. That's why the Communists and the left-wingers are pushing the stuff. They're trying to destroy us", and "The Bohemian Grove, which I attend from time to time, it is the most faggy goddamned thing you could ever imagine, with that San Francisco crowd. I can't shake hands with anybody from San Francisco", followed by by blacks, saying "We're going to [put] more of these little Negro bastards on the welfare rolls at $2,400 a family. Let people like Pat Moynihan... believe in all that crap, but I don't believe in it. Work, work, throw 'em off the rolls. That's the key... I have the greatest affection for them, but I know they're not going to make it for 500 years. They aren't. You know it, too. The Mexicans are a different cup of tea. They have a heritage. At the present time they steal, they're dishonest, but they do have some concept of family life. They don't live like a bunch of dogs, which the Negroes do live like." On May 15 the Corrective Rev. in Egypt is launched by Pres. Anwar Sadat to purge Nasserists, along with liberals and Islamists. On May 15 Israeli ambassador to Turkey Efraim Elrom is kidnapped by the Turkish Liberation Army, and found dead in Istanbul on May 28, causing the govt. to step up its crackdown on leftists. On May 16 Albanian voters approve a new constitution and replace the presidium of the nat. assembly with a state council. On May 16 the price of a U.S. first class stamp (which started in 1885 at 2 cents) jumps from 6 to 8 cents, and on July 1 the new U.S. Postal Service (USPS) begins operation; new postal regs cause mags. to have to shrink their formats, and on Oct. 19 Look mag. ceases pub. after 34 years (since 1937); on Mar. 2, 1974 the rate jumps to 10 cents, then to 13 cents on Dec. 31, 1975, and 15 cents on May 29, 1978; by May 11, 2009 it's up to 44 cents; on Aug. 21 the USPS issues an 8-cent commemorative stamped envelope honoring 10-pin bowling. On May 19 the SovietMars 2 space probe (consisting of an Orbiter and Lander) is launched, reaching Mars on Nov. 27, but the Lander crashes when braking rockets fail; the orbiter returns in 1972; on May 28 Mars 3 is launched, reaching Mars on Dec. 2; on Dec. 2 the Lander lands on Mars (first soft landing ever), but stops broadcasting after only 20 sec.; the Orbiter keeps operating until Aug. 1972. On May 20 NASA launches Pioneer 12 (Venus 1), which on Dec. 4 becomes the first space probe to orbit Venus, then burns up in the atmosphere on Oct. 8, 1992; on May 30 the $65M NASA Mariner 9, the first satellite to orbit Mars blasts off from Cape Kennedy; after a 5.5-mo. 247M mi. trip it goes into orbit around Mars on Nov. 13, becoming the first manmade craft to orbit rather than crash into another planet; it eventually returns 7,329 photos. On May 21 U.S. Army secy. Stanley E. Resor resigns after six years. On May 22 the $18.6M Lyndon Baines Johnson Library at the U. of Tex. campus in Austin is dedicated. On May 26 Pres. Nixon utters some more private taped comments, saying "You know, it's a funny thing, every one of the bastards that are out for legalizing marijuana is Jewish. What the Christ is the matter with the Jews, Bob? What is the matter with them? I suppose it is because most of them are psychiatrists." On May 28 Pres. Nixon orders chief of staff H.R. Haldeman to do more wiretapping and political espionage against the pesky Dems.; the smoking-gun orders are recorded on tape, which is later made public. On May 31 a proposal is made to the North Vietnamese by the U.S. that incl. a ceasefire-in-place, U.S. withdrawal, and the return of POWs. In May the Soviet Union, worried about U.S.-Chinese rapprochement signs a 20-year treaty of peace, friendship, and cooperation with Egypt, followed by one with India on Aug. 9, requiring them to consult with Moscow in a crisis in return for aid, becoming the first treaties signed with non-Communist countries since WWII. In May beat poet Lou Welch takes a gun, walks away from the residence of Zen poet Gary Snyder (b. 1930) in the Sierra foothills and is never seen again? In May French pres. Georges Pompidou and British PM Edward Heath reach an agreement permitting Britain's entry into the European Common Market. In May student demonstrators decide to test new pres. (since Dec. 1) Luis Echeverria Alvarez by shutting down the Autonomous U. of Nuevo Leon in Monterrey after a new law reduces its autonomy, causing Nuevo Leon gov. Eduardo Elizondo to call in police, pissing them off, but Echeverria intervenes and annuls the law and forces Elizondo to resign; too bad, on June 10 the Corpus Christi Massacre sees 10K leftist students demonstrating in Mexico City in support of Nuevo Leon attacked by busloads of govt.-backed thugs in civilian clothing armed with clubs and chains, who kill 25 and wound 150+, causing a backlash against Echeverria, who stages a coverup, after which he isn't charged until July 2004; meanwhile his tenure as presidente goes kaput, which doesn't stop him from continuing to run the corrupto asqueroso Mexican govt. behind the scenes as the Shadow Shepherd. In May despite a $30M-$50M endowment, Synanon founder (1958) Charles E. "Chuck" Dederich Sr. (1913-97) stops supplying free cigarettes to his captive ex-heroin addicts, and bans smoking on Synanon property, causing about 100 to quit the program, with one addict saying that giving up cigs is harder than giving up smack; too bad, he hates quitters, and declares Synanon a religion in 1974, descending into abuse of members who quit, then ends up getting caught ordering members to kill pesky atty. Paul Morantz on Oct. 10, 1978 by putting a de-rattled rattlesnake in his mailbox that bites him and causes him to be hospitalized for six days, and is forced to resign after pleading no contest and receiving a 5-year sentence of probation along with a $5K fine in 1980. In May the U.S. FDA advises against eating swordfish because of high mercury levels. In May Denver, Colo.-born T.L. Winslow (1953-) graduates from Abraham Lincoln High School in S Denver, Colo. (class size 750); at the time it is 90%+ white, but by the end of the cent. it is 90%+ Hispanic; in Aug. he begins attending the U. of Colo. in Boulder, soon discovering software and computers, which he takes to like a duck to water, starting with a timeshared Nova minicomputer with BASIC, and a CDC-6400 mainframe with FORTRAN; meanwhile Winslow's Famous BBQ (originally City Market Barbecue) opens in Kansas City, Mo., owned by Don Winslow Jr. (1954-94), "the Sultan of Smokes", followed by his brother Dave Winslow, becoming a local legend until it closes in Oct. 2017 - no relation? On June 1 Brazil announces a 200-mi. territorial water limit, expanding the former 12-mi. limit. On June 1 the 2-room shack in Tupelo, Miss. where Elvis Presley was born is opened to the public as a tourist attraction. On June 3 Teamsters pres. (since 1958) James Riddle "Jimmy" Hoffa (1913-75) announces from prison (where he's been since 1967) that he is not a candidate for reelection after working a deal with Pres. Nixon to be pardoned in exchange for resigning next year - erection, maybe? On June 3 Sergey Mikhailovich Izvekov becomes patriarch #15 of Moscow and all Russia Pimen I (1910-90) (until May 3, 1990), going on to see the atheistic Soviet Union bite the dust. On June 4 Pres. Nixon sends Congress the first-ever Comprehensive Pres. Energy Message, announcing plans to build a liquid metal fast breeder nuclear reactor demonstration plant by 1980, calling it the best hope for clean economical energy; on Sept. 26 he authorizes a 2nd experimental reactor. On June 5-6 a series of bombs explode in Belfast, North Ireland, injuring eight. On June 6 the The Ed Sullivan Show ends after 23 years (June 20, 1948); Sullivan dies on Oct. 13, 1974 of esophageal cancer. On June 7 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 5-4 in Cohen v. Calif. that it's not a crime of disturbing the peace for a man to wear a jacket with the words "Fuck the Draft" in a courthouse. On June 7 WHO reports that cholera has broken out among 4.7M East Pakistani war refugees in India. On June 7 a municipal employee strike in New York City over a proposed pension plan causes massive traffic tieups. On June 8 12 men, most of them members of the outlawed opposition Kenya People's Union (KPU) are found guilty of conspiring to overthrow Kenyan pres. Jomo Kenyatta; armed forces chief of staff Maj. Gen. J.L.N. Ndolo resigns on July 1. On June 11 U.S. marshals, FBI agents, and special forces swarm Alcatraz Island and remove the 15 Native American occupiers, ending their 19-mo. occupation; they find a total of 5 women, 4 children, and 6 unarmed men. On June 11-13 the Espinay Congress in France gives Francois Mitterand leadership of the French Socialist Party. On June 12 Pres. Nixon's daughter Patricia "Tricia" Nixon (1946-) marries Princeton and Harvard-educated atty. Edward Ridley Finch Cox (1946-) in the White House Rose Garden in a major social event of the year ("akin to American royalty" - Life Mag.), becoming the 8th daughter of a pres. to be married in the White House (next in ?). On June 13 steep increases in arrests of women for major crimes causes the 400-bed Women's Detention Center in New York City to close due to overcrowding. On June 5 the $1.2B McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System opens, sponsored by U.S. Sens. Robert Samuel Kerr (1896-1963) (D-Okla.) (1949-63) and John Little McClellan (1896-1977) (D-Ark) (1943-77), connecting the Verdigris River in Okla., the Arkansas River, the Mississippi River, and the White River in Ark. incl. the Arkansas Post Canal, turning the Arkansas River into a navigable inland waterway system containing 17 locks and dams from the Tulsa Port of Catoosa to the Gulf of Mexico, bringing in $3B in commercial-industrial development to the Arkansas River basin by 1973. On June 16 the El Greco sketch The Immaculate Conception, stolen in Spain in 1936 is recovered in New York City by the FBI. On June 17 the U.S. and Japan sign the Okinawa Reversion Agreement, under which the U.S. promises to return control of the island of Okinawa on May 15, 1972 after 27 years of occupation, along with the Daito Islands and the other islands in the Ryuku group incl. Senyku; the U.S. gets to continue to maintain bases in Okinawa with reduced troop strength, causing militant leftists to riot in Tokyo in Nov.; the U.S. fishes in Micronesia for a place to put new bases, causing considerable opposition. On June 18 Marks, Miss.-born Frederick Wallace "Fred" Smith (1944-), son of the founder of Dixie Greyhound Bus Lines, who flew 200+ missions as a U.S. Marine pilot i n Vietnam and attended Yale U. with George W. Bush and John Kerry founds Federal Express (FedEx Express) in Memphis, Tenn. with his $4M inheritance plus $91M in venture capital (largest raised to date), becoming the world's first overnight express delivery co.; on Apr. 17, 1973 it begins offering service from Memphis Internat. Airport to 25 cities using 14 French-built Falcon DA-20 jets, which later end up in the Nat. Aeronautics and Space Museum; the first night it delivers 186 packages from Miami, Fla. to Rochester, N.Y.; it adds letter delivery in 1981, growing to handle 1M parcels and letters a day by 1989, eventually becoming a $30B+ air freight giant; Smith originally submitted the concept to his Yale economics class and got a C? On June 21 the Internat. Court of Justice in The Hague rules that South Africa's admin. control of South West Africa (Namibia) is illegal. On June 21 Dominic Mintoff (1916-), 1949 founder of the Malta Labour Party becomes PM of Malta (until 1984), continuing its program of integration with Britain despite opposition of Catholics; on Aug. 13 NATO announces that it will close its naval HQ on Malta after being requested. On June 21 the U.s. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 6-3 in Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents that an implied cause of action exists for an individual whose Fourth Amendment freedoms have been violated by the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, allowing him/her to sue for the violation itself despite the lack of any federal statute authorizing such a lawsuit, with the existence of a remedy for the violation implied by the importance of the right violated. On June 23 Britain settles major obstacles with the European Community, paving the way for it to join. On June 28 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court unanimously (8-0-1, with Thurgood Marshall recusing himself) rules in Clay v. U.S. to overturn boxer Muhammad Ali's 1967 draft evasion conviction, ruling that he had been drafted improperly and that the govt. failed to properly specify why his application for conscientious objector status was denied, with the soundbyte: "The record shows that [Ali's] beliefs are founded on tenets of the Muslim religion as he understands them" - after ruining his career with their endless deliberations they announce their total ignorance of the Muslim doctrine of jihad to permit all Muslims to refuse to fight for the infidel U.S.? On June 28 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 8-1 in Lemon v. Kurtzman to strike down a Penn. law permitting taxpayer funding of salaries and supplies for mostly Roman Catholic parochial schools, with the soundbyte: "First, the statute must have a secular legislative purpose; second, its principal or primary effect must be one that neither advances nor inhibits religion; finally, the statute must not foster an excessive government entanglement with religion", becoming known as the Lemon Test, which ends up being enforced in a patchwork pattern by lower courts, causing religious conservatives to predict that it will be reversed; the lone dissenter is Byron White; Justice Antonin Scalia later calls the Lemon Test a "ghoul in a late night horror movie". On June 28 1 after pissing-off other mob bosses for seeking publicity instead of lurking in the shadows, New York City mob boss Joseph "Joe" Colombo (1914-78) is shot 3x in the head by black gunman Jerome Johnson during an Italian-Am. Unity Day Parade in New York City's Columbus Circle, leaving him in a coma for life, after which Johnson is killed by Colombo's bodyguards; mobster Joseph "Joey" "Crazy Joe" "Joe the Blond" Gallo (1929-72), who has been recruiting blacks into the depleted Mafia is suspected, as is rival Carlo Gambino, and the FBI; 27 more are killed in the aftermath. On June 30 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 6-3 in New York Times Co. v. U.S. that they could go on and pub. the classified Pentagon Papers, overrriding Pres. Nixon's executive order thanks to the First Amendment, with Hugo Black writing the soundbyte: "In the First Amendment the Founding Fathers gave the free press the protection it must have to fulfill its essential role in our democracy. The press was to serve the governed, not the governors. The Government's power to censor the press was abolished so that the press would remain forever free to censure the Government. The press was protected so that it could bare the secrets of government and inform the people. Only a free and unrestrained press can effectively expose deception in government... The word 'security' is a broad, vague generality whose contours should not be invoked to abrogate the fundamental law embodied in the First Amendment"; dissenters incl. Justices Burger, Harlan, and Blackmun. On June 30 Yugoslavia passes constitutional amendments limiting the powers of the federal govt. vis a vis the six local repubs., and establishes a collective state presidency of 22 members which gives equal rep. to all of them. In June after two U.S. congressmen visit Vietnam and report that 10% of U.S. servicemen (up to 16% of whom are black) are addicted to heroin, Pres. Nixon announces that his admin. will give drugs top priority, with emphasis on treatment centers. In June Southwest Airlines (originally Air Southwest) begins operations in Tex. with four planes, featuring a 20-min. turnaround (vs. 45 min. for their competitors), and giving employees 15% ownership, undercutting competitors to grow to the #5 commercial U.S. air carrier, with 400 jets serving 60 cities and carrying 65M passengers a year; meanwhile United Airlines becomes the first to offer separate smoking and non-smoking sections, after which in 1973 the U.S. Civil Aeronautics Authority mandates separate smoking and non-smoking sections in all airplanes. On July 1 the British Wild Creatures and Forest Laws Act supersedes the 1217 Charter of the Forest, the longest-lasting statute in English history. On July 3 after quitting the band in Mar. and moving to Paris to write poetry, 27-y.-o. ever-stoned "don't you love her madly" rock singer Jim (James Douglas) Morrison (b. 1943) of The Doors is found dead in his apt. in Paris by his babe (since 1965) Pamela Susan "Pam" Courson (1946-74), who inherits his fortune then ODs on heroin at the same age as him, causing a catfight with both sets of parents, which Courson wins. On July 3 after outlawing the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI), Indonesia holds its first parliamentary elections in 16 years, and the ruling Sekberg Golkar coalition govt. wins a sweeping 60% V with an 85% turnout among 57M eligible voters (out of a pop. of 126M), giving it 300 of 460 seats (100 appointed by Pres. Suharto); 42K Communist rebels are held in prison. On July 6 Malawi pres. (since 1966) Hastings Walter Kamuzu Banda (1896-1997) (known for wearing English-style 3-piece suits with matching handkerchiefs and fly whisk), is sworn-in as pres. for life on Malawi's 5th anniv., tightening up his repressive police state, complete with dress code for men (no beards or long hair) and women (no trousers or baring of thighs); on Aug. 20 he becomes the first black head of state to visit the Repub. of South Africa, stinking himself up; too bad, his plans don't work out and he is ousted on May 24, 1994. On July 6 Romanian dictator (1965-89) Nicolae Ceausescu (1918-89) issues the quasi-Maoist July Theses to the executive committee of the Romanian Communist Party, ordering a return to Stalianism and Socialist realism, and a crackdown on intellectuals; he doesn't really get bad until the 1980s? On July 8 the U.S. and the Soviet Union open the 5th round of SALT talks in Helsinki, Finland. On July 8 British soldiers kill two Catholic civilians in North Ireland, causing the Free Derry Riots. On July 9 the U.S. turns over complete responsibility for the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) to South Vietnamese units. On July 9-11 nat. security affairs advisor Henry Kissinger makes a Secret Trip to China, meeting with Zhou Enlai and promising to normalize relations in Nixon's 2nd term, incl. stabbing Taiwan in the back and withdrawing two-thirds of U.S. military forces after the Vietnam War ends, causing Pres. Nixon on July 15 to announce an unprecedented visit to China planned for next year to seek a "normalization of relations"; on July 10 the U.S. delegation is served Peking Duck for lunch, wowing Kissinger, who visits Beijing in 1976 after Zhou Enlai's death to enjoy it again - wowing everybody? On July 11 a Cubana de Aviacion aircraft is unsuccessfully hijacked in Cienfuegos, Cuba by two men. On July 13-19 Jordanian troops wipe out Palestinian guerrillas in N Jordan; 1.5K POWs are brought to Amman; Iraq and Syria break off relations with Jordan - and Egypt isn't speaking to them anymore? On July 14 Olafur Johannesson (1913-84) of the Progressive Party becomes PM #15 of Iceland (until Aug. 28, 1974), heading a leftist coalition; he returns from Sept. 1, 1978-Oct. 15, 1979. On July 16 the Belgian Chamber of Deputies approves constitutional reforms to pacify their French and Flemish-speaking communities. On July 18 New Zealand and Australia announce that they will pull their troops out of Vietnam by fall. On July 18 six of the Trucial States (Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujaira, Sharja, Umm al Qaiwain) sign an agreement to create the United Arab Emirates (UAE), which is formalized on Dec. 2; Bahrain and Qatar, the largest and richest of the gulf states reject membership; Ras al Khaymah joins next year; Dubai (named after the local daba locust) uses its oil money to attract millions of foreigners to build a tourist and financial services mecca built on a medieval dictatorship and near-slave labor; after Iran claims Bahrain and other Persian Gulf islands in 1970, then makes an agreement with Britain to drop the claims in return for compensation, a plebiscite confirms the Arab identity of Bahrain, and the British withdraw on Dec. 16, making Bahrain an independent emirate. On July 18 50 years of friction and 10 years of terrorist activity by German-speaking separatists is ended by an agreement by Austria and Italy over the German-speaking Trentino-Alto Adige region of South Tyrol in N Italy which gives it considerable autonomy; in 1969 Italy had promised autonomy by 1974. The U.S. wins one behind the scenes in Sudan? On July 19-22 a Communist coup in Sudan led by Maj. Hashem al-Ata deposes Maj. Gen. Jafir Muhammad Nimeiri (Nimeri), but he is restored to power on July 22, denouncing the Sudanese Communist Party and executing Ata and three other rebel officers on July 23, followed by seven more (incl. two captured in Libya) in the next three days, and capping it all off by the hanging of Sudanese Communist Party leader Abdul Khalek Mahgoub on July 28, even though the latter denies any knowledge of the plot and the Soviet Union appeals for his life; on July 22 a British airliner carrying two rebel officers is forced by Libya to land in Bengasi, and they are handed over to Nimeiri for execution; anti-Arab federation Iraq, which recognized the Ata govt. sends a plane which mysteriously crashes in Saudi Arabia during the coup; in Sept. Nimeiri is elected Sudan's first pres. by 98.6% of the vote in a nat. referendum, and he is sworn in on Oct. 12, working to end hostilities in S Sudan. On July 20 the U.S. Selective Service System sets a new draft lottery to pick 19-y.-o. inductees for induction in 1972 - TLW's neck is on the chopping block? On July 20 wealthy Tokyo businessman Den Fujita (1926-2004) opens the first McDonald's restaurant in Tokyo after meeting Ray Kroc in Chicago; within 20 years, after teaching Japanese how to say "Big Mac and flies", and leading them to believe that the chain originated in their country (despite boats coming in from Idaho with potatoes, beef from Colo., and Coca-Cola from Ga.), there are over 700 McDonald's restaurants in Japan, and 3.8K by the time he dies in 2004, opening the way for other U.S. fast-food franchises - King George taught me how to catchy fish using magic saw? On July 21 Nederland, Colo. town marshal Renner LeRoy Forbes (1929-) pulls 19-y.