Mt. Saint Helens, Mar. 27, 1980 Ronald Reagan of the U.S. (1911-2004) George Herbert Walker Bush of the U.S. (1924-2018) Yuri Andropov of the Soviet Union (1914-84) Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union (1931-) Indira Gandhi of India (1917-84) Hu Yaobang of China (1915-89) Francois Mitterrand of France (1916-96) Slobodan Milosevic of Yugoslavia (1941-2006)

TLW's 1980s Historyscope 1980-1989 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Hosni Mubarak of Egypt (1928-2020) Yitzhak Shamir of Israel (1915-) Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran (1902-89) Pope John Paul II (1920-2005) Michael Jackson (1958-) Corazon Aquino of the Philippines (1933-2009) Oliver North of the U.S. (1943-) Daniel Ortega Saavedra of Nicaragua (1945-) Brian Mulroney of Canada (1939-)

Prince Charles (1948-) and Lady Diana of Britain (1961-97) Ted Kennedy of the U.S. (1932-2009) Edmund Sixtus Muskie of the U.S. (1914-96) James Gaius Watt of the U.S. (1938-) Lech Walesa of Poland (1943-) Helmut Kohl of West Germany (1930-) Zhao Ziyang of China (1919-2005) Kim Dae-jung of South Korea (1924-2009) Robert Gabriel Mugabe of Zimbabwe (1924-2019)

Sally K. Ride of the U.S. (1951-) Space Shuttle Challenger, Jan. 28, 1986 Berlin Wall Falls, Nov. 9, 1989 Exxon Valdez, 1989 Tiananmen Square, 1989 'The Catch', Dwight Clark, Jan. 11, 1982 Wayne Gretzky (1961-) Steffi Graf of Germany (1969-) Carl Sagan (1934-96)

Michael S. Dukakis of the U.S. (1933-) Jimmy the Greek Snyder (1918-96) Jimmy Swaggart (1935-) Larry Flynt (1943-) Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan (1953-2007) Aung San Suu Kyi of Burma (1945-) Katarina Witt of East Germany (1956-) Florence Griffith-Joyner of the U.S. (1959-98) Ben Johnson of Canada (1961-)

Donkey Kong, 1981 IBM Model 5170 PC, 1980 Bill Gates (1955-) Apple's 1984 Super Bowl Halftime Commercial Cyndi Lauper (1953-) Madonna Ciccone (1958-) Culture Club Guns N' Roses MC Hammer (1962-)

Oprah Winfrey (1954-) 'Chariots of Fire', 1981 Vangelis (1943-) 'Escape from New York', starring Kurt Russell (1951-), 1981 Steven Spielberg (1946-) 'Raiders of the Lost Ark', 1981 'E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial', 1982 'An Officer and a Gentleman', starring Richard Gere (1949-) and Debra Winger (1955-), 1982 'Top Gun', 1986

Karpov v. Kasparov, 1985 'The Shining', 1980 Who Shot JR?, Mar. 21-Nov. 21, 1980 'Das Boot', 1982 'Blade Runner', starring Harrison Ford (1942-), 1982 'Wall Street', 1987 'Married With Children', 1987-97 'The Simpsons', 1987- Ford Taurus, 1985-

1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989

The 1980s (1980-1989 C.E.)

The Reagan "Well,..." Greed is Good Never Say Never Michael Jackson Madonna Wham Boy George Thriller Test Tube Baby Ghostbusters Shining Shining Path Decade? Do the 1980s Bring a Flood of Memories to Ya Eightiesmaniacs? The spoiled give-it-to-me-now U.S. Boomers graduate from anti-establishment hippies into corporate ladder-climbing Reaganite Yuppies, distorting the economy as always with their expensive, bizarre, and selfish tastes, bringing MTV and a slew of great Hollywood movies along with a mainly lousy decade of selfish pop music, plus personal computers (PCs) and political correctness (PC), which combine to finally kick clodhopping Soviet Communism's butt with moonwalking and one white glove? Meanwhile their outgunned children settle for punk, Family Ties and the Breakfast Club? The decade when integration begins to refer to electronic circuits?

Too bad, the shrinking of the world causes anti-Western Muslim terrorism to fester, financed directly and indirectly by the U.S., poising for its glam days after the Soviet Union's dust settles?

Science marches on perhaps too fast, as genetic engineering takes its first micelike steps, shocking the deep thinkers with its possibilities of playing God?

Country Leader From To
United States of America Jimmy Carter (1924-) Jan. 20, 1977 Jan. 20, 1981 Jimmy Carter of the U.S. (1924-)
United Kingdom Margaret Thatcher (1925-2013) May 4, 1979 Nov. 28, 1990 Margaret Thatcher of Britain (1925-)
United Kingdom Queen Elizabeth II (1926-) Feb. 6, 1952 Elizabeth II of Britain (1926-)
Soviet Union Leonid Brezhnev (1906-82) Oct. 14, 1964 Nov. 10, 1982 Leonid Brezhnev of the Soviet Union (1906-82)
People's Republic of China Hua Guofeng (1921-2008) 1976 1981 Hua Guofeng of China (1921-2008)
India Indira Gandhi (1917-84) Jan. 14, 1980 Oct. 31, 1984 Indira Gandhi of India (1917-84)
Canada Joe Clark (1939-) June 4, 1979 Mar. 3, 1980 Joe Clark of Canada (1939-)
France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (1926-) May 27, 1974 May 21, 1981 Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (1926-)
West Germany Helmut Schmidt (1918-) May 16, 1974 Oct. 1, 1982 Helmut Schmidt of West Germany (1918-)
East Germany Erich Honecker (1912-94) 1971 1989 Erich Honecker of East Germany (1912-94)
Romania Nicolae Ceausescu (1918-89) Mar. 22, 1965 Dec. 22, 1989 Nicolae Ceausescu of Romania (1918-89)
Spain Juan Carlos I (1938-) Nov. 22, 1975 Juan Carlos I of Spain (1938-)
Philippines Ferdinand Marcos (1917-89) Dec. 30, 1965 Feb. 25, 1986 Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines (1917-89)
Mexico Jose Lopez Portillo (1920-2004) Dec. 1, 1976 Nov. 30, 1982 Jose Lopez Portillo (1920-2004)
Nicaragua Daniel Ortega Saavedra (1945-) July 17, 1979 Apr. 25, 1990 Daniel Ortega Saavedra (1945-)
Egypt Anwar Sadat (1918-81) Oct. 15, 1970 Oct. 6, 1981 Anwar Sadat (1918-81)
Israel Menachem Begin (1913-92) June 21, 1977 Oct. 10, 1983 Menachem Begin (1913-92)
Iran Ayatollah Khomeini (1902-89) Feb. 11, 1979 June 3, 1989 Ayatollah Khomeini (1902-89)
Iraq Saddam Hussein (1937-2006) July 16, 1979 Apr. 9, 2003 Saddam Hussein (1937-2006)
Papacy John Paul II (1920-2005) Oct. 16, 1978 Apr. 2, 2005 John Paul II (1920-2005)
U.N. Kurt Josef Waldheim of Austria (1918-2007) Jan. 1, 1972 Dec. 31, 1981 Kurt Josef Waldheim of Austria (1918-2007)

1980 - The Mt. Saint Helens Microsoft Year in Seattle, and the Dope Face Year in IBM Headquarters? The Boycott Year in the U.S.? A good year to kill your competition and get away with it with a fancy lawyer, or to kill your lover and get away with it with a fancy lawyer? The Year the Music Died John Lennon Year? The Pope and Popeye Year?

Mt. Saint Helens, Mar. 27, 1980 Who Shot JR?, Mar. 21-Nov. 21, 1980 IBM Model 5170 PC, 1980 PC Magazine, Issue #1, 1980 IBM Think Sign William C. Lowe (1941-2013) Edmund Sixtus Muskie of the U.S. (1914-96) Ted Kennedy of the U.S. (1932-2009) John Bayard Anderson of the U.S. (1922-2017) Indira Gandhi of India (1917-84) Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran (1902-89) Abolhassan Bani-Sadr of Iran (1933-) Cyrus Reza Pahlavi of Iran (1960-) Jose Napoleon Duarte Fuentes of El Salvador (1925-90) Zhao Ziyang of China (1919-2005) Zenko Suzuki of Japan (1911-2004) Chun Doo-hwan of South Korea (1931-) Kim Dae-jung of South Korea (1924-2009) Ahmet Kenan Evren of Turkey (1917-) Turkish Adm. Saim Bülend Ulusu (1923-) Kenneth Douglas 'Ken' Taylor of Canada (1934-) Augusto Pinochet of Chile (1915-2006) Archbishop Oscar Romero (1917-80) Vigdis Finnbogadottir of Iceland (1930-) Jose Bernardo Vieira of Guinea-Bissau (1939-2009) Samuel Kanyon Doe of Liberia (1951-90) Mohammed Khouna Ould Haidallah of Mauritania (1940-) Apolo Milton Obote of Uganda (1925-2005) Yoweri Kaguta Museveni of Uganda (1944-) Col. Saye Zerbo of Upper Volta (1932-2013) Robert Gabriel Mugabe of Zimbabwe (1924-2019) Joshua Nkomo of Zimbabwe (1917-99) Canaan Banana of Zimbabwe (1936-2003) George Rallis of Greece (1918-2006) Gen. Luis Garcia Meza Tejada of Bolivia (1932-) Stefano Delle Chiaie of Bolivia (1936-) Marcelo Quiroga Santa Cruz of Bolivia (1913-80) Dési Bouterse of Suriname (1945-) Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands (1938-) Prince Claus of the Netherlands (1926-2002) Prem Tinsulanonda of Thailand (1920-) Sir Quett Masire of Botswana (1925- Saye Zerbo of Upper Volta (1932-) Stephen Joshua Solarz of the U.S. (1940-2010) Richard Ivan Queen of the U.S. (1951-2002) Charles Nesbitt 'Charlie' Wilson of the U.S. (1933-2010) Joanne King Herring (1929-) Clarence 'Doc' Long of the U.S. (1908-94) Fred Charles Iklé (1924-2011) Gulbuddin Hekmatyar of Afghanistan (1947-) Ali Akbar Tabatabai of Iran (1930-80) Edward Philip George Seaga of Jamaica (1930-) Anna Walentynowicz (1929-2010) Lech Walesa of Poland (1943-) Stanislaw Kania of Poland (1927-) Fernando Belaúnde Terry of Peru (1912-2002) Aparicio Mendez of Uruguay (1904-88) Forbes Burnham of Guyana (1923-85) Dame Mary Eugenia Charles of Dominica (1919-2005) Tariq Aziz of Iraq (1936-) Trent Lott of the U.S. (1941-) Allard Kenneth Lowenstein of the U.S. (1929-80) James George Abourezk of the U.S. (1931-) Jags McCartney of Turks and Caicos Islands (1945-80) Enrique Gorriarán Merlo (1941-2006) Maxie Leroy Anderson (1934-83) Soyuz 36, 1980 Soyuz 37, 1980 Soyuz T-2, 1980 Soyuz 38, 1980 Soyuz T-3, 1980 Louise Yvonne Faulkner (1937-) and Charmian Faulkner (1977-) Lee Iacocca (1924-) John Williams (1932-) Joy Adamson (1910-80) Bruce Bueno de Mesquita John Lennon (1940-80) and Mark David Chapman (1955-) Mark David Chapman (1955-) Sunny von Bülow (1932-2008) Claus von Bülow (1926-) Alan Dershowitz (1938) Jorie Graham (1950-) Josephine Jacobsen (1908-2003) Vernon E. Jordan (1935-) Joseph Paul Franklin (1950-2013) 'The Complete Scarsdale Diet' by Dr. Herman Tarnower (1910-80) and Samm Sinclair Baker (1909-97), 1979 Jean Harris (1923-2012) John Paul DeJoria (1944-) and Paul Mitchell Robert Klark Graham (1906-97) Lindy Chamberlain (1948-) Joyce Jillson (1946-2004) Catherine Donnelly (1964-) Andrea Lee Hollen of the U.S. Bernardine Dohrn (1942-) Candy Lightner (1946-) Fujio Masuoka (1943-) Kenneth R. Thomson, Lord Thomson of Fleet (1923-2006) Henry Hill Jr. (1943-) Ted Koppel (1940-) Ted Turner (1938-) Bernard Shaw (1940-) Lou Dobbs (1945-) Pat Robertson (1930-) Four Catholic missionaries murdered in El Salvador on Dec. 2, 1980 Mubarak Ali Gilani Mohamed Abdel Salam Faraj of Egypt (1954-82) Richard Cottingham (1946-) Janet Cooke (1954-) Image from the Janet Cooke story 'Jimmy's World', Sept. 29, 1980 Steve Endean (1948-93) Bobby Nystrom (1952-) Bryan Trottier (1956-) Mark Steven Howe (1955-) Buddy Baker (1941-) Johnny Rutherford (1938-) Tug McGraw (1944-2004) Willie James Wilson (1955-) George Brett (1953-) Dick Howser (1936-87) Eddie Chiles (1910-93) Bob Costas (1952-) Terry Paxton Bradshaw (1948-) Johnny Stallworth (1952-) Brad Davis (1955-) Mike Krzyzewski (1947-) Mark Aguirre (1959-) Rolando Blackman (1959-) Jay Vincent (1959-) Lisa Wagner (1961-) Mike Dwayne 'Hercules' Weaver (1952-) Marvelous Marvin Hagler (1954-2021) No Mas Fight, Nov. 25, 1980 Eric Heiden of the U.S. (1958-) U.S.-Soviet Olympic Hockey Final, Feb. 22, 1980 Herb Brooks of the U.S. (1937-2003) Juan Antonio Samaranch (1920-2010) Ilona Slupianek of East Germany (1956-) Anatoli Starostin of the Soviet Union (1960-) Allan Wipper Wells of Scotland (1952-) Mark Roth (1951-) Terry Fox (1958-81) Rosie Ruiz (1953-) Jacqueline Gareau (1953-) Bjorn Borg (1956-) John McEnroe (1959-) Evonne Goolagong (1951-) Seve Ballesteros (1957-2011) Pamela Churchill Harriman (1920-97) Sheikh Mubarak Ali Gilani Adolfo Perez Esquivel (1931-) Czeslaw Milosz (1911-2004) Georg Wittig (1897-1987) Val Logsdon Fitch (1923-) Paul Berg (1926-) Walter Gilbert (1932-) John Bannister Goodenough (1922-) Sir Ian Kershaw (1943-) Robert K. Massie (1929-) William Nierenberg (1919-2000) Robert Plutchik (1927-2006) Frederick Sanger (1918-) Baruj Benacerraf (1920-) George Davis Snell (1903-96) Robert Zajonc (1923-2008) David Botstein (1942-) Ronald W. Davis (1941-) W. Ford Doolittle (1941-) and Carmen Sapienza Leslie Orgel (1927-2007) Francis H.C. Crick (1916-2004) Mark Henry Skolnick (1946-) Martin J. Cline (1934-) Lawrence Arthur Cremin (1925-90) Jean Dausset (1916-2009) Martin Feldstein (1939-) Charles Horioka (1956-) Marilyn Ferguson (1938-2008) Lawrence R. Klein (1920-) Alan Harvey Guth (1947-) Andrei Linde (1948-) John Searle (1932-) David Cope (1941-) Michael Crichton (1942-2008) Duncan Haldane (1951-) Mordehai Milgrom (1946-) Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002) Carol W. Greider (1961-), Jack William Szostak (1952-), and Elizabeth Helen Blackburn (1948-) Eric F. Wieschaus (1947-) Michael Harner (1929-) David I. Kertzer (1948-) Edward B. Lewis (1918-2004) Mahbub ul Haq (1934-98) Susan Wyckoff Peter A. Wehinger (1938-2015) Klaus von Klitzing (1943-) Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (1942-) Norman E. Shumway (1923-2006) George Streisinger (1927-84) Paul B. MacCready (1925-2007) Adolpho J. de Bold (1942-) Angus Deaton (1945-) John Muellbauer Eric Richard Kandel (1929-) Frederick Reines (1918-98) Harald Sonnenberg Julian Lincoln Simon (1932-98) Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-) Dan Millman (1946-) Bert Parks (1914-92) Marge Piercy (1936-) Carl Sagan (1934-96) Lester Thurow (1938-) Jakob von Uexkill John Paul DeJoria (1944-) Bill Gates (1955-) Bill Gates (1955-) John Roberts Opel (1925-2011) Mary Maxwell Gates (1929-94) Gary Kildall (1942-94) Tim Paterson (1956-) Cecil Wayne Ratliff (1946-) Sir Clive Sinclair (1940-2021) Sinclair ZX80/ZX81, 1980/1981 Renata Adler (1938-) Bruce Wayne Bastian (1948-) Alan C. Ashton (1942-) Jean Marie Auel (1936-) Toni Cade Bambara (1939-95) Julian Barnes (1946-) Gregory Bateson (1904-80) Ann Beattie (1947-) Thomas Berger (1924-) Pierre Berton (1920-2004) 'The Official Preppy Handbook' by Lisa Birnbach (1957-), 1980 Howard Brenton (1942-) Mary Whitehouse (1910-2001) Tolly Burkan (1948-) Mary Higgins Clark (1927-) Philip Caputo (1941-) Jared Carter (1939-) Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio (1940-) Jude Deveraux (1947-) Umberto Eco (1932-) Felipe, Prince of Asturias (1968-) Milton Friedman (1912-2006) Rose Friedman (1910-2009) John Hart Ely (1938-2003) Joseph Epstein (1937-) Barry Gifford (1946-) Herbert Gold (1924-) Russell Hoban (1925-) Robert Hughes (1938-) Haynes Johnson (1931-) Pauline Kael (1919-2001) Dean Koontz (1945-) Elmore Leonard (1925-2013) Audre Lorde (1934-92) Mark Medoff (1940-) Czeslaw Milosz (1911-2004) Lisel Mueller (1924-) Larry Niven (1938-) Sharon Olds (1942-) Robert Patrick (1937-) Michael Eugene Porter (1947-) Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri (1951-) James Marcus Schuyler (1923-91) Sidney Sheldon (1917-2007) Jane Smiley (1949-) Gilbert Sorrentino (1929-2006) Dale Spender (1943-) Graham Swift (1949-) Lester Thurow (1938-) John Kennedy Toole (1937-69) Paul West (1930-) Dr. Ruth Westheimer (1928-) Marguerite Yourcenar (1903-87) Marguerite Yourcenar (1903-87) Howard Zinn (1922-2010) Alfred Hitchcock (1899-1980) Char Margolis (1951-) Tom Hanks (1956-) 'Mister Cool' Steve McQueen (1930-80) Anne-Sophie Mutter (1963-) Mark William Morris (1956-) 'Solid Gold', 1980-88 Darcel Wynne (1951-) Edward Paul Abbey (1927-89) Paloma Picasso (1949-) Michael Medved (1948-) Willy Russell (1947-) Thomas Sowell (1930-) Sir Edward Downes (1924-2009) AC/DC Bryan Adams (1959-) GG Allin (1956-93) Bauhaus Pat Benatar (1953-) Berlin Elvis Costello (1954-) The Cramps Devo J. Geils Band Loverboy Van Halen The Vapors INXS, featuring Michael Hutchence (1960-97) La Toya Jackson (1956-) Joan Jett (1958-) Billy Joel (1949-) George Jones (1931-) Grace Jones (1948-) 'Double Fantasy' by John Lennon (1940-80) and Yoko Ono (1933-), 1980 'John and Yoko', by Annie Leibovitz (1949-), 1980 Annie Leibovitz (1949-) Huey Lewis (1950-) and the News Adam and the Ants Irene Cara (1959-) The Cure Dexys Midnight Runners Joy Division Dead Kennedys Kool and the Gang Oingo Boingo Split Enz Iron Maiden Bette Midler (1945-) Stephanie Mills (1957-) Anne Murray (1945-) Willie Nelson (1933-) New Order OMD (Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark) Ozzy Osbourne (1948-) The Pointer Sisters The Pretenders REO Speedwagon XTC Eddie Rabbitt (1941-98) Kenny Rogers (1938-) Linda Ronstadt (1946-) The Romantics Rush The Scorpions Siouxsie Sioux (1957-) The Smithereens Spizzenergi Air Supply U2 The Undertones Steve Winwood (1948-) Grover Washington Jr. (1943-99) Bill Withers (1938-) Echo and the Bunnymen Rocky Burnette (1953-) Lipps Inc. Benny Mardones (1946-) Felix Cavaliere (1944-) Raffi Cavoukian (1948-) Gower Champion (1919-80) Waltraud Meier (1956-) Wright Morris (1910-98) David Del Tredici (1937-) Roadrunner Records 'Bosom Buddies', 1980-2 'Magnum, P.I.' starring Tom Selleck (1945-), 1980-8 'Magnum, P.I.' starring Tom Selleck (1945-), 1980-8 '42nd Street', 1980 '9 to 5', 1980 'Altered States', 1980 'American Gigolo', 1980 'The Blue Lagoon', 1980 'The Blues Brothers', 1980 'Breaker Morant', 1980 'Bronco Billy', 1980 'Caddyshack', 1980 'Cannibal Holocaust', 1980 'Coal Miners Daughter', 1980 Michael Apted (1941-) 'The Final Countdown', 1980 'Friday the 13th', 1980 Jason Vorhees 'Hangar-18', 1980 'The Long Good Friday', 1980 'Ordinary People', 1980 'Private Benjamin', starring Goldie Hawn (1945-), 1980) 'Prom Night', 1980 'Saturn 3', 1980 'Tenspeed and Brown Shoe', 1980 'Terror Train', 1980 'Too Close for Comfort', 1980-6 'The Shining', 1980 'The Shining', 1980 Stephen King (1947-) Diane Arbus (1923-71) 'Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J.' by Diane Arbus, 1967 'Self-Portrait' by Martin Kippenberger (1953-97), 1980 'Self-Portrait' by Alice Neel (1900-84), 1980 'Star Wars V: The Empire Strikes Back', 1980 'Urban Cowboy', 1980 Richard Pryor (1940-2005) 'Emotional Rescue' by the Rolling Stones, 1980 'California Scenario' by Isamu Noguchi (1904-88), 1980 Yugo, 1980-2008 Pac-Man, 1980 James Cameron (1954-) Simcha Jacobovici (1953-) Talpiot Tomb Strawberry Shortcake John Mackey (1953-) Whole Foods Market, 1980 Donald Trump (1946-) Grand Hyatt Hotel, New York, 1980- Robert Harold Schuller (1926-) Crystal Cathedral, 1980 Helmut Jahn (1940-) Xerox Center, 1980 Reunion Arena, 1980-2008 Yanjing Beer