-o. hippie Guy "Deputy Dawg" Goughnor from the Pioneer Inn tavern, drives to a remote area in Clear Creek County and shoots him in the head; Goughnor's body is found 1 mo. later, but the Colo. authorities claim insufficient evidence to try a sacred cow marshal for the killing of a non-cop; in 1997 at age 68 Forbes confesses to the murder, and is allowed to stay in a nursing facility without going to priz. On July 21 the New York Times pub. an article on Manhattan teenie tagger Taki 183, whose example inspires the graffiti movement. On July 23 6-term Liberian dictator-pres. (since 1944) William V.S. Tubman (b. 1895) dies in London following prostate surgery, and is succeeded by his long-time associate, vice-pres. (since 1951) William Richard Tolbert Jr. (1913-80), who is sworn-in next Jan. (until Apr. 12, 1980), going on to be even more inept and corrupt. On July 24 a Cuban expatriate hijacks a DC-8 from Miami, Fla. to Cuba, wounding a passenger and a stewardess. On July 26 (9:34 a.m. EDT) Apollo 15 is launched from Cape Kennedy atop a 363-ft. Saturn 5 rocket carrying astronauts David Randolph Scott (1932-), James B. Irwin (1930-), and Alfred Merrill Worden (1932-), becoming the first J mission, placing greater emphasis on scientific studies; on July 30 they land near Hadley Rille in the Marsh of Decay (Palus Putredinus), becoming the first Apollo mission to not land in a lunar mare; after driving their Lunar Rover (Lunar Roving Vehicle) (LRV) on the Moon on July 31, the astronauts splashdown in the P acific on Aug. 7 at 4:46 p.m. EDT, bringing 173 lbs. of moon rocks; the moon rocks were really collected by Wernher von Braun in Antarctica? Irwin leaves a microfilm copy of the 1947 poem I Am There by Am. poet James Dillet Freeman (1912-2003); in 2015 the Japanese Kayuga(Selenological and Engineering Explorer) lunar mission sends an image of the halo left by the lunar module engine exhaust plume, shutting critics up? On July 27 Pres. Nixon gives Mamie Eisenhower the first of the new Eisenhower Dollar Coins, designed by Frank Gasparro (1909-2001); they are issued until 1978. On July 28 the U.S. army command in South Vietnam announces that servicemen returning to the U.S. will be tested for heroin use - come on fellows, don't let fear stand in your way? On July 28 Finland announces that it would consider associating with the East European trade block, which would make them the first non-Communist country to do so. On July 30 Dzemal Bijedic (1917-77) (a Communist from Bosnia-Herzegovina) succeeds Mitja Ribichich as PM of Yugoslavia (until Jan. 18, 1977). On July 30 a Japanese Boeing 727 collides midair with a Japanese F-86 fighter jet over Morioka, Japan, killing 162. On July 30 Union Stock Yards in Chicago, Ill (opened on Dec. 25, 1865) close as slaughterhouses move closer to the sources of supply; meanwhile U.S. beef consumption is 113 lbs. per capita, up from 85.1 in 1960, peaking at 128.5 in 1976, for $25B total, incl. 50B hamburgers; a beef shortage this year causes Gen. Mills to introduce Hamburger Helper, which stretches 1 lb. of hamburger into a meal for five, and continues to be popular after the shortage ends. On July 30-Aug. 8 Canadian PM Trudeau tours Canada's Atlantic provinces. In July U.S. gold stocks drop below $10B for the 1st time since the 1940s. In July Britain assumes direct control of the 90%-black Caribbean island of Anguilla (modern pop. 13K); on Feb. 10, 1976 it grants the island its own constitution, with former pres. (1967-9) Ronald Webster (1926-) as chief minister until Feb. 1, 1977, and May 1980-Mar. 12, 1984; in 1980 it formally severs ties (since 1882) with Saint Kitts and Nevis. In July the Chinese govt. calls for reducing the goal per family from three children to two; each person in the U.S. uses 25x as many natural resources as a person in the U.K. or India? On Aug. 1 the Red River Delta Flood in North Vietnam kills 100K and affects 2.7M, getting called a "250-year flood". On Aug. 1 (Sun.) The Sonny and Cher Comedy Hour debuts on CBS-TV for 63 episodes (until May 29, 1974), starring Salvatore Phillip "Sonny" Bono (1935-98) and Cher (Cherilyn Sarkisian) (1946-), who start each show with "The Beat Goes On" and end each show by singing "I Got You Babe", often with daughter Chastity Bono present; the show is canceled after they separate in fall 1974, after which "The Sonny Comedy Revue" debuts in 1974, followed in 1975 by "Cher"; they then get back together in fall 1976, with Cher married to Gregg Allman and pregnant with his child, and they resume with "The Sonny and Cher Show", but it is canceled after two seasons after it proves lame. On Aug. 2 after 20 years of opposition the U.S. Dept. of State ("Foggy Bottom") announces support for the U.N. membership of the Communist People's Repub. of China - a real booty exercise? On Aug. 5 the 1971 draft lottery picks TLW's birthday of Jan. 18 as #51, and on Feb. 2, 1972 the draft ends at the same time that he reaches the magic age of 20 in 1973; just kidding, he woulda got a college deferment? On Aug. 6 (40th anniv. of his death) the first annual Bix Beiderbecke Memorial Jazz Festival is held in Davenport, Iowa, becoming one of the largest jazz festivals in the U.S. On Aug. 9 King Hassan II of Morocco appoints a new got. headed by PM Mohamed Karim Lamrani. On Aug. 9 the heaviest Catholic-Protestant rioting in 50 years erupts in Northern Ireland after the Brits introduce Operation Demetrius (Internment), arresting 342 suspected of supporting paramilitary orgs. and jailing them without trial, while killing 14 and causing 7K (mostly Roman Catholics) to flee their homes; in Sept. the Protestant loyalists form the Ulster Defence Assoc. (UDA) to combat the Catholic republican IRA, adopting the name Ulster Freedom Fighters in 1973. On Aug. 12 Syria breaks off diplomatic relations with Jordan after a military clash along the border. On Aug. 13 the Youth Conservation Corps is established. Get on the Sheik Train? On Aug. 14 the sheikdom of Bahrain announces its independence from Britain after 110 years as a protectorate (since 1861), ruled by emir (since 1960) Sheik Isa bin Salman al-Khalifa (1933-99); Bahran is admitted to the Arab League, and becomes member #130 of the U.N. on Sept. 21; on Sept. 1 Qatar (pr. like gutter) (modern-day pop. 1.5M) under emir (1960-72) Sheik Ahmad bin Ali bin Abdullah Al-Thani (1917-77) declares its independence, and joins the Arab League; on Sept. 30 the sultanate of Oman under sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said (1940-) becomes member #131 of the U.N. On Aug. 15 after deciding that inflation is uncontrollable without his divine intervention, and noting that the U.S. is running its first trade deficit this year since 1888 ($2.05B), and taking the advice of U.S. treasury secy. John Connolly that as a temporary measure it might help insure his reelection, U.S. pres. (1969-74) Richard Milhous Nixon (1913-94) announces his New Economic Policy, AKA the Nixon Shock (along with the 1972 visit to China), incl. a 90-day wage, rent and price freeze (extended for another 1K days), and a 10% "surcharge" (tariff) on imported goods (violating trade agreements), and floats the U.S. dollar, suspending the convertibility of dollars into gold to stop France (which had been stockpiling Federal Reserve Notes since the early 1960s) and other nations from cleaning out Ft. Knox, effectively ending the 1944 Bretton Woods (N.H.) system of fixed internat. currency exchange rates and taking the U.S. off the Gold Standard; foreign exchange markets close; Nixon utters the soundbyte: "We are all Keynesians now" (or attempts to quote Milton Friedman's Feb. 4, 1966 statement in Time mag. with the lame version "I am now a Keynsian in economics"); the news causes the Dow Jones to jump a record 32.93 points on a record volume of 31.7M shares; the AFL-CIO announces that it has "absolutely no faith in the ability of President Nixon to successfully manage the economy of this nation", and refuses to cooperate in the wage freeze; too bad, after the surcharge causes the Japanese to have to revalue the yen in Dec., Nixon stops it on Dec. 20 and raises the official gold price, devaluing the dollar by 8.57%, then caves in on tariffs again in the Tokyo Round in 1973, letting the Japanese ramp up their imports, causing U.S. manufacturing to decay; he also guesses wrong about gold, as by 1980 it sells over $800 an oz. On Aug. 20 the Cambodian military launches a series of operations against the Khmer Rouge. On Aug. 20 the draft constitution of the Federation of Arab Repubs. (capital: Cairo), backed by Libyan dictator Col. Muammar Gaddaf is signed by its members Syria, Egypt, and Libya, and on Sept. 1 it is approved by the voters; on Oct. 3 Anwar al-Sadat is named pres.; too bad, it never materializes and is scrapped on Nov. 19, 1977. On Aug. 20 Red Cross officials representing North and South Korea meet in Panmunjom to discuss reuiniting families divided by the Korean War, becoming the first bilateral talks between members of the divided country since the war; they only talk briefly, then smile real big and shake hands across the table, and adjourn until Aug., continuing to Sept. 16 without an agreement. On Aug. 21 three prisoners and three guards are killed during an attempted prison escape at San Quentin, Calif. when, after meeting with his atty. Stephen Gingham, George Jackson (1942-) pulls a hidden automatic pistol from his "big hair". On Aug. 21 in the Philippines there is a grenade attack on a political rally of the opposition Liberal party which nearly wipes out the party's senatorial slate running against Ferdinand Marcos' Nacionalista Party. On Aug. 22 in Bolivia an extreme-right Socialist Falange coup led by Col. Hugo Banzer Suarez (1926-2002) deposes leftist army Gen. Juan Jose Torres and his Soviet-style legislature after a 10-mo. reign, and Banzer becomes pres. #62 of Bolivia (until July 21, 1978), relying on his U.S.-trained special forces to brutally kick dissidents down while throwing the country open to foreign investment - I just love the smell of a new car, don't you Miss Daisy? On Aug. 23-Sept. 3 the U.S., Soviet Union, France, and Britain agree to the Quadripartite Agreement, guaranteeing "unimpeded access" to Berlin - now they can save a bunch of money on their car insurance by switching to Geico? On Aug. 26 (50th anniv. of the 19th Amendment) 50K feminists stage the 2nd Strike (March) for Equality on Fifth Ave. in New York City, featuring the signs "Crush Phallic Imperialism", "Pills for Men", and "Don't Iron While the Strike is Hot"; New York City mayor John Lindsay proclaims Women's Equality Day, greets the city's first woman police capt., and meets with feminist leaders, agreeing to a "substantial increase" in the number of women in top city jobs; too bad, the lezzies later take over the event. On Aug. 29 eight black militant members of the Black Liberation Army (an offshoot of the Black Panthers) storm the Ingleside police station in San Francisco, Calif. and kill Sgt. John V. Young (b. 1920) with a shotgun and injure a civilian clerk; eight blacks are arrested in New Orleans in 1975, but the case is dismissed after allegations of police torture to obtain confessions; they had been waging a way against law enforcement from 1968-73, and that doesn't stop the enemy gang, er police force from doggedly pursuing them, finally arresting eight of them in Jan. 2007 days before a documentary on the abuse allegations is scheduled to air, incl. Harold Taylor (1948-) and Ronald Stanley Bridgeforth (1944-); meanwhile fellow member Herman Bell lures police officers Joseph Piagentini and Waverly Jones to a housing project in Harlem, N.Y., ambushing and killing them from behind, receiving a sentence then becoming a model prisoner, working with New York City leftists until they get him released in May 2018. In Aug. Queen Juliana of the Netherlands pays an official 10-day state visit to Indonesia, becoming the first reigning member of the House of Orange to visit their former (until 1949) possession. In Aug. U.S. Dem. Rep. Shirley Anita Chisholm (1924-2005) (from the 12th N.Y. Congressional District, which incl. Brooklyn's Bedford-Stuyvesant ghetto), the first and only black woman in Congress announces that she will seek the 1972 Democratic pres. nomination; on Sept. 26 she announces that she will enter the pres. primaries in Fla., Wisc., Calif., and N.C.; in Oct. she announces that she will not seek "anybody's endorsement", and says that her candidacy is "expendable", but a good platform for discussing minority rights. In Aug. Mrs. Nixon visits five states to inspect public recreational facilities; while in Calif. to deed 372 acres to the state for a park, she steps over the Mexican border to greet a cheering crowd - if she can do it? On Sept. 3 a Cuban expatriate unsuccessfully hijacks a plane from Chicago, Ill. to Cuba, and receives a 20-year sentence on Mar. 6, 1972. On Sept. 4 an Alaska Airlines Boeing 727 jet crashes into the Chilkoot Mts. near Juneau, killing 111. On Sept. 4 Maj. Gen. Hassan al-Amri goes into exile in Lebanon after being forced to resign as PM of Yemen. On Sept. 5 a bus crashes on a mountain road outside Jinhae, South Korea, killing 17 and injuring 16. On Sept. 6 in Montevideo, Uruguay 100 Tupamaro guerrillas escape from prison. On Sept. 6 China agrees to provide North Korea with military assistance. On Sept. 7 Pres. Nison sends to his atty. John Dean his Nixon's Enemies List (AKA Opponents List, Political Enemies Project), which Dean later reveals to at the Senate Watergate hearings, after which CBS journalist Daniel Louis Schorr (1916-2010) (last active journalist from Edward R. Murrow's Boys) obtains a copy and reads it on the air, discovering his own name on it in the process for one of TV's magic moments? On Sept. 8 the U.S. Congress reconvenes after a 1-mo. summer recess; meanwhile, Pres. Nixon privately tells John Ehrlichman to investigate the tax returns of rich Jews contributing to the Dem. campaigns of Humphrey and Muskie? On Sept. 9-13 after discovering racially-biased sentences and parole decisions, and hearing of the Sept. 9 shooting of San Quenin black radical prisoner George Jackson, 1.3K pissed-off prisoners seize control of the maximum-security 2.2K-inmate Attica Correctional Facility near Buffalo, N.Y., taking 33 hostages and beginning a siege that claims 43 lives (11 guards and 32 inmates, incl. 9 hostages) and injures 80+ before 1.5K state troopers, sheriff's deputies and prison guards move in and quell the rebellion early on Sept. 13; for the first days, authorities agree to 28 prisoner demands, but balk at amnesty and removal of the supt.; the final assault by the New York State Police pumps 2.5K hollow tip and deer slug bullets into a 50 yd. x 50 yd. enclosure for 10 min., creating mucho carnage; riot leader Samuel Joseph Melville (Grossman) (b. 1934) (leader of the Weather Underground, known for his 1969 bombings of blgs. in New York City, plus a Mar. 7, 1970 escape attempt at a federal courthouse) is killed; other leaders incl. Elliott "L.D." Barkley and Tommy Hicks; N.Y. gov. Nelson Rockefeller is called a murderer, becoming the worst Rockefeller criticism since the 1914 Ludlow Massacre; on Aug. 28, 2000 a federal court awards the survivors $8M, incl. $25K to Melville's son Josh Melville. On Sept. 10 Pres. Nixon is informed and approves of John Ehrlichman's plan to steal Vietnam War records from the Nat. Archives Bldg. On Sept. 10 the U.S. completes removal of poison gas from bases in Okinawa. On Sept. 11 internat. shoe salesman Nikita Khrushchev (b. 1894) dies at at age 77 in Moscow after seven years of house arrest - I love my career, or should I say careers? On Sept. 11 Egyptian pres. #3 (since Oct. 15, 1970) Anwar al-Sadat announces that a nat. referendum has overwhelmingly approved a new 1971 Egyptian Constitution, providing for a Dem. Socialist Arab state, with Article 2 establishing Islam as the official religion and Arabic as the official language, with the right to private ownership recognized. On Sept. 11 (night) the Walkie-Talkie (Baker St.) Bank Robbery sees Lloyds Bank in Baker St., London robbed of £500K in jewelry and valuables by robbers who tunnel 50 ft. under the Chicken Inn Restaurant and goof up and talk in the clear on you know whats, which are intercepted by a ham radio operator and forwarded to the police; too bad, they still don't catch them, finding "Let Sherlock Holmes try to solve this" written inside the safe; Walter Cronkite mentions it on his CBS Evening News broadcast. On Sept. 11 ABC-TV debuts the Sat. morning animated cartoon series The Jackson 5ive for 23 episodes (until Oct. 14, 1972), featuring two Jackson 5 hits per show; on Sept. 19 the Jackson 5's first TV special Goin' Back to Indiana airs, with guests Diana Ross, Bill Cosby, Tommy Smothers, and Bobby Darin. On Sept. 13-14 Pres. Nixon makes more private taped comments, telling Bob Haldeman, "Now here's the point, Bob. Please get the names of the Jews. You know, the big Jewish contributors to the Democrats. Could you please investigate some of the cocksuckers? That's all", followed by "What about the rich Jews? The IRS is full of Jews." On Sept. 15 Greenpeace is founded in Vancouver, Canada by former Navy diver James Bohlen (1926-) et al. to protest nuclear testing in the Pacific as a group of activists set sail for Amchitka, Alaska in an aging 80-ft. boat named Greenpeace to "bear witness" to destructive U.S. nuclear weapons testing in the Aleutian Islands, becoming known as the "Rainbow Warriors" as they stop a planned nuclear test by the U.S. On Sept. 14 (Tues.) Quinn Martin's detective series Cannon debuts on CBS-TV for 124 episodes (until Mar. 3, 1978), starring pudgy William Conrad (John William Cann Jr.) (1920-94) as a P.I. in Los Angeles, Calif., who retired from the LAPD after the deaths of his wife and son in a car accident, and wants to investigate what really happened, and likes to tool around in a dark blue Lincoln Continental Mark IV. On Sept. 15 (Wed.) The NBC Mystery Movie debuts (until 1977), featuring a mysterious figure carrying a flashlight in the opening credits; it later splits into Columbo on Sept. 15 for 69 episodes (until Sept. 1, 1978), starring Peter Falk (1927-), McCloud on Sept. 22 for 46 episodes (until Apr. 17, 1977), starring William Dennis Weaver (1924-2006), and McMillan and Wife on Sept 17 for 40 episodes (until Apr. 24, 1977), starring Rock Hudson (1925-85) and next generation Shirley MacLaine Susan Saint James (Susan Jane Miller) (1946-) (until Apr. 24, 1977). On Sept. 16 (Thur.) the legal drama series Owen Marshall, Counselor at Law debuts on ABC-TV for 69 episodes (until Aug. 14, 1974), starring Arthur Edward Spence Hill (1922-2006) as compassionate Santa Barbara, Calif. defense atty. Owen Marshall, David Soul (David Richard Solberg) (1943-) as asst. Ted Warrick, Reni Santoni (1939-) as asst. Danny Paterno, and Lee Majors (Harvey Lee Yeary) (1939-) as asst. Jess Brandon. On Sept. 17 a bus carrying Canadian tourists collides with a truck outside Valdependas, Spain, killing 17. On Sept. 17 The Persuaders! debuts on ITV for 24 episodes (until Feb. 25, 1972), starring Tony Curtis (1925-2010) as Danny Wilde, and Roger George Moore (1927-2017) as Lord Brett Sinclair, two internat. playboys who solve hard cases; it flops in the U.S., but is a hit in Europe with funny subtitles. On Sept. 18 Egyptian and Israeli forces exchange heavy fire along the Suez Canal - the first exchange since the Aug. 1970 ceasefire. On Sept. 18 the comedy Funny Face, starring Sanda Kay "Sandy" Duncan (1946-) debuts on CBS-TV, then is pulled after the Dec. 11 show after 13 episodes (#8 Nielsen rating) when she has to undergo eye surgery. On Sept. 18 a Concert for Bangladesh is played in the Oval in Kensington, London, featuring The Who, Matt the Hoople, Quintessence, America, Rod Stewart and the Faces et al. On Sept. 19 a cyclone and tidal wave from the Bay of Bengal kill 10K in Orissa, India. On Sept. 21 the U.S. Congress extends military conscription through June 1973, renewing the draft which had expired on June 30. On Sept. 21 the 26th session of the U.S. General Assembly convenes, electing Indonesian foreign minister Adam Malik (1917-84) as pres. On Sept. 28 after Pope Paul VI annuls the excommunications of his political opponents and calls him a "victim of history" (intead of Communism), Hungarian Cardinal Jozsef Mindszenty ends a 15-year exile in the U.S. embassy in Budapest (since 1956), and moves to Vienna; too bad, the pope decides he's too old to be primate of the Hungarian Roman Catholic Church, and offers a deal to publish his memoirs if he steps down, but he refuses - I'm plum worn out not? On Sept. 30-Nov. 5 the Third Bishops' Synod on the Eucharist (1967, 1969) is held in the Vatican, and by a 107-87 vote they recommend that the prohibition against married priests be reaffirmed - Catholic parents, watch your boys? The Sept. issue of Scientific American contains the soundbyte: "If ever an energy source can be said to have arrived in the nick of time, it is nuclear energy"; there are 20 nuclear power plants operating in the U.S., with 100+ more being built (30 in operation, 51 under construction and 72 on order next year), plus 90+ operating outside the U.S. On Oct. 1 Walt Disney World in Orlando, Fla. opens. On Oct. 2 the syndicated African-Am. musical variety show Soul Train debuts for 1,117 episodes (until Mar. 25, 2006), created and hosted by Chicago-born Donald Cortez "Don" Cornelius (1936-). On Oct. 3 Nguyen Van Thieu (the only candidate) is reelected to a 2nd 4-year term as pres. of the Repub. of (South) Vietnam, with 91.5% of the 6.3M votes cast (largest turnout ever); Tran Van Huong is reelected as vice-pres.; a demonstration by 3K students on Oct. 2 causes the U. of Hue to be closed; Nguyen Cao Ky and Gen. Duong Van Ming announce their candidacy but withdraw, charging that the election is rigged; Thieu is inaugurated on Oct. 31, releasing the first of 3K Viet Cong prisoners given amnesty earlier in the year. On Oct. 3 royal gov. William Gopallawa abolishes Ceylon's Senate, leaving the House of Reps. as its only legislative body. On Oct. 6 the Los Angeles Times reports that federal agents had caught 36 illegal immigrants in a raid on the Ramona's Mexican Food Products food processing plant owned by Romana Acosta Banuelos (Bañuelos) (1925-), who had three weeks earlier been named by Pres. Nixon to be treasurer of the U.S.; Nixon orders the income tax returns of Los Angeles Times publisher Otis Chandler audited; Banuela serves as U.S. treasurer #34 from Dec. 17 through May 8, 1974. becoming the first Hispanic. On Oct. 7 Pres. Nixon announces Phase 2 of his inflation fighter plan (to begin Nov. 12), continuing wage-price restraints, and establishing various Socialist-style boards to run the admin. machinery - is Quaker Emperor Tricky Dicky going Commie in his old age? On Oct. 8 Pres. Nixon attends the 35th annual State Forest Festival in Elkins, W. Va., becoming the first U.S. pres. to visit all 50 states, beating FDR's record of 48. On Oct. 9 a Canadian man hijacks a Boeing 737 en route from Anchorage, Alaska, but is captured in Vancouver, Canada before he can reach Cuba, receiving a 20-year sentence on May 12, 1972. On Oct. 9-17, 1971 the Pittsburgh Pirates (NL) defeat the Baltimore Orioles (AL) 4-3 to win the Sixty-Eighth (68th) (1971) World Series; after ending the regular season needing just 118 hits for a career total of 3,000, San Juan, Puerto Rico-born Pittsburgh's #21 Roberto Enrique Clemente (Sp. "merciful") Walker (1934-72) has 12 hits in 29x at bat (1 short of the record), becoming the leading hitter of the WS, playing in 15 All-Star Games before his tragic death in a plane crash on Dec. 31, 1972 en route to deliver aid to earthquake victims in Nicaragua. On Oct. 10 Bruno Kreisky and his Socialist Party win an absolute majority in gen. elections in Austria, becoming the 1st time in its democratic history that one party enjoys an absolute majority (until 1983). On Oct. 10 after attempts to widen it damage the foundations and cause it to sink at the rate of 1 in. every eight years, causing one end to become 4 in. lower than the other, and Am. chainsaw entrepreneur Robert Paxton McCulloch (1911-77) buys it, the transplanted London Bridge (opened 1831) opens over the Colorado River in Lake Havasu City, Ariz. (founded 1964) as part of a theme park; a bargain at only $2.46M for the bridge, and a total of $15M incl. the transplant. On Oct. 10 the BBC-TV series Upstairs, Downstairs debuts (until Dec. 21, 1975), about the differences between the lives of the masters upstairs and the servants downstairs in Edwardian and Georgian London; the first episode is written by English feminist Fay Weldon (1931-). On Oct. 11 former PM (1962-8) Jens Otto Krag of the Social Dem. Party becomes PM of Denmark again (until Oct. 5, 1972), replacing the center-right coalition govt. of Hilmar Baunsgaard. On Oct. 12 the U.S. House of Reps. by 354-23 passes the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), originally drafted by Alice Stokes Paul (1885-1977) in 1923 and sponsored by Martha Wright Griffiths (nee Wright) (1912-2003) (D-Mich.); "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex"; after Hawaii becomes the first state to ratify it, it is ratified in ?. On Oct. 14 the Shah of Iran presides over a lavish 2500th Anniv. Party for the Persian Empire (founded by Cyrus the Great) amid the ruins of Persepolis, with 500 guests from 70 nations. On Oct. 19 the Munich U-Bahn in Germany opens, becoming Munich's first subway, just in time for the 1972 Munich Summer Olympics; by 2000 it has 90 stations and 900K riders a day. On Oct. 20 the Nobel Peace Prize is awarded to West German chancellor Willy Brandt for beginning the German reunification. On Oct. 21 Pres. Nixon nominates asst. U.S. atty.