1980 Doomsday Clock: 7 min. to midnight. Chinese Year: Monkey (Feb. 16). Time Mag. Man of the Year: Ronald Reagan (1911-2004). This is the first year when global warming effects become noticeable?; this year the yearly number of wildfires in Calif. reaches a peak, bottoming-out in ? The Twentieth (20th) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 226,545,805 in a land area of 3,618,770 sq. mi., giving a pop. density of 62.6 per sq. mi; white pop. is 85.9% , all of them all-time highs, except the last; pop. of Washington, D.C. area: 3M; the Japanese birthrate falls to a record low of 13.66 per thousand; meanwhile the govt. of Australia stinks itself up by injecting Aborigine women with the synthetic hormone Depo-Provera without their knowledge for contraception; Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping begins the "temporary" One Child Policy, with violators put in makeshift underground jails up to 35 days to scare them to quit doing the wild thing ithout safe sex; too bad, a daughter who marries doesn't have to take care of her parents, causing a return of infanticide aided by ultrasound machines; sole sons become known as "Little Emperors"; too bad, family-planning bureaucrats in many areas are milked by corrupt higher-ups, ordered to bring in $1K+ U.S. a mo. by selling birth permits, and accept baksheesh, causing births to be underreported, so that by 2000 a State Planning Commission senior official concedes that only 60M of China's 300M children under age 14 are from 1-child families; the Chinese fertility rate drops from 6.45 children per woman in 1968 to 2.24 this year. Large numbers of Middle Easterners (many Muslim) begin immigrating to the U.S.; Muslims begin immigrating to Catalonia, Spain, reaching 4%-6% of the pop. by 2005, and openly talking about reversing the Reconquista - play the Darth Vader music? 21,147 Jews emigrate from the Soviet Union via the exit route of Vienna, Austria, down from 51,320 last year. U.S. prices rise 12.4% this year, compared to 13.3% in 1979; a 2nd quarter recession cuts real output by 9.9%; oil prices reach a peak of $68 a barrel during the Iran-Iraq War, throwing the economies of oil-dependent countries into recession; the U.S. recession lasts from June 1981 to Dec. 1982; after the North Sea fields begin producing, prices return to the $20 a barrel level by 1986; Japan oil imports cost $39.5B for the fiscal year ending Mar. 31, causing a record $14.4B trade deficit for the year (vs. $13.4B in 1979); U.S. oil avgs. $22 a barrel (vs. $8.57 in 1977), and the oil industry drills a record 59,107 wells (vs. 27.3K in 1971 and 58,160 in 1956); proven domestic U.S. petroleum reserves fall to 27B (vs. 39B in 1970); U.S. gas prices avg. $1.20-$1.23 per gal. (vs. 66% in 1978); Saudi Arabia pumps 9.5M barrels a day (vs. 8.5B in 1979); U.S. air fuel prices climb to $1 from 57 cents a gal., causing passenger mi. flown to fall 5% and major U.S. airlines to lose $200M (vs. $1.4B profits in 1978 and $215M in 1979). 36M Americans receive monthly Social Security checks, 26M receive Medicare benefits, 22M receive Medicaid benefits, 18M receive food stamps, 15M receive veterans' benefits, 11M receive Aid to Families with Dependent Children (ADC), 27M children benefit from school lunch programs, and 11M college students receive federal college aid; good luck Ronald Reagan? 19% of U.S. families headed by women live in poverty (vs. 38% in 1970 and 50% in 1960). The percentage of women in the workforce in Western countries rises to 52% from 45% in 1960; Japan sees a slide to 54.9% from 60.1% in 1960 as less women are employed in agriculture. Unemployment in Britain rises above 2M for the first time since 1935, reaching 2.5M by the end of the year (vs. 800K in 1975); industrial output falls by 5%, while inflation exceeds 20%. West Germany has a currency deficit of $14.2B (vs. $5.4B in 1979 and a $9B surplus in 1978); the German mark falls 15% in relation to the U.S. dollar. Poland sees Western debts soar to $23B and industrial output fall 1.3%; avg. monthly wages rise 20% to $207, while inflation-adjusted personal income rises only 1%. Japanese auto production rises to 11M cars and trucks (10% more than 1979), passing U.S. auto production (7.8M) for the first time (30% less than 1979); U.S. sales of domestic cars fall 20% since last year, while sales of imported cars fall 15.2%, but comprise 25% of the U.S. market, 78% of them Japanese; the cost of retooling for smaller more fuel efficient cars to meet Japanese competition causes Chrysler Corp. to lose $1.8B and Ford Motor Corp. $1.5B, the largest by an U.S. corps. so far; GM loses $763M; British Leyland loses $1.2B (vs. $372M in 1979), and reduces its workforce from 155K to 130K; in Aug. Japanese imports outsell Leyland cars in Britain for the first time, causing them on Oct. 8 to introduce the subcompact 3-door 4-speed front-wheel-drive hatchback Austin Mini Metro (miniMETRO) as a replacement for the outdated smaller Mini (launched 1959), giving 46.1 mpg city, 63.7 mph highway. World grain production (metric tons): wheat: 445M, rice: 400M, maize: 392M, barley: 162M, millet/sorghum: 87M, oats: 43M, rye: 27M, buckwheat 2M; Saudi Arabia begins ramping up agricultural production, with 67K hectares of land under cultivation growing to 907K hectares in 1993, and avg. production per farm growing from 2.2 tons of wheat perhectare this year to 5.19 tons in 2005; producing 148K tons of wheat in 1981 and 4.1M tons in 1993, with wheat exports growing from 2.4 tons in 1978 to 1M tons in 2000; too bad, in 2007 the govt. announces a phasing-out of handouts to the agricultural sector, to be completed in 2016. Britain has 133K full-time farm workers (vs. 563K in 1945). U.S. cigarette sales: 614.5B; low-tar brands account for 49%, up from 16% in 1976; smoking since 1970 has dropped 28% among men 20+-y.-o., 20% among teenage boys, 13% among adult women, but risen 51% among teenage girls since 1968. Rum outsells vodka and whiskey in the U.S. for the first time since the early 19th cent. U.S. handguns in circulation: 55M; handgun killings per day avg.: 29; federally-licensed gun dealers: 175K. There are only eight craft breweries in the U.S. In this decade the U.S. govt. sets up the Main Core secret database of citizens it considers to be a threat to nat. security? In this decade the Polder Model of consensus-based socioeconomic policy making, based on the need of Middle Age holders of polders (land reclaimed from the sea) to cooperate even during war is implemented in the Netherlands (ends 2000); the term "poldermodel" is coined by Dutch politician Ina Brouwer in her 1990 article "Socialism as Poldermodel". In this decade Yuppies (Yumpies) (young urban professionals) (young upwardly-mobile professionals) begin appearing in the U.S., consisting of Baby Boomers who have outgrown the hippie thang and joined the system, climbing the corporate ladder while doing it on their own terms, such as wearing casual clothes to work and demanding on-site child care and fitness facilities. In this decade Breakdancing (Breaking) (B-Boying) is invented by African-Am. and Puerto Rican street youths in New York City, spreading worldwide; moves incl. toprock, downrock, power moves, and freezes; it is danced to hip-hop, funk music, and breakbeats. On Jan. 1 USC defeats Ohio State by 17-16 to win the 1980 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 1 the Swedish Act of Succession becomes effective, making the monarch's eldest child heir to the throne, regardless of gender; Princess Victoria (1977-) is first in line. On Jan. 1 near San Francisco the barge Kona smashes ashore between Point Bonita and Bird Rock, while the barge Agattu crashes on the rocks near Cronkhite Beach. On Jan. 1 British soldiers mistakenly kill two undercover soldiers while setting up an ambush near infamous Forkill in County Armagah, Northern Ireland. On Jan. 2 Pres. Carter asks the Senate to delay ratification of the arms treaty in response to the Soviet action in Afghanistan. On Jan. 2 the U.S. Drug Abuse Prevention, Treatment and Rehabilitation Act of 1979 is enacted, mandating that 10% of the budget of the Nat. Inst. of Drug Abuse (NIDA) be spent on drug prevention programs. On Jan. 3 Czech wildlife conservationist Joy Adamson (b. 1910), author of Born Free (1960) is murdered in N Kenya; in 1981 her servant, Turkana tribesman Nakware Ekai is convicted and sentenced to life, then recants his confession in 2005 - call in the conspiracy theorists? On Jan. 4 in response to the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Pres. Carter announces a U.S. boycott of the Moscow Olympics and a partial (not covered by the 1975 agreement) 17M metric ton embargo of U.S. grain sales to the Soviet Union, which has its 2nd straight bad harvest, causing Argentina to take up the slack; later in Jan. Coca-Cola announces that it will substitute high-fructose corn syrup for half the sucrose because of Carter's embargo, which causes lower U.S. corn prices, helping them offset higher sugar prices which reach 24 cents per lb. by June, up 60% from 1979. On Jan. 4 pres. (since June 3) Mohamed Mahmoud Ould Louly resigns, and PM Lt. Col. Mohammed Khouna Ould Haidallah (1940-) becomes pres. of the military junta in Mauritania (until Dec. 12, 1984). On Jan. 6 (00:00 UTC) the time epoch for the Global Positioning System begins. On Jan. 6 33 mo. after a humiliating defeat, Indira Gandhi's Congress Party wins elections in India after her youngest son Sanjay Gandhi (b. 1946) engineers it; on Jan. 14 Indian PM #3 (1966-7) Indira Gandhi becomes PM #6 of India (until Oct. 31, 1984); too bad, Sanjay is convicted of profiteering from an automobile project, and dies along with his flight instructor on June 23 while doing illegal aerial acrobatics. On Jan. 6 Sicilian pres. (since ?) Piersanti Mattarella is murdered by the Mafia - big surprise? On Jan. 7 after a plea to Congress late in 1979 by new Chrysler Corp. chmn. Lee Iacocca (1924-), Pres. Carter signs the U.S. Chrysler Corp. Loan Guarantee Act, giving them $1.2B in federal loan guarantees to offset their $1.1B in 1979 losses - like Maytag, I want one with a lot more capacity? On Jan. 9 Saudi Arabia beheads 63 people in towns across the country for their roles in the Nov. 1979 raid on the Grand Mosque in Mecca. On Jan. 11 Honda announces that it will build Japan's first U.S. passenger car assembly plant in Marysville, Ohio - ohio gozaimasu? On Jan. 11 Canadian newspaper mogul Kenneth R. Thomson, Lord Thomson of Fleet (1923-2006) gains control of the Toronto Globe and Mail along with seven other Canadian newspapers, giving him control of a total of 127; on Aug. 27 he shuts down the Ottawa Journal (founded 1885), while the same day another publisher shuts down the Winnipeg Tribune (founded 1990), and Thomson buys its fixed assets for $2.25M Canadian. On Jan. 13 the U.S. offers Pakistan a 2-year aid plan to counter the Soviet threat in Afghanistan; on Jan. 14 the U.N. votes 104-18 to deplore the Soviet acts in Afghanistan. On Jan. 15-31 Tropical Cyclone Hyacinthe forms NE of Mauritius and moves W-SW, passing N of Reunion and S of E Madagascar, dropping 3.3 ft. (1m) of rain on Reunion, and 239.5 in. (6.083m) of rainfail on Commerson's Crater, becoming the wettest tropical cyclone on record (until ?), destroying 2K houses and causing $167M damage. On Jan. 16 Beatle Paul McCartney is jailed in Tokyo for 10 days for possession of a half lb. of marijuana, then released and deported on Jan. 25. On Jan. 16 Walter Cronkite, who ends the CBS Evening News with "And that's the way it is", begins adding the length of the Iran hostages' captivity, beginning with "Day 50", ending on Jan. 20, 1981 with "Day 444". On Jan. 17 an IRA bomb prematurely explodes on Dunmurry Train near Belfast, killing three and injuring five. On Jan. 18 Studio 54 owners Steve Rubell and Ian Schrager are sentenced to three years in prison and fined $20K for tax evasion. On Jan. 20 Super Bowl XIV (14) (1980) is held at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, Calif. in front of a record crowd of 103,985, with Steelers fan waving terrible towels; the Pittsburgh Steelers (AFC) defeat the Los Angeles Rams (NFC) 31-19, with MVP QB (2nd time) (#12) Terry Paxton Bradshaw (1948-) throwing a 73-yard scoring strike to WR (#82) John Lee "Johnny" Stallworth (1952-) (which never worked in practice), clinching it; a record 4th SB win for the Steelers in six years, who now begin a long drought (until 2006). On Jan. 20 the bleachers at a bull ring in Sincelejo, Colombia collapse, killing 222. On Jan. 21 the price of gold peaks at a record $850 per oz., falling to $600/oz. by the end of the year. On Jan. 21 an Iran Air Boeing 727 crashes into the mountains near Laskgarak, Iran, killing all 128 aboard. On Jan. 21 the MS Athina B is beached in Brighton, England, becoming a temporary tourist attraction. On Jan. 22 Soviet dissidents Andrei Sakharov and Jelena Bonner are arrested in Moscow, and banished from the Soviet Union to the remote city of Gorki. On Jan. 24 in reaction to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the U.S. announces its intentions to sell arms to China. On Jan. 24 the bankrupt Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad is ordered liquidated to pay its creditors; its final train runs on Mar. 31. On Jan. 25 Abolhassan Bani-Sadr (1933-) is elected as Iran's first pres. since the 1979 Islamic Rev.; he is sworn-in on Feb. 4 (until June 21, 1981). On Jan. 26 Israel and Egypt establish diplomatic relations; to grease, er, encourage it the U.S. begins giving $3B a year in aid to Egypt (until ?), which the Egyptians take for the infidel jizya tax, exhibiting no gratitude? On Jan. 27 the Canadian Caper sees six U.S. diplomats who avoided being taken hostage pose as Canadians and escape from Tehran, Iran on a flight to Zurich with the help of Canadian diplomat Kenneth Douglas "Ken" Taylor (1934-) et al. On Jan. 27 Stephen J. Cannell's comedy detective series Tenspeed and Brown Shoe debuts on ABC-TV for 14 episodes (until June 27, 1980), starring Ben Vereen (Benjamin Augustus Middleton) (1946-) as hustler-on-parole E.L. (Early Leroy) "Tenspeed" Turner, and Jeffrey Lynn "Jeff" Goldblum (1952-) as accountant Lionel "Brownshoe" Whitney (lover of Mark Savage mysteries), who team up with their own detective agency in Los Angeles, Calif., becoming the first series from Stephen J. Cannell Productions. On Jan. 30 the first-ever Chinese Olympic team arrives in New York City for the Winter Games. On Jan. 31 the Spanish embassy in Guatemala is invaded and set on fire, killing 36, causing it to be called "Spain's own Tehran". In Jan. Robert L. Johnson launches Black Entertainment TV (BET). In Jan. "Star Wars" composer John Williams (1932-) is named conductor #19 of the Boston Pops Orchestra (founded 1885). In Jan. Serra Palada (Bald Mt.) Gold Field in Brazil 270 mi. S of the mouth of the Amazon River is discovered after a tree falls over in the rain on the farm of Genesio Ferreira da Silva, after which 1K garimpeiros (prospectors) arrive in 1 week and 22K in five weeks; prospector Jose Maria da Silva (1946-) discovers 22 lb. of gold in Apr. followed by 700 lb. on Sept. 1 alone, becoming known as the King of Serra Palada, causing the govt. to limit the area to Brazilians, who end up digging a huge pit by hand, as featured in the film "Powaqqatsi". On Feb. 2-3 overcrowded New Mexico State Penitentiary S of Santa Fe riots, taking 12 officers hostage, leaving 33 inmates killed (some of ODs), and 200+ wounded (100+ seriously) by fellow prisoners, along with $25M property damage. On Feb. 3 reports surface that the FBI had conducted a sting operation targeting members of Congress using phony Arab businessmen in what becomes known as Abscam, a codename protested by Arab-Americans. On Feb. 3 boxer Muhammad Ali tours Africa as Pres. Carter's envoy. On Feb. 4 Syria withdraws its peacekeeping force from Beirut. On Feb. 8 Pres. Carter unveils a plan to reintroduce draft registration; on June 27 he signs the legislation, and on July 21 registration begins in the U.S. for 4M 19-y.-o. and 20-y.-o. men - you don't have to thank me? On Feb. 12 a bus plunges into the Marica River near Sofia, Bulgaria, killing 25 of 51. On Feb. 13 Pres. Carter gives a press conference on the Iranian hostage crisis, being asked "Do you think it was proper for the United States to restore the Shah to the throne in 1953 against the popular will within Iran?", uttering the soundbyte: "That's ancient history, and I don't think it's appropriate or helpful for me to go into the propriety of something that happened 30 years ago." On Feb. 13-24 the XIII (13th) Winter Olympics are held in Lake Placid, N.Y. (first time 1932); cuddly bear Misha is the mascot; 1,072 athletes from 37 nations compete in 38 events in six sports; the first use of artificial snow in an Olympics; the People's Repub. of China returns after the IOC agrees to call the other China "Chinese Taipei"; the Soviet Union wins the games with 22 medals (10 gold, 6 silver, 6 bronze); on Feb. 15 Eric Heiden (1958-) of the U.S. sets an Olympic speedskating record in the 500m, and another on Feb. 16 in the 5K, then tops it off with his 5th speedskating gold on Feb. 23 in the 10K, setting another record (a record for a single Winter Olympics in speed skating); on Feb. 22 the Miracle on Ice sees a stunning semifinal round 4-3 upset by the U.S. Olympic hockey team, coached by Herbert Paul "Herb" Brooks (1937-2003) over the Soviets, after which they go on to win the gold on Feb. 24 by defeating Finland 4-2. On Feb. 14 the Solar Maximum (SolarMax) satellite is launched by NASA to monitor the Sun and its flares at an orbit of 400 mi. above the Earth; in Nov. its attitude control system fails, but it is repaired and launched by the Space Shuttle in Apr. 1984, then is destroyed by a massive solar flare on Dec. 2, 1989. On Feb. 14-29 elections in Zimbabwe give Maoist Robert Gabriel Mugabe (1924-2019) and his Zimbabwe African Nat. Union Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) party 57 of the 80 (out of 100) assembly seats reserved for blacks, 70% of whom speak Shona; early favorite Joshua Mqabuko Nyongolo Nkomo (1917-99) and his Zimbabwe African People's Union Patriotic Front (ZAPU-PF) party (mainly from the Ndbele tribe) win 20 seats, and Bishop Abel Muzorewa's United African Nat. Council wins three seats; the Rhodesian Front wins all 20 seats reserved for whites (230K, vs. 7M blacks); on Mar. 3 Mugabe is elected PM of Zimbabwe (until ?); on Apr. 18 after Mugabwe lies and pledges support for continuation of its free market economy, Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) gains formal independence from Britain, Methodist minister and pres.-elect #1 (until Dec. 31, 1987) Canaan Sodindo Banana (1936-2003) is handed the symbols of independence by Prince Charles, and Mugabe is knighted by Elizabeth II; too bad, in 1987 Banana is arrested for sodomy, flees to South Africa, and returns in Dec. 1998 to face trial, drawing a 10-year sentence on Jan. 18, 1999, and serving 6 mo. after being defrocked - peeled or unpeeled? On Feb. 15 followers of the John Frum Cargo Cult on Tanna Island in Vanuatu (founded 1941) declares independence as the nation of Tanna; the Anglo-French Condominium suppresses it on June 24, 1974; on Jan. 1, 1980 they try again as the nation of Tafea (Tanna, Aniwa, Futuna, Erromango, Aneityum Islands), and the Britis intervene on May 26, 1980, forcing them to join the new nation of Vanuatu on July 30, 1980. On Feb. 16 a total solar eclipse is visible in N Africa and W Asia. On Feb. 16 the Rome Metro A (Red) Subway Line between Cinecetta and Ottaviano opens, becoming more popular than the B (Blue) Line opened in 1955 that is plagued with crime. On Feb. 18 the Liberal Party wins elections in Canada, ousting Joe Clark and the Progressive Conservative Party after less than 9 mo.; on Mar. 3 former PM #15 (1968-79) Pierre Elliott Trudeau (1919-2000) becomes PM of Canada again (until June 30, 1984). On Feb. 18 two buses collide head-on in San Isidro, Costa Rica, killing 16 and injuring 39. On Feb. 18 Polish PM (since Dec. 23, 1970) Gen. Piotr Jaroszewicz resigns over accusations of economic mismanagement, corruption, and abuse of power. On Feb. 19 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 464 to admit Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; on July 30 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 477 to admit Zimbabwe. On Feb. 22 Afghanistan declares martial law. On Feb. 23 an oil tanker explosion off Pilos, Greece causes a 37M gal. spill - that's a pile o' grease? Suriname takes a boot on the chin? On Feb. 23 Ayatollah Khomeini announces that only the Iranian parliament can decide the fate of the U.S. hostages. On Feb. 25 a pre-dawn military coup in Paramaribo, Suriname by a 16-man junta of army sgts. led by former military sports instructor Lt. Col. Desire (Desiré) Delano "Desi" (Dési) Bouterse (1945-) and Roy Horb overthrows the govt. of PM Henck Arron (until 1988); on Mar. 15 civilian Hendrich Rudolf Chin A Sen (1934-99) becomes PM (until Apr. 2, 1982); on Aug. 13 another military coup deposes pres. Johan Ferrier in favor of Chen, who abolishes the 39-member nat. assembly and replaces it with a military council; on Aug. 17 council chmn. Sgt. Chas Nelson Mijnals (1947-) and other member are arrested for planning a takeover; Mijnals is succeeded by Lt. Ivan Graanoogst, who becomes Bouterse's puppet; in 1999 Bouterse is convicted in absentia in Netherlands of drug trafficking. On Feb. 25 Yes Minister debuts on BBC-TV for 21 episodes (until Dec. 23, 1982), starring Paul Eddington as idealistic MP Right Hon. James Hacker, new minister of admin. affairs, and Nigel Hawthorne as Sir Humphrey Appleby. On Feb. 26 Egypt and Israel exchange ambassadors for the first time. On Feb. 27-Apr. 27 the 1980 Dominican Embassy Siege by 17 M-19 (Apr. 19) guerrillas in Bogota, Colombia sees them dress up in jogging clothes and crash a celebration of independence day, taking 60 hostages incl. 14 ambassadors for 61 days as leader Rosemberg Pabon (Pabón) (1950-) AKA Commandante Uno demands $50M ransom and the release of 311 jailed comrades, lowering it to $10M and 70; on Apr. 27 the 16 remaining guerrillas leave the embassy with 12 remaining diplomats and board a Cubana Airlines flight to Cuba, being cheered at both ends them releasing the diplomats in Havana; Pabon returns to Columbia after the govt. signs a peace treaty with M-19 in Mar. 1990, going on become mayor of Yumbo after M-19 turns into a political party. On Mar. 1 0.25 in. of snow falls in hot humid Fla. On Mar. 1 the Commonwealth Trade Union Council (CTUC) is established in Britain. On Mar. 1 NASA's Voyager 1 confirms the existence of Saturn's moon Janus. On Mar. 1 the children's TV series Strawberry Shortcake debuts for 50 episodes (until 1983), designed in 1977 by Am. Greetings employee Muriel Fahrion for greeting cards; her cat is named Custard; Strawberry Shortcake Toys are marketed by Kenner. On Mar. 3 France performs a nuclear test at Muruora Island; on Mar. 23 it performs another nuclear test. On Mar. 3 after political parties gain limited freedom, the nat. assembly elects Gen. Prem Tinsulanonda (Tinsulananda) (1920-) as PM of Thailand (until Apr. 28, 1988). On Mar. 3 a city bus catches fire in Minsk, Belarus after driving into gasoline spilled by a fuel truck, killing 23. On Mar. 5 a bus slams into a banyan tree outside Krishnanagar, West Bengal, India, killing 32 and injuring 42. On Mar. 6 Islamic militants in Tehran agree to turn over the U.S. hostages to the Rev. Council, but balk on Mar. 8, causing the plan to fall through; on Mar. 10 Ayatollah Khomeini lends support them. On Mar. 6 Brussels-born bi French "Memoirs of Hadrian" (1951) novelist and animal rights activist Marguerite Yourcenar (1903-87) becomes the first woman elected to the Academie Francaise since its 1635 founding; she is #17 to occupy Seat 3. On Mar. 8 the first-ever rock music festival is held in the Soviet Union. On Mar. 10 The Complete Scarsdale Diet (1979) author, cardiologist, and confirmed bachelor Dr. Herman Tarnower (b. 1910) is shot to death in Purchase, N.Y. by Madeira private school headmistress (Smith College grad) Jean Struven Harris (nee Struven) (1923-2012), his jealous lover of 14 years; after claiming it was an accident, she is convicted and serves almost 12 years in prison before her release in Jan. 1993; "Marriage isn't a natural state of being." (Tarnower) On Mar. 12 a Chicago jury finds John Wayne Gacy Jr. guilty of the murders of 33 men and boys; on Mar. 13 he is sentenced to death; he is finally executed in 1994. On Mar. 13 a jury in Winamac, Ind. finds Ford Motor Co. innocent of reckless homicide in the fiery deaths of three young women riding in a Ford Pinto; the same day Ford chmn. Henry Ford II announces that he is stepping down - broke after paying all those bribes? On Mar. 14 a LOT Polish Airlines Ilyushin 62 crashes during an emergency landing near Warsaw, killing all 87 aboard, incl. 14 boxers and eight officials of a U.S. amateur boxing team. On Mar. 14 former liberal Dem. U.S. rep. (1969-71) Allard Kenneth Lowenstein (b. 1929) is mortally wounded in his New York City law office by a supporter, civil rights activist, and carpenter Dennis Sweeney (1943-), who is declared criminally insane next Feb., and released in 2000. On Mar. 17 Pres. Carter signs the U.S. Refugee Resettlement Act, creating a uniform and effective resettlement and absorption policy, raising the refugee limit from 17.4K to 50K a year and providing wide limit-busting emergency procedures, establishing the Office of U.S. Coordinator for Refugee Affairs and the Office of Refugee Resettlement. On Mar. 18 a Vostok-2M rocket carrying a Tselina satellite explodes during fueling at Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Arkhangelsk Oblast 500 mi. N of Moscow (120 mi. S of Arkhangelsk), killing 50; the Soviet don't admit the existence of the base until 1983. On Mar. 20 the U.S. appeals to the Internat. Court in The Hague about the hostages in Iran - my perfect summer is having everyone over? On Mar. 20 the Mi Amigo, housing the British pirate station Radio Caroline (founded in 1964) sinks; it begins broadcasting on a new ship in 1983. On Mar. 21 Pres. Carter announces to the U.S. Olympic Team that they will not participate in the 1980 Summer Games in Moscow as part of a boycott over Soviet intervention in Afghanistan; on Mar. 24 Australia breaks ranks and announces that it will send a delegation over objections by PM Malcolm Fraser. On Mar. 21 (Fri.) the cliffhanger "Dallas" episode A House Divided is broadcast on CBS-TV, showing love-to-hate-him bad guy J.R. Ewing getting what's coming to him, then asking the question "Who shot J.R.?", and making viewers wait all summer while building up the excitement, only to find it delayed through the fall by a Hollywood actors' strike (until Nov. 21). On Mar. 22 the Mobilization Against the Draft and Draft Registration Rally in San Francisco, Calif. is followed by another march on Mar. 23 in Washington, D.C. attended by 30K to protest Pres. Carter's proposed renewal of draft registration. On Mar. 23 deposed Iranian shah (1941-79) Reza Pahlavi II (b. 1919) arrives in Cairo, Egypt for cancer treatments; on Mar. 28 surgeons remove his enlarged spleen and part of his liver. On Mar. 23 Swedish voters back the development of 12 nuclear power plants and their use for at least 25 years to supply 40% of the nation's energy needs while the search for alternate sources continues. On Mar. 24 ABC-TV's popular nightly (11:30 p.m.) Iran hostage crisis program, anchored by English-born Jewish-Am. journalist Edward James "Ted" Koppel (1940-), which began last Nov. 10 is renamed Nightline; he makes his final appearance on Nov. 22, 2005 - who killed Ted Koppel? On Mar. 24 Communist-friendly Roman Catholic archbishop Oscar Arnulfo Romero (1917-) is assassinated in El Salvador while celebrating Mass, touching off riots; on Mar. 30 42 are killed at his funeral with bullets and bombs. On Mar. 26 Bombay, India gets its first rock concert in 10 years, the Police. On Mar. 26 a mine lift cage at the Vaal Reefs Gold Mine in South Africa falls 1.2 mi., killing 23. On Mar. 27 (Silver Thur.) after peaking at $54 early in the year, the silver bubble collapses as the price of silver plummets 50% in one day from $21.62 to $10.80 an oz.; in Aug. 1988 the Hunt Brothers (Nelson Bunker Hunt, William Herbert Hunt, Lamar Hunt) of Tex. are convicted of conspiring to manipulate the market - not of conspirating to assassinate JFK? On Mar. 27 (Thur.) Mount St. Helens in Washington State (dormant for 123 years) erupts with ash and steam at 1.1K F; a crater forms at the summit and the N flank begins to bulge; on May 18 (8:32 a.m.) it explodes with the force of 500 A-bombs, losing over 1.3K ft. of elevation (9,677 to 8,364) and gaining a 2-mi.-long 1-mi.-wide crater; 57 people are killed or missing; 51M cu. yds. of debris is dumped into the Columbia River. On Mar. 27 the Alexander L. Keilland North Sea floating oilfield platform capsizes during a storm, killing 123 of 212 crew workers. On Mar. 30 the Mormon Church celebrates its 150th anniv. in Salt Lake City - fireworks care of Mt. St. Helens? On Mar. 30 a floating hotel in Stavanger, Norway collapses, killing 123 oil workers. On Mar. 31 Pres. Carter signs the U.S. Depository Institutions Deregulation Act (Banking Deregulation Act), establishing a universal system of banking reserves, and phasing out Regulation Q, removing ceilings on interest paid to small depositors, allowing payment of interest on checking accounts, and deregulating the savings and loan (S&L) industry, authorizing them to issue credit cards et al., leading to a crisis by the end of the decade; Fred Dalton Thompson works as a lobbyist on behalf of the Tenn. Savings and Loan League to get it passed; on Apr. 2 banks raise their prime rate to 20% after the Federal Reserve tightens money; it falls to 12% in Oct. then rises to 21.5% in mid-Dec. In Mar. riot police in Burma kill 200 demonstrators. In Mar. 12-y.-o. Angela Lenair becomes the first female victim of the Atlanta, Ga. child murderer Wayne Bertram Williams (1958-), followed within two weeks by Jeffery Mathis and Eric Middlebrooks, and two girls and 11 boys by the end of the year, causing the black community to become terrorized. On Apr. 1 an assassination attempt against Iraq vice-PM Tariq Aziz (1936-) fails. On Apr. 1-11 the 1980 New York City Transit Strike (first since 1966) over wages for contracted workers sees 34K mass transit workers in New York City go on strike, stopping 6.4K subway cars and 4.5K buses, forcing 5.4M to find other ways to get to work until a 17% raise is agreed to (9% in the first year, 8% in the 2nd year); women begin wearing sneakers to work to walk over the Brooklyn Bridge, and it becomes a habit. On Apr. 1 the South African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) in Lusaka, Zambia is attended by Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. On Apr. 2 Pres. Carter signs the U.S. Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act, applying only to price increases above the controlled levels prior to June 1, 1979, allowing oil cos. to rake in $1T in extra revenues, keeping $221B after taxes. On Apr. 2 the St. Pauls Riot in Bristol, England sees police raid the Black and White Cafe after racial disturbances involving 100-200 black and white youths, arresting 130, with 25 injured, incl. 19 police and press. On Apr. 2 an article in The Washington Post carries the line "It's time to rock and roll. The Town is ours", becoming the first use of rock and roll as a verb. On Apr. 4 Earth First! is founded to promote ecosabotage or monkeywrenching, based on the "Monkey Wrench Gang" novels of Edward Paul Abbey (1927-89). On Apr. 7 the U.S. breaks relations with Iran and imposes economic sanctions. The Soviets go for quantity not quality? On Apr. 9 Soyuz 35 carries Soviet cosmonauts Valery Victorovich Ryumin (1939-) and Leonid Ivanovich Popov (1945-) to space station Salyut 6; on May 26 Soyuz 36 carries cosmonauts Valery Nikolayevich Kubasov (1935-) and Bertalan Farkas (1949-) (first Hungarian and first Esperantist in space) to Salyut 6; they return on Soyuz 35; on June 5 Yuri Vasilievich Malyshev (1941-99) and Vladimir Viktorovich Asksyonov (1935-) are launched on the Soyuz T-2 mission, which docks with Salyut 6; on July 23 Viktor Vassilyevich Gorbatko (1934-) and Phan Tuan (1947-) (first Vietnamese and first non-Russian Asian in space) are launched on Soyuz 37, after which the Soyuz 35 crew returns to Earth after 185 days in orbit; on Sept. 18 Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Victorovitch Romanenko (1944-) and Cuban cosmonaut Arnoldo Tamayo Mendez (1942-) (first black, first Cuban, first Hispanic, and first from a non-U.S. Western Hemisphere country in space) take off on Soyuz 38, docking with Salyut 6; on Nov. 27 Soyuz T-3 launches carrying Leonid Denisovich Kizim (1941-2010), Oleg Grigoryevich Makarov (1933-2003), and Gennadi Mikhailovich Strekalov (1940-2004) (1st 3-person crew since Soyuz 11), docking with Salyut 6 and exchanging crews. On Apr. 10 Spain and the U.K. reopen the border between Spain and Gibraltar that was closed in 1969. On Apr. 11 the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission issues regulations specifically prohibiting sexual harassment of workers by supervisors - except during power blackouts or when it's snowing? On Apr. 12 after the "indigenous" Liberians get pissed-off at the Am.-descent ones, Liberian pres. #20 (since July 23, 1971) William Richard Tolbert Jr. (b. 1913) is ousted in a military coup led by Master Sgt. Samuel Kanyon Doe (1951-90), who becomes pres. #21 of Liberia (until Sept. 9, 1990); on Apr. 12 Tolbert is castrated and has his ears cut off then executed, and and 27 other high officials are executed by firing squad; on Apr. 25 a 17-member people's redemptive council suspends the constitution and assumes absolute power with Doe as pres; an ethnic Krahn, Doe paints his revolt as indigenous versus American imports, who have ruled Liberia with a dem. repub. since its founding in 1847, and the crowds in the streets chant "We are finally free". On Apr. 12 Terrance Stanley "Terry" Fox (1958-81) of Winnipeg, Man., Canada begins his Marathon of Hope, dipping his artificial right leg (amputed from cancer) into the Atlantic at St. John's Newfoundland, then running across Canada to raise $20M for cancer research, running one marathon (26.2 mi.) each day; on Sept. 1 after bone cancer lumps are found in his lungs he is forced to stop NE of Thunder Bay, Ont. after 143 days and 3,339 mi. (23.3 mi. per day avg.); spawns the 1983 Ralph L. Thomas TV movie The Terry Fox Story, starring real-life amputee Eric Fryer. On Apr. 13 Grease closes at the Broadhurst Theater in New York City after 3,388 perf. On Apr. 14 the 52nd Academy Awards in Los Angeles are hosted by Johnny Carson and Miss Piggy; best picture Oscar for 1979 goes to Columbia Pictures' Kramer vs. Kramer, along with best actor to Dustin Hoffman, best supporting actress to Meryl Streep (who leaves her Oscar in the waiting room?), and best dir. to Robert Benton; best actress goes to Sally Field for Norma Rae, and best supporting actor goes to Melvyn Douglas for Being There. On Apr. 15 after 10.8K Cubans crowd into the Peruvian embassy in Havana and Fidel the King of Great Deals Castro says that anyone can leave Cuba through the port of Mariel, the massive Mariel Boatlift from Mariel Harbor, Cuba to Fla. of 125K people in 1.7K boats begins; too bad, on Oct. 31 Fidel changes his mind and closes the port of Mariel, leaving 375K unable to get out of his Commie Paradise, after which the U.S. reciprocates and prohibits further immigration from Cuba; despite claims of Castro emptying his jails of undesirables, only 2,746 are denied U.S. citizenship. On Apr. 22 the overloaded Philippine luxury passenger ferry M.V. Don Juan collides with the govt. oil tanker M.T. Talcloban City near Mindoro Island while the Capt. is playing mahjong and drinking beer; there are 745 survivors, 18 killed, and 115 missing from the luxury ship. On Apr. 24 the Dow Jones Industrial Avg. closes at a year low of 759.13. On Apr. 24 the U.S. attempts Operation Desert One (Eagle Claw), a rescue of the 53 Iranian hostages by 90 commandos in six C-130 transport planes, which take off from S Egypt and land 300 mi. SE of Tehran; too bad, it fails when three helis are damaged in a sandstorm and a 4th heli collides on the ground with a C-130, killing eight; on Apr. 25 Pres. Carter announces the disaster on TV; Ayatollah Khomeini threatens to kill the hostages if the U.S. tries another "silly maneuver"; in Oct. the failure causes the super-elite do-it-all SEAL Team Six to be founded in Dam Neck, Va. for counterterrorist ops; by 2011 there are 300 members; meanwhile after Pres. Carter pressures him into surrendering the Sinai in exchange for a peace treaty with Egypt, causing him to fear that he will also force him to accept a Palestinian state, Israeli PM Menachem Begin shifts Israel's political support to Repub. candidate Ronald Reagan, helping insure Carter's lopsided defeat?; the CIA and Israeli Likud begin plotting to oust Carter, leading to the October Surprise Conspiracy? On Apr. 24 the 1980 Penn. Lottery Scandal (Triple Six Fix) sees six men exposed for rigging it incl. TV drawing host Nick Perry (1916-2003) after the improbable number 666 is drawn; they rigged the balls so that mostly 4s and 6s came up. On Apr. 25 a chartered Dan-Air Flight 1008 (Boeing 727) carrying 138 British vacationers and a crew of eight crashes into the mountains near Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands on landing approach, killing all 146 aboard, becoming the most fatal British-registered aircraft disaster (until ?). On Apr. 26 the St. Kilda Mum Mystery sees recently divorced Louise Yvonne Faulkner (b. 1937) and her 2-y.-o. daughter Charmian Faulkner (b. 1977) disappear from outside their residence in St. Kilda, Victoria, Australia; the case isn't solved until ?. On Apr. 28 Pres. Carter accepts the resignation of secy. of state (since 1977) Cyrus Vance, who had opposed the failed Iran hostage rescue mission - and is now free to bail out before the fit hits the shan? On Apr. 30 the 1980 Iranian Embassy Siege sees six Iranian-born Arab separatist terrorists seize the Iranian embassy in London and capture 26 hostages; on May 5 after five hostages are released, British commandos storm the bldg. and end the siege, killing five of them and rescuing 19 hostages; Fowzi Nejad, the only terrorist survivor, who posed as a hostage and was escorted from the embassy before being found out pleads guilty to double manslaughter next Jan. 22 and gets a life sentence, after which he is released on Nov. 2008 and allowed to stay in England. On Apr. 30 Queen (since 1948) Juliana (b. 1909) of the Netherlands abdicates on her 71st birthday, and her daughter Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard (1938-) is crowned queen of the Netherlands (until ?); her hubby (since 1966) prince Claus van Amsberg (1926-2002) was a member of the Hitler Youth; demonstrations rock Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Utrecht over homeless conditions. In Apr. South Korean Gen. Chun Doo-hwan (1931-) seizes control of the KCIA, setting off demonstrations, growing to 100K on May 15 in Seoul; on May 17 Chun seizes power and announces Martial Law Decree No. 10, closing down all univs. and the Nat. Assembly, and prohibiting political action; on May 18 the Kwangju Massacre sees military paratroopers drop in and slaughter protesting students, causing a gen. revolt by May 21, with more troops arriving on May 27, killing hundreds and wounding or arresting thousands; the Carter admin. approved the plans after being misled by faulty intel on the size of the revolt; on May 31 Chun establishes the joint military-civil Special Committee for Nat. Security Measures; on Aug. 16 the puppet pres. steps down; on Aug. 22 Doo-hwan officially resigns from the military, then is elected pres. on Aug. 25 (until 1988), and gets a new 1980 South Korean Constitution passed in Oct., limiting a pres. to only one term; on Sept. 17 Roman Catholic dissident ("the Nelson Mandela of Asia") Kim Dae-jung (1924-2009) is convicted of sedition and sentenced to death, but after a letter from Pope John Paul II on Dec. 11 asking for clemency, next Jan. 23 his sentence is commuted to 20 years, and he is released in 1982 and exiled to the U.S., returning in 1985 and leading the opposition, becoming pres. in 1998. On May 2 Nepal holds its first election in 22 years, and the voters approve the continued autocratic rule by the king and partyless parliament, but the king promises that eventually a new legislature will be elected that can hold the PM and his cabinet responsible. On May 3 after her 13-y.-o. daughter Cari Lightner is killed by repeat drunk driver Clarence Busch (b. 1934) in Fair Oaks, Calif., who gets a light sentence, Candace Lynne "Candy" Lightner (nee Dodderidge) (1946-) founds Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) (originally Drunk Drivers) in Irving, Tex.; after it becomes too prohibitionist for her taste, advocating a 21-y.-o. legal drinking age et al., she leaves in 1985. On May 4 Yugoslavian (Croat) strongman pres.-PM (since 1943) Marshal Josip Broz Tito (b. 1892) dies three days before his 88th birthday (last WWII leader to die), and a collective presidency rotates annually among the six repubs. and two autonomous provinces of the federal repub. (which doesn't stop the Serbs, Croatians, Montenegrans, Slovenians, and Bosnians from scheming to break away); Tito's funeral is attended by 140+ world leaders, becoming the diplomatic and media event of the cent., only eclipsed by Pope John Paul II's Apr. 2005 funeral; now that atheist Tito has teetered off, religion makes a comeback in Yugoslavia, and until 1984 the govt. attempts to keep them down by arresting and sentencing Catholic and Muslim fundamentalist leaders. On May 4 Pres. Carter inaugurates the U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services (HHS) (Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare since Apr. 11, 1953), followed on May 16 by the U.S. Dept. of Education, which are split out of the old Dept. of Health, Education and Welfare; the Repubs. make the Dept. of Education and its alleged federal intrusion into local school control a campaign issue. On May 5 Pres. Carter says that the Mariel Cubans will be welcomed "with open hearts and open arms." On May 6 Greek PM (since 1974) Konstantine Karamanlis resigns after being elected pres. (until 1985); on May 10 George (Georgios) Ioannou Rallis (1918-2006) becomes PM of Greece (until Oct. 21, 1981). On May 7 Paul Geidel (1894-1987), convicted of 2nd deg. murder is released from prison in Beacon, N.Y. after 68 years 245 days, the longest time served by a U.S. inmate (until ?), with the soundbyte "No publicity please"; he spends the rest of his life in a nursing home in Dutchess County, N.Y. On May 8 Roman Catholic Edmund Sixtus "Ed" Muskie (1914-96) of Maine becomes U.S. secy. of state #58 (until Jan. 20, 1981), the highest U.S. office held by a Polish-Am. On May 8 the World Health Org. (WHO) announces that viral smallpox (variola major) has been eradicated after causing 300M-500M deaths since 1914 by a massive internat. vaccination program; the last known case occurred on Oct. 26, 1977 in Merca District, Somalia; an effective treatment has never been developed? On May 9 Liberian freighter Summit Venture rams the Sunshine Skyway Bridge over Tampa Bay in Fla., causing a 1.4K-ft. section to collapse and killing 35 motorists, most of them passengers in a Greyhound bus. On May 9 (3:40 p.m.) the Norco Shootout sees five heavily-armed bank robbers rob Security Pacific Bank in Norco, Calif., then shoot it out with deputies, stealing a vehicle and fleeing to San Bernardino County, where they ambush pursuing deputies and continue the shootout; two robbers and one deputy are killed, nine deputies are injured, and 30+ police cars are damaged, plus a police heli; two days later three of the four surving robbers are arrested near the ambush, and sentenced to life without parole - there's a place called Hidden Valley where what? On May 9 a plane crash in N.J. kills Turks and Caicos Islands PM #1 (since Aug. 31, 1976) James Alexander George Smith "Jags" McCartney (b. 1945). On May 11 the U.S. expels four Libyans for threatening Libyan students in the U.S. who spoke out against their beloved Col. Muammar al-Gaddafi. On May 11 N.Y. Lucchese crime family mobster Henry Hill Jr. (1943-2012) is arrested for narcotics trafficking, bonds out, and is soon rearrested as a material witness in the Dec. 11, 1978 Lufthansa robbery, deciding to become a rat and join the witness protection program, which leads to 50 convictions, incl. Jimmy Burke and his longtime godfather Paul Vario. On May 12-15 the first nonstop crossing of the U.S. via balloon is made by Maxie Leroy Anderson (1934-83) and his son Kristian; too bad, on June 27, 1983 he dies during a race in W Germany. On May 16 the U.S. EPA reports that it has found chromosomal damage in 36 Love Canal residents, and on May 21 Pres. Carter declares a health emergency, making 810 families eligible for temp. relocation; on Sept. 30 Carter visits Niagara Falls and signs a bill authorizing $15B to purchase Love Canal houses, and on Oct. 1 he signs an order providing for permanent relocation of all families from the area; 733 are relocated, and 67 elect to remain. On May 17 the Maoist Shining Path guerrilla group attacks a polling location in Chuschi, Avacucho, Peru. On May 17-19 the 1980 Miami Riots Fla. in Miami's 40x60 block Liberty City neighborhood (pop. 233K) kill 14 (one of the worst riots in U.S. history); they erupt after an all-white justice-for-the-cops jury in Tampa acquits four former Miami police officers (three white, one Cuban) of fatally beating black insurance exec Arthur McDuffie (1946-79) on Dec. 17, 1979 after he flees an arrest for driving with a suspended motorcycle license, kicking him down and hitting him repeatedly with nightsticks, cracking his skull "like an egg", then attempting a coverup by running over his motorcycle with a police car to make it look like an accident; the lead prosecutor is future U.S. atty. gen. Janet Reno. On May 18 the 3rd govt. of Wilfried Martens (1936-) in Belgium is formed. On May 18 the PRC launches its first intercontinental rocket. On May 18 deposed exiled former pres. #85 (1963-8) Fernando Belaunde (Belaúnde) Terry (1912-2002) is reelected to a 2nd term as pres. of Peru, ending 12 years of military rule and restoring democracy and freedom of the press, although economic problems, strikes and insurgents continue to rock the boat; he becomes Peruvian pres. #88 on July 28 (until July 28, 1985). On May 18-27 the Gwangju (Kwangju) (518) Massacre in South Korea sees 100K townspeople and students begin a 9-day demonstration and uprising against dictator Chun Doo-hwan that is finally bloodily put down by troops, who kill 2K. On May 20 the 1980 Quebec Referendum on sovereignty is defeated by 59.6% to 40.4%; next referendum in 1995. On May 20 a fire at a home for the elderly in Kingston, Jamaica kills 146 of 211 residents, becoming the deadliest fire in a facility for the elderly since 1955 (until ?); another fire on Apr. 23 in St. Jean de Losne, France kills 24 patients, and another on July 14 in Mississauga, Ont., Canada kills 25 of 198 patients. On May 21 Ensign Jean Marie Butler becomes the first woman to graduate from a U.S. service academy as she accepts her degree and commission from the Coast Guard Academy in New London, Conn. On May 22 Bronx, N.Y.-born computer operator Richard Francis Cottingham (1946-) is arrested after a crime spree beginning in 1967-8, killing and dismembering hos in Times Square, and is convicted of five murders while claiming to be responsible for 85-100 murders, becoming known as "the Butcher of Times Square" and "the Times Square/New York Torso Ripper". On May 24 the Internat. Court of Justice in The Hague calls on Iran to release it U.S. hostages, which it rejects. On May 26 after crude oil prices soar above $30 a barrel, OPEC meets in Algiers and sets a $32 per barrel ceiling, with some grades to sell as high as $37; Saudi Arabia tries in vain to talk them into $28; in Oct. they change it to $34 a barrel; on Oct. 31 Saudi Arabia announces that it will cut production by 10% to 8.5M barrels a day because of a market glut; in Nov. Exxon Corp. decides to surrender its interests in Libya, which charges more than other OPEC nations and makes little profit, and on Dec. 21 Libya announces that it is cutting prices by 50 cents to $37 a barrel effective Jan. 1; on Dec. 11 another OPEC meeting in Abu Dhabi decides to lower prices of some inferior grades of oil next Jan. 1. On May 27 the secy.-gen. of the Coca-Cola Workers' Union in Guatemala is murdered by rightists linked to the plant's U.S. owner after he leads a union strike in Apr., becoming the 3rd union member murdered in 18 mo. and sparking an internat. outcry resulting in troop occupation of the plant, recognition of the union, and concessions granted - things go better with Coke? On May 28 Rhodes Scholar Andrea Lee Hollen becomes the first female graduate of West Point Military Academy; 61 others also graduate, out of 119 who entered. On May 29 Am. civil rights leader Vernon Eulion Jordan Jr. (1935-) is shot and critically wounded in an assassination attempt in Gary, Ind. by Mobile, Ala.-born white supremacist serial killer ("the Racist Killer") Joseph Paul Franklin (James Clayton Vaughn Jr.) (1950-2013), who got pissed-off after seeing him with a white woman in Ft. Wayne, Ind., becoming the first major news story for CNN (debuts June 1); on Mar. 6, 1978 Franklin allegedly shot Penthouse mag. publisher Larry Flynt and his atty. for an interracial sex article; Jordan goes on to become a close adviser to Pres. Bill Clinton; next Mar. 4 a jury in Salt Lake City convicts Franklin of violating the civil rights of two black men he shot to death; he later receives six life sentences and a death sentence, and is executed by lethal injection on Nov. 20, 2013. On May 30 Pope John Paul II arrives in France on the first visit by the head of the Roman Catholic Church since the early 19th cent. - the churches are still empty on Sundays? On May 30 the final ed. of the 5-min. midday CBS Mid-Morning News (begun Apr. 23, 1979), anchored by Douglas Edwards (1917-90) airs, becoming the last scheduled U.S. nat. network daytime newscast. On May 31 Deng Xiaoping makes a speech, uttering the soundbyte "We must eliminate feudalism from the life of the party and from the life of society". In May after 20K Cuban refugees housed in Fort Chaffee, Ark. create security and law enforcement problems, KLMN-TV reporter Leslie Millwee interviews Ark. gov. Bill Clinton 20x, causing him to sexually assault her on three separate occasions; she doesn't come out until Oct. 19, 2016 during the Donald Trump-Hillary Clinton campaigns. In May-Aug. 1,779 forest fires in Ontario, Canada destroy 1.38M acres and destroy $30M Canadian worth of timber, worst since 1923. On June 1 Cincinnati-born Robert Edward "Ted" Turner III (1938-) debuts Cable News Network (CNN), the first TV network with 24/7 news reporting, based in Atlanta, Ga., vowing to stay on the air till the world ends; Chicago-born African-Am. journalist Bernard Shaw (1940-) anchors the news until Mar. 2001; the first name he mentions is Pres. Carter; the first congressperson interviewed is Al Gore; Moneyline TV Financial News debuts on CNN, hosted by Louis "Lou" Dobbs (1945-). On June 3 (eve.) a series of tornadoes in Grand Island, Neb. kill five, injure 250, and cause $300M in damage. On June 5 a tour bus rolls off the highway near Jasper, Ark., killing 22 and injuring 19. On June 9 during the making of the film "Bustin' Loose", black comedian Richard Pryor (1940-2005) suffers almost fatal 3rd deg. burns at his San Fernando Valley, Calif. home when a mixture of freebase cocaine explodes. On June 10 the African Nat. Congress (ANC) in South Africa pub. a Message from Nelson Mandela, who is imprisoned on Robben Island; it contains the soundbyte: "Unite! Mobilise! Fight on! Between the anvil of united mass action and the hammer of the armed struggle we shall crush apartheid!" On June 10 a package from the Unabomber with a copy of Sloan Wilson's 1979 novel "Ice Brothers" concealing a bomb injures United Airlines pres. Percy Wood at his home in Lake Forest, Ill.; the first to carry the initials "FC" (Freedom Club). On June 12 Japanese PM (since Dec. 7, 1978) Masayoshi Ohira (b. 1910) dies of a heart attack, and on June 12 foreign minister Masayoshi Ito (1913-1994) becomes acting PM; on June 22 elections are held, and on July 17 Zenko Suzuki (1911-2004) becomes Japanese PM #70 (until Nov. 27, 1982); on June 14 3K dignitaries attend Ohira's memorial service. On June 16 the U.S. Supreme (Buger) Court rules 9-0 in Bryant v. Yellen that Calif. Imperial Valley farmers may continue to receive Colorado River water despite not complying with a 1926 law limiting farm size to 160 acres. On June 20 Augusta AVA in Mo. becomes the first federally recognized Am. Viticultural Area (AVA) in the U.S., followed next Feb. by the Napa Valley AVA; by Mar. 2015 there are 230. On June 22 the Soviet Union announces a partial withdrawal of forces from Afghanistan. On June 23 the 1980 U.S. Heat Wave begins, killing 1.7K and causing $20B agricultural damage. On June 24 France tests its first neutron bomb at Mururoa Atoll, and on June 26 Pres. d'Estaing announces it - pronounced BOME-buh? On June 25 the Muslim Brotherhood attempts to assassinate Syrian pres. Hafez al-Assad, who sends the army against them; on June 27 the Tadmor Massacre sees 1K prisoners of infamous Tadmor Prison murdered by the Defense Brigades of Gen. Rifaat al-Assad, brother of Hafez al-Assad; the prison is closed in 2001, then reopened on June 15, 2011 to house anti-govt. demonstrators; in May 2015 it is captured and blown up on May 30 by ISIS. On June 25 a bus plunges into the Rahand Nullah River in Bilaspur, Madhya Pradesh, India, killing 58 of 101. On June 27 the Ustica Massacre sees Aerolinee Itavia Flight 870 (DC-9) en route from Bologna to Palermo explode in midair and crashes into the sea near Palermo, Italy, killing all 81 aboard; a bomb or missile is suspected, giving conspiracy theorists a new baby. On June 27 Canada's House of Common adopts Oh, Canada as the nat. anthem. On June 29 Popular Dem. Union (UDP) leftist candidate and former pres. (1956-60) Hernan Siles Suazo is elected pres. of Bolivia; too bad, on July 17 before he can redecorate the pres. suite, the Cocaine Coup of military cocaine trafficker-financed anti-Communist hardliners led by Gen. Luis Garcia Meza Tejada (1932-), and backed by Nazi Klaus Barbie (under the alias Klaus Altmann) and Italian Neo-Fascist Stefano Delle Chiaie (1936-) overthrows him, and Tejada becomes pres. #68 of Bolivia (until Aug. 4, 1981), bragging that his new reich will last 20 years, and setting up the notorious Intelligence Battalion 601, stocked with imported prof. torturers from Argentina, led by Col. Luis Arce Gomez (known for the soundbyte "walk around with your written will under your arms"), which goes on to kill 1K in the next 13 mo., incl. Socialist congressman Marcelo Quiroga Santa Cruz (1931-80); Tejada gives cocaine traffickers a green light, making it the country's main export by 1981, resulting in an internat. outcry, despite arms-length support by U.S. Pres. Reagan. On June 29 divorced Reykjavik city theater dir. Vigdis Finnbogadottir (1930-) is elected, becoming the first woman head of state in Iceland on Aug. 1 (until Aug. 1, 1996), and first elected woman head of state in world history; she goes on to serve four 4-year terms. On June 29 a bus carrying 100 women and children plunges into the Upper Jhelam Canal near Mirpur, Kashmir, Pakistan, killing 90. On June 30 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 6-3 in Harris v. McRae that states don't have to fund nontherapeutic abortions with Medicaid if the 1976 U.S. Hyde Amendment won't pay for them with federal funds; in 2009 justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg utters the controversial soundbyte: "Frankly, I had thought that at the time Roe was decided, there was concern about population growth and particularly growth in populations that we don't want to have too many of. So that Roe was going to be then set up for Medicaid funding for abortion... But when the court decided McRae, the case came out the other way." By the end of June 130K refugees from Laos and Vietnam are living in Thailand along the Cambodian border, and invasions of Thai territory by Vietnamese troops fighting the Pol Pot govt. drive 100K more Cambodian refugees into Thailand, joining the 200K Cambodians already there, causing the Thais to appeal to the U.S. for military aid; in July 35 reconditioned tanks and other weapons are flown to Thailand, and the Carter admin. pledges help in the event of a larger attack. In June-Sept. the 1980 U.S. summer heat wave cooks the Midwest and Southern Plains, causing massive drought that causes $20B agricultural damage and kills 1.7K; the Dallas/Fort Worth, Tex. area sees 100F+ temps a total of 69x incl. 42 straight days from June 23-Aug. 3, and 113F (45C) on June 26-28; on July 5 the More Trees Down Derecho blows in E Neb. to Va. for 15 hours, killing six and injuring 70; on July 15 the Western Wisc. Derecho kills three and causes $240M damage, becoming the largest storm damage total in Wisc. to that point. On July 1 O Canada is proclaimed the nat. anthem of Canada. On July 1 Pres. Carter signs the U.S. Motor Carrier Regulatory Reform and Modernization (Motor Carrier) Act, ending federal controls and deregulating the U.S. trucking industry. On July 2 in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Pres. Carter signs Proclamation 4771, requiring 18-to-25-y.-o. males to register for the military draft. On July 2 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 6-3 in Fullilove v. Klutznick that Congress has authority to redress past racial discrimination via minority quotas in govt. contract awards, such as by a 10% setaside; too bad, three separate majority opinions are written, plus two minority opinions by dissenters Stewart and Rehnquist; the decision is overruled in Adarand Constructors Inc. v. Pena (1995), which adopts strict scrutiny for federal contracting. On July 2 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 7-1 in Richmond Newspapers v. Virginia that the press and public have a right to attend criminal trials because it's "implicit in the guarantees of the First Amendment" to not only speak but receive info. On July 4 two passenger buses collide head-on on Nat. Highway Route 1 in Camalig, Philippines, killing 13 and injuring 28. On July 5 Mauritania issues its 3rd decree abolishing slavery as a public relations gesture; meanwhile in Feb. the slave auction of a beautiful woman in Atar gains internat. attention. On July 8 the Lublin July (1980 Lublin Strikes) begins in Lublin, Poland over wages and food prices, involving 50K from 150 enterprises by mid-July. On July 8 after Iran grants women the vote, they demonstrate at the office of the pres. against the Islamic dress code requiring veiling. On July 9 Pope John Paul II visits Brazil; too bad, seven are crushed to death in the crowd trying to meet him. On July 11 U.S. State Dept. foreign service officer Richard Ivan Queen (1951-2002) is freed by Iran after 8 mo. of captivity because of poor health, and leaves Tehran for Switzerland. On July 13 pres. (since Sept. 30, 1966) Seretse Khama (b. 1921) dies, and on July 18 Sir Quett Ketumile Joni Masire (1925-) of the Botswana Dem. Party becomes pres. #2 of Botswana (until Mar. 31, 1998). On July 14-17 the 1980 Repub. Nat. Convention in Detroit, Mich. nominates Ronald Wilson Reagan (1911-2004) of Calif. for U.S. pres. on July 16; hours later Reagan breaks with precedent to appear in the hall to announce his running mate George Herbert Walker Bush (1924-2018) of Tex., which he selected after consulting his wife Nancy's astrologer Joyce Jillson (1946-2004) (known for picking the 1977 opening date for "Star Wars" and taking credit for its box office success?) (who once played Jill Smith in TV's "Peyton Place" and "Tara B. True" in the sex comedy film "Superchick") (it was a setup, a payback for his role in the JFK assassination?); the convention drops longstanding support for the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA); the Reagan campaign features TV commercials talking about "Morning in America" and quoting from Puritan John Winthrop's 1630 Sermon "City on a Hill" - my arm wasn't moving, my neck wasn't stiff, it was amazing? On July 15 the 1980 Western Wisconsin Derecho (severe thunderstorm system) strikes four counties incl. the city of Eau Claire, killing one and causing $160M in damage, becoming the worst natural disaster in Wisc. until ?. On July 16 Juan Antonio Samaranch (1920-2001) of Spain becomes Internat. Olympic Committee (IOC) pres. #7 (until July 16, 2001), rescuing the Olympics from near bankruptcy and turning them into hotly contested properties for competing countries; on July 19-Aug. 3 the XXII (22nd) Summer Olympic Games are held in Moscow, becoming the first held in E Europe; after the U.S. leads a boycott of 61 countries in protest of the 1979 Soviet war in Afghanistan, 5,179 athletes from 81 of 142 nations (lowest since 1956) compete in a record 203 events in 21 sports; a record 21% of the athletes are female; the first appearance of Angola, Vietnam, Botswana, Laos, Nicaragua, Seychelles, Mozambique, and Cyprus; beetle-browed Leonid Brezhnev officially opens the games, and the crew of Salyut 6, Leonid Popov and Valery Ryumin send their greetings to Central Lenin Stadium; 5M attend; there are only two protests, fewest since 1964; blonde Amazon athlete Ilona Slupianek (1956-) of East Germany wins a gold in the shot put with a record 22.41m, which isn't surpassed until ?; Anatoli Starostin (1960-) of the Soviet Union wins a gold with a record 5,568 points, which isn't surpassed until ?; Allan Wipper Wells (1952-) of Scotland beats Silvio Leonard in a photofinish to become the first British athlete to win the 100m since 1924 (10.25 sec.); Zimbabwe's all-white team wins the inaugural gold medal in women's field hockey. On July 18 a Libyan MiG-23 crashes in the Sila Mts. in Castelsilano, Calabria, Italy, causing speculation that it is connected to the Aerolinee Itavia Flight 870 crash. On July 18 U.S. Rep. (D-N.Y.) (1975-93) Stephen Joshua Solarz (1940-2010) becomes the first U.S. official to visit North Korea since the end of the Korean War, and the first to meet with Kim Il-sung, going on to chair the Asian and Pacific Affairs Subcommittee of the House Foreign Affairs Committee. On July 19 former Turkish PM (1971-2) Ismail Nihat Erim (b. 1912) is assassinated in Istanbul by two gunmen of the militant Dev Sol (Rev. Left) group. On July 19 New York City real estate magnate Donald Trump saves sick Orthodox Jewish child Andrew (Avraham Moshe) Ten (1985-) by sending his private jet to take him from LAX to LaGuardia Airport after commercial airplanes refuse to transport him with his life-support system. On July 21 Mary Eugenia Charles (1919-2005) becomes PM of Dominica (first female) (until June 14, 1995). On July 22 in Bethesda, Md. David Theodore Belfield (1950-), who converted to Islam and changed his name to Dawud Salahuddin disguises himself as a postal carrier and murders Ali Akbar Tabatabai (b. 1930), a former Iranian official and critic of Ayatollah Khomeini, then escapes to Iran via Canada, going on to brag about it and claim that he was paid $5K. On July 27 (Day 267 of the Iranian hostage crisis) deposed Iranian shah (1941-79) Mohammed Reza Pahlavi II (b. 1919) croaks in a military hospital near Cairo of non-Hodgkin lymphoma; a state funeral is held in Cairo on July 29; the Pahlevy Dynasty in Iran (1921-79) ends; on July 20 his exiled eldest son Cyrus Reza Pahlavi (1960-) proclaims himself the rightful successor to the Peacock Throne of Iran, attempting to revive the dynasty; on Nov. 4, 2011 his youngest son Alireza Pahlavi (b. 1966) commits suicide in Boston, Mass. On July 27 after watching a CBS-TV special with Dan Rather in a stripper-filled hot tub at Caesar's Palace in Las Vegas, and hearing that Soviet troops have been booby-trapping children's toys with explosives in Afghanistan (and worrying about the Soviet Union gaining access to the Persian Gulf), well-positioned Trinity, Tex.-born U.S. rep. (D-Tex.) (1973-97) Charles Nesbitt "Charlie" Wilson (1933-2010), member of the House Appropriations Committee (a womanizing boozer AKA Good Time Charlie, whose all-female staff is called Charlie's Angels) gets religion, visits refugee camps in Pakistan in fall 1982, survives a federal investigation into cocaine drug use in summer 1983, and with the help of Houston, Tex. lobbyist Joanne King Herring (1929-) (Zsa-Zsa Gabor lookalike?) and U.S. rep. (D-Md.) (1963-85) Clarence Dickinson "Doc" Long (1908-94), chmn. of the Subcommittee on Foreign Operations of the House Appropriations Committee begins pumping up funding for the CIA operation in Afghanistan, starting with $40M in 1983, fighting CIA reluctance to get the U.S. into a war with the Soviets and going on to funnel $1B into the mujahideen war against the Soviets, assisted by Swiss-born neocon U.S. under-secy. of defense for policy (1981-88) Fred Charles (Fritz Karl) Ikle (Iklé) (1924-2011) in getting Pres. Reagan on Feb. 18, 1986 to overrule the CIA and Joint Chiefs of Staff and order the release 35-lb. shoulder-mounted heat-seeking Raytheon FIM-92 Stinger missiles to shoot down Soviet Mi-24 Hind helis to mujahideen leader Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (1947-), 1977 founder of the Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin (HIG), and issuing the soundbyte: "The U.S. had nothing whatsoever to do with these people's decision to fight... but we'll be damned by history if we let them fight with stones"; on Sept. 26, 1986 the first three Hinds are shot down, and the Stingers turn the tide, causing the helis to have to raise their ceiling, and after 100+ helis are shot down the Soviets finally pull out on Feb. 15, 1989 after 10 years; too bad, the U.S. leaves the devastated Afghanis unsupported with economic or military aid, causing the Muslim fundamentalists to take over, later using the training and weapons against the U.S., causing Charlie to issue the soundbyte "These things happened and they were glorious, but we fucked up the endgame"; Hekmatyar goes on to become PM of Afghanistan in 1993-4 and 1996, then after aiding al-Qaida he is designated an internat. terrorist on Feb. 19, 2003 by the U.S. State Dept. On July 30 the Israeli Knesset passes the Basic Law for Jerusalem, declaring it Israel's "eternal and indivisible capital"; on Aug. 20 the U.N. Security Council votes 14-0-1 (the U.S. abstaining) for Resolution 478, which declares it a violation of internat. law that is "null and void" and "must be rescinded", and calls for member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from the city, causing many to relocate to greater Tel Aviv, and others to the Jerusalem suburb of Mevaseret Zion, located on a mountain ridge 10 km. away straddling the Jerusalem-Tel Aviv highway. On July 30 the Repub. of Vanuatu ("land, home") (formerly New Hebrides) (modern-day pop. 270K) gains independence from joint British-French rule (since Nov. 16, 1887); next July 8 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 489 to admit Vanuatu. On July 31 the top 1970s band The Eagles go through the "Long Night at Wrong Beach" in Long Beach, Calif., after which they break up. On July 31-Aug. 11 Category 5 (190 mph) Hurricane Allen (strongest since Hurricane Camille in 1969) starts in Cape Verde, batters the S peninsula of Haiti on Aug. 5, killing 200, then goes on to hit Brownsville, Tex. as a Category 3 storm on Aug. 10, causing $2.6B in damage, becoming the worst hurricane of the year and 5th worse Atlantic hurricane since the 1935 Labor Day Hurricane. In July British Airways (founded Mar. 31, 1974) is privatized. On Aug. 2 a right-wing neo-Fascist bomb attack on a restaurant in the train station in Bologna, Italy kills 86 and wounds 200, signaling a return to terrorism after a decade. On Aug. 11-14 incumbents Pres. Jimmy Carter and Vice-Pres. Walter Mondale are renominated at the 1980 Dem. Nat. Convention in Madison Square Garden in New York City; on Aug. 12 defeated Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy (1932-2009) delivers an address, with the soundbytes: "We must not permit the Republicans to seize and run on the slogans of prosperity. We heard the orators at their convention all trying to talk like Democrats. They proved that even Republican nominees can quote Franklin Roosevelt to their own purpose"; "We are the Party. We are the Party of the New Freedom, the New Deal, and the New Frontier. We have always been the party of hope"; on the final night Kennedy snubs Carter on the platform; too bad, Carter attacks Reagan as a racist, which badly backfires. On Aug. 14 in protest of the dismissal of forklift operator Anna Walentynowicz (1929-2010) for collecting the remains of candles from local graves to make new ones in memorial to workers shot in the 1970 food riots, 17K Polish workers led by electrician Lech Walesa (1943-) begin a 17-day strike at the Lenin Shipyards in Gdansk, spreading to 350K workers who demand the right to unionize, paralyzing the Baltic coast; on Aug. 31 the Gdansk Agreement is signed in Gdansk by Polish United Workers' Party first secy. Edward Gierek, ending the strike, and the Polish Solidarity labor movement is born in Gdansk, officially forming on Sept. 17 with 10M members, becoming the first labor union in a Soviet bloc country, causing the Soviets to position 55 divs. on the Polish frontier, and Gierek to be replaced on Sept. 6 by Stanislaw Kania (1927-) (until Oct. 18). On Aug. 16 the first free Monsters of Rock Festival is held in Castle Donington, Leicestershire, England, with 35K in attendance to watch Rainbow (from the U.K.), Judas Priest (from the U.K.), Scorpions (from Germany), Saxon (from the U.K.), April Wine (from Canada), Riot (from New York City), and Touch (from New York City); after peaking at 100K attendance in 1988, it is canceled in 1997. A dingo ayt my bye-bee? On Aug. 17 (night) Seventh Day Adventist pastor's wife Alice Lynne "Lindy" Chamberlain (1948-) sees her 9-week-old daughter Azaria Chamberlain disappear in a dingo's mouth in Ayers Rock (Ularu), Australia, but authorities don't believe her, and on Oct. 29, 1982 she is railroaded into a murder conviction, which is quashed as a miscarriage of justice in 1988 after new evidence and unsuccessful appeals. On Aug. 19 Saudi Arabian Flight 163 (L-1011) makes a fiery emergency landing at Riyadh airport after takeoff after a Pakistani Muslim pilgrim's butane gas stove catches fire, killing all 301 passengers and crew. On Aug. 19 (4:30 a.m.) the Otloczyn Railway Accident near Otloczyn in Poland sees a freight train collide with a crowded passenger train, killing 67 ad injuring 62, becoming the biggest Polish railway accident since WWII. In Aug. the city of Shenzhen in Guangdong N of Hong Kong is designated as Communist China's first Special Economic Zone. In Aug. Iraq and Syria break diplomatic ties after Damascus sides with Iran in their long-standing dispute over the Shatt-al-Arab waterway between Iraq and Iran - silted up with acres of Arab what? In Aug. Ronald Reagan gives a campaign speech in Salt Lake City, Utah, where he declares "I am a Sagebrush Rebel" going on to fight federal control of wilderness areas in favor of state and private control. On Sept. 1 E.I. du Pont buys Conoco (Continental Oil Co.) for £6.8B. On Sept. 2 pan-Arabist Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya and Hafez Assad of Syria announce an agreement to merge their countries, but the deal later falls apart - thufferin' thuccotath? On Sept. 10 Zhao Ziyang (1919-2005) becomes PM #3 of Communist China (until Nov. 24, 1987). On Sept. 11 Cuban diplomat Felix Garcia-Rodriguez is assassinated on a New York City street by the anti-Communist Omega Seven group. On Sept. 12 after inflation, unemployment, strikes, and terrorism, the 1980 Turkish Coup sees the military let the Soviet-backed left-wing and U.S.-backed right-wing chew each other up then move in to look like heroes; its leader, come-on-get-happy gen. Ahmet Kenan Evren (1917-) becomes pres. #7 of Turkey (until Nov. 9, 1989) (last born under the Ottoman Empire), going on to suspend civil and human rights and abolish political parties in the name of law and order while claiming to admire secularist Kemal Ataturk to keep them happy, but actually taking steps to depoliticize the youth to keep things stable for the entire decade, starting with executions of many leading activists; Suleyman Demirel is banned from politics for three years; retired Adm. Saim Bulend (Bülend) Ulusu (1923-) becomes PM #44 (until Dec. 13, 1983); after the coup Diyarbakir Prison in Diyarbakir, SE Turkey is founded, becoming known as "the Hell of Diyarbakir", with systematic torture killing 34 prisoners in 1981-4, mainly Kurds. On Sept. 13 a Delta Air Lines flight from New Orleans, La. to Atlanta, Ga. is hijacked to Cuba, and the plane reaches Atlanta after the hijackers exit, becoming the first U.S.-to-Cuba hijacking since Dec. 14, 1974. On Sept. 13 outed Elton John finally comes out of his shell and gives a free concert to 400K in New York City's Central Park near the Dakota, where his friend John Lennon is murdered 3 mo. later. On Sept. 13 the syndicated U.S. TV series Solid Gold debuts (until July 23, 1988), hosted by Dionne Warwick, followed by Marilyn McCoo, Andy Gibb, Rex Smith, Rick Dees, Arsenio Hall, and Nina Blackwood, featuring the Solid Gold Dancers, incl. Darcel Wynne (1951-), Tony Fields (1958-95) et al. On Sept. 15-19 Shogun, based on the 1975 James Clavell novel airs on NBC-TV, starring Richard Chamberlain as Dutch pilot John Blackthorne of the Dutch ship Erasmus, which shipwrecks in the Japans, causing him to end up working as a samurai for Lord Toranaga (Toshiro Mifune). On Sept. 17 exiled Nicaraguan dictator (1967-79) Anastasio Somoza Debayle (b. 1925) is assassinated in his chauffered Mercedes-Benz in Asuncion, Paraguay by a commando team led by Argentine Communist guerrilla leader Enrique Haroldo Gorriaran (Gorriarán) Merlo (1941-2006), who use a double tap from a bazooka at close range; his son Anastasio Somoza Portocarrera (1951-) flees to exile in Guatemala. On Sept. 20 Whole Foods Market is founded in Austin, Tex. by John Mackey (1953-) et al. with $45K to sell organic food, growing to 479 stores and 91K employees by 2018; on Aug. 28, 2017 it merges with On Sept. 21 millionaire heiress Martha Sharp Crawford "Sunny" von Bulow (Bülow) (1932-2008) goes into a "vegetative state" (lifetime coma) under suspicious circumstances; her Danish-born British aristocrat New York financial consultant hubby (since 1966) Claus von Bulow (Bülow) (1926-) is suspected of giving her an insulin OD, and after a black bag containing hypo needles is found in his closet by a maid who testifies that she observed him idly watch his wife go into shock, on Mar. 16, 1982 he is found guilty of attempted murder, and on May 7, 1982 sentenced to 30 years, losing out on a $14M tax-free inheritance; after hiring suprisingly affordable Jewish Harvard law prof. Alan Morton Dershowitz (1938-), he gets the conviction reversed in 1984, then is found not guilty of all charges in a 2nd trial on June 10, 1985 - whadya waiting for, call 1-800-HI-PRICE-ATTY? On Sept. 21 the $750M Hartsfield Internat. Airport in Atlanta, Ga. opens, with 138 passenger gates (vs. 94 at Chicago O'Hare), plus a station for the MARTA rapid transit system that opens in 1985; in 1999 it becomes the world's busiest airport. On Sept. 22 after mos. of border skirmishes, the Iraqi military council orders the army to "deliver its fatal blow on Iranian military targets", and planes bomb 10 Iranian airfields in Khuzistan, after which troops invade W Iran during the night, seizing the oil refinery at Abadan on Sept. 23, all without warning, beginning the 8-year Iran-Iraq (Gulf) War over the Shatt Al-Arab estuary (ends Aug. 1988); after regrouping, the Iranians drive them back to their starting positions by June 1982, turning into WWI-style trench warfare complete with chemical weapons used by Iraq; the Iranians recruit 100K children to use as minesweepers? On Sept. 22 the Battle of Khorramshahr sees the Iraqis siege Khorramshahr in a bloody 34-day battle that causes the city to become known as the City of Blood; on Nov. 10 the Iraqis capture the city after 7K Iraqis and 7K Iranians KIA. On Sept. 22 (Liberation Day) anti-Soviet youth riots in Tallinn, Estonia are ruthlessly suppressed by police. On Sept. 22 John Lennon signs with Geffen Records. On Sept. 22 after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta, Ga. report 299 cases (25 fatal) of Toxic Shock Syndrome, 90% associated with menstruation and caused by bacterial infection, and the FDA asks for mandatory labeling of tampon packages to warn of the danger, Procter and Gamble announces that it is withdrawing its tampon Rely, causing the term to enter the public lexicon; after changes in tampon design, the number of cases is reduced to 61 by 1989 - oh, look at my shoes? On Sept. 24 the Prince of Asturias Awards in the science, humanities, and public affairs are founded by Felipe, Prince of Asturias (1968-), son of King Juan Carlos I of Spain. On Sept. 26 the Cuban govt. abruptly closes Mariel Harbor, ending the freedom flotilla of Cuban refugees that began in April. On Sept. 26 a bomb attack at the Munich Oktoberfest in Germany kills 12. On Sept. 28 the 13-part Cosmos series, written and narrated by atheistic it's-all-right-Science-will-explain-everything Brooklyn, N.Y.-born astronomer Carl Edward Sagan (1934-96) debuts on PBS-TV; it is broadcast in 60+ countries to an audience of 400M, becoming the largest PBS audience until Ken Burns' "The Civil War" in 1990; makes the phrase "billions and billions" popular. On Sept. 29 the Washington Post pub. Jimmy's World, about an 8-y.-o. "third-generation heroin addict, a precocious little boy with sandy hair, velvety brown eyes, and needle marks freckling the baby-smooth skin of his thin brown arms" by Janet Leslie Cooke (1954-), which later turns out to be fiction after she is awarded a Pulitzer Prize on Apr. 13, 1981 and fesses up on Apr. 15, returning it and embarrassing her newspaper, who fires her, ending her journalistic career - can I change the category and still keep the prize? On Sept. 30 Iran rejects a truce call from Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein, and attacks and damages the Osirak (Osiraq) nuclear reactor (built 1977) 11 mi. SE of Baghdad, after which France repairs it, causing the Israelis to step up plans to finish it off. In Sept. China announces a goal of a pop. limit of 1.2B by 2000, and orders all families of Communist Party officials to limit themselves to one child. In Sept. (Internat. Year of the Child) the U.N. Gen. Assembly holds its Sixth U.N. Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders in Caracas, Venezuela; on Nov. 29, 1985 it adopts the Beijing Rules (Std. Min. Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice), a bill of rights for youthful offenders, mainly drafted in Beijing, China and supported by the U.S. In Sept. German-born Jewish-Am. sex therapist "Dr. Ruth" Westheimer (1928-) debuts her radio show "Sexually Speaking" in New York City (until 1988), taking callers and dispensing frank advice, launching her career. On Oct. 1 AP announces that the London Evening News will close and merge with the London Evening Standard (founded May 21, 1827), becoming the #1 evening paper for the London area; in Oct. 2009 it becomes free, doubling circ. On Oct. 2 U.S. Rep. (D-Penn.) (since 1976) Michael Joseph "Ozzie" Myers (1943-) becomes the first U.S. rep. expelled in 100+ years after the Abscam sting operation catches him in a political no-no taking B-money. On Oct. 3 Pres. Carter signs the 1980 U.S. Higher Education Reauthorization Act, allowing parents to borrow up to $3K per year per student at 9% interest in addition to the $2.5K that students can borrow on their own; the avg. college education costs $3.5K at state univs. and $7.5K at private univs., incl. $9.1K at Harvard and Yale; federal aid to students this year is $4.5B (vs. $600M in 1970). On Oct. 3 a synagogue on Rue Copernic in Paris is bombed with a saddlebag motorcycle bomb, killing four and injuring nine, raising fears of resurging anti-Semitism and causing a public procession followed by pres. Giscard d'Estaing launching a campaign against anti-Semitism, banning neo-Nazi meetings and increasing police protection; the perps are not caught until ?. On Oct. 3 a water leak at Consolidated Edison's Indian Point Nuclear Reactor 2 in N.Y., pouring radioactive water into the Hudson River for two weeks until it is noticed, forcing a temp shutdown, causing customers to be charged an extra 10% to pay for $800K a day in extra oil costs. On Oct. 4 all 520 passengers are forced to abandon the Dutch luxury cruise ship Prinsendam 120 mi. S of Yakutat, Alaska in the Gulf of Alaska after it catches fire; no deaths or serious injuries. On Oct. 9 consumer use of home banking by computer begins in Knoxville, Tenn. On Oct. 10 British PM Margaret Thatcher delivers her famous The Lady's Not For Turning Speech, preceded by "To those waiting with bated breath for that favorite media catchphrase, the U-turn, I have only one thing to say." On Oct. 10 82-ft. U.S. Coast Guard cutter Point Francis becomes the first to open fire on a drug-smuggling boat, 50-ft. lobster boat Thomas E, loaded with 12.5 tons of marijuana 150 mi. E of Key West, Fla., firing 55 rounds of .50 cal ammo and disabling it then towing it to Miami, where banks are the largest U.S. users of $100 bills. On Oct. 10 a 7.7 earthquake hits NW Algeria, destroying El Asnam (Orleansville), killing 3.5K, after which the city is rebuilt and renamed to Chlef. On Oct. 13 an unprovoked slaying of six blacks takes place in Buffalo, N.Y. On Oct. 14 Repub. pres. nominee Ronald Reagan promises that if he is elected he will name a woman to the U.S. Supreme Court. On Oct. 14 Pres. Carter signs the U.S. Staggers Rail Act, deregulating U.S. railroads and freeing them to set their own prices within certain limits, but fails to stop their contraction, going from 39 Class I railroads (earning more than $50M a year) this year to nine in 2000. On Oct. 14 Pres. Carter signs the U.S. Federal Privacy Protection Act of 1980, forbidding unannounced searches of newsrooms except in narrowly-defined circumstances, and requiring authorities to request voluntary compliance or to use subpoenas instead of search warrants when seeking materials from reporters to be used as evidence. On Oct. 14-21 the Philadelphia Phillies (NL) defeat the Kansas City Royals (AL) 4-2 to win the Seventy-Seventh (77th) World Series; the Phillies become the last of the original AL and NL franchises to win the WS, and don't win again until ?; Game 6 ends with relief pitcher Frank Edwin "Tug" McGraw Jr. (1944-2004) of the Phillies (father of country singer Tim McGraw (1967-), who coined the motto "Ya Gotta Believe" in the 1973 New York Mets' WS run) striking out Willie James Wilson (1955-), his 12th strikeout in the series. On Oct. 15 James Callaghan resigns as leader of the British Labour Party. On Oct. 15 after July-Aug. secret meetings at the Ritz Hotel in Madrid between William Casey and other reps of Reagan's campaign and Iranian reps to delay the release of the Am. hostages until after the Nov. elections, with Reagan allegedly calling Ayatollah Khomeini on the phone to cinch it, the October Surprise sees high-level Iranian and Israeli reps meet with reps of both the Bush and Reagan campaigns in Paris, with William Casey as a "key participant"; on Oct. 21 Iran suddenly shifts its position in secret negotiations with the Carter admin., disclaiming further interest in receiving military equipment; on Oct. 21-23 Israel secretly ships F-4 fighter tires to Iran in violation of the U.S. arms embargo, and Iran disperses the hostages to make rescue harder; as part of the October Surprise, chief of French intelligence Count Alexandre de Marenches (1921-95) (founder of the Safari Club) sets up meetings between Repub. campaign chief William Casey and Iranian officials in Paris. On Oct. 15 radical terrorist James Hoskins breaks into WCPO-TV in Cincinnati, Ohio and holds nine hostages for several hours before releasing them and committing suicide. On Oct. 17 Mt. St. Helens erupts three more times in 24 hours; the eruptions had begun on May 18. On Oct. 18 the Australian govt. of PM (1975-83) Malcolm Fraser is reelected for the 3rd straight time, with a reduced majority. On Oct. 19 the British govt. announces its intention of privatizing the oil and gas industry, with energy secy. Nigel Lawson calling it the "biggest program of privatization ever to come before Parliament"; British Nat. Oil Corp. is sold for £720M. On Oct. 20 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 6-3 in Jarrett v. Jarrettt that a woman doesn't forfeit custody of her children by fornicating with a live-in boyfriend, like 1.1M others in the U.S., 25% of their households having children; a survey of 106K women by Cosmopolitan mag. finds that 41% of married women have had extramarital affairs, up from 8% in 1948 - it seems you have us outnumbered, but I'm holding your gun? On Oct. 21 pres. (since Dec. 17, 1974) Augusto Pinochet (1915-2006) issues a new constitution for Chile that allows him to stay in power for another eight years; he is sworn-in next Mar. 11 On Oct. 23 the resignation of Soviet PM (since 1964) Alexei N. Kosygin (b. 1902) is announced; on Dec. 18 he dies of a heart attack, and a state funeral is held for him in Moscow on Dec. 23. On Oct. 24 the merchant freighter SS Poet departs Philadelphia, Penn. bound for Port Said, Egypt with a crew of 34 and a cargo of grain; it is poetically never heard from again - they should have taken a Toyota (a smart way to keep moving forward)? On Oct. 24 the Polish govt. legalizes the independent labor union Solidarity. On Oct. 25 Shafik Wazzan (1925-99) becomes a compromise PM of Lebanon (until 1984), ending 137 days without a govt. On Oct. 25 the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of Internat. Child Abduction concludes with a method of quickly returning a child from one member country to another, effective Dec. 1, 1983. On Oct. 27 six Provisional IRA prisoners go on a hunger strike in Maze Prison, which lasts until Dec. On Oct. 28 Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan participate in a nationally broadcast 90-min. debate in Cleveland, Ohio, their last, with Reagan stealing the show with the question: "Next Tuesday all of you will go to the polls, will stand there in the polling place and make a decision. I think when you make that decision, it might be well if you would ask yourself, are you better off than you were four years ago?" - bam! 489 to 49? On Oct. 30 Gen. Policarpo Paz Garcia of Honduras signs a peace treaty with El Savador over their 1969 Football War border dispute. On Oct. 30 3K-sq.-mi. self-governing (since 1972) Ciskei ("this side of the Kei River") in SE Africa S of the Great Kei River (pop. 1M) adopts a constitution, followed by independence ceremonies on Dec. 4, becoming the 2nd Bantustan (homeland) for Xhosa-speaking people after Transkei (1976); capital is at Bisho (Bhisho); Lennox Leslie Wongamu Sebe (1926-94) becomes pres. #1 (until 1990); like with Transkei, only South Africa recognizes the new state which it surrounds and acts as Great White Father to. On Oct. 30 13-y.-o. Mohammed Hossein Fahmideh (b. 1967) crawls beneath a tank and explodes a grenade, becoming a martyr, causing Ayatollah Khomeini to dedicate a special monument, while thousands of children are recruited as suicide bombers. On Oct. 31 first-class rail service between London and Brussels/Paris ends. In Oct. Bridge Day begins in West Va. when parachutists begin jumping from the 876-ft. New River Gorge Bridge over the New River. In Oct. Hambrecht & Quist take Apple Corp. and Genentech Corp public. In Oct. in Turkey Erbakan and 21 Nat. Salvation officials are imprisoned on charges of acting against secularism, then released one year later. In Oct. the Socialist 1980 Guyanan Constitution is promulgated, reaffirming its status as a member of the British Commonwealth, with a 65-member unicameral nat. assembly, 53 of them elected, and a pres. with a 5-year term; on Dec. 15 PM (since 1964) Forbes Burnham (1923-85) is elected pres. #3 (until Aug. 6, 1985); on Dec. 19 a 10-member internat. observer team calls the election "fradulent in every possible respect", with the opposition People's Progressive Party led by Cheddi Jang receiving only 20% of the vote vs. 76% for him after falsified voter lists, banned opposition party meetings, and beating of opposition party members. On Nov. 1 after a campaign marked by violence and 800 deaths, Edward Philip George Seaga (1930-) (of Scottish-Lebanese descent) of the conservative Jamaica Labour Party defeats Michael Manley of the mildly socialist People's Nat. Party to become PM #5 of Jamaica (until Feb. 10, 1989), after which the violence continues until the May 11, 1981 death of Bob Marley (b. 1945). On Nov. 2 a rally for Ronald Reagan in Jackson, Miss. is stunk up by Repub. Rep. (1973-89) Chester Trent Lott Sr. (1941-), who says that if segregationist Sen. Strom Thurmond (R-S.C.) (who just spoke) had been elected U.S. pres. in 1948, "We wouldn't be in the mess we are in today"; he was talking about smaller govt. not segregation?; Lott becomes U.S. Sen. from Miss. on Jan. 3, 1989; too bad, after making similar comments about Thurmond on Dec. 20, 2002, the heat makes him resign as Senate minority leader, although he stays in the Senate until Dec. 18, 2007. Rock River flows for you, Mr. President? On Nov. 4 the 1980 U.S. Pres. Election sees Repubs. Ronald Wilson Reagan (1911-2004) of Calif. and George Herbert Walker Bush (1924-2018) of Tex. defeat Dems. Jimmy Carter and Walter F. Mondale after the Iran Hostage Crisis and the misery index are blamed on the Dems.; 52.8% of the electorate votes for pres., and Reagan receives 43.9M popular votes (50.7%) and 489 electoral votes (44 states) to Carter's 35.5M popular votes (41.0%) and 49 electoral votes; 3rd-party candidate, Repub. Ill. Rep. (1961-81) John Bayard Anderson (1922-2017) of Ill., running on the Nat. Unity ticket receives 5.7M popular votes (6.6%); at 69 Reagan is the oldest pres. elected so far (until ?); English-born Am. socialite Pamela Churchill (Beryl) Harriman (1920-97), wife of former N.Y. gov. and diplomat W. Averell Harriman and ex-wife of Winston Churchill's son Randolph Churchill founds Dems. for the 90s (PAMPAC) to oppose Reagan's policies and raise money for Dem. candidates. On Nov. 7 ultra-cool film actor Steve McQueen (b. 1930) dies in Juarez, Mexico at age 50 of throat cancer from chain-smoking cig cig cigarettes while attempting bootleg treatments - he's so handsome it's a blessing he died young? On Nov. 9 Iraqi Sunni Muslim Pres. Saddam Hussein declares holy war (jihad) against Shiite Muslim Iran - he plays the Allah card? On Nov. 10 CBS journalist Dan Rather (1931-) refuses to pay his cabbie in Chicago, claiming he wouldn't go where he told him and kidnapped him, and is charged with disorderly conduct; CBS-TV ends up paying the $12.55 fare. On Nov. 11 a bus and two trucks collide near Beni Suef, Egypt, plunging into an irrigation canal and killing 30 and injuring 30. On Nov. 11 the sitcom Too Close for Comfort, based on the British sitcom "Keep It in the Family" debuts on ABC-TV for ? episodes (until Sept. 1986), starring Ted Knight (1923-86) as conservative "Cosmic Cow" cartoonist and amateur ventriloquist Henry Rush, who likes to wear different college sweatshirts, Nancy Dussault (1936-) as his freelance photographer wife Muriel Rush, Deborah Gaye Van Valkenburgh (1952-) as their daughter Jackie Rush, Lydia Cornell (1962-) as their other daughter Sara Rush, and Jm (Jim) J. Bullock (1955-) as Sara's beau Monroe Ficus. On Nov. 12 NYC mayor Ed Koch admits to trying marijuana. On Nov. 12 NASA's Voyager 1 (launched Sept. 1977) comes within 77K mi. of Saturn and sends back its first pictures of the ringed planet with 1.5K+ rings plus 27 moons, all named after chars. from the works of William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope. On Nov. 14 a coup in Guinea-Bissau in W Africa led by PM (since Sept. 28, 1978) Joao Bernardo "Nino" Vieira (1939-2009) deposes pres. (since 1974) Luis Cabral; he becomes pres. until May 7, 1999, followed by Oct. 1, 2005 to Mar. 2, 2009, describing himself as "God's gift to Guinnea-Bissau" until he is assassinated. On Nov. 17 WHHM-TV in Washington, D.C. becomes the first African-Am. public broadcasting TV station. On Nov. 18 Barbara Mandrell and the Mandrell Sisters debuts on NBC-TV for 35 episodes (until 1982), featuring Houston, Tex.-born Barbara Ann Mandrell (1948-) and her sisters Thelma Louise Mandrell (1954-) and Ellen Irlene Mandrell (1956-); despite good ratings, the show is discontinued because Barbara suffers from exhaustion. On Nov. 19 CBS-TV rejects a Calvin Klein Jeans Ad Featuring Brooke Shields, where she utters the soundbyte "You know what comes between me and my Calvins? Nothing." On Nov. 19 Applebee's casual dining restaurants are founded in Decatur, Ga. by Bill Palmer and T.J. Palmer, growing to 1,936 restaurants in 16 countries; the signature dish is riblets; on Nov. 29, 2007 IHOP announces a $2B purchase; ad slogans incl. "Together is good", "Get it together, baby", "It's a whole new neighborhood", and "Eatin' Good in the Neighborhood". On Nov. 20 United Artists withdraws the $44M bomb movie Heaven's Gate for reediting after two days in release. On Nov. 20 in China the nationally-televised trial of the Gang of Four (scapegoats for the 1966-1976 Cultural Rev.) begins; they are convicted and sentenced. On Nov. 20 a Texaco oil rig breaks through to a mine under Lake Peigneur. On Nov. 21 (dawn) a 2-hour fire at the 26-story 2,076-room MGM Grand Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas, Nev. (built in 1973 under safety codes that don't require smoke alarms) traps 3.5K and kills 85 and injures 500 after 1K+ are helicoptered from the roof, becoming the worst U.S. hotel fire since the 1946 Winecoff Hotel fire in Atlanta, Ga. that killed 119. On Nov. 21 an estimated 83M TV viewers (53.3 rating, 76% share) (highest rated TV episode in U.S. history until M*A*S*H in Feb. 1983) tune in to the CBS-TV prime-time soap opera Dallas ("Who Done It?) to find out who shot J.R.; it turns out to be vixen Kristin Shepard, played by Mary Frances Crosby (1959-), daughter of Bing Crosby and 2nd wife Kathryn Grant - did John Hinckley watch? On Nov. 22 the tanker Georgia spills 1.3M gal. of oil at Pilottown, La. after an anchor chain causes the ship to leak. On Nov. 22 18 Communist Party secys. in 49 provinces are ousted in Poland, incl. Communist boss (since 1970) Edward Gierek. On Nov. 23 a 7.2 earthquake hits S Italy, killing 4.8K and leaving 300K homeless. On Nov. 25 a bloodless coup in Upper Volta places pres. #2 (since Jan. 3, 1966) Aboubakar Sangoule (Sangoulé) Lamizana (1916-2005) under house arrest, and Col. Saye Zerbo (1932-) takes charge as the pres. of the Military Committee of Reform for Nat. Progress (until Nov. 7, 1982). On Nov. 25 a Gwalior-Delhi transport bus falls into the Chambal River in Dholpur, Rajasthan, India, killing 40 and injuring 30. On Nov. 27 (Thur.) the half-hour sitcom Bosom Buddies debuts on ABC-TV for 37 episodes (until May 27, 1982), starring Thomas Jeffrey "Tom" Hanks (1956-) and Peter Scolari (1955-) as young advertising employees Kip Wilson and Henry Desmond, who dress in drag as Buffy and Hildegard in order to share an apt. in the dirt-cheap women-only Susan B. Anthony Hotel. On Nov. 30 the Uruguayan military holds a plebiscite to approve a new constitution giving them more power in a "restricted democracy", but it is rejected by 57%, after which pres. (1976-81) gen. Aparicio Mendez (Méndez) Manfredini (1904-88) is ousted next Sept. 1. In Nov. the Church of England adopts the Alternative Service Book as an alternative the 1549 Book of Common Prayer; it changes "Our Father, which art in Heaven, hallowed be thy name" to "Our Father in Heaven, hallowed be your name" etc.; in 2000 it is replaced by Common Worship. On Dec. 1 the U.S. Justice Dept sues Yonkers, N.Y. for racial discrimination and intentional housing segregation, and wins in 1984. On Dec. 1 (Mon.) the advertisement-free Bravo cable channel debuts, owned by NBC Universal, becoming the first devoted to film, drama, and the performing arts; in the early 2000s it switches to celebrity coverage, reality and fashion shows, etc. What do you have stamped on your forehead, the word Dopeface? The biggest business swindle of the century, or, every fortune has a crime behind it, or, Big Think IBM is out-IBMed and all's fair in love and war? On Dec. 1, 1980 after IBM employee William C. Lowe (1941-2013) convinces CEO Frank Cary to assemble the "dirty dozen" to build it, IBM delivers its first prototype PC, the IBM Model 5150 PC to its Seattle, Wash.-born Harvard-dropout designer William Henry "Bill" Gates III (1955-), owner of Monopolysoft, er, Microsoft, who got their foot in the door via his mother Mary Maxwell Gates (1929-94), first woman chmn. of United Way, who talked fellow board member John Roberts Opel (1925-2011) into giving him a sweetheart contract allowing Microsoft to retain all rights to its software, after which Bill talked the IBM lamers in Raton, Fla. into not patenting the design (based on Intel microprocessor chips), but instead to pitch it as an "open architecture" so that add-on hardware cos. will be attracted to it and hopefully every home and office in the world will end up with one one day; it is featured on the cover of issue #1 of PC Magazine; one little problemo, no operating system, and although he plans to supply his rinky-dink BASIC interpreters for it, Gates has never written a line of operating system code, so to make the deal go he does what he doesn't like and tells the IBM execs about competitor Gary Kildall (1942-94) of Digital Research, developer of the popular CP/M operating system for microprocessors, who has a Ph.D in computer science (vs. Gates, who is a college dropout), and owns all rights to his software; too bad, Killall, er, Kildall screws up his deal-of-the-century with them, allegedly standing up its reps to go flying, but not really, he just doesn't understand that Jaws is in the water nearby, and he has no lawyer daddy to help guide him through negotations, and is too easygoing and honest to believe he would be stolen blind, settling for an easygoing handshake deal and totally failing to see that just about everybody in the world will indeed end up having a PC one day; too bad, Big Blue IBM is also outfoxed for failing to see that mainframes (their main biz) are going to be made obsolete by PCS, and that opening the architecture will help their sales only at first, after which IBM PC clone manufacturers will move in like a school of sharks, creating a feeding frenzy and driving the margins down until only low-paid Third World workers will be making them, forcing high-price IBM out of the PC biz, while all PCs will have to host the operating system software, which thanks to internat. copyright laws can be squeezed for exorbitant profits forever, since it's just ones and zeroes and virtually all profit, and application software depends on it, making a new operating system design almost impossible; hearing that Kildall didn't shut him down with ironclad legal agreements in triplicate, on July 27, 1981 Jaws Gates takes his main chance and purchases the 4K-line QDOS (Quick and Dirty) Operating System (AKA 86-DOS) from software pirate, er, developer Tim Paterson (1956-) of nearby Seattle Computer Products (who reverse-engineered Kildall's software) for $25K, then changes a few lines of code, renames it to PC-DOS and MS-DOS, and tenaciously sucks the chrome, er, courts IBM via his board member mother until they sign an ironclad deal to market it with their PCs, after which IBM introduces the IBM PC on Aug. 12, 1981; poor Kildall doesn't figure it out for a year, by which time he's locked out, and then he proves he's no Bill Gates by not immediately going to court to sue for trade secret and copyright infringement and owning Microsoft, instead accepting a deal to market his operating system in parallel with Microsoft's, at an unaffordable price which nobody wants, letting Gates walk away with the store and get rich on his work while the judge wonders when he's going to get a case and never does; later, as Microsoft's Magic Carpet takes off without him and flies to the highest heavens, Kildall becomes a bitter alcoholic and suffers an early death; meanwhile stingy zillionaire-in-the-making Gates jealously guards his magic carpet, using the endless bucks coming in to hire programmers right out of college to pump-up "his" code to millions of lines and forcing PC customers to buy endless upgrades and new versions, while hiring a large legal staff to zealously guard his copyright and trade secret rights in the fear that yet others will clone his software and undercut him; he never actually sells software, only licenses it to end-users to use on one PC at a time, with the right only to make a single backup copy, thanks daddy you're a great lawyer?; of course, IBM blows it even worse, since they could have cloned the software themselves and done it all in-house, but they're too honest to be accused of stealing?; Microsoft later pays Seattle Computer Products $925K to settle out of court for the Deal of the Century, and bows to U.S. Dept. of Justice pressure by making its license non-exclusive to allow for DOS clones, which they make hard to create by constantly revising the software in endless versions; meanwhile closes-his-eyes-while-shaving Gates doesn't offer Kildall even a tiny piece of his action, or admit that he's made enough and release the source code to the public to allow the millions of eager programmers out there to take it over and make it free, so the next Rockefeller is born, calling himself the world's greatest genius; within years Gates goes public and now it would be a crime to give away the corporation's magic carpet ride as a betrayal of the stockholders, and Microsoft wouldn't even want to hire Kildall as a consultant because the industry has moved on and Kildall is considered obsolete?; hooray for Capitalism, the good guy lost?; but we're not done; now Monopoly Soft Gates invites potential software competitors to create and market application software for the IBM PC, pretending not to be in that business, even selling them the support software (assemblers and compilers, so all the application software will say Microsoft Inside), while insuring that only his software is preinstalled before a customer gets the PC, while competitive application software is forced into an aftermarket, which is subject to massive illegal copying, allowing him to eventually buy them out, repackage their software work as his own, and have it preinstalled too, creating a total software monopoly, meanwhile busily sending legions of lawyers out to pressure software dealers into agreeing only to preinstall their cruddy software in case application developers get ideas, while he fools the govt. into not intervening because it looks like everybody is free to create superior software, even though in the face of the rigged game he's set up they can't give away, until they go bust, give up and sell out to him; the fact that consumers are mainly computer illiterate makes it super-easy to push inferior Microsoft weeny-written software on them and keeps them immune to technical reviews that try to tell the customers what is best, when the dopes see the Microsoft logo every time they boot their PCs up, so they can't say no to Big Brother? - looking back on it, TLW coulda reverse-engineered MS-DOS and given it to the public for free, so sue me, but so could have a lot of people, and now it's too late, call 1-800-software-steamer? The real question is: if the Jews run the world what did they have to do with this, other than when it went public and absorbed it into their worldwide monetary system? What if Gates had been a neo-Nazi? On Dec. 1 the Right Livelihood Award (AKA the Alternative Nobel Prize) is founded in Sweden by Jakob von Uexkill to honor those "working on practical and exemplary solutions to the most urgent challenges facing the world today"; usually four winners are selected simultaneously, splitting a 150K Euro award; the first awards go to Egyptian adobe architect Hassan Fathy (1900-89), Plenty Internat., and its hippie founder Stephen Gaskin (1935-). On Dec. 2 three Am. Roman Catholic nuns and Am. lay missionary Jean Donovan (b. 1953) are ambushed, raped, and murdered in El Salvador by five Salvadoran guardsmen in a death squad; a coverup follows, and gen. outrage causes the Carter admin. to suspend all aid pending an investigation. On Dec. 2 Pres. Carter signs the U.S. Alaska Nat. Interest Lands Conservation Act, setting aside 79.53M acres of public lands, and establishing Denali Nat. Park and Preserve (formerly Mt. McKinley Nat. Park) and 14 other nat. parks; Denali means "great one" in Athabaskan. On Dec. 2 Lyndon LaRouche's Executive Intelligence Review pub. an article alleging the October Surprise, an allged conspiracy by the campaign staff of candidate Ronald Reagn with the Iranian govt. to delay release of the 52 Am. hostages until he wins the election in exchange for a promise of future weapons sales. On Dec. 3 U. of Chicago J.D. (1967) Bernadine Rae Dohrn (1942-), a former leader of the radical Weather Underground surrenders to authorities in Chicago after more than a decade as a fugitive (since 1970), uttering the soundbyte: "I regret not at all my efforts to side with the forces of revolution... The nature of the system has not changed... The system of violence and degradation against women is openly encouraged"; after serving less than a year in jail, she ends up becoming a law prof. at Northwestern U. in Chicago, with connections to future U.S. pres. Barack Obama through hubby Bill Ayers - why doesn't she go after the Muslim World? On Dec. 4 (10:20 a.m.) a fire on the top floor of the 365-room Stouffer's Inn of Westchester in Purchase, N.Y. kills 26 and injures 40, mostly high-level execs of Arrow Electronics Inc, #2 U.S. electronics distributor, which pays $5.5M in survivor and other benefits; after Guatemalan busboy Luis Marin is convicted on Apr. 11, 1982 of starting the fire with Sterno, and the judge reverses the conviction, it is revealed in June 1984 that a housekeeping crew spilled a highly volatile stainless steel cleaner that caused it, and the mgt. covered it up, after which Stouffer's pays $48.5M to the survivors' families. On Dec. 8, 1980 (5:00 p.m.) Rolling Stone chief photographer (1973-83) Anna-Lou "Annie" Leibovitz (1949-) takes the famous photo of naked John Lennon and clothed Yoko Ono smooching on the floor, becoming the first photographer to professionally shoot Lennon, and the last when he is shot and killed five hours later; she goes on to work for Vanity Fair mag. That really chaps my hide, or, the Day the Music Died, or, Imagine there's no John Lennon? On Dec. 8, 1980 (Mon.) (12-8-80) (10:49 p.m.) after a nude photoshoot by Annie Leibovitz of Rolling Stone mag., and a recording session for Yoko Ono's "Walking on Thin Ice", former Beatle John Winston Ono Lennon (b. 1940) is shot 4x in the back, side, and shoulder with a Charter Arms .38 Special Undercover snub-nosed revolver firing five hollow point "dum-dum" bullets, and kills outside the Dakota Apt. Bldg. in New York City's Upper West Side on W 72nd St. (6 blocks from 66th St.) (a reputed home for witches, famous as the setting for "Rosemary's Baby") by deranged eyeglasses-wearing Fort Worth, Tex.-born "Catcher in the Rye"-loving fan and Honolulu security guard Mark David Chapman (1955-), who got his autograph earlier in the day, and stayed on the scene reading his novel, then called out "Mr. Lennon" and drops to a combat stance before firing, and later tells police "I'm sure the large part of me is Holden Caulfield, who is the main person in the book - the small part of me must be the Devil". Lennon is hit in the aorta and collapses to the floor, dropping cassettes of "Walking on Thin Ice", then struggling to the lobby shouting "I'm shot! I'm shot!", and arrives DOA at the hospital, then is pronounced dead at 11:07 p.m. Chapman remains on the scene, letting his smoking gun drop on top of Lennon's bloodstained eyeglasses, and not resisting arrest, telling them "I acted alone" and "Lennon had to die"; future rock star Madonna (1958-), who had just moved to the Big Apple is walking a few blocks away at the time, and joins the crowd outside the Dakota; singer Neil Diamond is also in town for the debut of his movie "The Jazz Singer"; Howard Cosell announces Lennon's death on Monday Night Football during a game between the Miami Dolphins and New England Patriots, with the soundbyte "This, we have to say it, remember this is just a football game, no matter who wins or loses. An unspeakable tragedy, confirmed to us by ABC News in New York City. John Lennon, outside of his apartment building on the West Side of New York City, the most famous, perhaps, of all the Beatles, shot twice in the back, rushed to the Roosevelt Hospital, dead on arrival"; after the usual calls for more gun control laws, Pres. Reagan says they wouldn't have prevented the shooting; on Dec. 14 fans around the world pay tribute to the brainy Beatle in a John Lennon Memorial Service in Central Park across the street from the Dakota, where the Strawberry Fields Memorial (designed by Yoko Ono) is erected, complete with the word "Imagine" (dedicated on Oct. 9, 1985); Fidel Castro commemorates a statue to this "revolutionary hero"; before he dies, John arranges a dog for his 5-y.-o. son Sean Ono Lennon (1975-), which arrives on Dec. 25 and is named "Merry Christmas"; 1 mo. after the murder, Yoko Ono releases Walking on Thin Ice (for John) her first charting single, peaking at #58; Lennon is awarded a posth. album of the year at the 1982 Grammy Awards; Chapman toys with an insanity defense then pleads guilty, and on Aug. 24, 1981 is sentenced to 20-life, ending up in Attica Correctional Facility in Buffalo, N.Y.; the hit was really ordered by the CIA? On Dec. 10 U.S. Rep. (D-S.C.) John Wilson Jenrette Jr. (1936-) resigns to avoid being expelled from the House following his conviction on charges relating to the FBI's Abscam investigation. On Dec. 11 lame duck Pres. Carter signs the U.S. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERLA), creating the $1.6B Environmental Superfund to pay for cleaning up chemical spills and toxic waste dumps. On Dec. 11 (Thur.) the TLW-favorite Glen A. Larson and Donald P. Bellisario series Magnum, P.I. debuts on CBS-TV for 154 episodes (until May 1, 1988), complete with its own cool Magnum, P.I. Theme, starring hunky Coors-swigging eternal-boy Detroit-born Tigers fan Thomas William "Tom" Selleck (1945-) as Vietnam Vet Thomas Sullivan Magnum IV, who sponges as a security specialist off the posh 200-acre Robin's Nest estate of mysterious lurid pulp fiction novelist Robin Masters (voiced by Orson Welles) in Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaii, which is run by quirky English major domo Jonathan Quayle Higgins III, played by John Benedict Hillerman (1932-2017), who commands Doberman Pinschers Zeus and Apollo, and uses the master's Ferrari 308 GTS as his carrot-stick, while Magnum forever tries to prove that he's the real Robin Masters; Roger Earl Mosley (1938-) plays Vietnam War buddy Theodore Calvin AKA T.C., who runs the Island Hoppers heli business and gives him free rides for his missions while calling Higgins "Higgy Baby"; Lawrence Francis "Larry" Manetti (1943-) plays King Kamehameha Club mgr. Orville Wilbur Richard "Rick" Wright, another Vietnam War vet friend who has a fetish for Humphrey Bogart and maintains connections with local underworld boss Francis "Icepick" Hofstetler, played by Elisha Cook Jr. (1903-95); Jeffery Neill "Jeff" MacKay (1948-) (cousin of Robert Redford) plays Magnum's friend Navy Intel Lt. Mac MacReynolds, who gets killed off and returns as lookalike char. Jim Bonig; William Lance LeGault (Legault) (1935-) plays Magnum's nemesis Marine Corps intel Col. Buck Greene, whose asst. Lt. Maggie Poole, played by Jean Bruce Scott (1956-) sides with Magnum; Gillian Dobb (1929-2001) plays Higgins' ugly but cultured babe Agatha Chumley; Kwan Hi Lim (1931-) plays Honolulu police dept. homicide Lt. Yoshi Tanaka, who likes to impersonate John Wayne; Kathleen Lloyd (1948-) plays Honolulu asst. DA Carol Baldwin; on Nov. 19 a heli crash kills stuntman Robert Vanderkar. On Dec. 12 Pres. Carter signs the U.S. Bayh-Dole Patent and Trademark Law Amendment Act (Small Business Patent Procedures Act), sponsored by U.S. Sens. Birch Bayh (D-Ind.) and Bob Dole (R-Kan.), allowing univs. and small businesses to license patents developed with grants from the govt., allowing them to pursue ownership of an invention in preference to the govt., causing technology transfer offices to be set up on U.S. campuses; the new law incl. computer programs - now Gary Kildall finds out? On Dec. 13 moderate civilian Christian Dem. Jose Napoleon Duarte Fuentes (1925-90) is named pres. of El Salvador's new govt. by the governing junta, causing U.S. aid to be resumed; he is sworn-in next June 1 (until June 1, 1989), immediately instituting land reforms, but violence continues. On Dec. 14 after four days of meetings members of NATO warn the Soviets to stay out of the internal affairs of Poland, saying that intervention would effectively destroy East-West detente. On Dec. 15 the Academia de la Llingua Asturiana is founded. On Dec. 16 OPEC holds a summit on the island of Bali and decides to raise oil prices by another 10%. On Dec. 17 the first elections in Uganda since 1952 are a V for former pres. #2 (1966-71) Apolo Milton Obote (1925-2005) of the Uganda Peoples Congress, who becomes pres. #8 of Uganda (until July 27, 1985); too bad, his rival Yoweri Kaguta Musevini (1944-) claims election fraud and next year starts the Ugandan Bush (Luwero) War (ends 1986). On Dec. 18 IRA's Sean McKenna becomes critically ill and ends his hunger strike. On Dec. 19 Iran requests $24B in U.S. guarantees before freeing the sausages, er, hostages. On Dec. 24 Americans remember the U.S. hostages in Iran by burning candles or shining lights for 417 sec., one sec. for each day of captivity - just don't burn any flag-colored candles? On Dec. 28 a Jersey calf lives 222 days with an artificial heart. On Dec. 29 Mexico unilaterally abrogates all fishing treaties with the U.S. after negotiations over tuna fishing rights since 1977 break down. On Dec. 30 The Wonderful World of Disney (Disney's Wonderful World) (debut on Oct. 27, 1954) airs for the last time on NBC-TV; it is picked up by CBS-TV in 1981-3, followed by ABC-TV in 1986-8 as "The Disney Sunday Movie", then back to NBC-TV in 1988-90 as "The Magical World of Disney", then the cable Disney Channel in 1990-6, followed by ABC-TV in 1997 until Dec. 24, 2008 - RIP? On Dec. 31 the Dow Jones Industrial Avg. closes at 963.99, up from 838.74 from the the end of 1979. In Dec. after exporting it for Western currency to pay off its foreign debt, Poland imposes meat rationing for the first time since WWII. In Dec. as part of the nat. drought, the Season of None in Colo. Ski Country is a repeat of 1976-7, closing six of 32 Colo. ski areas in Jan., and causing manmade snow to finally be adopted, ramping up from 435 acres in 1979-80 to 2K acres. In Dec. the Rendlesham Forest Incident in Suffolk, England becomes known as "Britain's Roswell" after UFOs are allegedly seen near two U.S.-run military bases; in 2002 an ex-U.S. security policeman admits that he and another airman had shone patrol car lights and made noises on a loudspeaker as a prank. The U.S. Congress bans offshore drilling in most federally-controlled waters; on Mar. 31, 2010 Pres. Obama lists the ban for 85% of the U.S. coastline. Exiled political leader U Nu returns to Burma. Philippine opposition leader Benigno Aquino, in jail since 1972 is freed, and heads for exile in the U.S. In Argentina the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo begin marching weekly for justice against military junta officers responsible for thousands of "disappearings" since 1976, white handkerchiefs covering their heads. The Shining Path Maoist guerrilla org. in Peru is founded to create a dictatorship of the proletariat and all that jazz. The Transkei govt. of pres. (1979-86) Kaiser Matanzima (1915-2003) outlaws the opposition Dem. Progressive Party and convicts its leader, Thembu king (since June 30, 1954) Sabata Jonguhlanga Dalindyebo (1928-86) of trumped-up charges, causing him to flee to Zambia and join the ANC, dying in exile in Lusaka. Between 1980-1995 the U.S. prison pop. triples from 0.5M to 1.5M inmates. The 1980 U.S. Refugee Act allows refugees to be admitted for humanitarian reasons, with a cap of 270K total and 20K from any one country; the 1985 ceiling is 70K. In this decade the govt. of Britain begins granting asylum to wanted Islamic terrorists, on the questionable premise that if they are allowed to operate in London they won't want to attack it. In this decade Bulgaria's Communist Party begins the Revival Process to force Muslims to adopt Slavic-sounding names to assimilate them. The U.S. Supreme Court rules ?-? in Stone v. Graham that the posting of the Ten Commandments in public schools is unconstitutional. Benin Marxist dictator (since 1972) Mathieu Kerekou announces his conversion to Islam, but later flops to evangelical Christianity. Future chief justice John Glover Roberts Jr. (b. 1955) becomes law clerk for U.S. Supreme Court Justice William H. Rehnquist (1980-1). Pell Grants ($4K) for college students are named after R.I. Sen. ? Pell. Am. political scientist Bruce Bueno de Mesquita begins using game theory to predict the outcome of "political survival" situations, causing him to be hired by the CIA; in 2009 he predicts that Iran won't build a nuke. The World Wildlife Fund launches a cooperative U.S.-Chinese effort to save the world's pandas, half of which live in zoos and the other half of which live in 12 reserves in S China around X'ian and Chengdu. In this decade fast-food outlets take 22% of restaurant business in France, pissing-off Francophiles. The Fiat Co. in Italy announces 23K layoffs, pissing-off unions, who stage a protest strike in which 40K Fiat workers march through Turin in defiance of union leaders, becoming the first time since 1968 that mgt. wins. In this decade bikinis finally hit the high-fashion catwalks. In Colo. Monte Kim Miller founds Concerned Christians, which preaches against the evils of cults (mainly Mormons) and New Age movements. The 17M-acre Wrangell-St. Elias Nat. Park in Alaska is established, becoming the largest parkland in the U.S., equal to six Yellowstones. The $10B 1,988-mi. Siberian Baikal-Amur Railway (Railroad) from Lake Baikal to the Amur River is begun (opens in 1989). At the start of this decade there are 44K female lawyers in the U.S.; by the end there are 116K. In this decade the Daimler Corp. of Germany becomes the first German co. to admit its WWII guilt of using Jews for slave labor, and pays 60M marks in reparations - Dr. Z is no Dr. Kevorkian, he's Dr. Seuss? In this decade the Cola Wars between Pepsi-Cola and Coca-Cola begin (ends late 1990s), using rock stars to hawk their ever-changing wares. In this decade the Brazilian NW state of Rondonia is promoted by the Brazilian govt., ending up overpopulated and overforested. Blackwood's Mag. (founded in England in 1817) folds. There are 1M computers in use in the U.S. The Deobandi Sunni Muslim Sipah-e-Shaba Pakistan (SPP) is founded in Jhang, Pakistan by Maulana Haq Nawaz Jhangvi (1954-90) to fight Shiite influence after the 1979 Iranian Rev. Minhaj-ul-Quran Internat. in Lahore, Pakistan is founded on Oct. 17 by Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri (1951-) to promote moderate Islam. The Am.-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee is founded by U.S. Sen. James George Abourezk (1931-), first Arab-Am. U.S. Senator (D-S.D.) (1973-9), who was born to Christian Marionite Lebanese parents. Pakastani Hanafi Sufi cleric Sheikh Mubarak Ali Gilani (Jilani) founds Jamaat ul-Fuqra (al-Fuqra) (Arab. "community of the impoverished"), and Muslims of the Americas, whose 3K members go on to plan violent acts, incl. the murder of Rashad Khalifa in 1990; they go on to found Islamberg in Hancock, N.Y., and Holy Islamville in York County, S.C., and flirt with terrorist designations. U.S. Sen. Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D-N.Y.) utters the soundbyte that the U.S. govt. funds 50% of the budget of Roman Catholic charities: "Private institutions really aren't private anymore." Israel-hating Palestinian jihadist Abdullah Yusuf Azzam (1941-89), author of "The Defense of Muslim Territories" becomes the mentor of Osama bin Laden in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, setting up the Services Bureau to recruit foreign fighters in Afghanistan. 180K-acre Biscayne Nat. Park in SE Fla. is established, consisting of 25 small keys. 249K-acre Channel Islands Nat. Park in S Calif. is established in the U.S., consisting of Anacapa, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, San Miguel, and Santa Barbara Islands. Yugoslavia begins producing the bug-ridden Fiat 127 clone Yugo (Zastava Koral) automobile on Nov. 28, selling it in the U.S. for $3,990, until Yugoslavia breaks up; production in Serbia ends on Nov. 11, 2008. The Am. Dairy Assoc. launches the "REAL" (R) Seal dairy symbol; next year Ultra High Temperature Milks gain nat. recognition; in 1993 the Nat. Dairy Promotion and Research Board is founded; in 1988 lowfat and skim milk sales exceed whole milk sales for the first time. The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation (founded 1978) makes its first string-free "genius grants" of $220K-$375K to creative people. The Louise M. Davies Symphony Hall in San Francisco, Calif. opens on Sept. 16 as the home of the San Francisco Symphony. Sir Edward Downes (1924-2009) becomes principal conductor of the BBC Philarmonic (until 1991). German child prodigy violinist Anne-Sophie Mutter (1963-) makes her North Am. concert debut playing Mendelssohn's Violin Concerto in E minor with the New York Philharmonic on Jan. 3. The Mark Morris Dance Group in New York City is founded on Nov. 28 by dancer-choreographer Mark William Morris (1956-). Former homeless person John Paul Jones DeJoria (1944-) and hairdresser Paul Mitchell found John Paul Mitchell Systems for beauty salons, using B&W packaging because they couldn't afford color ink and promising salon owners a refund for unsold products, and DeJoria goes on to become a billionaire, founding Patron Spirits Co. in 1992, which produces ultra-premium Patron Tequila. BBC-TV airs the 8-part series The Shock of the New on modern art, hosted by Australian-born Time mag. art critic Robert Studley Forrest Hughes (1938-); it is followed in 2004 by "The New Shock of the New". Am. singer Wayne Newton (1942-) buys the Aladdin Hotel in Las Vegas for $85M with partner Ed Torres, then sells out in 1982. Bert Parks (Bertram Jacobson) (1914-92) is fired from the Miss America show (since 1955) for being "too old", and isn't rehired despite a campaign by Johnny Carson on the Tonight Show. Pablo Picasso's daughter Paloma Picasso (1949-) begins exhibiting her fashion jewelry at Tiffany's in New York City. German Wagnerian soprano Waltraud Meier (1956-) makes her internat. debut at the Teatro Colon in Buenos Aires as Fricka in Die Walkure. In this decade white upper-middle class Valley Girls in the San Fernando Valley of Calif., based in the Galleria in Sherman Oaks at the intersection of the Ventura and San Diego Freeways develop and popularize Valspeak (Valleyspeak), e.g., gnarly, grody, duh, like, and whatever; they peak in 1981-5, and trail off in the 1990s. A red ribbon event for medicine? Kenneth ?, a 30-y.-o. gay man living in San Francisco, Calif. goes to his doctor complaining of diarrhea and tiredness; he wastes away for a year, and dies of pneumonia, and AIDS (HIV) arrives in the U.S.; next June five gay men are officially diagnosed, causing a frantic search by scientists for the source of the infection, taking them from U.S. and European cities to Haiti and finally the Congo, where "a single transmission event from a single chimpanzee in west central Africa to one human" (George Shaw) is the answer? The Human Rights Campaign is founded in Washington, D.C. by Stephen Robert "Steve" Endean (1948-93) to fight for gay rights, becoming the largest LGBT political lobbying org. in the U.S.; you guessed it, Endean dies of AIDS. Jodie Foster (b. 1963) becomes valedictorian at the Lycee Francais (Lycée Français) in Los Angeles, Calif., speaking perfect French. 6' black Chicago-born Michelle Robinson (1964-) (later Obama) becomes a freshman at Princeton U.; her white Ga.-born roommate Catherine Donnelly (1964-) is moved to another room after Catherine's mother Alice Brown complains to the campus housing office about her having to roon, er, room with a black, after which Catherine comes out as a lesbian. Millionaire shaterproof plastic eyeglasses inventor Robert Klark Graham (1906-97) founds the Repository for Germinal Choice, a sperm bank in an underground backyard bunker to produce geniuses and reverse the "dysgenic crisis" of "retrograde humans", "fend off the idiotic herds", and "stop global Communism", inviting Nobel Prize winners to donate sperm which he then offers to brilliant women, eventually producing 215 children, but not via the sperm of transistor inventor William Shockley and two others, since none of it "took", and they all quit by late 1980, causing the bank to begin accepting sperm from every Tom, Dick, er, Harry, er, John who walks in; bad publicity causes the bank to close in 1999. Kenai Fjords Nat. Park in SC Alaska is established. The Nat. Museum of Roller Skating in Lincoln, Neb. is founded. Ford Europe introduces the front-wheel drive hatchback Escort MK3 on Sept. 2. McDonald's test-markets all white meat Chicken McNuggets in Mar. in Knoxville, Tenn.; they are officially released in Jan. 1983; they are later found to be made from old chickens past their egg-laying days; later they are made with chickens with unusually large breasts; the oil they're deep fried in contains nasty chemicals not used by home cooks. Mail Boxes Etc. is founded by San Diego, Calif. mail carrier Anthony W. DeSio (1930-) as an alternative to the U.S. Post Office. In this decade Goa Trance Music originates in Goa, India, culiminating in the English group Juno Reactor, known for their work for "The Matrix" movie franchise. In this decade the term BFF (Best Friends Forever) becomes popular in the U.S. In this decade New York City-born firewalker Bruce "Tolly" Burkan (1948-) founds the Firewalking Inst. of Research and Education, gaining 3K instructors and 3M students worldwide. In this decade Detroit, Mich.-born medium Char Margolis (1951-) is discovered by Regis Philbin, becoming a regular on his show; in 2001 she correctly predicts the pregnancy of Kelly Ripa during her audition, gaining her nat. publicity, after which she debuts her TV show Char on Dutch TV; in Mar. 2008 the Dutch TV show Zembla calls her a fraud. This year only 31 British films are made (vs. 62 in 1979), lowest since 1914; in 1981 it falls to 24. This decade sees an explosion of Satanic Rock Bands, which cause a Christian counterreaction in accusations of Satanic Ritual Abuse; also in this decade thrash metal evolves, er, devolve into Black Metal, with groups incl. Bathory, Celtic Frost, Hellhammer, Mayhem, and Venom; it becomes even more extreme in the 1990s with anti-Christian crime-ridden Norwegian Black Metal, with groups incl. Burzum, Darkthrone, Emperor, Immortal, and Taake; the Swedish (Gothenburg) bands At the Gates, Dark Tranquility, In Flames, the British group Carcass, and the Swedish supergroup Arch Enemy lead the devolution to Melodic Death Metal in the 1990s-2000s - pass me some throat spray? Roadrunner Records is founded in the Netherlands to import heavy metal records, opening a U.S. HQ in 1986, then going on to sign King Diamond, Annihilator, Life of Agony, Machine Head, Suffocation, Sepultura, and Type O Negative. Paris replaces its 1830s vintage vespasiennes with sanisettes, self-cleaning public pay toilets that are less smelly; by the end of the cent. Paris has 12 sanisettes and 24 lavatories, all pay-as-you-go. Beijing Yanjing Brewery is founded in Beijing, China, becoming the 3rd largest brewery in China and 8th biggest in the world (49M barrels/year), designated in Feb. 1995 as the official beer served at state banquets in the Great Hall of the People. Architecture: On Mar. 22 the 20-ft.-tall 6-slab granite Georgia Guidestones ("the American Stonehenge") in Elbert County, Ga. by mysterious "R.C. Christian" are erected, containing a 10-guideline message "to an Age of Reason" in eight modern languages plus a shorter message at the top in four ancient scripts; guideline #1 is "Maintain humanity under 500 million in perpetual balance with Nature". On Apr. 28 $27M Reunion Arena in Dallas, Tex. opens as the home of the NBA Dallas Mavericks (cap. 18,187) and NHL Dallas Stars (cap. 17,001); it closes on June 30, 2008. On July 19 the Richard Nixon Pres. Library and Museum in San Clemente, Calif. is dedicated. On Sept. 5 after 11 years of construction the $420M St. Gotthard (Goschenen-Airolo) Road Tunnel in the Swiss Alps opens, becoming the world's longest auto tunnel (10.2 mi.) (1.5K vehicles/hour), cutting four hours from a road trip from West Germany or Netherlands to Italy. The Nurek Dam in Vakhsh, U.S.S.R. (Tajikistan) (begun 1961) is completed; at 984 ft. (300m), it is the world's highest dam (until 1985). The $18M 2,890-seat mirrored glass exterior Crystal Cathedral of the Garden Grove Community Church in Calif., pastored by Robert Harold Schuller (1926-), designed by Philip Johnson and John Burgee, an ecclesiastical greenhouse wider and higher than Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris is dedicated on Sept. 14. The 1.4K-room 30-story Grand Hyatt Hotel in New York City, complete with mirrored glass facade is completed by Queens developer Donald John Trump (1946-), who used the skeleton of the 1919 Commodore Hotel, which he brought from bankrupt Penn Central on condition of a huge tax break from the city. The 40-story Xerox Center in Chicago, Ill. (begun 1977) is completed, designed by Nuremberg, Germany-born architect Helmut Jahn (1940-). The Georgia Guidestones, four 16-ft.-high granite slabs topped with a 25K-lb. capstone in Elberton, Ga. are erected, with each slab containing 10 precepts for creating a better society in eight different languages. Sports: On Jan. 5 after winning a record eight PBA titles in 1978 and six in 1979, Brooklyn, N.Y.-born Mark Roth (1951-), first with the hard-throwing hooking cranking style becomes the first bowler to convert a 7-10 "bedpost" split on nat. TV at the ARC Alameda Open at Mel's Southshore Bowl in Alameda, Calif.; he goes on to become the 2nd prof. bowler to make $1M in career earnings. On Jan. 11 14-y.-o. Nigel Short (1966-) becomes the youngest chess player to achieve the title of Internat. Master. On Jan. 27 the first 1980 Pro Bowl game is held in Aloha Stadium in Honolulu, Hawaii; the NFC defeats the AFC 37-27; on Jan. 25, 2015 the venue is moved to the U. of Phoenix Stadium in Glendale, Ariz., followed by Aloha Stadium in Honolulu on Jan. 31, 2016, and Camping World Stadium in Orlando, Fla. on Jan. 29, 2017. On Feb. 17 the 1980 (22nd) Daytona 500 is won by Elzie Wylie "Buddy" "Leadfoot" Baker Jr. (1941-) on his record 18th start (longest wait until Dale Earnhardt Sr. in 1998). On Mar. 18 Chicago, Ill.-born Michael William "Mike" "Coach K" Krzyzewski (1947-), head coach (since 1975) of the West Point Army Cadets becomes head coach of the Duke U. Blue Devils men's basketball team (until ?), becoming the first Div. 1 men's basketball coach to reach 1K wins with a 77-68 defeat of St. John's U. on Jan. 25, 2015, going on to win five NCAA championships (1991, 1992, 2001, 2010, 2015). becomes head coach of the Duke U. Blue Devils men's basketball team (until ?), On Mar. 31 Mike Dwayne "Hercules" Weaver (1952-) (nicknamed by Ken Norton) turns in a Rocky performance when he is about to lose the match then KOs John Tate with 40 sec. left in round 15 in Knoxville, Tenn. to win the WBA heavyweight boxing title (until 1986). On Apr. 21 the 1980 Boston Marathon sees Havana, Cuba-born Rosie Ruiz (1953-) become the first woman to cross the finish line, but she is disqualified as a fraud when officials discover that she had jumped into the race about 1 mi. from the finish; Canadian runner Jacqueline Gareau (1953-) is recognized as the winner with an official time of 2:34:28 - just practicing to be an illegal immigrant? On May 1 the NBA expands to 23 teams as the Dallas Mavericks (Mavs) team is founded by Don Carter, and named after the 1957-62 TV series "Maverick", with Dick Motta as head coach #1; Kiki Vandeweghe of UCLA is their first pick, but he holds out for the Denver Nuggets; 6'3" guard Bradley Ernest "Brad" Davis (1955-) (#15) from the CBA is signed in Dec.; the debut game in the new Reunion Arena (opened Apr. 28; closed June 20, 2008) sees the Mavericks defeat the Spurs by 103-92, but their first season starts 6-40 and ends 15-67; in 1981 they draft 6'6" forward Mark Anthony Aguirre (1959-) (#24), Panamanian-born 6'6" guard Rolando Antonio Blackman (1959-) (#22), and 6'7" forward Jay Fletcher Vincent (1959-) (#31). On May 3 chestnut Genuine Risk (1977-2008) (jockey J. Vasquez) becomes the 2nd filly since Regret in 1915 to win the Kentucky Derby. On May 4-16 the 1980 NBA Finals sees the Los Angeles Lakers (coach Paul Westhead) defeat the Philadelphia 76ers (coach Billy Cunningham) by 4-2; MVP is rookie Magic Johnson of the Lakers, who started at center in place of injured Kareem Abdul-Jabbar; Game 6 sees Johnson score 42 points, 15 rebounds, and 7 assists, and veteran teammate Jamaal Wilkes score 37 points and 10 rebounds, with Johnson uttering the soundbyte: "Jamaal Wilkes had an unbelievable game. Everybody talked about my 42, but it was also his." On May 13-24 the 1980 Stanley Cup Finals see the New York Islanders (first Finals appearance) defeat the Philadelphia Flyers (first Finals appearance since 1976) 4-2; first of four straight titles, becoming the 8th NHL dynasty in 1980-3; the winning goal is in 7:11 of OT by 6'1" Swedish-born Canadian right-winger Robert Thore "Bob" "Bobby" Nystrom (1952-); MVP is 5'11" Islanders center Bryan John Trottier (1956-), who set an NHL record of six points in a single period (four goals, two assists) in the 2nd period of a game against the Rangers on Dec. 23, 1978. On May 25 (Sun.) the 1980 (64th) Indianapolis 500 is won by 29.92 sec. by John Sherman "Johnny" Rutherford III (1938-) for a 3rd time (1974, 1976) in owner Jim Hall's radically new Chapparal ground-effect car (his 2nd win); the Chapparals exit auto racing in 1982. On Aug. 2 the WWII Fight at Joe Louis Arena in Detroit, Mich. sees welterweight Tommy Hearns KO Pipino Cuevas at 2:39 in round 2 of 15, ending Cuevas' 4-year reign as welterweight champ. On Sept. 27 Am. middleweight Marvin Nathaniel Hagler (1954-2021) defeats English middleweight Alan Minter (1951-) in Wembley, London to become world middleweight champion (until Apr. 8, 1987), getting the word Marvelous legally added to his name. On Oct. 9 Game 2 of the ML AL Championship Series sees 3rd base coach Mike Ferraro wave Willie Randolph of the Yankees home on a double by Bob Watson with two outs at the top of the 8th inning and the Yankees down 3-2, only to be thrown out at the plate on a relay throw by 3rd baseman George Brett, causing New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner to jump out of his seat and shout profanities on live nat. TV; after new Yankees mgr. Richard Dalton "Dick" Howser (1936-87) refuses to fire Ferraro on the spot, and the Yankees lose the series in three games, Steinbrenner fires Howser, who moves to the Kansas City Royals in 1981-6, guiding them to their first World Series title in 1985 over the heavily-favored St. Louis Cardinals; on Oct. 10 Kansas City Royals 3rd baseman George Howard Brett (1953-) homers off Goose Gossage in the AL championship series, helping the finally beat the New York Yankees in three games after losing three straight series in 1976-8; the entire season seems to be about Brett batting .400? On Nov. 25 the No Mas Fight at the Superdome in New Orleans, La. sees Sugar Ray Leonard (1956-) of the U.S. regain the WBC welterweight boxing title when Roberto Duran (1951-) of Panama abruptly quits in round 8, shouting, "No Mas!"; Duran later denies saying that, claiming he had stomach cramps and Howard Cossell put the words in his mouth; their 2nd of three "superfights". On Dec. 27 5'11" Hartford Whalers left winger Mark Steven Howe (1955-) (son of Gordie Howe) slides into the pointed metal center of the net and cuts a 5-in. gash in his thigh, causing the NFL to change the design; after the Hartford Whalers trade him to the Philadelphia Flyers, he anchors one of the best defensive NHL teams of the mid-1980s, which finishes the 1984-5 season with the most points, losing the Stanley Cup Finals to the Edmonton Oilers, then scoring 82 points in the 1985-6 season. Golfer Jack Nicklaus wins his 4th U.S. Open, plus his 5th PGA title; Severiano "Seve" Ballesteros Sota (1957-2011) of Spain wins the Masters, and wins again in 1983. Bjorn Rune Borg (1956-) of Sweden defeats John Patrick McEnroe Jr. (1959-) of the U.S. to win his 5th straight and last Wimbledon men's singles title; Evonne Fay Goolagong Cawley (1951-) of Australia (aborigine) wins the women's singles title, breaking Martina Navatilova's streak; John McEnroe defeats Bjorn Borg to win the U.S. Open men's singles title, and Chris Evert wins the women's title. Niatross (1977-99), who was sold to a syndicate in 1979 for $2.5M wins the Triple Crown of Harness Racing for Pacers (Cane Pace, Little Brown Jug, Messenger Stakes) incl. 19 consecutive wins and 13-13 as a 2-y.-o, passing the records of Hambletonian (1876) and Dan Patch (1902) with a 1.49-1/5 min. mi. in the Red Mile at Lexington, Ky. (3 sec. better than previous record). The U.S. yacht Freedom defeats Australia 4-1 to retain the America's Cup. Tex. oil tycoon Harrell Edmonds "Eddie" Chiles (1910-93) buys the Texas Ranger ML baseball team, selling it in 1989 to a group incl. future U.S. pres. George W. Bush and Am. history-loving New York City stockbroker Richard Gilder Jr. (1932-), who in 2005 marries his paternal niece, actress Lois Chiles. After starting out doing play-by-play for the ABA Spirits of St. Louis in 1974, Queens, N.Y.-born Greek-Irish descent Robert Quinlan "Bob" Costas (1952-) joins NBC-TV as a sports commentator (until 2018), rising to the top with encyclopedic sports knowledge and ability to host, interview, do commentary, and play-by-play. Urethane bowling balls are introduced by Ebonite, changing ball motion from skid-roll-hook to skid-hook-roll. Lisa "Rocket" Wagner (1961-) of Seattle, Wash. becomes Ladies Prof. Bowlers Tour (LPBT) rookie of the year; after winning the Open Div. doubles title in 1982, the 1983 Greater Milwaukee Open, the Open Div. all-events title in 1988, and the 1988 U.S. Open, becoming the first woman to earn $100K on the tour on Nov. 2, 1988, she is named 1980s bowler of the decade by Woman Bowler and Bowling mags.; she retires after the 2001 Fall Tour. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Adolfo Perez Esquivel (1931-) (Argentina) [fight to expose the Dirty War]; Lit.: Czeslaw Milosz (1911-2004) (U.S.); Physics: James Watson Cronin (1931-) and Val Logsdon Fitch (1923-) (U.S.) [asymmetry of subatomic reactions]; Chem.: Paul Berg (1926-) (U.S.) [recombinant DNA], and Walter Gilbert (1932-) (U.S.) and Frederick Sanger (1918-) (U.K.) [DNA mapping] (his 2nd Chem. Nobel); Med.: Baruj Benacerraf (1920-) (Venezuela), George Davis Snell (1903-96) (U.S.), and Jean Baptiste Gabriel Joachim (1916-2009) (France) [cell surface structures regulating immunologic reactions in organ transplants]; Econ.: Lawrence Robert Klein (1920-) (U.S.) [economic fluctuations and policies]. Inventions: On May 22 the Pac-Man color video game by Namco, named after the big-eating Japanese folk hero Paku and the Japanese slang phrase "paku-paku taberu" meaning to open and close the mouth rapidly, and based on an idea from seeing a pizza missing a slice debuts in Japan, becoming a huge success (350K units) and launching the survival genre of video games; its yellow circle has a pellet-gobbling mouth and only requires 8 bits of computer memory; the original name was Puck Man, but the Bally div. of Midway changed it to prevent vandals from turning it into Fuck; on July 3, 1999 Billy L. Mitchell (1965-) of Hollywood, Fla. becomes the first player to achieve a perfect score of 3,333,360 points on all 255 levels. In the summer IBM introduces its RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) with the experimental IBM 801, reaching 15 MIPS. On Sept. 30 the DIX (Digital/Intel/Xerox) std. for Ethernet is pub. on by the IEEE, specifying 10M bits per sec. and a 16-bit type field. German-born Am. physicist John Bannister Goodenough (1922-) et al. invent the Lithium-Ion Battery, based on a cobalt-oxide cathode, which goes on to take over the market despite problems with charting speeds, low temperature performance, and occasional overheating or explosions. The WordPerfect 1.0 word processing program is introduced by Satellite Software Internat. in Provo, Utah, capturing more than half of the PC market until the clunkier Monopolysoft, er, Microsoft Word comes along; founders incl. Mormons Bruce Wayne Bastian (1948-) and his BYU instructor Alan C. Ashton (1942-). Arnold Klayman (1926-2008) patents the Sound Retrieval System, a psychoacoustic 3D audio technology based on head-related transfer functions to create a 3D effect using only two speakers; too bad, it doesn't save cheap stereo sets. English inventor Sir Clive Marles Sinclair (1940-2021) develops the ultra-cheap £100 Sinclair ZX80/ZX81 computer, which is marketed in 1981 as the Timex-Sinclair, using a TV as a monitor and a home audio cassette recorder to store programs, along with a membrane keyboard; over 1M units are sold. Sony, Philips, and PolyGram propose technical stds. for Compact Discs (CDs), which are accepted worldwide by next year, making commercial development possible. The French Post Office develops the $100M Telematique (Télématique) system to link telephones with centralized computerized phone directories, and raises the price of paper directories by 5x to discourage their use; telephone subscribers grow to 15M from 6M in 1974. Hewlett-Packard introduces the first Laser Printer, the size of a desk and priced at $100K; they also introduce their first PC, the 8-bit 16KB RAM 32KB ROM HP-85. The first 1-900 pay-per-call telephone line in the U.S. is set up for the 1980 U.S. pres. debate by NBC-TV. The Group 3 Fax (Facsimile) Std. is created, allowing speeds of about 1 page per min. Trenton, Ohio-based Martin Marietta Corp. programmer Cecil Wayne Ratliff (1946-) of Aston-Tate develops dBase I using the database program Vulcan I developed at the Jet Propulsion Labs in the late 1960s; it goes on to become the std. for PC filing systems. IBM creates a voice recognition system using an IBM System 370/Model 168 computer, with a 1K-word vocabulary and 91% accuracy; Vortrax develops the SC-01 single-chip voice synthesizer with unlimited vocabulary using a separate chip to store phones with 6-bit words and a special circuit to turn phonemes into words. The Undulator is developed to increased the power of the Stanford Synchroton. Who's Stalin now? On Dec. 10 after the 1975 High Order Language Working Group stages a competition for a Commie-style 5-Year-Plan all-purpose computer language to stifle commercial competition, er, cut govt. costs, the U.S. Dept. of Defense pub. the new computer language Ada on the birthday of English brain babe Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (1815-52), daughter of Lord Byron (1788-1824), who allegedly pub. the first computer program in 1842-3 while working for Charles Babbage; the camel-designed-by-a-committee language is Pascal-descended, crockish, and difficult to use, becoming a multi-billion-dollar boondoggle, the PL/I of the 1980s; it is given the designation MIL-STD-1815 in honor of the year of Ada's birth; too bad, after tying to force the turkey onto defense programmers in 1987, they give up in 1997 after wasting gigabucks of taxpayer moolah; they should have just held a new competition each year for promising new languages, then let the market sort out the best on its own and not try dictating what to use? Am. aeronautical engineer Paul B. MacCready Jr. (1925-2007 invents the first Solar-Powered Aircraft - since Daedalus? Hughes Aircraft Corp. introduces a textile-cutting machine using laser beams. Canadian hockey player Scott Olson (1960-) and his brother Brenan Olson (1964-) invent the Rollerblade, using an in-line roller skate with polyurethane wheels and molded ski-type boot; they obtain a trademark in Mar. 1983, which doesn't stop everybody from using the term for any inline skate. The first commercial Computerized Expert Systems are marketed in this decade; too bad, they suffer from inflated claims and expectations. Dornier Medical Systems of Munich, Germany develops the Lithotripter, a machine that breaks up kidney stones with sound waves. Science: On Mar. 28 the Talpiot (Talpiyot) Tomb is discovered 5km S of the Old City of Jerusalem; it contains 10 ossuaries, six with epigraphs, incl. one that says "Jesus, son of Joseph", causing speculation that the tomb of Jesus Christ has been found, hence it must almost be the End of Days; it is kept secret by Israeli archeologist Yosef Gat until 1994; in 1996 BBC-TV airs a documentary on it; in 2007 Canadian dir. James Francis Cameron (1954-) and Israeli-born Canadian Jewish archeologist Simcha Jacobovici (1953-) release a film and book titled The Lost Tomb of Jesus. On Apr. 17 Am. molecular biologists W. Ford Doolittle (1941-) and Carmen Sapienza pub. the article Selfish genes, the phenotype paradigm and genome evolution in Nature, explaining why the majority of non-coding "junk" DNA in large genomes finds its origin in the selfish amplification of transposable elements, with the soundbyte: "When a given DNA, or class of DNAs, of unproven phenotypic function can be shown to have evolved a strategy (such as transposition) which ensures its genomic survival, then no other explanation for its existence is necessary"; in the same issue English chemist Leslie Eleazer Orgel (1927-2007) and English molecular biologist Francis Harry Compton Crick (1916-2004) pub. the article Selfish DNA: The Ultimate Parasite, with the soundbyte that junk DNA has "little specificity and conveys little or no selective advantage to the organism". On June 16 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 5-4 in Diamond v. Chakrabarty that microbes created by genetic engineering can be patented - arrest that crotch? The antiobiotic Azithromycin (Zmax) (Zithromax) (Sumamed) is discovered by the Yugoslavian pharmaceutical co. Pliva, who patents it in 1981; in 1986 Pfizer obtains exclusive rights for distribution in W Europe and the U.S. Am. biologist David Botstein (1942-), Am. biochemist Ronald Wayne "Ron" Davis (1941-), and Am. scientist Mark Henry Skolnick (1946-) propose DNA Sequencing to develop gene markers for genetic diseases based on a Genetic linkage map using restriction fragment length polymorphisms, leading to the Human Genome Project. Flash Memory, based on electrically-erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM) is invented by Fujio Masuoka (1943-) of Toshiba; the two basic types are NAND and NOR; it hits the market in 1988; by 1995 it has a storage capacity of 2MB. Canadian scientists Adolpho J. de Bold (1942-) and Harald Sonnenberg demonstrate that the rat atrium produces a previously unknown atrial natriuretic polypeptide hormone that reduces blood pressure; Bruno Kirsh first observes the cell bodies that produce it; in 1984 de Bold isolates and analyzes Auriculin (Atriopeptin) (Cardionarin), AKA the heart hormone. Am. geneticists Martin J. Cline (1934-) and Winston A. Salser of UCLA successfully transfer working genes from one mouse to another, creating the first transgenetic organism, leading to the ability to make molecular genetic alterations in cancer esp. leukema and founding the medical field of Gene therapy (human gene transfer); too bad, he transfers rDNA into the bone marrow cells of two patients with hereditary blood disorders in violation of Nat. Inst. of Health guidelines and sans univ. approval, forcing him to resign his dept. chairmanship; Salser joins William Bowes of Cetus Corp. to found Applied Molecular Genetics (Amgen)in Thousand Oaks, Calif. to produce Epogen, the first recombinant human erythropoetin product for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney failure, becoming the first successful biotech co. Am. physicist Hans Georg Dehmelt (1922-) et al. obtain a color photo of a single charged barium atom, which they name Astrid, appearing as a tiny blue dot on a black background. Am. mathematician Robert Griess Jr. constructs the Monster Finite Simple Group, completing the classification of all finite simple groups begun in 1830. The Inflationary Universe Theory is proposed by MIT physicist Alan Harvey Guth (1947-), claiming that the Universe grew from a speck far smaller than a proton to grapefruit size in the first 10^-32 sec. after the Big Bang, and somehow gets around the Horizon Problem (the U looks the same on opposite sides of the sky) and the Flatness Problem (spacetime is flat, therefore it always sits on the dividing line between expansion and recollapse); "I call the Universe the ultimate free lunch" (Guth); in 1981 Russian physicist Andrei Linde (1948-) improves on his idea, and in 1983 he introduces a model for a chaotic inflationary Universe. English physicist Stephen William Hawking (1942-) claims that a Theory of Everything will be developed by the end of the cent.; in 2010 he reverses himself and says that a "family of interconnected theories" will emerge instead. Linn Mollenauer, Rogers H. Stolen, and James Gordon of Bell Labs show experimentally that Solitons can travel through optical fibers. Am. psychologist Robert Plutchik (1927-2006) proposes a 2-D/3-D wheel model to describe relations between human emotions. Martin John Rees (1942-), Mitchell Begelman, and Roger Blanford predict the existence of Binary (Double) Black Holes. Frederick Reines (1918-98), who first detected them in 1956 announces in Mar. that the neutrino has mass; Valentin Lubimov et al. of the Soviet Union claim to measure it at 14-46 ev. Denver, Colo.