-gen. (since 1969) William Hubbs Rehnquist (1924-2005) (from Milwaukee, Wisc.) (a right-winger who graduated #1 from Stanford Law School and campaigned for Barry Goldwater in 1964) to the U.S. Supreme Court to replace John Marshall Harlan II (1955-71) (who retired on Sept. 17) and Lewis Franklin Powell Jr. (1907-98) (from Richmond, Va.) to replace Hugo L. Black (1937-71) (who died on Sept. 24); Nixon considered nominating Calif. state appeals court judge Mildred Lillie (1915-2002), but the ABA reported her to be unqualified; Powell is confirmed as U.S. Supreme Court justice #99 (until June 26, 1987) by the Senate 89-1 on Dec. 6, followed by Rehnquist (hiding from a white supremacist past?) as U.S. Supreme Court justice #100 by a creaky 68-26 vote on Dec. 10 (until Sept. 3, 2005) after his supporters invoke cloture to stop a filibuster; Powell later moves to the center-left, while Rehnquist stays to the right. On Oct. 22 PM Lon Nol imposes a state of emergency in Cambodia, suspending the constitution to prevent an alleged threatened outbreak of violence. On Oct. 25 over the objection of the U.S. by a 76-35 vote (17 abstentions), U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 2758 recognizes the People's Repub. of China (PRC) (Red China) as the sole lawful representative to the U.N.; they also vote "to expel forthwith the representatives of Chang Kai-shek from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations"; on Nov. 15 the PRC is seated at the U.N. for the first time, taking the Repub. of China's seat on the U.N. Security Council. On Oct. 25 a Puerto Rican man hijacks a Boeing 747 bound for San Juan, Puerto Rico from New York City to Cuba. On Oct. 25 The Electric Company debuts on daytime PBS-TV for elementary school children for 780 episodes (until Apr. 15, 1977), produced by the Children's Television Workshop. On Oct. 26-31 a tidal wave and cyclone on Orissa on the E coast of India kills 15K. On Oct. 27 Pres. Joseph Desire Mobutu, head of the one and only political party, the Popular Movement of the Rev. renames his country the Dem. Repub. of Congo (formerly Belgian Congo) to the Repub. of Zaire, and changes of the name of the Congo River to the Zaire River; he changes the name of Katanga Province to Shaba Province. On Oct. 28 Britain's House of Commons votes to join the European Economic Community (EEC) (Common Market) (in Jan. 1973) after 10 years of diddling; the U.S. position as the economic king of the hill now has a contender. On Oct. 29 the U.S. Senate by a 41-27 vote refuses to authorize the continuation of U.S. foreign aid (the 1st time in over 20 years); the current program is temporarily extended before Congress adjourns on Dec. 17. On Oct. 29 Finnish PM Ahti Karjalainen and his center-left coalition govt. resign over a $4.5M farm subsidy increase, and pres. Urho Kekkonen appoints a caretaker govt. headed by Teuvo Auro with a gen. election scheduled for Jan. 1972. On Oct. 29 a man, his two sons, and a teenie hijack an Eastern Airlines jet from Houston, Tex. to Havana, killing a ticket agent. On Oct. 31 Saigon begins the release of 1,938 POWs to Hanoi. In Oct. the U.S. gives the first hints that it is considering devaluation of the once almighty U.S. dollar. In Oct. New York City hero cop Francesco Vincent "Frank" Serpico (1936-) breaks the infamous code of silence of the men of blue and testifies at the Knapp Commission hearings about rampant stinking police corruption in the Big Apple after his brothers in blue begin treating him like manure, setting him up on Feb. 3, 1971 to be shot in the face with a .22 handgun by a drug suspect, which he survives with disabilities; on May 14 the police commissioner gives him a medal and promotes him to detective, and he goes on to rat out the prof. criminals in blue, then wisely retires on June 15, 1972, so that biz can go back to usual in copland? On Nov. 1 Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, and Britain sign a 5-nation Asian defense pact superseding the British-Malaysian-Singapore defense treaty that gave Britain sole responsibility for security. On Nov. 4 Chancellor Bruno Kreisky heads a new all-Socialist govt. in Austria after a sweeping election V. On Nov. 5 a bus plunges down a 900-ft. mountain slope in Yeongdo-gu, Busan, South Korea, killing 26 and injuring 30. On Nov. 6 the U.S. ignores protests by Canada, Japan, and many scientists to explode a 5MT H-bomb on the Alaskan island of Amchitka in the Aleutian Islands. On Nov. 8 4-star Gen. John David Lavelle (1916-79), 7th Air Force cmdr. in Vietnam markedly increases the number of bombing raids against North Vietnam, which last until Mar 8, 1972; too bad, the Pentagon and Congress accuses him of ordering the bombing without authorization, demoting him to Maj. Gen. and forcing him to retire in disgrace; he is posth. cleared in 2010, and Pres. Obama asks the Senate to restore his honor and stars. On Nov. 8 a bus and truck collide outside Korat, Thailand, killing 27 and injuring 20. On Nov. 10 the U.S. Senate votes 84-6 to rafity the Okinawa treaty. On Nov. 10 two women are tarred and feathered in Belfast, North Ireland for dating British soldiers, while in Londonderry a Roman Catholic girl is tarred and feathered for trying to marry a Protestant British soldier. The original Beavis and Butthead? On Nov. 11 Clifford M. Hardin resigns, and Pres. Nixon nominates Eisenhower admin. agricultural official (Purdue U. grad) Earl Lauer Butz (1909-2008) as U.S. agriculture secy., who is confirmed by a 51-44 Senate vote on Dec. 2, and takes office as secy. #18 next Jan. 2 (until Oct. 4, 1976), going on to revolutionize federal agricultural policy, advising farmers to "get big or get out" and to plant crops "from fencerow to fencerow"; too bad, his love of King Corn causes Am. diets to become too dependent on corn, esp. high fructose corn syrup? On Nov. 12 Pres. Nixon announces the withdrawal of 45K more troops from Vietnam by Jan. 1972. On Nov. 13 Mariner 9 becomes the first space probe to orbit another planet, Mars; after waiting out a global dust storm it takes 7,329 revealing pictures of the Martian surface incl. the polar caps and volcanoes. On Nov. 24 Shenouda III (1923-2012) becomes Coptic pope #117 of Egypt (until Mar. 17, 2012). On Nov. 16 the 6th round of the U.S.-Soviet SALT talks begins in Vienna - the salt of the Earth? On Nov. 17 PM (since 1963) Field Marshal Thanom Kittikachorn (1911-2004) seizes the govt. of Thailand in a bloodless coup as a precaution against Communist infiltration (until Oct. 14, 1973), then abolishes the constitution and declares martial law - kiddy porn? On Nov. 20 the U.S. offers to give Turkey $35M for farmers who agree to stop growing opium poppies - why should they take a pay cut? On Nov. 22 the Indo-Pakistan War of Independence begins after guerrilla fighting escalates on the border of East Pakistan, and India masses 12 divs. near the border; on Dec. 1 India launches a full scale attack against Pakistan, invading East Pakistan (Bengal) on Dec. 4 and routing West Pakistani occupation forces to support the new state of Bangladesh, all without a formal declaration of war, causing the U.S. to suspend arms shipments to India, having done the same to Pakistan in Sept.; on Dec. 3 Pakistan attacks Indian airfields in Kashmir and India mobilizes its army; on Dec. 6 India recognizes the new Dem. Repub. of Bangladesh, and Pakistan breaks off diplomatic relations; on Dec. 16, AKA Victory Day Pakistan surrenders, ending the war, and on Dec. 20 Pakistani pres. Yahya Khan is forced to resign, and placed under house arrest; on Dec. 20 Berkeley, Calif. and Oxford-educated deputy PM Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (1928-79), 1967 founder of the center-left Pakistan Peoples Party is sworn-in as pres. #4 of Pakistan (until Aug. 13, 1973), returning the country to civilian rule for the 1st time since 1958, and Sheik Mujibur Rahman is nominated as pres. #1 of Bangladesh (until Aug. 15, 1975); under Bhutto, civilian-ruled Pakistan decides to develop a nuclear weapons program. On Nov. 22 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules unanimously in Reed v. Reed that the Equal Protection Clause of the 4th Amendment bars the naming of administrators of estates in a way that discriminates on the basis of sex. On Nov. 23 the People's Repub. of China is seated in the U.N. Security Council. On Nov. 24 olive-skinned mystery skyjacker calling himself D.B. Cooper hijacks Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 305 en route from Portland, Ore. to Seattle, Wash., demanding $200K in cash and four parachutes in Seattle, Wash., which are supplied by the FBI, after which he releases all passengers and one flight attendant before taking off toward Reno, then parachutes out of the Boeing 727 at 10K ft. over the Cascade Mts. near Ariel, Wash. in a heavy rainstorm, and is never seen again; the FBI believes he didn't survive; on July 12, 2016 the FBI announces that it has officially closed their case on him - seen a $100 bill with serial no. DI192589? On Nov. 27 three people are shot dead in Belfast, Ireland. On Nov. 28 the Anglican Church ordains its first two women priests, Jane Hwang and Joyce Bennett, ordained by Gilbert Baker, bishop of Hong Kong and Macao; on July 29, 1974 the Philadelphia Eleven are ordained in Penn.; in 1976 the Gen. Convention officially authorizes ordination of women. On Nov. 28-Dec. 2 the White House Conference on Aging in Washington, D.C., chaired by Eisenhower HEW secy. (1958-61) Arthur Sherwood Flemming (1905-96) is plagued by complaints of Repub. domination and inadequate rep. of minorities and elderly poor; it recommends a mandatory retirement at a fixed age along with earlier voluntary retirement; pub. claims by Dr. Alex Comfort (1920-2000) of the U. College in London that the human life span can be comfortably increased by 20% by 1990 (10-15 extra years of middle-aged vigor, not tired old age) are intensely debated. On Nov. 30 Jordan's King Hussein appoints Ahmad al-Lawzi (1925-) as PM to replace Wasfi el-Tal, who was assassinated in Cairo at a meeting of the Arab League's Joint Defense Council. On Dec. 1 U.S. treasury secy. John B. Connally surprises the Group of Ten meeting in Rome with an offer of a 10% devaluation of the U.S. dollar. On Dec. 1 the March of the Empty Pots (organized by the CIA to support right-wing gen. Augusto Pinochet) by 5K Chilean women in Santiago protests food shortages right before his scheduled visit to Cuba, causing Chilean pres. Salvador Allende to announce on Dec. 28 that the govt. will take over food distribution; too bad, the Chilean women start Allende on a downhill slide, with more women's demonstrations helping to bring him down on Sept. 11, 1973. On Dec. 2 Britain's House of Commons votes 297-260 to settle its dispute with the white-is-right govt. of Rhodesia. On Dec. 2 the British pull out of the Trucial States (7 coastal Arab sheikdoms incl. Sharjah) in the Persian Gulf, and on Dec. 3 in Dubai these states form the United Arab Emirates (UAE), incl. Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Sharjah, Ras al Khaimah, and Umm al Qaiwain, with Abu Dhabi sultan Sheik Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan (1918-2004) as pres. #1 (until 2004) - Abu Dhabi Doo? On Dec. 2 The Dick Cavett Show sees 3rd guest Janet Flanner try in vain to keep Norman Mailer (1923-2007), Gore Vidal (1925-2012), and Dick Cavett apart as they engage in verbal fireworks; "Perhaps you'd like two more chairs to contain your giant intellect?" (Cavett to Mailer); "I'll take the two chairs if you'll all accept finger bowls" (Mailer); "Why don't you look at your question sheet and ask your question?" (Mailer); "Why don't you fold it five ways and put it where the Moon don't shine?" (Cavett); "Surely I don't have to tell you a quote from Tolstoy" (Cavett to Mailer, after being asked if he came up with the previous remark himself). On Dec. 4 a Protestant bomb in Belfast, North Ireland kills 15 civilians and injures 17 at McGurk's Bar, becoming the first major atrocity of the Irish Troubles. On Dec. 5 Gen. Motors announces the largest recall in auto history, involving motor mounts in 6.7M 1965-9 Chevy cars and trucks. On Dec. 8 the Soviet Union announces a successful landing of a space capsule of Mars, which transmits TV signals for a brief period - a clear leapfrog over the lame American craft which orbits overhead? On Dec. 8 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 to admit the United Arab Emirates (UAE). On Dec. 9 U.S. Pres. Nixon and Brazilian pres. (1969-74) Emilio Garrastazu Medici (Médici) (1905-85) meet in the White House to discuss Chile, and Nixon asks him whether his military is capable of overthrowing Salvador Allende, to which Medici replies that they were already on the job; Medici also proposes that Brazil and the U.S. cooperate in countering the "trend of Marxist leftist expansion" in Latin Am., and Nixon promises to "assist Brazil when and wherever possible", after which Brazilian gen. Vicente Dale Coutinho grumbles that the U.S. wants Brazil to "do the dirty work" in South Am.; their discussion is kept secret until July 2009. On Dec. 10 John Lennon and Yoko Ono, Stevie Wonder, Bob Seger, Phil Ochs, Allen Ginsberg, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Bobby Seale et al. make a public appearance at a benefit concert for anti-racist White Panther Party leader (since 1968) John Sinclair (1941-), who was sentenced to 10 years in priz in 1969 for giving two joints of marijuana to an undercover narc; three days later Sinclair is released after the Mich. Supreme Court rules the state's marijuana statutes unconstitutional, after which the Hash Bash rally is held annually in Ann Arbor, Mich. to work for decriminalization. On Dec. 11 the Am. Libertarian Party is founded by David Fraser Nolan (1943-2010) in his living room in Denver, Colo. to advocate laissez-faire, civil liberties, minimal regulation of immigration, and a non-interventionist foreign policy; too bad, they only sign up 200K registered voters by the end of the cent. On Dec. 12 Am. major Hollywood actor Jon Voight marries minor Am. actress Marcia Lynne "Marcheline" Bertrand (1950-2007) (until 1978); they have one daughter, Angelina Jolie (1975-), and one son, James Haven (1973-); they divorce in 1980 after she leaves him for adultery in 1976 and hooks up with partner Bill Day in 1978. The first sign of the end of the American Century? On Dec. 14 Pres. Nixon meets with French Pres. Pompidou in the Azores and agrees on the need for dollar devaluation; on Dec. 17-18 the Group of Ten meets in Washington, D.C., and the U.S. agrees to end the 10% import surcharge and take the dollar off the gold standard and devalue it by 8.57% on the old price (7.89% on the new price) by raising the price of gold from $35 to $38 an oz., while revaluing other nations' currencies in relation to it, for a net effect of a 12% devaluation; on Dec. 19 Nixon announces that the agreement is "the most significant... in the history of the world"; America's stepchild Japan is the most shocked by all this, combined with the rise of China, and the upvaluing of the yen by 16.9%? On Dec. 16 Prince Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa (1935-) becomes PM of Bahrain (until ?), ending up as the longest-serving unelected PM on Earth. On Dec. 17 U.S. Col. Oran K. Henderson (1920-98), the last soldier to be tried for the My Lai Massacre is acquitted of attempting to cover it up. On Dec. 18 the IMF approves a Dec. 17 decision by 10 leading industrial countries to permit currencies to fluctuate 2.25% around the new par values. On Dec. 18 a trailer truck carrying workers plunges into an irrigation canal outside Aswan, Egypt, killing 50. On Dec. 18 Rev. Jesse Louis Jackson Sr. (1941-) announces in Chicago, Ill. the founding of Operation PUSH (People United to Save Humanity) - pray until something happens? On Dec. 18 North Vietnamese troops capture the Plain of Jars in Laos. On Dec. 18 martial law is lifted in Greece (effective Jan. 1, 1972), except for Athens, Salonika, and the Piraeus. On Dec. 19 CBS-TV airs The Homecoming: A Christmas Story, based on a 1970 Earl Hamner Jr. novella, starring Patricia Neal, Richard Thomas, and Andrew Duggan, which evolves into The Waltons, with Hamner as narrator. On Dec. 20 Pres. Nixon announces the end of the 10% surcharge on goods imported to the U.S. Christmas 1971 becomes a good time for medical funding? On Dec. 20 10 French physicians create a team that later becomes known as Doctors Without Borders (Médecins Sans Frontières) to help needy people in the Nigerian region of Biafra, growing to 2K volunteers in 18 countries by 2000, and 30K in 70 countries by 2015. On Dec. 20 Lt. Gen. Gul Hassan Khan (-1999) becomes Pakistan's army chief of staff, until Mar. 3, 1972, when he is ousted by Pres. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and given a dishonorable discharge. On Dec. 21 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 306 to appoint crypto-Nazi Kurt Josef Waldheim (1918-2007), Austria's permanent rep. to the U.N. to succeed U Thant as U.N. secy.-gen. #4; he takes office on Jan. 1, 1972 (until Dec. 31, 1981). On Dec. 23 after asking for $100M to find a cure for cancer in his Jan. State of the Union Address, and getting the U.S. Army biological warfare facility in Ft. Detrick, Md. converted to a cancer research center in Oct., Pres. Nixon signs the U.S. Nat. Cancer Act in front of 137 guests, incl. leading research scientists, authorizing $1.5B a year to the Nat. Cancer Inst., with the soundbyte "I hope in the years ahead we will look back on this action today as the most significant action taken during my administration"; 3 0 years later $45B has been spent on research, yet 1.5K people still die from it each day, but not Nixon himself, who dies in 1994 of a stroke. On Dec. 23 Formosa's Kuomintang party announces that the first nat. elections since 1947 will be held in May 1972. On Dec. 24 Pres. Nixon commutes the prison term of Internat. Brotherhood of Teamsters ex-pres. James R. "Jimmy" Hoffa after serving 4 years, 9 mo., 16 days of a 13-year term. On Dec. 24 Peruvian-born German mammalogist Juliane Koepcke (1954-) survives a 3km fall from LANSA Flight 508 after it's struck by lightning, then survives 11 days in the Amazon rainforest before being rescued with a broken collarbone; there are no other survivors; dir. Werner Herzog narrowly misses her flight while scouting locations for "Aguirre, the Wrath of God"; filmed in 1974 by Giuseppe Maria Scotese as "I miracoli accadono ancora" (Miracles Still Happen) (The Story of Juliane Koepcke) and Herzog's "Wings of Hope" (1998). On Dec. 26-29 U.S. Air Force and Navy planes bomb military installations in North Vietnam, becoming the first time since 1968 that they bomb them for more than two straight days. On Dec. 27 18 Arab countries meet in Cairo to coordinate strategy against their common foe Israel. On Dec. 29 Giovanni Leone (1908-2001) of the Christian Dem. Party becomes pres. of Italy (until 1978). On Dec. 31 the Dow Jones Industrial Avg. closes at 890.20 (vs. 838.92 at the end of 1970). In Dec. the U.S. Labor Dept. issues Revised Order 4, becoming known as "the women's employment Magna Carta", mandating that all businesses with federal contracts over $50K submit affirmative action plans for hiring minorities and women, exempting only the construction industry. In Dec. the 1971 Iraq Poison Grain Disaster sees methylmercury-treated seed grain imported from Mexico and the U.S. to fight the drought ending up being consumed despite the telltale pink color, killing 459-4.5K by next Mar. In Dec. yellow-colored globules fall over suburban Sydney, Australia; health minister (1965-73) Arnold Henry "Harry" Jago (1913-97) claims it is bee excreta. The Swiss Supreme Court rules that Swiss banks must show their records to U.S. tax officials when the U.S. taxpayer is suspected of tax fraud. The ever-blazing Gates of Hell (AKA Darvaza Gas Crater) in Turkmenistan opens during Soviet natural gas extraction operations; it is not closed until ?. South Korea launches the New Village Movement to help rural development. Persian shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi seizes control of the Persian Gulf islands of Abu Musa and the Tunbs from the UAE. The U.S. Non-Detention Act is passed, repealing portions of the 1950 McCarran Act, and stating that no citizen shall be imprisoned or otherwise detained by the U.S. except pursuant to an act of Congress. The U.S. Lead Paint Poisoning Prevention Act is passed, prohibiting lead-based paints in cooking, eating and drinking utensils, etc., and requiring interior paint applied before 1955 to be stripped from bldgs.; too bad, enforcement is lax. Britain leases the atoll of Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean to the U.S. for a joint military base in return for military concessions; the 2K natives are forcibly moved by the Brits to Mauritius via the Seychelles like pawns in a world chess game?; they are not allowed to return until 2000. The Japanese Red Army is formed in Lebanon. Armagh-born Presbyterian minister Rev. Ian Richard Kyle Paisley (1926-2014) forms the Protestant Dem. Unionist Party in Northern Ireland; meanwhile Roman Catholic leader Bernadette Devil, er, Devlin gives birth to a child out of wedlock, pissing-off her supporters, and gets a 9-mo. prison sentence; she finally marries in 1973 and runs for reelection in 1974. The name of Batavia, Indonesia (founded 1619) is changed to Jakarta (modern pop. 10M). The North Central Power Study by U.S. utility cos. and the U.S. Dept. of the Interior proposes strip-mining the 1.3T tons of low-sulfur soft coal of the Fort Union Coal Formation on the N Great Plains, and using it to feed a chain of new power plants and transmission lines to power the U.S.; too bad, environmentalists fight it tooth and nail, killing it. The 367K-ton tanker Nisseki Maru, is launched in Japan, becoming the world's largest supertanker (until 1972). In the U.S. starting this year Washington's Birthday, Memorial Day, Columbus Day, and Veterans Day are celebrated on Monday so that the giant gang of pampered lazy federal employees get a 3-day weekend on top of their long daily lunch hours and coffee breaks. The first battered women's shelter is opened in the U.K. by Erin Prizzley; another opens in Pasadena, Calif. The Am. College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists give official approval to nurse-midwives. Am. psychiatrist Peter Roger Breggin (1936-) founds the Center for the Study of Empathic Therapy, Education and Living to advocate reform in psychiatry, esp. its use of psychotropic drugs. The Chicago stockyards close. Swiss serial murderer Werner Ferrari (1946-) murders 10-y.