-born Oxford-educated philosopher John Rogers Searle (1932-) pub. the Chinese Room Argument, which attempts to prove the Turing Test inadequate, leading to the conclusion that human minds are not computer-like information processing systems. Am. astronomers Susan Wyckoff and Peter A. Wehinger (1938-2015) of Germany discover a nebulous region around 3C 273, becoming the first known quasar, indicating that it might be in the center of a galaxy; Timothy J. Pearson et al. track a glowing blob ejected by the quasar from July 1977 to July 1980, and calculate an apparent speed of 9.6c, but reduce it to a real speed of 0.995c. Polish-born Am. social psychologist Robert Boleslaw Zajonc (1923-2008) (pr. ZAY-unts) pub. the paper Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences, arguing that affective and cognitive systems are largely independent, and that the former is more powerful and important, reviving the study of emotion and affective processes. U.S. geneticists discover Hypervariable Regions in Genes, short DNA sequences that repeat in the same chromosome. Charles Weissmann (1931-) of the U. of Geneva successfully uses a bacteria to produce human interferon. Eli Lilly Co. begins producing human insulin using genetically-altered bacteria that can be used by diabetics allergic to animal insulin. The Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in Socorro, N.M. begins operation, using 27 antennas to produce resolution equivalent to a 22-mi. (36km) dish. The Platypus Frogs of Queensland, Australia, who incubate eggs in their stomachs and give birth from their mouths become extinct; in 2013 one of the two species, Rheobatrachus silus is successfully cloned. Congress requests the Nat. Academy of Science to review the science of climate change, with Am. physicist William Aaron Nierenberg (1919-2000), Roger Revelle's successor at the Scripps Inst. of Oceanography as chmn. of the Carbon Dioxide Assessment Committee, and economists William Nordhaus of Yale U. and Thomas Schelling of Harvard U. joining major physical scientists; it goes on to pub. the report Changing Climate in 1983, backing up the Charney conclusions of a likely global warming of 1.5C-4.5C after a doubling of CO2, greater by 2x-3x over the poles as over the tropics, with a sea level rise of 70 cm over a cent., concluding that while rising CO2 is a cause for concern, no action should be taken without more study and a careful program of monitoring and analysis; global warmists later claim that climate change denier Nierenberg slanted the conclusions toward inaction, and "in doing so arguable launched the climate change debate, transforming the issue from one of scientific concern to one of political controversy." The World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) is founded by the World Meteorological Org. (WMO) and the Internat. Council for Science (ICSU); in 1993 it is sponsored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO; in 1989 the U.S. establishes the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), composed of 13 federal agencies with the task of issuing periodic reports about U.S. climate called the Nat. Climate Assessment; in 1995 the Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM) of WCRP establishes the Coupled model intercomparison project to coordinate research on Climate models incl. Gen. circulation models (GCMs). Nonfiction: Spiro Agnew (1918-96), Go Quietly... Or Else (autobio.). Muhammad Asad (1900-92), The Message of the Qu'ran; Jewish convert to Islam tells how great it is. Isaac Asimov (1920-92), In Joy Still Felt (autobio.); NYT bestseller. Rick Atkinson (1952-), The Long Gray Line: The American Journey of West Point's Class of 1966 (first book). Russell Baker (1925-), So This Is Depravity and Other Observations. Russell Banks (1940-), The Book of Jamaica. Richard Barnet (1929-2004), Lean Years; the environmental movement. Gregory Bateson (1904-80), Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Petr Beckmann (1924-93), Hammer and Tickle: Clandestine Laughter in the Soviet Union. Sir Isaiah Berlin (1909-97), Personal Impressions; 2nd ed. 1998; his impressions of 17 celebs incl. Winston Churchill, FDR, Boris Pasternak, Anna Akhmatova, and Albert Einstein, with an intro. by Sir Noel Annan, incl. "Nobody in our time has invested ideas with such personality, given them a corporeal shape and breathed life into them more than Isaiah Berlin; and he succeeds in doing so because ideas for him are not mere abstractions. They live... in the minds of men and women, inspiring them, shaping their lives, influencing their actions and changing the course of history." Charles Berlitz (1914-2003), The Roswell Incident. Pierre Berton (1920-2004), The Invasion of Canada, 1812-1813. Michael Richard Beschloss, Kennedy and Roosevelt: The Uneasy Alliance. Ray Allen Billington (1903-81), Limericks: Historical and Hysterical. Wilfred Bion (1897-1979), Experiences in Groups (posth.); proposes that every group is actually a work group and a basic assumption group, which works by dependency, fight-flight, and pairing. He goes on to be called "the greatest psychoanalytic thinker... after Freud" by Neville Symington. Lisa Birnbach (1957-) (ed.), The Official Preppy Handbook; NYT bestseller for 6five weeks in 1981-2; plaid, chinos, polo shirts with turned-up collars, repp ties; "Look, Maffy, a book for us"; "In a true democracy everyone can be upper-class and live in Connecticut. It's only fair. It is the inalienable right of every man, woman, and child to wear khaki. Looking, acting, and ultimately being Prep is not restricted to an elite minority." Lady Caroline Blackwood (1931-96), The Last of the Duchess; the Duchess of Windsor and her atty. Maitre Suzanne Blum (-1995); withheld from pub. until Blum's death. Harold Bloom (1930-2019), Deconstruction and Criticism. John Morton Blum (1921-2011), Liberty, Justice, Order: Writings on Past Politics. David Bohm (1917-92), Wholeness and the Implicate Order. John Boswell (1947-94), Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century. Kenneth Ewart Boulding (1910-93), Beasts, Ballads, and Bouldingisms: A Collection of Writings. Timothy H. Breen (1942-), Puritans and Adventurers: Change and Persistence in Early America. William Bronk (1918-99), The Brother in Elysium. Peter Burke (1937-), Sociology and History; argues that it wasn't easily separable from the Middle Ages and wasn't all about Italy. Abe Burrows (1910-85), Honest, Abe: Is There Really No Business Like Show Business? (autobio.). Richard L. Bushman, From Puritan to Yankee; 1690-1765 colonial Conn. Ernest Callenbach (1929-), Ecotopia Emerging; The Ecotopian Encyclopedia for the 80's: A Survival Guide for the Age of Inflation; selective use of hi-tech to keep resources self-sustaining. Douglas R. Casey, Crisis Investing. Bruce Chatwin (1940-89), The Viceroy of Ouidah. Frank Chodorov (1877-1966), Fugitive Essays (autobio.). Sir Kenneth Clark (1903-83), Feminine Beauty. Robert Coles (1929-), Flannery O'Connor's South. Evan S. Connell Jr. (1924-), The White Lantern (essays). Fred James Cook (1911-2003), The Ku Klux Klan: America's Recurring Nightmare. Council on Environmental Quality and U.S. Dept. of State, The Global 2000 Report to the President; commissioned by Pres. Carter on May 23, 1977, and dir. by Gerald O. Barney; conclusion: "If present trends continue, the world in 2000 will be more crowded, and more vulnerable to disruption than the world we live in now. Serious stresses involving population, resources, and environment are clearly visible ahead. Despite greater material output, the worlds people will be poorer in many ways than they are today"; after U. of Ill. prof. Julian Lincoln Simon (1932-98) predicts that the prices of natural resources will go down not up over time, UCB prof. Paul Ralph Ehrlich (1932-) et al. bet him $1K that prices of chrome, copper, nickel, tin and tungsten will be higher in Oct. 1990 than this Oct., and lose; Simon then offers them $20K for a new bet, and they decline. Malcolm Cowley, The Dream of the Golden Mountains: Remembering the 1930s (autobio.); his years with New Republic mag. and disillusionnment with leftist activism. Lawrence Arthur Cremin (1925-90), American Education: The National Experience, 1783-1876 (Pulitzer Prize). Merle Eugene Curti (1897-1996), Human Nature in American Thought: A History. Adi Da (1939-2008), Scientific Proof of the Existence of God Will Soon Be Announced By The White House!: Prophetic Wisdom About the Myths and Idols of Mass Culture and Popular Religious Cultism, the New Priesthood of Scientific and Political Materialism, and the Secrets of Enlightenment Hidden in the Body of Man; "There is no Enlightenment, no evolutionary entrance into the truly Spiritual Condition of human existence, without ego-death, or transcendence of the mind. There must be the literal death of the separate and separative consciousness. In this moment, you are holding on to your sense of separate consciousness as if it were something tangible and material. You possess yourself through a great contraction of body and psyche. By virtue of this gesture, you have become rigid, mediocre, deluded, relatively loveless, self-possessed, and isolated. To be without an inner consciousness is, for you, unthinkable. To be incapable of feeling yourself as a separate consciousness is, for you, a terrifying prospect. Nevertheless, that is precisely the realization with which you must become completely comfortable." Andrew Deaton (1945-) and John Muellbauer, An Almost Ideal Demand System; describes the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS), a consumer demand model based on a first-order approximation that satisfies the axioms of choice. Cyril Demarne (1905-2007), The London Blitz: A Fireman's Tale. Phil Donahue (1935-), Donahue: My Own Story (autobio.) (Feb. 13). Allen Drury (1918-98), Egypt: The Eternal Smile (Oct.). John Hart Ely (1938-2003), Democracy and Distrust: A Theory of Judicial Review; super-popular work on U.S. constitutional law, comparing and judging all the different styles of interpretation. Joseph Epstein (1937-), Ambition: The Secret Passion. Rev. Jerry Falwell (1933-2007), Listen, America!; widely-distributed pamphlet with the soundbyte: "We must stand against the Equal Rights Amendment, the feminist revolution, and the homosexual revolution" - I'm Kilroy, Kilroy, Kilroy? Mohamed Abdel Salam (Muhammad abd al-Salaam) Faraj (1954-82), The Forgotten (Neglected) Obligation; calls on all Muslims to begin jihad again, giving fuel to the Egyptian Islamic Jihad (Jama'at al-Jihad) (founded in the late 1970s) to help it overthrow the Egyptian govt. and set up an Islamic Repub. of Egypt; after they assassinate Anwar Sadat next year, their leaders are imprisoned and/or executed, and later affiliate with al-Qaida. Martin Feldstein (1939-) and Charles Horioka (1956-), Domestic Savings and International Capital Flows; proves that in the long run capital tends to stay in the home country instead of flowing to the countries with the most productive investment opportunities, becoming known as the Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle. Marilyn Ferguson (1938-2008), The Aquarian Conspiracy: Personal and Social Transformation in Our Time; bestseller about the New Age Movement, with conspiracy used in the positive sense of breathing together, becoming "the Bible of the New Age" which is "working its way increasingly into the nation's cultural, religious, social, economic and political life" (New York Times); "In the beginning, certainly, most did not set out to change society. In that sense, it is an unlikely kind of conspiracy. But they found that their lives had become revolutions. Once a personal change began in earnest, they found themselves rethinking everything, examining old assumptions, looking anew at their work and relationships, health, political power and 'experts', goals and values." Lawrence Ferlinghetti (1919-) and Nancy J. Peters, Literary San Francisco; the Beat movement. Stanley Fish (1938-), Is There a Text in This Class?; claims that the "interpretive community" not the creator of a text determines its meaning. James Fuller Fixx (1932-84), Jim Fixx's Second Book of Running. Eric Foner, Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War. Nancy Friday (1933-), Men in Love: Men's Sexual Fantasies: The Triumph of Love Over Rage; interviews with men reveal their fantasies. Milton Friedman (1912-2006) and Rose Friedman (1910-2009), Free to Choose: A Personal Statement; bestseller lamenting the erosion of personal freedom by govt., based on the works of Friedrich Hayek; also a 1980 PBS TV series. Paul Fussell Jr. (1924-2012), Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the Wars; examines the travel books of Evelyn Waugh, Graham Greene, D.H. Lawrence, and Robert Byron. John William Gardner (1912-2002), Quotations of Wit and Wisdom. Jim Garrison (1951-), The Plutonium Culture. Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002), The Panda's Thumb: More Reflections on Natural History (essays). Graham Greene (1904-91), Ways of Escape (autobio.). Stanislav Grof (1931-), LSD Psychotherapy. Peter Handke (1942-), Essay About Tiredness. Michael Harner (1929-), The Way of the Shaman: A Guide to Power and Healing; teaches Core Shamanism; he founds the Foundation for Shamanic Studies in 1979 in Mill Valley, Calif. Barbara Grizzuti Harrison (1934-2002), Off Center: Essays. Geoffrey H. Hartman (1929-), Criticism in the Wilderness: The Study of Literature Today; argues that Jacques Derrida's approach should be adopted by U.S. academia. Robert L. Heilbroner (1919-2005), Marxism: For and Against (Dec. 17). Terry Hekker (1932-), Ever Since Adam & Eve; giving up a career to be a wife-mother. Lillian Hellman (1905-84), Maybe (autobio.); her friend Sarah Cameron and her "feminine hurts and feminine humiliations". Dorothy Hewett (1923-2002), Wild Card (autobio.). Charles Higham (1931-2012), Errol Flynn: The Untold Story; claims that he was a bi Fascist sympathizer who spied for the Nazis before and during WWII, and had affairs with Tyrone Power, Howard Hughes, and Truman Capote. Christopher Hills (1926-97), Creative Conflict: The Secret to Heart-to-Heart Communication. Irving Howe (1920-93), Gus Tyler (1912-), and Peter Steinfels (1941-), The Threat of Conservatism. Michael Ignatieff (1947-), A Just Measure of Pain: The Penitentiary in the Industrial Revolution, 1750-1850 (May 31). Christopher Isherwood (1904-86), My Guru and His Disciple; Swami Prabhavananda, his spiritual guide for 30+ years. Christopher Isherwood (1904-86) and Don Bachardy (1936-), October; Isherwood's journal for Oct. 1979, with drawings by Bachardy. Haynes Johnson (1931-), In the Absence of Power; Governing America (Apr. 3). Pauline Kael (1919-2001), When the Lights Go Down; savaged by New Yorker critic Renata Adler (1938-), with the soundbyte "jarringly, piece by piece, line by line, and without interruption, worthless", calling Time mag. to call it "the New York literary Mafia bloodiest case of assault and battery in years". Daniel Kahneman (1934-) and Amos Tversky (1937-96), Toward a Positive Theory of Consumer Choice; founds Behavioral Economics. Justin Kaplan (1925-2014), Walt Whitman: A Life. Ian Kershaw (1943-), The 'Hitler Myth': Image and Reality in the Third Reich (first book) (English trans. in 1987); about how the Hitler cult was developed by propaganda master Joseph Goebbels, failing to completely penetrate the hard shell of the masses, requiring the Nazi elite to do all of the dirty work. David I. Kertzer (1948-), Comrades and Christians: Religion and Political Struggle in Communist Italy (first book). Rashid Khalidi (1948-), British Policy Towards Syria and Palestine, 1906-1914 (Apr.) (first book). Maxine Hong Kingston (1940-), China Men; exploitation of Chinese laborers in the U.S. Jonathan Kozol (1936-), Children of the Revolution; his visit to Commie paradise Cuba; Prisoners of Silence: Breaking the Bonds of Adult Illiteracy in the United States. Maxine Kumin (1925-2014), To Make a Prairie: Essays on Poets, Poetry and Country Living (Feb. 15). Lewis Henry Lapham, Fortune's Child: A Portrait of the United States as a Spendthrift Heir. Martin A. Larson (1897-1994), The Essene-Christian Faith: A Study in the Sources of Western Religion. Joseph P. Lash (1909-87), Helen and Teacher: Story of Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan Macy. John Kingsley Lattimer (1914-2007), Kennedy and Lincoln: Medical and Ballistic Comparisons of Their Assassinations (Oct.); compares their yukky wounds; backs the lone gunman theory. John Frederick Lehmann (1907-87), Rupert Brooke [1887-1915]: His Life and His Legend; WWI poet who pub. "The Soldier" in 1914. Dorian Leigh (1917-2008), The Girl Who Had Everything; early 1940s-50s supermodel Dorian Leigh, who inspired Truman Capote's Holly Golightly in "Breakfast at Tiffany's", and ended her sinful life by being saved by Jesus. Frank Lentricchia (1940-), After the New Criticism; how 20th cent. lit. critics incl. Northrop Frye, Jacques Derrida, Roland Barthes, and Harold Bloom make their subject esoteric by severing lit. from its sociohistorical context. Denise Levertov (1923-97), Light Up the Cave. Harry Levin (1912-94), Memories of the Moderns; essays on lit. giants Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot, James Joyce, Ernest Hemingway, W.H. Auden, and Delmore Schwartz. Hal Lindsey (1929-), On Jan. 1, 1980 he pub. the bestseller The 1980s: Countdown to Armageddon (Jan. 1) (bestseller); "Tthe decade of the 1980s could very well be the last decade of history as we know it"; claims that the Antichrist is already here and that Russia will attack Iran to gain control of its oil, causing China to jump in, leading to Armageddon that destroys every major city on Earth along with half the world pop., after which a new Roman Empire consisting of a 10-nation confederacy led by Antichrist, who works for his father Satan to destroy everything. Lyn Macdonald, The Roses of No Man's Land. George Mandler (1924-), Recognizing: The Judgment of Previous Occurrence; claims a dual process basis of recognition, first to determine prior occurrence then to identify. Sir Fitzroy MacLean (1911-96), Josip Broz Tito: A Pictorial Biography; by the "real James Bond 007", who fought with him in 1943. Dave MacPherson, The Incredible Cover-Up: Exposing the Origins of Rapture Theories; how the Protestant Millennium Feverists got a number of their ideas from their archenemy the Roman Catholic Jesuits. Norman Mailer (1923-2007), Of Women and Their Elegance; fake autobio. of Marilyn Monroe, with elegant photos by Milton Greene. William Manchester (1922-2004), Goodbye, Darkness: A Memoir of the Pacific War. Robert K. Massie (1929-), Peter the Great: His Life and World (Pulitzer Prize). Rollo May (1909-94), Freedom and Destiny. Ali al-Amin Mazrui (1933-), The African Condition: A Political Diagnosis (Apr. 30). Mary McCarthy (1912-89), Ideas and the Novel (Nov.); disses modern novels for becoming overly aestheticized and forgetting the purpose of exploring human existence. Sylvia Meagher (1922-89), Master Index to the JFK Assassination Investigations. Michael Medved (1948-) and Harry Medved, The Golden Turkey Awards; reviews 425 films; claims that Richard Burton is the worst actor ever, and that Edward D. Wood Jr.'s "Plan 9 from Outer Space" (1959) is the "worst movie ever made", making it more popular?; incl. the fake 1974 film "Him" about the gay life of Jesus as a challenge for the reader. Alice Miller (1923-2010), For Your Own Good: Hidden Cruelty in Child-Rearing and the Roots of Violence. Merle Miller (1919-86), Lyndon: An Oral Biography (Aug. 12); bestseller. Kate Millett (1934-), Going to Iran; her trip to Iran in 1979 to work for women's rights, which got her expelled. Edmund Sears Morgan (1916-2013), The Genius of George Washington. Marabel Morgan (1937-), The Total Woman Cookbook: Marabel Morgan's Handbook for Kitchen Survival. Richard Ward Morris (1939-2003), The End of the World (June). Malcolm Muggeridge (1903-90), The End of Christendom. Vladimir Nabokov (1899-1977), Lectures on Literature; claims that lit. has no instructive or moral purpose other than its "texture", which can improve the mind. Philip Noel-Baker (1889-1982), Louis Mountbatten (1900-79), and Solly Zuckerman (1904-93), Apocalypse Now?. Simon J. Ortiz (1941-), Fight Back: For the Sake of the People, For the Sake of the Land. Georges Perec (1936-82) and Robert Bober, Ellis Island and the People of America. Richard Pipes (1923-2018), Struve, Liberal on the Right, 1905-1944. Letty Cottin Pogrebin (1939-), Growing Up Free: Raising Your Child in the 80s (Sept.); non-sexist child rearing. Iggy Pop (1947-) and Anne Weher, I Need More (autobio.); foreword by Andy Warhol. Michael Eugene Porter (1947-), Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors; becomes a std. textbook. Reynolds Price (1933-), Clear Pictures: First Loves, First Guides (autobio.). William H. Pritchard (1932-), Lives of the Modern Poets. Lionel Robbins (1898-1984), A History of Economic Thought: The LSE Lectures. Walt Whitman Rostow (1916-2003), Why the Poor Get Richer and the Rich Slow Down: Essays in the Marshallian Long Period. Barry Rubin (1950-2014), The Great Powers in the Middle East, 1941-1947: The Road to the Cold War; Paved With Good Intentions: The American Experience and Iran. Carl Sagan (1934-96), Cosmos; 13-chapter bestseller based on his 1980 PBS-TV series. Kamal Salibi (1929-2011), A History of Arabia. Harrison Evans Salisbury (1908-93), Without Fear or Favor: The New York Times and Its Times. Orville Hickok Schell (1940-), Watch Out for the Foreign Guests!: China Encounters the West. Martin Seymour-Smith (1928-98), Novels and Novelists: A Guide to the World of Fiction. Zecharia Sitchin (1920-2010), The Stairway to Heaven. B.F. Skinner (1904-90), Notebooks; ed. by Robert Epstein. Robert Sobel (1931-99), Last Bull Market: Wall Street in the 1960s; The Worldly Economists. Susan Sontag (1933-2004), Under the Sign of Saturn; Nazi filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl, avant-garde drama critic Antonin Artaud, et al. Thomas Sowell (1930-), Knowledge and Decisions. Dale Spender (1943-), Man Made Language (first book); how male supremacy is built into the English language. hence language itself sustains male power, men seeks to dominate woman through talk, and men tend to speak in non-standard forms with covert prestige as a means of social bonding, thus it is difficult to challenge male-dominated society because the very language reinforces male power. Ronald Steel (1931-), Walter Lippmann and the American Century. Jean Strouse (1945-), Alice James: A Biography; sister of Henry James and William James and how she couldn't find her own voice. Ingo Swann (1933-2013), What Will Happen to You When the Soviets Take Over?; remote viewing psychic claims to predict the future. Han Suyin (1917-), My House Has Two Doors (autobio.). Gay Talese (1932-), Thy Neighbor's Wife; 1980s pre-AIDS Am. sexuality, incl. his experience at the Sandstone Retreat nudist colony; becomes a running joke in "Doonesbury" as radio host Mark Slackmeyer interviews him about it. William Andrew Swanberg (1907-92), Whitney Father, Whitney Heiress: Two Generations of America's Richest Families. Gloria Swanson (1899-1983), Swanson on Swanson (autobio.). Reay Tannahill, Sex in History. Lester Thurow (1938-), The Zero-Sum Society: Distribution and the Possibilities for Economic Change; NYT bestseller claiming that the U.S. economy can't get out of its slump unless the more prosperous half accepts the burden of more taxation. Alvin Toffler (1928-), The Third Wave; sequel to "Future Shock" (1970); the transition from Industrial "Second Wave" Age to Information "Third Wave" Age. John Toland (1912-2004), No Man's Land: 1918, The Last Year of the Great War; the Yankees break the deadlock. Lionel Trilling (1905-75), Speaking of Literature and Society. Nicholas Wade and William J. Broad, The Nobel Duel. Diane Wakoski (1937-), Towards a New Poetry. Hal B. Wallis (1898-1986) and Charles Higham (1931-2012), Starmaker (autobio.). Evelyn Waugh (1903-66), Letters (posth.). Dennis Wheatley (1897-1977), The Deception Planners (posth.); the D-Day deception. Robert Henry Williams (1921-88), Problems in Materialism and Culture: Selected Essays. William Appleman Williams (1921-90), Empire as a Way of Life: An Essay on the Causes and Character of America's Present Predicament Along with a Few Thoughts About an Alternative. Andrew Norman Wilson (1950-), The Laird of Abbotsford: A View of Sir Walter Scott. Edmund Wilson (1895-1972), The Thirties: From the Notebooks and Diaries of the Period; ed. by Leon Edel. Robert Anton Wilson (1932-2007), The Illuminati Papers (essays); bestseller about history as a vast conspiracy. Al Young (1939-) and Janet Coleman, Mingus/Mingus: Two Memoirs; bio. of Charles Mingus (1922-79). Howard Zinn (1922-2010), A People's History of the United States; bestseller (2M copies); from a longtime Marxist rebel-rousing power-to-the-people activist with the intention of starting a "quiet revolution"; calls himself "something of an anarchist, something of a socialist. Maybe a democratic socialist"; "Not a revolution in the classical sense of a seizure of power, but rather from people beginning to take power from within the institutions. In the workplace, the workers would take power to control the conditions of their lives"; revised several times through 2005; eventually takes over most U.S. campuses, who are filled with history ignoramuses and want to be taught what they want to hear, not minding that the book is a pick-and-choose patchwork riddled with errors and lies?; "the deranged quality of his fairy tale, in which the incidents are made to fit the legend, no matter how intractible the evidence of American history" (Oscar Handlin); "Bad history, albeit gilded with virtuous intentions" (Michael Kazin); followed by "Voices of a People's History of the United States" (2004). Art: Marc Chagall (1887-1985), The Magic Flight (L'Envolee Magique). David Hockney (1937-), Mulholland Drive: The Road to the Studio. Luis Jimenez (1940-2006), Vaquero (sculpture); cast in 1990. Jasper Johns (1930-), Dancers on a Plane. Anselm Kiefer (1945-), To the Unknown Painter. Martin Kippenberger (1953-97), Self-Portrait. Bernard "Hap" Kliban (1935-90), Playboy's New Kilban. Roy Lichtenstein (1923-97), Head with Monocle. Roberto Matta (1911-2002), Il Proprio Corno Mio; Laocoontare (La Guerra Delle Idee); Pyrocentre. Elizabeth Murray (1940-2007), Joined; Breaking. Alice Neel (1900-84), Self-Portrait; sits in an armchair wearing only eyeglasses, exposing that she waited way too long for her first? Isamu Noguchi (1904-88), California Noguchi; a funky landscape in Costa Mesa, Calif. George Segal (1924-2000), Steelmakers (bronze sculpture); Gay Liberation (sculpture) (Greenwich Village); in memory of the 1969 Stonewall Riots, placed in the Gay Liberation Monument in Christopher Street Park in Manhattan, N.Y., and the Main Quad of Stanford U., becoming the first piece of public art dedicated to the LGBT cause. Tom Wesselmann (1931-2004), Dropped Bra (sculpture). Music: 10cc, Look Hear? (album #7) (Mar. 28) (#180 in the U.S., #35 in the U.K.); incl. One Two Five, It Doesn't Matter At All. ABBA, Gracias Por La Musica (album) (June 23); Super Trouper (album #7) (Nov. 3) (#1 album of the year in the U.K.); incl. Super Trouper, The Winner Takes It All. AC/DC, Back in Black (album #7) (July 25); first without Scottish lead singer Bon Scott (b. 1946) (bare chested), who died on Feb. 19, and first with English lead singer Brian Johnson (1947-) (who likes to wear a Tynside or baseball cap); all-black mourning cover; sells 49M copies (#2 after Michael Jackson's 1982 "Thriller"); incl. Back in Black (#37 in the U.S.), Rock and Roll Ain't Noise Pollution (#15 in the U.K.), Hells Bells (#52 in the U.S.), Shoot to Thrill (#60 in the U.S.), You Shook Me All Night Long (#35 in the U.S.). Bryan Adams (1959-), Bryan Adams (album) (debut) (Feb.); incl. Hiding from Love. Dead or Alive, Nude (album #4); big hit in Japan; incl. Turn Around and Count 2 Ten, Come Home (With Me Baby). GG Allin (1956-93) and The Jabbers, Always Was, Is and Always Shall Be (album) (debut). Allman Brothers Band, Reach for the Sky (album #8). Adam and the Ants, Kings of the Wild Frontier (album #2) (#1 in the U.K.) (bestselling album in the U.K. in 1981); introduces the Burundi drum sound; incl. Kings of the Wild Frontier (#2 in the U.K.), Dog Eat Dog (#4 in the U.K.), Antmusic. America, Alibi (album #9) (Aug. 15); the sides of the LP are labelled "Our Side" and "Their Side"; album cover features a severed doll's head; incl. Survival. B-52's, Wild Planet (album #2) (Aug. 27) (#18 in the U.S., #18 in the U.K.); incl. Party Out of Bounds, Give Me Back My Man, Private Idaho. Siouxsie Sioux (1957-) and the Banshees, Kaleidoscope (album #3) (Aug. 1); incl. Happy House, Christine, Red Light. Bauhaus, In the Flat Field (album) (debut) (Oct. 1); incl. In the Flat Field, God in An Alcove, Small Talk Stinks. The (English) Beat, I Just Can't Stop It (album) (debut) (May); from Birmingham, England, incl. David "Dave" Wakeling (1956-) (vocals, guitar), Ranking Roger (Roger Charlery) (1961-) (vocals), Andrew "Andy" Cox (1956-) (guitar), David "Shuffle" Steele (1960-) (bass), Saxa (Lionel Augustus Martin) (1930-) (sax), and Everett Morton (1951-) (drums); incl. Mirror in the Bathroom, Hands Off... She's Mine. Captain Beefheart (1941-2011) and The Magic Band, Doc at the Radar Station (album #11) (Aug.); incl. Hot Head, Ashtray Heart, A Carrot Is As Close As A Rabbit Gets to A Diamond. Pat Benatar (1953-), Crimes of Passion (album #2) (#2 in the U.S.); incl. Hit Me with Your Best Shot, Treat Me Right, I'm Gonna Follow You; Precious Time (album); incl. Fire and Ice, Hell is for Children, Promises in the Dark, It's a Tuff Life. George Benson (1943-), Give Me the Night (album); incl. Give Me the Night. Berlin, Information (album) (debut); from Los Angeles, Calif., incl. Terri Kathleen Nunn (vocals), David Diamond (keyboards), Ric Olsen (guitar), Matt Reid (keyboards), John Crawford (bass), and Rod Learned (drums) Blondie, Autoamerican (album #5) (Nov. 29) (#7 in the U.S., #3 in the U.K.); incl. Europa, The Tide is High, Rapture; first rap song to reach #1 in the U.S.; "Fab Five Freddie told me everybody's high/ DJ's spinnin' are savin' my mind/ Flash is fast, Flash is cool/ Francois sez fas, Flash a nous deaux/ And you don't stop, sure shot/ Go out to the parking lot/ And you get in your car and you drive real far/ And you drive all night and then you see a light/ And it comes right down and lands on the ground/ And out comes a man from Mars./ And you try to run but he's got a gunAnd he shoots you dead and he eats your head/ And then you're in the man from Mars/ You go out at night, eatin' cars." Arthur Blythe, Illusions (album). David Bowie (1947-2016), Scary Monsters (and Super Creeps) (album) (Sept. 12) (#1 in the U.K.) (last for RCA); "Often Copied, Never Equalled"; incl. Scary Monsters (and Super Creeps), Ashes to Ashes, Teenage Wildlife ("A broken-nosed mogul are you/ One of the new wave boys/ Same old thing in brand new drag/ Comes sweeping into view/ As ugly as a teenage millionaire/ Pretending it's a whiz kid world"), Fashion. Jackson Browne (1948-), Hold Out (album #6) (June 24) (#1 in the U.S.); incl. Hold Out, That Girl Could Sing. Echo and the Bunnymen, Crocodiles (album) (debut) (July 18) (#17 in the U.K.); from Liverpool, England, incl. Ian McCulloch (1959-) (vocals), Will Sergeant (1958-) (guitar), Leslie "Les" Pattinson (1958-) (bass), and Peter Louis Vincent "Pete" de Freitas (1961-89) (drums); incl. Pictures on My Wall, Rescue. Rocky Burnette (1953-), Tired of Toein' the Line (#8 in the U.S., #58 in the U.K.); son of "Sweet Sixteen" singer Johnny Burnette ties his daddy's 1960 chart performance. Kate Bush (1958-), Never for Ever (album #3) (Sept. 8) (#1 in the U.K.); first solo female British singer to top the U.K. album charts; incl. The Wedding List, Breathing, Army Dreamers, Babooshka; December Will Be Magic Again (Nov.). Glen Campbell (1936-2017), Somethin' Bout You Baby I Like (album #36) (June); incl. Somethin' Bout You Baby I Like (with Rita Coolidge). Kim Carnes (1945-), More Love; cover of a 1967 Smokey Robinson and the Miracles song. The Jim Carroll Band, Catholic Boy (first album) (#73 in the U.S.); incl. People Who Died, It's Too Late. The Cars, Panorama (album #3) (Aug. 15); incl. Panorama. Felix Cavaliere (1944-), Only a Lonely Heart Sees (#36 in the U.S.). Raffi Cavoukian (1948-), Baby Beluga (album); incl. Baby Beluga - well bend my neck? Cher (1946-), Black Rose (album #17) (Aug. 21); sells 400K copies. Chic, Real People (album #4) (June 30); incl. Rebels Are We. Chicago, Chicago XIV (album #14) (July 21) (last with Columbia); a flop; incl. Thunder and Lightning. The Clash, Sandanista! (album #4) (triple album) (Dec. 12) (#24 in the U.S., #19 in the U.K.); incl. The Call Up (#40 in the U.K.), Hitsville UK (#56 in the U.K.), The Magnificent Seven (#34 in the U.K.). Climax Blues Band, Gotta Have More Love (#4 in the U.S.). Judy Collins (1939-), Running for My Life (album #15). Alice Cooper (1948-), Flush the Fashion (album #12) (Apr. 28); incl. Clones (We're All). Elvis Costello (1954-) and the Attractions, Get Happy!! (album #4); incl. I Can't Stand Up for Falling Down; Taking Liberties (album) (Nov.); Ten Bloody Mary & Ten How's Your Fathers (album) (Nov. 7). The Cramps, Songs the Lord Taught Us (album) (debut); from New York City, incl. Lux Interior (Erick Lee Lamphear-Purkhiser) (1946-2009) (vocals), Poison Ivy Rorschach (Kristy Marlana Wallace) (1953-) (guitar), Bryan Gregory (Greg Beckerleg), Julien Grindsnatch, Kid Congo Powers (Brian Tristan), Harry Dumdini/Pam Ballam (drums); incl. Fever. Seals and Crofts, The Longest Road (album #10). Blue Oyster Cult, Cultosaurus Erectus (album #8) (June); incl. Black Blade (lyrics by Michael Moorcock). The Cure, Seventeen Seconds (album #2) (Apr. 18) (#20 in the U.K.); incl. Three, A Forest. The Damned, The Black Album (album #4) (double album) (Oct.); incl. Wait for the Blackout, Lively Arts, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, The History of the World (Pt. 1). Steely Dan, Gaucho (album #7) (Nov. 21); Donald Fagen and Walter Becker go solo, reuniting in 1993; incl. Hey Nineteen, Time Out of Mind (features Mark Knopfler from Dire Straits on guitar). Mac Davis (1942-), It's Hard to Be Humble (album); incl. It's Hard to Be Humble, Let's Keep It That Way. Grateful Dead, Go to Heaven (album #11) (Apr. 28). Afternoon Delights, General Hospi-Tale (album); incl. General Hospi-Tale. John Denver (1943-97), Autograph (album) (Feb.); incl. Autograph; Rocky Mountain Reunion (album); incl. On the Wings of an Eagle. Devo, Freedom of Choice (album #3) (July 5); incl. Whip It (#14 in the U.S.); giant MTV video hit. Joy Division, Closer (album #2) (last album) (July 18); incl. Isolation, Heart and Soul; too bad, lead singer Ian Curtis (b. 1956) commits suicide by hanging on May 18, and the band reforms under the name New Order: Bernard Sumner (Dicken) (1956-) (vocals), Peter "Hooky" Hook (1956-) (bass), Gillian Lesley Gilbert (1961-) (keyboards), and Stephen Paul David Morris (1957-) (drums). Donovan (1946-), Neutronica (album #15) (Aug.); against military spending in a world filled with famine. Doobie Brothers, One Step Closer (album #9) (Sept. 17) (#3 in the U.S.); incl. Real Love (#5 in the U.S.). Tangerine Dream, Tangram (album #10) (May) (#36 in the U.K.); Pergamon (Quichotte) (album). Rick Dufay (1952-), Tender Loving Abuse (album) (debut); joins Aerosmith in 1981-4. Jacob Druckman (1928-96), Prism. Bob Dylan (1941-), Saved (album #20) (June 23); about his born-again Christianity; incl. Saved. Alton Ellis (1938-2008) and the Heptones, Mr. Ska Bean'a (album). Brian Eno and Jon Hasell, Fourth World Vol. 1/Possible Musics (album). Split Enz, True Colours (album #5) (Jan. 21); from New Zealand, formed in 1971; incl. Brian Timothy "Tim" Finn (1952-) (dark hair) and Cornelius Mullane "Neil" Finn (1958-) (light hair); incl. I Got You. Earth, Wind and Fire, Faces (album #10) (double album) (Oct. 14) (#10 in the U.S., #10 in the U.K.)); last with Al McKay; incl. Let Me Talk (#44 in the U.S.), You (#48 in the U.S.), And Love Goes On (#59 in the U.S.), Sparkle. Foghat, Tight Shoes (album #9) (June). The Fools, Sold Out (album) (debut); from Boston, Mass.; incl. Life Sucks Then You Die. Foreigner, 4 (album #4) (July 2) (#1 in the U.S.); incl. Urgent, Waiting for a Girl Like You, Juke Box Hero. Peter Frampton (1950-), Rise Up (album) (June 20); released in Brazil. Funkadelic, Connections & Disconnections (42.9%) (Who's a Funkadelic?) (album). Psychedelic Furs, Psychedelic Furs (album) (debut) (Feb.); from England, incl. Richard Lofthouse "Butler Rep" Butler (1956-) (vocals), Timothy George "Tim" Butler (195-) (bass), John Ashton (1957-) (guitar), Duncan Kilburn (sax), Paul Wilson/Vince Ely (drums), Roger Morris (guitar); incl. Sister Europe. Kool and the Gang, Celebrate! (album #14) (Sept. 29) (#10 in the U.S.); incl. Celebration (#1 in the U.S., #7 in the U.K.). Leif Garrett (1961-), Can't Explain (album #4). J. Geils Band, Love Stinks (album #11) (Jan. 28) (#18 in the U.S.); originally Snoopy and the Sopwith Camels; from Worcester, Mass., incl. John Geils (1946-) (vocals, guitar), Peter Wolf (Blankfield) (1946-) (vocals), Danny "Dr. Funk" Klein (bass), Richard "Magic Dick" Salwitz (harmonica), Set Justman (keyboards), and Stephen Jo Bladd (drums); incl. Love Stinks (#38 in the U.S.), Come Back (#32 in the U.S.). Genesis, Duke (album #10) (Mar. 28); incl. Turn It On Again (#10 in the U.K.), Misunderstanding (#20 in the U.S.). Throbbing Gristle, Heathen Earth (album) (June). Merle Haggard (1937-2016), I Think I'll Just Stay Here and Drink. Merle Haggard (1937-2016) and Clint Eastwood (1930-), Bar Room Buddies; from "Bronco Billy". Van Halen, Women and Children First (album #3) (Mar. 26); incl. And the Cradle Will Rock.... Herbie Hancock (1940-), Monster (album #29); Mr. Hands (album #30). Roy Harper (1941-), The Unknown Soldier (album #10); last for EMI Harvest Records; incl. The Unknown Soldier, You (w/Kate Bush and David Gilmour). Emmylou Harris (1947-), Roses in the Snow (album); incl. Roses in the Snow. Isaac Hayes (1942-2008), And Once Again Talking Heads, Remain In Light (album #4) (Oct. 8) (#19 in the U.S., #21 in the U.K.); incl. Once in a Lifetime (#14 in the U.K.), Houses in Motion (#50 in the U.K.). Heart, Bebe le Strange (album #5) (Feb. 14) (#5 in the U.S.); incl. Bebe le Strange, Even It Up. Uriah Heep, Conquest (album #13); first with lead singer John Sloman, and sans drummer Lee Kerslake and songwriter Ken Hensley. Levon Helm (1940-), American Son (album) (solo debut); next album in 2007. INXS, INXS (album) (debut) (Oct. 13) (pr. "in excess"); from Australia, incl. Michael Hutchence (1960-97) (vocals), Garry Gary (William) Beers (1957-) (bass), Andrew Farriss (1959-) (keyboards), Jonathan James "Jon" Farriss (1961-) (drums), Timothy William "Tim" Farriss (1957-) (guitar), Kirk Pengilly (1958-) (sax); incl. On a Bus. Talking Heads, Remain in Light (album). Alan Hovhaness (1911-2000), Symphony No. 47 ("Walla Walla, Land of Many Waters"), Op. 348. Karel Husa (1921-), The Trojan Women (ballet). Janis Ian (1951-), You Are Love; from Kinji Fukasaku's 1980 film "Virus" (most expensive Japanese film to that time). Public Image Ltd., Paris au Printemps (first live album) (Nov. 14). Lipps Inc., Funkytown (#1 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.); "lip sync"; from Minneapolis, Minn., incl. Cynthia Maria Johnson (1949-) (lead vocals), Melanie Rosales, Margaret Cox, David Z (Rivkin) (1953-), and Steven Greenberg. The Isley Brothers, Go All the Way (album); incl. Don't Say Goodnight. La Toya Jackson (1956-), La Toya Jackson (album) (debut) (#116 in the U.S., #178 in the U.K.); incl. Night Time Lover (w/Michael Jackson), If You Feel the Funk. Millie Jackson (1944-), For Men Only (album #12); I Had to Say It (album #13); Live (album #14). The Jam, Sound Affects (album #5) (Nov. 28); incl. Start! (#1 in the U.K.), Pretty Green. Rick James (1948-2004), Garden of Love (album #4). Joan Jett (1958-), Joan Jett (album) (debut) (May 17); after 23 major labels reject it, she starts her own label Blackheart Records, becoming a first for a female performer. Billy Joel (1949-), Glass Houses (album #7) (Mar.) (#1 in the U.S.) (7M copies in the U.S.); incl. It's Still Rock & Roll to Me (first #1 U.S. song), You May Be Right, Close to the Borderline, Don't Ask Me Why. Elton John (1947-), Lady Samantha (album) (Oct. 13); 21 at 33 (album #14) (May 13); his 21st album (incl. live and compilation albums at age 33); incl. Little Jeannie (lyrics by Gary Osborne), Sartorial Eloquence. George Jones (1931-), He Stopped Loving Her Today; greatest country hit of all time? Grace Jones (1948-), Warm Leatherette (album #4); incl. Warm Leatherette. Journey, Departure (album #6) (Mar. 23); incl. Any Way You Want It; Dream, After Dream Soundtrack (album) (Dec. 10). Kansas, Audio-Visions (album #7) (Sept.). Dead Kennedys, Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables (album) (debut) (Sept.); from San Francisco, Calif., incl. Jello Biafra (Eric Reed Boucher) (1958-) (vocals), East Bay Ray (Raymond John Pepperell) (1958-) (guitar), Klaus Fluoride (Geoffrey Lyall) (1949-) (bass), 6025 (Carlos Cadona) (drums); incl. Holiday in Cambodia, Let's Lynch the Landlord, California Uber Alles, Kill the Poor. Chaka Khan (1953-), Naughty (album #2) (Mar. 26) (#43 in the U.S.); incl. Clouds, Get Ready, Get Set, Papillon (Hot Butterfly) (w/Luther Vandross, Cissy Houston, and Whitney Houston). Greg Kihn Band, Glass House Rock (album #3). The Kinks, One for the Road (album) (June 4). Kiss, Unmasked (album #8) (last) (May 20) (#35 in the U.S.); incl. Shandi (#47 in the U.S.). Gladys Knight (1944-) and the Pips, About Love (album). Barron Knights, The Topical Song; parody of Supertramp's "Logical Song" written by Robert Spring White. The Human League, Holiday '80 (album) (Apr.) (debut); incl. Being Boiled; Travelogue (The Human League Album) (album #2) (May); incl. Only After Dark (by Mick Ronson). Brenda Lee (1944-), Even Better (album) (Jan. 1); incl. Tell Me What It's Like; The Cowboy and the Dandy, Broken Trust (with the Oak Ridge Boys). John Lennon (1940-80) and Yoko Ono (1933-), Double Fantasy (album #8) (last album) (Nov. 17) (#1 ijn the U.S., #2 in the U.K.); incl. Watching the Wheels, (Just Like) Starting Over, Beautiful Boy (written for their only son Sean Tara Ono Lennon, b. 1975), Walking on Thin Ice, Central Park Stroll, Kiss Kiss Kiss (featuring Yoko reaching orgasm, presumably with John). Def Leppard, On Through the Night (Mar. 14) (album) (debut); from Sheffield, England, who go on to sell 65M+ albums, incl. Joseph Thomas "Joe" Elliott (1959-) (vocals), Peter Andrew "Pete" Willis (1960-) / Philip Kenneth "Phil" Collen (1957-), Rick "Sav" Savage (1960-) (bass), Stephen Maynard "Steve" Clark (1960-91) (guitar), Anthony Rueben "Tony" Kenning/ Richard John Cyril "Rick" Allen (1963-) (drums), and Vivian Patrick Campbell (1962-) (guitar). Huey Lewis (1950-) and the News, Huey Lewis and The News (album) (debut) (June 25); formerly Huey Lewis and the American Express; incl. Some of My Lies Are True (Sooner or Later). Lipps Inc., Funkytown. Thin Lizzy, Chinatown (album #10) (Oct. 10). Professor Longhair (1918-80), Crawfish Fiesta (album) (posth.); incl. You're Driving Me Crazy. Loverboy, Loverboy (album) (debut) (Mar. 28) (3M copies); from Calgary, Alberta, Canada, incl. Mike Reno (vocals), Paul Dean (guitar), Scott Smith (bass), Doug Johnson (keyboards), and Matt Frenette (drums); released in Canada after every U.S. record co. turns them down; incl. Turn Me Loose, The Kid is Hot Tonight, Lady of the 80's. Iron Maiden, Iron Maiden (album) (debut) (Apr. 14) (#4 in the U.K.); named after the Alexandre Dumas pere novel "The Man in the Iron Mask"; from Leyton, London, England, incl. Stephen Percy "Steve" Harris (1956-) (bass), Paul Mario Day (1956-)/ Dennis Wilcock (vocals), David Michael "Dave" Murray (1956-) (guitar), and Doug Sampson (1957-) (drums); the band mascot is Edward the Head (Eddie the 'Edd); incl. Iron Maiden, Sanctuary, Phantom of the Opera, Running Free; Live!!+one (album) (Nov.); recorded at the Marquee Club in London on July 4. Barry Manilow (1943-), Barry (album #7) (Nov. 19); incl. I Made It Through the Rain. Benny Mardones (1946-), Never Run, Never Hide (album) (#65 in the U.S.); incl. Into the Night (#11 in the U.S.); reaches #20 in July 1989, setting a record of 37 weeks on the Billboard-200 chart, vs. 36 weeks for Laura Branigan's "Gloria". Bob Marley (1945-81), Uprising (album) (last during his lifetime) (June 10); devoted to his Rastafarian beliefs; incl. Redemption Song ("Emancipate yourself from mental slavery/ None but ourselves can free our minds"), Zion Train, Could You Be Loved, Forever Loving Jah. Curtis Mayfield (1942-99), Something to Believe In (album #13); incl. Something to Believe In, The Right Combination/Rapping (album #14) (with Linda Clifford); incl. Rock You to Your Socks. Paul McCartney (1942-), McCartney II (album #3) (May 16); incl. Coming Up, Temporary Secretary, Waterfalls. Reba McEntire (1955-), Feel the Fire (album #3) (Oct.); incl. You Lift Me Up (To Heaven) (first top-10 country hit). Roger McGuinn (1942-), Chris Hillman (1944-), and Gene Clark (1944-91), City (album). John Cougar Mellencamp (1951-), Nothin' Matters and What If It Did (album #5); incl. To M.G. (Wherever She May Be). Stephanie Mills (1957-), Sweet Sensation (album); incl. Sweet Sensation, Never Knew Love Like This Before. Ronnie Milsap (1943-), Cowboys and Clowns (#103 in the U.S.); from the film "Bronco Billy"; Smoky Mountain Rain (Sept.) (#1 country) (#24 in the U.S.). Joni Mitchell (1943-), Shadows and Light (double album); incl. Why Do Fools Fall in Love. Eddie Money (1949-), Playing for Keeps (album #3) (July); incl. Get a Move On, Trinidad. Van Morrison (1945-), Common One (album #12) (Aug.); incl. Summertime in England. The Motels, Careful (album); incl. Danger. Motorhead, The Golden Year (album) (May 3) (#8 in the U.K.); Ace of Spades (album #4) (Nov. 8) (#4 in the U.K); incl. Ace of Spades (#15 in the U.K.). Anne Murray (1945-), Somebody's Waiting (album #15) (Mar.); incl. I'm Happy Just to Dance With You; A Country Collection; Anne Murray's Greatest Hits (album) (Nov.); incl. Could I Have This Dance (from "Urban Cowboy"). Roxy Music, Flesh and Blood (album #7) (#1 in the U.K.) (June); incl. In the Midnight Hour, Same Old Scene; Jealous Guy (only #1 single in the U.K.) (tribute to John Lennon, from his 1972 "Imagine" album). Crosby, Stills, & Nash Replay (album) (Dec. 8). Graham Nash (1942-), Earth & Sky (album #3) (Feb. 15). Willie Nelson (1933-), Honeysuckle Rose (album); incl. On the Road Again, Blue Eyes Crying in the Rain, Loving You Was Easier (Than Anything I'll Ever Do Again) (w/Dyan Cannon). Olivia Newton-John (1948-2022) and the ELO, Xanadu Soundtrack (album) (Oct. 13) (#4 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.) (2M copies); incl. Xanadu, Magic, Suddenly (with Cliff Richard); I'm Alive, All Over the World, Don't Walk Away. Luigi Nono (1924-90), Fragmente-Stille an Diotima; Das Atmende Klarsein (1981-2). Gary Numan (1958-), Telekon (album #2) (Sept. 5) (#1 in the U.K.); incl. Telekon, This Wreckage, We Are Glass, I Die, You Die. Laura Nyro (1947-97), Impressions (album). Hall & Oates, Voices (album #9) (July 29); incl. Kiss on My List (#1 in the U.S.), You Make My Dreams (Come True) (#5 in the U.S.), You've Lost That Lovin' Feeling (#12 in the U.S.). Midnight Oil, Bird Noises (album #3); incl. Wedding Cake Island. Oingo Boingo, Oingo Boingo (EP) (debut) (Sept. 17); founded 1972; originally The Mystic Knights of the Oingo Boingo; from LA, incl. Daniel Robert "Danny" Elfman (1953-); incl. Ain't This the Life, Only A Lad, I'm So Bad. OMD (Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark), Orchestral Manouvres in the Dark (album) (debut) Feb. 22); from Wirral Peninsla, England, incl. George Andrew "Andy" McCluskey (1959-) and Paul David Humphreys (1960-); incl. Electricity, Red Frame/White Light; Organisation (album #2) (Oct. 24); incl. Enola Gay, Stanlow. Yoko Ono (1933-), Walking on Thin Ice (album); incl. Walking on Thin Ice (for John), Woman Power, Yang Yang. Roy Orbison and Emmylou Harris (1947-), That Lovin' You Feelin' Again (July). Ozzy Osbourne (1948-), Blizzard of Oz (album) (Sept. 20) (solo debut); incl. Crazy Train. The Outlaws, Ghost Riders (album); incl. (Ghost) Riders in the Sky. Robert Palmer (1949-2003), Clues (album #6) (#31 in the U.K., #59 in the U.S.); incl. Johnny and Mary. Teddy Pendergrass (1950-2010), TP (album #5) (July 25) (#14 in the U.S.); incl. Can't We Try, Love T.K.O. Humble Pie, On to Victory (album #11) (Apr.); incl. Fool for a Pretty Face. Black Sabbath, Heaven and Hell (album #9) (Apr. 25) (#28 in the U.S.); first with keyboardist Geoffrey James "Geoff" Nicholls (1948-2017); incl. Heaven and Hell, Children of the Sea, Neon Knights, Die Young. Pointer Sisters, Special Things (album #7) (#34 in the U.S.); incl. He's So Shy, The Love Too Good to Last. The Police, Zenyatta Mondatta (album #3) (Oct. 3); incl. Don't Stand So Close to Me" (inspired by Vladimir Nabokov's novel "Lolita"), De Do Do Do, De Da Da Da, Behind My Camel. Jean-Luc Ponty (1942-), Civilized Evil (album) (Sept. 19). Iggy Pop (1947-), Soldier (album) (Feb.). The Pretenders, The Pretenders (album) (debut) (Jan. 19); Christine Ellen "Chrissie" Hynde (1951-) (vocals); incl. Brass in Pocket. Judas Priest, British Steel (album #6) (Apr. 14) (#34 in the U.S., #4 in the U.K.); recorded at John Lennon's home at Tittenhurst Park; incl. Breaking the Law, Living After Midnight, United. Prince (1958-2016), Dirty Mind (album #3) (Oct. 8); incl. "When You Were Mine", "Head" (oral sex with a bride-to-be), "Sister" (incest), Uptown (a world free of prejudice). Pure Prairie League, Firin' Up (album #9) (#37 in the U.S.); incl. Let Me Love You Tonight (#10 in the U.S.). Queen, The Game (album #8) (June 30) (#1 in the U.S.) (4M copies); first album without the note "No Synthesizers were used on this Album"; first album to top the Billboard rock, dance and R&B charts simultaneously; incl. Another One Bites the Dust, Crazy Little Thing Called Love, Need Your Loving Tonight, Dragon Attack, Play the Game; Flash Gordon Soundtrack (album) (Dec. 8). Eddie Rabbitt (1941-98), Horizon (album #6) (June 20) (#19 in the U.S.); incl. Drivin' My Life Away (#5 in the U.S.), I Love a Rainy Night (#1 in the U.S.). Gerry Rafferty (1947-2011), Snakes and Ladders (album #4). Ramones, End of the Century (album #5) (Feb. 4); first produced by Phil Spector (1939-), who during the recording session pulls a gun on Dee Dee Ramone to force him to play a riff repeatedly?; incl. Baby, I Love You, Do You Remember Rock 'n' Roll Radio?, Rock 'n' Roll High School. Lou Reed (1942-), Growing Up in Public (album #10) (Apr.); incl. Growing Up in Public. Martha Reeves (1941-), Gotta Keep Moving (album); incl. Gotta Keep Moving. Little River Band, Backstage Pass (double album). Rockpile, Seconds of Pleasure (album). Kenny Rogers (1938-), Gideon (album #8); incl. Don't Fall in Love With a Dreamer (w/Kim Carnes); Greatest Hits (album). Kenny Rogers (1938-) and Kim Carnes (1945-), Don't Fall in Love with a Dreamer. The Romantics, The Romantics (album) (debut) (Jan. 4); from Detroit, Mich., incl. Wally Palmar (vocals), Mike Skill (guitar), Rich Cole (bass), Jimmy Marinos (drums); incl. What I Like About You; National Breakout (album #2) (Dec.). Linda Ronstadt (1946-), Mad Love (album #10); incl. Mad Love, Hurt So Bad. Diana Ross (1944-), Upside Down. Dexys Midnight Runners, Geno (May) (#1 in the U.K.); from Birmingham, England, incl. Kevin Rowland (1953-) and Kevin "Al" Archer of the Killjoys; named after the popular drug Dexedrine that lets them dance all night. The Runaways, Flaming Schoolgirls (album #4) (last album); incl. Blackmail. Rush, Permanent Waves (album #7) (Jan. 1); incl. The Spirit of Radio, Freewill, Jacob's Ladder, Entre Nous. Black Sabbath, Heaven and Hell (album #9) (Apr. 25); first after Ozzy Osbourne (1948-) was fired in 1979 and replaced by Ronnie James Dio (Ronald James Padavona) (1942-); popularizes the Satanic mano cornuta hand gesture; incl. Neon Knights, Children of the Sea, Heaven and Hell, Die Young; Live at Last (album) (bootleg); causes them in 1982 to release Live Evil (album); Ronnie James Dio is fired for sneaking into the studio to increase the volume on his vocals? Pharoah Sanders (1940-), Journey to the One (album); incl. Yemenja. Saxon, Wheels of Steel (album); incl. Wheels of Steel, Freeway Mad, 747 (Strangers in the Night); The Strong Arm of the Law (album); incl. Strong Arm of the Law. Boz Scaggs (1944-), Middle Man (album #9) (Apr.) (#8 in the U.S.); incl. Breakdown Dead Ahead (#15 in the U.S.), Jojo (#17 in the U.S.); Hits! (album). The Scorpions, Animal Magnetism (album #7) (Mar. 31); incl. Animal Magnetism, The Zoo, Make It Real. Bob Seger (1945-) and the Silver Bullet Band, Against the Wind (album #11) (Feb. 25) (#1 in the U.S.); knocks Pink Floyd's "The Wall" from the #1 spot and spends six weeks on the Billboard Top LPs chart; it incl. Fire Lake (#6 in the U.S.), Against the Wind (#5 in the U.S.). Roger Sessions (1896-1985), Concerto for Orchestra (Pulitzer Prize); Duo for Violin and Violoncello. The Shadows, (Ghost) Riders in the Sky (#12 in the U.K.). Carly Simon (1945-), Come Upstairs (album) (June); incl. Come Upstairs, Jesse. Siouxsie and the Banshees, Israel (Nov. 28) (#41 in the U.K.). Sister Sledge, Love Somebody Today (album #4); incl. Got to Love Somebody (#64 in the U.S., #34 in the U.K.), Pretty Baby, Reach Your Peak, Let's Go On Vacation. The Slits, The Slits (album #2) (May). The Smithereens, Girls About Town (album) (debut); from Carteret, N.J., incl. Pat DiNizio (1955-) (vocals), Jim Babjak (1957-) (guitar), Mike Mesaros (bass), and Dennis Diken (1957-) (drums), all from the 1975 class of Carteret High School in N.J., featuring their "Beatles meets AC/DC" sound. REO Speedwagon, Hi Infidelity (album #9) (Nov. 21); biggest selling rock album of 1981 (10M copies); incl. Keep On Loving You (first #1 U.S. hit), Take It On the Run (#5 in the U.S.). Spizzenergi, Do a Runner (Athletico Spizz '80) (album) (debut) (July); from West Midlands, England, incl. Kenneth "Spizz" Spiers, Pete Petrol, Mark Coalfield, Jim Solar, Clive Parker; first band to sign with Rough Trade Records; first to to the new U.K. Indie Chart. Bruce Springsteen (1949-), The River (album #8) (double album) (Oct. 7); incl. The River, Hungry Heart (#5 in the U.S.), The Ties That Bind, Independence Day, Out in the Street. Status Quo, Just Supposin' (album #13) (Oct.); incl. What You're Proposing, Lies, Don't Drive My Car. Ray Stevens (1939-), Shriner's Convention (album); incl. Shriner's Convention. Al Stewart (1945-), Live/Indian Summer (album #10) (double album) (Sept.). Michael Stewart (1924-87), Mark Bramble (1950-), Al Dubin, and Harry Warren, 42nd Street (musical) (Aug. 25) (Winter Garden Theatre, New York) (3,486 perf.); based on the 1932 Bradford Ropes novel and the 1933 film screenplay by Rian James, James Seymour, and Whitney Bolton, about dictatorial Great White Way dir. Julian Marsh during the Great Depression; first movie musical adapted for the stage since the 1974 flop "Gigi"; features the songs "Keep Young and Beautiful", "Lullaby of Broadway", "Shuffle Off to Buffalo", and "Forty-Second Street". Rod Stewart (1945-), Foolish Behaviour (album #10) (Nov. 21); incl. She Won't Dance With Me (3rd video played by MTV on its Aug. 1, 1981 debut, incl. the word "fuck"), Passion, My Girl, Oh God, I Wish I Was Home Tonight. Rolling Stones, Emotional Rescue (album #17) (June 20) (#1 in the U.S. and U.K.); incl. Emotional Rescue, Send It to Me, She's So Cold, All About You. Dire Straits, Making Movies (album #3) (Oct. 7) (#19 in the U.S., #4 in the U.K.) (6M copies); incl. Tunnel of Love (#54 in the U.K.), Romeo and Juliet (#8 in the U.K.), Skateaway (#58 in the U.S., #37 in the U.K.), Solid Rock. Donna Summer (1948-2012), The Wanderer (album #9) (Oct. 20); incl. The Wanderer. Supertramp, Paris (album) (Sept.). Air Supply, Lost in Love (album #5) (#22 in the U.S.); sells 3M copies, making them internat. stars; incl. the tracks Lost in Love (#3 in the U.S.), All Out of Love (#2 in the U.S.), Every Woman in the World (#5 in the U.S.). Survivor, Survivor (album) (debut); formerly the Jim Peterik Band; from Chicago, Ill.; from Chicago, Ill., incl. Dave Bickler (1953-) (vocals) (likes to wear a beret), Frankie M. Sullivan III (1955-) (guitar), Jim Peterik (1950-) (keyboards), Stephan Ellis (bass), and Marc Droubay (drums); incl. Somewhere in America. Livingston Taylor (1950-), Man's Best Friend (album #5); incl. First Time Love, Pajamas (I've Got My Pajamas On). Pretty Things, Cross Talk (album #9). George Thorogood (1950-) and the Destroyers, More George Thorogood and the Destroyers (album #4) (Oct.) (#68 in the U.S.). Sir Michael Tippett (1905-98), The Mask of Time (oratorio). David Del Tredici (1937-), In Memory of a Summer Day ("Child Alice", Pt. 1) (Pulitzer Prize). Cheap Trick, All Shook Up (album #5) (Oct. 24); produced by George Martin. Andrea True (1943-), War Machine (album #3) (last album). Jethro Tull, A (album #13) (Aug. 29). U2, Boy (album) (debut) (Oct.) (#63 in the U.S., #52 in the U.K.); about adolescence; from Dublin, Ireland, incl. Bono Vox (Paul David Hewson) (1960-) (vocals), The Edge (David Howell Evans) (1961-) (guitar), Adam Clayton (bass), Lawrence Joseph "Larry" Mullen Jr. (1961-) (drums); they go on to sell 145M albums by 2009; incl. 11 O'Clock Tick Tock, I Will Follow. The Undertones, Hypnotised (album #2) (#6 in the U.K.); incl. My Perfect Cousin (#9 in the U.K.), Wednesday Week (#11 in the U.K.). Vangelis (1943-), See You Later (album). The Vapors, New Clear Days (album); (debut) (June); David Fenton (vocals), Howard Smith (drums), Edward Bazalgette (guitar), and Steve Smith (bass); incl. Turning Japanese (#36 in the U.S., #3 in the U.K.); named for the faces made during masturbation? Various Artists, Concerts for the People of Kampuchea (album) (Mar. 31); features The Clash, Elvis Costello, The Pretenders, The Who, Queen, Paul McCartney and Wings et al. Various Artists, Urban Cowboy Soundtrack (album) (#3 in the U.S.) (#1 country); incl. Lookin' for Love by Johnny Lee, Stand by Me by Mickey Gilley, The Devil Went Down to Georgia by the Charlie Daniels Band, Look What You've Done to Me by Boz Scaggs, Hearts Against the Wind (written by J.D. Souther) by Linda Ronstadt and J.D. Souther, Could I Have This Dance by Anne Murray, Love the World Away by Kenny Rogers. The Ventures, Chameleon (album). Wall of Voodoo, Wall of Voodoo (The Index Masters) (album) (debut); named after Phil Spector's Wall of Sound; from LA, incl. Stan Ridgeway/Andy Prieboy (vocals), Marc Moreland (guitar), Bruce Moreland (bass), Chas T. Gray (keyboards), and Joe Nanini/ Ned Leukhardt (drums); incl. Ring of Fire (by Johnny Cash). Grover Washington Jr. (1943-99) and Bill Withers (1938-), Winelight (June); incl. Just the Two of Us (#2 in the U.S.). Whitesnake, Live at Hammersmith (album) (Mar.); Ready an' Willing (album #4) (May 31); incl. Ready an' Willing, Fool for Your Loving; Live... in the Heart of the City (double album) (Nov. 1); incl. Ain't No Love in the Heart of the City. Malcolm Williamson (1931-2003), Lament in Memory of Lord Mountbatten of Burma. Steve Winwood (1948-), Arc of a Diver (album #2) (Dec. 31) (#3 in the U.S.); incl. While You See a Chance (#7 in the U.S.). Stevie Wonder (1950-), Hotter Than July (album #19) (Sept. 29) (#3 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.); incl. Master Blaster (Jammin) (#5 in the U.S.), I Ain't Gonna Stand for It (#11 in the U.S.), Lately (#64 in the U.S.), Happy Birthday (#2 in the U.K.). Tammy Wynette (1942-98), Starting Over; He Was There (When I Needed You). XTC, Black Sea (album #4) (Sept. 12) (#16 in the U.K.); incl. Generals and Majors (#104 in the U.S., #32 in the U.K.), Tower of London (#31 in the U.K.), Sgt. Rock (Is Going to Help Me) (#16 in the U.K.). Yello, Solid Pleasure (album) (debut); a yelled hello; from Switzerland, incl. Dieter Meier (1945-), Boris Blank (1952-), and Carlos Peron (1952-), who founds the TRANCETRONIC studio in Zurich with Blank; incl. Bimbo. Yes, Drama (album #10) (Aug. 22); sans Jon Anderson; incl. Machine Messiah; Yesshows (album) (Dec. 19). Neil Young (1945-), Hawks & Doves (album) (Nov.); incl. Hawks & Doves. Movies: U.S. movies go on a decade-long fling of exploring America's self-destruction, without ever really meaning it? Jerry Zucker's, David Zucker's, and Jim Abrahams' Airplane! (July 2) makes a comic star of Leslie Nielsen, who plays Dr. Rumack; Peter Graves plays Capt. Oveur, Lloyd Bridges plays McCroskey, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar plays Murdock; feature film debut of Julie Hagerty; "Disaster Movie Queen" singer Maureen McGovern plays Sister Angela the singing nun; "Surely you're not serious - I'm serious, and don't call me Shirley." Ken Russell's Altered States (Dec. 25) (Warner Bros.), based on the 1978 Paddy Chayefsky novel about the work of LSD/ketamine isolation tank research of John Cunningham Lilly (1915-2001) stirs, er, stars William Hurt (1950-) in his film debut as acid-zonked isolation tank psychoresearcher Edward "Eddie" Jessup, who undergoes an Ayahuasca ceremony in Mexico with Banisteriopsis caapi root, reverses his own evolution, and has cosmic sex with wife Emily Jessup (Blair Brown); also stars Bob Balaban; also the film debut of Drew Barrymore; score by John Corigliano, who loses the Oscar for sound to "The Empire Strikes Back"; dir. William Penn, SFX man John Dykstra, and screenwriter Paddy C. all end up leaving the project; does $19.9M box office on a $15M budget - must have gone outta their minds? Paul Schrader's American Gigolo (Feb. 8) (Paramount Pictures) makes a superstar of Richard Gere as Beverly Hills boyface midnight cowboy milkshake machine Julian Kaye, who really gets babes instead of male porno theater BJs like Jon Voight in "Midnight Cowboy", but does it for money with old bags, only to get framed for murder; first major Hollywood actor to appear frontally nude in a film; Gere takes the role because of its gay subtext; co-stars gap-toothed Lauren Hutton as politican's wife Michelle Stratton (after Julie Christie and Meryl Streep turn it down); Nina van Pallandt plays client Anne; Hector Elizondo plays LAPD Det. Sunday; does $22.7M box office on a $4.8M budget; makes a hit of Giorgio Armani designer clothes; features the song Call Me by Blondie, with help from songwriter Giorgio Moroder. (Feb. 8) (Paramount Pictures) stars Richard Gere (after Christopher Reeve and John Travolta turn it down) as Beverly Hills boyface midnight cowboy milkshake machine Julian Kaye, who really gets babes instead of male porno theater BJs like Jon Voight in "Midnight Cowboy", only to get framed for murder; first major Hollywood actor to appear frontally nude in a film; co-stars gap-toothed babe Michelle Stratton (Lauren Hutton, after Julie Christie and Meryl Streep turn it down); does $22.7M box office on a $4.8M budget; makes a hit of Giorgio Armani designer clothes; features the song Call Me by Blondie, with help from songwriter Giorgio Moroder. Louis Malle's Atlantic City (Apr. 3) stars Burt Lancaster as over-the-hill small time gangster Lou, who is looking for his bucket list, and Susan Sarandon as casino food worker Sally, who washes her hands with lemons to get the fish smell off, which he watches through the window, turning him on and spurring him to pull his big caper. Nicolas Roeg's Bad Timing: A Sensual Obsession (Oct.), writen by Yale Udoff stars Art Garfunkel as Alex Linden psych prof., and Theresa Russell as Milena Flaherty, who ODs in Vienna, bringing in Inspector Netusil (Harvey Keitel). Rainer Werner Fassbinder's 15.5-hour Berlin Alexanderplatz (Aug. 28) stars Gunter Lamprecht as Franz Biberkopf. Samuel Fuller's The Big Red One (May 28) stars Lee Marvin as the leader of a 4-man rifle squad in the U.S. Army's famous First Infantry Div. in WWII, and is semi-autobio. Roger Corman's Bloody Mama (Mar. 24), based on the 1939 bestseller "No Orchids for Miss Blandish" by James Hadley Chase stars Shelley Winters as Ba Barker, stoking her questionable rep as a corrupt gang boss riding on her kids; Robert De Niro plays Lloyd Barker. Brian De Palma's Blow Out (July 24), a ripoff of the 1966 Michelangelo Antonioni film "Blow Up" stars John Travolta as Philly movie technician who captures audio evidence of a political assassination, rescuing Sally Bedina (Nancy Alen) only to be stalked by Burke AKA the Liberty Bell Strangler (John Lithgow), ending in a Hitchcockian scene during the Liberty Day Parade; too bad, despite good reviews its sad ending gives it bad word of mouth, and it only does $13.7M box office on an $8M budget. Randal Kleiser's The Blue Lagoon (June 20) (Columbia Pictures), based on the 1908 Henry De Vere Stacpoole novel about two children marooned on a tropical South Sea island and falling in organ, er, love stars hot young teenies Brooke Shields and Christopher Atkins, with a musical score by Basil Poledouris; does $58.8M box office on a $4.5M budget. John Landis' The Blues Brothers (June 20) (Universal Pictures) stars John Belushi as Joliet Jake Blues, who gets out of Joliet Prison in Ill. and decides to put together his old blues band to save the Roman Catholic home where he and his brother Elwood Blues (Dan Aykroyd) were raised; features a ton of great blues numbers by Cab Calloway (as Curtis), who sings Minnie the Moocher, John Lee Hooker, who sings Boom Boom, James Brown (as Rev. Cleophus James), who sings The Old Landmark, Ray Charles (of Ray's Music Exchange in Calumet City), who sings Shake your Tail Feather, and Aretha Franklin (as Mrs. Murphy), who sings Think, and Respect; Carrie Fisher plays a mystery woman; the Blues Brothers Band incl. Steve "the Colonel" Cropper, Donald "Duck" Dunn, Murphy "Murph" Dunne, Willie "Too Big" Hall, Tom "Bones" Malone, "Blue Lou" Marini, Matt "Guitar" Murphy, and Alan "Mr. Fabulous" Rubin, who perform Rawhide, Stand By Your Man, Sweet Home Chicago, Everybody Needs Somebody to Love, and Jailhouse Rock; does $115M box office on a $30M budget; followed by "Blues Brothers 2000" (1998); on June 18, 2010 the Vatican anoints it as a film with a true Catholic message. Bruce Beresford's Breaker Morant (Mar. 15, based on the 1978 Kenneth G. Ross play about three Australian soldiers in the South African Boer War who are court-martialed in 1902 as scapegoats for the British high command; stars Edward Woodward as Lt. Harry "Breaker" Morant, Bryan Brown as Lt. Peter Handcock, Lewis Fitz-Gerald as Lt. George Ramsdale Witton, and Jack Thompson as their green atty. Maj. J.F. Thomas; its success heralds Australia's film renaissance; does $4.7M box office on an $8M budget. Clint Eastwood's Bronco Billy (June 11) (Warner Bros.) stars Eastwood as seedy traveling circus star Bronco Billy McCoy, "the fastest gun in the West", who hires runaway heiress Antoinette Lily (Sondra Locke), who is being chased by wannabe hubby John Arlington (Geoffrey Lewis); does $24.2M box office on a $6.5M budget. Harold Ramis' Caddyshack (July 25) (Orion Pictures) (Warner Bros.), written by Ramis (his dir. debut), Brian Doyle-Murray (brother of Bill Murray), and "National Lampoon" co-founder Douglas C. Kenney based on the Indian Hill Club in Winnetka, Ill. stars Chevy Chase as Ty Webb, Bill Murray as Carl Spackler, Rodney Dangerfield as Al Czervik, Michael O'Keefe as Danny Noonan, Brian Doyle-Murray as Lou Loomis, and Ted Knight as Judge Elihu Smalls; Murray and Chase had a longstanding feud going back to their days on "Saturday Night Live", and never appear in a film together again; "Some people just don't belong"; filmed at the Boca Raton Hotel and Club in Boca Raton, Fla. and the Rolling Hills Club in Davie, Fla., which doubles for the Midwest because it doesn't have palm trees; the gopher is a puppet operated by John Dykstra; a Baby Ruth candy bar thrown into the swimming pool; Czervik hits Judge Smalls in the groin with a golf ball; on-set cocaine usage is "the fuel that kept the film running" (Peter Berkrot); after opening to poor reviews, becoming a hit only in Denmark, causing Ramis to call it "a $6M scholarship ' to film school", it grosses $39.8M in the U.S. on a $6M budget, spawning the 1988 sequel "Caddyshack II"; Tiger Woods later becomes a fan; too bad, Kenney takes it hard, and commits suicide in Hawaii by jumping off a cliff. Ruggero Deodato's Cannibal Holocaust (Feb. 7) (United Artists) is an English-speaking Italian horror film about an Am. film crew who are sent to the Amazon rainforest to film a documentary about cannibal tribes, and end up becoming dinner; does $2M box office on a $100K budget after getting banned in Italy, Australia and several other countries for graphic content and animal cruelty, and Deodata gets arrested for obscenity and murder, making it more popular?; Michael Apted's Coal Miner's Daughter (Mar. 7) (Universal Pictures), based on the 1976 autobio. stars Sissy Spacek as country music star Loretta Lynn, and Tommy Lee Jones as her hubby "Mooney" Lynn, becoming the first in a string of movie hits by English dir. Michael Apted (1941-); "The Band" lead singer-drummer Levon Helm plays Loretta's father; features Spacek singing Coal Miner's Daughter (w/Levon Helm); Beverly D'Angelo plays Patsy Cline; does $67M box office on a $15M budget. Diane Kurys' Cocktail Molotov. Krzystzof Zanussi's The Contract (Oct.) stars Leslie Caron as Penelope and Maja Komorowska as Adams' wife Dorota. Michael Ritchie's Divine Madness! (Sept. 13) stars "the Divine Miss M" Bette Midler (1945-). Brian De Palma's Dressed to Kill (July 25) stars Angie Dickinson as Kate Miller, who cheats on her impotent hubby with a stranger with VD and ends up murdered by a tall blonde woman wearing sunglasses, who chases the only witness, hi-priced ho Liz Blake (Nancy Allen); Michael Caine plays Miller's pshrink Dr. Robert Elliott. Anthony Harvey's Eagle Wing (May 1) stars Martin Sheen as Pike, who chases Indian White Bull (Sam Waterston) to recover his magnificent white stallion; the fact that he's also carrying a blonde white babe (Stephan Audran) with him doesn't matter? John Huston's Escape to Victory (July 30) (Lorimar) (Paramount Pictures) stars Sylvester Stallone and Michael Caine as Allied POWs Capt. Robert Hatc and Capt. John Colby in WWII, who play an exhibition soccer match against the Germans at the Colombes Stadium, using the Parisian sewers to escape; features an appearance by soccer stars Pele, Bobby Moore, Osvaldo Ardiles, Kazimierz Deyna, Paul Van Himst, Mike Summerbee, Hailvar Thoresen, and Werner Roth; does $27.5M box office on a $10M budget. David Lynch's The Elephant Man (Oct. 10) (B&W) stars John Hurt as John Merrick, with great makeup by Wally Schneiderman; also stars Anthony Hopkins; Lynch's first major film. Alan Parker's Fame (May 16), about a group of students at the New York High School of Performing Arts; the title song Fame is sung by Irene Cara (1959-). Don Taylor's The Final Countdown (Aug. 1) stars Kirk Douglas, Martin Sheen, and James Farentino in a sci-flick about a U.S. aircraft carrier that time-travels back one day before the Dec. 7, 1941 Pearl Harbor attack and takes on the Japs; filmed aboard USS Nimitz; brings in $16.6M on a $12M budget. Mike Hodges' Flash Gordon (Dec. 5), based on the Alex Raymond comic stars Sam J. Jones as Flash, Melody Anderson as Dale Arden, Topol as Dr. Hans Zarkov, and Max von Sydow as Emperor Ming the Merciless; features a great soundtrack by Queen. Adrian Lyne's Foxes (Feb. 29) (Lyne's dir. debut) is about a group of friends enjoying drugs, sex, and rock & roll in the San Fernando Valley, incl. Jodie Foster (as Jeanie), Cherie Currie (as Annie), and Marilyn Kagan (as Madge). Sean S. Cunningham's Friday the 13th (May 9) (Paramount Pictures) (Warner Bros.) introduces undead hockey-masked slasher Jason Vorhees (Ari Lehman) having fun at Camp Crystal Lake in N.J. with six counselors trying to reopen it 20 years after "accidental" deaths close it; SFX by Tom Savini; does $59.8M box office on a $550K budget; spawns a seemingly endless series of sequels, incl. "Friday the 13th Part 2" (1981), "Friday the 13th Part III" (1982), "Friday the 13th: The Final Chapter" (1984), "Friday the 13th: A New Beginning" (1985), "Friday the 13th Part VI: Jason Lives" (1986), "Friday the 13th Part VII: The New Blood" (1988), "Friday the 13th Part VIII: Jason Takes Manhattan" (1989), "Jason Goes to Hell: The Final Friday" (1993), "Jason X" (2001), "Freddy vs. Jason" (2003), "Friday the 13th" (2009); also spawns "Jason Voorhees v. Michael Myers" (2015); Auburn, Calif.-born Kane Warren Holder (1954-) plays Jason in four movies from Part VII to Jason X; Ingmar Bergman's BW From the Life of the Marionettes (Aus dem Leben der Marionetten) (Nov. 3) (title taken from Carlo Collodi's "The Adventures of Pinocchio") stars Robert Atzorn as Peter Egermann, and Christine Buchegger as Katarine Egerman as a feuding couple in Munich whose marriage disintegrates. Mike Nichols' Gilda Live stars Gilda Radner doing Saturday Night Live skits, incl. as Candy Slice, burping her way through Gimme Mick. Julien Temple's The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle (May 15) is a mockumentary about the British punk gang the Sex Pistols, who broke up in Jan. 1978. Micheline Lanctot's The Handyman (L'Homme a Tout Faire) stars ? as a man with a low self-image who can do anything with his hands but can't get women, and finally hooks up with the wrong one. James L. Conway's Hangar-18 (July) is about a UFO coverup after a Space Shuttle incident with an alien craft, causing scientists Steve Bancroft (Gary Collins) and Lew Price (James Hampton) to be targeted by the govt. Michael Cimino's Heaven's Gate (Nov. 19), an anti-Western about the 1890s Johnston County War in Wyo. stars Kris Kristofferson, Christopher Walken, John Hurt, Sam Waterston, and Brad Dourif. Armand Mastroianni's He Knows You're Alone (Blood Wedding) (Aug. 29), a clone of "Halloween" (1978) stars Caitlin O'Heaney, Don Scardino, and Paul Gleason, and is the film debut of Thomas Jeffrey "Tom" Hanks (1956-); does $4.88M box office on a $250K budget. Jerry Schatzberg's Honeysuckle Rose (July 18), based on a story by Gustaf Molander stars Willie Nelson as Buck Bonham, and Dyan Cannon as Viv Bonham. John Schlesinger's Honky Tonk Freeway (Aug. 21), about the trouble caused by a govt. freeway being built near who-cares Ticlaw, Fla. is a giant flop, grossing $2M on a $24M budget, and causing Schlesinger's once brilliant career to tank. Mark Stouffer's John Denver's Rocky Mountain Reunion (Apr.) is a documentary about you know what. Akira Kurosawa's Kagemusha (The Phantom Samurai) (Oct. 6) stars Tatsuya Nakadai as poor thief Kagemusha, who is hired to impersonate dead warlord Shingen Takeda in 1972, and ends up making peace with his spirit. Rainer Werner Fassbinder's Lili Marleen stars Hanna Schygulla and Giancarlo Giannini. John Mackenzie's The Long Good Friday (Nov.) (Black Lion Films) (HandMade Films) stars Robert William "Bob" Hoskins (1942-2014) in his breakthrough role as London gang boss Harold Shand, who tries to get the Am. Mafia to build a casino in the London Docklands, and gets in a bloody gang war with the IRA; Hellen Mirren plays Harold's partner Victoria. Walter Hill's The Long Riders (May 16), about the Jesse James (James Keach) and Cole Younger (David Carradine) gangs of rebel Mo. stars four Hollywood brother-actor teams (Stacy and James Keach, Randy and Dennis Quaid, David, Keith, and Robert Carradine, and Christopher and Nicholas Guest) to a cool Ry Cooder score. Maurice Pialat's Loulou (Sept. 3) stars Gerard Derpardieu as unemployed bum Loulou, whom bourgeois babe Nelly (Isabelle Huppert) abandons all for. Robert Sickinger's Love in a Taxi stars Diane Sommerfield as Carine, and James H. "Jim" Jacobs as Sam. Jonathan Demme's Melvin and Howard (Sept. 19), written by Bo Goldman stars Paul Le Mat as gas station owner Melvin Dummar, who picks up hitchhiking Howard Hughes (Jason Robards Jr.), and ends up in his will, but can't prove it in court. Alain Resnais' Mon Oncle d'Amerique (May 21) features three stories selected by Prof. Henri Laborit to illustrate his behaviorist theories, and stars Gerard Depardieu as Rene Ragueneau, Nicole Garcia as Janine Garnier, and Roger Pierre as Jean Le Gall. Alexei Batalov's Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears (Mosfilm) (Feb. 11) wins the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film, and is watched by Pres. Reagan before meeting with Mikhail Gorbachev to better understand the Russkies. Colin Higgins' 9 to 5 (Nine to Five) (Dec. 19) (20th Cent. Fox), written by Patricia Resnick and Colin Higgins stars Dolly Parton, Lily Tomlin, and Jane Fonda as secys. whose sexist boss Dabney Coleman lets them humorously enact the women's libber dream of ganging up and 'getting' him; does $103M box office on a $10M budget, incl. $3M on the opening weekend; features Dolly's hit song 9 to 5 (#1 in the U.S.), which she allegedly writes on the set by typing on her fingernails. William Peter Blatty's The Ninth Configuration (Feb. 29), based on his 1978 novel "The Ninth Configuration" and his 1966 novel "Twinkle, Twinkle, 'Killer' Kane!" about a mental institution in a castle during the Vietnam War stars Stacy Keach as military pshrink Col. Vincent Kane, who lets the patients live out their fantasies and is great in a barroom brawl, and Scott Wilson as patient Capt. Billy Cutshaw, who wants to go to the Moon. Nikita Mikhalkov's Oblomov (Sept. 9), based on the 1859 novel by Ivan Goncharov stars Oleg Tabakov as nowhere man Ilya Ilyich Oblomov. Robert M. Young's One Trick Pony (Oct. 3) stars singer Paul Simon as Jonah, whose rock career tanked and is now opening for punk rock bands; Rip Torn plays record co. exec Walter Fox (really CBS pres. Walter Yetnikoff?); last appearance of the original lineup of the Lovin' Spoonful. Robert Redford's Ordinary People (Sept. 19) (Paramount Pictures), written by Alvin Sargent based on the 1976 Judith Guest novel about an upper-middle-class Lake Forest, Ill. family going down the tubes after eldest brother Buck dies in a boating accident stars Donald Sutherland as as father Calvin Jarrett, Mary Toothy, er, Tyler Moore as Beth Jarrett, Judd Hirsch Timothy Hutton (acting debut) as suicidal Conrad Jarrett, and Judd Hirsch as pshrink Tyrone C. Berger; Elizabeth McGovern plays Conrad's babe Jeannine Pratt; Redford's dir. debut, winning him his first Oscar; does $54.8M box office on a $6M budget. Robert Altman's Popeye (Dec. 12), based on the Elzie Crisler Segar comic strip stars Robin Williams as giant-forearmed spinach-loving Popeye the Sailor, with super-skinny Shelley Duvall as Olive Oyl, Paul Dooley as Wimpy, and Paul L. Smith as Bluto; filmed on Anchor Bay in NW Malta 2 mi. from Mellieha, after which Popeye (Sweethaven) Village is turned into a tourist trap. Howard Zieff's Private Benjamin (Oct. 10) stars Goldie Hawn as a Jewish Am. princess Judy Benjamin, who volunteers for the U.S. Army and expects them to cater to her; also stars Eileen Brennan as Capt. Doreen Lewish, Armand Assante as Henri Alan Tremond, Mary Kay Place as Pvt. Mary Lou Glass, and Harry Dean Stanton as First Sgt. Jim Ballard. Paul Lynch's Prom Night (Sept. 12) (AVCO Embassy Pictures) stars scream queen Jamie Lee Curtis as Kimberly "Kim" Hammond, one of a group of Hamilton H.S. seniors incl. Wendy Richards (Eddie Benton), Kelly Lynch (Mary Beth Rubens), and Nick McBride (Casey Stevens) who are stalked by a mysterious masked killer in revenge for their guilt in the officially accidental death of 10-y.-o. Robin Hammond on prom night in 1974 six years earlier, timing it on the anniv. when her older sister is being crowned prom queen; Leslie Nielsen plays school principal Mr. Hammond; its disco soundtrack makes it a big hit in drive-in theaters, becoming a cult film; "If you're not back by midnight... you won't be coming home!"; does $14.7M box office on a $1.5M budget; Martin Scorsese's Raging Bull (Dec. 19), a B&W film written by "Taxi Driver" writer Paul Schrader stars Robert De Niro as middleweight boxer Jake La Motta in a montage of brutal boxing scenes; "I ain't a pretty boy no more"; De Niro's last words: "I am the boss" (4x). Daniel Petrie's Resurrection (Sept. 26) stars Ellen Burstyn as Edna, who survives a fatal car accident and receives the power of healing; also stars Eve Le Gallienne as Grandma Pearl, Richard Farnsworth as Esco, Sam Shepard as Cal, and Roberts Blossom as John Harper. Stanley Donen's Saturn 3 (Feb. 15), written by Martin Amis from a story by John Barry stars Farrah Fawcett as love babe Alex, Kirk Douglas as Adam, and Harvey Keitel as Capt. Benson, who fight a homicidal robot named Hector; comparison with "Star Wars" causes it to bomb despite a $9M budget. Stanley Kubrick's The Shining (May 23) (Peregrine Productions) (Hawk Films) (Warner Bros.), filmed at EMI Elstree Studios in England using the new Steadicam, based on the 1977 Stephen King novel about failed writer Jack Torrance (Jack Nicholson) getting cabin fever at the secluded Overlook Hotel in Colo., really the Timberline Lodge on Mount Hood in Ore. 60 mi. E of Portland during the winter features the great climax where he goes after his family with an axe, crying, "Here's Johnny!"; title is inspired by John Lennon's "Instant Karma" and its line "We all shine on"; Joe Turkel plays creepy Joe the Bartender; the disturbing 1967 photograph Identical Twins, Roselle, N.J. of Lisa and Louise Burns (1968-) by Diane Arbus is used for effect; Danny Lloyd plays the psychic kid who talks with his finger and spouts "Redrum!"; bizarrely skinny scarecrow Shelley Duvall plays his freaked wife, and Scatman Crothers plays psychic vacationing chef Dick Hallorann, who returns to get axed; the photo at the end shows the hotel on July 4, 1921 as "Midnight, the Stars, and You" is being played; "All work and no play make Jack a dull boy"; the film contains numerous codes revealing that Kubrick directed a govt.-backed fake Apollo 11 moon landing based on his experience filming "Doctor Strangelove" (1964) and "2001: A Space Odyssey" (1968)?; it's no surprise that the record for altitude was 853.8 mi. (1,374.1km) for Gemini 11 on Sept. 14, 1966? Steve Roberts' Sir Henry at Rawlinson End, filmed in sepia-toned monochrone stars Trevor Howard as Sir Henry, who tries to exorcise the ghost of his brother Humbert at his hilarious estate. Woody Allen's Stardust Memories (Sept. 26) stars Woody Allen as famous filmmaker Sandy Bates, whose fans don't like his recent artistic efforts, preferring his "earlier funner movies", chasing intellectual Daisy (Jessica Harper) and maternal Isobel (Marie-Christine Barrault); the film debut of Sharon Yvonne Stone (1958-) as a pretty girl on a train who blows a kiss to the window. Irvin Kershner's Star Wars Episode 5: The Empire Strikes Back (May 21) is the best of the series, probably because it's not dir. by George Lucas?; the surprise ending where Darth Vader reveals to Luke Skywalker that "I'm your father" is kept secret as long as possible; Billy Dee Williams plays token black Lando Calrissian; grosses $290.2M in the U.S. and $533.9M worldwide. Stephen Wallace's Stir (Oct. 28) stars Bryan Brown as China Jackson in the 1974 Bathurst Jail prison riot in South Australia. Sidney Poitier's Stir Crazy (Dec. 12) is a comedy starring Richard Pryor as Harry Monroe, and Gene Wilder as Skip Donahue, two East coast dudes who are framed for bank robbery and end up in a Western priz, ending up in an inter-prison rodeo; becomes the highest grossing film dir. by a person of African descent (until ?). James Bridges' Urban Cowboy (Paramount Pictures) (June 6) stars John Travolta as W Tex. hunk Buford Uan "Bud" Davis, who moves in with Uncle Bob (Barry Corbin) in Pasadena (in E Tex. near Houston) for a better job, and spends his spare time at Gilley's (a real-life honky tonk bar on Spencer Hwy. in Pasadena, Tex. founded in 1971 by country singer Mickey Gilley, with the world's largest indoor bar; closes in 1989), hooking up with Sissy (Debra Winger) and fighting with Wes Hightower (Scott Glenn) when he's not riding the mechanical bull El Toro; "Hard hat days and honky-tonk nights"; features country singers Mickey Gilley, Johnny Lee, Charlie Daniels, and Bonnie Raitt; does $53.3M box office; the Urban Cowboy Soundtrack album (#3 U.S., #3 country) features Lookin' for Love by Johnny Lee, Stand by Me by Mickey Gilley, The Devil Went Down to Georgia by the Charlie Daniels Band, Look What You've Done to Me by Boz Scaggs, Could I Have This Dance by Anne Murray, and Love the World Away by Kenny Rogers, launching the Urban Cowboy (Neo-Country) (Hill Boogie) Movement in pop-country music; the beers of the Lone Star Brewing Co. of San Antonio, Tex. (founded 1884) are prominently featured; in 1979 Gilley's Beer was introduced to capitalize on the movie, but it flops in the 1980s. Richard Rush's The Stunt Man (Feb.), based on the novel by Paul Brodeur stars Peter O'Toole as a film dir. who uses fugitive Steve Railsback as a you know what. Roger Spottiswoode's Terror Train ("Halloween on a train") (Oc.t 3) (Astral Bellevue Pathe) (Sandy Howard Productions) (Triple T Productions) (20th Cent. Fox) is about a group of medical school students holding a New Year's Eve costume party aboard a train and being preyed on by a killer who dresses in their costumes, starring scream queen Jamie Lee Curtis as Alana Maxwell, Ben Johnson as Carne the conductor, and David Copperfield as the Magician; Timothy Webber plays Mo; Spottiswoode's dir. debut; does $8M box office on a $4.2M budget. Kinji Fukasaku's Virus (Fukkatsu no hi) (Day of Resurrection) (Toho) is a post-apocalyptic sci-fi film based on the novel by Sakyo Komatsu, about the super virus MM88, which amplifies the potency of other viruses and is accidentally released, causing the Italian Flu Pandemic, killing everybody on Earth except 855 men and eight women in Antarctica, where the virus is inactive; too bad, the U.S. Automated Reaction System (ARS) threatens to launch nuclear Armageddon after the next earthquake, causing a desperate mission to be launched aboard the submarine Nereid to shut it down; also features gaijin Yankee actors Glenn Ford, George Kennedy, Chuck Connors, Olivia Hussey, Edward James Olmos, Henry Silva, and Bo Svenson; the most expensive Japanese film to date; features the song "You Are Love" (Toujours Gai Mon Cher) by Janis Ian. Robert Greenwald's Xanadu (Aug. 8) is a musical starring ever-happy singer-dancer Olivia Newton-John as Kira, a girl who makes dreams come true, and Michael Beck as her belongs-in-the-mean-streets-but-good-agent beau Sonny Malone, with musical help by the Electric Light Orchestra (ELO); anachronistic Gene Kelly plays Danny McGuire (same name as a char. he played in 1944's "Cover Girl", with Olivia playing his co-star Rita Hayworth?); features an appearance by the San Francisco rock group The Tubes. Plays: Howard Brenton (1942-), The Romans in Britain (Nat. Theatre, London) (Oct. 16); uses the Roman war on the Celts as a parable about imperialism and abuse of power, incl. homosexual rape, taken as symbolic of British troops in Northern Ireland, with onstage nudity getting dir. Michael Bogdanov charged by the police with procuring an act of gross indecency after a campaign by English conservative Christian leader Mary Whitehouse (1910-2010), whose prosecution collapses on Mar. 18, 1982 when the star witness Graham Ross-Cornes reveals that he may have seen an actor's thumb instead of his dick; A Short Sharp Stock (Royal Court Theatre, London); attacks Thatcherism. Michael Cook (1933-94), The Gayden Chronicles; condemned British sailor William Gayden. David Edgar (1948-), The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby (Aldwych Theatre, London) (June 6) (8.5 hours); adapted from the 1838 Charles Dickens novel; stars Roger Rees, David Threlfall, and the Royal Shakespeare Co. Per Olov Enquist (1934-), Till Fedra. Horton Foote (1916-), In a Coffin in Egypt; 90-y.-o. Myrtle of Tex.; On Valentine's Day; "Mister George" Tyler of Harrison, Tex. in 1917. Maria Irene Fornes (1930-), Evelyn Brown: A Diary. Michael Frayn (1933-), Make and Break. Brian Friel (1929-), Translations (Guildhall, Londonderry) (Sept. 23); set in 1833in Ballybeg (Baile Beag). Athol Fugard (1932-), A Lesson from Aloes (New York); a 1963 farewell dinner given by a white Afrikaner for his black activist friend. Charles H. Fuller Jr. (1939-), Zooman and the Sign; Zooman slashes an old man on a subway platform and accidentally shoots a little black girl. Ronald Harwood (1934-), The Dresser (Queen's Theatre, London) (Apr. 30); stars Tom Courtenay, asst. to aging actor Freddie Jones; filmed in 1983 by Peter Yates starring Courtenay and Albert Finney; filmed in 1983. David Henry Hwang (1957-), FOB (Fresh Off the Boat) (first play); a new Chinese immigrant and two Chinese-Am. students discuss assimilation. Eugene Ionesco (1909-94), Journeys Among the Dead (Voyage Chez les Morts) (last play); middle-aged writer Joan (really him) visits a world where the dead andliving exist side-by-side; performed with Joan's head in a small room with puppets. Jean Kerr (1922-2003), Lunch Hour; comedy set in the hip Hamptons. Hugh Leonard (1926-2009), Time Was. Michael McClure, Josephine the Mouse Singer; adapted from a story by Franz Kafka about a mouse who defends artistic freedom. Mark Medoff (1940-), Children of a Lesser God (Longacre Theatre, New York) (Mar. 30) (887 perf.); speech teacher James Leeds (John Rubinstein/David Ackroyd) at a school for deaf students falls in love with deaf Sarah Norman (Phyllis Frelich), who refuses to learn to read lips or try to speak; their marriage crumbles; "We are all hard of hearing" (Jack Kroll). Arthur Miller (1915-2005), The American Clock. Alwin Nikolais (1910-93), Talisman. Edna O'Brien (1930-), Virginia; about Virginia Woolf. Robert Patrick (1937-), Blue is For Boys; first play about gay teenies? Willy Russell (1947-), Educating Rita (Donmar Warehouse, London) (June) (Piccadilly Theatre, London) (Aug. 19); stars Julie Walters as a female haidresser, and Mark Kingston as her Open U. teacher; filmed in 1983 starring Michael Caine and Julie Walters. Claude-Michel Schonberg (1944-) and Alain Boublil (1941-), Les Miserables (Misérables) (AKA Les Mis, Les Miz) (musical) (Palais des Sports, Paris) (Sept.) (7,500 perf.); based on the 1862 Victor Hugo novel; at the Palace Theatre in London, starring Colin Wilkinson as Jean Valjean, and Michael Ball as Marius; on Mar. 12, 1987 it debuts on Broadway at the Broadway Theatre, closing on May 18, 2003 after 6,680 perf.; incl. the songs I Dreamed a Dream, Do You Hear the People Sing?, Empty Chairs at Empty Tables. Castle on a Cloud, One Day More, A Heart Full of Love, Stars, Bring Him Home, Master of the House, Little People, A Little Fall of Rain, On My Own. Ntozake Shange (Paulette Williams) (1948-), Mother Courage and Her Children (Public Theatre, New York); adapation of the 1939 Bertolt Brecht play. Sam Shepard, True West (Public Theatre, New York) (Dec. 23) (52 perf.); stars Peter Boyle and Tommy Lee Jones as a prof. screenwriter and a drifter cowboy who are also brothers and work to make a half-boiled screenplay click; reopens on Oct. 17, 1982 at Cherry Lane Theatre in New York for 762 perf. starring John Malkovich. Neil Simon, I Ought to Be in Pictures (Neil Simon Theater, New York) (Apr. 30) (324 perf.); stars Ron Leibman, Joyce Van Patten, Dinah Manoff. Michael Stewart (1924-87) and Cy Coleman, Barnum (St. James Theatre, London) (Apr. 20) (854 perf.); stars Jim Dale as P.T. Barnum. Michael Stewart (1924-87), Mark Bramble (1950-), Al Dubin (1891-1945) and Henry Warren, 42nd Street (musical) (Aug. 25) (New York) (first of 3,486 perf.); based on the novel by Bradford Ropes and the 1933 Hollywood music, about Great White Way dir. Julian Marsh trying to stage a musical extravaganza during the Great Depression; on opening night producer David Merrick announces during the curtain call that the show's dir. Gower Champion (b. 1919) had died earlier that day of a rare blood cancer; stars Jerry Orbach, Wanda Richert, Tammy Grimes. Edward Thomas (1924-) and Joe Masteroff (1919-), Desire Under the Elms (opera); based on the Eugene O'Neill play. Lanford Wilson (1937-), Talley's Folly (Brooks Atkinson Theater, New York) (Feb. 10) (279 perf.): stars Judd Hirsch, Trish Hawkins. Samm-Art Williams, Home (Cort Theatre, New York) (May 7) (279 perf.); stars Charles Brown, L. Scott Caldwell, Michelle Shay. Lanford Wilson (1937-), The Fifth of July (New Apollo Theater, New York) (Nov. 3) (511 perf.); stars Christopher Reeve, Swoozie Kurtz. Poetry: Archie Randolph Ammons (1926-2001), Selected Longer Poems. Nanni Balestrini (1935-), Blackout. Earle Birney (1904-95), Spreading Time. Robert Bly (1926-2021), The Man in the Black Coat Turns. Jared Carter (1939-), Work, for the Night Is Coming (debut). Billy Collins (1941-), Video Poems. Robert Creeley (1926-2005), Corn Close. Rita Dove (1952-), The Yellow House on the Corner (debut). William Everson (1912-94), The Masks of Drought. Louise Gluck (1943-), Descending Figure. Jorie Graham (1950-), Hybrids of Plants and of Ghosts (debut). Marilyn Hacker (1942-), Taking Notice. Jim Harrison (1937-2016), Selected and New Poems: 1961-1981. David Ignatow (1914-97), Conversations. Josephine Jacobsen (1908-2003), The Sisters: New and Selected Poems (Apr. 1); incl. "The Edge". Galway Kinnell (1927-2014), Mortal Acts, Mortal Wounds. Etheridge Knight (1931-91), Born of a Woman. Ted Kooser (1939-), Sure Signs: New and Selected Poems (June 30). Irving Layton (1912-2006), For My Neighbours in Hell. Rod McKuen (1933-2015), The Power Bright and Shining (Oct. 1). William Meredith Jr. (1919-2007), The Cheer; "Words addressing evil won't turn evil back/ but they can give heart." James Merrill (1926-95), Scripts for the Pageant (May). Lisel Mueller (1924-), The Need to Hold Still. Howard Nemerov (1920-91), Sentences; incl. "By Al Lebowitz's Pool", "The Makers", "Monet", "A Christmas Storm", Because You Asked About the Line Between Prose and Poetry ("Sparrows were feeding in a freezing drizzle/ That while you watched turned to pieces of snow/ Riding a gradient invisible/ From silver aslant to random, white, and slow./ There came a moment that you couldn't tell./ And then they clearly flew instead of fell.") Sharon Olds (1942-), Satan Says (debut); "Daughter", "Woman", "Mother", "Journeys". Linda Pastan (1932-), Setting the Table. Kenneth Patchen (1911-72), Still Another Pelican in the Breadbox (posth.) (Dec.). Georges Perec (1936-82), La Cloture et Autres Poemes. Marge Piercy (1936-), The Moon Is Always Female (Mar. 12); becomes a feminist classic. Robert Pinsky (1940-), An Explanation of America; the brutal 1977 attack on Terri Jentz and her roommate in Ore. Luis Omar Salinas (1937-2008), Afternoon of the Unreal. James Marcus Schuyler (1923-91), The Morning of the Poem (Pulitzer Prize). F.R. Scott (1899-1985), The Collected Poems of F.R. Scott. Charles Simic (1938-), Classic Ballroom Dances (Oct.). Louis Simpson (1923-), Caviare at the Funeral. Suzanne Somers (1946-), Touch Me (debut) (Nov.). Jack Spicer (1925-65), One Night Stand and Other Poems. Mark Strand (1934-), Selected Poems; incl. "Keeping Things Whole", "Atheneum". John B. Wain (1925-94), Poems 1949-1979; Poems for the Zodiac. Robert Penn Warren (1905-89), Being Here: Poetry, 1977-1980. Jay Wright (1934-), The Double Invention of Komo; the Komo initiation rites of the Bambara people of Africa; "A considerable achievement of a major imagination" (John Hollander). Novels: Edward Paul Abbey (1927-89), Good News; society collapses. Walter Abish (1931-), How German Is It: Wie Deutsch Ist Es (Dec.); Am. writer visits postwar "New Germany" and struggles with how to live with the memories of Nazi horrors. Alice Adams (1926-99), Rich Rewards; Daphne Matthiessen moves from New York to San Fran. Richard Adams (1920-2016), The Girl in a Swing; Am. porcelain dealer Alan Deslands meets German babe Karin (Kathe) on a business trip to Denmark, who commits an act "unnatural out of all course or kind" to be his wife; The Iron Wolf and Other Stories (The Unbroken Web). Catherine Aird (1930-), Passing Strange; Detective Inspector Sloan #9. Sir Kingsley Amis (1922-95), Russian Hide and Seek (May 12). Poul Anderson (1926-2001), The Boat of a Million Years; people who do not die of old age but can be killed. Piers Anthony (1934-), Split Infinity; first in the Apprentice Adept series about the dual worlds of Proton and Phaze. Louis Aragon (1897-1982), Le Mentir-vrai. Jean Marie Auel (1936-), The Clan of the Cave Bear (May 4); blonde-blue Cro-Magnon Wurm Glaciation babe Ayla gets adopted by Neanderthals and isn't satisfied to be a male slave like their women are, breaking all the taboos and setting the stage for the appearance of women's libber human women and a ton of women fans; claims that Neanderthals have a collective racial memory that incl. medical knowledge; #1 of 6 in the Earth's Children series, incl. The Valley of the Horses (Apr. 13, 1982), The Mammoth Hunters (Dec. 21, 1985), The Plains of Passage (Sept. 24, 1990), The Shelters of Stone (Apr. 2002), The Land of Painted Caves (Mar. 2011). Louis Auchincloss (1917-), The House of the Prophet. Beryl Bainbridge (1934-), Winter Garden. Toni Cade Bambara (1939-95), The Salt Eaters; a black activist gives up creating consensus in the black community and attempts suicide. Julian Barnes (1946-), Metroland (first novel); Duffy; pub. under the alias Dan Kavanaugh; a bi ex-police officer turned private dick. Ann Beattie (1947-), Falling in Place; John Knapp and Nina, and Cynthia Forrest and Peter Spangle in summer 1978 while Skylab is falling to Earth. Nathaniel Benchley (1915-81), Sweet Anarchy. Thomas Berger (1924-), Neighbors; Earl Keese and his free spirit neighbors Harry and Ramona; filmed in 1981 starring Dan Aykroyd and John Belushi. Thomas Bernhard (1931-89), Der Billigesser (The Cheap Eaters). Alfred Bester (1913-87), Golem; Regina and her Bee Ladies conjure the Devil. Maeve Binchy (1940-), Victoria Line (short stories). Harold Bloom (1930-2019), The Flight to Lucifer: Gnostic Fantasy. Kay Boyle (1902-92), Fifty Stories (short stories). Richard Brautigan (1935-84), The Tokyo-Montana Express. David Brin (1950-), Sundiver; first in his Uplift series (ends 1987) about the Earth ship Streaker in 2489, which discovers a fleet of 50K derelict spaceships belonging to the Progenitors. John Brunner (1934-95), The Infinitive of Go, about Posting technology, which teleports inanimate objects. Octavia E. Butler (1947-2006), Wild Seed; Doro and Anyanwu. Michel Butor (1926-), Quadruple Fond. Truman Capote (1924-84), Music for Chameleons (short stories). Philip Caputo (1941-), Horn of Africa (first novel); journalist Charlie Gage follows Am. mercenaries delivering weapons to Muslim rebels in the Ethiopian desert. Clancy Carlile (1930-98), Honkeytonk Man; filmed in 1982 by Clint Eastwood. David Caute (1936-), Moscow Gold. John le Carre (1931-2020), Smiley's People. David Caute (1936-), Moscow Gold; pub. under alias John Salisbury. John Cheever (1912-82), The Leaves, the Lion-Fish, and the Bear. Mary Higgins Clark (1927-), The Cradle Will Fall; Katie DeMaio investigates Dr. Edgar Highley, who claims to cure infertile women. Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio (1940-), Desert (Désert); Moroccan boy Nour tells of the last rising of the desert tribes against the French protectorate in Morocco in 1910-12; after WWII Lalla lives in a shantytown on the Moroccan coast, befriends the Hartani, and spends time in Marseilles. J.M. Coetzee (1940-), Waiting for the Barbarians; Col. Joll prepares for an attack on the Empire by capturing and torturing some barbarians; the voyeuristic fun of torture scenes?; title is from the Constantin Cavafy poem "and now, what will become of us without/ barbarians?/ These people were a kind of solution." Larry Collins (1929-2005) and Dominique Lapierre (1931-), The Fifth Horseman (Le Cinquieme Cavalier); a terrorist attack on New York City masterminded by Libyan dictator Col. Muammar al-Gaddafi; shocks France into cancelling the sale of nuclear reactors to Libya. Pat Conroy (1945-2016), The Lords of Discipline; a brutal Southern military academy, as narrated by Tom Stechschulte. Robert Coover (1932-), A Political Fable (Aug. 1); original title "The Cat in the Hat for President". Robert Cormier (1925-2000), Eight Plus One (short stories). Michael Crichton (1942-2008), Congo; cerebral gorillas in the Lost City of Zinj; filmed in 1995. Clive Cussler (1931-), Night Probe!; Dirk Pitt #5. Nicholas Delbanco (1942-), Stillness; last in the Sherbrooke Trilogy (1977-80). Don DeLillo (1936-), Amazons; pub. under alias Cleo Birdwell. Jude Deveraux (1947-), The Black Lyon (first novel); first in the Montgomery/Taggert Family Series; launches her romance novelist career. Joseph DiMona (1923-99), To the Eagle's Nest (July); Hollywood movie stars go to Germany to film "The Secret Life of Adolf Hitler", and are kidnapped by terrorists, causing Justice Dept. agent George Williams to come to the rescue. Thomas Michael Disch (1940-2008), Fundamental Disch (short stories). E.L. Doctorow (1931-), Loon Lake; a young man in the Great Depression leaves Paterson, N.J. for a lake in the Adirondacks, where he meets the bad side of capitalism and gets rich by going corrupt. R.B. Dominic, The Attending Physician; Benton Safford #6. Margaret Drabble (1939-), The Middle Ground; successful journalist Kate Armstrong reaches the end of her career. Andre Dubus (1936-99), Finding a Girl in America: A Novella and Ten Short Stories. Umberto Eco (1932-), The Name of the Rose (Il Nome Della Rosa); William of Baskerville, friend of William of Ockham (1280-1347); a semeiotic novel? Harlan Ellison (1934-), All the Lies That Are My Life; Shatterday (short stories). John Fante (1909-83), Ask the Dust. Penelope Fitzgerald (1916-2000), Human Voices; the BBC in WWII; "Broadcasting House was in fact dedicated to the strangest project of the war, or of any war, that is, telling the truth." Ken Follett (1949-), The Key to Rebecca; bestseller about German field marshal Erwin Rommel, who sends the master spy known as the Sphinx to Cairo to penetrate British HQ and radio back using Daphne Du Maurier's "Rebecca" as the code key. Margaret Forster (1938-), The Bride of Lowther Fell: A Romance (Mar.). Robert Lull Forward (1932-2002), Dragon's Egg (first novel). Nicolas Freeling (1927-2003), Castang's City (Henri Castang #5). Marilyn French (1929-2009), The Bleeding Heart; divorced feminist Dolores and married exec Victor have a 1-year fling. Max Frisch, Manin the Holocene. Carlos Fuentes (1928-2012), Una Familia Lejana. John Gardner (1933-82), Freddy's Book. Barry Gifford (1946-), Landscape With traveller: The Pillow Book of Francis Reeves; Port Tropique. Herbert Gold (1924-), He/She (Apr.); a woman doesn't love her husband anymore and faces it. Sir William Golding (1911-93), Rites of Passage; early 19th cent. Royal Navy ship en route to Australia. Nadine Gordimer (1923-), A Soldier's Embrace (short stories). William Goyen (1915-83), Wonderful Plant. Robert Ranke Graves (1895-1985), An Ancient Castle. Graham Greene (1904-91), Dr. Fischer of Geneva; Or, The Bomb Party (Mar. 27); a misanthropic millionaire holds his last party; based on his time in Vevey on Lake Geneva. Winston Groom (1944-), As Summers Die; white La. atty. Willie Croft is hired by black sharecroppers to defend a black woman's oil discovery. Elgin Groseclose (1899-1983), Olympia (last novel). Peter Handke (1942-), The Lesson of Sainte-Victoire. Barry Hannah (1942-), Ray. Shirley Hazzard (1931-), The Transit of Venus; sisters Grace and Caroline Bell emigrate from Australia to England and the U.S. and are "not only redeemed but also destroyed by the truth". Robert A. Heinlein (1907-88), The Number of the Beast (last novel); Zebadiah Carter, Dejah Thoris "Deety" Burroughs Carter, Prof. Jacob Burroughs, and Hilda Corners experience true 6-D time travel in the Gay Deceiver, equipped with the Continua Device and Australian Defence Force, ending up in Barsoom; names are taken from Edgar Rice Burroughs. George V. Higgins (1939-99), Kennedy for the Defense; sleazy Boston criminal atty. Jerry Kennedy. Jack Higgins, Day of Judgement. Patricia Highsmith (1921-95), The Boy Who Followed Ripley (Ripley #4); 16-y.-o. Yank Billy gets a job as his gardener, and turns out to be Frank Pierson, who killed his tycoon father and fled. Tony Hillerman (1925-2008), People of Darkness; Navajo Sgt. Jim Chee investigates a Native Am. peyote cult. Russell Hoban (1925-), Riddley Walker; Iron Age England after a nuclear holocaust. Susan Isaacs (1943-), Close Relations; 35-y.-o. childless Jewish speechwriter Marcia Green meets Mr. Perfect David Hoffman in hopes of having kids. Gary Jennings, Aztec; writes it after spending 12 years in Mexico learning how to read Aztec and Nahuatl. Erica Jong (1942-), Fanny: Being the True History of the Adventures of Fanny Hackabout-Jones; 18th cent. picaresque novel knockoff. Ismail Kadare (1936-), Doruntine; The Autobiography of the People in Verse. Garson Kanin (1912-99), Smash; bestseller about the pre-Broadway tryout of a musical comedy; turned into an NBC-TV series in 2012-13. Thomas Keneally (1935-), The Cut-Rate Kingdom; Australia in 1942. Daniel Keyes (1927-), The Fifth Sally. Stephen King (1947-), Firestarter; 7-y.-o. Charlene "Charlie" McGee torches evil govt. agents chasing her and her daddy Andrew "Andy" McGee, who can make people go blind; typical King fare, based on turning nightmares into everyday reality. John Knowles (1926-2001), Peace Breaks Out; sequel to "A Separate Peace" (1959). Dean Koontz (1945-), Whispers; Hilary Thomas is chased by a psycho; his first big success, launching his bestselling career as the West Coast Stephen King, based on plots with a strong woman who takes charge and fights supernatural bad guys. Judith Krantz (1928-), Princess Daisy; paid record $3,208,875 for paperback rights; Princess Marguerine "Daisy" Valensky, whose parents Prince Alexander "Stash" Valensky and Francesca Vernon mess her up over her brain-damaged twin sister Danielle. Louis L'Amour (1908-88), The Warrior's Path; Yance and Kin Sackett search for Yance's kidnapped sister-in-law. Emma Lathen, Going for the Gold; John Putnam Thatcher #18. Aaron Latham, Urban Cowboy; filmed in 1980 starring John Travolta and Debra Winger. Siegfried Lenz (1926-), Der Verlust. Elmore Leonard (1925-2013), City Primeval: High Noon in Detroit; serial murderer Clement Mansell AKA the Okla. Wildman and homicide detective Raymond Cruz; Gold Coast; Fla. mob boss Frank DiCilia dies and leaves his gorgeous widow Karen everything on condition that she never has another man, tasking his thug Roland to watch her, but she tries it anyway with ex-con Cal Maguire. Doris Lessing (1919-2013), The Marriages Between Zones Three, Four and Five; The Sirian Experiments. Penelope Lively (1933-), Judgement Day. Audre Lorde (1934-92), The Cancer Journals; her fight with breast cancer. Robert Ludlum (1927-2001), The Bourne Identity; retrograde amnesiac assassin Jason Bourne; filmed as a TV movie in 1988 starring Richard Chamberlain, and as a big budget movie in 2002 starring Matt Damon. Alistair MacLean (1922-87), Athabasca. Naguib Mahfouz (1911-2006), Love and the Veil. Francis Van Wyck Mason (1901-78), Armored Giants (posth.). William Keepers Maxwell Jr. (1908-2000), So Long, See You Tomorrow; whenever I want you, all I have to do is dream? Nellie McClung (1873-1951), Be Good to Yourself (short stories) (posth.). James A. Michener (1907-97), Covenant; about South Africa; co-writer Errol Uys is stiffed in the credits. Stanley Middleton (1919-2009), The Other Side. Dan Millman (1946-), Way of the Peaceful Warrior; semi-autobio. novel about a univ. gymnastics student who meets elderly gas station attendant "Soc" Socrates, who teaches him New Age philosophy; filmed in 2006. Wright Morris (1910-98), Plains Song: For Female Voices; three generations of Nebraska women in the Atkins family. Sir John Mortimer (1923-2009), Rumpole of the Bailey (Feb. 27). Nicholas Mosley (1923-), Imago Bird. Iris Murdoch (1919-99), Nuns and Soldiers. Percy Howard Newby (1918-97), Warrior Pharaohs: The Rise and Fall of the Egyptian Empire. Larry Niven (1938-), The Ringworld Engineers; sequel to "Ringworld" (1970), written to explain why it's not unstable. William Francis Nolan (1928-) and George Clayton Johnson (1929-), Logan's Search; #3 in the Logan Trilogy (1967, 1977). Joyce Carol Oates (1938-), Bellefleur; a family of psychos in the Adirondacks. Patrick O'Brian (1914-2000), The Surgeon's Mate; Aubrey-Maturin #7. Frank O'Connor (1903-66), Collected Stories (posth.). Tillie Olsen (1913-2007), Mothers to Daughter, Daughter to Mother: Mothers on Mothering: A Daybook and Reader. Robert Brown Parker (1932-2010), Love and Glory; Looking for Rachel Wallace; Spenser #6; Early Autumn; Spenser #7. Walker Percy (1916-90), The Second Coming; sequel to "The Last Gentleman" (1966), about Am. Southerner Will Barrett, who is now a widower. Robert Pinget (1919-97), L'Apocryphe (The Apocrypha). Reynolds Price (1933-), The Source of Light; pt. 2 of the Great Circle Trilogy. James Purdy (1914-2009), Dream Palaces: Three Novels. Mordecai Richler (1931-2001), Joshua Then and Now. Angelo Rinaldi (1940-), La Derniere Fete de l'Empire. Tom Robbins (1932-), Still Life with Woodpecker (Oct.); "A love story that happens inside a pack of cigarettes"; an exiled princess and her activist outlaw lover in Seattle who deciphers hidden messages on Camel cigarette packages. Judith Rossner (1935-2005), Emmeline; 14-y.-o Emmeline Mosher is sent from her Maine farm to work in a cotton mill in 1839 Mass. Joanna Russ (1937-2011), On Strike Against God: A Lesbian Love Story. Francoise Sagan (1935-2004), Le Chien Couchant (The Sitting Dog). Lawrence Sanders (1920-98), The Tenth Commandment; P.I. Joshua Bigg investigates a suicide by a Manhattan millionaire; Caper (pub. under alias Lesley Andress); mystery writer Jannie Shean plays a jewel heist, then sees it enacted in front of her; "Sex, scams, violence". Jose Saramago (1922-2010), Levantado do Chao (Raised from the Floor). Nathalie Sarraute (1900-99), L'Usage de la Parole (The Use of Speech). Mary Lee Settle (1918-2005), The Scapegoat; Beulah Quintet #4; W. Va. miner's daughter Lilly Ellen Lacy. Sidney Sheldon (1917-2007), Rage of Angels; New York Mafia atty. Jennifer Parker, Michael Morreti, and Adam Warner. Alan Sillitoe (1928-2010), Marmalade Jim at the Farm; More Lucifer. Claude Simon (1913-2005), Les Georgiques (The Georgics). John Thomas Sladek (1937-2000), Roderick; autobio. of a robot. Jane Smiley (1949-), Barn Blind (first novel); the Karlson family of rural Ill. and their demanding matriarch. Lee Smith (1944-), Black Mountain Breakdown; Crystal Spanger of Black Mountain, Appalachia. Gilbert Sorrentino (1929-2006), Aberrations of Starlight; four people at a boardinghouse in 1939 N.J. Norman Spinrad (1940-), Songs from the Stars; a post-apocalyptic agrarian society; The Mind Game; Jack Weller, dir. of the children's TV show "Monkey Business" and his wife Anne get involved with the Transformationalist movement, founded by sci-fi writer John B. Steinhardt. Danielle Steel (1947-), Season of Passion; Kate's football hero beau Tom Harper botches suicide and ends up a vegetable, leaving her pregnant; Summer's End; Deanna Duras meets art dealer Ben Thompson; The Ring; married German socialite Kassandra von Gotthard falls for a Jewish writer, is arrested by the Nazis, and ends up as a Nazi officer's cook. Irving Stone (1903-89), The Origin: A Biographical Novel of Charles Darwin. Robert Stone (1937-), A Flag for Sunrise; the CIA commits atrocities in a Central Am. country to suppress a Marxist rev. David Storey (1933-), Early Days. Whitley Strieber (1945-), The Hunger; Miriam Blaylock is cursed with eternal youth, which doesn't stop her from trying to take new love Miriam Blaylock from Dr. Tom Haver. Rosemary Sutcliff (1920-92), Frontier Wolf; Romain Britain series #7. Graham Swift (1949-), The Sweet-Shop Owner (first novel); a sunny Fri. in June 1974, the last day in the life of Willy Chapman of South London, whose unloving wife Irene estranged him to his daughter Dorry. Walter Tevis (1928-84), Mockingbird; multiple centenarian android NYU dean Spofforth hires Paul Bentley to decode the written titles in ancient silent films, but when he tries to teach Mary Lou to read, Spofforth sends him to prison. Donald Michael Thomas (1935-), Birthstone. Kenneth R. Timmerman (1953-), The Iskra Scrolls. John Kennedy Toole (1937-69), A Confederacy of Dunces (posth.) (Pulitzer Prize); written in Puerto Rico; discovered after his suicide by his mother Thelma, who gives it to Walker Percy, who gets it pub., winning him a 1981 Pulitzer Prize; gluttonous unemployed 30-y.-o. Middle Ages throwback Ignatius J. Reilly meets New York Jewish beatnik Myrna Minkoff in early 1960s New Orleans' French Quarter; "A green hunting cap squeezed the top of the fleshy balloon of a head" (first line); "When a true genius appears in the world, you may know him by this sign, that the dunces are all in confederacy against him" (Jonathan Swift). Jean Toomer (1894-1967), The Wayward and the Seeking (posth.). William Trevor (1928-), Beyond the Pale; Milly tells about four English holidaymakers at Glencorn Lodge in County Antrim. Margaret Truman (1924-2008), Murder in the White House; the president's daughter's lover, U.S. secy. of state Lansard Blane is strangled in the Lincoln Bedroom, and White House counsel Ron Fairbanks investigates. Anne Tyler (1941-), Morgan's Passing; 42-y.-o. hardware store mgr. Morgan Gower. Barry Unsworth (1930-2012), Pascali's Island (The Idol Hunter); Basil Pascali meets a female English archeologist on a Greek island in 1908. Peter De Vries (1910-93), Consenting Adults: or, The Duchess Will Be Furious (Aug.). Irving Wallace (1916-90), The Second Lady; the Soviets plot to swap a clone for the U.S. First Lady. Fay Weldon (1931-), Puffball; Liffey and Richard move from London to Honeycomb Cottage in the country and meet Mabs and Tucker, who get them into a fertility cult. Eudora Welty (1909-2001), Collected Stories (Oct. 29). Paul West (1930-), The Very Rich Hours of Count Von Stauffenberg; his first success, about the July 20, 1944 Plot to assassinate Hitler. William Wharton (1925-2008), Dad; John Tremont becomes his father Jake's caretaker while his wife Bette recovers from a stroke; filmed in 1989. Andrew Norman Wilson (1950-), The Healing Art. Angus Wilson (1913-91), Setting the World on Fire. Robert Anton Wilson (1932-2007), Schrodinger's Cat Trilogy (1980-1); "The Universe Next Door", "The Trick Top Hat", "The Homing Pigeons". Richard Yates (1926-92), Liars in Love (short stories). Al Young (1939-), Ask Me Now; retired pro. basketball player Durwood Knight. Roger Zelazny (1937-95), Changeling; about Mor the wizard taking on evil Det Morson; followed by "Madwand" (1981). Births: Am. 6'0" Helmet Catch football WR (black) (New York Giants, 2003-8) David Mikel Tyree on Jan. 3 in Livingston, N.J.; educated at Syracuse U. Spanish golfer ("El Nino") Sergio Garcia on Jan. 9 in Castellon. Am. "Carmen de la Pica Morales in The L Word", "Det. Dani Reese in Life" actress Aahoo (Pers. "deer") Jahansouz "Sarah" Shahi on Jan. 10 in Euless, Tex.; Iranian father, Spanish-Iranian mother. Am. "1 Thing" R&B singer (black) Amerie Mi Marie Rogers on Jan. 12 in Fitchburg, Mass.; African-Am. father, Korean mother. Am. "Ava DuVernay in Middle of Nowhere" actress (black) Emayatzy Evett Corinealdi on Jan. 14 in Fort Knox, Ky.; Panamanian father, African-Am. mother. Costa Rican pres. (2018-) Carlos Alvarado Quesada on Jan. 14 in San Jose; educated at the U. of Costa Rica, and U. of Sussex. Am. baseball 1B-LF player (Colorado Rockies, 2004-8, 2018-) (St. Louis Cardinals, 2009-16) Matthew Thomas "Matt" Holliday on Jan. 15 in Stillwater, Okla. Puerto Rican-Am. "In the Heights", "Hamilton" composer-lyricist-actor Lin-Manuel Miranda on Jan. 16 in Manhattan, N.Y.; educated at Wesleyan U. Am. "Anita Miller in Almost Famous", "Jessica Day in New Girl" actress-singer-producer Zooey Claire (pr. ZOH-ee") Deschanel on Jan. 17 in Los Angeles, Calif.; daughter of actress Mary Jo Deschanel and cinematographer Caleb Deschanel; sister of Emily Deschanel (1976-); named after J.D. Salinger's book "Franny and Zooey". Am. "In the Heights", "Hamilton" actor-composer-lyricist Lin-Manuel Miranda on Jan. 16 in New York City; educateed at Wesleyan U. Am. "Marshall Eriksen in How I Met Your Mother" actor (Jewish) Jason Jordan Segel on Jan. 18 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Francis in Malcolm in the Middle" actor (Scientologist) Christopher Kennedy Masterson on Jan. 22 in Long Island, N.Y.; brother of Danny Masterson (1976-). Russian 6'4" tennis player Marat Mikhailovich Safin on Jan. 27 in Moscow; brother of Dinara Safina (1986-); first brother-sister tandem to both achieve #1 rankings; first Russian man to reach the Wimbledon semifinals (2008). Am. "Free Willy" actor Jason James Richter on Jan. 29 in Medford, Ore. Am. "Amazing", "Only You", "Georgia Clay" pop-country singer-songwriter Joshua "Josh" Bishop Kelley on Jan. 30 in Augusta, Ga.; husband (2007-) of Katherine Heigl (1978-). Am. "Fez in That '70s Show" actor Wilmer "Big Wil" Valderama on Jan. 30 in Miami, Fla.; grows up in Venezuela from ages 3-14, then comes to L.A., speaking no English. British Inspire Muslim feminist activist Sara Khan on Jan. in Bradford, West Yorkshire. Am. "Ellie Bartowski in Chuck", "Marjorie Seaver in What About Brian" actress Sarah Lancaster on Feb. 12 in Kansas City, Kan. Am. "Wednesday Addams in The Addams Family" actress Christina Ricci on Feb. 12 in Santa Monica, Calif.; #4 of 4 children of atty. and primal scream therapist Ralph Ricci and model Sarah Murdoch; raised in N.J.; no relation to Nina Ricci; hosts "Saturday Night Live" at age 18. Am. "Kevin Girardi in Joan of Arcadia", "Sean Walker in The Event" actor Jason Morgan Ritter on Feb. 17 in Los Angeles, Calif.; son of Jason Ritter (1948-2003); grandson of Tex Ritter (1905-74). Am. "Laughing With" singer (Jewish) Regina Spektor on Feb. 18 in Moscow, Russia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1989. Am. spoiled rotten it-girl Chelsea Victoria Clinton on Feb. 27 in Little Rock, Ark.; daughter of Pres. Bill Clinton (1946-) and Hillary Clinton (1947-); named after Joni Mitchell's "Chelsea Morning"; educated at Stanford U., Columbia U., and Univ. College, Oxford U. U.S. Rep. (R-Fla.) (2015-19) Carlos Luis Curbelo on Mar. 1 in Miami, Fla.; Cuban immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Miami. Am. "Chrisann Brennan in Steve Jobs" actress Katherine Boyer Waterston on Mar. 3 in Westminster, London, England; daughter of Sam Waterston and Lynn Louisa Woodruff. Am. "Odds Against Tomorrow" novelist Nathaniel Rich on Mar. 5; educated at Yale U. Am. "Donna Pinciotti in That '70s Show" actress Laura Prepon on Mar. 7 in Watchung, N.J.; of Irish Roman Catholic and Jewish descent. Am. rapper (black) Chingy (Howard Bailey Jr.) on Mar. 9 in St. Louis, Mo. Am. "Dr. Spencer Reid in Criminal Minds" actor-dir. Matthew Gray Gubler on Mar. 9 in Las Vegas, Nev.; educated at NYU, and USSC. Am. 6'0" golfer Stephen Paul "Steve" Marino Jr. on Mar. 10 in Altus, Okla.; educated at the U. of Va. Am. baseball pitcher (Chicago Cubs, 2005-8), Los Angeles Dodgers (2016-) Richard Joseph "Rich" Hill on Mar. 11 in Milton, Mass.; educated at Michigan U.; known for finishing his pitch with a football-like kick. Chinese-Am. baseball pitcher (New York Yankees) (2005-9) Chien-Ming Wang on Mar. 31 in Tainan City, Taiwan. Am. "Somethin' 'Bout a Truck" country singer-songwriter Kip Christian Moore on Apr. 1 in Clifton, Ga. Am. "Hostel: Part II" singer-actress-model Bijou Lilly Phillips on Apr. 1 in Greenwich, Conn.; daughter of "Papa" John Phillips (1935-2001) and Genevieve Waite (1948-). Am. musician Albert Hammond Jr. (Strokes) on Apr. 9 in Los Angeles, Calif. English "Nathan Maloney in Queer as Folk", "Jackson Jax Teller in Sons of Anarchy" actor Charles Matthew "Charlie" Hunnam on Apr. 10 in Newcastle. Am. musician-songwriter Win Butler (Edwin Farnham Butler III) (Arcade Fire) on Apr. 14 in Woodlands, Tex.; brother of William Pierce Butler (1982-); grandson of Alvino Rey (1907-2004); husband of Regine Chassagne (1977-). Am. 6'2" football QB (Dallas Cowboys #9, 2003-) Antonio Ramiro "Tony" Romo on Apr. 21 in San Diego, Calif.; educated at Eastern Ill. U. Scottish rock drummer (redhead) Ben Hamilton Johnston (Biffy Clyro) on Apr. 25 in Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire; twin of James Johnston. Scottish rock bassist (redhead) James Roberto Johnston (Biffy Clyro) on Apr. 25 in Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire; twin of Ben Johnston. Am. "Mia Toretto in The Fast and the Furious" actress Jordana Brewster on Apr. 26 in Panama City, Panama; Am. father, Brazilian mother; paternal granddaughter of Yale U. pres. Kingman Brewster Jr. (1919-88); emigrates to the U.S. at age 10. Am. "Nicole Farrell in Something So Right" actress Marnette Provost "Marne" Patterson on Apr. 26 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Aaron in Haywire", "Duke in G.I. Joe" actor-producer Channing Matthew Tatum on Apr. 26 in Cullman, Ala; grows up in Miss. Am. "Blowjob Girl" "Kelly Erin Hannon in The Office" actress Ellie Kemper on May 2 in St. Louis, Mo.; educated at Princeton U. and Oxford U. Canadian 6'0" hockey player Bradley Glenn "Brad" Richards on May 2 in Murray Habour, Prince Edward Island. Am. R&B singer (black) Jason Dalyrimple (Soul for Real) on May 10. Am. "Danny Madigan in Last Action Hero" actor Austin O'Brien on May 11 in Eugene, Ore.; brother of Trever O'Brien (1984-). British Conservative PM (2022-) Rishi Sunak on May 12 in Southampton; African-born Hindu-descent parents; educated at Winchester College. U.S. rep. (D-Kan.) (2019-) (Ho-Chunk Nation) Sharice Davids on May 22. Mohican father; educated at Cornell U. Am. "Max in Tank Girl" actor Billy L. Sullivan on May 24 in New York City. Am. baseball LF player (Ariz. Diamondbacks, 2004-7) (San Diego Padres, 2007-9) (New York Mets #12, 2011-2) (Washington Nationals, 2013-4) (black) Scott Alexander Hairston on May 25 in Ft. Worth, Tex. Am. musician Joe King (The Fray) on May 25 in Colo.; of Spanish descent. Am. rock drummer Fabrizio Moretti (Strokes) on June 2 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Italian father, Brazilian mother; emigrates to the U.S. in 1984. Am. 5'11" soccer player (lesbian) Mary Abigail "Abby" Wambach on June 2 in Rochester, N.Y. Iranian-Am. writer-comedian Zahra Noorbakhsh on June 11 in Sacramento County, Calif.; educated at UCB.; Iranian immigrant parents. Am. 6'1" tennis player (black) Venus Ebone Starr Williams on June 17 in Lynwood, Calif.; sister of Serena Williams (1981-); her daddy "Papa Richard" becomes her coach. Am. 6'4" football tight end (San Diego Chargers #85, 2003-18) (black) Antonio Ethan Gates Jr. on June 18 in Detroit, Mich.; educated at Kent State U. Am. "Bernadette Rostenkowski in The Big Bang Theory" actress (Jewish) Melissa Ivy Rauch on June 23 in Marlboro Township, N.J.; educated at Marymount Manhattan College. Italian 5'5-1/2" tennis player ("the Lioness") Francesca Schiavone on June 23 in Milan; first Italian woman player to win a Grand Slam title (2010). Am. "Lyla Garrity in Friday Night Lights" actress Minka Kelly on June 24 in Los Angeles, Calif.; daughter of Rick Dufay (1952-). Am. 6'0" football QB (black) (Atlanta Falcons, 2001-8, Philadelphia Eagles #7, 2009-) Michael Dwayne Vick on June 26 in Newport News, Va.; educated at Virginia Tech; "I have two weapons: my legs, my arm, and my brains." Am. 5'11" auto racer Martin Lee Truex Jr. on June 29 in Mayette, N.J. French "Vesper Lynd in Casino Royale", "Sibylla in Kingdom of Heaven" actress (Jewish) (dark blonde) Eva Gaelle (Gaëlle) Green (Swedish "gren" = tree branch) on July 5 in Paris; fraternal twin sister Joy; Breton-Swedish descent father, Algerian Sephardic Jewish mother; educated at the Am. U. of Paris. Am. rock singer Jason Michael Wade (Lifehouse) on July 5 in Camarillo, Calif. French "Queen Sibylla in Kingdom of Heaven", "Vesper Lynd in Casino Royale" actress (Jewish) Eva Gaelle (Gaëlle) Green on July 6 in Paris; fraternal twin sister Johanne (Joy); Algerian Jewish immigrant mother; educated at the Am. U. of Paris. Spanish 7' basketball player (Memphis Grizzlies, 2001-8) (Los Angeles Lakers #16, 2008-, ) Pau Gasol i Saez (Sáez) on July 6 in Barcelona. Am. "Dr. Elza Minnick in Grey's Anatomy" actress Marika Dominczyk on July 7; wife (2007-) of Scott Foley (1972-). Am. Olympic silver (1998) & bronze (2002) medal figure skater Michelle Kwan on July 7 in Torrance, Calif.; father Danny emigrated from China to Calif. in 1971. Am. auto racer Eddie MacDonald on July 7 in Rowley, Mass. English girl pickup artist-coach Richard La Ruina on July 7 in London. South Korean Olympic artistic gymnast Yang Tae-young on July 8. Am. auto racer Adam Kyler Petty (d. 2000) on July 10 in High Point, N.C.; son of Kyle Petty (1960-); grandson of Richard Petty (1937-); great-grandson of Lee Petty (1914-); first 4th-gen. NASCAR driver. Am. "Irresistible" singer-actress Jessica Ann Simpson on July 10 in Abilene, Tex.; daughter of Baptist minister-psychologist Joe Simpson, who utters the soundbyte "If you put her in a T-shirt or you put her in a bustier, she's sexy in both - she's got double Ds"; sister of Ashlee Simpson (1984-). Am. "Dana in The Cabin in the Woods", "Christina Gallagher in House of Cards", "Jamie in Zoo" actress Kristen Nora Connolly on July 12 in Montclair, N.J. English 6'5" "The Bachelor" bachelor Matthew Christian Grant on July 17 in Hertfordshire; educated at Anglia Ruskin U. Am. "Veronica Mars" actress (vegetarian) Kristen Anne Bell on July 18 in Huntington Woods, Mich.; educated at NYU; wife (2013-) of Dax Shepard (1975-). Am. "The Black Dahlia" actress Rachel Miner on July 19 in New York City. Am. baseball pitcher (black) (lefty) (Cleveland Indians, 2001-8) (New York Yankees, 2009-) Carsten Charles "CC" Sabathia on July 21 in Vallejo, Calif. Kiwi auto racer Scott Ronald Dixon on July 22 in Brisbane, Australia. Kiwi Labour PM #40 (2017-) (Socialist) Jacinda Kate Laurell Ardern on July 26 in Hamilton; educated at the U. of Waikato. Am. R&B singer (black) Tenitra Michelle Williams (Destiny's Child) on July 23 in Rockford, Ill. Am. "The Moral Case for Fossil Fuels" writer-consultant (atheist-humanist) Alexander Joseph "Alex" Epstein on Aug. 1 in ?; grows up in Chevy Chase, Md.; educated at Duke U. Am. rock drummer Devon Glenn (Buckcherry) on Aug. 2. Am. "Lolita" actress Dominique Ariane Swain on Aug. 12 in Malibu, Calif. Kiwi rugby player Nicholas John "Nick" Evans on Aug. 14 in Auckland. Am. "A Thousand Miles" pop singer-songwriter Vanessa Carlton on Aug. 16 in Milford, Penn. English rock musician Robert Byron "Bob" Hardy (Franz Ferdinand) on Aug. 16 in Dewsbury, West Yorkshire. Am. 6'1" tennis player James Spencer "Jim" Courier Jr. on Aug. 17 in Sanford, Fla. Am. "Dr. Kelly Lee in General Hospital", "Xiao-Mei in Desperate Housewives" actress Gwendoline See-Hian Yeo on Aug. 18 in Singapore, China; educated at UCLA. Am. 6'1" football QB (Chicago Bears #5, 2002-8) (Washington Redskins #8, 2010-1) Rex Daniel Grossman III on Aug. 23 in Bloomington, Ind.; educated at the U. of Fla. Am. "Kevin McCallister in Home Alone" actor Macaulay Carson Culkin on Aug. 26 in New York City; brother of Kieran Culkin (1982-) and Rory Culkin (1989-); nephew of Bonnie Bedelia (1948-); partner (2002-10) of Mila Kunis (1983-). Am. "James T. Kirk in Star Trek" actor Christopher Whitelaw "Chris" Pine on Aug. 26 in Los Angles, Calif.; grandson of Anne Gwynne (1918-2003). Canadian "Sam in Popular" actress Carly Pope on Aug. 28 in Vancouver, B.C. Canadian rock musician David Philippe Desrosiers (Simple Plan) on Aug. 29 in Montreal, Quebec. Am. "Schmidt in New Girl" actor Max Greenfield on Sept.4 in Dobbs Ferry, N.Y. Am. "Jen Lindley in Dawson's Creek", "Alma Beers in Brokeback Mountain" actress Michelle Ingrid Williams on Sept. 9 in Kalispell, Mont. Chinese 7'6" basketball player Yao Ming on Sept. 12 in Shanghai. Am. "Cory Matthews in Boy Meets World" actor Bennett Joseph "Ben" Savage on Sept. 13 in Chicago, Ill. British Islamist terrorist Bilal Talal Samad Abdullah on Sept. 17 in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire. Am. CNN journalist Brianna Marie Keilar on Sept. 21 in Canberra, Australia; emigrates to the U.S. in 1982; educated at UCB. South African 5'8-1/2" "Femme Fatales" actress-model Tanit Phoenix on Sept. 24 in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal; wife (2016-) of Sharlto Copley (1973-). Am. rapper-actor (black) T.I. (T.I.P.) (Clifford Joseph Harris Jr.) on Sept. 25 in Atlanta, Ga. Am. "Church Sherminator Sherman in American Pie" actor Christopher "Chris" Owen on Sept. 25 in Mich. Swedish 6'1" hockey player (Vancouver Canucks, 1999-) Daniel Sedin and Swedish 6'2" hockey player (Vancouver Canucks, 1999-) Henrik Sedin on Sept. 26 in Ornskoldsvik. Am. "Chuck Bartowski in Chuck" 6'4" actor Zachary Levi (Pugh) on Sept. 29 in Lake Charles, La. Slovakian tennis player Martina "Swiss Miss" Hingis on Sept. 30 in Kosice; daughter of tennis player Melanie Molitor. U.S. Rep. (D-Mass.) (2013-) Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy III on Oct. 4 in Brighton, Boston, Mass.; son of Joseph Patrick Kennedy II (1952-) and Sheila Brewster (Rauch); grandson of Bobby Kennedy (1925-68); great-nephew of Pres. John F. Kennedy (1917-63); twin brother of Matthew Kennedy. Am. "America's Got Talent", "The Masked Singer" actor-rapper-comedia (black) Nicholas Scott "Nick" Cannon on Oct. 8 in San Diego, Calif.; husband (2008-16) of Mariah Carey (1969-). Swedish 5'11" hockey player (Detroit Red Wings, 2002-) Henrik Zettterberg on Oct. 9 in Njurunda. Am. "Foolish" singer-actress (black) Ashanti Shequoiya Douglas on Oct. 13 in Glen Cove, N.Y. English "Henrik Sandahl The Danish Girl", "Q in Skyfall" actor Benjamin John "Ben" Whishaw on Oct. 14 in Clifton, Bedfordshire. Am. "Nothin' to Lose" country singer Joshua Mario "Josh" Gracin on Oct. 18 in Westland, Mich. Am. model-actress Kimberly Noel "Kim" Kardashian West on Oct. 21 in Los Angeles, Calif.; Armenian descent father Robert Kardashian (1944-2003) is O.J. Simpson's defense atty.; Dutch-Scottish descent mother Kris Jenner; step-daughter of Bruce Jenner; sister of Kourtney Kardashian, Khloe Kardashian, and Rob Kardashian; wife (2000-4) of Damon Thomas, (2011-13) Kris Humphries, and (2014-) Kanye West. Am. "The Boy Is Mine" R&B singer-actress (black) Monica Denise Arnold on Oct. 24 in Atlanta, Ga. Am. actor Ben Gould on Oct. 24 in Sacramento, Calif. Am. fashion designer (Jewish) (gay) Zachary E. "Zac" Posen on Oct. 24 in New York City. Am. "Anna Stern in The OC, "Juliet Darling in Dirty Sexy Money" actress Samaire Rhys Armstrong (pr. suh-MEER-uh) on Oct. 31 in Tokyo, Japan; Scottish father, Italian mother. Am. actor Eddie Kaye Thomas on Oct. 31. Am. "Am. Idol" R&B and gospel singer (black) George Clayton Huff Jr. on Nov. 4 in New Orleans, La. Am. TV personality Vanessa Joy Minnillo on Nov. 9 in Clark Air Base, Philippines; Italian-Irish descent father, Filipine descent mother; wife (2011-) of Nick Lachey (1973-). Am. 6'0" football WR (black) (New Orleans Saints #83 (2002-5) Donte (Donté) Lamar Stallworth on Nov. 10 in Sacramento, Calif.; educated at the U. of Tenn. Am. 5'9" "sportscaster Jessica Ofelia Mendoza on Nov. 11 in Camarillo, Calif.; of Mexican descent; educated at Stanford U. Canadian Sebastian Wilder in La La Land", "Officer K in Blade Runner 2049", "Neil Armstrong in First Man", "Dan Dunne Half Nelson" actor Ryan Thomas Gosling on Nov. 12 in London, Ont. U.S. Rep. (D-Calif.) (2013-) Eric Michael Swalwell Jr. on Nov. 16 in Sac City, Iowa; educated at Campbell U., and U. of Md. Saudi 9/11 hijacker (Sunni Muslim) Hamza al-Ghamdi (d. 2011) on Nov. 18 in Al Bahah Province. Am. 6'0" auto racer James Dennis Alan "Denny" Hamlin on Nov. 18 in Tampa, Fla. Am. 6'3" metalcore musician (Christian) Tim Lambesis (As I Lay Dying) on Nov. 21. Am. "Colleen Cooper in Dr. Quinn, Medican Woman" actress Jessica Robyn Bowman on Nov. 26 in Walnut Creek, Calif. Am. baseball outfielder (Philadelphia Phillies #8, 2005-) Shane Patrick Victorino on Nov. 30 in Wailuku, Hawaii; first Hawaiian-born positional player to be named to an All-Star team (2009). Am. "Vada Sultenfuss in My Girl", "Amy Brooheimer in Veep" actress (Roman Catholic) Anna Maria Chlumsky on Dec. 3 in Chicago, Ill. ; of Czech and Croatian sescent. Am. 6'1" golfer Brandt Snedeker on Dec. 8 in Nashville, Tenn. Am. "Howard Wolowitz in The Big Bang Theory" actor (Jewish) Simon Maxwell Helberg on Dec. 9 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. auto racer Ryan Hunter-Reay on Dec. 17 in Dallas, Tex. Am. "Jack Twist in Brokeback Mountain", "Anthony Swoff Swofford in Jarhead" actor (Jewish) Jacob Benjamin "Jake" Gyllenhaal on Dec. 19 in Los Angeles, Calif.; Swedenborgian father, Jewish mother; son of dir. Stephen Gyllenhall and screenwriter Naomi Foner; sister of actress Maggie Gyllenhaal (1977-); descended from the noble Swedish Gyllenhaal family, incl. Leonard Gyllenhall (1752-1840). Am. "Luke in The O.C." actor James Christopher "Chris" Carmack on Dec. 22 in Washington, D.C. Am. tennis player James Riley Blake on Dec. 28 in Yonkers, N.Y.; African-Am. father, white British mother; brother of Thomas Blake Jr. (1976-); grows up in Fairfield, Conn. known for his dreadlocks. Am. "Tru Calling" actress Eliza Patricia Dushku on Dec. 30 in Boston, Mass.; Albanian-Am. father. Am. Tabby's Star astronomer Tabetha Suzanne Boyajian on ? in ?; of Armenian descent; educated at the College of Charleston, and Ga. State U. English anthropologist Edward Dutton on ? in London; educated at the U. of Durham, and U. of Aberdeen. Deaths: Am. Methodist missionary-educator Welthy Honsinger Fisher (b. 1879) on Dec. 16 in Southbury, Conn. U.S. Rep. (R-Ill.) (1941-5) Charles Schuveldt Dewey (b. 1880) on Dec. 27 in Washington, D.C. Am. Pueblo potter Maria Montoya Martinez (b. 1881) on July 20 in San Ildefonso Pueblo, N.M. German Thomas Mann's wife Katia Mann (b. 1883) on Apr. 25 in Kilchberg (near Zurich), Switzerland. English-born Am. "Enchantra in Bewitched" actress Estelle Winwood (b. 1883) on June 20 in Woodland Hills, Calif.; dies in her sleep; her final TV appearance in a 1979 episode of Quincy, M.E. makes her the oldest actor working in the U.S.; on her 100th birthday she replies to the usual question with "How rude of you to remind me." Am. "Glinda the Good Witch in Wizard of Oz" actress Billie Burke (b. 1884) on May 14 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. celeb (daughter of Teddy Roosevelt) Alice Lee Roosevelt Longworth (b. 1884) on Feb. 20 in Washington, D.C. U.S. Supreme Court justice (1938-57) Stanley Forman Reed (b. 1884) on Apr. 2 in Huntington, N.Y. Am. "My Friend Flicka" novelist Mary O'Hara (b. 1885) on Oct. 14 in Chevy Chase, Md. (arteriosclerosis). Am. parapsychologist Joseph Banks Rhine (b. 1885) on Feb. 20 - the view from the banks of the Rhine? Austrian painter Oskar Kokoschka (b. 1886) on Feb. 22 in Montreux, Switzerland. French cryptanalyst Georges Painvin (b. 1886) on Jan. 21 in Paris. English "The Dippers" playwright Ben Travers (b. 1886) on Dec. 18 in London. Italian Vatican diplomat Francesco Lardone (b. 1887) on Jan. 30 in Moretta. Am. "They Died with Their Boots On" film dir. Raoul Walsh (b. 1887) on Dec. 31 in Simi Valley, Calif. (heart attack). North Vietnamese pres. #1 (1969-80) and Vietnamese pres. #1 (1975-80) Ton Duc Thang (b. 1888) on Mar. 30 in Hanoi. Am. silent film actress Dorothy Phillips (b. 1889) on Mar. 1 in Los Angeles, Calif. (pneumonia); appeared in 150+ films. Am. "The Green Pastures" playwright Marc Connelly (b. 1890) on Dec. 21 in New York City. Am. producer Sol Lesser (b. 1890) on Sept. 19 in Hollywood, Calif.; signed Jackie Coogan in 1922. Am. "Ship of Fools" writer Katherine Anne Porter (b. 1890) on Sept. 18 in Silver Spring, Md.: "I have only nothing, but it is enough, it is beautiful and it is all mine"; "Love must be learned, and learned again and again; there is no end to it. Hate needs no instruction, but wants only to be provoked"; "I shall try to tell the truth, but the result will be fiction"; "Evil puts up a terrible fight, and it always wins in the end." Am. Kentucky Fried Chicken king Colonel Harland Sanders (b. 1890) on Dec. 16 in Shelbyville, Ky. (pneumonia). German U-boat Adm. Karl Doenitz (b. 1891) on Dec. 24 near Hamburg (heart attack); the last Fuhrer. Am. novelist Grace Lumpkin (b. 1891). Am. "Gourmet" mag. founder (1941-) Earle McAusland (b. 1891) on June 4 on Nantucket Island, Mass.; Conde Nast Pubs. purchases the mag., which folds in Oct. 2009. U.S. Rep. (D-Mass.) and Speaker of the House (1962-71) John W. McCormack (b. 1891) on Nov. 22 in Dedham, Mass. Am. "Tropic of Capricorn/Cancer" novelist Henry Miller (b. 1891) on June 7: "Until we lose ourselves there is no hope of finding ourselves"; "Like ships, men founder time and again." Italian Socialist politician Petro Nenni (b. 1891) on Jan. 1 in Rome. Am. anti-Catholic writer Paul Blanshard (b. 1892) on Jan. 27 in St. Petersburg, Fla. Am. cryptography pioneer Elizabeth Friedman (b. 1892) on Oct. 31. Am. writer Howard Mumford Jones (b. 1892) on May 11. Am. Ampex Corp. founder Alexander M. Poniatoff (b. 1892). Am. folklorist Vance Randolph (b. 1892) on Nov. 1 in Fayetteville, Ark. Yugoslav PM Marshal Josip Broz Tito (b. 1892) on May 4. Am. celeb child Esther Cleveland (b. 1893) on June 25 in Tamworth, N.H. English actress-comedian Dame Cicely Courtneidge (b. 1893) on Apr. 26 in London. Am. comedian Jimmy Durante "the Schnozz" (b. 1893) on Jan. 29 in Santa Monica, Calif. (pneumonia); his longtime partner Eddie Jackson (b. 1896) dies on July 16: "Everybody wants to get into the act"; "Be nice to people on the way up - they're the same people you'll pass on the way down." Am. "Kirkus Reviews" founder Virginia Kirkus (b. 1893) on Sept. 10 in Danbury, Conn. Am. actress-writer Mae West (b. 1893) on Nov. 22 in Los Angeles, Calif. (stroke): "It's not the men in my life, it's the life in my men"; "I was Snow White... but I drifted"; "Too much of a good thing can be wonderful"; "When I'm good I'm very good but when I'm bad I'm better"; "I always say, keep a diary and some day it'll keep you"; "I like two kinds of men: domestic and imported"; "Save a boyfriend for a rainy day and another in case it doesn't rain"; "Is that a pistol in your pocket or are you happy to see me?"; "I believe in censorship. I made a fortune out of it." German Gen. Friedrich Hossbach (b. 1894) on Sept. 10 in Gottingen. Russian-born Am. inventor (photo booth, 1-knob shower handle) Anatol M. Josepho (b. 1894) in Dec. Am. AFL-CIO pres. (1952-79) George Meany (b. 1894) on Jan. 10 in Washington, D.C.: "The most persistent threat to freedom, to the rights of Americans, is fear" - behind the disappearance of Jimmy Hoffa? Indian pres. #4 (1969-74) V.V. Giri (b. 1894) on June 23 in Madrais. Russian-born Am. statistician Jerzy Neyman (b. 1894) on Aug. 5 in Oakland, Calif. Am. "The Philadelphia Story" writer Donald Ogden Stewart (b. 1894) on Aug. 2 in London. German V-2 rocket program leader Walter Dornberger (b. 1895) on June 27 in Baden-Wurttemberg. English physicist Sir Charles Drummond Ellis (b. 1895) on Jan. 10 in Cookham. Spanish conductor-pianist Jose Iturbi (b. 1895) on June 28 in Los Angeles, Calif. (heart attack). Russian-born Am. "Mutiny on the Bounty" dir. Lewis Milestone (b. 1895) on Sept. 25 in Los Angeles, Calif. (cancer). Am. parapsychology researcher J.B. Rhine (b. 1895) in Hillsborough, N.C. Am. "Earth Abides" historian-novelist George R. Stewart (b. 1895) on Aug. 22. German physical chemist Erich Huckel (b. 1896) on Feb. 16. Am. comedian Eddie Jackson (b. 1896) on July 16 in Sherman Oaks, Calif. English Fascist leader Oswald Mosley (b. 1896) on Dec. 3. Am. "My Favorite Brunette" dir. Elliott Nugent (b. 1896) on Aug. 9 in New York City. Swiss child psychologist Jean Piaget (b. 1896) on Sept. 17 in Geneva. Am. journalist-historian Herbert Sebastian Agar (b. 1897) on Nov. 24 in Sussex, England: "The truth which makes men free is for the most part the truth which men prefer not to hear"; "Civilization rests on a set of promises; if the promises are broken too often, the civilization dies, no matter how rich it may be, or how mechanically clever. Hope and faith depend on the promises; if hope and faith go, everything goes"; "This is the burden of freedom: that it is all our fault or our credit." Am. Catholic Worker Movement co-founder Dorothy Day (b. 1897) on Nov. 29 in New York City. Russian anarchist Mollie Steimer (b. 1897) on July 23 in Cuernevaca, Mexico. English archeologist-minister Anthony John Arkell (b. 1898) on Feb. 26 in Chelmsford, Essex. Am. set designer Boris Aronson (b. 1898) on Nov. 16 in Nyack, N.Y. Am. Nystatin microbiologist Rachel Fuller Brown (b. 1898) on Jan. 14 in Albany, N.Y. U.S. Supreme Court justice #80 (1939-74) William Orville Douglas (b. 1898) on Jan. 19 in Washington, D.C. (pneumonia); longest term at 36 years 209 days. Hungarian Communist leader Erno Gero (b. 1898) on Mar. 12 in Budapest. Puerto Rican gov. #1 (1949-65) Luis Munoz Marin (b. 1898) on Apr. 30 in San Juan. Am. auto racer Peter DePaolo (b. 1898) on Nov. 26. South African-born English holiday camp king Sir Billy Butlin (b. 1899) on June 12. English "Master of Suspense" film dir. Alfred Hitchcock (b. 1899) on Apr. 28 in Los Angeles, Calif. (kidney failure); five Oscar nominations, zero wins: "The length of a film should be directly related to the endurance of the human bladder"; "I never said all actors are cattle, what I said was all actors should be treated like cattle." Polish actress Ida Kaminska (b. 1899) on May 21 in New York City (heart failure). Am. McDonnell Aircraft Corp. founder James Smith "Mac" McDonnell (b. 1899) on Aug. 22. Am. "Winter Weather" composer Ted Shapiro (b. 1899) on Mar. 26 in Bay Harbor, Fla. Am. quantum theory of magnetism physicist John Hasbrouck Van Vleck (b. 1899) on Oct. 27 in Cambridge, Mass.; 1977 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. politician Helen Gahagan Douglas (b. 1900) on June 28 in New York City (cancer): "In trying to make something new, half the undertaking lies in discovering whether it can be done. Once it has been established that it can, duplication is inevitable." German psychoanalyst Erich Fromm (b. 1900) on Mar. 18 in Muralto, Switzerland: "Modern man thinks he loses something - time - when he does not do things quickly. Yet he does not know what to do with the time he gains - except kill it." Soviet marshal Filipp Golikov (b. 1900) on July 29. Austrlian PM #18 (1967-8) Sir John McEwen (b. 1900) on Nov. 20 in Melbourne. German U-boat designer Hermann Walther (b. 1900) on Dec. 16 in Upper Montclair, N.J. Am. drama critic Harold Edgar Clurman (b. 1901) on Sept. 9 in New York City (cancer). German-Danish biologist Joachim Hammerling (b. 1901) on Aug. 5. Russian-born Am. conductor Andre Kostelanetz (b. 1901) on Jan. 13 in Port-au-Prince, Haiti (heart attack). Am. "Scrambled Brains" actress Babe London (b. 1901) on Nov. 29 in Woodland Hills, Calif. Italian sculptor Marino Marini (b. 1901) on Aug. 6 in Viareggio. Am. "Scarface" actor George Raft (b. 1901) on Nov. 24 in Los Angeles, Calif. (leukemia); dies two days after Mae West, causing their bodies to rest alongside each other in the same hallway of a mortuary; his personal effects are offered for $800 in Hemming's Motor News in fall 1981. Am. bank robber "Slick" Willie Sutton (b. 1901) on Nov. 2 in Spring Hill, Fla. Am. "Abner Kravitz in Bewitched" actor George Tobias (b. 1901) on Feb. 27 in Los Angeles, Calif. (bladder cancer). Am. historian William Kitchener Jordan (b. 1902) on June 3. German radiochemist Fritz Strassmann (b. 1902) on Apr. 22 in Mainz. Am. country musician Hugh Farr (b. 1903) on Mar. 17. German physicist Pascual Jordan (b. 1902) on July 31 in Hamburg. Am. historian Charles Coleman Sellers (b. 1903) on Jan. 31 in Sydney, Australia. English artist Graham Vivian Sutherland (b. 1903) on Feb. 17 in London. Am. "Milburn Drysdale in The Beverly Hillbillies" actor Raymond Thomas Bailey (b. 1904) on Apr. 15 in Irvine, Calif. (heart attack). English "Steps to an Ecology of Mind" anthropologist Gregory Bateson (b. 1904) on July 4 in San Francisco, Calif. English designer-photographer Sir Cecil Beaton (b. 1904) on Jan. 18 in Broadchalke, Wiltshire: "The truly fashionable are beyond fashion." Swiss-born Cuban novelist Alejo Carpentier (b. 1904) on Apr. 24 in Paris (cancer): "For what is the history of Latin America but a chronicle of magical realism?" Soviet PM (1964-80) Alexei N. Kosygin (b. 1904) on Dec. 18 in Moscow (heart attack); leaves 2nd wife Patricia Still (-2005). Am. drama critic Louis Kronenberger (b. 1904) on Apr. 30 in Brookline, Mass. (Alzheimer's). Am. painter Clyfford Still (b. 1904) on June 23 in Baltimore, Md. (cancer); dies 5 mo. after a Jan. exhibition of his abstract paintings at the Met, the largest 1-man exhibition by a living artist to date. Am. Genovese crime family boss Frank Tieri (b. 1904) on Mar. 31 in Mount Sinai Hospital, New York City. Am. historian Merrill Monroe Jensen (b. 1905) on Jan. 30 in Madison, Wisc. Pakistani PM #4 (1955-6) Chaudhry Mohammad Ali (b. 1905) on Dec. 2 in Karachi (cardiac arrest). Am. actor Sam Levene (b. 1905) on Dec. 28 in New York City (heart attack). Anglo-Italian conductor Annunzio Mantovani (b. 1905) on Mar. 29 in Tunbridge Wells, Kent. Polish mathematician (Enigma Machine codebreaker) Marian Rejewski (b. 1905) on Feb. 13 in Warsaw (heart attack). French existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre (b. 1905) on Apr. 15 in Paris (pulmonary edema); first person to decline a Nobel Prize (2nd Le Duc Tho): "Hell is other people" - had an existential meltdown? Am. "Boys Town" dir.-writer-producer Dore Schary (b. 1905) on July 7 in New York City (cancer). English physicist-novelist C.P. Snow (b. 1905) on July 1 in Lincoln. Austrian Asperger's Syndrome pediatrician Hans Asperger (b. 1906) on Oct. 21 in Vienna. Am. "Mood Indigo" jazz musician-composer Barney Bigard (b. 1906) on June 27 in Culver City, Calif. (cancer). Portuguese PM #102 (1968-74) Marcelo Caetano (b. 1906) on Oct. 26 in Rio de Janeiro. Am. historian Bell Irvin Wiley (b. 1906) on Apr. 4; the New York Civil War Round Table establishes the Bell I. Wiley Award to deserving authors who write about U.S. Civil War themes. Am. radio announcer Harry von Zell (b. 1906) on Nov. 21 in Woodland Hills, Calif. (cancer). Am. basketball player Tarzan Cooper (b. 1907) on Dec. 19 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. "With a Song in My Heart" singer-actress Jane Froman (b. 1907) on Apr. 22 in Columbia, Mo. Am. computer pioneer John William Mauchly (b. 1907) on Jan. 8 in Ambler, Penn. (heart surgery). Am. writer Robert Ardrey (b. 1908) on Jan. 14 in South Africa. Canadian-Am. "Cool Water", "Tumbling Tumbleweeds" songwriter Bob Nolan (b. 1908) on June 16 in Newport Beach, Calif. (heart attack). Am. C-14 dating scientist Willard Frank Libby (d. 1908) on Sept. 8 in Los Angeles, Calif. (blood clot). Hungarian-born Am. "The Time Machine" producer-animator George Pal (b. 1908) on May 2 in Beverly Hills, Calif. (heart attack). Czech "Born Free" conservationist Joy Adamson (b. 1910) on Jan. 3 in N Kenya (murdered). Am. composer Richard Franko Goldman (b. 1910) on Jan. 19 in Baltimore, Md. Am. actress-singer Lillian Roth (b. 1910) on May 12 in New York City (cancer). Am. cardiologist Herman Tarnower (b. 1910) on Mar. 10 in Purchase, N.Y. (murdered). Am. humorist Sam Levenson (b. 1911) on Aug. 27; leaves the poem Time-Tested Beauty Tips for his grandchild, which ends up getting attributed to Audrey Hepburn, who often quoted it: "It's so simple to be wise. Just think of something stupid to say and say the opposite"; "Unhappiness starts with wanting to be happier"; "Happiness is a by-product. You cannot pursue it by yourself." Canadian mass media philosopher Herbert Marshall McLuhan (b. 1911) on Dec. 31 in Toronto, Ont.: "Surface at once. The ship is sinking." Am biochemist William Howard Stein (b. 1911) on Feb. 2 in New York City; 1972 Nobel Chem. Prize. Am. "Red Ryder" actor Don "Red" Barry (b. 1912) on July 17 in North Hollywood, Calif. (suicide). Australian psychiatrist John Cade (b. 1912) on Nov. 16 in Fitzroy, Victoria. Am. "Heavy Organ" organist Virgil Fox (b. 1912) on Oct. 25 in Palm Beach, Fla. (prostate cancer). Welsh "Ben-Hur" actor Hugh Griffith (b. 1912) on May 14 in London (cancer). Canadian Quebec PM #19 (1960-6) Jean Lesage (b. 1912) on Dec. 12 in Sillery (near Quebec City), Quebec. Canadian "Tonto in The Lone Ranger" actor Jay Silverheels (b. 1912) on Mar. 5 in Woodland Hills, Calif. (pneumonia). Am. artist Tony Smith (b. 1912) on Dec. 26 in New York City (heart attack). Canadian-born Am. artist Philip Guston (b. 1913) on June 7 in Woodstock, N.Y. (heart attack in an elevator). Am. poet Robert Hayden (b. 1913) on Feb. 25 in Ann Arbor, Mich. Am. Nazi-beating black athlete Jesse Owens (b. 1913) on Mar. 31 in Tucson, Ariz. (lung cancer). Am. poet Muriel Rukeyser (b. 1913) on Feb. 12 in New York City (heart attack): "That first green night of their dream, asleep beneath the Tree,/ God said, 'Let meanings move', and there was poetry." Czech-born British conductor Walter Susskind (b. 1913) on Mar. 25 in Berkeley, Calif. Liberian pres. #20 (1971-80) William R. Tolbert Jr. (b. 1913) on Apr. 12 in Monrovia (assassinated). Italian dir. Mario Bava (b. 1914) on Apr. 27 in Rome (heart attack). Canadian hockey player Reg Bentley (b. 1914) on Sept. 1 in Red Deer, Alberta. Lithuanian-born French novelist-dir.-diplomat Romain Gary (b. 1914) on Dec. 2 in Paris (suicide); no relation to Jean Seberg's 1979 suicide? Am. Texas Instruments co-founder Patrick Eugene Haggerty (b. 1914) on Oct. 1 in Dallas, Tex. Am. screenwriter Charles R. Marion (b. 1914) on Sept. 29 in North Hollywood, Calif. Am. "Fanny Brice's mother in Funny Girl" actress Kay Medford (b. 1914) on Apr. 10 in New York City (cervical cancer). French philosopher Roland Barthes (b. 1915) on Mar. 25 in Paris (injuries from an automobile accident). Am. "Hop Sing in Bonanza" actor Victor Sen Young (b. 1915) on Nov. 9 in North Hollywood, Calif. Russian ship designer Rostislav Alexeyev (b. 1916) on Feb. 9 in Gorky. Am. "Paladin in Have Gun, Will Travel" actor Richard Boone (b. 1917) on Jan. 10 in St. Augustine, Fla. (throat cancer). Pakistani pres. #3 (1969-71) Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan (b. 1917) on Aug. 10 in Rawalpindi. El Salvadorian San Salvador archbishop #4 (1977-80) Oscar Romero (b. 1917) on Mar. 24 in San Salvador assassinated); on Mar. 24, 2010 the U.N. Gen. Assembly proclaims Mar. 24 as "the Internat. Day for the Right to the Truth Concerning Gross Human Rights Violations and for the Dignity of Victims" in his honor; declared a martyr by Pope Francis on Feb. 3, 2015, and beatified on May 23, 2015. Am. country music singer Red Sovine (b. 1917) on Apr. 4 in Nashville, Tenn. (heart attack). Am. novelist George P. Elliott (b. 1918) in New York City. Argentine actor-singer Dick Haymes (b. 1918) on Mar. 28 in Los Angeles, Calif. (lung cancer). Am. blues musician Professor Longhair (b. 1918) on Jan. 30 in New Orleans, La. Am. choreographer-dancer Gower Champion (b. 1919) on Aug. 25 in New York City (rare blood cancer). Am. "The Night of the Hunter" novelist Davis Grubb (b. 1919) on July 24 in New York City. Am. actress Kay Medford (b. 1919) on Apr. 10 in New York City. Iranian shah (1941-79) Mohammed Reza Pahlavi II (b. 1919) on July 27 near Cairo (cancer); buried in Al Rifa'i Mosque along with his father Reza Pahlavi I and brother-in-law Egyptian king Farouk. Am. "Boss Man in Cool Hand Luke" actor Strother Martin (b. 1919) on Aug. 1 in Thousand Oaks, Calif. (heart attack). Am. ecologist Robert Harding Whittaker (b. 1920). German "Strangers in the Night", "Spanish Eyes" composer Bert Kaempfert (b. 1923) on June 21 in Majorca. Am. country musician Jimmy Bryant (b. 1925) on Sept. 22 in Moultrie, Ga. (lung cancer). Nicaraguan dictator (1967-72, 1974-9) Anastasio Somoza Debayle (b. 1925) on Sept. 17 in Asuncion, Paraguay (assassinated). English actor Peter Sellers (b. 1925) on July 24 in London (heart attack); requests that Glenn Miller's "In the Mood" be played at his funeral, which is funny because he hates it?; his only son Michael Sellers (b. 1954), whom he left only £800 to dies on July 24, 2006 of a heart attack. Am. R&B singer Amos Milburn (b. 1927) on Jan. 3. Welsh actress Rachel Roberts (b. 1927) on Nov. 26 in Los Angeles, Calif. (suicide); takes a barbituate OD after her ex-hubby (1962-71) Rex Harrison refuses to take her back. English "Oh! Calcutta!" critic-playwright Kenneth Peacock Tynan (b. 1927) on July 26 in Santa Monica, Calif. (emphysema): "The greatest films are those which show how society shapes man. The greatest plays are those which show how man shapes society"; "I doubt if there are any rational people to whom the word 'fuck' would be particularly diabolical, revolting or totally forbidden." Am. poet James Arlington Wright (b. 1927) on Mar. 25 in New York City (cancer of the tongue) - was it someone he ate? Guinean exiled novelist Camara Laye (b. 1928) on Feb. 4 in Dakar, Senegal (kidney infection). Am. Misery Index economist Arthur Melvin Okun (b. 1928) on Mar. 23 in Washington, D.C. Am. jazz pianist Bill Evans (b. 1929) on Sept. 15 in New York City (pneumonia); dies after "the longest suicide in history" (Peter Pettinger) caused by decades of doing drugs. Am. baseball player Elston Howard (b. 1929) on Dec. 14 in New York City. U.S. rep. (D-N.Y.) (1969-71) Allard Kenneth Lowenstein (b. 1929) on Mar. 14 in New York City (murdered). Am. "The Fugitive" actor David Janssen (b. 1930) on Feb. 13 in Malibu, Calif. (heart attack) (OD?). Am. "Mr. Cool" actor Steve McQueen (b. 1930) on Nov. 7 in Juarez, Mexico (throat cancer); Oscars won: 0: "I'm not sure whether I'm an actor who races or a racer who acts"; "Racing is life. Anything before or after is just waiting"; "I'm not a great actor, let's face it. I don't have a great deal of scope. There are certain things I can do, but when I'm bad, I stink"; "There's something about my shaggy dog eyes that make people think I'm good. I'm not all that good"; "I would rather wake up in the middle of nowhere than in any city on earth" - best good-looking corpse ever? French actress Odile Versois (b. 1930) on June 23 in Paris. Am. actress-dir. Barbara Loden (b. 1932) on Sept. 5 in New York City (breast cancer). Dutch supermodel Wilhelmina (b. 1939) on Mar. 1 in Greenwich, Conn. (lung cancer). English Beatles rocker John Ono Lennon (b. 1940) on Dec. 8 in New York City (murdered): "I don't know which will go first, rock and roll or Christianity"; "I'm an artist, and if you give me a tuba, I'll bring you something out of it"; "The more real you get the more unreal the world gets." Am. "If I Were a Carpenter" folk singer Tim Hardin (b. 1941) on Dec. 29 in Los Angeles, Calif. (heroin OD). Australian-Scottish "AC/DC" lead singer Bon Scott (b. 1946) on Feb. 19 in London (alcoholism). Indian politician Sanjay Gandhi (b. 1946) on June 23 in New Delhi (airplane crash). French physicist Joel Scherk (b. 1946) on May 16. Am. "National Lampoon" co-founder Douglas C. Kenney (b. 1947) on Aug. 27 in Kauai, Hawaii; falls from 30-ft. Hanapepe Lookout after getting depressed about his flop "Caddyshack"; "Doug probably fell while he was looking for a place to jump." (Harold Ramis) English Led Zeppelin drummer John Bonham (b. 1948) on Sept. 25 in Clewer, Windsor (alcoholism); dies in the house of Jimmy Page after drinking 40 measures of vodka and inhaling his own vomit. Am. rock musician Keith Godchaux (b. 1948) on July 23 in Marin County, Calif. (car accident). English "Joy Division" rocker Ian Curtis (b. 1956) on May 18 in Macclesfield (suicide by hanging).