-o. Daniel Schwan, receiving a 10-year sentence and serving eight; in May 1980 he begins kidnapping children from festivals then abusing and strangling them, reaching eleven victims by Aug. 30, 1989 when he is arrested in Otten, and sentenced for five murders, and acquitted of one murder on Apr. 10, 2007. JFK-killer Dallas, Tex. is awarded the "All-American City" award by Look mag. and the Nat. Municipal League. After he swindles Strake Jesuit College Preparatory out of $6M, the Sharpstown Scandal begins in Houston, Tex. as a stock fraud case involving Frank Wesley Sharp (1906-93), mgr. of the Sharpstown State Bank and the Nat. Bankers Life Insurance Corp., which involves former Tex. atty. gen. Waggoner Carr, former Tex. insurance commissioner John Osorio, Tex. house speaker Gus Mutscher Jr., state Dem. Party chmn. Tommy Shannon, Tex. banking board member Elmer Baum, Tex. lt. gov. Ben Barnes, and Tex. gov. Preston Smith; after the Dirty Thirty in the Tex. House of Reps unite to expose them, the SEC indicts Shannon, Mutscher, and his aide Rush McGinty for taking bribes from Sharp, and they are found guilty in Abilene, Tex. in 1972, and sentenced to five years' probation, while Sharp is sentenced to three years' probation and a $5K fine, after which a series of financial disclosure laws are passed in 1973. Arches Nat. Park in E Utah overlooking the Colorado River is established, along with Capitol Reef Nat. Park in S Utah, which incl. a dome-shaped white rock resembling the dome of the U.S. Capitol Bldg. Pukaskwa (Pukaska) Nat. Park in Ontario, Canada on the NE coast of Lake Superior is established, becoming Canada's largest nat. park (725 sq. mi.). A bamboo die-off in the Sichuan (Sechuan) Province in China (their main habitat) kills 100 pandas, causing the govt. to launch a research and rescue project; too bad, 789 adult pandas die in the wild between 1971-2005, caused mainly by starvation in 1971-85, followed by poaching in 1986-2000, followed by roundworm in 2001-5, leaving only 1.6K pandas left in the wild. The term "Silicon Valley" is coined for Santa Clara Valley, Calif. Bay Area Women Against Rape in Berkeley, Calif. is founded to fight discriminatory treatment of rape victims by police, courts and hospitals, causing a nat. movement to er, spread. Moses Carl Holman (1919-88) becomes pres. of the Nat. Urban League (until 1988). The Center for Science in the Public Interest in Washington, D.C. is founded by Ralph Nader-supporting consumer activist vegetarian microbiologist Michael F. Jacobson (1943-) et al. to lobby for food safety and nutrition, going after sodium nitrites, salt, sugar, movie theater popcorn popped in coconut oil et al., coining the terms "junk food" and "empty calorie". German feminist Alice Schwarzer (1942-) pub. Frauen Gegen den 218 (Women Against Paragraph 218), the German anti-abortion statute, resulting in legalization in 1974. The first Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) is held by the Am. Conservative Union (ACU) and Young Americans for Freedom (YAF); speakers go on to incl. Ronald Reagan (12x), George W. Bush, Newt Gingrich, Dick Cheney, Pat Buchanan, Sarah Palin, Ron Paul, Mitt Romney, Glenn Beck, Rush Limbaugh, Ann Coulter, Allen West, Michelle Bachmann, and Donald Trump. After being influenced by Zen and Mind Dynamics, Philly-born Werner Hans Erhard (John Paul Rosenberg) (1935-) begins giving est (Lat. "it is") (Erhard Seminars Training) workshops "to transform one's ability to experience living so that the situations one had been trying to change or had been putting up with, clear up just in the process of life itself"; he sells out to Landmark Education in 1991. The Islamic Movement in Israel is founded by Sheikh Abdullah Nimar Darwish (1948-), who goes underground in 1979 under the name Usrat al-Jihad (Family of Jihad), is arrested in 1981, and freed in 1985 after professing to be against violence; he led the hardline northern branch; meanwhile the more moderate southern branch is led by Raed Saleh (1958-), who is banned from entering the U.K. MLK Jr.'s widow Coretta Scott King (1927-2006) founds the Center for Non-Violent Social Change in Atlanta, Ga. The Leibniz Inst. for Psychology Info. at the U. of Trier is founded to pub. the PSYNDEX database of references to psychology in the German-speaking world. The Journal of Internat. Economics is founded. 31-year music teacher Paul Monroe Grossman (1919-2003) is fired by the school board when he returns to his job at Cedar Hill School in N.J. as Paula, a woman, claiming that her presence in the classroom would have a "negative impact"; in 1973 the N.J. Superior Court awards her disability benefits because the school board's stance "obviously incapacitated" her earning power; she marries a woman and doo dah diddies until death, but never teaches again. Estherville, Iowa-born pimply-faced baker Robert Christian Hansen (1939-2014) AKA "the Butcher Baker" abducts, rapes, and murders the first of 17-30 women ages 16-41 in the Anchorage, Alaska area, hunting them for sport with his Ruger Mini-14; on June 13, 1983 17-y.-o. Cindy Paulson escapes from him and gets him arrested, but he convinces them of his innocence and is released, then arrested in Oct. and sentenced to 461 years, dying in prison in Seward, Alaska on Aug. 21, 2014; portrayed by John Cusack in the 2013 film "The Frozen Ground". Black singer Charley Frank Pride (1938-) is chosen male vocalist of the year by the Am. Country Music Assoc. - at least he sounds mighty white? Frank McGee (1921-74) replaces Hugh Downs (since 1962) as host of NBC-TV's The Today Show, always opening and closing the show and asking the first three questions during an interview, forcing co-host Barbara Walters to play 2nd fiddle. The Newport Jazz Festival (founded 1954) is closed after the park is invaded by rock followers who have no other festivals to go to on the retro East Coast. The Dance Theater of Harlem, the first all-black classical ballet co. in the U.S. is founded by Arthur Mitchell (1934-), debuting on Jan. 8 at the Guggenheim Museum of Art in New York City. Paul Stewart founds the Black Am. West Museum in Denver, Colo. Hugh Hefner buys the fabled Playboy Mansion West in Calif., and moves there permanently from Chicago in 1975 - Hugh was friendly with all the hos and thought they'd all make wonderful subjects? The Metropolitan Museum of Art pays a record $5.544M for a portrait by Velazquez. Rock impresario Bill Graham closes his rock 'n' roll auditoriums Fillmore East in New York City and Fillmore West in San Francisco, Calif. Harvard U. begins holding a summer session. India abolishes all titles and privy purses of Indian rulers, incl. the cool maharaja and maharini titles. Chinese acupuncture receives a bunch of publicity in the West after journalist James Reston accompanies Henry Kissinger to China, comes down with appendicitis, and is treated on July 17 at Anti-Imperial Hospital in Beijing, then pub. the article "Now, About My Operation in Peking" in the New York Times on July 21. White Baptist Rev. Jerry Lamon Falwell Sr. (1933-2007), who since 1950 has built up the conservative Bible-thumping Thomas Road Baptist Church in Lynchburg, Va. to nat. prominence, along with his "Old Time Gospel Hour", aired on 300 U.S. and 64 foreign TV stations, known for the 1958 soundbyte "When God has drawn a line of distinction, we should not attempt to cross that line - the true Negro does not want integration" founds Lynchburg Baptist College in Va. with 154 students and four full-time faculty, later renaming it Liberty U. and growing it to a 3,250-acre campus with 7.7K students, dreaming of making it the Notre Dame U. and Brigham Young U. for mainly white fundamentalist Christians who want to become active in leftist, er, conservative politics. Paris Descartes U. is founded in Paris, France, becoming one of France's top research univs. Halki Seminary of the Eastern Orthodox Church in Istanbul (founded 1844) is closed by the Turkish govt. (until ?). Pope Paul VI dissolves the Vatican Gendarmerie, leaving only the Swiss Guard to run security in Vatican City, although Italian police patrol St. Peter's Square. The Lewis Powell Memorandum, commissioned by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in response to riots in Newark, Detroit et al., warns that the survival of the U.S. free enterprise system depends on "careful long-range planning and implementation" of a well-financed reponse to threats from the left in the U.S. and Europe, resulting in a bevy of new right-wing think tanks funded by a small group of family foundations. Direct dialing begins between the U.S. and Europe. Asylum Records is founded by David Geffen (1943-) to attract Jackson Browne, going on to sign Tom Waits, Linda Ronstadt, Joni Mitchell, and even Bob Dylan; in 1972 it was taken over by Warner and merged with Elektra Records. Operation Nevada sees 1.5K mothers (former casino maids etc.) and children march down the Las Vegas Strip protesting cuts in welfare benefits, marching into Caesar's Palace and causing it to suspend gambling operations for half an hour, after which celebs Jane Fonda, Ralph Abernathy, Donald Sutherland et al. intervene, and a federal judge reverses the cutbacks. Am. billionaire Daniel Keith Ludwig (1897-1992) founds the Ludwig Inst. for Cancer Research in Switzerland, becoming the largest nonprofit inst. dedicated to cancer research. The World Economic Forum (originally European Economic Forum) in Davos, Switzerland is founded by German business prof. Klaus Martin Schwab (1938-) to hold annual meetings of world business leaders each Jan. Michael Stern Hart (1947-) of Tacoma, Wash. founds Project Gutenberg, an attempt to turn all major book classics into free etext. Phyllis George (1949-) of Texas wins the Miss America title, becoming an actress, and later the First Lady of Ky. John Casablancas (1942-) founds the Elite Model Agency in Paris, going on to discover Paulina Porizkova (1965-) in 1980; TLW graduates from it in 1991 - wanna see my portfolio? Cheshire-born Vivienne Westwood (Vivienne Isabel Swire) (1941-), lover of Sex Pistols founder (Sept. 1975) Malcolm Robert Andrew McLaren (1946-2010) opens the SEX fashion shop in King's Road, London, which becomes known for its outrageous punk designs (a favorite of the Sex Pistols), featuring BDSM, safety pins, razor blades, chains, spiked dog collars, etc. Chatham Borough, N.J.-born chef Alice Louise Waters (1944-) opens Chez Panisse restaurant in Berkeley, Calif., pioneering low-fat veggie-fruit-heavy Calif. Cuisine; in 2001 Gourmet mag. names it the best restaurant in the U.S.; in 1972 she hires broke Stamford, Conn.-born Harvard U. architecture grad Jeremiah Tower (1942-), who goes on in 1984 to open the Stars restaurant in San Francisco, Calif., which becomes one of the top-grossing restaurants in the U.S. (until 1999), attracting celeb chefs incl. Mario Batali, opening several branches; after Tower leaves Chez Panisse, they hire local Jonathan Waxman (1950-), who in 1984 founds Jams Restaurant on E 79th St. in New York City, bringing Calif. Cuisine to the Big Apple, making him a celeb. Bronx, N.Y.-born biochemist Ida Pauline Rolf (1896-1979) founds the Rolf Inst. of Structural Integration to practice the holistic therapy system of Rolfing. English folk musician Steve Tilston (1950-) gives an interview to ZigZag mag., pining how selling out to rock and its wealth and fame might hurt his songwriting, causing John Lennon to write him a letter with the soundbyte: "Being rich doesn't change your experience in the way you think"; filmed in 2015 as "Danny Collins". Stanford-educated 4:10 miler Philip H. "Phil" Knight (1938-), son of a Portland, Ore. newspaper publisher changes the name of his 1964 sports shoe co. from Blue Ribbon Sports to Nike (Gr. "victory"), and pays $35 Portland State U. design student Carolyn Davidson for a logo consisting of a fat checkmark dubbed with "Swoosh"; after Steve Roland Prefontaine (1951-75) debuts their new waffle-sole running shoe at the 1972 Olympic Trials in Eugene, Ore., and his coach William J. "Bill" Bowerman (1911-99) of Oregon U. becomes co-founder of Nike, first year's sales are $3.2M, doubling each year for the next 10 years; after going public in 1980 they stage an advertising coup by signing Michael "Air" Jordan in 1984, causing Nike to become the world's largest sneaker co. by 1990 and sales to zoom to $6.5B in 1996 as every kid ends up with five pairs of sneakers; meanwhile next year Boston, Mass. entrepreneur James S. Davis (1944-) founds New Balance Athletic Shoe Inc., becoming Nike's rival; it's actually a bad idea to wear them while running, since the human foot is designed for barefoot running, and the shoes increase the risk of ankle sprains and other injuries? Chrysler Imperial becomes the first production car with antilock brakes. Mercedes-Benz introduces the 2-seat open roadaster 350 SL (until 1989). Geoffrey the Giraffe begins appearing in Toys "R" Us commercials. The Wonka Bar is announced by Breaker Connections of Chicago, Ill. (owned by Quaker Oats Co.) to exploit Mel Stuart's film Willy Wonka & the Chocolate Factory (June 30), based on the 1964 novel "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory" by Roald Dahl, which is financed by Quaker Oats Co.; too bad, the bars have poor shelf life and taste bad, causing them to be be quickly withdrawn prior to the film's release; in 1975 Breaker Connections is acquired by Sunmark Corp., becoming Willy Wonka Brands in 1980; in 1986 Sunmark is acquired by Rowntee Mackintosh of the U.K., which in 1988 is acquired by Nestle, which in 1993 renames that div. the Willy Wonka Candy Co.; the 100+ product line incl. SweeTarts (1962), Everlasting Gobstoppers (1976), Laffy Taffy, (SweeTarts) Shockers, Bottle Caps, Fun Dip (originally Lik-M-Aid), Spree, Runts (1982), Mixups, Nerds (1983), Gummies (2009), Kazoozles (2009), and Pixy Stix; Wonka Bars are discontinued in Jan. 2010. Dutch elementary school outcast ("the Beast of Harkstede") Willem van Eijk (1941-) rapes and strangles 15-y.-o. Coral Mantel, followed on Aug. 19, 1974 by 43-y.-o. Aaltje van er Plaat, after which is is easily caught and sentenced to 18 years, marrying his pen pal Adri in 1980, which doesn't cure him; in Nov. 1993 he rapes and murders 23-y.-o. ho Antoanella Bertholda (Michelle) Fatol, followed on Nov. 21, 1995 by 31-y.-o. ho Annelies Reinder, followed by six more hos and several more young women; in July 2001 he rapes and murders 34-y.-o. ho Sasja Schenker, after which he make the mistakes of trying to bury her clothes in a plastic bag in a canal near his house, resulting in his arrest on Nov. 12, 2001, and his conviction for three murders on Nov. 2002, receiving a life sentence. Chadds Ford, Penn. realist painter Andrew Newell Wyeth (1917-2009) meets Prussian-born neighbor Helga Testorf (1939-) and beguns using her as a model for 240+ paintings from 1971-85; he keeps it a secret even from his wife until 1985, and his works are first exhibited in 1986. Chilean activist poet Pablo Neruda wins the Nobel Lit. Prize, and pres. Salvador Allende lets him read before 70K at the Estadio Nacional. Sports: On Jan. 3-9 the first U.S. Open of Bowling is held by the PBA in St. Paul, Minn.; the winner is Jersey City, N.J.-born Michael "Mike" Limongello (1945-), who also wins the 1971 PBA Nat. Championship in Paramus, N.J. on Oct. 9-16; Pete Weber wins 5x. On Feb. 14 the 1971 (13th) Daytona 500 is won by Richard Lee Petty (1937-) (3rd time), who goes on to win the first NASCAR Winston Cup Series on Nov. 20, replacing the NASCAR Grand National Series, sponsored by R.J. Reynolds, who hawks cigarettes to the drivers; after NASCAR mandates restrictor plates for all but 358 cu. in. range engines, Dick Brooks becomes the first to race with a small block engine, a 305 cu. in. engine on his 1969 Dodge Daytona at the Daytona 500; the restriction lasts until 1974. On Mar. 8 undefeated (26-0, 23 KOs) 27-y.-o. heavyweight Philly brawler Joseph William "Smokin' Joe" Frazier (1944-2011) defeats undefeated (31-0, 25 KOs) 29-y.-o. Louisville puncher Muhammad Ali (Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.) (1942-2016) on points in the 15-round Fight of the Century at Madison Square Garden in front of a crowd of 20,455 and a TV audience of 300M in 46 nations, becoming the richest sports event in history to date, grossing $20M; Ali's old hand speed and finesse are gone, and he spends much of the fight on the ropes; in the 15th round Ali lands on the canvas after a Frazier punch, and gets back up fast, after which he is rubber-legged and his myth of invincibility is shattered; after the fight Ali is hospitalized for a swollen jaw, and Frazier a few days later for headaches; in Apr. Frazier becomes the first black man since Reconstruction to address the S.C. legislature; eventually Ali and Frazier fight three brutal fights, with Ali outlasting Frazier in the last two. On Apr. 21-30 the 1971 NBA Finals sees the 3rd-year Milwaukee Bucks (coach Larry Costello) defeat the Baltimore Bullets (coach Gene Shue) by 4-0; on Apr. 28 (Game 3) 6'6" small forward-guard Robert L. "Bob" Dandridge (1947-) (#10) of the Bucks scores 29 points; MVP Lew Alcindor scores 27 points. On May 1 Canonero II (1968-81), a 3-y.-o. from Venezuela (born with a crooked foreleg, causing him to be sold as a yearling for a bargain $1.2K) wins the Kentucky Derby, followed on May 15 by the Preakness, but loses to long shot Pass Catcher on June 5 in the Belmont Stakes, coming in 4th; he is then sold to a U.S. buyer. On May 4-18 the 1971 Stanley Cup Finals see the Montreal Canadiens defeat the Chicago Black Hawks 4-3; MVP is 6'4" Montreal goalie Kenneth Wayne "Ken" Dryden (1947-), who goes on to become a Liberal MP in 2004-11; after the 1970-1 season, the Lester B. Pearson Award, named after the Canadian PM (1963-8), who coached the U. of Toronto Varsity Blues men's ice hockey team is established by the NHL for the MVP as judged by the players; first winner is Phil Esposito of the Boston Bruins; Wayne Gretzky of the Edmonton Oilers wins it 5x in 1982-5 and 1987; on Apr. 29, 2010 it is renamed the Ted Lindsay Award after Detroit Red Wings player Ted Lindsay. On May 29 the 1971 Indianapolis 500 is won by Al Unser for the 2nd straight time. On Sept. 13 the 12-team World Hockey Assoc. (WHA) is founded to compete with the NHL, becoming their first major competitor since the Western Hockey League in 1926, attracting players by offering higher salaries and challenging the NHL's reserve clause, causing 67 players to jump in the first year, led by Bobby Hull, who signs a record 10-year $2.75M contract; teams incl. the Alberta/Edmonton Oilers (1972-9), Chicago Cougars (1972-5), Cincinnati Stingers (1975-9), Calgary Broncos/Cleveland Crusaders/Minnesota Fighting Saints (1972-7), Denver Spurs/Ottawa Civics (1975-6), Dayton Arrows/Houston Aeros (1972-8), Indianapolis Racers (1974-8), Los Angeles Sharks/Michigan Stags/Baltimore Blades (1972-4), New England/Hartford Whalers (1972-9), New York Raiders/New York Golden Blades/Jersey Knights/Seattle Mariners (1972-7), Ottawa Nationals/Toronto Toros/Birmingham Bulls (1972-9), Miami Screaming Eagles/Philadelphia Blazers/Vancouver Blazers/Calgary Cowboys (1972-7), Phoenix Roadrunners (1974-7), San Francisco Sharks/Quebec Nordiques (1972-9), and Winnipeg Jets (1972-9); in 1972 the WHA establishes the Avco Cup (World Trophy) after a $500K donation by AVCO Financial Services Corp., becoming the first major sports league trophy bearing the name of a private corp.; it has a floating etched crystal globe in the stem; the last WHA game is played on May 20, 1979, with the Winnipeg Jets led by Bobby Hull defeating the Edmonton Oilers led by Wayne Gretzky, winning their 3rd cup; Gordie Howe and the Houston Aeros win the cup twice. On Nov. 1 the Calgary Broncos World Hockey Assoc. (WHA) team is founded in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, moving to Ohio as the Cleveland Crusaders, which in 1976 after the California Golden Seals move to Cleveland move to St. Paul, Minn. as the New Minnesota Fighting Saints (with an identical logo except for red britches and gloves), folding after winning their last game on Jan. 14, 1977 9-5 over the Indianapolis Racers at home. On Nov. 1 the Edmonton Oilers (originally Alberta Oilers) World Hockey Assoc. (WHA) team is founded in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, joining the NHL in 1979, founding a dynasty that wins the Stanlay Cup in 1984, 1985, 197, 1988, and 1990. On Nov. 1 the Minnesota Flying Saints (AKA Fighting Saints) World Hockey Assoc. (WHA) team is founded in St. Paul, Minn., playing their home games at the new St. Paul Civic Center (cap. 16K) (opened Jan. 1, 1973) (RiverCentre in 1995), tying their first game 4-4 in OT against the Houston Aeros; bucking the trend, they feature mostly Minn.-born or U.S.