1981 - The Ronald Reagan Prince Charles and Princess Diana MTV IBM PC Model 5150 Year? Good year to survive a political assassination?

IBMI PC Model 5150, Aug. 12, 1981 Lewis C. Eggebrecht Ronald Reagan of the U.S. (1911-2004) Ronald Reagan of the U.S. (1911-2004) Ronald Reagan of the U.S. (1911-2004) U.S. Pres. Ronald Reagan's Jelly Beans Nancy Reagan of the U.S. (1921-2016) George Herbert Walker Bush of the U.S. (1924-2018) Barbara Bush of the U.S. (1925-) William J. Casey of the U.S. (1913-87) Caspar Weinberger of the U.S. (1917-2006) David Alan Stockman of the U.S. (1946-) Paul Laxalt of the U.S. (1922-2018) Donald Thomas Regan of the U.S. (1918-2003) Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick of the U.S. (1926-2006) Richard Pipes of the U.S. (1923-2018) Anne Gorsuch Burford of the U.S. (1942-2004) Raymond James Donovan of the U.S. (1930-) John Rusling Block of the U.S. (1935-) James Gaius Watt of the U.S. (1938-) Arthur Betz Laffer of the U.S. (1940-) Paul Craig Roberts (1939-) Robert Dickson Crane of the U.S. (1929-) Francois Mitterrand of France (1916-96) Pierre Mauroy of France (1928-) Mir Hussein Mousavi of Iran (1942-) Mahathir bin Mohamad of Malaysia (1925-) Lt. Jerry Rawlings of Ghana (1947-) George Cadle Price of Belize (1919-) John Edwin Mroz of the U.S. (1948-2014) Polish Col. Ryszard Jerzy Kuklinski (1930-2004) Wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana, July 29, 1981 Prince Charles (1948-) and Lady Diana of Britain (1961-97) David Emanuel (1952-) and Elizabeth Emanuel (1953-) Canterbury Archbishop Robert Runcie (1921-2000 MTV, 1981- Mehmet Ali Agca (1958-) and Pope John Paul II (1920-2005) Abdi Ipekci (1929-79) Lyn Nofziger of the U.S. (1924-2006) Reagan Assassination Attempt, Mar. 30, 1981 John Hinckley Jr. (1955-) James Scott 'Jim' Brady of the U.S. (1940-2014) Timothy J. McCarthy of the U.S. (1949-) U.S. Gen. Alexander Meigs Haig Jr. (1924-2010) Enrique Bermudez Varela of Nicaragua (1932-91) Blind Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman (1938-2017) Peter William Sutcliffe (1946-) Yorkshire Ripper Victims, 1975-80 Bobby Sands (1954-81) British Col. Mike Hoare (1920-) Jiang Qing of China (1914-91) Hu Yaobang of China (1915-89) Andreas Papandreou of Greece (1919-96) Giovanni Spadolini of Italy (1925-94) Roberto Suazo Cordova of Honduras (1927-) Javier Pérez Cuéllar of Peru (1920-) Gen. Celso Torrelio Villa of Bolivia (1933-99) Gen. Gregorio Alvarez of Uruguay (1926-) Hosni Mubarak of Egypt (1928-) Abbud al-Zumar of Egypt (1947-) Mohammad Javad Bahonar of Iran (1933-81) Polish Gen. Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (1923-) Andre Dieudonne Kolingba of Central African Republic (1935-) Sandra Day O'Connor of the U.S. (1930-) Gen. Roberto Eduardo Viola of Argentina (1924-94) Osvaldo Hurtado Larrea of Ecuador (1939-) Abdus Sattar of Bangladesh (1906-85) Gro Harlem Brundtland of Norway (1939-) Kare Willoch of Norway (1928-) Charles Haughey of Ireland (1925-2006) Garret FitzGerald of Ireland (1926-) Farooq Abdullah of Kashmir (1937-) Kukoi Samba Sanyang of Gambia (1952-) Abdou Diouf of Senegal (1935-) Maria Lea Pedini-Angelini of San Marino (1954-) Robert Laurel Crippen (1937-) and John Watts Young (1930-) of the U.S. Mark S. Fowler of the U.S. (1941-) Norman St. John-Stevas of Britain (1929-) Andrew Sharp Peacock of Britain (1939-) Edward Cecil Parkinson of Britain (1931-) William French Smith of the U.S. (1917-90) Israeli Gen. David Ivry (1934-) Alfredino Rampi (1975-81) Henry Cisneros of the U.S. (1947-) David C. Treen of the U.S. (1928-) Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead (1920-2003) David Anthony Llewellyn Owen, Baron Owen of Plymouth (1938-) Shirley Williams, Baroness William of Crosby (1930-) Sir Norman Stronge of Northern Ireland (1894-1981) U.S. Gen. James Lee Dozier (1931-) Arthur Scargill of Britain (1938-) Leonid Popov (1945-) and Dumitru Prumariu (1952-) of the Soviet Union Vladimir Kovalyonok of the Soviet Union (1942-) Viktor Savinykh of the Soviet Union (1940-) Vladimir Dzhanibekov of the Soviet Union (1942-) Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa of the Soviet Union (1947-) Irish Capt. Sir Norman Stronge (1894-1981) Irish Capt. James Matthew Stronge (1932-81) Donna Payant (1950-81) Lemuel Warren Smith (1941-) Licio Gelli (1919-) Emilio Fermin Mignone (1922-98) Nawal El Saadawi (1931-) The Keddie Murders, Apr. 11/12, 1981 James Arthur Williams (1930-90) Frank Tieri (1904-81) Jim Plunkett (1947-) Paul William 'Bear' Bryant (1913-83) Mark Aguirre (1959-) Isiah Thomas (1961-) Buck Williams (1960-) Jerry Sloan (1942-) Frank Layden (1932-) Fernando Valenzuela (1960-) Trevor Berbick (1955-2006) Muhammad Ali v. Trevor Berbick, Dec. 11, 1981 Sugar Ray Leonard (1956-) Thomas 'Hitman' Hearns (1958-) Scott Hamilton (1958-) Nick Bollettieri (1931-) Chris Evert of the U.S. (1954-) Tracy Austin of the U.S. (1962-) Nancy Pelosi of the U.S. (1940-) Butch Goring (1949-) Greg Norman (1955-) Ric Flair (1949-) Elias Canetti (1905-94) Nicolaas Bloembergen (1920-) Charles Hard Townes (1915-) and Arthur Leonard Schawlow (1921-99) Kai M. Siegbahn (1918-2007) Roald Hoffmann (1937-) Kenichi Fukui (1918-98) David Hunter Hubel (1926-) Robert P. Kirshner (1949-) Torsten Nils Wiesel (1924-) James Tobin (1918-2002) George Nichopoulos (1927-) Amartya Sen (1933-) Morris Dees (1936-) Mumia Abu-Jamal (1954-) John Edward Walsh Jr. (1945-) Adam John Walsh (1974-81) Ottis Elwood Toole (1947-96) Henry Lee Lucas (1936-2001) Wayne Bertram Williams (1958-) Anne Wexler (1921-2009) Fred Alan Wolf (1934-) Amma the Hugging Saint (1953-) Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (1931-90) Ma Anand Sheela (1950-) Fouad A. Ajami (1945-) Chris Van Allsburg (1949-) Maya Angelou (1928-) C. Fred Bergsten (1941-) Ben Bova (1932-) David Bradley (1950-) Anita Brookner (1928-) Robert Olen Butler (1945-) Lorna Dee Cervantes (1954-) Jackie Collins (1937-2015) Robin Cook (1940-) Gregory Corso (1930-2001) John Crowley (1942-) John Darwin (1948-) Marvin Davis (1925-2004) Ira Einhorn (1940-) James Ellroy (1948-) Sir Martin John Evans (1941-) Daniel J. Faulkner (1955-81) Maudelle Shirek of the U.S. (1911-) Anatoly Fomenko (1945-) George F. Gilder (1939-) Albert Goldman (1927-94) Nadine Gordimer (1923-) Alasdair Gray (1934- Bob Hall (1943-) Alvin Rabushka (1940-) Velina Hasu Houston (1957-) John Irving (1942-) Gayl Jones (1949-) Norman Lear (1922-) Catharine A. MacKinnon (1946-) Andrea Dworkin (1946-) Christian Louboutin (1964-) Bobbie Ann Mason (1940-) William S. McFeely (1930-) Richard Allen Posner (1939-) Sri Sri Ravi Shankar Ratnam (1956-) Rupert Sheldrake (1942-) Robert James Shiller (1946-) Donald Michael Thomas (1935-) William Wharton (1925-2008) Lanford Wilson (1937-) Tobias Wolff (1945-) Marguerite Yourcenar (1903-87) John Holmes (1944-88) Dan Goodwin (1955-) 'Tattoo You' by the Rolling Stones, 1981 Kim Carnes (1945-) Peter Cetera (1944-) Jimmy Destri (1954-) Billy Idol (1955-) Duran Duran The Go-Go's The Human League R.E.M. Soft Cell Spandau Ballet Men at Work Depeche Mode Mötley Crüe Quarterflash Bow Wow Wow Stray Cats Rick James (1948-2004) Kix Level 42 Romeo Void A Flock of Seagulls Taco Ockerse (1955-) George Strait (1952-) Tommy Tutone Thompson Twins Abbbey Lincoln (1930-2010) Cedar Walton (1934-2013) Ronnie Milsap (1943-) Anne Murray (1945-) Klaus Nomi (1944-83) Tommy Boy Records Judge Joseph Albert Wapner (1919-2017) Carolina Herrera (1939-) Carolina Herrera Example Michael Kors (1959-) Tom Eyen (1940-91) William Finn (1952-) V.S. Naipaul (1932-2018), Norman Panama (1914-2003) Martin Cruz Smith (1942-) 'Hill Street Blues', 1981-7 'Dynasty', 1981-9 Falcon Crest', 1981-90 'The Greatest American Hero', 1981-3 'Bergerac', 1981-91 'Simon & Simon', 1981-9 Pat Sajak (1946-) Vanna White (1957-) 'Wheel of Fortune', 1974- 'The Smurfs', 1981-9 'Cats', 1981 'Dreamgirls', 1981 'Torch Song Trilogy', 1981 Harvey Fierstein (1952-) Ringo Starr (1940-) and Barbara Bach (1947-) Barbara Bach (1947-) Elkie Brooks (1945-) Nora Roberts (1950-) Larry Shue (1946-85) Jean-Jacques Beineix (1946-) 'Endless Love', starring Brooke Shields (1965-), 1981 Tom Cruise (1962-) 'Endless Love', by Lionel Richie (1949-) and Diana Ross (1944-) Lionel Richie (1949-) The Replacements 'An American Werewolf in London', 1981 'Arthur', 1981 'Body Heat', 1981 'Caveman', 1981 'Chariots of Fire', 1981 Vangelis (1943-) 'Das Boot', 1981 'Escape from New York', starring Kurt Russell (1951-), 1981 'The Evil Dead', 1981 'Excalibur', 1981 'For Your Eyes Only', 1981 'Galaxy of Terror', 1981 'Gallipoli', 1981 'Ghost Story', 1981 'Gregorys Girl', 1981 'Heartworn Highways', 1981 'The Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy', 1981 'Outland', 1981 'Reds', 1981 Steven Spielberg (1946-) 'Raiders of the Lost Ark', 1981 'The Road Warrior', 1981 Scanners (1981-) 'Stripes', 1981 'Taps', 1981 'Time Bandits', 1981 'The Wolfen', 1981 'Natalie Wood Dies', Nov. 28, 1981 Judy Mazel (1943-2007) 'Mayor Koch' by Alice Neel (1900-84), 1981 'Stephen's Iron Crown' by Robert Motherwell, 1981 N.R. Narayana Murthy (1946-) Azim Hashim Premji (1945-) Adam Osborne (1939-) Osborne I, 1981 Shigeru Miyamoto (1952-) Donkey Kong, 1981 Mario Bros., 1983 Humvee, 1981 2K22 Tunguska F-117 Nighthawk Tu-160 White Swan Boeing 767 Quiznos, 1981 My Little Pony, 1981 'Jane Fondas Workout Book', by Jane Fonda (1937-), 1981 Meadlowlands Arena, 1981 Cabrillo Marine Aquarium, 1981