-born players, drawing larger WHA crowds than average but never securing a TV deal, playing their last game on Feb. 25, 1976, losing 2-1 in OT to the San Diego Mariners. On Nov. 1 the New England Whalers World Hockey Assoc. (WHA) team is founded in Boston, Mass., playing their home games in the Boston Arena and the Boston Garden, moving to Hartford, Conn. for the 1974-5 season, playing their home games at the Big E Coliseum in West Springfield, Mass. before playing their first game on Jan. 11, 1975 at the Hartford Civic Center Coliseum; in 1979 after the WHA-NHL merger, they become the Hartford Whalers; after the 1996-7 season they move to Research Triangle, N.C., becoming the Carolina Hurricanes, leaving Conn. with no major sports team. On Nov. 25 the College Football Game of the Century sees #7 U. of Neb. (#1 defense) defeat #2 U. of Okla. (#1 offense) by 35-31. On Dec. 27 the Winnipeg Jets of the World Hockey Assoc. (WHA) are founded, playing their home games in the Winnipeg Arena; on July 1, 1996 after financial problems they move to Phoenix, Ariz. as the NHL Phoenix (Arizona) Coyotes, playing at the America West Arena; in 2011 the Atlanta Thrashers move to Winnipeg and become the Winnipeg Jets. Jack Nicklaus wins his 2nd PGA golf title; "Supermex" Lee Trevino (1939-) has a 16-week winning streak, winning five tournaments and finishing among the top-5 in four others; he also wins the U.S. Open and British Open. John David Newcombe (1944-) of Australia wins the men's singles at Wimbledon in July; Australian aborigine Evonne Fay Goolagong (1951-) defeats fellow Australian Margaret Smith Court in the finals to win the Wimbledon singles tennis title; she also won the French Open singles title in June, and wins the U.S. Open in 1973-6, and the Wimbledon again in 1980; Stanley Roger "Stan" Smith (1946-) wins the men's U.S. Open, and Billie Jean King wins the women's, becoming the first woman in any sport to make $100K in a single season. The ML baseball Washington Senators move from Washington, D.C. to Arlington, Tex., becoming the Texas Rangers. Pocono Internat. Raceway AKA the Tricky Triangle in Long Pond, Penn. in the Pocono Mts. opens, owned by Brandon, Nicholas, and Ashley Igdalsky, becoming home to the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Windows 10 400 (1974) in Aug. and the Axalta "We Paint Winners" 400 (1982) in June. 6'0" Quebec-born right wing Guy Damien "The Flower" "Le Demon Blond" Lafleur (1951-) is drafted #1 overall by the Montreal Canadiens, going on to become the first NHL player to score 50 goals and 100 points in six straight seasons, winning five Stanley Cups in 17 seasons. Spanish bullfighter Antonio Ordonez (Ordoñez) (1932-98) retires after 1K corridas and 2K bulls killed. Architecture: On Apr. 21 the 40-ft.-high modernist Vaillancourt Fountain AKA Quebec libre! in Embarcadero Plaza, San Francisco, Calif. is unveiled, designed by Quebecois artist Armand J.R. Vaillancourt (1929-), consisting of precast concrete tubes, which is so ugly that several unsuccessful attempts are made to demolish it; in 1987 U2 gives a free concert there, and lead singer Bono sprays graffiti on it. In July the 458K-sq.-ft. Los Angeles Convention and Exhibition Center, designed by Charles Luckman (1909-99) opens, with the largest column-free space in the U.S. (until ?). On Sept. 8 the $71M John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C. on the Potomac River next to the Watergate Complex opens three days after the debut there of Leonard Bernstein's Mass. Finlandia Hall in Helsinki, Finland, designed by Alvar Aalto (1898-1976) opens. The 1,107-ft. Standard Oil of Indiana Bldg. in Chicago, Ill. is completed. The 7-story 2-towered 24-sided castle-like gray North Bldg. of the Denver, Colo. Art Museum opens, complete with 1M reflective glass tiles by Dow Corning, designed by Italian modernist architect Giovanni "Gio" Ponti (1891-1979). Nobel Prizes: Peace: Willy Brandt (1913-92) (West Germany) [reconciliation with the Soviet bloc]; Lit.: Pablo Neruda (Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto) (1904-73) (Chile); Physics: Dennis Gabor (1900-79) (U.K.) [holography]; Chem.: Gerhard Heinrich Friedrich Otto Julius Herzberg (1904-99) (Canada) [geometry of molecules in gases]; Medicine: Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr. (1915-74) (U.S.) [cyclic AMP]; Economics: Simon Smith Kuznets (1901-85) (U.S.) [empirically-founded interpretation of economic growth]. Inventions: Early in the year John V. Blankenbaker (1930-) begins marketing the $750 Kenbak-1, the first commercially-available personal computer, with 256 bytes of memory, using switches for input and lights for output; he takes it off the market in 1973 after manufacturing 50 units. On Mar. 14 Creeper, the world's first computer virus is launched; at first an academic exercise, hackers and prankers increase the number of instances to 1.3K in 1990, 50K in 2000, and 200M in 2010; by 2005 they become monetized for commercial gain. In Sept. Gary W. Boone (1945-2013) and Michael James Cochran of Texas Instruments develop the 4-bit TMS 1000 microprocessor, obtaining the first microprocessor patent on Sept. 4, 1973, and introducing it in 1974; TI uses it in its first handheld scientific calculator, the TI-3000, which is marketed next year, becoming popular with students. In Mar. Intel Corp. of Santa Clara, Calif. delivers the 4-bit Intel 4004, the world's first microprocessor chip, with 2.3K transistors and the computing power of the ENIAC (60KHz CPU), designed by Marcian Edward "Ted" Hoff Jr. (1937-), Italian-born Federico Faggin (1941-), and Japanese engineer Masatoshi Shima (1943-), with software design by Stanley Mazor (1941-); it is announced commercially on Nov. 15; the memory chip stores 1K bits of data; perf. increases 8x by 1974. In Oct. the 29-node ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) is demonstrated publicly at the Hilton Hotel in Washington, D.C. by Robert Elliot "Bob" Kahn (1938-) and Raymond Samuel "Sam" Tomlinson (1941-) of Bolt Beranek & Newman, featuring the first e-mail, using the @ sign to separate the addressee from the computer host, triggered by the shift-2 combo on the Model 33 Teletype keyboard; by 1975 there are 100 nodes worldwide. On Dec. 27 Oreol I, a satellite for studying the atmosphere is launched by the Soviet Union and France; Oreol II is launched on Dec. 26, 1973. The $250 Bowmar Brain electronic calculator is introduced, featuring an embedded microchip. Centron Corp. of the U.S. introduces the first Dot Matrix Printer. English electrical engineer Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield (1919-2004) uses medical X-rays to reconstruct a 3-D image, improving on the CAT scan method previously discovered by Allan MacLeod Cormack (1924-98) and William Henry Oldendorf (1925-92) to create X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT Scan). Sam Hurst of Elographics develops the first Touch Sensor, which he turns into the first transparent touchscreen in 1974. India-born Dabbala Rajagopal "Raj" Reddy (1937-) of Carnegie Mellon U. develops Helen Reddy, er, Hearsay, the first software program for Computer Speech Recognition. Sony Corp. introduces the Videocassette for home recording of TV programs, starting a fight over copyright violations. Canada puts the first nuclear reactor in service that is cooled by ordinary water. The Soviet Union puts the first industrial Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Generator in operation in Apr., producing 25MW. The Pinzgauer high mobility all-terrain vehicle (named after an Austrian breed of draught horse) begins production in England. Tom Morey (1935-) of the U.S. invents Body Boarding. Ore. State U. develops grapefruity Cascade hops, which become the most widely used hops by U.S. craft breweries; meanwhile Yakima Valley, Wash., "the Fruitbowl of the Nation" produces 77% of all hops grown in the U.S. The wreck of the British Tudor era ship Mary Rose, which sunk on July 19, 1545 is discovered, and salvaged in 1982. Science: On Aug. 14-20 the Stanford Prison Experiment, run by New York City-born psychologist Philip George Zimbardo (1933-) sees students selected to play prisoners or guards; when the latter subject the former to psychological torture a little too readily, and one prisoner screams "I'm burning up inside!", the experiment is aborted; it later turns out to be a fraud. In Nov. Buffalo, N.Y.-born psychologist Irving Lester Janis (1918-90) pub. the article "Groupthink" in Psychology Today, recoining the term first coined in 1952 by William H. Whyte Jr. In Nov. Am. neuroscientists John O'Keefe and Jonathan O. Dostrovsky pub. the paper The Hippocampus as a Spatial Map, announcing their discovery of the Place Cells in the hippocampus. In Dec. Swiss pharmacologist Hartmann F. Stahelin (Stähelin) (1925-2011) of Sandoz Corp. in Basel, Switzerland discovers the immunosuppresant Cyclosporin (Ciclosporin) A in the fungus Tolypociadum inflatum; on Jan. 31, 1972 Belgian scientist Jean-Francois Borel (1933-) discovers its immunosuppresant activity; in 1978 Anthony C. "Tony" Allison (1925-2014) and Sir Roy Yorke Calne (1930-) of Cambridge U. prove its success in preventing organ rejection in kidney transplants; in 1983 it is approved by the FDA. Am. biochemist Bruce Nathan Ames (1928-) of UCB devises the Ames Test to determine the carcinogenicity (mutagenicity of DNA in the test organism) of chemicals by measuring the rate of mutation in Salmonella typhimurium bacteria. Pittsburgh, Penn.-born psychologist Sandra Ruth Lipsitz Bem (1944-) creates the Bem Sex Role Inventory, which incl. a scale for androgyny. Indian astrophysicist Jagadish Chandra "J.C." Bhattacharyya (1930-2012) discovers a thin atmosphere around Jupiter's moon Ganymede; in 1977 he discovers an extended ring system around Uranus. Leon Ong Chua (1936-) of the U.S. proposes Memristors, "the missing link in electronics", which mimic the synaptic activity of the brain by remembering the amount of charge that flowed through them after the power is switched off; they are finally perfected in 2010 by Hewlett Packard. Am. surgeon George Crile Jr. (1908-92) finds no difference in the 5-year 70% survival rate of breast cancer patients with radical vs. simple masectomies, pissing-off other surgeons who like the more expensive option, and starting a rev. in women, who go for lumpectomy first, then simple masectomy, then radical masectomy only if absolutely necessary; meanwhile breast cancer rates increase by 30% by the end of the cent., then decrease 10% between 2000-2004. French rheumatologists Jacques Forestier (1890-1978) and R. Lagier become the first to diagnose Ankylosing Hyperostosis of the spine, AKA Diffuse Ideopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH), where the ligaments calcify, causing the vertebrae to fuse together, making the X-rays look like a dish of wax has been poured over the spine. English physicist Stephen William Hawking (1942-2018) suggests that black holes the size of a proton weighing 10 tons were formed following the Big Bang; the first black hole, inCygnus X-1 is discovered in Apr.-May - black swan jokes here? Dutch surgeon Henk de Kok invents the Laparoscopic Appendectomy procedure. The Climatic Research Unit (CRU) of the U. of East Anglia in Norwich, England is founded by climatologist Hubert Horace Lamb (1913-97) (known as the Ice Man for predicting a coming ice age before switching to global warming after the hot summer of 1976), and supported by Sir Graham Sutton, Lord Solly Zuckerman et al., with financial support from British Petroleum (BP), Royal Dutch Shell, the Nuffield Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and later the Wolfson Foundation, pioneering the idea of the variability of the climate; in the late 1970s it begins contracting with the U.S. Dept. of Energy; in the mid-1980s British PM Margaret Thatcher becomes a strong backer. Japanese-born Canadian cell biologist Yoshio Masui (1931-) of the U. of Toronto and Am. developmental biologist L. Dennis Smith of Purdue U. independently discover Maturation (Mitosis) Promoting Factor (MPF), which controls when mitosis or meiosis begins in cells. Russian-born Belgian chemist Ilya Romanovich Prigogine (1917-2003) develops Non-Equilibrium Irreversible Thermodynamics, and shows that the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics doesn't doom the Universe to a heat death, winning him the 1977 Nobel Chem. Prize. French physicists Pierre Ramond (1943-) and Andre (André) Neveu (1946-), and Am. physicist John Henry Schwarz (1941-) develop String Theory, a string analog of the Dirac Equation incl. fermions and bosons; shortly thereafter French physicist Jean-Loup Gervais (1936-) and Japanese-born Am. physicist Bunji Sakita (1930-2002) show it to be a 2-dim. supersymmetry algebra via Dual Resonance Models; meanwhile Soviet physicist Yuri Abramovich Golfand (1922-94) and his student Evgeny P. Likhtman discover 4-dim. supersymmetry (SUSY) between bosonic and fermionic particles, opening up a possible Superworld. Am. evolutionary biologist Robert Ludlow "Bob" Trivers (1943-) proposes the theory of Reciprocal Altruism, followed in 1972 by Parental Investment, followed in 1973 by facultative sex ratio determination (that mammals can determine the sex ratio of their offspring to maximize their own reproductive success) (proved in 2013), followed in 1974 by Parent-Offspring Conflict, followed in 1976 by self-deception as an adaptive evolutionary strategy, founding the field of Evolutionary Sociobiology; "The chimpanzee and the human share about 99.5 percent of their evoltuionary history, yet most human thinkers regard the chimp as a malformed, irrelevant oddity, while seeing themselves as stepping stones to the Almighty." British pharmacologist Sir John Robert Vane (1927-2004) et al. of Wellcome Research Labs. pub. their discovery that aspirin produces its pain-relieving and fever-reducing effects by inhibiting synthesis of Prostagalandins, lipid mediators; too bad, one type of prostaglandin protects the stomach and kidney; Vane goes on to win the 1982 Nobel Med. Prize and get knighted in 1984 - in vain? A 100-person team at Harvard U. and the Federal Inst. of Tech. in Zurich, led by Am. chemist Robert Burns Woodward (1917-79) synthesizes Cyanocobalamin, one of the forms of Vitamin B-12. The Second British Royal College of Physicians Report on Smoking and Health is pub., calling cigarette smoking a cause of death comparable to typhoid and cholera in the 19th cent.; the British govt. bans cigarette ads on radio. U.S. researchers discover that electric currents can speed the healing of fractures. Nonfiction: Anon., Go Ask Alice; a memoir from a U.S. teenage girl who gets hooked on drugs in the late 1960s and dies; title taken from the 1967 Jefferson Airplane drug-loving song "White Rabbit"; "Remember what the dormouse said: Feed your head, feed your head." Mortimer Adler (1902-2001), The Common Sense of Politics. Saul David Alinsky (1909-72), Rules for Radicals: A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals (May 14); the man who inspires Barack Obama leaves a how-to manual on community organizing for power to foist a Commie revolution under the banner of social change; dedicated to "the Light Bearer" (Satan?); "What follows is for those who want to change the world from what it is to what they believe it should be. The Prince was written by Machiavelli for the Haves on how to hold power. Rules for Radicals is written for the Have-Nots on how to take it away"; "Make the enemy live up to their own book of rules"; on July 8 while living in Berkeley, Calif., Hillary Clinton sends an airmail letter marked "personal" to him. Harry Ammon, James Monroe: The Quest for National Identity. Uell Stanley Andersen (1917-86), The Magic in Your Mind. Louis Aragon (1897-1982), Matisse: Oeuvre Grave (2 vols.). Michael J. Arlen, Exiles; about his daddy Michael Arlen (1895-1956), who tried to forget his Armenian heritage. Anthony Austin, The President's War: The Story of the Tonkin Gulf. Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe (1904-96), My Odyssey (autobio.) James Baldwin (1924-87) and Margaret Mead (1901-78), A Rap on Race; their 7.5-hour 1970 discussion on race and society. Amiri Baraka (1934-2014), Raise Race, Rays, Raize: Essays Since 1965. Roland Barthes (1915-80), The Last Happy Writer; Voltaire (1694-1778), the last thinker who didn't have to deal with relativism?; "Never has one brilliant writer so thoroughly misunderstood another" (Daniel Gordon). Ernest Becker (1924-74), The Lost Science of Man. Sir Gavin Rylands de Beer (1899-1972), Jean-Jacques Rousseau and His World. Isaiah Bendasan, The Jews and the Japanese. Pierre Berton (1920-2004), The Last Spike; the 1881-5 construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Harold Bloom (1930-2019), The Ringers in the Tower: Studies in Romantic Tradition. Spruille Braden (1894-1978), Diplomats and Demagogues (autobio.). P. Brickman and D. Campbell, Hedonic Relativism and Planning the Good Society; proposes the Hedonic Treadmill (Adaptation), the tendency of people to quickly return to a stable level of happiness after life changes. George Brown (1914-85), In My Way (autobio.); where Harold Wilson always found him? Peter Brown (1935-), The World of Late Antiquity, 150-750 (From Marcus Aurelius to Muhammad); 2nd ed. 1989; reinvents the field of Late Antiquity as the period between ancient and medieval history, disputing Edward Gibbon about it being a slow slide from a golden age to decadence, arguing that it was a period of immense cultural innovation, spending his career growing to Gibbon's stature as an authority, mastering 25+ languages. Taylor Caldwell (1900-85), On Growing Up Tough (autobio.). Daniel Harold Casriel (1924-83), Daytop: Three Addicts and Their Cure. David Caute (1936-), The Illusion: An Essay on Politics, Theatre and the Novel. Ronald William Clark (1916-87), Einstein: The Life and Times; "The life of Albert Einstein has a dramatic quality that does not rest exclusively on his theory of relativity. For the extravagant timing of history linked him with three shattering developments of the twentieth century: the rise of modern Germany, the birth of nuclear weapons, and the growth of Zionism. Their impact on his simple genius combined to drive him into a contact with the affairs of the world for which he had little taste. The result would have made him a unique historical figure even had he not radically altered man's ideas of the physical world" - one of TLW's favorite books in the 1970s? Oliver Edmund Clubb (1901-89), China and Russia: The Great Game. John Cody, After Great Pain: The Inner Life of Emily Dickinson. Carl Cohen, Civil Disobedience: Conscience, Tactics, and the Law. Robert Coles (1929-), Children of Crisis: A Study in Courage and Fear (vols. 2-3) ("Migrants, Sharecroppers, Mountaineers", "The South Goes North") (Pulitzer Prize); The Middle Americans: Proud and Uncertain; photos by Jon Erikson. Barry Commoner (1917-), The Closing Circle: Nature, Man and Technology; advocates eco-socialism after blaming the destruction of the environment on capitalism. Fred James Cook (1911-2003), The Nightmare Decade: The Life and Times of Senator Joe McCarthy. Paulette Marcia Cooper (1942-), The Scandal of Scientology; besteller (500K copies) by an Am. Belgian orphan who lost her parents in the Auschwitz Concentration Camp, exposing the Church of Scientology, causing it to begin Operation Freakout to have her imprisoned or put in a mental institution, filing 19 lawsuits against her, plus more against bookstores, libraries, etc., followed by Operation Dynamite, using her stationery and fingerprints to send bomb threats to Henry Kissinger et al., which the FBI uncovers in 1977 after raiding their offices; the church finally settles out of court with her in 1985. Edward Dahlberg (1900-77), The Confessions of Edward Dahlberg (autobio.). Ram Dass (1931-), Be Here Now; bestseller about yoga and meditation; favorite of Steve Jobs. Midge Decter (1927-), The Liberated Woman and Other Americans (essays); by the wife of conservative writer Norman Podhoretz (1930-). Carl N. Degler (1921-), Neither Black nor White: Slavery and Race Relations in Brazil and the United States (Pulitzer Prize); why Brazil didn't develop a segregationist society like the U.S. because of lack of sharp distinctions between blackness and whiteness. Peter Ferdinand Drucker (1909-2005), Men, Ideas and Politics (essays). Gerald T. Dunne, Justice Joseph Story and the Rise of the Supreme Court; John Marshall's colleague. Edith Efron (1922-2001), The News Twisters; NYT bestseller alleges leftist bias in the media during the 1968 U.S. pres. election, getting her two invites to the Nixon White House, which she declines; followed by "How CBS Tried to Kill a Book" (1972). Barbara Ehrenreich (1941-), The American Health Empire: Power, Profits, and Politics. Paul R. Ehrlich (1932-) and John P. Holdren (1944-) (eds.), Global ecology: Readings toward a rational strategy for man; incl. Overpopulation and the Potential for Ecocide, predictig a possible new ice age caused by air pollution: "It seems, however, that a competing effect has dominated the situation since 1940. This is the reduced transparency of the atmosphere to incoming light as a result of urban air pollution (smoke, aerosols), agricultural air pollution (dust), and volcanic ash. This screening phenomenon is said to be responsible for the present world cooling trend - a total of about .2°C in the world mean surface temperature over the past quarter century. This number seems small until it is realized that a decrease of only 4°C would probably be sufficient to start another ice age.Moreover, other effects besides simple screening by air pollution threaten to move us in the same direction. In particular, a mere one percent increase in low cloud cover would decrease the surface temperature by .8°C. We may be in the process of providing just such a cloud increase, and more, by adding man-made condensation nuclei to the atmosphere in the form of jet exhausts and other suitable pollutants. A final push in the cooling direction comes from man-made changes in the direct reflectivity of the earth's surface(albedo) through urbanization, deforestation, and the enlargement of deserts. The effects of a new ice age on agriculture and the supportability of large human populations scarcely need elaboration here. Even more dramatic results are possible, however; for instance, a sudden outward slumping in the Antarctic ice cap, induced by added weight, could generate a tidal wave of proportions unprecedented in recorded history." Loren Eiseley (1907-77), The Invisible Pyramid (essays); The Night Country: Reflections of a Bone Hunting Man. Eliot Elisofon and Alan W. Watts (1915-73), The Temple of Konarak: Erotic Spirituality; the 13th cent. Sun Temple (Black Pagoda) of Konarak in Orissa, India on the Bay of Bengal is stone hard porno? Rowland Evans Jr. (1921-2001) and Robert D. Novak (1931-2009), Nixon in the White House: The Frustration of Power. Richard Anderson Falk (1930-), This Endangered Planet: Prospects and Proposals for Human Survival. Richard Anderson Falk (1930-) Gabriel Kolko, and Robert Jay Lifton, Crimes of War: A Legal, Political-Documentary, and Psychological Inquiry into the Responsibility of Leaders, Citizens, and Soldiers for Criminal Acts in Wars; they pub. a rev. ed. on Iraq in 2006. Leslie Fiedler (1917-2003), Collected Essays (2 vols.). Jay Wright Forrester (1918-2016), World Dynamics; an attempt to model the complex