1981 Doomsday Clock: 4 min. to midnight. Chinese Year: Rooster (Feb. 5) - Reagan jokes here? Time Mag. Man of the Year: Lech Walesa (1943-). World pop.: 4.5B (vs. 2.5B in 1950); China: 957M, India: 664M, U.S.S.R.: 266M, U.S.: 228M (incl. 26.5M blacks and 14.6M Hispanics), Indonesia: 152M, Brazil: 122M, Japan: 117M, Bangladesh: 88M, Nigeria: 77M, Mexico: 72M, West Germany: 61M, Italy: 57M, Britain: 56M, France: 54M, Vietnam: 52M, Egypt: 42M, Spain: 38M, Poland: 35M, Canada: 24M. World oil prices peak at $36 a barrel this year. Japan's GNP per capita: $9,925 (vs. $2,195 in 1971); trade surplus with the U.S.: $15.8B (vs. $3.2B in 1981); private sector employment: 54M (vs. 51M in 1981). U.S. auto sales: 6.2M (lowest since 1961); Japan voluntarily limits U.S. imports to 1.68M units. Japan bails out the U.S. economy by loading up on 30-year U.S. govt. bonds. This year Kukui, Kauai, Hawaii receives a record 704.83 in. of rainfall; in Mar. Mt. Waialeale in Kauai receives 148.83 in. The top 10 CEOs in the U.S. receive an avg. compensation of $3.5M a year. The female literacy rate in India is only 24.88%, compared to 46.74% for males, with 84% of boys ages 6-14 enrolled in school vs. 54% of girls. Cuba has an epidemic of Dengue hemorrhagic fever, with 344,203 cases. Children born in 1981-95 are considered to be part of the "Buckle-Up for Safety" Generation Y (Millennials) (Net Generation) (Generation 9/11) (Generation Next), coming after Generation X (1965-80), which follows the numerically-dominant Baby Boomers (1946-64); a 2006 Pew Research Center Study finds Gen. Y to be more tolerant and obsessed with becoming rich quick than Gen. X, and more likely to vote Dem., not to mention being known for being coddled by their Baby Boomer parents, who pester their college profs. about low grades, show up with them for job interviews, etc. The MTV-driven British Music Aftershock Era begins (ends 1999), with a new wave of British groups hitting the giant U.S. market, incl. Duran Duran, Culture Club, New Order, The Cure, Depeche Mode, and Spice Girls. U.S. auto production reaches its lowest level in years at 6.2M passenger cars. On Jan. 1 Mich. defeats Washington by 23-6 to win the 1981 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 1 Greece joins the European Community. On Jan. 1 after pres. (since Sept. 6, 1960) Leopold Sedar Senghor names his successor, PM (since Feb. 26, 1970) Abdou Diouf (1935-) of the Socialist Party of Senegal becomes pres. #2 of Senegal in W Africa (until Apr. 1, 2000). On Jan. 1 177 sq. mi. Palau (pop. 20K) in the Pacific Oean 500 mi. E of the Philippines and 2K mi. S of Tokyo becomes a self-governing territory; in 1994 it becomes a sovereign state, with capital at Ngerulmud. On Jan. 1 the subterranean Sarawak Chamber in Sarawak Island, Borneo is discovered by three English cave explorers, becoming the largest known underground chamber. On Jan. 2 after interviewing him 9x, British police arrest Yorkshire, England-born truck driver Peter William Sutcliffe (1946-), and on May 22 he is convicted of the Yorkshire Ripper Murders of 13 women and attempted murders of seven more that began on Oct. 30, 1975 and ended on Nov. 17, 1980, receiving a life sentence on each count; the police are criticized for taking so long to arrest him, and in 2006 the Byford Report makes it official. On Jan. 3 John Lennon's single (Just Like) Starting Over (released Oct. 24, 1980) and his comeback album Double Fantasy (released Nov. 17, 1980) top the U.S. pop music charts just weeks after his death. On Jan. 3 a passenger bus plunges 200 ft. into a ravine outside Galhar, Kashmir, India, killing 17 and injuring 18. On Jan. 5 British PM Margaret Thatcher shuffles her cabinet and sacks state arts minister (since May 5, 1979) (Roman Catholic) Norman Anthony Francis St. John-Stevas (1929-) (shadow leader of the House of Commons in 1975-8), who becomes the first of the Tory wets (who oppose her more hard-line policies) to be dismissed; he likes to call her "Tina" for "There is no alternative". A last hurrah for American individulism in the Wild West? On Jan. 5 mountain man and poacher Claude Lafayette Dallas Jr. (1950-) kills Idaho Dept. of Fish and Game officers Conley Elms and Bill Pogue (former Winnemucca, Nev. police chief) in an execution-style slaying in the remote Owyhee Desert in Idaho for allegedly violating his privacy; he is captured in Apr. 1982, and a jury finds him guilty of manslaughter instead of murder, for which he gets 30 years; a group of women known as the Dallas Cheerleaders gathers daily at his 28-day trial; Canadian singer Tom Russell writes the song The Ballad of Claude Dallas; a TV movie is later made about him; he escapes in 1986 and is on the run for a year, then is recaptured, and finally released on Feb. 6, 2005; jury foreman Milo M. Moore states that if hadn't got out his .22 rifle to finish them off in the head, he would have been acquitted outright as justifiable self-defense. On Jan. 5 the BBC TV series The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, based on the 1979 book by Douglas Adams debuts for 8 episodes (until Feb. 9, 1981), starring Simon Jones as Arthur Dent, David Dixon as Ford Perfect, Mark Wing-Davey as Zaphod Beeblebrox, and Sandra Dickinson as Trillion; Peter Jones voices the guide. On Jan. 6 Brazilian double-decker boat Novo Amapo capsizes on the Jari River near Belem de Cajari, Macapa, Brazil, killing 230 of 441. The Reagan Era begins on TV before he gets into the White House? On Jan. 12 the Esther and Richard Shapiro prime time soap opera Dynasty (their answer to "Dallas") debuts on ABC-TV for 220 episodes (until May 11, 1989), about the ever-warring Carrington and Colby clans (originally Parkhurst and Corby), John Forsythe (John Lincoln Freund) (1918-2010) as Denver, Colo. oil baron Blake Carrington, Pamela Sue Martin (1953-) as his daughter Fallon Carrington Colby, Joan Collins (1933-) as his ex-wife Alexis Carrington, and Linda Evans (Evanstad) (1942-) as his fiancee Krystle Grant Jennings, who are ever at each other's throats, even getting into mud-wrestling; only some fixed shots are filmed in Denver, with the real action filmed in the Fioli Mansion in N Calif.; a 1983 episode features Pres. and Mrs. Gerald Ford, plus Henry Kissinger in a real-life Carousel Ball in Denver sponsored by Marvin and Barbara Davis, making it the only prime-time soap to give onscreen roles to an ex-pres. and a secy. of state; the show goes on to run in parallel with the Reagan admin. On Jan. 14 the FCC votes 6-1 to free the 8.9K U.S. radio stations to air as many commercials an hour as they wish, dispense with detailed logs, and no longer devote a min. percentage of air time to news or public affairs; they still must observe the 1949 Fairness Doctrine, until it is abolished in 1987. On Jan. 15 the realistic "outdoors Barney Miller" crime drama (filmed with hand-held Arriflex cameras) Hill Street Blues debuts on NBC-TV for 146 episodes (until May 12, 1987), becoming the first ensemble cop show, starring Daniel J. Travanti (1940-) as precinct Capt. Frank Furillo, Veronica Hamel (1943-) as public defender Joyce Davenport (his secret lover, ending each show together in a romantic bubble bath), and Michael Conrad (1925-83) as fatherly Sgt. Phil Esterhaus, who ends each roll call with "Let's be careful out there", while officers Bobby Hill (Michael Warren) and Andy Renko (Charles Haid) play black cop white cop; created by Steven Bochco and Michael Kozell of MTM (Mary Tyler Moore and husband Grant Tinker) Productions, it almost flops until it becomes the lowest-rated show to be picked up for a 2nd season, after which the audience bites, and it gets 21 Emmy nominations and wins a record eight, garnering 98 Emmy nominations during its 7-year run. On Jan. 16 boxer Leon Spinks is mugged, and his assailants make off with his gold teeth - the next time you spot something wild, enjoy it? On Jan. 16 in Northern Ireland, Protestant gunmen wound Irish nationalist leader Bernadette Devlin McAliskey (1947-) and her husband for supporting IRA hunger strikers, after which she makes a defiant appearance in Spain. On Jan. 17 Philippine pres. (since 1965) Ferdinand Marcos (1917-89) finally lifts martial law, but retains his power to rule by decree; on June 16 he wins a fraudulent election to another 6-year term, quashing democracy, and the corruption spreads like a cancer, with the army becoming an engine of oppression under the guise of fighting Communism, stroking Pres. Reagan. A new era in U.S. politics begins when an actor becomes chief executive? On Jan. 18 Iran accepts a U.S. offer of $7.9B in frozen assets; on Jan. 19 the U.S. and Iran sign the Algiers Accords, pledging no U.S. interference in Iranian affairs, paving the way for the release of 52 Americans held hostage for more than 14 mo. on Jan. 20, Reagan's inauguration day, which takes place minutes after he takes the oath of office - he didn't trade arms for hostages? An actor can become president of the United States? On Jan. 20 70-y.-o. Tampico, Ill.-born Rock River bodyguard (saved 77 people), Eureka College (Disciples of Christ) grad., radio announcer, male model and Hollywood B-movie actor Ronald Wilson "Dutch" Reagan (1911-2004) ("the Great Communicator") becomes the Biblical Number 40th (until Jan. 20, 1989) U.S. pres. (oldest person elected pres. so far) (first divorced pres.) in the 58th U.S. Pres. Inauguration in Washington, D.C. (Secret Service codename: Rawhide); warmest (55F) inauguration day until ?; the 5th lefty U.S. pres. (last Ford, next G.H.W. Bush); 2nd to skip using his middle name in the oath (1st Jimmy Carter); George Herbert Walker Bush (1924-2018) becomes the 43rd U.S. vice-pres. (Secret Service codename: Tumbler); First Lady is Anne Francis "Nancy" Robbins Davis Reagan (1921-2016) (Secret Service codename: Rainbow); Reagan places a standing order for 720 1-lb. bags of Jelly Belly brand jelly beans (306,070 beans) each month, costing $2,880, later uttering the soundbyte: "You can tell a lot about a fellow's character by his way of eating jelly beans"; Second Lady is Barbara Bush (nee Pierce) (1925-2018); Reagan's First Inaugural Address (held for the first time on the terrace of the West Front of the Capitol) contains the soundbyte: "Government is not the solution to our problem, government is the problem"; minutes after he is sworn-in, Iran releases the U.S. hostages, and they are flown to Algiers after 444 days in captivity, in return for which the U.S. unblocks some Iranian funds and Iran agrees to repay U.S. bank loans; U.S. Sen. (R-Nev.) (1974-87) Paul Dominique Laxalt (1922-2018), Reagan's closest friend in politics becomes known as "the First Friend"; inheriting 10% inflation and 20% interest rates and setting out to undo LBJ's Great Society, Reagan hires long-haired Baby Boomer number-cruncher "budget guru" David Alan Stockman (1946-) as dir. of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) (until Aug. 1985) to go over thick computer printouts in an attempt to understand what items to cut; on Feb. 18 Reagan announces a simultaneous across-the-board 30% tax cut to curtail the welfare state combined with a massive military buildup to please the flag-wavers, relying on future economic growth to pay for it while braving giant deficits, which critics call Reaganomics (called Voodoo Economics by George H.W. Bush while vice-pres.), and arch-foe House Speaker Tip O'Neill says is only for people making over $50K a year; in Feb. Reagan presents the U.S. Economic Tax Recovery Act to Congress, with the first-ever trillion-dollar budget submitted to Congress, which balloons the deficit from $1T to over $4T in 12 years; he begins the dismantling of the power of labor unions and the deindustrialization of the U.S.?; he sets a goal of packing the Supreme Court with new justices to overturn the nasty Roe v. Wade ruling, ending up with three (O'Connor, Kennedy, Scalia), with his successor Bush Sr. a ppointing two more (Souter, who replaces liberal icon William Brennan, and Thomas, who replaces liberal icon Thurgood Marshall); Reagan appoints Donald Thomas Regan (1918-2003) as White House secy., Caspar Willard "Cap" Weinberger (1917-2006) as defense secy. (soon becoming known as "Cap the Knife" for his cost-cutting ways), West Point-graduated Ill. agriculture dir. John Rusling Block (1935-) as U.S. agriculture secy. #21 (until Feb. 14, 1986), Notre Dame-educated fellow Irishman Raymond James Donovan (1930-) as labor secy. #17 (until Mar. 15, 1985), and (after influence by Colo. conservative beer magnate Joseph Coors) Wyo.-born (schmucky-looking?) James Gaius Watt (1938-), 1979 founder of the anti-environmentalist Mountain States Legal Foundation ("dedicated to individual liberty, the right to own and use property...") as interior secy. #43 (until Nov. 8, 1983); on Feb. 5 he testifies before Congress, uttering the soundbyte: "We will mine more, drill more, cut more timber"; he also becomes known for the soundbytes: "I don't know how many future generations we can count on until the Lord returns", "We don't have to protect the environment - the Second Coming is at hand", and "My responsibility is to follow the Scriptures which call upon us to occupy the land until Jesus returns"; after more strings pulled by Coors, Reagan further angers environmentalists by appointing Wyo.-born atty. Anne McGill Gorsuch (later Burford) (1942-2004) (former deputy district atty. in Denver, Colo. and rep. from Colo.) as dir. #4 of the EPA (first female) (until Mar. 9, 1983), who goes on to slash the budget by $200M and cut staff by 23%; he makes one good pick, Duncan, Okla.-born staunch anti-Communist Repub. Jean Jordan Kirkpatrick (nee Jeane Duane Jordan) (1926-2006) who becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #16 (first woman) (Feb. 4, 1981 to Apr. 1, 1985), becoming known for her Kirkpatrick Doctrine of U.S. support for any anti-Commie govt., incl. authoritarian regimes, causing Noam Chomsky to call her the "chief sadist-in-residence of the Reagan administration", uttering the soundbyte: "What takes place in the Security Council more closely resembles a mugging than either a political debate or an effort at problem-solving"; the Reagan Doctrine of overwhelming the global influence of the Soviet Union to end the Cold War incl. supporting any and all anti-Communist guerrillas while seeking to change the Soviet Union from within is masterminded by Polish Jewish immigrant Richard Edgar Pipes (1923-2018); Jewish-Am. thinker ("the Godfather of Neoconservatism") Irving Kristol (1920-2009) (who defines neoconservatives as "liberals mugged by reality") works to support Reagan's domestic agenda incl. supply-side economics, raising big bucks to create an apparatus of conservative think tanks that later boost the Bushes into the White House, brokering a tactical alliance between Jewish neocons and Christian evangelicals, even anti-Semitic ones as long as they are against the pesky Muslims; Jimmy Carter leaves office broke and bitter, his peanut warehouse in Plains, Ga. $1M in debt, and breaks tradition by criticizing his successor Reagan, but soon begins pursuing high-minded projects, working with Millard Dean Fuller (1935-2009), 1976 founder of Habitat for Humanity Internat., and founding the Carter Center in 1982, setting out to become a super Peter Pan statesman? On Jan. 21 former Protestant Irish Unionist MP (1938-69) (former speaker) Capt. Sir Charles Norman Lockhart Stronge, 8th Baronet (b. 1894) and his ditto son (1969-72) Maj. James Matthew Stronge (b. 1932) are assassinated by the Provisional IRA in their home in Tynan Abbey, which burns down; as the 8+ gunmen flee they get in a fight with British troops before escaping, after which nobody is convicted (until ?). On Jan. 22 French-born lesbian novelist Marguerite Yourcenar (1903-87), who has lived in the U.S. since 1939 with college prof. and lover Grace Frick (who recently died) becomes the first woman elected as an "immortal" to the Academie Francaise (founded 1634) - it's the fast-food decade? On Jan. 24 (5:13 a.m. local time) the 6.8 Dawu Earthquake in Sichuan, China kills 150 and injures 300. On Jan. 24 the British Labour Party holds a conference in Wembly and decides to hold leadership elections by electoral college. On Jan. 25 the 52 Americans held hostage by Iran for 444 days arrive in the U.S.; Pres. Reagan greets them at the White House on Jan. 27; 2M New Yorkers turn out for a Jan. 30 1,262-ton ticker-tape parade honoring them. On Jan. 25 Chmn. Mao's widow Jiang Qing (1914-91) is sentenced to death, which is later commuted to life imprisonment; she is dragged from the courthouse while shouting "It is right to rebel! Making a revolution is no crime!" On Jan. 25 New York City cocaine dealer Robert Wyler (1938-) unsuccessfully attempts to escape from a federal jail in Manhattan via a heli commandeered by two accomplices, but after failing to break through a wire mesh on the roof they surrender, and on Sept. 25 they are convicted of air piracy and receive life sentences on top of the 24-year sentence of Wyler. On Jan. 25 the Limehouse Declaration by four former Labour cabinet ministers called the Gang of Four who think that the Labour Party is too leftist and Trotskyist incl. Roy Harris Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead (1920-2003), David Anthony Llewellyn Owen, Baron Owen of Plymouth (1938-), William Thomas "Bill" Rodgers, Baron Rodgers of Quarry Bank (1928-), and Shirley Williams, Baroness William of Crosby (1930-) results in the formation of the British Social Dem. Party (SDP) on Mar. 26; Williams becomes the first elected SDP MP this year, followed Jenkins on July 2, 1982; on Sept. 16 it forms an electoral pact with the Liberal Party, then merges with in 1988 to form the Liberal Dems. On Jan. 25 Super Bowl XV (15) is held in New Orleans, La.; the Oakland Raiders (AFC) defeat the Philadelphia Eagles (NFC) 27-10, jumping out to a 14-0 lead; MVP is Raiders scrambling 6'3" QB James W. "Jim" Plunkett (1947-), who avoids a sack and tosses a short pass to RB Kenneth Leon "Kenny" King (1957-), who breaks a tackle by CB Herman "Herm" Edwards Jr. (1954-) for a SB record 80-yard TD reception; Tom Flores of the Raiders becomes the first minority head coach to win a Super Bowl. On Jan. 27 Indonesian passenge ship Tamponas 2 catches fire and capsizes in the Java Sea, killing 580. On Jan. 28 after Adm. Stansfield Turner resigns, Elmhurst, Queens, N.Y.-born Fordham U.-educated OSS veteran and walking law library William Joseph "Bill" Casey (1913-87) (Reagan's campaign mgr.) becomes dir. #11 of the CIA (until Jan. 29, 1987), which Turner calls "the Resurrection of Wild Bill [Donovan]"; like Reagan, he's of Irish Roman Catholic ancestry, and was used by Reagan to brief Pope John Paul II of Cold War developments, flying in a windowless C-141 black jet and arriving undercover; he goes on to expand funding and employment to a new level, and lift the Church Committee restrictions on the use of the CIA to directly and covertly influence the internal and foreign affairs of foreign nations. On Jan. 30 2M turn out in New York City for a ticker-tape parade honoring the freed Am. hostages from Iran. On Jan. 31 Lech Walesa announces an accord in Poland giving labor Saturdays off. In Jan. falling prices for copper and cobalt force Zambian pres. Kenneth Kaunda to declare a state of economic austerity; copper workers strike, shutting down production, and in Feb. Kaunda installs a new PM and a new party chief; in Apr. union leaders expelled at the time of the strike are readmitted. In Jan. Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya proposes a merger with Chad, but the latter rejects it and Libyan troops withdraw. In Jan. the govt. of Poland tells farmers to sell their grain to the state to relieve shortages or else they won't be permitted to purchase seed; the grain crop increased by 11% to 20M tons since last year. In Jan. the Org. of the Islamic Conference (OIC) holds a summit meeting, where it declares that "Palestine should be viewed as the paramount issue of Muslim nations." In Jan. Italian-born Genevese crime family boss (since 1972) Alphonse Frank Tieri (1904-81) becomes the first person convicted under the U.S. RICO act, receiving a 10-year sentence, then dying in a hospital in New York City on Mar. 31. In Jan.-Mar. heavy wet snow in NW Japan collapses many houses and bldgs. and kills 152. On Feb. 2 South Korean pres. Chun Doo-hwan becomes Pres. Reagan's first White House guest, legitimizing his dictatorship; later in Feb. Chun is reelected, supposedly for one term max under the 1980 constitution. On Feb. 4 Jean Struven Harris (1923-2012) is convicted of the Mar. 10, 1980 murder of her ex-lover, Scarsdale Diet author Dr. Herman Tarnower; she is released in Jan. 1993. On Feb. 4 environmental minister (Harvard-educated physician) Gro Harlem Brundtland (1939-) becomes the first female PM of Norway, heading a minority govt., but elections give the Conservatives a majority, and on Oct. 14 safe white male supply-side economist Kaare (Kåre) Isaachsen Willoch (1928-) becomes the first Conservative PM since 1928 (until May 2, 1986). On Feb. 6 surviving Beatles Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr and George Harrison record a Tribute to Dead Beatle John Lennon, composed by George. On Feb. 8 a stampede in the Karaiskaki Soccer Stadium in Pireus, Greece kills 21 and injures 54. On Feb. 9 Polish PM Josef Pinkowski resigns; on Feb. 11 after three other PMs in a year, bespectacled Gen. Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski (1923-) (who started out as a coal miner in Karangda, where he contracted permanent damage to his eyes and back) is elected PM #8 of Communist Poland (until Nov. 6, 1985); on Oct. 18 after starting a crackdown on "anti-Soviet activity and lawlessness" in Sept. he is elected first secy. #6 of the Polish Communist Party (until July 29, 1989), succeeding Stanislaw Kania. On Feb. 10 90 days after the MGM Grand fire, another fire breaks out at the Las Vegas Hilton Hotel-Casino, killing eight and injuring 200+. On Feb. 12 a multi-vehicle pileup in Barquisimento, Venezuela kills 36 and injures 30. On Feb. 13 after its union refuses modern printing equipment to be installed for Luddite reasons, causing it to lose more than £15M a year, and media mogul Kenneth R. Thomson announces on Oct. 22, 1980 that the London Times will close in Mar. 1981 unless a buyer is found, Australian media mogul Rupert Murdoch purchases it for £11M, and allegedly uses his political connections to keep the acquisition from being challenged by the monopolies commission although he already owns the Sun and the News of the World, but he is prohibited from being involved in the editorial policy. On Feb. 14 Australia withdraws recognition of the Pol Pot regime in Cambodia. On Feb. 14 a fire at the Stardust Nightclub in Artane, Dublin, Northern Ireland kills 48 and injures 214. On Feb. 15 a rocket-powered ice sled attains a record 399 kph on Lake George, NY. On Feb. 17 Pope John Paul II meets with Philippine pres. Ferdinand Marcos in Manila. On Feb. 18 facing 14% inflation, 7.4% unemployment, and a prime interest rate of 21.5% (highest since the U.S. Civil War), Pres. Reagan reveals a program for economic recovery, calling for cuts in 83 federal programs, followed in Mar. by a plan to cut taxes and reduce the federal budget by $130.5B. On Feb. 19 the U.S. State Dept. calls El Salvador a "textbook case" of a Communist plot. On Feb. 19 former Beatle George Harrison (1943-2001) is ordered to pay ABKCO Music $587K for "subconscious plagiarism" in his hit My Sweet Lord of the 1960s pop single hit He's So Fine. On Feb. 20 Space Shuttle Columbia (world's first reusable manned spacecraft) clears the final major hurdle to its maiden launch by firing its three engines in a 20-sec. test. On Feb. 21 after playing J.R. Ewing in a parody of Dallas with Charlene Tilton, Charles Rocket (1949-2005) gets away with clearly uttering the taboo word "fuck" on TV's Saturday Night Live (SNL), but is soon fu, er, fired. On Feb. 23 an attempted coup begins in Spain as 200 members of the Civil Guard and some of the military led by Antonio Tejero invade the Parliament bldg., taking lawmakers hostage to prevent Leopoldo Calvo Sotelo from being named pres.; after Juan Carlos intervenes, the coup folds after 18 hours. On Feb. 24 a jury in White Plains, N.Y. finds Jean Harris guilty of 2nd-degree murder in the fatal shooting of Scarsdale Diet author Dr. Herman Tarnower; on Mar. 15 she gets 15 years to life, and serves 12. On Feb. 24 Buckingham Palace announces the engagement of Britain's Prince Charles to Lady Diana Spencer; she shows off her 18-carat oval blue sapphire surrounded by diamonds - I'm all ears? On Feb. 24 a 6.7 earthquake in Athens, Greece kills 16 and injures thousands. On Feb. 26 the French high-velocity rail system TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse), powered by overhead electric wires and turbine engines averages 264 kph (164 mph) on a trial run (max speed 380 kph or 236 mph), then on Sept. 27 begins operating between Paris and Lyons, reaching Marseilles in 1983, and growing to 1K mi. of track by 2010. On Feb. 26 three Anglican missionaries detained in Iran since Aug. 1980 are released. On Feb. 26 Munabi, an asst. to Ugandan pres. Milton Obote is murdered. On Feb. 26 Hi-De-Hi! debuts on BBC-TV (until Jan. 30, 1988), starring Simon John Cadell (1950-96) as Geoffrey Fairbrother, who manages a 1959 holiday camp. On Feb. 27 Baltimore, Md.-born Nancy Patricia Pelosi (nee D'Alesandro) (1940-), daughter of 3-time Dem. Baltimore mayor Thomas D'Alesandro Jr. (1903-87) becomes chair of the Calif. Dem. Party (until Apr. 3, 1983), going on to become Dem. U.S. Calif. Rep. on June 2, 1987 (until ?), representing Calif's 12th congressional district consisting of 80% of the city-county of gay left-leaning San Francisco, which she has a lock on, working her way up to speaker #52 of the U.S. House of Reps. (first woman) on Jan. 4, 2007, and House minority leader on Jan. 3, 2011 (until ?), becoming known for her ever-kookier leftist public statements. On Feb. 28 Argentine human rights activist Emilio Fermin Mignone (1922-98) of the Center for Legal and Social Studies is arrested along with five others after he testifies to the U.N. Human Rights Commission about the disappeared; after an internat. outcry they are all released a week later. On Mar. 1 IRA member Robert Gerard "Bobby" Sands (b. 1954) begins a hunger strike in the H-block section of the Maze Prison in Northern Ireland; after being elected a British MP by Fermanagh and South Tyrone on Apr. 10, he dies 65 days later on May 5, triggering a wave of violence and hunger strikes by 11 other prisoners; meanwhile the Brits change the law to prohibit prisoners from standing in elections. On Mar. 2 Jewish-Am. future "King of All Media" Howard Stern (1954-) begins broadcasting on WWDC in Washington D.C. On Mar. 2 an aircraft is hijacked by three Pakistani terrorists. On Mar. 3 the U.S. discloses that they released zinc cadmium sulfate into the atmosphere from two F-105 jet fights around Victoria, Tex. on July 11-Aug. 9, 1966. On Mar. 5 Pres. Reagan asks Congress to end federal legal aid to the poor - it's just not the cowboy way? On Mar. 5 the U.S. govt. grants the city of Atlanta, Ga. $1M to search for the mysterious black boy murderer - but law enforcement agents get as many paychecks as they want? On Mar. 6 Pres. Reagan announces plans to cut 37K federal jobs. On Mar. 6 Walter Cronkite (1916-2009) signs off for the last time as anchor of the CBS Evening News (begun Apr. 16, 1962); on Mar. 9 he is replaced by Daniel Irvin "Dan" Rather Jr. (1931-) (until 2005). On Mar. 7 anti-govt. guerrillas in Colombia execute kidnapped U.S. Bible translator Chester Allen Bitterman (1952-), claiming he's a CIA agent. On Mar. 10 Sir Geoffrey Howe announces the British budget, which raises taxes in the middle of a recession. On Mar. 12 Soyuz T-4 carrying Vladimir Vasiliyevich Kovalyonok (1942-) and Viktor Petrovich Savinykh (1940-) takes off, then docks with the Salyut 6 space station, and returns on June 10; on Mar. 22 Soyuz 39, carrying Vladimir Aleksandrovich Dzhanibekov (1942-) and Jugderdemidiin Gurragchaa (Jügderdemidiin Gürragchaa) (1947-) (first Mongolian in space) blasts off, docking with Salyut 6; on May 14 Soyuz 40 (last of the Soyuz spacecraft, which are replaced by the Soyuz-T) blasts off carrying Leonid Ivanovich Popov (1945-) and Dumitru Dorin Prunariu (1952-) (first Romanian in space). On Mar. 15 the govt. of Suriname foils a 2nd army coup attempt 40 mi. W of Paramaribo, killing one and injuring a dozen, but doesn't announce it until mid-Apr. A big day for the once bottom-of-the-heap Irish in the U.S.? On Mar. 17 Pres. Reagan holds a breakfast meeting on Capitol Hill with Repub. congressional leaders in which he stands by his budget proposals even though the Congressional Budget Office has questioned his projected figures; he then becomes the first U.S. pres. to visit the Irish embassy in Washington, D.C., celebrating St. Patrick's Day at a luncheon hosted by Irish ambassador Sean Donlon and wife, and attended by Tip O'Neill, Donald Regan, and Edward Kennedy (two of the "Four Horsemen" of Irish-Am. politicians, incl. Daniel Moynihan and N.Y. Gov. Hugh Carey), being presented with a genealogical chart tracing his ancestry to Ballyporeen, County Tipperary, along with a shamrock in a Beleek China basket, and an Irish silver dish, then reciprocating with a Waterford glass bowl full of green jelly beans; a Feast Day Message by the Friends of Ireland is signed by 11 U.S. senators, 10 U.S. reps., and three U.S. state govs. On Mar. 18 (Wed.) Stephen J. Cannell's comedy drama series The Greatest American Hero debuts on ABC-TV for 44 episodes (until Feb. 3, 1983), starring William Theodore Katt (1950-) (son of Barbara Hale) as teacher Ralph Hinkley (Hanley), who had an encounter with E.T.s who gave him a red suit conferring superhuman abilities, but lost the instruction booklet, Robert Martin Culp (1930-2010) as FBI agent Bill Maxwell, and Connie Sellecca (Concetta Sellecchia) (1955-) as atty. Pam Davidson. On Mar. 20 Argentine ex-pres. Isabel Peron is sentenced to 8 years in a convent. On Mar. 21 black teenager Michael Donald is abducted in Mobile, Ala. by two Klansmen, then tortured and lynched in what prosecutors claim was a Ku Klux Klan conspiracy; a civil suit against the United Klans wins $7M and shuts them down. On Mar. 22 U.S. first class postage rates go from 15 cents to 18 cents an oz., jumping to 20 cents on Nov. 1. On Mar. 23 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 5-4 in Michael M. v. Superior Court of Sonoma County that states can require, with some exceptions, parental notification when teenage girls seek abortions; statutory rape can be made a crime for men but not women. On Mar. 25 the U.S. embassy in San Salvador is damaged when gunmen attack with rocket-propelled grenades and machine guns. On Mar. 26 a jury in Los Angeles awards entertainer Carol Burnett (1933-) $1.6M for a National Enquirer article she claimed was libelous. On Mar. 26 police battle Albanian demonstrators in Kosovo, who want the 80%-Albanian autonomous province to become a separate repub., and start by protesting conditions at the univ.; by Apr. the demonstrations swell into riots in which 11 are killed as 100K demand separation from the Yugoslav federation, and in Apr. a state of emergency is declared; in June-Sept. a politial purge is conducted, while Albanian secessionists are sentenced to prison terms of up to 13.5 years. On Mar. 28 the price of silver stabilizes at $12 an oz. after peaking at $40 in Jan. On Mar. 29 Gen. Roberto Eduardo Viola (1924-94) is sworn-in as interim pres. of Argentina (until Dec. 11). It's Hinckley Day at the Washington Zoo? On Mar. 30 (Mon.) (2:30 p.m.) after attending a labor event, the Reagan Assassination Attempt sees 69-day U.S. pres. Ronald Reagan shot in the left lung along with three others outside the Washington, D.C. Hilton Hotel by Colo.-based Jodie Foster fetishist John Hinckley Jr. (1955-) using a Rohm RG-14 6-shot .22 blue steel revolver loaded with Devastator brand exploding cartridges (all shots fired); shot #1 hits Reagan's 6'1" 250 lb. White House press secy. ("the Bear") James Scott "Jim" Brady (1940-2014) in the head, causing permanent brain damage and partially paralyzing him, after which he becomes a er, half-wit, er lobbyist for gun control legislation, getting the 1993 U.S. Brady Handgun Control Act passed, providing for a 5-day waiting period before purchasing handguns to kill politicians with (expires 1998); D.C. police officer Thomas K. Delhanty (1934-) is hit with shot #2 in the back; shot #3 misses and hits a window; shot #4 hits Secret Service agent Timothy J. McCarthy (1949-) in the abdomen after he leaps in front of POTUS, after which he becomes police chief of Orlando Park, Ill.; shot #5 hits the window of the pres. limo; shot #6 hinkleys off the limo into Reagan's left underarm, stopping 1 in. from his heart; Nancy Reagan is at first told he wasn't hit, until Michael Deaver breaks it to her at the hospital, where the glib movie cowboy pres. tells his wife, "Honey, I forgot to duck"; White House campaign strategist Franklyn C. "Lyn" Nofziger (1924-2006) becomes the first to announce it to the press; all three major U.S. TV networks provide day-long coverage of the incident; U.S. Gen. Alexander Meigs Haig Jr. (1924-2010) stinks himself up by telling reporters "As for now I'm in control here in the White House" (Heil Haig?), then claims "There are absolutely no alert measures that are necessary at this time or contemplated", while in reality defense secy. Cap Weinberger is ordering an alert in case it's a Soviet plot?; Reagan leaves the hospital after 12 days, and addresses Congress to a rousing ovation, helping him get his economics program passed by 238-195 (like Zangara's bad shooting helped FDR in 1933?), with many Dem. defections, which he calls the greatest political win in half a cent.; he fires Haig for being "power-hungry", causing Haig to say that he "isn't a mean man, he's just stupid"; on Aug. 28 Hinckley pleads innocent to charges of attempting to kill Reagan, and on June 21, 1982 he is found not guilty by reason of insanity; Reagan loses half his blood and turns white before he arrives in the operating room, after which his mental decline begins? On Mar. 31 the 53rd Academy Awards awards the best picture Oscar for 1980 to Paramount's (Wildwood Enterprises) Ordinary People, along with best dir. to Robert Redford, and best supporting actor to Timothy Hutton; best actor goes to Robert De Niro for Raging Bull, best actress to Sissy Spacek for Coal Miner's Daughter, and best supporting actress to Mary Steenburgen for Melvin and Howard. In Mar. Central African Repub. (CAR) pres. #3 (since Sept. 21, 1979) David Dacko (1930-2003) is reelected in a rigged election; on Sept. 1 after being accused of being a French puppet by former PM Ange-Felix Patasse (Ange-Félix Patassé) (1937-) of the Gbaya group of the N savanna region (largest ethnic group in the country), French-backed army chief Andre Dieudonne Kolingba (1935-) (of the riverine Yakoma ethnic group of the S) takes power from Dacko in a bloodless coup, becoming pres. #4 of the CAR (until Oct. 1, 1993), going on to promote members of the Yakoma group into govt. and private posts, pissing-off the Gbayas, who plot his overthrow. In spring Quiznos fast food restaurants is founded in Denver, Colo. by Jimmy Lambatos to sell toasted submarine sandwiches; in 1991 he sells-out to Rick and Richard Schaden, who expand it to 2.1K restaurants globally, becoming #2 in submarine sandwiches after Subway. On Apr. 1 the U.S.S.R. begins daylight saving time. On Apr. 3 a military coup against Prem's govt. in Thailand fails. On Apr. 4 Maria Lea Pedini-Angelini (1954-) becomes capt.-regent of San Marino (until Oct. 1), the tiny country's first female head of state, after which it becomes a regular thing, giving women's libbers a string of smiley faces on their calendars. On Apr. 9 an army jeep collides head-on with a bus outside Esteli, Nicaragua, killing 20 and injuring 40. On Apr. 10 the maiden launch of the Space Shuttle Columbia is scrubbed because of a computer malfunction. On Apr. 11 Pres. Reagan returns to the White House from the hospital 12 days after the assassination attempt, wowing fans with his cowboy panache? On Apr. 11 (Bloody Sat.) the 1981 Brixton Riot in Lambeth, South London sees 5K rioters throw molotov cocktails at police and loot shops, injuring 279 police and 45 civilians, burning 30 bldgs. and damaging 150, and burning hundreds of vehicles incl. 56 police vehicles; 82 are arrested. On Apr. 11/12 the Keddie Murders in Keddie, Calif. in the Sierra Nevada Mts. sees four victims incl. Glenna Susan "Sue" Sharp (nee Davis) (b. 1945), her son John Steven Sharp (b. 1965), her daughter Tina Louise Sharp (b. 1968), and John's friend Dana Hall Wingate (b. 1964) murdered in Cabin 28 of the Keddie Resort during the evening-morning of Apr. 11-12; the case is not solved until ? On Apr. 12 Space Shuttle Columbia 1, the first reusable Space Shuttle, carrying astronauts Robert Laurel Crippen (1937-) and John Watts Young (1930-) blasts off from Cape Canaveral on its first test flight STS-1, and returns on Apr. 14 after 2 days 8 hours, making the first touchdown by a U.S. spacecraft on land; on Nov. 12 Columbia blasts off on mission STS-2 with astronauts Joe H. Engle and Richard H. Truly, ending early in 2 days 6 hours after the loss of a fuel cell. On Apr. 14 a bus carrying Hindu pilgrims crashes in Srisailam, Andhra Pradesh, India, killing 61. On Apr. 15 Australian Liberal foreign minister (1975-80) and industrial relations minister (since 1980) Andrew Sharp Peacock (1939-) resigns after accusing PM Malcolm Fraser of constant interference. In Apr. the U.S. stock market begins a 16 mo. decline of 23%. In Apr. the bi-monthly MusicRow mag. is founded by David M. Ross to cover the Nashville music industry. On May 1 Chile completely privatizes Social Security. On May 1 Henry Gabriel Cisneros (1947-) becomes the first Mexican-Am. elected mayor of a major U.S. city, San Antonio, Tex. (until June 1, 1989) - the toilets all flush now? On May 2 in Savannah, Ga. antiques dealer and home restorer James Arthur "Jim" Williams (1930-90) shoots and kills his younger redneck boyfriend asst. Danny Lewis Hansford, becoming the first in Ga. to be tried 4x for the same crime; the 1994 John Berendt novel Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil is based on this event. On May 3 the People's Anti-War Mobilization (PAM) Coalition draws 25K to the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. to protest U.S. policy in El Salvador and other leftist issues; MC is boxer Larry Holmes. On May 6 comedian Jerry Seinfeld debuts on The Tonight Show. On May 10 Italian voters refuse to abrogate the law permitting abortions. On May 10 after a pres. election on Apr. 26 results in a runoff with Valery d'Estaing, Francois Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (1916-96) is elected as the first French Socialist pres. in a surprise upset over d'Estaing and the Gaullist alliance, which has held power since 1958; on May 21 Mitterrand becomes French pres. #21 (until May 17, 1995); the news causes the stock exchange to suspend trading for 48 hours, and extra customs officials to be posted to prevent money and valuables from being smuggled out of the country; not to disappoint, the new govt. runs the printing presses, weakening the franc; on May 22 Socialist Pierre Mauroy (1928-) becomes French PM #8 (until July 17, 1984), going on to reduce the workweek to 39 hours and lower the retirement age to 60 before abandoning Socialism; on June 14-20 nat. assembly elections in France give the Socialists a landslide, after which Mitterrand appoints four Communists to his cabinet and begins an economic austerity program incl. large scale nationalization, devaluation of the franc, and tax hikes for the rich; he goes on to abolish the death penalty and end nuclear tests. On May 13 (Sun.) Pope John Paul II (1920-2005) is shot twice in the abdomen and hand by Turkish Muslim assassin Mehmet Ali Agca (1958-) as he enters St. Peter's Square; a year earlier Agca (who was suffering from fantasies about being the Messiah?) escaped from a military prison where he was serving time for killing journalist Abdi Ipekci in 1979, and evaded mandatory Turkish army service; on May 18 the pope publicly forgives him from his hospital bed, attributing his recovery to the Virgin of Fatima, and leaves the hospital in Rome on June 3 and returns to the Vatican after three weeks, then meets with him in his prison cell in Rome in 1983 for 21 min., personally pardoning him; on June 9 the Italians link the Communist Bulgarians to the attack; on July 22 Agca is sentenced to life in prison after a 3-day trial, and on June 13, 2000 he is extradited to Turkey to serve a 10-year sentence for murdering Turkish journalist Abdi Ipekci (b. 1929) on Feb. 1, 1979, plus another seven years 4 mo. for two 1979 Turkish robberies, then released on parole on Jan. 12, 2006 after an Istanbul court rules in 2004 that he should only serve the longer sentence, which is 36 years, less 6 mo. he served before escaping to assassinate the pope, minus 10 years for a 2000 amnesty, minus 20 years for his time in prison in Italy; on Jan. 18, 2010 he is released from prison in Turkey after 19 years, saying that he wants to visit John Paul II's tomb and meet Pope Benedict XVI; on Feb. 1, 2013 he pub. a memoir claiming that Ayatollah Khomeini told him to do it. On May 13 the People's Repub. of the Congo (Brazzaville) signs a Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation with the Soviet Union in Moscow. On May 15 after being found in a landfill stuffed in a compacted 55-gal. drum wrapped in plastic, Donna Payant (nee Collins) (b. 1950) becomes the first female prison officer killed on duty in the U.S., by serial murderer serial killer Lemuel Warren Smith (1941-) at Green Haven Correctional Facility in N.Y.; Smith killed six victims between Jan. 21, 1958 and his arrest on Aug. 19, 1977. On May 18 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 9-0 in Edwards v. Arizona that police may not reinterrogate a suspect who has invoked his Miranda rights unless he waives them - unless you're Dirty Harry? On May 18 Mark S. Fowler (1941-) becomes FCC chmn. #? (until Apr. 17, 1987), going on to work to deregulate the telecomm industry, with the soundbyte "The television is just another appliance - it's a toaster with pictures." On May 24 Ecuadorian pres. (since Aug. 10, 1979) Jaime Roldos Aguilera (b. 1940) dies in a small plane crash, and vice-pres. Luis Osvaldo Hurtado Larrea (1939-) becomes pres. #34 of Ecuador (until Aug. 10, 1984). On May 25 (Memorial Day) daredevil Daniel "Dan" Goodwin (1955-), wearing a Spiderman costume scales the outside of Chicago's 110-story Sears Tower in 7.5 hours in an attempt to prove that people trapped in the Nov. 21, 1980 burning MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas could have been rescued, causing the press to dub him Spider Dan; on Nov. 7 despite police interference he climbs the 56-story Renaissance Tower in Dallas, Tex., and on Nov. 11 he climbs the 100-story John Hancock Center in Chicago, Ill.; on May 30 (Memorial Day), 1983 he climbs the North Tower of the WTC in New York Center, and finishes on June 26, 1986 by scaling the CN Tower in Toronto, Canada. On May 25 the Gulf Cooperation Council is founded in Riyadh by Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and the UAE to coordinate resistance to outside intervention of the Persian Gulf; in ? the name is changed to Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (CCASG); in Dec. 2011 Saudi Arabia proposes that they form a confederation, until Qatar begins backing the Muslim Brotherhood, causing a rift in 2014. On May 26 a U.S. Marine jet crashes onto the flight deck of the aircraft carrier USS Nimitz off Fla., killing 14. On May 26 the Italian govt. resigns after 953 govt. officials incl. them, legislators, judges and bankers are linked to the secret Masonic org. Propaganda Due (P2) (discovered on Mar. 17), whose grandmaster Licio Gelli (1919-) is charged with spying for Argentina, his secret membership list being found by police and released on Apr. 21. On May 27 after Ark. enacts a law in Mar. requiring public schools to teach creationism alongside Darwinian evolution, the ACLU files suit, calling it "hasty and ill-conceived"; on July 21 La. gov. (1980-4) (Methodist) David C. Treen (1928-) signs a law requiring creationism to be given equal time to evolution, which in 1987 is deemed unenforceable, which doesn't stop them from keeping it on the books until ?. On May 30 Bangladesh pres. Zia ur-Rahman is assassinated in Chittagong by a group of army officers led by Maj. Gen. Mohammad Abdul Manzur; on Nov. 15 after a failed military coup, vice-pres. (former judge) Abdus Sattar (1906-85) is elected pres. (until Mar. 24, 1982). In May after tainted water and overdiluted formula are found to leave infants sick and malnourished, 119 nations vote for a voluntary Internat. Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes developed by WHO to restrict marketing of infant formula to women in favor of breastfeeding; the U.S. is the only dissenting vote; on Mar. 16, 1982 Nestle Corp. of Switzerland issues guidelines to comply, and promises to curtail distribution to hospitals, causing the 1977 boycott to be suspended in 1984; in 1988 after hospitals are flooded with free supplies, the boycott is reinstated (until ?). On June 1 Spain legalizes civil divorce, but the Roman Catholic Church prohibits members from availing themselves of it. The original brokeback mountain? On June 5 an issue of the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly by the Federal Centers for Disease Control reports the occurrence of a rare form of pneumonia in five otherwise healthy gay men in Los Angeles, Calif. who have weakened immune systems, and suggests that it might be related to their homosexual activities - head or bareback? On June 6 a train brakes to avoid hitting a sacred cow in Mansi near Bihar, India, causing seven coaches to plunge off a bridge into the Baghmati (Kosi?) River, killing 800. There goes my Pride and Joy? On June 7 after the U.S. granted them access to top-secret satellite photos, Israeli PM Menachem Begin orders Operation Opera (Babylon), and Israeli F-15s and F-16s under IAF cmdr. #9 (1977-82) Gen. David Ivry (1934-) (Israeli ambassador to the U.S. in 2000-2) fly from Etzion Air Base in the Sinai 680 mi. across Jordan and Saudi Arabia and destroy Iraq's 40-70 MW French-supplied Osirak (Osiraq) nuclear reactor (built 1977) 11 mi. SE of Baghdad in an effort to prevent Saddam Hussein's Iraq (and Arabs) from obtaining nukes; it had already been damaged by an Iranian air strike on Sept. 30, 1980, and repaired; when informed of the strike, new U.S. Pres. Reagan utters the soundbyte: "Boys will be goys, er, boys"; Israeli pilot Ilan Ramon, who participates in the mission is killed in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster on Feb. 1, 2003; in the 1991 Gulf War the U.S. completely destroys what's left of it; this only makes Saddam Husein work harder at it?; the U.S. is furious at the news, with defense secy. saying that "Begin must have lost control of his senses". On June 10 (7:00 p.m.) near Vermicino, Frascati, Italy, 6-y.-o. Alfredo "Alfredino" Rampi (b. 1975) falls down a 30cm x 80m artesian well, and dies on June 13 before he can be rescued. On June 11 a 6.9 earthquake in S Iran kills 3K; on July 28 a 7.3 earthquake in the same area kills 1.5K. On June 12 U.S. ML baseball players begin a 49-day strike over the issue of free-agent compensation, causing 38% of the schedule to be canceled; the season doesn't resume until Aug. 9 with the All-Star Game in Cleveland, Ohio. On June 13 a scare during a parade in London is caused by teenager Martin Simon Sergeant (1964-) firing six blank shots at Queen Elizabeth II during the annual Trooping of the Colour ceremony in the Mall as she rides a horse named Burmese; she continues riding until 1986, then switches to a carriage. On June 14 an equal rights amendment for women is passed in Switzerland, enshrining it in the constitution; too bad, on June 14, 1991 hundreds of thousands of women stage protests about the lack of improvement in their situation, causing a new equality law to be passed in 1996. On June 14 a bus plunges 300 ft. into a ravine at Kohat Pass in Pakistan, killing 23 and injuring 25. On June 15 the First Holocaust Survivor Reunion is held in Jerusalem - hosted by Jeff Probskowicz? On June 18 U.S. Supreme Court Justice (since 1958) Potter Stewart announces his retirement; on Sept. 25 after Reagan appoints her on Aug. 19, Sandra Day O'Connor (1930-) becomes U.S. Supreme Court justice #102 (until Jan. 31, 2006), the first woman; pro-abortion and pro-ERA, she sat on the Ariz. state appeals court only 18 mo., and graduated #3 from Stanford U. Law School (#1 was William Rehnquist). On June 19 the Org. of Eastern Caribbean States is founded, based in Castries, Saint Lucia. On June 19 the European Space Agency's first spacecraft, Ariane 1 (first flight Dec. 24 1979) carries two satellites into orbit. On June 20 Pope John Paul II is hospitalized for an infection linked to his shooting injuries; on Aug. 5 he undergoes an operation, and is discharged on Aug. 14. On June 21 23-y.-o. gay black pedophile Wayne Bertram Williams (1958-) is arrested for murdering two of 29 young blacks whose bodies were found in the Atlanta, Ga. area over a 22-mo. period; next Jan. 6 his trial begins, and on Feb. 27 he is found guilty of the murder of the two; later 23 more murders are pinned on him. On June 22 Mark David Chapman pleads guilty to killing John Lennon. On June 22 Abolhassan Bani-Sadr is dismissed as pres. of Iran by Ayatollah Khomeini, and flees to Paris; on June 28 chief justice Ayatollah Mohammed Beheshti, head of the Islamic Repub. Party is killed along with four govt. ministers in a bombing attack in Tehran; on Aug. 30 another bombing attack in Iran kills PM Hojatolislam Javad Bahonar (b. 1933) (new head of the Islamic Repub. Party) and Col. Houshang Dagsgerdi; on Sept. 1 a bomb attack in Tehran kills Khomeini's aide Ayatollah Assadolah Madani. On June 25 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 6-3 in Rostker v. Goldberg that a male-only draft registration is constitutional; White, Marshall, and Brennan dissent. On June 26 Dan-Air Flight 240, a cargo plane working for Royal Mail explodes and breaks apart in midair, crashing near Nailstone, Leicestershire, England and killing all three crewmembers aboard. On June 26 Couples for Christ is founded in the Philippines. On June 28 Italian Repub. Party leader Giovanni Spadolini (1925-94) becomes PM #64 of Italy (until Dec. 1, 1982), becoming the first not of the Christian Dem. Party since 1945. On June 29 after a meeting of the 215-member Chinese Central Committee starting June 27, Deng Xiaoping's protege Hu Yaobang (1915-89) is elected Communist Party chmn. (until 1987), replacing Mao's hand-picked successor Hua Guofeng; Deng becomes chmn. of the military commission of the Central Committee, giving him control of the army and supreme power; the committee concludes its session with a statement holding dead Chmn. Mao responsible for the "grave blunder" of the Cultural Rev.; in Oct. 1983 Deng begins purging the Chinese Communist Party of extreme left-wing Mao holdovers too bad, after a long struggle to enact economic and political reforms, he loses to hardliners in 1987, and his death on Apr. 15, 1989 triggers the Tiananmen Square Protests - who do you bang? On June 29 Morris Edwin Roberts Jr. takes nine employees hostage in the FBI offices of the federal bldg. in Atlanta, Ga., holding them with a machine gun for three hours before being killed in a shootout. On June 30 Fianna Fail PM (since Dec. 1979) Charles James "Charlie" Haughey (1925-2006) resigns, and Fine Gael leader Garret Fitzgerald (1926-) becomes PM (taoiseach) of Ireland (until Mar. 9, 1982). In June Israeli PM Menachem Begin appoints Gen. Ariel Sharon as defense minister, who advocates Jewish settlement in occupied Arab territories, and presides over battles with the PLO and Israeli air strikes in Beirut and S Lebanon until a July 24 ceasefire, after which Israel claims in Aug. that the PLO is moving artillery into the Lebanese U.N. zone; on Jan. 16, 1982 Pres. Reagan notes in his diary that Sharon is "the bad guy who seemingly looks forward to a war". In June Norway declares a 200-mi. "economic zone" around Jan Mayen Island, and prohibits foreign fishing. In June Morocco agrees to a ceasefire with the Algerian-backed Polisario Front in the Western Sahara, with a referendum under internat. supervision to decide the territory's fate, but the referendum is never carried out. In June the No Wave music genre is launched in New York City by Sonic Youth, featuring groups incl. Swans, Theoretical Girls, Big Black, and Live Skull. In the summer the 64K-acre Big Muddy Ranch in C Ore., where the 1975 film "Rooster Cogburn" was filmed in 1975 is purchased for $6M by the India-based Rajneesh Foundation Internat. of Indian "sex guru" Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (1931-90) (AKA Osho), after which 5K members move into the new town called Rajneeshpuram, bringing nudity, free love, herpes and gonorrhea, and pissing-off the local residents of Antelope, Ore. after its city charter is amended on Sept. 18, 1984 to change the name to Rajneesh; the election is rigged by busing in thousands of vagrants and keeping them under sedation until they vote, resulting in 700 cases of salmonella poisoning, becoming the first case of bioterrorism in the U.S.?; the guru's personal secy. Ma Anand Sheela (1950-) is appointed to speak for him while he takes a vow of silence, until he suddenly reneges, pissing her off, causing her to allegedly plot against him and wiretap him, then leave in Sept. 1985 along with 14 other top members, after which on Sept. 16 he calls her a leader of a "gang of fascists" that left the ashram $55M in debt, and dissolves the religion of Rajneeshism and has his followers burn 5K copies of the Book of Rajneeshim on Sept. 30, 1985; on Oct. 28, 1985 the guru is arrested on federal immigration charges and deported; the members leave and the town's name is restored; the 1985 lawsuit Byron v. Rajneesh Foundation Internat. awards Helen Byron of Portland, Ore. the $300K she was induced to hand over to the org. to buy the guru a Rolls Royce. On July 2 the Wonderland Gang is murdered in a gangland massacre led by Eddie Nash. On July 3 Yugoslavia passes constitutional amendments reaffirming its Commie stance along with the 1-2 year pres. office terms that came into effect after Tito died in 1980. On July 3 the Toxteth Racial Riots in Liverpool, England begin after a mob saves a youth from being arrested; the Chapeltown Racial Riots in Leeds then begin. On July 3 the New York Times runs its first article on a mysterious gay disease by Dr. Lawrence K. Altman titled "Rare Cancer Seen in 41 Homosexuals"; on Aug. 28 the Nat. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), noting a high incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia in homosexual men announce that a medical task force has been formed to investigate; an editorial in the Dec. 10 New England Journal of Medicine discounts the possibility of an unknown infectious agent and sticks with the poppers (amyl and butyl nitrite) theory; meanwhile HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is discovered in C Africa, and the CDC issues its first warning about a rare disease, originally called Gay Related Immune Deficiency (GRID), and changed in 1982 to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). On July 4 A Capitol Fourth debuts on PBS-TV, hosted by E.G. Marshall, becoming their highest-rated show. On July 7 Pres. Reagan announces the nomination of Ariz. judge Sandra Day O'Connor (1930-) (Protestant) to become the first female justice on the U.S. Supreme Court; she graduated #3 at Harvard Law School, behind #1 William Rehnquist, and once dated; U.S. atty.-gen. (1981-5) William French Smith (1917-90) is instrumental in her nomination; she is confirmed as the 103rd U.S. Supreme Court justice on Sept. 21. On July 7 a bus plunges into a gorge outside Kawanpui, India, killing 32 and injuring 19. On July 8 Provisional IRA member Joe McDonnell (b.1951) dies in Long Kesh Prison after a 61-day hunger strike. On July 8 Calif. gov. Jerry Brown announces the delay of aerial spraying of malathion to control a Mediterranean fruit fly infestation in favor of ground-based efforts. On July 16 Sunni Muslim ethnic Malay country doctor Mahathir bin Mohamad (Kutty) 1925-) becomes PM #4 of Malaysia (until Oct. 31, 2003), the first not to have participated in the negotiations for Malysian independence in 1957; he goes on to become one of Asia's longest-serving leaders and Malaysia's longest-serving PM, promoting Western-style modernization while criticizing Western-style globalization; on May 10, 2018 he becomes Malaysian PM #7 (until ?). On July 17 the Glasdrumman Ambush sees the Provisional IRA attack a British Army observation post SW of Crossmaglen, County Armagh, North Ireland, killing one soldier and injuring another. On July 17 a pair of walkways above the lobby of the Kansas City Hyatt Regency Hotel in Mo. collapse during a tea dance into a crowded atrium lobby, killing 114 and injuring 200+. On July 17 Israeli aircraft bomb Beirut, Lebanon, targeting multi-story apt. complexes containing PLO offices, and killing 300 civilians, causing worldwide condemnation and a U.S. embargo on the export of aircraft to Israel. On July 21 Tohui the Panda (1981-93) is born in Chapultepec Zoo in Mexico City, becoming the first to be born and survive in captivity outside China. On July 27 7-y.-o. toy lover Adam John Walsh (b. 1974) is abducted from a Sears store in Hollywood Mall, Fla. after he becomes separated from his mother, hooks up with older boys playing a video game, and a security guard asks them to leave, and 14 days later on Aug. 10 his severed head is found in a drainage canal 100 mi. away in Vero Beach (the rest of the body is never recovered), causing his father John Edward Walsh Jr. (1945-) to become a crusader, pushing for the creation of the U.S. Missing Children Act of 1982, the U.S. Missing Children's Assistance Act of 1984, and the U.S. Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006; on Feb. 7, 1988 he becomes host of the Fox-TV series America's Most Wanted, which spotlights wanted suspects and coordinates a nationwide search, celebrating its 1000th caught crook in Dec. 2008; prime suspect Ottis Elwood Toole (1947-96) (didn't I see him in "Deliverance"?) is arrested, confesses, recants, is never charged, and dies of liver failure in prison, but on Dec. 16, 2008 the police finally say they can prove he did it; meanwhile Toole's gay lover-partner, Blacksburg, Va.-born Henry Lee Lucas (1936-2001) is arrested in Tex. on June 11, 1983, then confesses to hundreds of unsolved murders, getting convicted for 157; after newspapers lampoon the convictions as made-up, his death sentence is commuted to life in 1998, and he dies of heart failure in prison in Huntsville, Tex. on Mar. 12, 2001. On July 29 British Prince Charles of Wales (1948-) and Lady Diana Spencer (1961-97) (who have only been together 13x, always calling him "sir") have a royal wedding in St. Paul's Cathedral in front of 2.7K guests, with a worldwide TV audience of 750M, afterwards pubicly bussing on the balcony of Buckingham Palace; new archbishop of Canterbury (1980-91) Robert Alexander Kennedy Runcie (1921-2000) officiates; she wears an $18K ivory silk taffeta gown by Welsh fashion designer David Emanuel (1952-) and London-born British fashion designer Elizabeth Florence Emanuel (nee Weiner) (1953-), with 10K pearls and a 25-ft. detachable train; King Juan Carlos of Spain boycotts the wedding; on July 30 while attending the wedding, Gambian pres. (since 1970) Dawda Jawara is almost overthrown in a bloody leftist coup attempt led by Kukoi Samba Sanyang (1952-), which is quashed on Aug. 5 with the aid of troops from Senegal, after which Sanyanga sambas to exile in Libya. On July 31 Gen. Omar Torrijos (b. 1929), leader of Panama since 1968 and champion of the rights of the poor is killed along with six others in a plane crash near Penonome that author John Perkins in 2004 says has all the markings of a CIA assassination; he is replaced by U.S. ally Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (1934-2017). On Aug. 1 (12:01 a.m.) heavily youth-skewed MTV (Music TV) U.S. cable channel begins operation, with the soundbyte: "Ladies and gentlemen, rock and roll" by John Lack, and airs Video Killed the Radio Star by the Buggles, followed by You Better Run by Pat Benatar - Communist nations in the Soviet bloc can't stop the decadent Yankees from corrupting their youth now, and the Cold War is all-but won by sex, drugs, and rock & roll? On Aug. 3 the Prof. Air Traffic Controllers Org. (PATCO) (founded 1968) goes on strike, demanding a $10K a year pay raise and 4-day workweek despite a warning from Pres. Reagan that they will be fired if they didn't return to work within 48 hours, and on Aug. 5 after only 2K remain on the job he begins firing them, going on to fire 11,359 of 13K by Aug. 17, becoming a major defeat for labor unions; on Oct. 22 PATCO is decertified by the federal govt., and it files for bankruptcy in Nov.; the remaining PATCO workers supplemented by 2.5K non-union workers and military personnel take over, hiring and training new controllers while U.S. air service drops 25%. On Aug. 4 after pressure from all sectors (except cocaine traffickers), Gen. Luis Garcia Meza Tejada of Bolivia passes power on Sept. 4 to another junta under Gen. Celso Torrelio Villa (1933-99) (until July 21, 1982), which tries to hold on under this new face, but the internat. community refuses to buy it and it soon folds; Tejada flees, is extradited back in 1995 and given a 30-year sentence; his main henchman Col. Luis Arce Gomez ends up in prison in the U.S. for drug trafficking. On Aug. 7 the Washington Star (founded Dec. 16, 1852) ceases pub. after 128 years. On Aug. 12 U.S. vice-pres. George H.W. Bush, head of a special task force investigating regulatory relief announces that the Reagan admin. is putting three dozen federal regulations under review for elimination, incl. EPA guidelines on the amount of lead in gasoline, adding "We've only just begun." On Aug. 12 a bus plunges 450 ft. into a ravine in Pithoragarh, Uttar Pradesh, India, killing 43. On Aug. 13 in a ceremony at his Calif. ranch Cielo del Rancho outside Santa Barbara, Calif., Pres. Reagan signs the 1981 U.S. Economic Recovery Tax Act (ERTA), AKA the Kemp-Roth Tax Cut, his historic package of supply-side economics legislation, mandating $750B in tax cuts over the next five years (deepest tax and budget cuts in U.S. history), incl. tax incentives for savings and real estate investment as well as deductions for charitable donations, and reductions for estate and gift taxes, as designed by Calif. economist Arthur Betz Laffer (1940-), creator of the well-named (author bets it's a laffer?) Laffer Curve, which predicts an increase in tax revenues after a decrease in tax rates, producing the longest peacetime boom in U.S. history, although low taxes leads to deterioration of infrastructure incl. inner cities, plus massive deficits from foreign borrowing; too bad that the nation is moving into a recession?; in 1980 vice-pres. George H.W. Bush calls it "voodoo economics"; Reaganomics was co-founded by Am. economist Paul Craig Roberts (1939-). On Aug. 15 Mohammad Javad Bahonar (b. 1933) becomes PM #3 of the Islamic Repub. of Iran (first cleric); on Aug. 30 he is assassinated by a bomb. On Aug. 19 after Pres. Reagan tests his Line of Death with a large naval force, the Gulf of Sidra Incident sees Libyan dictator Muammar al-Gaddafi order two Sukhoi Su-22 fighters to intercept two U.S. F-14A Tomcat fighters over the Gulf of Sidra, who easily destroy the Libyan fighters. On Aug. 20 a 42-day hunger strike is begun by IRA prisoners in an attempt to reachieve political prisoner status, which had been lost on Mar. 1, 1976 with the "criminalization" of IRA soldiers without trial; 10 die by Oct 3. On Aug. 21 Muslim physician Farooq Abdullah (1937-), son of Kashmiri nationalist leader Sheikh Abdullah ("the Lion of Kashmir") (whose health is failing, and who dies in 1982) is appointed pres. of the nat. conference of Kashmir. On Aug. 22 five Afghan resistance groups form the Mujahideen Alliance, which by 1985 is up to seven groups, called the Islamic Unity of Afghanistan (Seven Party) (Peshawar Seven) Mujahidin (Mujahideen) Alliance, dedicated to kicking the Soviets out of Afghanistan, seeking representation in the U.N.; Pakistani pres. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq later utters the soundbyte to infidel U.S. Pres. Ronald Reagan that when it comes to signing Geneva agreements yet continuing to supply weapons to Afghan jihadis fighting the infidel Soviet Union: "We'll just lie about it. That's what we've been doing for eight years. Muslims have the right to lie in a good cause." On Aug. 25 NASA spacecraft Voyager 2 comes within 63K mi. of Saturn's cloud cover, sending back pictures and data about the ringed planet; Voyager 1 also flies by Saturn. On Aug. 27 divers recover a safe found aboard the sunken ship Andrea Doria (sunk July 25, 1956). On Aug. 28 South African troops invade Angola. On Aug. 31 a Red Army Faction bomb explodes at the USAF base in Ramstein, West Germany, injuring 20. In Aug. Mass.-born John Edwin Mroz (1948-2014), dir. of Middle East studies at the U.N.-affiliated Internat. Peace Academy is contacted by PLO chmn. Yasser Arafat, who offers to negotiate on acknowledging the existence of Israel in exchange for official recognition by the U.S., causing him to travel to Beirut after authorization by U.S. state secy. Alexander M. Haig Jr., meeting with Arafat 50+ times, getting Arafat's tentative approval for mutual recognition by May 1982; too bad, the June 6, 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon causes the plans to be called off, after which the White House denies knowledge of his operation; it takes until 1993 for the Israel and PLO to formally recognize each other. On Sept. 1 using the 1980 referendum as an excuse, Aparacio Mendez is ousted by gen. Gregorio Conrado Alvarez Armelino (1926-), who becomes de facto pres. #27 of Uruguay (until Feb. 12, 1985), continuing oppression of Tuparaos, and extending it to labor unions, causing him to lose all support, then agree to elections in Nov. 1984; in Dec. 2007 he is indicted for human rights abuses, and convicted on Oct. 22, 2009, and sentenced to 25 years on 37 counts. On Sept. 1 Milton Berle's 30-year contract ($200K/year) with NBC-TV expires. On Sept. 1 the first religiously-integrated (Catholic-Protestant) second school in North Ireland opens. On Sept. 3 the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (adopted by the U.N. Gen. Assembly in 1979) comes into force; all developed nations except the U.S. ratify it until ? On Sept. 3 David Brinkley ends his 38-year career with NBC-TV News by moving to ABC-TV and hosting the Sun. morning interview series This Week With David Brinkley starting on Nov. 15 (until 1996), along with San Donaldson, Cokie Roberts, and George Frederick Will. On Sept. 4 an explosion in a mine in Zaluzi, Czech. kills 65. On Sept. 4 French ambassador to Lebanon Louis Delamare (b. 1921) is assassinated in a bungled kidnap attempt by the Shiite Islamic Dawa Party in Lebanon run by Abu Nidal on the orders of Syria to punish France for trying to peacefully resolve the Lebanese civil war and/or give sanctuary to deposed Iranian pres. Abolhassan Banisadr. On Sept. 5 Egyptian feminist physician-writer Nawal El Saadawi (1931-) ("the Simone de Beauvoir of the Arab World") is arrested along with 1,535 others for "stirring up sectarian strife" against Anwar el-Sadat, then released after his Oct. 6 assassination; her fight against female genital mutilation (FGM) incl. the soundbyte: "Society looks at the woman as a tool of love and deprives her of the one organ which will make her be good at it." On Sept. 9 a truck hits a bus and forces it over a 330-ft. cliff near Santos, Sao Paolo, Brazil, killing 29 and injuring 14. On Sept. 10 Pablo Picasso's 1937 painting Guernica (about the Apr. 26, 1937 bombing of Guernica, Spain) is returned to Spain from New York City and installed in Madrid's Prado Museum to signal that democracy has been restored. On Sept. 11 a private plane crashes into the Swing Auditorium (built in 1949, 1964 launching point for the first U.S. tour of the Rolling Stones, and known for a 1978 incident where Black Sabbath fans boo the Ramones off the stage) in San Bernardino, Calif., damaging it beyond repair. On Sept. 12 George Leong organizes the first annual Asian-Am. Jazz Festival in San Francisco, Calif. On Sept. 12 (Sat.) Hanna-Barbera Productions' animated series The Smurfs debuts on NBC-TV for 256 episodes (until Dec. 2, 1989), based on the Belgian comic series created by Peyo, featuring Papa Smurf, and Nanny Smurf and their 99 kids, incl. Brainy Smurf, Hefty Smuf, Jokey Smuf, Chef Smurf, Pansy Smurf, Baby Smurf, Dreamy Smurf, Greedy Smurf, Harmony Smurf, Vanity Smurf, Marco Smurf, Tracker Smurf, Sneaky Smurf, Spy Smurf, Stinky Smurf, Smurfette, Grouchy Smurf, Lazy Smurf, Angel Smurf, Natural Smurf, Clumsy Smurf, Natural Smurf, Natural "Nat" Smurfling, Slouchy Smufling, Snappy Smurfling, Enchanted Omnibus, King Gerard, Grako (The Magic Fountain), Father Time, Woody, Azrael, and Chorhydris (My Smurfy Valentine); On Sept. 13 Pres. Reagan nominates Kan.-born Diane K. Steed (1946-) to succeed Joan Claybrook as head of the Nat. Highway Traffic Safety Admin. of the U.S. Dept. of Transportation; she goes on to rescind several safety regs imposed under the Carter admin. and resist proposals for new ones, backed by House Commerce Committee chmn. (D-Mich.) John Dingell. On Sept. 14 Margaret Thatcher appoints British MP (1970-92) Edward Cecil Parkinson (1931-) as chmn. of the British Conservative Party and paymaster gen., allowing him to join the War Cabinet that runs the Falklands War; in Oct. 1983 he resigns after his former secy. Sara Keays is found to be pregnant with his daughter. On Sept. 14 in a paradigm shift for millions, Judge Joseph Albert Wapner (1919-2017) and the syndicated People's Court debuts on TV for 2,484 episodes (until 1993), presiding over real small claims cases in binding arbitration, becoming the first reality court TV show. On Sept. 15 U.S. Sen. (R-Ariz.) (1953-65, 1969-87) Barry Morris Goldwater (1909-98) AKA Mr. Conservative (whose Jewish father owned the largest dept. store in Phoenix) speaks out on the Senate floor against Jerry Falwell and his Moral Majority along with the New Right and New Conservatism, with the soundbyte "I've spent quite a number of years carrying the flag of the Old Conservatism, and I can say with conviction that the religious issues of these groups have little or nothing to do with conservative or liberal politics. The uncompromising positions of these groups is a divisive element that could tear apart the very spirit of our representative system, if they gain sufficient strength... By maintaining he separation of church and state, the United States has avoided the intolerance which has so divided the rest of the world with religious wars... Can any of us refute the wisdom of Madison and the other framers? Can anyone look at the carnage of Iran, the bloodshed in Northern Ireland, or the bombs bursting in Lebanon, and yet question the dangers of injecting religious issues into the affairs of state?" On Sept. 15 150-y.-o. John Bull (launched Sept. 15, 1831) becomes the oldest working steam locomotive on Earth, operating outside Washington, D.C. On Sept. 18 by a 363-117 vote, France abolishes capital punishment, becoming the last W Euro country to do it. On Sept. 19 Simon and Garfunkel reunite for a free Concert in Central Park on the Great Lawn, attended by 500K, releasing a live album next Feb. 16. On Sept. 19 the Solidarity Day March in Washington, D.C., organized by the AFL-CIO to protest Reagan admin. labor and domestic policies esp. Pres. Reagan's firing of 12K striking air traffic controllers on Aug. 5 is attended by 260K; a repeat is held on Aug. 31, 1991, organized by 180 labor, civil rights, religious, and environmental groups to turn federal govt. attention away from foreign issues to domestic issues, attended by 250K-325K. On Sept. 19 the People's Repub. of China launches three satellites aboard a single FB-1 rocket. On Sept. 20 the overloaded Brazilian river boat Sobral Santos capsizes in the Amazon River at Obidos, kiling 300. On Sept. 21 low pop. density Belize (formerly British Honduras), the only English-speaking country in Central Am. becomes independent as a member of the British Commonwealth under PM #1 George Cadle Price (1919-) (until Dec. 17, 1984); the royal blue Belize Flag (adopted Sept. 21) displays the coat of arms (Jan. 28, 1907) in a white disc at the center, depicting a mestizo and African descent man carrying tools along with mahogany trees in honor of the logging industry, and the motto "Sub Umbra Floreo" (Under the Shade I Flourish); the blue represents the People's United Party (PUP), and red stripes along the top and bottom represent the rival United Dem. Party (UDP); 50 leaves represent 1950, the year the PUP came to power. too bad, Guatemala refuses to recognize them until 1991, causing the British to leave 1.5K troops to protect it. On Sept. 23 the Reagan admin. announces plans for Radio Marti, based in Miami, Fla. to transmit Spanish language broadcasts to Cuba. On Sept. 23 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 491 to admit Belize; on Nov. 10 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 492 to admit Antigua and Barbuda. On Sept. 24 (11:30 a.m.) four Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) militants seize the Turkish consulate in Paris, holding 56 hostages for 15 hours before surrendering; on Jan. 31, 1984 they are convicted and sentenced to seven years in prison after the French govt. allegedly strikes a secret deal with ASALA to not conduct any more attacks on French soil and granting them use of French airports. On Sept. 25 the Rolling Stones begin their Tattoo You Tour at JFK Stadium in Philly, becoming the highest grossing tour of 1981 with $50M in ticket sales - because nothing is more American than a second chance? On Sept. 26 the twin-engine wide-body Boeing 767 makes its maiden flight in Everett, Wash.; its first commercial flight is on Sept. 8, 1982 for United Airlines from Chicago, Ill. to Denver, Colo.; seating capacity is 211 vs. 147 for the 707, 145 for the 727, and 452 for the 747; too bad, there are few orders in a glutted market that alredy has 600 707s, 1,760 727s, 530 747s. On Sept. 29 a bus and truck collide head-on near Quintanar de la Orden, Spain, killing 25 and injuring 20+, all members of the Spanish Communist Party returning to Murcia from an annual meeting in Madrid. On Sept. 29 after the U.S. economy takes a turn for the worse, inflation is running at 14%, and a recession hits blue collar workers hard, Pres. Reagan gives a televised Address to the Nation on the Program for Economic Recovery, appealing for fiscal austerity and asking for an additional $13B in spending cuts for fiscal 1982; he then shocks the supply-siders by requesting $3B in tax increases; meanwhile rumors circulate that Reagan is planning a 3-mo. freeze on the annual cost of living increase in Social Security benefits after budget dir. David Stockman proposes in May to cut early retirement benefits available at age 62. In Sept. the CIA is informed that a major Contra rebel group plans to sell drugs in the U.S. to pay its bills - right now there's summer ale? In Sept. Pope John Paul II issues the encyclical Laborem Exercens, proposing a new economic order that is neither Capitalist nor Marxist based on the dignity of work and the rights of workers - Dignitism? In Sept. Pres. Reagan appoints Am.