interactions of the world economy, pop., and ecology, founding the field of Global Modeling; written after meeting with the Club of Rome. Pops Foster (1892-1969), The Autobiography of Pops Foster (posth.). Richard B. Freeman (1943-), The Market for College Trained Manpower. Herman Northrop Frye (1912-91), The Bush Garden. Nicholas Gage (1939-), A Portrait of Greece. Ernesto Galarza (1905-84), Barrio Boy (autobio.); born in Mexico, he sneaks into Calif. and becomes a farm worker union leader. Eduardo Galeano (1940-), Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent; the ugly last five cents. of Euro and U.S. exploitation of Latin Am.; banned in Uruguay and Chile, and made famous when Venezuelan pres. Hugo Chavez hands a copy to Pres. Barack Obama at the 5th Americas Summit in Trinidad on Apr. 17, 2009; "The division of labor among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing. Our part of the world, known today as Latin America, was precocious: it has specialized in losing ever since those remote times when Renaissance Europeans ventured across the ocean and buried their teeth in the throats of the Indian civilization. Centuries passed, and Latin America perfected its role" (opening); "Our region still works as a menial laborer. It continues to exist at the service of others' needs, as a source of oil and iron, of copper and meat, of fruit and coffee, the raw materials and foods destined for rich countries which profit more from consuming them than Latin America does from producing them"; "Our defeat was always implicit in the victory of others; our wealth has always generated our poverty by nourishing the prosperity of others." Addison Gayle Jr. (1932-91), The Black Aesthetic; claims that African-Am. lit. should be judged on how it transforms the lives of African-Ams., not how it assimilates into the white mainstream. Curt Gentry (1931-2014) and Francis Gary Powers (1929-77), Operation Overflight: The U-2 Spy Pilot Tells His Story for the First Time. Sir Martin Gilbert (1936-2015), Winston S. Churchill: The Challenge of War, 1914-1916. Nikki Giovanni (1943-), Gemini: An Extended Autobiographical Statement of My First Twenty-Five Years of Being a Black Poet. Thaddeus Golas (1924-97), The Lazy Man's Guide to Enlightenment; written as a trip guide for LSD takers, it becomes a hit in the San Francisco area; too bad, he splits ranks with the New Age movement. Albert Goldman (1927-94), Freakshow: Misadventures in the Counterculture, 1959-1971. Jane Goodall (1934-), In the Shadow of Man; her first decade of chimp research. Graham Greene (1904-91), A Sort of Life (autobio.); the first 27 years of a tortured soul. Lester Grinspoon (1928-), Marihuana Reconsidered; Harvard psych. prof. sets out to write a book against marijuana, then claims it improved his appreciation for art, music, and religion, causing him to begin working for legalization. Sir John Habakkuk (1915-2002), Population Growth and Economic Development Since 1750. David Halberstam (1934-2007), Ho. Sir Norman Hartnell (1901-79), Royal Courts of Fashion. Werner Heisenberg (1901-76), Physics and Beyond (World Perspectives) (Dec.); tries to justify his participation in the Nazi A-bomb project by claiming he tried to slow it down; "America is a bigger and freer country. Leave the ballast of the past, pettiness of the Old World. One can start anew in the New World." Thor Heyerdahl (1914-2003), The Ra Expeditions. Christopher Hill (1912-2003), AntiChrist in 17th Century England; rev. ed. 1990. Edward Hoagland (1932-), The Courage of Turtles. Abbie Hoffman (1936-89), Steal This Book - made him a fortune? Richard Hofstadter (1916-70), America at 1750: A Social Portrait (posth.). David Joel Horowitz (1939-), The Free World Colossus: A Critique of American Foreign Policy in the Cold War. John Hospers (1918-), Libertarianism: A Political Philosophy for Tomorrow. Mary Catherine Raugust Howell (1932-98) et al., Our Bodies, Ourselves. Sir Julian Huxley (1887-1975), Memories (2 vols.) (1974-4). Fred Charles Ikle (1924-2011), Every War Must End; rev. eds. pub. in 1991, 2005; makes a fan of Colin Powell, who uses it to talk Pres. George H.W. Bush into ending the Gulf War. Christopher Isherwood (1904-86), Kathleen and Frank; his parents. Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908-73), The Vantage Point (autobio.) - the view from the safe car in the back of the Dallas motorcade? Howard Mumford Jones (1892-1980), The Age of Energy: Varieties of American Experience, 1865-1915. George Frost Kennan (1904-2005), The Marquis de Custine and His "Russia in 1839"; "The best guide to Russia ever written." Dean H. Kenyon (1939-) and Gary Steinman, Chemical Predestination; bestseller with evolutionists for its claim that proteins evolved from the pure chemistry of amino acids; too bad, by 1979 Kenyon flip-flops and admits that he can't explain the origin of genetic information (DNA) itself, and that proteins can't be made without its help, and becomes a creationist; there are 20 amino acids and 30K types of proteins? Walter Kerr (1913-96), God on the Gymnasium Floor, and Other Theatrical Adventures. Ralph Louis Ketcham (1929-), James Madison: A Biography. Hildegard Knef (1925-2002), The Gift Horse: Report of a Life (autobio.); best-selling book in Germany since WWII. Arthur Koestler (1905-83), The Case of the Midwife Toad; Austrian biologist Paul Kammerer (1880-1926), leading exponent of Lamarckian inheritance of acquired characteristics is allegedly exposed for faking his experiments, then commits suicide, but was he really framed by Darwinian evolutionists, and had other evidence that was valid? Juanita Kreps (1920-), Sex in the Marketplace: American Women at Work. Irving Kristol (1920-2009), On the Democratic Idea in America. Hans Kung (1928-), Infallible? An Inquiry; first major Roman Catholic theologian in the 20th cent. to question papal infallibility; on Dec. 18, 1979 he is stripped of his license to teach but is not excommunicated. Frances Moore Lappe (1944-), Diet for a Small Planet; bestseller (3M copies); promotes eating less meat as a way for the world to survive, AKA environmental vegetarianism. Victor Lasky (1918-90), Robert F. Kennedy: The Myth and the Man. Joseph P. Lash (1909-87), Eleanor and Franklin: The Story of Their Relationship, Based on Eleanor Roosevelt's Private Papers (Pulitzer Prize); NYT bestseller; adapted for TV by ABC-TV. Aaron Latham, Crazy Sundays; the last years of F. Scott Fitzgerald in Hollywood. Jane Van Lawick-Goodall (1931-), In the Shadow of Man; picked to study great apes in 1957 by Louis Leakey because he thought that women are more patient and perceptive than men? David Levering Lewis (1936-), Martin Luther King: A Critical Biography; the first? Assar Lindbeck (1930-), The Political Economy of the New Left; shows how in general the welfare system is self-destructive; "Next to bombing, rent control seems in many cases to be the most efficient technique so far known for destroying cities." Robert F. Lucid, Norman Mailer: The Man and His Work; The Long Patrol (a selection of Mailer's works). Sir Compton Mackenzie (1883-1972), My Life and Times (autobio.) (10 vols.) (1963-73). Norman Mailer (1923-2007), The Prisoner of Sex; pub. in the Mar. issue of Harper's mag.; anti-women's lib reply to Kate Millett's 1968 "Sexual Politics", calling her "the Battling Annie of some new prudery" and a "literary Molotov", and tasking feminism for the "dull assumption that the sexual force for a man was the luck of his birth, rather than his finest moral product", and accusing it of being "artfully designed to advance the fortunes of the oncoming technology of the state"; "Well, it could be said for Kate that she was nothing if not a pug-nosed wit, and that was good, since in literary matters she had not much else"; becomes the highest-selling issue in the mag.'s history, which doesn't stop them from firing editor Willie Morris for the offensive language he allowed through; too bad, Millett is outed as a lesbian, causing the women's movement to turn on her, and the gay movement to diss her for not coming out sonner, causing her to utter the soundbyte "Never queer enough for the fanatic... confused with straight people." Andre Malraux (1901-76), Felled Oaks: Conversations with de Gaulle. Paul de Man (1919-83), Blindness and Insight: Essays in the Rhetoric of Contemporary Criticism (first book). Golo Mann (1909-94), Wallenstein: His Life Narrated; Thirty Years' War Hapsburg CIC Albrecht von Wallenstein (1583-1634). Ali al-Amin Mazrui (1933-), Cultural Engineering and Nation-Building in East Africa. John McPhee (1931-), Encounters with the Archdruid. James A. Michener (1907-97), Kent State: What Happened and Why. Robert L. Middlekauff (1929-), The Mathers: Three Generations of Puritan Intellectuals, 1596-1728 (Bancroft Prize). Merle Miller (1919-86), On Being Different: What It Means to Be a Homosexual; pub. in the New York Times Mag., Jan. 17, 1971. Charles Mingus (1922-79), Beneath the Underdog (autobio.). Arthur Mizener (1907-88), The Saddest Story: A Biography of Ford Maddox Ford. Bob Monroe (1915-95), Journeys Out of the Body; bestseller (300K copies) popularizing the term "out-of-body experience". Ruth Montgomery (1912-2001), A World Beyond: A Startling Message from the Eminent Psychic Arthur Ford from Beyond the Grave; claims she was Lazarus' 3rd sister Ruth and witnessed Jesus' circumcision. Gilbert Moore (1936-), A Special Rage. Samuel Eliot Morison (1887-1976), The European Discovery of America: The Northern Voyages, A.D. 500-1600; a U.S. Adm. personally visits the landfalls before dishing up their history; they were doughty voyagers in leaky ships? Malcolm Muggeridge (1903-90), Something Beautiful for God; Mother Teresa. Albert Murray (1916-), South to a Very Old Place. Barney Nagler, Brown Bomber; about boxer Joe Louis; explains his 1969 collapse and hospitalization at the Denver VA Hospital and Colo. Psychiatric Hospital as caused by cocaine use and paranoia. Allan Nevins (1890-1971), The War for the Union, Vol. 3: The Organized War, 1863-1864; The War for the Union, Vol. 4: The Organized War to Victory, 1864-1865 (posth.) (last vols. of 8-vol. series begun in 1947). David Niven (1910-83), The Moon's a Balloon (autobio.). Wayne E. Oates (1917-99), Confessions of a Workaholic: The Facts About Work Addition; coins the term "workaholic"; When Religion Gets Sick. Don Oberdorfer (1931-), Tet!: The Turning Point in the Vietnam War. Richard O'Connor, The Oil Barons: Men of Greed and Grandeur; "Balzac maintained that behind every great fortune there is a great crime" (but nobody can find the quote?). Michael Parenti (1933-), Trends and Tragedies in American Foreign Policy. Talcott Parsons (1902-79), The System of Modern Societies. Charles Petrie (1895-1977), King Charles III of Spain: An Enlightened Despot. Richard Poirier (1925-), The Performing Self: Compositions and Decompositions in the Languages of Contemporary Life. Francis Ponge (1899-1988), La Fabrique du Pre. John Enoch Powell (1912-98), The Common Market: The Case Against. Karl H. Pribram (1919-), Languages of the Brain: Experimental Paradoxes and Principles in Neuropsychology. Merlo John Pusey (1902-85), The USA Astride the Globe. Mary de Rachewiltz (1925), Discretions (autobio.); daughter of Ezra Pound. A.W. Raitt, Prosper Merimee [1803-1870]. Ayn Rand, The New Left: The Anti-Industrial Revolution (essays). Marcus Raskin (1934-), Being and Doing: An Inquiry into the Colonization, Decolonization and Reconstruction of American Society and Its State. Konstantins Raudive (1909-74), Breakthrough. John Rawls (1921-2002), A Theory of Justice; bestseller (200K copies) reviving liberal political philosophy, treating justice as fairness; revives the academic study of political philosophy; "Helped a whole generation of learned Americans revive their faith in democracy itself" (U.S. Pres. Bill Clinton). Kenneth Rexroth (1905-82), American Poetry in the Twentieth Century. Evgeny Riabchikov, Russians in Space; tr. Guy Daniels. Jasper Ridley (1920-2004), Lord Palmerston. George Riemer, The New Jesuits; modern Am. Jesuits - in the days before Ambien? Robert Roberts (1905-79), The Classic Slum (autobio.); his childhood in Salford, England and its caste system. Theodor Rosebury, Microbes and Morals. Mike Royko (1932-97), Boss; bestseller about corrupt Chicago mayor Richard J. Daley, by a hard-hitting Chicago newspaperman. Conrad Russell (1937-2004), The Crisis of Parliaments: English History 1509-1660 (first book); son of Bertrand Russell becomes a 17th cent. Britain historian. William Ryan (1923-), Blaming the Victim. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80), The Family Idiot: Gustave Flaubert (1821-80), 1821-1857 (5 vols.); tr. Carol Cosman. Theodore W. Schultz (1902-98), Investment in Human Capital: The Role of Education and Research. Robert Sencourt, T.S. Eliot: A Memoir; by his close friend. Lloyd S. Shapley (1923-), The Dollar Auction Game: A Paradox in Noncooperative Behavior and Escalation; describes the Dollar Auction Game. Lloyd S. Shapley (1923-) and Martin Shubik (1926-), The Assignment Game I: The Core. Melville Shavelson (1917-2007), How to Make a Jewish Movie (autobio.). Tony Shearer (1926-), Quetzalcoatl: Lord of the Dawn; touts Aug. 1987 and Dec. 2012 as big dates based on the Mayan Calendar. Gail Sheehy (1937-), Panthermania: The Clash of Black Against Black in One American City; the murder trial of Black Panther Bobby Seale. Elaine Showalter (1941-) (ed.), Women's Liberation and Literature. B.F. Skinner (1904-90), Beyond Freedom & Dignity; the fetish for individualism, free will, and moral autonomy stands in the way of using scientific methods to modify behavior to make a better happier society? Delia Smith (1941-), How to Cheat at Cooking; in 1973-5 she hosts the BBC-TV show Family Fare, making her into a British celeb. C.P. Snow (1905-80), Public Affairs. Robert Sobel (1931-99), Conquest and Conscience: The 1840s. Frank William Stringfellow (1928-95) and Anthony Towne, Suspect Tenderness: The Ethics of the Berrigan Witness. John Terraine (1921-2003), Impacts of War, 1914 & 1918; blames British PM Lloyd George for blackening WWI British Gen. Douglas Haig's memory, helping feed the German myth that their army had never been defeated in the field, along with the lighter casualties of WWII, which make those in WWI seem far worse in retrospect, turning public opinion about Haig around. Hugh Thomas (1931-), Cuba or the Pursuit of Freedom; from the English capture of Havana in 1762 to Castro. Keith Thomas (1933-), Religion and the Decline of Magic: Studies in Popular Beliefs in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century England; brings the history of magic into the history of ideas in Europe, making him a star. Hunter S. Thompson (1937-2005), Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas: A Savage Journey to the Heart of the American Dream (autobio.); pub. on Nov. 11, 1971 by Rolling Stone; Raoul Duke (Thompson) and Dr. Gonzo (a 300-lb. Samoan) go to Las Vegas to cover the Mint 400 race; Dr. Gonzo is modelled after Thompson's Mexican-Am. friend (Chicano activist) Oscar Zeta Acosta (1935-74), who later disappears in Mexico; "We were somewhere around Barstow on the edge of the desert when the drugs began to take hold" (opening); "A vile epitaph for the drug culture of the sixties" (Thompson); "Best Book of the Dope Decade" (Tom Wolfe). Peter Tompkins (1919-2007), Secrets of the Great Pyramid. Arnold Joseph Toynbee (1889-1975), Surviving the Future. Barbara W. Tuchman (1912-89), Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911-45; U.S. Gen. Joseph "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell (1883-1946) in Burma watching the Chinese tear each other up? Adam Bruno Ulam (1922-2000), The Rivals: America and Russia Since World War II. Michael Walzer (1935-), Political Action: The Problem of Dirty Hands; can a moral person choose to enter politics knowing that he must inevitably make immoral decisions? Alan W. Watts (1915-73), Erotic Spirituality: The Vision of Konarak; A Conversation with Myself. Stanley Weintraub (1929-), Journey to Heartbreak: The Crucible Years of Bernard Shaw 1914-18; George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) and his pacifism in WWI. Lawrence Welk (1903-92), Wunnerful, Wunnerful (autobio.). G.A. Wells (1926-2017), The Jesus of the Early Christians: A Study in Christian Origins; questions the historicity of Jesus Christ, causing a firestorm of controversy; too bad, in the late 1990s he accepts the existence of a mysterious itinerant Galilean miracle worker behind the Q document. John Wilcock (1927-), The Autobiography and Sex Life of Andy Warhol; Andy Warhol (1928-87); based on audio tapes of his friends. Edmund Wilson (1895-1972), Upstate: Records and Recollections of Northern New York (autobio.). Arthur Wise (1923-82), The Art and History of Personal Combat. Robin Wood (1931-2009), The Apu Trilogy (June 6). Robin Wood (1931-2009) and Ian Cameron, Antonioni, Revised Edition. George Woodcock (1912-95), The Anarchist Prince: A Biographical Study of Peter Kropotkin; Into Tibet: The Early British Explorers; Victoria. Frances Amelia Yates (1899-1981), The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. Art: Vito Hannibal Acconci (1940-), Seedbed (Jan. 15-29); hides beneath a ramp at the Sonnabend Gallery flogging his bishop and speaking into a loudspeaker - you're gonna be huge, I can smell it? Ernie Barnes (1938-), Sugar Shack; used on the cover of the 1976 Marvin Gaye album "I Want You". Chris Burden (1946-), Shoot; has friend shoot him in the left arm while being filmed on Super-8. Alexander Calder (1898-1976), Cow with Yellow Face (sculpture); Autumn Leaves (tapestry). Richard Diebenkorn (1922-93), Ocean Park No. 43. Jean Dubuffet (1901-85), Les Perequations (The Levelings) (sculpture). Willem de Kooning (1904-97), Amityville. Roberto Matta (1911-2002), Otto Por Tre; Paralleles de la Viel. Robert Motherwell (1915-91), Elegy to the Spanish Republic. No. 110. Elizabeth Murray (1940-2007), Beer Glass at Noon. Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), Young Bather with a Sand Shovel. Larry Rivers (1923-2002), I Am Coming, Henry Henry. Terry Schoonhoven (1945-2002), The Isle of California (mural); erected at Butler St. and Santa Monica Blvd. in West Los Angeles, Calif. George Segal (1924-2000), To All Gates (sculpture). W. Eugene Smith (1918-78), Minamata; photos of Japanese villagers disfigured by mercury. Wayne Theibaud (1920-), Glass of Wine and Desserts. Mark Tobey (1890-1976), Thanksgiving Leaf. Music: The Jesus Rock Movement peaks this year? Ten Years After, A Space in Time (album #7) (Aug.); incl. I'd Love to Change the World (#40 in the U.S.). The Allman Brothers Band, At Fillmore East (double album) (July); incl. Whipping Post, In Memory of Elizabeth Reed. America, America (album) (debut) (#1 in the U.S.); original title "A Horse With No Name"; sells 1M copies; discovered and produced by Ian "Sammy" Samwell (1937-2003); from London, England, incl. Dewey Bunnell (1951-), Gerald Linford "Gerry" Beckley (1952-), and Dan Peek (1950-2011); becomes Warner Brothers' biggest-selling act of the 1970s; incl. A Horse With No Name (#1 in the U.S.) (original title "Desert Song") (inspired by Vandenberg AFB?), I Need You (#9 in the U.S.), Sandman (about the VQ-2 air squadron based in Rota, Spain?), Three Roses. Lynn Anderson (1947-), (I Never Promised You a) Rose Garden; daughter of Liz Anderson. Argent, Ring of Hands (album #2). Eddy Arnold (1918-), Welcome to My World (album) (Feb. 1); incl. Welcome to My World; written in 1964 by Johnny Hathcock (1919-2000); becomes his theme song. Sir Frederick Ashton (1904-88), Tales of Beatrix Potter (ballet). The Association, Stop Your Motor (album #7) (July); incl. P.F. Sloan, written by Jimmy Webb, who denies that it's about his former mentor P.F. Sloan (1945-). Badfinger, Straight Up (album #3); (Dec. 13) (#31 in the U.S.); incl. Baby Blue (#14 in the U.S.) (written by Pete Ham about his babe Dixie Armstrong), Day After Day (#4 in the U.S.). Joan Baez (1941-), Blessed Are... (album #9) (double album) (July)); last with Vanguard before signing with A&M; incl. Blessed Are; The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down (#3 in the U.S.) (first released in 1969 by The Band). The Band, Cahoots (album); incl. All You Need is Love. Captain Beefheart (1941-) and The Magic Band, Mirror Man (album #5) (Apr.) (#49 in the U.K.); incl. Tarotplane, Kandy Korn. Herschel Bernardi (1923-86), Pencil Marks on the Wall. Bloodrock, D.O.A. The Moody Blues, Every Good Boy Deserves Favour (album #7) (July 23) (#1 in the U.K., #2 in the U.S.); incl. The Story in Your Eyes, Procession, Emily's Song. Delaney & Bonnie and Friends, Motel Shot (album #5) (Mar.) (#65 in the U.S.); incl. Never Ending Song of Love (#13 in the U.S.). Pierre Boulez (1925-), Explosante-Fixe. David Bowie (1947-2016), Hunky Dory (album #4) (Dec. 17); incl. Queen Bitch, Oh! You Pretty Things. Bread, Manna (album #3); incl. If. Brewer and Shipley, Shake Off the Demon (album #4); incl. Shake Off the Demon. Benjamin Britten (1913-76) and Myfanwy Piper (1911-97), Owen Wingrave (opera for TV) (Aldwych) (May 16); from an 1892 story by Henry James; stars Peter Pears as Sir Philip Wingrave. Savoy Brown, Street Corner Talking (album #7). Jimmy Buffett (1946-), High Cumberland Jubilee (album #2). Bill and Buster, Hold On to What You've Got. The Byrds, Byrdmaniax (album) (June 23); Farther Along (album) (Nov. 27). Can, Tago Mago (double album) (album #2); first with Kenji "Damo" Suzuki replacing Malcolm Mooney; incl. Mushroom, Halleluhwah. The Carpenters, Carpenters (Tan Album) (album #3) (May 14) (#2 in the U.S., #12 in the U.K.); sells 4M copies; first album with the Carpenter's emblem; incl. For All We Know, Rainy Days and Mondays, Superstar. Johnny Cash (1932-2003), Man in Black (album). Ray Charles (1930-2004), Don't Change On Me; Feel So Bad; Booty Butt. Cher (1946-), Gypsies, Tramps and Thieves (Cher) (album) (Oct. 30); sells 8M; incl. Gypsies, Tramps and Thieves, The Way of Love. Blue Cheer, Oh! Pleasant Hope (album #6) (Apr.); next album in 1984; incl. Oh! Pleasant Hope. Chicago, Chicago III (double album) (album #3) (Jan. 11) (#2 in the U.S.); released after they run out of original material and have to stump between long hours on the road; album cover "Tattered Flag" features the band dressed in historical U.S. uniforms in front of a field of cross representing those who died in the Vietnam War, along with a list of U.S. casualties by war to date; incl. Free (#20 in the U.S.), Lowdown (#40 in the U.S.); Chicago at Carnegie Hall (quadruple album) (first live album) (Oct. 25) (#3 in the U.S.) (1M copies). Cheech and Chong, Cheech and Chong (album) (debut); Thomas B. Kin "Tommy" Chong (1938-) and Richard Anthony "Cheech" Marin (1946-). Chilliwack, Chilliwack (album #2) (double album); incl. Lonesome Mary. Christie, Yellow River. Gene Clark (1944-91), Roadmaster (album). Tom Clay (1929-95), What the World Needs Now (Abraham, Martin and John) (#8 in the U.S.) (1M copies); 1-hit wonder. Commander Cody and His Lost Planet Airmen, Lost in the Ozone (album) (debut) (Nov.) (#82 in the U.S.); incl. Hot Rod Lincoln (#9 in the U.S.); cover of the 1955 Charlie Ryan-Johnny Bond hit. Leonard Cohen (1934-2016), Songs of Love and Hate (album #3) (Mar.) (#145 in the U.S., #4 in the U.K.); incl. Famous Blue Raincoat, Avalanche, Joan of Arc. Judy Collins (1939-), Living (album #10) (Nov.). Arthur Conley (1946-2003), Walking on Eggs. Alice Cooper (1948-), Love It to Death (album #3) (#35 in the U.S.); incl. Love It to Death, I'm Eighteen (#21 in the U.S.), Caught in a Dream (#94 in the U.S.), Ballad of Dwight Fry, Is It My Body; Killer (album #4) (Nov.) (#21 in the U.S.); "greatest rock album of all time" (Johnny Rotten); incl. Under My Wheels (#59 in the U.S.), Be My Lover (#49 in the U.S.), Dead Babies, Halo of Flies. King Crimson, Islands (album #4) (Dec.); incl. Formentera Lady, Ladies of the Road. Seals and Crofts, Year of Sunday (album #3). David Crosby (1941-), If I Could Only Remember My Name (album) (solo debut) (Feb. 22); David and the Dorks; incl. Cowboy Movie (about "sweet little Indian girl" Rita Coolidge, who helped break the band up in 1970). Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, 4 Way Street (album #3) (Apr. 7); live stuff before they broke up. Mario Davidovsky (1934-), Synchronisms No. 6 for Piano and Electronic Sound (Pulitzer Prize); performed by musicians with traditional instruments accompanied by prerecorded electroacoustic music created in a lab. Grateful Dead, Grateful Dead (Skull & Roses) (Skull Fuck) (album) (Oct.). Sandy Denny (1947-78), The North Star Grassman and the Ravens (album); incl. The North Star Grassman and the Ravens. John Denver (1943-97), Poems, Prayers and Promises (album #4) (Apr. 6); his breakthrough album; incl. Poems, Prayers and Promises, Take Me Home, Country Roads (his signature song), Sunshine on My Shoulders; Aerie (album #5) (Feb.) (#75 in the U.S.). Daddy Dewdrop (1940-), Chick-A-Boom (Don't Ya Jes' Love It) (#9 in the U.S.); 1-hit wonder based on the tune "John Jacob Jingleheimerschmitt". Neil Diamond (1941-), I Am I Said (Mar. 27) (#4 in the U.S.); I'm a Believer (June 26) (#51 in the U.S.); Stones; Crunchy Granola Suite. The 5th Dimension, Love's Lines, Angles and Rhymes (album #6) (Feb. 1); incl. Love's Lines, Angles and Rhymes; Reflections (album #7) (Oct. 1); The Fifth Dimension/Live! (album). Hamza El Din (1929-2006), Escalay: The Water Wheel (album) (album #3); first "world music" record to become a hit in the West. Donovan (1946-), HMS Donovan (album #10); children's album. Doobie Brothers, The Doobie Brothers (album) (debut); from San Jose, Calif., incl. Charles Thomas "Tom" Johnston (1948-), Patrick "Pat" Simmons (1948-) (guitar), John Hartman (1950-) (drums), Dave Shogren (bass); Nobody. The Doors, L.A. Woman (album #6) (Apr.); last with Jim Morrison, who moves to Paris and dies on July 3; incl. L.A. Woman, Love Her Madly, Riders on the Storm. Nick Drake (1948-74), Bryter Layter (album #2) (Mar. 6); incl. Bryter Layter, Fly, Poor Boy, Northern Sky. Tangerine Dream, Alpha Centauri (album #2) (Mar.); incl. Ultima Thule. Eagles, Eagles (al bum) (debut) (June 1); named after the Byrds; not "The Eagles" but Eagles; from Los Angeles, Calif., incl. Glenn Lewis Frey (1948-2016), Donald Hugh "Don" Henley (1947-), Joseph Fidler "Joe" Walsh (1947-), Timothy Bruce Schmit (1947-) (bass), Bernie Leadon (1947-), Donald William "Don" Felder (1947-), Randy Herman Meisner (1946-) (bass); incl. Peaceful Easy Feeling. Take It Easy (#12 in the U.S.), Peaceful Easy Feeling (#22 in the U.S.), Witchy Woman (#9 in the U.S.), Take the Devil. Cass Elliot (1941-74), Dave Mason and Cass Elliot (album #5) (Feb.); incl. Walk to the Point. Fleetwood Mac, Dragonfly (Mar.); first without Peter Green and with Christine McVie. The Flying Burrito Brothers, The Flying Burrito Bros (album #3) (June) (#176 in the U.S.); first with Rick Roberts replacing Gram Parsons; incl. To Ramona (by Bob Dylan). Aretha Franklin (1942-2018), Young, Gifted and Black (album); incl. Oh Me Oh My (I'm a Fool For You Baby), Rock Steady, Young, Gifted and Black, Day Dreaming. Free, Free Live! (album #5) (Sept.) (#4 in the U.K.); My Brother Jake; too bad, the band breaks up in Apr. Georgie Fame (1943-) and Alan Price (1942-), Fame and Price, Price and Fame: Together! (album); incl. Rosetta. Family, Fearless (album #6) (Oct.); Roger Chapman; incl. Between Blue and Me, Larf and Sing. Little Feat, Little Feat (album) (debut) (Warner Bros. Records); from Los Angeles, Calif., incl. Lowell George (vocals, guitar) (formerly of Frank Zappa and The Mothers of Invention), Bill Payne (keyboards), Roy Estrada (bass), and Richie Hayward (drums) (named after Lowell's little feat, with the spelling modified as a homage to the Beatles); incl. Willin'. Earth, Wind and Fire, Earth, Wind and Fire (album) (debut) (Feb.); incl. Love is Life; The Need of Love (album #2) (Nov.); incl. Energy; Maurice White (1941-), Wade Flemons (1940-), Don Whitehead, Sherry Scott, Phillard Williams (drums), Verdine White (1951-) (bass), Michael Beale (guitar), Chester Washington (reeds), Leslie Drayton (trumpet), and Alex Thomas (trombone); founder Maurice White's astrological sign is Sagittarius, which has no water qualities, get it? Pink Floyd, Relics (album) (May 14); Meddle (Oct. 31); incl. One of These Days, A Pillow of Winds, Fearless, San Tropez, Echoes. Focus, Focus II (Moving Waves) (album #2) (Oct.); incl. Hocus Pocus (#9 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.). Funkadelic, Maggot Brain (album #3) (July); incl. Maggot Brain. P-Nut Gallery, Do You Know What Time It Is? The James Gang, Thirds (album #3) (Apr.); last with Joe Walsh, who is credited with "guitar, vocals, and train wreck"; incl. Walk Away; James Gang Live in Concert (album) (Sept.); their Carnegie Hall performanes. Kool and the Gang, Live at the Sex Machine (album #2) (Jan.); Live at PJ's (album #3) (Dec.). Marvin Gaye (1939-84), What's Going On (album #8) (May 21); sad song cycle based on the death of Tammi Terrell; incl. What's Going On (why all the deaths of black men in racial violence and Vietnam?), What's Happening Brother, Mercy, Mercy Me (The Ecology), God is Love. Bee Gees, Trafalgar (album #7) (Sept.); incl. How Can You Mend a Broken Heart, Don't Wanna Live Inside Myself, Lonely Days. Genesis, Nursery Cryme (album #3) (Nov. 12); first with drummer Phil Collins (1951-), along with Peter Brian Gabriel (1950-), Tony Banks, Michael John Cleote Crawford "Mike" Rutherford (1950-), and Stephen Richard "Steve" Hackett (1950-). Bobby Goldsboro (1941-), Watching Scotty Grow. Moby Grape, 20 Granite Creek (album); the original five members, incl. Skip Spence. Gypsy, In the Garden (album #2) (July) (#173 in the U.S.); incl. As Far As You Can See (As Much As You Can Feel). Merle Haggard (1937-2016), Daddy Frank (The Guitar Man); Carolyn. Tom T. Hall (1936-), I Remember the Year Clayton Delaney Died. Herbie Hancock (1940-) and Terry Plumeri, He Who Lives in Many Places (album). Tim Hardin (1941-80), Bird on a Wire (album) (#189 in the U.S.); incl. Bird on a Wire. Roy Harper (1941-), Stormcock (album #5); incl. The Same Old Rock (w/Jimmy Page AKA S. Flavius Mercurius). Procol Harum, Broken Barricades (album #5); incl. Broken Barricades. Richie Havens (1941-), Alarm Clock (album); incl. Here Comes the Sun; he ends playing with Peter Yarrow and Paul Stookey as Peter, Paul and Richie. Isaac Hayes (1942-2008), Shaft Soundtrack (double album) (July); incl. Shaft Theme, Soulville, Do Your Thing; Black Moses (double album); incl. Never Can Say Goodbye (#22 in the U.S.). Canned Heat, Live at Topanga Corral (album); recorded in 1969 at the Kaleidoscope in Hollywood, Calif.; Historical Figures and Ancient Heads (album #6) (Dec. 14); first with Joel Scott Hill; incl. That's All Right. Canned Heat and John Lee Hooker (1912-2001), Hooker 'N Heat (double album) (Jan. 15); incl. Meet Me in the Bottom. Uriah Heep, Salisbury (album #2) (Jan.); incl. Salisbury (backed by a 24-piece orchestra), Lady in Black (#1 in Germany); Look at Yourself (album #3) (Sept.); cover reveals a reflective distorting foil mirror; incl. July Morning (inspires the Bulgarian Hippie tradition). John Lee Hooker (1917-2001), Endless Boogie (double album). Mott the Hoople, Wildlife (album); Brain Capers (album); Death May Be Your Santa Claus. Mary Hopkin (1950-), Let My Name Be Sorrow. Janis Ian (1951-), Present Company (album). New Inspiration, Rainbow. The Isley Brothers, Love the One You're With. Michael Jackson (1958-2009), Got To Be There (album) (Jan. 24) (solo debut); incl. Got To Be There (Oct. 7) (2M copies, #4 in the U.S., #5 in the U.K.) (Michael Jackson's first solo single, launching his solo career), Rockin' Robin (#2 in the U.S., #3 in the U.K.), I Wanna Be Where You Are (#16 in the U.S.). Wanda Jackson (1937-), Back Then; Fancy Satin Pillows. The Jackson 5, Maybe Tomorrow (album #5) (Apr. 12); incl. Maybe Tomorrow, Never Can Say Goodbye (written by Clifton Davis); The Jackson 5's Greatest Hits (album) (Dec.); incl. Sugar Daddy (#10 in the U.S.). Mungo Jerry, Baby Jump (#1 in the U.K.); Lady Rose (#5 in the U.K.). Billy Joel (1949-), Cold Spring Harbor (album) (debut) (Nov.); incl. She's Got a Way, Everybody Loves You Now. Elton John (1947-), Tumbleweed Connection (album) (Jan.); incl. Ballad of a Well-Known Gun; Burn Down the Mission; Friends Soundtrack (album) (Apr.); incl. Friends; 17-11-70 (11-17-70) (album) (May 10); incl. Bad Side of the Moon; Madman Across the Water (album #4) (Nov. 5); incl. Madman Across the Water. Robert John (1946-), Wimweh/ The Lion Sleeps Tonight (#3 in the U.S.); sells 1M copies. Tom Jones (1940-), She's a Lady; written by Paul Anka for him. Janis Joplin (1943-70), Pearl (2nd album) (Feb. 1) (posth.) (recorded in Sept. 1970); incl. Me and Bobby McGee (by lover Kris Kristofferson), Mercedes Benz. Kimi and Ritz, Merry Christmas Baby; Richard O'Brien (1942-) and his wife Kimi Wong O'Brien; becomes a cult hit after the success of his "The Rocky Horror Show". Carole King (1942-), Tapestry (album) (Mar.); #1 in the U.S. for 1five weeks; sells 13M copies; a bigger hit because she doesn't try to sell herself as a sex object?; incl. I Feel the Earth Move, It's Too Late, You've Got a Friend (with James Taylor) (#1 in the U.S., #4 in the U.K.), So Far Away, Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow?, (You Make Me Feel Like) A Natural Woman. The Kinks, Percy Soundtrack (album) (Mar. 26); Muswell Hillbillies (album #9) (Nov. 24); incl. 20th Century Man. Gladys Knight (1944-) and the Pips, I Don't Want to Do Wrong (#17 in the U.S.). Kris Kristofferson (1936-), The Silver Tongued Devil and I (album); incl. The Silver Tongued Devil and I, Jody and the Kid, Billy Dee. Labelle, Labelle (album) (debut); Patti LaBelle's new look and new promoter Vicki Wickham. John Lennon (1940-80), Imagine (album #2) (Sept. 9) (#3 in the U.S., #1 in the U.K.); sax by King Curtis; "chocolate-coated for public consumption" with string accompaniments"; incl. a postcard showing him holding a pig to mock Paul McCartney's pose with a sheep on the cover of his Ram album; incl. his signature song Imagine (a plea for world peace sans religion, with lyrics starting "Imagine there's no Heaven/ It's easy if you try/ No Hell below us/ Above us only sky/ Imagine all the people living for today/ Imagine there's no countries/ It isn't hard to do/ Nothing to kill or die for/ And no religion too/ Imagine all the people/ Living life in peace/ You may say that I'm a dreamer/ But I'm not the only one/ I hope someday you'll join us/ And the world will be as one"; Jealous Guy. Thin Lizzy, Thin Lizzy (album) (debut) (Apr. 30); from Dublin, Ireland, incl. Philip Paris "Phil" Lynott (1949-86) (vocals, bass) (the Irish Jimi Hendix?), and Brian Michael Downey (1951-) (drums); incl. Honesy Is No Excuse. Meat Loaf (1947-2022) and Cheryl "Shaun" "Stoney" Murphy, Stoney and Meatloaf (album) (debut). Loggins and Messina, Sittin' In (album) (debut) (Nov.); Kenneth Clark "Kenny" Loggins (1948-) and James Melvin "Jim" Messina (1947); incl. Danny's Song, House at Pooh Corner. Loretta Lynn (1935-), You're Looking at Country. Fleetwood Mac, The Original Fleetwood Mac (album) (May); Future Games (album #5) (Sept. 3); first with Bob Welch and Christine McVie. Mahavishnu Orchestra, The Inner Mounting Flame (album) (debut) (Aug. 14) (#89 in the U.S.); jazz-rock fusion group from New York City, incl. John McLaughlin (guitar), Billy Cobham (drums), Rick Laird (bass guitar), Jan Hammer (piano), and Jerry Goodman (violin); incl. You Know, You Know. Herbie Mann (1930-2003), Push Push (album); incl. Push Push (with Dane Allman). Wadsworth Mansion, Sweet Mary. Bob Marley (1945-81) and the Wailers, Soul Revolution (album); incl. Sun is Shining; The Best of the Wailers (album) (Aug.). Curtis Mayfield (1942-99), Roots (album #2) (Oct.); Curtis/Live! (album). Paul McCartney (1942-) and Linda McCartney (1941-98), Ram (album) (May 28); only album credited to them; incl. Too Many People, Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey, Heart of the Country, Gene McDaniels (1935-), Headless Heroes of the Apocalypse (album #10). Don McLean (1945-), American Pie (album) (Oct.); incl. Vincent (Starry Starry Night) (about earless artist Vincent Van Gogh), American Pie (8:33); about the Day the Music Died (Feb. 3, 1959); cryptic lyrics referencing rock and movie stars turn fans on; #1 for 4 weeks; Satan refers to Mick Jagger. Melanie (1947-), The Good Book (album) (May); incl. The Good Book; Gather Me (album) (Dec.); incl. What Have They Done to My Song, Ma?, Brand New Key. Gian Carlo Menotti (1911-2007), The Most Important Man (opera); commissioned by New York City Opera conductor (1944-79) Julius Rudel (1921-). Olivier Messiaen (1908-92), La Fauvette des Jardins. Lee Michaels (1945-), Do You Know What I Mean? (#6 in the U.S.). Steve Miller Band, Rock Love (album #6) (Nov.); incl. The Gangster is Back. Ronnie Milsap (1943-), Ronnie Milsap (Aug.) (album) (debut). Morning Mist, California On My Mind. Joni Mitchell (1943-), Blue (album #4) (June); incl. Blue, Carey, A Case of You, River, This Flight Tonight, The Last Time I Saw Richard. Brownsville Mockingbird, Joy of Cooking. Lou Monte (1917-89), I Have an Angel in Heaven. Van Morrison (1945-), Tupelo Honey (album #5) (Oct.); incl. Tupelo Honey, Wild Night. Mountain, Nantucket Sleighride (album #2) (Jan.) (#16 in the U.S.); Flowers of Evil (album #3) (Nov.); they break up from 1972-4. The Move, Message from the Country (album #4); incl. Ella James (May); Tonight (June); Chinatown (Oct.). Moxy, Kinfolk (album). Anne Murray (1945-), Talk It Over in the Morning (album #5). Anne Murray (1945-) and Glen Campbell (1936), Anne Murray/ Glen Campbell (album) (Nov.). Graham Nash (1942-), Songs for Beginners (album) (solo debut) (May 28); incl. Chicago (about the 1989 Dem. Nat. Convention and the Chicago Eight). Anthony Newley (1931-99), Pure Imagination/ Ain't It Funny (album). Olivia Newton-John (1948-2022), If Not for You (album) (debut) (Nov.) (#158 in the U.S.); incl. If Not for You, If You Could Read My Mind. Three Dog Night, Joy to the World: Their Greatest Hits (album #12) (Nov.). Harry Nilsson (1941-94), The Point! (album #6) (Feb.); about a a boy named Oblio, the only round-headed person in the Pointed Village; shown as the ABC Movie of the Week on Feb. 2, starring Ringo Starr, the first animated special to be shown on U.S. prime time TV; staged in 1977 at the Mermaid Theatre in London, starring Micky Dolenz as Oblio, and Davy Jones as The Leafman and The Count's Kid; incl. Me and My Arrow; Aerial Pandemonium Ballet (album); Nilsson Schmilsson (album #7) (Nov.) (#3 in the U.S.); incl. Without You (#1 in the U.S.), Coconut (#8 in the U.S.) ("She put the lime in the coconut, she drank 'em both up"), Jump Into the Fire (#27 in the U.S.). The Nice, Elegy (album #5) (Apr.) (#5 in the U.K.); released after they disbanded, with Keith Emerson joining Emerson, Lake and Palmer; next album in 2003. Three Dog Night, Golden Bisquits (album #6) (Feb.); incl. Mama Told Me Not to Come (by Randy Newman), Eli's Coming (by Laura Nyro), Celebrate; Harmony (album #7) (Sept.); incl. An Old Fashioned Love Song (by Paul Williams) (#4 in the U.S.), Never Been to Spain (by Hoyt Axton) (#5 in the U.S.), The Family of Man (by Jack Conrad and Paul Williams). Peter Noone (1947-), Oh! You Pretty Things; written by David Bowie. Laura Nyro (1947-97), Gonna Take a Miracle (album #5) (Nov. 17) (#46 in the U.S.); all covers; incl. Monkey Time/ Dancing in the Street, Spanish Harlem. Yoko Ono (1933-), Fly (album #2) (double album) (Mar. 12); incl. Hirake, Mrs. Lennon, Midsummer New York, Mind Train, Open Your Box, Don't Worry, Kyoko (Mummy's Only Looking For Her Hand in the Snow); about her daughter Kyoko Chan (1963-), kidnapped this year by her daddy Anthony Cox, and taken to live underground with the Church of the Living Word (Walk), her named changed to Rosemary (reunited in 1994). Roy Orbison (1936-88), (Love Me Like You Did It) Last Night/ Close Again (Aug.). Electric Light Orchestra (ELO), The Electric Light Orchestra (No Answer) (album) (debut); the title "No Answer" was caused by a mistaken telephone message to a U.S. record exec; incl. 10538 Overture, Mr. Radio; Jeffrey "Jeff" Lynne (1947-) (vocals), Beverley "Bev" Bevan (1944-) (drums), Richard Tandy (1948-) (keyboards). Tony Orlando (1944-) and Dawn, Dawn Featuring Tony Orlando (album #2). Gilbert O'Sullivan (1946-), Himself (album). The Mamas and the Papas, People Like Us; the group temporarily reforms to avoid being sued for $250K each; incl. Step Out. The Plastic Ono Band, Happy Xmas (War Is Over) (Oct. 28) (#2 in the U.K.); becomes a Christmas standard covered by Sarah McLachlan, Andy Williams, Neil Diamond, Diana Ross, Jimmy Buffett, Celine Dion, Carly Simon, The Moody Blues, REO Speedwagon et al. Dolly Parton (1946-), Coat of Many Colors (album) (debut) (Oct. 30); incl. Coat of Many Colors (single). Krzysztof Penderecki (1933-), Utrenja (symphony) (New York). Humble Pie, Rock On (album #4) (Mar.); last with Peter Frampton; incl. Shine On; Performance: Rockin' the Fillmore (double album) (Nov.) (#21 in the U.S.); incl. I Don't Need No Doctor (#73 in the U.S.). Elvis Presley (1935-77), Elvis Country: I'm 10,000 Years Old (album #11) (Jan. 2) (#12 in the U.S.) (#6 in the U.K.) (1M copies); incl. Funny How Time Slips Away (by Willie Nelson), Make the World Go Away (by Hank Cochran); Rags to Riches/ Where Did They Go Lord (Mar.) (performed by Elvis on New Year's Eve in the Pittsburgh Civic Arena, accompanying himself on piano); You'll Never Walk Alone (album) (Mar.); incl. You'll Never Walk Alone. Life/ Only Believe (May); Love Letters from Elvis (album) (June); C'mon Everybody (album) (July); The Other Sides - Worldwide Gold Award Hits, Vol. 2 (4-disk album) (Aug.); I'm Leavin'/ Heart of Rome (Aug.); I Got Lucky (album) (Oct.); incl. I Got Lucky; Elvis Sings the Wonderful World of Christmas (album) (Oct.); It's Only Love/ Sound Of Your Cry (Oct.); Merry Christmas Baby/ O Come All Ye Faithful (Nov.) (with Gretchen Wilson). Billy Preston (1946-2006), I Wrote a Simple Song (album #6) (June 25); incl. Outa-Space. Deep Purple, Fireball (album #5) (July) (#1 in the U.K.); incl. Fireball (#15 in the U.K.), Strange Kind of Woman (#8 in the U.K.), Anyone's Daughter. Quicksilver, Quicksilver (album #6) (Nov.); Dino Valenti. Grand Funk Railroad, Survival (album #4) (Apr.); E Pluribus Funk (album #5) (Sept.); incl. People, Let's Stop the War. Bonnie Raitt (1949-), Bonnie Raitt (album) (debut). Redbone, The Witch Queen of New Orleans (#21 in the U.S.) (#2 in the U.K.). Helen Reddy (1941-), I Don't Know How to Love Him (album) (debut) (May) (#100 in the U.S.); incl. I Don't Know How to Love Him (#13 in the U.S.); Helen Reddy (album #2) (Nov.) (#167 in the U.S.). Paul Revere and The Raiders, Indian Reservation (album); incl. Indian Reservation (The Lament of the Cherokee Reservation Indian), Birds of a Feather. Creedence Clearwater Revival, Sweet Hitch-Hiker (July). Middle of the Road, Chirpy Chirpy Cheep Cheep (album) (debut); incl. Chirpy Chirpy Cheep Cheep (by Lally Stott) (#1 in the U.K.) (10M copies), Tweedle Dee, Tweedle Dum (#2 in the U.K.), Soley Soley (#5 in the U.K.); from Scotland, incl. Sally Carr (1945-) (vocals), Ian McCredie (1947-) (guitar), Eric McCredie (1945-) (bass), and Ken Andrew (1942-) (drums). Jerome Robbins (1918-98), The Goldberg Variations (ballet) (New York) (May); uses the complete J.S. Bach score. Tommy Roe (1942-), Stagger Lee. Kenny Rogers (1938-) and the First Edition, Transition (album #7). The Bay City Rollers, Keep on Dancing (by the Gentrys) (#9 in the U.S.); from Edinburgh, Scotland, incl. Gordon Fraser "Nobby" Clark (1950) (vocals), Eric Faulkner (1953-) (guitar), Stuart John "Woody" Wood (1957-) (guitar), Alan Longmuir (1948-) (bass), and Derek Longmuire (1951-) (drums). Atomic Rooster, Tomorrow Night. The Grass Roots, Two Divided By Love. John Rowles (1947-), Cheryl Moana Marie. Black Sabbath, Master of Reality (album #3) (July 21); their masterpiece?; incl. After Forever, Embryo, Solitude, Into the Void, Lord of This World. New Riders of the Purple Sage, New Riders of the Purple Sage (album) (Aug.) (#39 in the U.S.); from San Francisco, Calif.; composed mainly of members of The Grateful Dead incl. Jerry Garcia (steel guitar), John Collins "Marmaduke" Dawson IV (1945-2009) (guitar), David Nelson (guitar), Spencer Dryden (drums), and Dave Torbert (bass); incl. I Don't Know You, Dirty Business, Last Lonely Eagle; in Nov. 1971 Buddy Cage replaces Jerry Garcia. Buffy Sainte-Marie (1941-), She Used to Wanna Be a Ballerina (album); incl. Soldier Blue. Salvage, Hot Pants. Pharoah Sanders (1940-), Thembi (album #7); incl. Thembi; Live at the East (album); Black Unity (album). Boz Scaggs (1944-), Moments (album #3) (Mar.); incl. Downright Women; Boz Scaggs & Band (album #4) (Dec.); incl. Monkey Time. Gil Scott-Heron (1949-71), Pieces of a Man (album #2); incl. Home Is Where the Hatred Is. The Searchers, Desdemona (#94 in the U.S.) (last release). Seatrain, The Marblehead Messenger (album #3) (Oct.); produced by George Martin. Bob Seger (1945-), Brand New Morning (album #3) (Oct.); incl. Brand New Morning. Roger Sessions (1896-1985), Concerto for Violin, Violoncello and Orchestra; When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd. Sandie Shaw (1947-), Rose Garden; Show Your Face. Ricky Shayne (1944-), Mammy Blue. Carly Simon (1945-), Carly Simon (album) (debut) (Feb.) (#30 in the U.S.); incl. That's the Way I've Always Heard It Should Be (#10 in the U.S.); Anticipation (album #2) (Nov.) (#30 in the U.S.); incl. Anticipation (#13 in the U.S.) (about a date with Cat Stevens), Legend in Your Own Time (#50 in the U.S.) (about beau James Taylor). REO Speedwagon, REO Speedwagon (album) (debut) (Oct.); incl. 157 Riverside Album. Jimmie Spheeris (1949-84), Isle of View ("I love you") (album) (debut); incl. I Am the Mercury. Status Quo, Dog of Two Head (album #4) (Nov.). Steppenwolf, For Ladies Only (album #6) (July 10); incl. Ride With Me. Cat Stevens (1948-), Teaser and the Firecat (album #1) (Oct. 1); incl. Peace Train, Morning Has Broken (a Christian hymn with lyrics by Eleanor Farjeon), Moonshadow. Rod Stewart (1945-), Every Picture Tells a Story (album #3) (May); incl. Every Picture Tells a Story, Maggie May (writtten by Martin Quittenton), (Find a) Reason to Believe. Rod Stewart (1945-) and the Faces, A Nod's as Good as a Wink to a Blind Horse (album); incl. Stay With Me. Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928-2007), Hymnen (symphony) (New York). Sly and the Family Stone, There's a Riot Goin' On (album #5) (Nov. 20) (#1 in the U.S.) (1M copies); original title "Africa Talks to You"; incl. Family Affair (#1 in the U.S.), Running' Away (#23 in the U.S.), (You Caught Me) Smilin' (#42 in the U.S.). The Rolling Stones, Sticky Fingers (album #11) (Apr. 23); cover features the crotch of Joe Dalesandro in tight blue jeans, with a working zipper that opens to reveal a man in cotton briefs, conceived by Andy Warhol (1928-87), designed by John Pasche, and photographed by Billy Name; first use of the "Tongue and Lip Design" of Pasche, inspired by the Hindu goddess Kali the Destroyer; incl. Brown Sugar, Sway, Wild Horses, Can't You Hear Me Knocking, You Gotta Move, Bitch, I Got the Blues, Sister Morphine, Dead Flowers, Moonlight Mile. Paul Stookey (1937-), Paul &... (solo debut); incl. The Wedding Song (There Is Love); written in 1969 for the wedding of Peter Yarrow and Mary Beth McCarthy (niece of Sen. Eugene McCarthy) in Willmar, Minn.; profits are donated to a fund for struggling musicians. Supertramp, Indelibly Stamped (album #2) (June 1971); cover shows a nude woman's breasts; 2nd straight flop causes their millionaire backer to leave them. James Taylor (1948-), James Taylor and the Original Flying Machine (album #2); Mud Slide Slim and the Blue Horizon (album #3) (Apr.); incl. You've Got a Friend (written by his babe Carole King). Livingston Taylor (1950-), Liv (album #2). Temptations, Sky's the Limit (album) (Apr. 22); incl. Just My Imagination (Running Away With Me (#1 in the U.S.). Four Tops, Mac Arthur Park (album). The Four Tops and the Supremes, The Return of the Magnificent Seven. The Pop Tops, Mammy Blue. T.Rex, Electric Warrior (album #6) (Sept. 24) (#32 in the U.S., #1 in the U.K.); incl. Jeepster, Bang A Gong (Get It On) (#10 in the U.S.). Traffic, Welcome to the Canteen (album #5) (Sept.); The Low Spark of High Heeled Boys (album #6) (Nov.); incl. The Low Spark of High Heeled Boys. Hot Tuna, First Pull Up, Then Pull Down (album #2) (June) (#43 in the U.S.). Barbara and the Uniques, There It Goes Again. Frankie Vaughan (1928-99), Find Another Love; What Am I to Do With You. The Ventures, New Testament (album) (Apr.). Junior Walker (1931-) and the All Stars, Take Me Girl I'm Ready (#16 in the U.K.). T-Bone Walker (1910-75), Good Feelin' (album). War, War (album #3) (Apr.); All Day Music (album #4) (Nov.); incl. Slippin' Into Darkness (1M copies). Roger Whittaker (1936-), Mammy Blue. The Who, Who's Next (album #5) (July 31); incl. Who's Next, about the failed rock opera "Lifehouse", featuring the tracks My Wife, Bargain (ode to Meher Baba), The Song Is Over, Behind Blue Eyes, Won't Get Fooled Again, and Baba O'Reily (often mistakenly caused Teenage Wasteland because of the chorus); Meaty Beaty Big and Bouncy (album) (Oct. 30). Andy Williams (1927-), Love Story (album) (Feb.) (#3 in the U.S., #1 in the U.K.); Where Do I Begin (Love Story) (lyrics by Carl Sigman); You've Got A Friend (album) (Aug.) (#54 in the U.S.); incl. A Song for You (#82 in the u.S.). Paul McCartney (1942-) and Wings, Wild Life (debut) (Dec. 7) (debut); incl. Linda McCartney, Denny Seiwell (drums) (with moustache), Denny Laine (Brian Frederick Arthur Hines) (1944-) (formerly of The Moody Blues); incl. Wild Life, Tomorrow. Edgar Winter (1946-), Edgar Winter's White Trash (album #2); incl. Keep Playin' That Rock and Roll. Johnny Winter (1944-), Live Johnny Winter And (album). Bill Withers (1938-), Just As I Am (album) (debut) (May); incl. Ain't No Sunshine (#3 in the U.S.), Grandma's Hands (#42 in the U.S.). Stevie Wonder (1950-), Where I'm Coming From (album #12) (Apr. 12); incl. If You Really Love Me. Betty Wright (1953-), Clean Up Woman. Tammy Wynette (1942-98), We Sure Can Love Each Other (album) (Apr. 1); incl. We Sure Can Love Each Other; Good Lovin' (Makes It Right), Bedtime Story; Tammy Wynette (1942-98) and George Jones, We Go Together (album). Yes, The Yes Album (album #3) (Feb. 19) (#40 in the U.S., #4 in the U.K.); last with Tony Kaye (until 1993), and first with Stephen James "Steve" Howe (1947-); incl. Starship Trooper, I've Seen All Good People; Fragile (album #4) (Nov. 26) (#4 in the U.S., #7 in the U.K.); Rick Wakeman; cover art by Roger Dean (1944-); incl. Roundabout, South Side of the Sky. Frank Zappa and the Mothers, Fillmore East - June 5, 1971 (album); 200 Motels Soundtrack (double album) (Oct. 4). Zephyr, Going Back to Colorado (album #2); incl. Going Back to Colorado, Miss Libertine. Led Zeppelin, Led Zeppelin IV (album #4) (Nov. 8) (no title on the cover); sells 37M copies (23M in the U.S.); incl. Black Dog, Going to California, Misty Mountain Hop, When the Levee Breaks, Rock and Roll, The Battle of Evermore (with Sandy Denny, who becomes the only guest vocalist on one of their albums), Stairway to Heaven, written by pot-smoking 23-y.-o. Robert Anthony Plant (1948-) in the remote Bron-Yr-Aur (Gael. "hill of gold") cottage in Wales; "If there's a bustle in your hedgerow/ don't be alarmed now/ it's just a spring clean for the May Queen." Movies: Richard O. Fleischer's 10 Rillington Place (Feb. 10) (Filmways) (Columbia Pictures), based on the book by Ludovic Kennedy about English serial killer John Reginald Hilliday Christie (1899-1953) (Richard Attenborough) shows how he conned mentally deficient Timothy John Evans (John Hurt) into taking his rap and getting away with a double murder, until he commits more and doesn't dispose of four bodies (incl. his wife Ethel) well enough and they are discovered hidden in his flat at 10 you know what in Notting Hill, London. Tony Palmer's 200 Motels (Nov. 10) is about Frank Zappa and The Mothers of Invention and their mad life on the road. Sidney Lumet's The Anderson Tapes (Sept. 21), based on the 1970 Lawrence Sanders novel features 007 Sean Connery breaking out of his typecasting as a burglar, followed by The Offence" (1973), "Murder on the Orient Express" (1974), and "Family Business" (1989); he previously starred in "The Hill" in 1965. Robert Wise's The Andromeda Strain (Mar. 12), based on the 1969 Michael Crichton novel about an alien germ that kills humans and is taken for study to the Wildfire Complex in N.M., where the plan to nuke it has to be stopped because it feeds on nuclear energy; stars Kate Reid as Dr. Ruth Leavitt, Arthur Hill as Dr. Jeremy Stone, David Wayne as Dr. Charles Dutton, and James Olson as Dr. Mark Hall. Woody Allen's Bananas (Apr. 28) stars Woody as a bumbling New York Jew Fielding Mellish (big stretch?), who becomes dictator of San Marcos to impress his babe Nancy (Louise Lasser), ordering his people to speak Swedish. George Sherman's Big Jake (May 26) (Batjac Productions) (Nat. Gen. Pictures), written by Harry Julian Fink and Rita M. Fink, filmed in Durango, Mexico stars John Wayne as Jacob McCandles, Maureen O'Hara as his estranged wife Martha, and Richard Boone as John Fain, leader of a gang of outlaws who wound Big Jake's son Jeff (Bobby Vinton) and kidnap his grandson Little Jake (Ethan Wayne), causing him to go after them along with his sons James (Patrick Wayne) and Michael (Christopher Mitchum, son of Robert Mitchum), and old injun Sam Sharpnose (Bruce Cabot); debuts at the John Wayne Theater at Knott's Berry Farm; Laddie plays Wayne's dog; the last of five films pairing Wayne and O'Hara (first in 1950); "They wanted a ransom in gold. He gave them lead"; does $7.5M on a $4.8M budget. Tom Laughlin's Billy Jack (May 1), a sequel to "The Born Losers" (1967) stars Tom Laughlin (1931-) as a half-Cherokee ex-Green Beret hapkido expert who tries to save wild horses and a desert hippie freedom school for runaways (based on Prescott College), while the evil govt. bad guys come down on him; co-writer and wife (since 1954) Delores Taylor (1939-) plays his babe Jean Roberts; Clark Howat plays Sheriff Cole; features the song One Tin Soldier by Jinx Dawson of Coven, originally released in 1969 by Canadian group Original Caste; after Am. Internat. Pictures and 20th Cent. Fox dump it, Warner Bros. ends up with a surprise hit that costs $800K and rakes in $40M (#1 grossing film of 1971, later grossing $58M more), and spawns three sequels; Laughlin, who started the Montessori Preschool in Santa Monica, Calif. in the 1960s runs for U.S. pres. in 1992, 2004, and 2008. Peter Gimbel's Blue Water, White Death (June 1) is a documentary about scary great white sharks; inspires Steven Spielberg's 1975 "Jaws". Buzz Kulik's Brian's Song (Nov. 30), based on Gale Sayers' 1970 autobio. "I Am Third" is a tear-jerker ABC-TV movie of the week starring James Caan as white cancer-stricken Chicago Bears player Louis Brian Piccolo (1943-70), and Billy Dee Williams as black player and roommate Gale Eugene Sayers (1943-2020); incl. the song The Hands of Time (Brian's Song), composed by Michel Legrand. Mike Nichols' Carnal Knowledge (June 30), based on an unproduced play by cartoonist Jules Feiffer stars Art Garfunkel as Sandy, and Jack Nicholson as Jonathan, college virgin roomies who go on to lead contrasting sex lives for 25 years, along with their babes Candice Bergen, Ann-Margret, Carol Kane, Cynthia O'Neal, and Rita Moreno. Nagisa Oshima's The Ceremony ridicules Japanese culture, incl. a scene where a marriage must go ahead even though the bride is absent. Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange (Dec. 19) (Polaris Productions) (Hawk Films) ()Warner Bros.), based on the 1962 Anthony Burgess novel stars Malcolm MacDowell as Alex DeLarge, leader of a punk gang of droogs in future (1995?) Britain who speak Nadsat (a mix of English and Russian), hang out in the Korova Moloko (Milk) Bar (filled with erotic sculptures by Allen Jones), and invade the home of writer Frank Alexander (incredibly face-overacting Patrick Magee) and rape his wife Adrienne Corri while performing "Singin' in the Rain"; after receiving the Ludovico brainwashing treatment from the govt. and dreaming of shagging a woman in the snow, Alex (who lies to wear false eyelashes in his right eye) gets his mind right and goes normal, but it backfires when he stumbles back into Mr. Alexander's home and is tortured with Beethoven's Ninth then tries to commit suicide, after which the publicity brings the govt. down and causes them to unbrainwash him and give him a job; #7 grossing film of 1972 ($26.5M box office on a $2.2M budget); "I believe that drugs are basically of more use to the audience than to the artist." (Kubrick) Bernardo Bertolucci's The Conformist is based on a 1951 novel by Alberto Moravia that traces the Fascist mentality to a sexual motivation. Luchino Visconti's Death in Venice, based on the 1912 Thomas Mann novel stars Dirk Bogarde as Gustav von Aschenbach, who becomes obsessed with Polish teenie Tadzio in Venice, watches him get beaten up on the beach, and dies of a heart attack, the boy not even noticing. Pier Paolo Pasolini's The Decameron II (June 29) picks the dirtiest and most anti-clerical stories and makes them sumptuous. Guy Hamilton's Diamonds Are Forever (Dec. 14) (Eon Productions) (James Bond 007 film #7), based on the 1956 Ian Fleming novel stars Sean Connery, who returns to the James Bond role he once dumped for a $1M salary (after Adam West turns Cubby Broccoli down, citing the George Lazenby disaster?), and co-stars hi-IQ bikini babe Jill St. John as Tiffany Case, who galavants with him around Las Vegas in a tricked-out 1971 Mach 1 while trying to stop Ernst Stavro Blofield (Charles Gray) (who killed Bond's wife) from building a laser satellite; Bruce Glover and Putter Smith play over-the-top Mr. Wint and Mr. Kidd of the Spangled Mob; Jimmy Dean finds a role that isn't too corny to kill the Bond coolness, spending most of his time locked up; the Diamonds Are Forever Theme is sung by Shirley Bassey; too bad, this film starts the string of humorous tongue-in-cheek 007 flicks; #3 grossing film of 1971 ($43.8M box office U.S. and $116M worldwide on a $7.2M budget); last appearance of SPECTRE until 2015; future U.S. ambassador to Mexico (1981-6) John Gavin (John Anthony Golenor Pablos) (1931-) originally signed to play 007 after George Lazenby left, and is also signed for the 1973 film "Live and Let Die", but is dumped for Roger Moore. Donald Siegel's Dirty Harry (Dec. 23) (Warner Bros.) stars Clint Eastwood as grimacing rule-breaking macho white San Francisco cop Harry Callahan, who packs a 6-shot Smith & Wesson Model 29 .44 Magnum revolver ("the most powerful handgun in the world" that'll "blow your head clean off"), and can't restrain himself with psycho Scorpio Killer Andy Robinson, uttering the immortal soundbyte: "Do you feel lucky, punk?" before blowing him away in a signature movie moment of the 1970s; does $36M box office on a $4M budget; sequels incl. "Magnum Force" (1973), "The Enforcer" (1976), "Sudden Impact" (1983), and "The Dead Pool" (1988); Eastwood later claims that the Hollyweird obsession with political correctness began about the time of this film's release. Joel Seria's Don't Deliver Us from Evil (Apr. 5) is about Anne (Jeanne Goupil) and Lore (Catherine Wagener), two female Catholic students who go down the path of sexual perversion; banned in the U.S. Jack Nicholson's Drive, He Said, Nicholson's dir. debut, based on the 1964 Jeremy Larner novel about campus basketball star Hector Bloom stars Nicholson, Karen Black, Bruce Dern, and Elisha Cook Jr. Al Adamson's Dracula v. Frankenstein (Blood of Frankenstein) (The Revenge of Dracula) (Teenage Dracula) (They're Coming to Get You) (Sept. 20) (Independent-Internat. Pictures) debuts, starring J. Carrol Nash as mad Dr. Durea/Frankenstein (last descendant of the original), who murders young girls to perfect his serum along with his mute asst. Groton (Lon Chaney Jr.); Count Dracula (Roger Engel (under the alias Zandor Vorkov) promises to help him revive the original Frankenstein's monster (John Bloom) that he exhumed from a secret grave in Oakmoor Cemetery in return for the serum in hopes it will make him immune to sunlight, setting up shop in the Creature Emporium on the boardwalk in Venice, Calif., reviving the monster and setting it loose on Durea's enemies, going on to take on some hos, hippies, and bikers before the final battle of you know who vs. you know who. Floyd Mutrux's Dusty and Sweets McGee is a docudrama about heroin addicts in Los Angeles. Norman Jewison's Fiddler on the Roof (New York) (Nov. 3), based on the Yiddish stories of Trevye the Dairyman by Sholem Aleichem and a drawing by Marc Chagall stars Chaim Topol, who subs for late Broadway star Zero Mostel, and features a violin soundtrack by Isaac Stern; #2 grossing film of 1971 ($80.5M); this year the Broadway show breaks the 2,844 perf. record of "Hello, Dolly!", and next year it closes after a record 3,242 perf. William Friedkin's The French Connection (Oct. 9), based on the 1969 true story book by Robin Moore stars Eugene Allen "Gene" Hackman (1930-) as porkpie-hat-wearing New York City detective Jimmy "Popeye" Doyle (based on real-life New York City detective Eddie Egan), and Roy Scheider as his partner Buddy Russo, who break a Marseille heroin ring run by Alain Charnier (Fernando Rey) by stripping down his brown 2-door Lincoln Continental mule car (license plate 18 LU 13); French TV performer Jacques Angelvin plays the cop-killing courier; features one of the best car chase scenes in Hollywood history; #4 grossing film of 1971 ($41.1M); "I'm going to nail you for picking your feet in Poughkeepsie" (Doyle); "I'd sooner be a lamp post in New York than the president of France" (Doyle). James Goldstone's The Gang That Couldn't Shoot Straight (Dec. 22), based on the 1969 Jimmy Breslin novel stars Jerry Orbach as New York mobster Joey Gallo, and Robert De Niro as Italian cyclist Mario Trantino, who gets lost in New York City, gets in trouble with the mob, and masquerades as a priest; luckily, De Niro takes the part after being aced out of "The Godfather" by Al Pacino, allowing him to star in "The Godfather: Part II". Mike Hodges' Get Carter (Mar. 10) (MGM), co-produced by Michael Caine is a crime thriller based on the 1969 Ted Lewis novel "Jack's Return Home", starring Michael Caine as London gangster Jack Carter, whose brother Frank is killed by gangsters, causing him to travel to Newcastle to investigate and get even, ending up being targeted; Ian Hendry plays chauffeur Eric Paice, Britt Eckland plays moll Anna, John Osborne plays Jack's adversary Cyril Kinnear, and Bryan Mosley plays amusement park owner Cliff Brumby; a box office flop, it goes on to develop a cult following; last film made at Borehamwood Studios. Joseph Losey's The Go-Between (Sept. 24) (MGM-EMI) (Columbia Pictures), co-written by Harold Pinter based on the 1953 L.P. Hartley novel stars Dominic Guard as young Leo Colston in 1900, who spends the summer at the Norfolk country house of his friend Marcus Maudsley (Richard Gibson), acting as you know what with his beautiful sister Marion Maudsley (Julie Christie) and farmer neighbor Ted Burgess (Alan Bates), who commits suicide after their secret illicit affair is found out; 50 years later Leo (Michael Redgrave) meets Marion again. Arthur Hiller's The Hospital (Dec. 14) stars George C. Scott as suicidal Dr. Herbert Bock, who tries to find some meaning in life with Barbara (Diana Rigg) while his screwy hospital is being stalked by a murderer. Dalton Trumbo's Johnny Got His Gun, based on Trumbo's 1939 novel is the film debut of Pres. George W. Bush lookalike Timothy James Bottoms (1951-) as a WWI soldier who is so wounded on the last day of the war that he appears to be brain dead but is actually fully aware, and is kept alive for scientific research until he finally learns to tap Morse code with his head. Peter Brook's B&W King Lear (Feb. 4), based on the Shakespeare play stars Paul Scofield as Lear, Jack MacGowran as the Fool, Susan Engel as Regan, Patrick Magee as Cornwall, and Anne-Lise Gabold as Cordelia. Alan J. Pakula's Klute (June 25) stars Jane Fonda as ho Bree Daniels, who assists private dick John Klute (Donald Sutherland) in and out of bed. Jack Lemmon's Kotch (Sept. 14), based on the Katherine Topkins novel stars Walter Matthau as retired salesman Joseph P. Kotcher, who becomes a nuisance to his son Gerald (Charles Aidman) and daughter-in-law Wilma (Felicia Farr) in Los Angeles by doting too much on grandson Duncan (Dean and Donald Kowalski). Peter Bogdanovich's The Last Picture Show (B&W) (Oct. 22), based on the 1966 Larry McMurtry novel stars Cybill Lynne Shepherd (1950-) as hot promiscuous virgin Jacy Farrow, Jeff Bridges as her impotent beau Duane Jackson, Ben Johnson as business owner Sam the Lion, Timothy Bottoms as Duane's friend Sonny Crawford, Cloris Leachman as his ever-crying older lover Ruth Popper, and Ellyn Burstyn as Jacy's mother Lois Farrow in the dying early 1950s rural Tex. town of Anarene (based on Abilene in Howard Hawks' 1948 film "Red River") where the teenies like to go skinny-dipping and the males like getting a piece of ass, drawing Bogdanovich comparisons with "Citizen Kane"; Shepherd (who hooks up offscreen with Bogdanovich?) is built-up as the ultimate piece by showing other women nude, but her only topless; the theatre's name is the Royal; does $29.1M box office on a $1.3M budget. Lee H. Katzin's Le Mans (June 23) stars Steve McQueen in a racing movie about the 1970 24 Hours of Le Mans auto race with mucho action and little dialog; "Steve McQueen takes you for a drive in the country. The country is France. The drive is at 200 MPH!" Roman Polanski's Macbeth (Oct. 13) (Playboy Productions) (Columbia Pictures), based on the Shakespeare play stars Jon Finch as Macbeth, Francesca Annis as Lady Macbeth, Martin Shaw as Banquo, and Terence Bayler as Macduff; financed by Hugh Hefner, resulting in a nude sleepwalking scene for Lady Macbeth. Charles Jarrott's Mary, Queen of Scots (Dec.) (Universal Pictures), written by John Hale and produced by Hal B. Wallis stars Vanessa Redgrave as Mary, Queen of Scots, Glenda Jackson as her rival Elizabeth I, Patrick McGoohan as Mary's half-brother James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray, Timothy Dalton as Mary's 2nd husband Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, Nigel Davenport as Mary's 3rd husband James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, Ian Holm as Mary's advisor David Rizzio, and Trevor Howard as Elizabeth's advisor Sir William Cecil; too bad, it has a soap opera plot? Robert Altman's McCabe & Mrs. Miller (June 24) (Warner Bros.), based on the 1959 Edmund Naughton novel stars Warren Beatty as whorehouse owner John McCabe in the mining town of Presbyterian Church, Wash. in the Old Am. West, and Julie Christie as the opium-addicted British cockney madame Constance Miller, who fight the Harrison Shaughnessy Mining Co. in Bearpaw in a film that's better than it sounds?; does $8.2M box office. Louise Malle's Murmur of the Heart (Le Souffle au Coeur) (Oct. 17) stars Benoit Ferreux as 15-y.-o. Laurent Chevalier, who grows up in 1950s bourgeois Dijon with mother Clara (Lea Massari) and father Charles (Daniel Gelin), who let him get away with anything incl. smoking, drinking, and sex, while Father Henri (Michael Lonsdale) makes a pass at him. Boris Sagal's The Omega Man (Aug. 1), based on the 1954 Richard Matheson novel "I Am Legend" stars Charlton Heston as Army Col. Robert Neville, the last survivor of the Mar. 1975 biological war between China and the Soviet Union that turns everybody else in LA into crazed nocturnal albino mutants. Terence Young's Red Sun (Sept. 15) stars "The Magnificent Seven" star Charles Bronson and "Seven Samurai" star Toshiro Mifune in a Wild West tale sans the usual racism that teaches U.S. viewers about the ways of the Samurai; also stars Ursula Andress and Alain Delon to give it a real internat. cast. Gordon Parks' Shaft (July 2), based on an Ernest Tidyman novel and starring Richard Roundtree as badass black New York city detective John Shaft launches the Blaxploitation genre, and wins Isaac Hayes (1942-2008) the first music Oscar ever given to an African-Am. composer; Parks also directs the 1972 sequel Shaft's Big Score. Paul Bogart's Skin Game (Sept. 30) stars James Garner and Louis Gossett Jr. as white and black con men Quincy Drew and Jason O'Rourke. Tim Burstall's Stork (B&W) (Dec. 27), based on the play "The Coming of Stork" by David Williamson; features the film debuts of 6'7" Kiwi actor Bruce Spence (1945-) and Jacqueline Ruth "Jacki" Weaver (1947-); does $224K box office on a $60K budget; the first successful Ocker comedy, usually featuring a male ocker speaking in a Strine (broad Australian accent) while wearing a blue singlet (sleeveless shirt) and rubber thongs (sandals) with a tinnie (beer can) in his hand propping up a bar; which push a "masculine, populist, and cheerfully vulgar v