-born Muslim convert Robert Dickson Crane (1929-) (former Nixon advisor) as U.S. ambassador to the UAE, but he is soon fired by U.S. state secy. Alexander Haig. In Sept. the U.S. Ketchup As a Vegetable Controversy sees the Reagan admin. unsuccessfully try to get ketchup and pickle relish reclassified from condiments to vegetables to allow public school lunch programs to cut out a serving of real cooked or fresh veggies. On Oct. 1 after a French, British, and Belgian boycott on veal, and a U.S. ban on diethylstilbestrol (DES), the European Economic Community bans hormones in cattle feed, making veal tastier and beef more expensive. On Oct. 5 Pres. Reagan signs a resolution granting honorary U.S. citizenship to Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg (1912-?) (claimed by the Soviets to have died in their captivity on July 17, 1947, but thought to be still be alive), becoming the 2nd person to get the honor after Winston Churchill in 1963. On Oct. 6 after cracking down on the Muslim Brotherhood and al-Islamiya and having 1.6K arrested in a single night in Sept., and negotiating with Israel, pissing them off, and trying to appease them by inserting Article 2 into the Egyptian constitution, "Sharia is the principal source of legislation", Egyptian pres. (since 1970) Anwar al-Sadat (b. 1918) is assassinated by Muslim extremists of al-Islamiya (Egyptian Islamic Jihad) during a military parade celebrating the 1973 Egypt-Israeli War; this was preceded by a fatwa authorizing his assassination by "Blind Sheikh" Omar Abdel-Rahman (1938-2017); assassin Khalid Islambouli shouts "I have slain Pharaoh, and I do not fear death"; Sadat's funeral is held on Oct. 10 in Cairo; on Oct. 14 vice-pres. (since 1975) Muhammad Hosni Sayyid Mubarak (1928-2020) (who was on the reviewing stand with Sadat) becomes pres. #4 of Egypt (until Feb. 11, 2011), having several hundred extremists arrested, 24 tried for murder, and five executed, reaffirming the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty while making friendly overtures to Arab states and releasing political prisoners; he goes on to survive in office so long he becomes known as the "Sphinx of Egypt"; on Mar. 18, 2011 assassination mastermind Abbud al-Zumar (Abboud el-Zomoor) (1947-) is released from prison during the 2011 Arab Spring. On Oct. 8 at the White House Pres. Reagan greets former presidents Carter, Ford, and Nixon, who are preparing to travel to Egypt for the funeral of Anwar Sadat. On Oct. 8 an explosive device from the Unabomber is defused at the U. of Utah. On Oct. 10 the Provisional IRA sets off a bomb near Chelsea Barracks in London, killing two and injuring 39. On Oct. 10 the Japanese ministry of education issues the Joyo Kanji, an official guide to 1,945 kanji characters for secondary schools. On Oct. 14 a bus plunges off a mountain road outside Simla, Himachal Pradesh, India, killing 40 and injuring 45. On Oct. 16 a gas explosion at a coal mine in Hokutan, Yubari, Hokkaido, Japan kills 93. On Oct. 18 the BBC-TV series Bergerac debuts for 87 episodes (until 1991); set on Jersey, it stars alcoholic John Nettles (1941-) as maverick Detective Sgt. Jim Bergerac of Le Bureau des Etrangers (Foreigners Office) of the States of Jersey Police in an island filled with tax exile millionaires, becoming a big British hit; he drives a burgundy 1947 Triumph Roadster with a long bonnet that is out of place on the narrow winding Jersey roads; his father-in-law is Charlie Hungerford, played by Terence Joseph Alexander (1923-2009). On Oct. 18 the Pan-Hellenic Socialist Movement (PASOK) heavily defeats the New Democracy Party in gen. elections in Greece, and on Oct. 21 PASOK leader Andreas Papandreou (1919-96) becomes PM #3 of the Third Hellenic Repub. (until July 2, 1989), forming Greece's first Socialist govt. On Oct. 20 the Brink's Robbery of 1981 is a bungled armored truck robbery in Nanuet, N.Y. by members of the Weather Underground and Black Liberation Army, making off with $1.6M after guard Peter Paige and police officers Edward O'Grady and Waverly Brown are killed; four members of the radical Weather Underground are later arrested and sentenced to 75-life; #5 Kathy Boudin (1943-) is paroled in 2003; getaway driver Judith Clark has her 75-years-to-life sentence commuted by Gov. Andrew Cuomo in 2016. On Oct. 20-27 the Los Angeles Dodgers (NL) defeat the New York Yankees (AL) 4-2 to win the Seventy-Eighth (78th) (1981) World Series; Mexican-born lefty rookie Los Angeles Dodgers pitcher Fernando Valenzuela Anguamea (1960-) (known for his screwball and for looking skyward during his windup) wins eight straight games incl. five shutouts with an ERA of 0.50, becoming the first ML player to win Rookie of the Year and the Cy Young Award in the same season, plus he makes the All-Star team, touching off "Fernandomania" and bringing in Hispanic fans, also pitching a complete Game 3 in the WS; after burning out he is released by the Dodgers in 1991. On Oct. 22 the U.S. nat. debt hits $1T for the first time; a few weeks earlier Pres. Reagan uttered the soundbyte: "If we, as a nation, need a warning, let that be it." On Oct. 22 Spanish police arrest three members of the ETA Basque separatist org., incl. feminists Jimina Alonso Matthias and Carmen Santos, causing a protest by 100+ feminists. On Oct. 22 the U.S. FDA approves no-bitter-aftertaste sugar substitute Aspartame, a mixture of aspartic acid and phenylalinine accidentally discovered in 1965; in 1983 U.S. soft drink makers beginning combining it with saccharin; next year Aspartame-based Equal artificial sweetener is introduced in the G.D. Searle, followed in 1997 by NutraSweet; in 2010 the name is changed to AminoSweet. On Oct. 26 an IRA bomb explodes in a Wimpy Bar in Oxford St., London, killing bomb disposal expert Kenneth Howorth while attempting to defuse it. On Oct. 27 Soviet Whiskey class submarine S-363 runs aground 10 km from the Swedish naval base at Karlskrona. On Oct. 29 (Thur.) the sitcom Gimme a Break! debuts on NBC-TV for 137 episodes (until May 12, 1987), starring African-Am. actress-singer Nell Carter (Nell Ruth Hardy) (1948-2003) as Nellie Ruth "Nell" Harper, a singer from Tuscaloosa County, Ala. who takes care of the three daughters of widowed Glenlawn, Calif. (between Sacramento and Fresno) police chief Carl "Chief" Kanisky, played by Adolphus Jean "Dolph" Sweet (1920-85); in season three foster son Joey Donovan debuts, played by Joseph Lawrence Mignogna Jr. (1976-), performing in blackface at a church benefit; singing guest celebs incl. Sammy Davis Jr., Andy Gibb, Ray Parker Jr., and Whitney Houston. On Oct. 31 hardline rightist (painter-architect) Mir Hussein (Hossein) Mousavi Khameneh (1942-) becomes PM of Iran (until Aug. 3, 1989). In Oct. gay English rock band Queen performs for 150K fans in Monterrey, Mexico on their South Am. tour, making them the first major rock band to play in South Am. stadiums (total audience 479K). On Nov. 1 Antigua and Barbuda (Sp. Ancient and Bearded) in the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles (modern pop. 86K) gain independence from Britain. On Nov. 4 Pittsburgh, Penn.-born Dr. George Constantine "Dr. Nick" Nichopoulos (1927-) is acquitted of overprescribing addictive drugs for Elvis Presley - it would be an oxymoron? On Nov. 4 Hungary applies for membership in the World Bank and IMF; it is admitted to the IMF in May 1982 and the World Bank in July 1982. On Nov. 9 Burmese pres. (since ?) U Ne Win resigns after 19 year in power, and Gen. San Yu (1918-96) becomes pres. #5 of the Socialist Repub. of Burma (until July 27, 1988), with Ne Win continuing as chmn. of the dictatorial Socialist Program Party, and Yu continuing his policies. On Nov. 9 Mauritania abolishes slavery. On Nov. 12 the Double Eagle V becomes the first balloon to cross the Pacific ocean. On Nov. 12 the Church of England Gen. synod votes to admit women to holy orders - raging with remorse? On Nov. 16 General Hospital, the most-watched U.S. daytime TV show (since Apr. 1, 1963) has its biggest audience ever and biggest in daytime TV history with the short-lived Wedding of Luke and Laura (Tom Geary and Genie Francis). On Nov. 18 after U.S. asst. defense secy. Richard Perle talks him into it over secy. of state Alexander M. Haig's objections, Pres. Reagan proposes the Zero Option Policy in intermediate-range missiles, calling for the Soviets to dismantle its triple-headed SS-4, SS-5, and SS-20 missiles targeted at W Europe in return for a promise not to deploy Pershing II and Tomahawk cruise missiles in Europe, as announced on Nov. 12, 1979 and set for 1983; despite anti-nuclear activists dissing the proposal as designed to elicit a Soviet rejection, the coming to power of Mikhail Gorbachev causes them to agree to it in 1987. On Nov. 19 U.S. Steel agrees to pay $6.3M for Marathon Oil. On Nov. 22 the 1981 U.K. Tornado Outbreak sees 104 tormadoes touch down across England and Wales in 5 hours 26 min., becoming the largest tornado outbreak in Euro history (until ?). On Nov. 23 Pres. Reagan signs top secret Nat. Security Decision Directive 17 (NSDD-17) authorizing the CIA to recruit and support Contra rebels in Nicaragua. On Nov. 24 the detective series Simon & Simon debuts on CBS-TV for 156 episodes (until Jan. 21, 1989), about two detective brothers in San Diego, Calif., starring Gerald Lee "Mac" McRaney (1947-) as Vietnam vet redneck Richard "Rick" Simon (who drives a Dodge Power Wagon), and Francis Jameson Parker Jr. (1947-) as college-educated Andrew Jackson "A.J." Simon (who drives a 1957 Chevy Bel Air convertible). On Nov. 25 the U.N. Gen. Assembly adopts the U.N. Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief. On Nov. 25-26 a group of 45 mercenaries led by Irish-born British Col. Thomas Michael "Mad Mike" Hoare (1920-) arrive on a commercial flight from Swaziland and take over Mahe Airport in the Seychelles in a failed coup attempt, after which most escape via a captured Air India passenger jet to Durban, where South African police arrest them; Hoare is pardoned on May 7, 1985. On Nov. 28 (night) 43-y.-o. actress Natalie Wood (b. 1938) (Robert Wagner's wife twice) drowns in a mysterious boating accident off Santa Catalina Island, Calif. after she goes to keep a dinghy from banging against the hull of their yacht Splendour anchored in Isthmus Cove and falls overboard wearing a heavy down-filled coat and wool sweater, drunk on wine; she dies the day after Thanksgiving during a filming hiatus for the 1983 sci-flick Brainstorm; co-star Christopher Walken and hubby Robert Wagner are aboard the yacht with her. On Nov. 30 the U.S. and the Soviet Union open negotiations in Geneva aimed at reducing intermediate-range nuclear weapons in Europe; they adjourn inconclusively on Dec. 17 - hey, tiger? On Nov. 30 well-hung porno superstar John Holmes (1944-88) is arrested on fugitive charges, and on Dec. 9 he is charged with the Laurel Canyon murders; he is later acquitted. In Nov. Roberto Suazo Cordova (Córdova) (1927-) of the centrist Liberal Party of Honduras (PLH) becomes the first democratically-elected pres. of Honduras in more than a cent.; he is sworn-in next Jan. 27 (until Jan. 27, 1986). In Nov. the weight of Lake Nasser unexpectedly triggers earthquakes in Egypt, some as severe as 5.3. In Nov. French Pres. Francois Mitterrand is diagnosed with prostate cancer, but the info. is kept secret until disclosed by his physician Dr. Claude Gubler in his 1996 book Le Grand Secret. In Nov. Polish Col. Ryszard Jerzy Kuklinski (1930-2004), who passed top secret Warsaw Pact documents to the CIA since 1971 is spirited out of Poland to the U.S. before martial law can be imposed in Dec.; on May 23, 1984 he is sentenced to death in absentia in Warsaw; the sentence is canceled in 1995. On Dec. 1 a chartered Yugoslav Airlines (DC-9 Super 80) slams into a mountain while approaching Ajaccio Airport in Corsica, killing 178. On Dec. 2 the Canadian House of Commons votes 246-24 to approve a resolution by PM Pierre Trudeau reforming the Canadian constitution to make Canada free of British rule; only the reps from Quebec dissent. On Dec. 4 the soap opera Falcon Crest debuts on CBS-TV in the time slot after Dallas for 227 episodes (until May 17, 1990), starring Jane Wyman (Sarah Jane Mayfield0 (1917-2007) (ex-wife of Pres. Ronald Reagan in 1940-9) as Calif. Tuscany Valley (NE of San Francisco) wine magnate Angela Channing; Robert Heath Foxworth (1941-) (original choice for J.R. Ewing before Larry Hagman) plays her nephew Chase Gioberti, who returns after the death of his father Jason gioberti to vie with her for the winery; Abby Dalton (Marlene Wasden) (1935-) and Margaret Ladd (1942-) play Angela's daughters Julia Cumson and Emma Channing; Lorenzo Lamas (1958-) (son of Fernando Lamas and Arlene Dahl) plays her lazy playboy grandson Lance Cumson. On Dec. 4 Pres. Reagan issues Executive Order on Intelligence No. 12333, broadening the power of the CIA to allow spying in the U.S. On Dec. 7 the Reagan admin. predicts a record deficit in 1982 of $109B. On Dec. 7 Spain becomes a member of NATO. On Dec. 8 the poorly ventilated No. 21 Mine in Whitewell, Tenn. explodes, killing 13 coal miners. On Dec. 8 Arthur Scargill (1938-) is elected pres. of the Nat. Union of Mineworkers in England (until 2000), going on to break off from the British Labour Party and found the Socialist Labour Party on Jan. 13, 1996. On Dec. 9 the U.N. Gen. Assembly adopts the Declaration on the Inadmissibility of Intervention and Interference in the Internal Affairs of States. On Dec. 9 (3:51 a.m.) white Philadelphia police officer Daniel J. Faulkner (b. 1955) is shot and killed during a routine traffic stop of a vehicle owned by the younger brother of Black Panther Mumia Abu-Jamal (Wesley Cook) (1954-), who is later convicted despite his claim of a frame-up; black Berkeley, Calif. activist and city councilwoman Maudelle Shirek (1911-) supports his release, causing her to be rejected in 2005 by the U.S. House of Reps. 215-190 for the honor of having a post office in her city named when Steve King (R-Iowa) brings it up; on Jan. 19, 2010 the U.S. Supreme Court reinstates the death penalty of a Neo-Nazi, opening the way for Abu-Jama's death penalty to be reinstated; too bad, on Dec. 7, 2011 prosecutors announce that they won't seek the death penalty after getting approval from the victim's family. On Dec. 10 the El Mozote Massacre in El Salvador sees 800+ civilians killed by the elite U.S.-trained Atlacatl army battalion, after which the Reagan admin. attempts a coverup since there is only one survivor, Rufina Amaya, whom they ignore along with El Salvadoran officials until 1992. On Dec. 10 Spain joins NATO. On Dec. 10 Palo Alto, Calif.-born economist Robert Ernest "Bob" Hall (1943-) and political scientist Alvin Rabushka (1940-) of Stanford U. pub. A Proposal to Simplify Our Tax System in The Wall Street Journal, advocating that the U.S. federal income tax be replaced with the Hall-Rabushka Flat Tax, a 19% flat tax that's allegedly so simple that it can be filed on a postcard-sized form; it goes on to influence the 1986 U.S. Tax Reform Act - even simpler would be for the govt. to confiscate everything sans forms? On Dec. 11 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 494 to appoint Javier Perez de Cuellar (Javier Pérez de Cuéllar) y de la Guerra (1920-) of Peru as U.N. secy.-gen. #5, becoming the first from Latin Am.; he takes office on Jan. 1, 1982 (until Dec. 31, 1991). On Dec. 12 Senegal and Gambia form the loose Senegambia Confederation, effective Feb. 1; on Sept. 30, 1989 after Gambia refuses to move closer toward union, it is dissolved. On Dec. 13 (Sun.) martial law in Poland is imposed by strongman PM Gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski (until 1983); the Solidarity Labor Union is outlawed along with strikes, and its leader Lech Walesa imprisoned; on Dec. 29 Pres. Reagan curtails Soviet trade in reprisal for their Polish policy. On Dec. 14 after Syrian dictator Hafiz al-Asad utters the soundbyte that he will never make peace with Israel "even in a hundred years", Israeli PM Menachem Begin annexes the Golan Heights (seized from Syria in 1967), and the Knesset ratifies it the same day, pissing-off the U.S., which on Dec. 18 suspends the Dec. 1 U.S.-Israel Strategic Cooperation Agreement; on Dec. 20 U.S. ambassador Samuel Lewis meets with Begin in Tel Aviv, and receives a dressing-down, with the soundbyte: "The people of Israel have lived 3,700 years without a memorandum of understanding with America, and will continue to live for another 3,700", bringing up the Inquisition, Vietnam War, and anti-Semitism in the U.S., after which the Reagan admin. backs down; meanwhile on Dec. 17 the U.N. Security Council votes 13-0-2 (East Germany, U.S.S.R.) for Resolution 497, declaring the annexation "null and void and without international legal effect", calling on Israel to rescind it; next Jan. 28 after they refuse, they vote 13-0-2 (U.K., U.S.) for Resolution 500 to call an emergency meeting of the U.N. Gen. Assembly. On Dec. 16 riot police open fire on protesting miners in Katowice, Poland, killing nine and wounding 25; a 4-year trial acquits 22 riot police in 1997. On Dec. 17 (6:00 p.m.) four Italian Red Brigade terrorists dressed as plumbers kidnap U.S. Brig. Gen. James Lee Dozier (1931-), highest-ranking U.S. NATO officer in Italy from his apt. in Verona, and tie up his wife, becoming the first terrorist kidnapping of a U.S. gen.; he is rescued by an Italian anti-terrorist unit on Jan. 28 after 42 days. On Dec. 20 the Penlee Lifeboat Disaster off the coast of SW Cornwall sees a lifeboat go to the aid of the coaster Union Star in heavy seas, after which both ships are lost with all aboard, 16 total, eight from each. On Dec. 21 the Preferential Trade Area for Eastern and Southern Africa is established, leading to the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) in Dec. 1994. On Dec. 25 Chuck Woolery leaves as host (since 1974) of Merv Griffin's syndicated TV game show Wheel of Fortune, and is replaced on Dec. 13, 1982 as announcer by Pat Sajak (1946-); Susan Stafford is replaced as the letter-turner by S.C.-raised Vanna White (1957-) (first letter turned: T), with the original busy shopping format dropped in favor of the pure game plus a bonus round; its run on NBC-TV ends on June 30, 1989, after which it switches to CBS-TV until Jan. 11, 1991, then moves back to NBC-TV; Vanna claps 700+ times per show; the wheel has 24 spaces and weighs 2 tons. On Dec. 28 Elizabeth Jordan Carr becomes the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby born in the U.S., in Norfolk Gen. Hospital in Va. (5 lbs. 12 oz). On Dec. 31 after accusing him of taking the country "down the road to economic ruin", Flight Lt. Jeremiah John "Jerry" Rawlings (1947-) deposes Ghana's pres. #1 (since 1979) Hilla Limann, and becomes chmn. of the provisional nat. defense council of military and civilian members, promising free market reforms, while instituting an austerity program and turning into a new mean Idi Amin. On Dec. 31 CNN Headline News debuts, reaching 86M households and 600K hotel rooms by the end of the cent., and ending up becoming better at gathering fresh intel than the U.S. govt.? On Dec. 31 the Dow Jones Industrial Avg. closes at 875.00, vs. 963.98 at the end of 1980. In Dec. Pres. Reagan gives the CIA permission to begin paramilitary operations against the Sandinista govt. in Nicaragua; Contra founder and cmdr. Enrique Bermudez Varela (1932-91) (a CIA agent) orders Meneses and Blandon to begin trafficking in support of the Contras. In Dec. a Christian Dem. and Liberal coalition takes office in Belgium, lasting longer than almost all the 32 previous Belgian govts. since WWII, headed by PM Wilfried Martens (his 5th govt. since 1979). In Dec. Israeli soldiers cart Albert Einstein's 45K papers from their archive in Princeton U. to Israel via the terms of his will. In Dec. an article in the Atlantic Monthly titled The Education of David Stockman, by William Greider, subtitled "None of us really understands what's going on with all these numbers" embarrasses Pres. Reagan, who is characterized as lacking fiscal leadership skills, causing Stockman's stock to go down in the Reagan admin. fast. Conrail labor unions and mgt. accept a $290M per year cut in wages and benefits to stop the Reagan admin. from breaking it up and selling it. Encouraged by the Iranian Rev., Shiite fundamentalists attempt a failed coup in Bahrain in an attempt to install cleric Hujjatu I-Islam (Arab. "authority on Islam") Hadi al-Mudarrisi (al-Modarresi), who lives in exile in Iran. Mauritania passes a law banning slavery, but takes 26 years (until 2007) to give it teeth by passing another law promising jail time for slave holders, by which time nobody has ever been prosecuted. The non-self-governing territory of American Samoa (capital Pago Pago), known for canned tuna and pet food is allowed a non-voting delegate to the U.S. House of Reps. The walled Old City of Jerusalem is declared a World Heritage Site. The Peter G. Peterson Inst. for Internat. Economics is founded in Washington, D.C. by Am. economist C. Fred Bergsten (1941-), becoming the world's leading think tank on internat. economics. The Internat. Inst. of Islamic Thought (IIIT) in Herndon, Va. is founded with seed money from the Muslim Brotherhood. The world oil glut causes PEMEX to lower the price of Mexican oil, zooming the foreign public debt to over $57B. The Spanish Rapeseed Scandal sees adulterated rapeseed cooking oil kill or injure 20K while the world yawns. The U.S. Nat. Insts. of Health places saccharin on its list of suspected carcinogens but doesn't ban it like it did cyclamates in 1969; in 1998 an advisory group recommends taking it off the list, and it does so in 2000. Pres. Reagan reverses Pres. Carter and decides to stockpile neutron bombs. Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger of Germany is appointed guardian of the Roman Catholic Church's doctrinal orthodoxy, becoming one of the key men relied on by Pope John Paul II to silence dissident theologians. The Majlis-e-Shoora powerless consultative council is hand-picked by Gen. Zia ul-Haq, supporting demands for Islamization and Sharia, causing Sharia legislation to be passed in 1986 after being sponsored by senators Samiul Haq and Qazi Abdul Latif of Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam, becoming Pakistan's 9th constitutional amendment, which lapses when Zia dismisses PM Junejo and dissolves Parliament in 1988. Anne Wexler (1921-2009) becomes the first woman to found her own U.S. lobbying firm; in 1970 as mgr. of the Senate campaign of future hubby Joe Duffey, she enlisted Bill and Hillary Clinton as volunteers, giving them their first job in politics, after which she became an informal advisor to the Clinton admin. Former radical anti-war and ecological activist Ira Samuel Einhorn (1940-) (Ger. "unicorn") of Philadelphia, Penn. flees to France, and is convicted in absentia in 1989 of killing his girlfriend Holly Maddux in 1977; in 2001 he is extradited from Champagne-Mouton after slitting his throat to unsuccessfully commit suicide, and ends up with a life sentence, becoming known as the Unicorn Killer. The Guatemalan Nat. Rev. Unity (Union) (URNG) is formed from three major guerrilla orgs. People for the Am. Way is founded by Jewish-Am. "All in the Family", "The Jeffersons", "Maude" TV producer Norman Milton Lear (1922-) to promote liberal causes incl. separation of church and state and gay rights. Montgomery, Ala. atty. Morris Dees (1936-) founds Klanwatch, a project of the Southern Poverty Law Center. Am. Islamic College is founded in Chicago, Ill., becoming the first Muslim college in the U.S. The English pop group America plays several concerts in South Africa, pissing-off anti-apartheid activists; black artists Tina Turner and Curtis Mayfield also do it, but end up singled out for the backlash? Am. Airlines begins their AAdvantage Program for frequent fliers, causing other airlines to follow suit, followed by car rental agencies, hotels, banks, and credit card cos. Billionaire Marvin H. Davis (1925-2004) buys 20th Century Fox Film Corp for $720M, and brings in Barry Diller as studio head (ends 1985). MREs (Meals Ready to Eat) replace the canned MCI (Meal, Combat, Individual Rations) in the U.S. military. The U.S. video game industry rakes in 20B quarters this year. The $33K DeLorean DMC-12 unpainted stainless steel gullwing sports car (with a rear-mounted aluminum 2.8-liter V-6 fuel-injected 130 hp engine that goes 0-60 mph in 8 sec.) rolls off the assembly line in Dunmurry, Northern Ireland starting on Jan. 21; only 8.9K cars are made in the next three years. Actor Robert Redford founds the Sundance Inst. in Park City, Utah to foster filmmaking, going on to sponsor the Sundance Film Festival. Black journalist Ed Bradley joins the 60 Minutes team for the 1981-2 season. Am. actor Sean Penn (1960-) makes his prof. debut in the play Heartland on Broadway. Indian Hindu guru Amma the Hugging Saint (1953-) becomes popular in the West. Papanasam, Tamil Nadu, India-born Sri Sri Ravi Shankar Ratnam (1956-) (different person than sitar player Ravi Shankar) founds the Art of Living Foundation, which teaches the breathing-based Sudarshan Kriya technique, and achieves UNESCO consultative status as a NGO; in 1997 he founds the Internat. Assoc. for Human Values charity in Geneva. The Fun Gallery on 10th St. in East Village, N.Y. opens, becoming the first punk rock gallery. Tommy Boy Records (Entertainment) is founded by Dance Music Report publisher Tom Silverman on a $5K loan from his parents, going on to sign House of Pain, Information Society, De La Soul, RuPaul Andre Charles (1960-), The Medicine Men, Sneaker Pimps, Naughty by Nature, Queen Latifah (Dana Elaine Owens) (1970-) et al; in 1990 it is purchased by Warner Brothers Records. Production stops on the quarter-sized Susan B. Anthony U.S. dollar. The U.S. Peace Corps (est. 1961) is made an independent agency. Solarplant One in Calif. begins operation, generating 10MW of electricity, largest solar power station on Earth. Info. technology services co. Infosys Technologies Ltd. in Bangalore, India is founded by 5'4 avowed Communist Nagavara Ramarao Narayana Murthy (1946-) with a 10K rupee loan from his wife, growing from six to 113.8K employees by 2010, making him a billionaire; meanwhile Wipro Corp. (Western India Products Ltd.) in Bangalore, India (founded 1947) switches from hydrogenated cooking fat and hydraulic-pneumatic cylinders to manufacturing computers and supplying info. technology services under Azim Hashim Premji (1945-), going on to amass a $17B net worth by 2010 and become known as the Indian Bill Gates. Tommy Boy Records is founded by Tom Silverman to produce hip-hop music; Warner Bros. buys it in 1990. Tinsel Town Hollywood exults as VCR sales in the U.S. rise 72% in 12 mo. Nabisco (Nat. Biscuit Co.) and Standard Brands merge to form Nabisco Brands; it is acquired in 1985 by R.J. Reynolds. The Trolli Co. begins marketing Gummi Worms candy. Nutri-Grain wheat cereal is introduced by the Kellogg Co., containing vitamins but no added sugar or preservatives. Prego Pasta Sauce (It. "prego" = I pray or you're welcome) is introduced by Campbell Soup Co., reaching $150M annual sales in 1983 and becoming the best-selling dry grocery product of the 1980s; they steal Clara Peller of Wendy's "Where's the Beef?" ad fame to say "I finally found it", pissing Wendy's off and causing them to drop her. Caracas, Venezuela-born fashion designer Carolina Herrera (Maria Carolina Josefina Pacanins y Nino) (1939-) debuts her first haute couture collection, with slightly pushed-up sleeves that Women's Wear Daily calls "Our Lady of the Sleeve". Long Island, N.Y.-born gay Jewish fashion designer Michael Kors (Karl Anderson Jr.) (1959) debuts his women's wear line, expanding into men's wear in 1990, and perfume in 2000; in 1997-2003 he becomes the first women's ready-to-wear designer for the French house Celine. Giorgio (GBH) brand perfume ($35 an oz.) is introduced in Nov. by the Giorgio Boutique in Beverly Hills, Calif. (founded in 1961) (first luxury boutique on Rodeo Drive), owned by Fred Hayman and Gale Hayman, reaching $100M annual sales; too bad, it uses double the amount of essential oils as other colognes, causing New Yorker mag. to ban its scent strips; in 1987 Avon acquires it for $165M. Soviet-Russian topologist Anatoly Timofeevich Fomenko (1945-) pub. the first of several papers using astronomical calculations, statistical correlations et al. to boldly claim that conventional historial chronology is moose hockey, and offering his own New Chronology (N.C.) that starts out with Jesus Christ being born in 1153 C.E. and crucified in 1186 C.E., and claims that all of ancient history is just a reflection of events that occurred in the Middle Ages, also that the Crusades and the Trojan War were the same event, that Genghis Khan and the Mongols were really Russians, and that all of Chinese and Arab history were fabricated by 17th-18th cent. Jesuits incl. Dionysius Petavius, along with 16th cent. chronologist Joseph Justus Scaliger; according to the N.C., written history stops at 800 C.E., there is little info. up to 1000 C.E., and most known historical events took place in 1000-1500 C.E.; English history from 640-1040 C.E. and Byzantine history from 378-830 C.E. are copied from the same late-medieval source, created after the survivors of the er, 1453 capture of Constantinople by the er, Muslims fled to England and brought civilization with them, e.g. Egbert is really Justinian the Great; of course N.C. rejects archeological, dendrochonological, and paleographic dating, along with carbon dating. Paris-born gay French footwear designer Christian Louboutin (1964-) begins working for Charles Jourdan and Roger Vivier before going freelance, then launches his own house in 1991, making trademark stilettos with red-lacquered soles, making fans of Princess Caroline of Morocco, Diane von Furstenberg, Marion Cotillard, Catherine Deneuve, Christian Aguilera, Joan Collins, Madonna, Nicki Minaj, Gwyneth Paltrow, Sarah Jessica Parker, Britney Spears, Tina Turner et al., bringing stilettos back into fashion in the 1990s. My Little Pony (originally My Pretty Pony) 10" plastic pony toys are introduced, created by Bonnie Zacherle et al., receiving U.S. patent #D269986 in Aug. 1983, distributed by Hasbro, causing an animated TV series to debut in 2010, after which they sell $650M in 2013 and $1B in 2014. Architecture: On July 2 the $85M Meadowlands Arena in East Rutherford, N.J. opens as the home of the New York Nets NBA team and the New Jersey Devils (formerly the Colo. Rockies) NHL team; it closes on Apr. 3, 2015 - with Jimmy Hoffa buried in one of its concrete pillars? On July 17 4,626-ft. (1,410m) Humber Bridge in Kingston upon Hull, England opens, becoming the world's longest suspension bridge (until 1998). On Sept. 26 the 1,001-ft. (305m) Sydney Tower in Australia opens, becoming the tallest bldg. in Australia (until 2005). On Oct. 21 the $3M Cabrillo Marine Aquarium in San Pedro, Calif. opens, designed by Frank Gehry, complete with gaudy exterior grillwork. Sports: On Feb. 8 Scott Scovell Hamilton (1958-) wins the U.S. male figure skating championship. On Feb. 15 after 49 lead changes, the 1981 (23rd) Daytona 500 is won by Richard Petty (7th win), who beats Bobby Allison by 3.5 sec., with Ricky Rudd, Buddy Baker, and Dale Earnhardt Sr. close behind; new downsized cars make their debut; Petty becomes the first to win in three different decades, and first 7-time winner. On Mar. 29 the first London Marathon sees 7.5K runners start. On Apr. 9-12 the 1981 Masters Tournament in Augusta, Ga. (first with bentgrass greens instead of Bermuda and ryegrass) is won by Tom Watson (2nd win) by two strokes over Jack Nicklaus and Johnny Miller; 26-y.-o. Gregory John "Greg" Norman (1955-) of Australia (known for wearing black shirts and black hats with a shark drawing) finishes 4th in his first Masters, becoming the first of eight top-5 finishes, earning him the nickname "the Great White Shark". On Apr. 11 6'3" "Easton Assassin" Larry Holmes (1949-) defeats Trevor Berbick at Caesars Palace in Las Vegas, Nev. by unanimous decision in round 15. On Apr. 18 the minor league Rochester Red Wings and Pawtucket Red Sox play the longest prof. baseball game in history in McCoy Stadium in Pawtucket, R.I., lasting 8 hours 25 min. and 33 innings; the last inning is played on June 23. On May 12-21, 1981 the 1981 Stanley Cup Finals see the New York Islanders (2nd Finals apperance) defeat the Minn. North Stars (first Finals appearance) 4-1; last all-U.S. Finals until 1991; MVP is 5'10" Islanders center Robert Thomas "Butch"" Goring (1949-). On May 5-14 the 1981 NBA Finals sees the Boston Celtics (coach Bill Fitch) defeat the Houston Rockets (coach Del Harris) by 4-2; MVP is Cedric Maxwell of the Celtics. On May 12-21 the 1981 Stanley Cup Finals see the New York Islanders (2nd Finals apperance) defeat the Minn. North Stars (first Finals appearance) 4-1; last all-U.S. Finals until 1991. On May 24 the 1981 (65th) Indianapolis 500 is won by Bobby Unser, with Mario Andretti coming in 2nd until the officials rule that Unser passed cars illegally on lap 149, causing Andretti to be declared the winner; on Oct. 9 after appeals are heard, Unser is reinstated, after which he retires. On June 9 the 1981 NBA Draft, broadcast on the USA Network sees 23 teams select 223 players in 10 rounds; 6'6" forward Mark Anthony Aguirre (1959-) of DePaul U. is drafted #1 overall by the Dallas Mavericks (#24) after his junior year, becoming the 2nd underclassman to be drafted #1 overall after Magic Johnson in 1979; 6'1" guard Isiah Lord Thomas III (1961-), a sophomore from Indiana U. is drafted #2 overall by the Detroit Pistons (#11), going on to be accused of freezing-out rookie Michael Jordan in the 1985 NBA All-Star Game, devising the Jordan Rules in 1988 to limit Jordan's offensive effectiveness, and walking out with his teammates with 7.9 sec. remaining in game 4 of the 1991 NBA Playoffs against Michael Jordan and the Bulls, causing Jordan to get him passed over for the 1992 Dream Team; Thomas leaves the Pistons in 1994 and becomes head coach of the Indiana Pacers in 2003, followed by the New York Knicks in 2006-8; 6'8" forward-center Charles Linwood "Buck" Williams (1960-), a junior from the U. of Md. (known for wearing goggles) is drafted #3 overall by the New Jersey Nets (#52), becoming rookie of the year and being selected to the All-Star Game in his rookie season, becoming the first time that the first three selections are college underclassmen; in 1989 after becoming the Nets' all-time leader in points, rebounds, games played, turnovers, rebounds per game, and free throws made, Williams is traded to the Portland Trail Blazers, followed in 1996-9 by the New York Knicks. On July 19 the South African 1981 Springbok Rugby Union Tour of New Zealand becomes controversial because of South African apartheid. On July 25-Aug. 3, 1981 the First (1981) World Games in Santa Clara, Calif. are held for sports not contested at the Olympic Games, with 1,265 athletes from 31 nations participating in 88 events incl. tug-of-war, racquetball, baseball, softball, roller skating, roller hockey, fin swimming, karate, women's water polo, bodybuilding, flycasting, taekwondo, and men's singles, women's singles, and mixed doubles 10-pin bowling. On Aug. 10 Philadelphia Phillies 1st baseman Peter Edward "Pete" Rose (1941-) gets his 3,361st career hit, passing Stan Musial of the NL. On Aug. 18 the first PBA Senior Tour Championship is held in Harvey (near New Orleans), La. for bowlers age 50+; William "Bill" Beach (1929-2010) of Sharon, Penn. defeats Bill Lillard 200-191. On Sept. 16 the Leonard-Hearns Showdown in Caesar's Palace in Las Vegas, Nev. sees 30-1 Ray Charles "Sugar Ray" Leonard (1956-) KO 32-0 (30 KOs) Thomas "Hitman" Hearns (1958-) in round 14, after which they split a $17M purse and fight a rematch in 1989. On Sept. 26 Lynn Nolan Ryan Jr. (1947-) of the Houston Atros pitches his record 5th career no-hitter against the Los Angeles Dodgers. In Nov. the Japan Cup is first run at Tokyo Racecourse in Fuchi, Tokyo, reaching a purse of $5.8M, making it the richest turf horserace in the world. On Nov. 28 Paul William "Bear" Bryant (1913-83) of the U. of Ala. wins his 315th game to outdistance Alonzo Stagg and become college football's winningest coach. On Dec. 11 39-y.-o. Muhammad Ali (1942-) (who already shows signs of Parkinson's disease) appears in his last pro fight in the Drama in the Bahamas at Queen Elizabeth Sports Centre in Nassau, Bahamas, which is won by Trevor Berbick (1955-2006) of Jamaica in a unanimous 10-round decision; next Mar. 22 Berbick defeats Pinklon Thomas to become heavyweight champ, then loses his title in round 2 on Nov. 22 to Mike Tyson, ending up as the victim of a homicide in 2006. Nick Bollettieri (1931-) opens the Nick Bollettieri Tennis Academy in Bradenton, W Fla., becoming the first major tennis boarding school, going on to incubate world champions Andre Agassi, Jim Courier, Monica Seles, and Mary Pierce; John McEnroe wins the British and U.S. Open men's single's tennis titles; Christine Marie "Chris" Evert (1954-) of the U.S. wins the women's singles title at Wimbledon for the 3rd and last time (1974, 1976), and Tracy Ann Austin (1962-) of the U.S. wins the U.S. Open women's singles title for the 2nd time (1979); too bad, a series of injuries causes her career to tank. "Nature Boy" Ric Flair (Richard Morgan Fliehr) (1949-) defeats Dusty Rhodes to win his first NWA world heavyweight wrestling championship in Kansas City, Mo. Brooklyn, N.Y.-born New Orleans Jazz gen. mgr. (since 1979) Frank Layden (1932-) (asst. coach of the Atlanta Hawks in 1976-9) becomes head coach of the Utah Jazz, replacing Tom Nissalke, going on to draft John Stockton and Karl Malone and move into the team's front office in 1989 after being replaced by former Chicago Bulls player (1966-76) and coach (1978-82) Gerald Eugene "Jerry" Sloan (1942-), who coaches the Jazz to 15 straight playoff appearances in 1989-2003, leaving in 2011 after coaching for one team longer than anyone in NBA history with a 3rd place 1,221-803 record, becoming the 5th coach to reach 1K wins, and 3rd coach to reach 1K wins with one club. The Arlington Million horserace at Arlington Park in Ill. becomes the first Thoroughbred race to offer a $1M purse. The Australian Racing Museum opens; in 2000 it opens the Australian Racing Hall of Fame. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees; Lit.: Elias Canetti (1905-94) (Bulgaria); Physics: Nicolaas Bloembergen (1920-) (U.S.), Arthur Leonard Schawlow (1921-99) (U.S.), and Kai Manne Borje (Börje) Siegbahn (1918-2007) (Sweden) [laser spectroscopy]; Chem.: Roald Hoffmann (1937-) (U.S.) and Kenichi Fukui (1918-98) (Japan) [quantum mechanics in chem. reactions]; Medicine: Roger Wolcott Sperry (1913-94) [split brain research] and David Hunter Hubel (1926-) (U.S.), and Torsten Nils Wiesel (1924-) (Sweden) [brain org.]; Economics: James Tobin (1918-2002) (U.S.) [financial markets]. Inventions: On Mar. 19 five technicians are asphyxiated during a routine ground test on Space Shuttle Columbia, killing two. On June 18 the $111M single-seat twin-engine USAF Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk stealth attack aicraft makes its first flight, becoming the first operational stealth aircraft; it is kept secret until 1988; only 64 are built by 2015. On July 9 Nintendo releases Donkey Kong (originally Jumpman), featuring Mario the Plumber, designed by Shigeru Miyamoto (1952-), which causes a video game rev.; on July 14, 1983 Ninetendo releases Mario Bros., featuring Mario and Luigi, who have to fight creatures coming out of the sewers by flipping them on their backs and kicking them away. On Aug. 12 IBM unveils the IBM Personal Computer (PC), grabbing 75% of the market; it sells for $5K, has a 4.77MHz Intel 8080 CPU with 330KIPS throughput, 16KB-256KB of RAM, two 160KB floppy drives, and a B&W text mode monitor; the IBM development team is led by Lewis Clark Eggebrecht (1944-). On Sept. 26 the $180M twin-engine long-range widebody Boeing 767 makes its first flight, becoming the first widebody twinjet to reach 1K units delivered. On Nov. 16 the U.S. FDA approves a vaccine for hepatitis B made from human blood by the Merk Inst. in Philly; the genetic code for the hepatitis B surface antigen is found; in 1986 the first genetically-engineered Hepatitis B Vaccine gains FDA approval. On Nov. 18 COMDEX Fall 1981 in Las Vegas, Nev. introduces the IBM PC, with Scientific Solutions introducing the first add-in cards. On Dec. 19 the supersonic variable-sweep wing Tupolev Tu-160 White Swan (Beliy Lebed) (Blackjack) heavy strategic bomber makes its first flight, becoming the world's largest combat aircraft, the world's largest supersonic aircraft, and the world's largest variable-sweep aircraft, also the last strategic bomber designed for the Soviet Union, with 19 stationed inside Ukraine when it becomes independent in Aug. 1991; too bad, they sell half of them back to Russia by 2001; 35 are built by 2008. In Dec. the 2K22 Tunguska tracked self-propelled surface anti-aircraft weapon (SAAW) is tested, going into operation on Sept. 8, 1982, becoming popular in India. Alprazolam (Xanax) is introduced by Upjohn to treat anxiety disorders, becoming a blockbuster drug in the U.S. Hewlett-Packard introduces the HP 12C programmable calculator, becoming popular with MBAs. San Francisco, Calif.-born David Cope (1941-) creates Experiments in Musical Intelligence (EMI), a computer music-composing program that emulates the style of great composers to tin ears. Adam Heller (1933-), Barry Miller (1933-), and Ferdinand A. Thiel of the U.S. invent a Liquid Junction Cell that converts 11.5% of solar energy to electricity. Bangkok-born U.S. engineer Adam Osborne (1939-2003) introduces in Apr. the Osborne I, the first commercially successful portable PC, weighing 23.5 lb. and priced at $1,795, hosting the CP/M 2.2 operating system along with word processing and spreadsheet software; too bad, after preannouncing two advanced versions, causing customers to quit buying the model he has on the market, he goes bankrupt on Sept. 13, 1983, causing the term "Osborne Effect" to be coined. Smith Corona (founded 1886) introduces its first word processor, with a tiny screen and a small memory that only holds a few lines of text; despite being priced way below a desktop PC, it is a dud and the co. goes bankrupt in 1995. Xerox releases the $16K Xerox Star 8010, becoming the first consumer GUI (graphical user interface) computer, using icons and a mouse; it flops. Luxor AB introduces the Luxor ABC 800 computer for office use, with a 3.58 MHz Z80 CPU, a CRT with 8-color 80x24 text mode capability, two 5.25 in.floppy disk units, and a built-in BASIC interpreter. The Sony Mavica electronic still camera records images on a mini-disc that can be connected to a TV monitor or color printer, becoming the first consumer quasi-digital camera. The Frogger video game is introduced. Soviet researchers produce single-crystal diamond films on existing diamonds, along with multiple-crystal diamonds on metal. The 3M Co. invents a method for creating optical disks that can be written on by lasers with a material that melts at 150C (302F) sans chemical changes. The first official Paintball game is played - urban cowboys in America? The U.S. govt. awards the prototype contract for the $65K-$140K 5K-6K lb. High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (Humvee) to AM General, which produces 240K in 1985. Science: On Feb. 15 Britta Haenisch et al. of the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases in Bonn pub. an article in JAMA Neurology announcing that people age 75+ who regularly take proton pump inhibitors (Prilosec, Nexium, Prevacid) have a 44% increased risk of dementia. On June 9 the U.S. FDA approves a new rabies vaccine requiring only five shots in the arm instead of the usual 23 in the abdomen. On Sept. 22-24 the Nat. Insts. of Health hold a conference on the increasing prevalence of cesarean sections, blaming advances in medical technology combined with malpractice suits and changing attitudes. On Oct. 30 the New England Journal of Medicine confirms that some obese persons are more fuel-efficient, gaining more body weight per calorie. Beecham Co. of Britain introduces Augmentin, a broad spectrum antibiotic. The anti-ulcer stomach acid inhibitor drug Zantac (Ranitidine) is introduced by Glaxo Pharmaceuticals of Britain, competing with SmithKline's Tagamet approved by the FDA in 1977, claiming fewer side effects and becoming the world's largest-selling prescription drug by 1986; too bad, on Sept. 2019 the FDA finds it to be a probable human carcinogen, ordering its recall. The genes for poliomyelitis and influenza A virus are sequenced. Scientists at Ohio U. in Athens become the first to transfer genes from one animal species to another, transferring the gene for rat growth hormone to mice embryos, causing some to grow to double size. Elizabeth Helen Blackburn (1948-), Jack William Szostak (1952-), and Carolyn Widney "Carol" Greider (1961-) of the U.S. begin research on DNA; in 1982 Blackburn and Szostak discover Telomeres; 1984 Greider and Blackburn discover their role in aging and the role of the enzyme telomerase in protecting them from progressive shortening, winning them the 2009 Nobel Med. Prize. English scientist Sir Martin John Evans (1941-) discovers how to culture embronic stem cells, becoming the father of stem cell research. Alexander H. Harcourt et al. relate monogamy, polygny, and promiscuity in primate species to avg. body weight and testes weight, with large testes compared to body size correlating with promiscuity. English physicist Frederick Duncan Michael Haldane (1951-) predicts that at low temp electrons will split into two new types of particle called Spinons and Holons; verified in 2009 by physicists from Cambridge U. and the U. of Birmingham inside a quantum wire; Haldane shares the 2016 Nobel Physics Prize. Vienna-born Eric Richard Kandel (1929-) et al. of Columbia U. discover the role of serotinin as a neurotransmitter, and how protein kinase (PKA) acts in the biochemical pathway in response to elevated levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP), giving them a clue as to how short-term memories are converted into long-term memories. Am. astronomers Robert P. Kirshner (1949-) of Harvard U., Augustus Oemler Jr. of Yale U., and Paul L. Schechter and Stephen A. Schectman of Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories discover the spherical giant Bootes (Boötes) (Great) Void of 330M l.y. diam. in the constellation Bootes. German physicist Klaus von Klitzing (1943-) discovers the Integer Quantum Hall Effect, allowing the internat. value of the ohm to be defined, winning the 1985 Nobel Physics Prize. Romanian-born Jewish Princeton U. physicist Mordehai Milgrom (1946-) proposes Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) to elminate the need for dark matter. German geneticist Christiane Nusslein-Volhard (Nüsslein-Volhard) (1942-) and Am. biologist Eric F. Weischaus (1947-) identify genes in the fruit fly Drosophila that serve as markers for body shape and organ arrangement, winning them the 1995 Nobel Med. Prize along with Am. geneticist Edward B. Lewis (1918-2004). Am. surgeons Norman Edward Shumway (1923-2006) and Bruce A. Reitz (1944-) of Stanford U. perform the first Heart-Lung Transplant. Charles Gald Sibley (1917-98) and Jon Edward Ahlquist (1944-) of Yale U. use DNA to revise the evolutionary relationships between flightless birds incl. the ostrich and emu. Hungarian-born George Streisinger (1927-84) et al. of the U. of Ore. produce a cloned zebra fish. Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq (1934-98) et al. propose the Human Development Index (HDI), combining life expectancy at birth, adult literacy rate, and standard of living to obtain a number from 0-1. A 3rd moon of Neptune is discovered (1st Triton, 2nd Nereid). The first foot and mouth disease vaccine is developed. The first vaccination of chicks through the eggshell for Marek's Disease is performed. The CLIMAP project uses fossil plankton species to estimate ocean temps during the last Ice Age, finding that the equators remained warm. The Vatican Observatory Research Group is founded in Tucson, Ariz. to collect astronomical data and send it to the Vatican Observatory in Castel Gandolfo, Italy (founded 1891), where the skies around Rome are too bright for good observation - we'll prove the Earth is the center of the Solar System yet? Nonfiction: Jack Henry Abbott (1944-2002), In the Belly of the Beast (autobio.); his life in prison; written after Norman Mailer meets him while writing "The Executioner's Song" and talks him into it, after which he is paroled, soon kills a man, and is sent back to prison, later committing suicide. Francesco Alberoni (1929-), The Reasons for Good and Evil. Fouad A. Ajami (1945-), The Arab Predicament. Jane Alpert (1947-), Growing Up Underground (autobio.); Weather Underground Org. member tells all. Maya Angelou (1928-), The Heart of a Woman (autobio.). Philippe Aries (1914-84), The Hour of Our Death; the concept of death evolves in the Middle Ages from a wild beast into "tame death" (transition into immortality), then into "invisible death" in modern secular times. Simone de Beauvoir (1908-86), Adieux: A Farewell to Sartre (autobio.); by his babe, "the couple of the 20th cent." Gary S. Becker (1930-), A Treatise on the Family; 2nd ed. 1991. Peter Ludwig Berger (1929-), The Other Side of God: A Polarity in World Religions. Charles Berlitz (1914-2003), Doomsday 1999 A.D. (Mar.); Project Noah. Sir Rudolf Bing (1902-97), A Knight at the Opera (autobio.); his time as mgr. of the Metropolitan Opera Co. Leonardo Boff (1938-), Church, Charisma and Power: Liberation Theology and the Institutional Church (Dec.). Kenneth Ewart Boulding (1910-93), Evolutionary Economics. John Malcolm Brinning, The Sway of the Grand Saloon: A Social History of the North Atlantic; his sixty-plus crossings of the Atlantic in luxury liners. David S. Broder, Changing of the Guard: Power and Leadership in America. Fawn McKay Brodie (1915-81), Richard Nixon: The Shaping of His Character (Oct.) (posth.); panned by critics for anti-Nixon bias; used by Oliver Stone for his 1995 film "Nixon". Anthony Cave Brown (1929-2006), On a Field of Red: The Communist International and the Coming of World War II. Harry Browne (1933-2006) and Terry Coxon, Inflation-Proofing Your Investments. Robert Vance Bruce (1923-2008), Lincoln and the Riddle of Death. Wilfred Graham Burchett (1911-83), At the Barricades (autobio.); repub. in 2005 as "Memoirs of a Rebel Journalist". Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945), Symbol, Myth, and Culture: Essays and Lectures of Ernst Cassirer, 1935-45 (posth.); ed. Donald Phillip Verene. Neil Chayet (1939-), Looking at the Law. Margaret Cheney, Tesla, Man Out of Time; claims he invented radio, not Marconi. Jock Colville (1915-87), The Churchillians; by Winston Churchill's longtime private secy. Jonathan Culler (1944-), The Pursuit of Signs. John Darwin (1948-), Britain, Egypt, and the Middle East: Imperial Policy in the Aftermath of War, 1918-1922 (May) (first book). Daniel Dennett (1942-), Brainstorms: Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology. Peter Ferdinand Drucker (1909-2005), Towards the Next Economics and Other Essays. Rene Dubos (1901-82), Celebrations of Life. Andrea Dworkin (1946-) and Catharine A. MacKinnon (1946-), Pornography and Civil Rights: A New Day for Women's Equality; defines porno as sexual subordination of women in images and writings. Rowland Evans Jr. (1921-2001) and Robert D. Novak (1931-2009), The Reagan Revolution: An Inside Look atthe Transformation of the U.S. Government; claims Reagan will reverse the New Deal. Robert Finch (1943-), Common Ground: A Naturalist's Cape Cod. Antony Flew (1923-), The Politics of Procrustes: Contradictions of Enforced Equality. Jane Fonda (1937-), Jane Fonda's Workout Book; spawns a series of video that become the #1 seller of the decade. Marilyn French (1929-2009), Shakespeare's Division of Experience; claims that Shakespeare flopped from admiring the masculine over the feminine principle in his later plays. Betty Friedan (1921-2006), The Second Stage; becomes the bible of the postfeminist era; the feminist mystique of the superwoman with a career, marriage, and children; disses radical feminists for their anti-male anti-family orientation. R. Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983), R. Buckminster Fuller Sketchbook; Critical Path; his master work? Francois Furet (1927-97), Interpreting the French Revolution; calls Communism and Fascism "totalitarian twins", stressing the similarity of France in the 1790s and 1960s, claiming that there was an egalitarian rev. in 1789, followed by an authoritarian coup in 1799, with the egalitarian rev. resurrected in the July 1830 Rev., the 1848 Rev., and the 1871 Paris Commune, going on to ditch the Annales School, becoming a disciple of Alexis de Tocqueville and emphasizing intellectual history. Felix Gilbert (1905-91), The Pope, His Banker, and Venice. Sir Martin Gilbert (1936-2015), Russian History Atlas. George F. Gilder (1939-), Wealth and Poverty; internat. bestseller extolling the virtues of supply-side economics, becoming a favorite of Ronald Reagan. Mark Girouard (1931-), Alfred Waterhouse and the Natural History Museum; The Return to Camelot: Chivalry and the English Gentleman. Albert Goldman (1927-94), Elvis; calls Elvis' parents "the original Beverly Hillbillies", and claims Elvis is a plagiarist who bordered on insane. Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002), The Mismeasure of Man; critique of biological determinism, the belief that "the social and economic differences between human groups - primarily races, classes, and sexes - arise from inherited, inborn distinctions and that society, in this sense, is an accurate reflection of biology"; also disses the belief that "worth can be assigned to individuals and groups by measuring intelligence as a single quantity", along with IQ and g scores as moose hockey; generates a firestorm of controversy, making him a star; the 1996 2nd ed. takes on Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray's "The Bell Curve". Billy Graham (1918-), Till Armageddon; claims it might be coming in the 1980s. Stanislav Grof (1931-) and Christina Grof, Beyond Death: The Gates of Consciousness. Peter Gzowski (1934-2002), The Game of Our Lives; his travels with the Edmonton Oilers in 1908-1. David Halberstam (1934-2007), The Breaks of the Game; Bill Walton and the 1979-80 Portland Trail Blazers. Michael Harrington (1928-89), Decade of Decision: The Crisis of the American System (Apr.); The Next America: The Decline and Rise of the United States; why the U.S. must ditch new conservatism and go more left than the New Deal. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), Selected Letters, 1917-1961 (posth.) (Aug.); ed. by Carlos Baker. James Herriot (1916-95), Lord God Made Them All. Charles Higham (1931-2012), Bette: The Life of Bette Davis. Shere Hite (1942-), The Hite Report on Men and Male Sexuality. John Hollander (1929-), The Figure of Echo: A Mode of Illusion in Milton and After; Rhyme's Reason: A Guide to English Verse. Bell Hooks (bell hooks) (Gloria Jean Watkins) (1952-), Ain't I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism. L. Ron Hubbard (1911-86), The Way to Happiness; 21 happy and expensive precepts. Robert Hughes (1938-), The Shock of the New: The Hundred-Year History of Modern Art: Its Rise, Its Dazzling Achievement, Its Fall; based on his 1980 BBC TV series; revised in 1991. Samuel Phillips Huntington (1927-2008), American Politics: The Promise of Disharmony. Clifford Irving (1930-), The Hoax; Tom Mix and Pancho Villa. Naomi James (1949-), At Sea on Land (autobio.); woman who sailed solo around the world in 1978. Leon Jaworski (1905-82), Crossroads (autobio.). Donald C. Johanson (1943-) and Maitland A. Edey (1910-92), Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind; Johanson's 1974 discovery in Ethiopia. Kitty Kelley (1942-), His Way: An Unauthorized Biography of Frank Sinatra; bestseller discussing Frank Sinatra's links to the mob, causing him to sue her for $2M to stop pub.; after he drops his lawsuit, it causes her book to become more popular? Daniel Keyes (1927-), The Minds of Billy Milligan; William Stanley Milligan (1955-), the first person diagnosed with multiple personality disorders to use it as a criminal defense. Tracy Kidder (1945-), The Soul of a New Machine; the 32-bit Data Gen. Eclipse/MV minicomputer, who built it in one year using clueless overworked college grads. Arthur Koestler (1905-83), Kaleidoscope (essays). Jonathan Kozol (1936-), On Being a Teacher. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross (1926-2004), Living with Death and Dying. Fran Lebowitz (1950-), Metropolitan Life and Social Studies (essays). Claude Levi-Strauss (1908-2009), The Naked Man; vol. 4 of "Mythologiques". David Levering Lewis, When Harlem Was in Vogue: The Politics of the Arts in the Twenties and Thirties. David Lifton, Best Evidence; bestseller about the autopsy of JFK, claiming that his body was delivered to the Bethesda Naval Hospital morgue twice. Phillip Lopate (1943-), Bachelorhood: Tales of the Metropolis (autobio.). Audre Lorde (1934-92), Uses of the Erotic: The Erotic as Power. Eric Henry Monkkonen (1942-2005), Police in Urban America: 1860-1920; documents their rapid rise in the 19th cent. and how they started out administering welfare services before getting serious and badass. Judith Martin, Miss Manners' Guide to Excruciatingly Correct Behavior. Judy Mazel (1943-2007), The Beverly Hills Diet; bestseller, starting a craze, claiming that carbohydrates shouldn't be eaten in the same meal, and banning fruit after the first 10 days; fans incl. Maria Shriver, Linda Gray, Sally Kellerman, and Engelbert Humperdinck. James D. McCawley (1938-99), Everything that Linguists Have Always Wanted to Know About Logic (But Were Ashamed to Ask); his generative semantics vs. Noam Chomsky's generative grammar. David McCullough (1933-), Mornings on Horseback: The Story of an Extraordinary Family, a Vanished Way of Life, and the Unique Child Who Became Theodore Roosevelt; bio. of Teddy Roosevelt from ages 10-28. William S. McFeely (1930-), Grant: A Biography (Pulitzer Prize); he "did not rise above limited talents or inspire others to do so in ways that make his administration a credit to American politics." John McPhee (1931-), Basin and Range; first in a 5-vol. series on Deep Time, the story of the rocks; pub. in a combined vol. in 1999. Alice Miller (1923-2010), Thou Shalt Not Be Aware. William Ormond Mitchell (1914-98), How I Spent My Summer Holidays. Jurgen Moltmann (1926-), The Trinity and the Kingdom: The Doctrine of God; the Biblical prophets and their relevancy to modern life. Sheridan Morley (1941-2007), Gertrude Lawrence: A Bright Particular Star. Wright Morris, Will's Boy (autobio.). Malcolm Muggeridge (1903-90), Like It Was: The Diaries of Malcolm Muggeridge. Vladimir Nabokov (1899-1977), Lectures on Russian Literature; incl. "The Art of Translation". V.S. Naipaul (1932-2018), Among the Believers: An Islamic Journey; travels through post-rev. Iran and concludes that the Islamic world can't be reconciled to the West; "In the fundamentalist scheme the world constantly decays and has constantly to be re-created. The only function of intellect is to assist that re-creation. It reinterprets the texts; it re-establishes divine precedent... The doctrine has its attractions. To a student from the University of Karachi, from perhaps a provincial or peasant background, the old faith comes more easily than any new-fangled academic discipline. So fundamentalism takes root in the universities, and to deny education can become the approved educated act. In the days of Muslim glory Islam opened itself to the learning of the world. Now fundamentalism provides an intellectual thermostat, set low. It equalizes, comforts, shelters, and preserves." Peter Charles Newman (1929-), The Acquisitors. David Niven (1910-83), Go Slowly, Come Back Quickly (autobio.) (Oct.). John Julius Norwich (1929-), A History of Venice; from the 5th cent. to 1797. Robert Nozick (1938-2002), Philosophical Explanations. Joyce Carol Oates (1938-), Contraries (essays). John Osborne (1929-94), A Better Class of Person (autobio.); followed by "Almost a Gentleman" (1991). S.J. Perelman (1904-79), The Last Laugh (autobio.) (posth.). Robert Pierpoint (1925-2011), At the White House (autobio.). Daniel Pipes (1949-), Slave Soldiers and Islam: The Genesis of a Military System (first book); Mawlas: Freed Slaves and Converts in Early Islam. Sidney Poitier (1927-), This Life (autobio.) (Mar. 12). Richard Allen Posner (1939-), The Economics of Justice; claims that the logic of the law in many ways appears to be an economic one, with judges interpreting the common law as if they are trying to maximize economic welfare. Wolfgang Puck (1949-), Modern French Cooking for the American Kitchen (first book); makes him a celeb, helping him open the Spago Restaurant on Sunset Strip in Los Angeles, Calif. in 1982, followed in 1997 by another in Beverly Hills. Merlo John Pusey (1902-85), Builders of the Kingdom: George A. Smith, John Henry Smith, George Albert Smith. Carroll Quigley (1910-77), The Anglo-American Establishment: From Rhodes to Cliveden (posth.). Michael S. Radu (1947-2009), Eastern Europe and the Third World: East vs. South. Robert V. Remini (1921-), Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Freedom; vol. 2 of 3 (1977, 1981). M.C. Ricklefs, A History of Modern Indonesia. Barry Rubin (1950-2014), The Arab States and the Palestinian Conflict. William Ryan (1923-), Equality; "How our adherence to the doctrine of individual achievement denies us access to a genuine fair share of the social pie" (Boston Sunday Globe). Edward Wadie Said (1935-2003), Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World; claims Westerners have stereotyped Islam as being bad, when it's really very, very good; revised ed. pub. in 1997. Jose Saramago (1922-2010), Journey to Portugal (Viagem a Portugal). Theodore W. Schultz (1902-98),Investing in People: The Economics of Population Quality; founds Demographic (Population) Economics. Frithjof Schuon (1907-98), Esoterism as Principle and as Way. Amartya Sen (1933-), Poverty and Famines: An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation; argues that the root cause of famine is inequalities in the food distribution system; helps him win the 1998 Nobel Econ. Prize. Rupert Sheldrake (1942-), A New Science of Life: The Hypothesis of Formative Causation (Morphic Resonance); 2nd ed. 1985, 3rd ed. 2009; coins the term "Morphic Field", proposing that biological and other phenomena became more probable the more often they occur, hence newly-acquired behaviors are subject to inheritance. Robert J. Shiller (1946-), Do Stock Prices Move Too Much to Be Justified by Subsequent Changes in Dividends? (Feb.); shocks the economics community by challenging the Efficient Market Hypothesis (1965) by arguing that in a rational stock market investors will base stock prices on the expected receipt of future dividends, discounted to a present value. Richard Simmons (1948-), Never-Say-Diet Book. Julian Lincoln Simon (1932-98), The Ultimate Resource; challenges the Malthusians, arguing that as intelligent beings, humans are capable of innovating their way out of shortages, which proves true (until ?); rev. ed. pub. in 1996 under title "The Ultimate Resource 2"; on Sept. 29, 1980 he makes the Simon-Ehrlich Wager with biologist Paul Ehrlich, betting that the prices of five metals would decrease over a decade; on Sept. 29, 1990 (payoff date) Ehrlich loses after all five commodities decline in price. Isaac Bashevis Singer (1902-91), Lost in America (autobio.) (June). Peter Singer (1946-), The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology (Feb.); starts with Edward O. Wilson and ends with Edmund Burke? Quentin Skinner (1940-), Machiavelli. Willard Cleon Skousen (1913-2006), The 5000 Year Leap: A Miracle That Changed the World; bestseller about the 28 Principles of Freedom of the U.S. Founding Fathers, and how the U.S. has been drifting away from them in the Commie direction; 20 years later add the Muslim direction. C.P. Snow (1905-80), The Physicists (posth.) (Sept.). Robert Sobel (1931-99), IBM: Colossus in Transition. Robert Solomon (1942-), Love: Emotion, Myth and Metaphor. Thomas Sowell (1930-), Ethnic America: A history. Jonathan D. Spence (1936-), The Gate of Heavenly Peace: The Chinese and Their Revolution. Study Commission on United States Policy Toward Southern Africa, South Africa: Time Running Out. William Irwin Thompson (1938-), The Time Falling Bodies Take to Light: Mythology, Sexuality and the Origins of Culture. Jacobo Timerman (1923-99), Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number; the Argentine journalist disappeared in 1976 and released in late 1979 sans citizenship. Arnold Joseph Toynbee (1889-1975), The Greeks and Their Heritages (posth.) (Nov.). Philip Toynbee (1916-81), An Autobiographical Journal, 1977-81 (2 vols.) (1981-2); "Party of a Journey"; "End of a Journey". Sir George Tevelyan (1906-96), Operation Redemption. Diana Trilling (1905-96), Mrs. Harris: The Death of the Scarsdale Diet Doctor; Scarsdale Diet murderer and prep school headmistress Jean Harris (1923-). Barbara W. Tuchman (1912-89), Practicing History: Selected Essays. Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (1922-2007), Palm Sunday: An Autobiographical Collage. Patrick White (1912-90), Flaws in the Glass (autobio.). Raymond Henry Williams (1921-88), Culture; Contact: Human Communication and Its History. T. Harry Williams (1909-79), The History of American Wars: From Colonial Times to World War I (June 12) (posth.). Garry Wills (1934-), Explaining America: The Federalist. E.O. Wilson (1929-2021), Genes, Mind and Culture: The Coevolutionary Process. Shelley Winters (1920-2006), Shelley, Also Known as Shirley (autobio.); tell-all with juicy stories of Hollyweird, incl. lovers Errol Flynn, Burt Lancaster, Marlon Brando, Sean Connery, Clark Gable, and William Holden. Fred Alan Wolf (1934-), Taking the Quantum Leap: The New Physics for Nonscientists. Tom Wolfe (1930-2018), From Bauhaus to Our House (essays); disses German functionalist architecture and praises indigenous Am. architecture. C. Vann Woodward (1908-99) (ed.), Mary Chestnut's Civil War (Pulitzer Prize); a Southern aristocrat watches the Confederacy go down. Art: Romare Bearden (1911-88), Artist with Painting and Model (collage). Donald Judd (1928-94), Untitled (plywood sculpture). Edward Kienholz (1927-94) and Nancy Reddin Kienholz (1943-), In the Infield Was Patty Peccavi (installation art). Bernard "Hap" Kliban (1935-90), Catcalendar Cats: The Complete Collection. Lee Krasner (1908-84), Twelve Hour Crossing, March Twenty-First (collage). Roberto Matta (1911-2002), Las Scillabas de Scylla; El Espejo de Cronos; El Verbo America; Geomagnetica de Danza (1981-2). Joan Miro (1893-1983), The Sun, the Moon and One Star (Miro's Chicago); 12m tall outdoor sculpture situated in Chicago's Loop area across the street from the Chicago Picasso. Robert Motherwell (1915-91), Stephen's Iron Crown; 88"x120". Elizabeth Murray (1940-2007), Brush's Shadow; Heart and Mind; Just in Time. Bruce Nauman (1941-), Human Companionship, Human Drain. Alice Neel (1900-84), Mayor Koch. Philip Pearlstein (1924-), Two Models in Bamboo Chairs. Judy Pfaff, Dragon (sculpture). Bridget Riley (1931-), Apres-Midi. Robert Ryman (1930-), Paramount. Richard Serra (1939-), Tilted Arc (12-ft.-high 120-ft.-long rusting steel sculpture); installed in Federal Plaza, New York City on a $175K commission, causing public scorn. Music: 10cc, Ten Out of 10 (album #8) (Nov. 27). ABBA, The Visitors (album #8) (last studio album) (Nov. 30); first album manufactured in CD; incl. The Visitors. AC/DC, For Those About to Rock (We Salute You) (album #8) (Nov. 23) (4M copies in the U.S.); first (only) #1 album in the U.S.; incl. For Those About to Rock (We Salute You), Put the Finger on You, Let's Get It Up, Inject the Venom; drummer Phil Rudd leaves from 1983-94. Bryan Adams (1959-), You Want It You Got It (album #2) (July 21); incl. Lonely Nights, Fits Ya Good. Allman Brothers Band, Brothers of the Road (album #9) (Aug.); only album sans drummer Jai Johanny Johanson; incl. Straight from the Heart (last top-40 hit). Adam and the Ants, Prince Charming (album #3) (last album) (Nov.); incl. Prince Charming (#1 in the U.K.), Stand and Deliver (#1 in the U.K.), Ant Rap (#10 in the U.K.). Patti Austin (1951-), Every Home Should Have One (album) (Sept.); incl. Baby, Come to Me (w/James Ingram), Do You Love Me? The Spandau Ballet, Journeys to Glory (album) (debut) (Mar. 6); "Rudolf Hess, all alone, dancing the Spandau Ballet"; founded in 1976; originally The Makers, and The Cut; incl. Tony Hadley (1960-) (vocals), Gary Kemp (guitar), Martin Kemp (bass), Steve Norman (guitar), and John Keeble (drums); incl. To Cut a Long Story Short, Musclebound, and Toys. Siouxsie Sioux (1957-) and the Banshees, Juju (album #4) (June 6); first with guitarist John Alexander McGeoch (1955-2004); incl. Spellbound, Arabian Knights. Bauhaus, Mask (album #2) (Oct.); incl. Mask, The Passion of Lovers, The Man With the X-Ray Eyes, Kick in the Eye. The (English) Beat, Wha'ppen? (album #2) (June). George Benson (1943-), The George Benson Collection (album); incl. Turn Your Love Around. Moody Blues, Long Distance Voyager (album #10) (May 15); first with Yes keyboardist Patrick Philippe Moraz (1948-); incl. Gemini Dream, The Voice, Talking Out of Turn. David Bowie (1947-2016), Christiane F. Soundtrack (Wir Kinder vom Bahnhof Zoo) (album) (Apr.); incl. Look Back in Anger, Station to Station, TVC 15. David Bowie (1947-2016) and Queen, Under Pressure; used as the bass line for Vanilla Ice's "Ice Ice Baby" (1990). Elkie Brooks (1945-), Pearls (album #5) (Nov.) (#2 in the U.K.); best-selling album by a U.K. female artist so far. Lindsey Buckingham (1949-), Law and Order (album) (Oct.); incl. Trouble. Jimmy Buffett (1946-), Coconut Telegraph (album #11) (Feb.); incl. Coconut Telegraph. Echo and the Bunnymen, Heaven Up Here (album #2) (May 30) (#184 in the U.S., #10 in the U.K.); incl. A Promise, Over the Wall. The Carpenters, Made in America (album #9) (June 16) (#52 in the U.S., #12 in the U.K.) (last with Karen Carpenter); incl. Strength of a Woman, I Believe You, Touch Me When We're Dancing. Kim Carnes (1945-), Mistaken Identity (album #6) (Apr.); incl. Bette Davis Eyes (#1 in the U.S.) (written in 1974 by Donna Weiss and Jackie De Shannon) (biggest hit of 1981, and #2 hit of the 1980s after Olivia Newton-John's "Physical"), Mistaken Identity, Draw of the Cards. The Cars, Shake It Up (album #4) (Nov. 6); incl. Shake It Up, Since You're Gone, I'm Not the One. Stray Cats, Stray Cats (album) (debut); from Massapequa, Long Island, N.Y., incl. blonde Paul McCartney lookalike Brian Setzer (1959-) (vocals), Lee Rocker (1961-) (bass), and Slim Jim Phantom (James McDonnell) (drums) (1961-); incl. Stray Cat Strut (#11 in the U.K.), Rock This Town (#9 in the U.K.), Runaway Boys (#9 in the U.K.); Gonna Ball (album #2). Peter Cetera (1944-), Peter Cetera (album) (solo debut) (Dec.); incl. Livin' in the Limelight. Soft Cell, Non-Stop Erotic Cabaret (album) (debut) (Dec.) (#1 in the U.K.); two gay buds from England, incl. Peter Mark "Marc" Almond (1957-) (vocals) and David James "Dave" Ball (1959-) (synthesizer); incl. Tainted Love (#1 in 17 countries) (cover of the 1964 Gloria Jones song written by Bruce Belland of the Four Preps), Where Did Our Love Go, Sex Dwarf, Bedsitter, Say Hello, Wave Goodbye; Non-Stop Ecstatic Dancing (album #2); incl. What? (by Judy Street) Harry Chapin (1942-81), Sequel (album #9); incl. Sequel. Chic, Take It Off (album #5) (Nov. 16); incl. Stage Fright. Chicago, Greatest Hits, Vol. II (album) (Nov.). Chilliwack, Wanna Be a Star (album #9); incl. My Girl (Gone, Gone, Gone), I Believe; from Vancouver, incl. Bill Henderson (1944-), Brian "Too Loud" MacLeod (1952-). Climax Blues Band, I Love You (#12 in the U.S.). Phil Collins (1951-), Face Value (album) (Feb. 9); first solo album, about his split with his cheating wife; incl. In the Air Tonight. Alice Cooper (1948-), Special Forces (album #13); incl. Clones (We're All). Elvis Costello (1954-) and the Attractions, Trust (album #5) (Jan.); incl. New Lace Sleeves; Almost Blue (Oct. 23). The Cramps, Psychedelic Jungle! (album #2) (May); incl. The Crusher. King Crimson, Discipline (album #9) (Sept. 22); first since 1974; incl. Frank Zappa (1940-93), Adrian Belew, and Tony Levin; incl. Elephant Talk, Matte Kudasai (Jap. "please wait"), Thela Hung Ginjeet (Heat in the Jungle), The Sheltering Sky. Christopher Cross (1951-), Arthur's Theme (Best You Can Do) (#1 in the U.S.); from the 1981 film "Arthur"; wins best original song Oscar. Motley Crue (Mötley Crüe), Too Fast for Love (album) (debut) (Nov.) (#77 in the U.S.); from Los Angeles, Calif. incl. Vince Neil (Vincent Neil Wharton) (1961-) (vocals), Nikki Sixx (Frank Carlton Serafino Feranna Jr.) (1958-) (guitar), Mick Mars (Robert Alan Deal) (1951-) (guitar), and Tommy Lee (Thomas Lee Bass) (1962-) (drums); incl. Live Wire. Blue Oyster Cult, Fire of Unknown Origin (album #9) (June); incl. Burnin' For You (#40 in the U.S.), Joan Crawford, Veteran of the Psychic Wars. The Cure, Faith (album #3) (Apr. 10); incl. Faith, Primary, The Holy Hour, The Drowning Man. Mac Davis (1942-), Texas in My Rearview Mirror (album); incl. Texas in My Rearview Mirror, Hooked On Music. Paul Davis (1948-2008), Cool Night (album #7) (last album) (#52 in the U.S.); incl. Cool Night (#11 in the U.S.), 65 Love Affair (#39 in the U.S.), Love or Let Me Be Lonely (by The Friends of Distinction). The Grateful Dead, Reckoning (double album) (Apr. 1); Dead Set (album) (Aug.). John Denver (1943-97), Some Days Are Diamonds (album) (June); incl. Some Days Are Diamonds. Jimmy Destri (1954-), Heart on a Wall (album) (solo debut); incl. Living in Your Heart. Devo, New Traditionalists (album #4) (Aug.); incl. Beautiful World. Donovan (1946-), Love Is Only Feeling (album #16) (Oct.); incl. Marjorie Margerine. Duran Duran, Duran Duran (album) (debut) (June 15) (#3 in the U.K., #10 in the U.S.); from Birmingham, England, incl. Nick Rhodes (Nicholas James Bates) (1962-), Nigel John Taylor (1960-) (bass), Stephen Anthony James Duffy (1960-) (vocals), Roger Andrew Taylor (1960-) (drums), Andy Taylor (1961-), Simon John Charles Le Bon (1958-) (lead vocals); incl. Girls on Film (leading edge video makes them superstars in the U.S.), Planet Earth, Careless Memories. Ian Dury (1942-2000) and the Blockheads, Spasticus Autisticus; satire of the Internat. Year of Disabled Persons. Bob Dylan (1941-), Shot of Love (album #21) (Aug. 12); incl. Shot of Love, Watered-Down Love, Lenny Bruce. ELO, Time (album) (Aug.); incl. Hold on Tight, Twilight, The Way Life's Meant to Be, Ticket to the Moon. Split Enz, Waiata (album #6) (Apr.); they break up in 1984. Eurythmics, In the Garden (album) (debut) (Oct. 16); from England, originally the Tourists; from England, incl. Annie Lennox (1954-) and David Allan "Dave" Stewart (1952-); incl. Belinda, Never Gonna Cry Again. Marianne Faithfull (1946-), Dangerous Acquaintances (album) (Sept.); incl. Strange One. Earth, Wind, and Fire, Raise! (album #11) (Nov. 14) (#5 in the U.S., #11 in the U.K.); incl. Let's Groove (#3 in the U.S.), Wanna Be With You (#51 in the U.S.). Bucks Fizz, Making Your Mind Up; wins the Eurovision Song Contest on Apr. 4. Carlisle Floyd (1926-), Willie Stark (opera) (Houston Grand Opera) (Apr. 24); based on the 1946 Robert Penn Warren novel "All the King's Men". Dan Fogelberg (1951-2007), The Innocent Age (album); incl. The Innocent Age, Leader of the Band, Same Auld Lang Syne. Foghat, Girls to Chat and Boys to Bounce (album #10) (July); first with Erik Cartwright (1950-). The Fools, Heavy Metal (album #2). Gang of Four, Solid Gold (album #2) (Mar.); incl. What We All Want, Outside the Trains Don't Run on Time, He'd Send in the Army. Peter Frampton (1950-), Breaking All the Rules (album #7) (May 14); incl. Friday On My Mind. Funkadelic, The Electric Spanking of War Babies (album #12) (last album) (Apr.); incl. The Electric Spanking of War Babies. Psychedelic Furs, Talk Talk Talk (album); incl. Mr. Jones, Pretty in Pink (inspires the 1986 Molly Ringwald film), I Wanna Sleep With You. Gandalf (1952-), Journey to an Imaginary Land (album) (debut) (Mar. 17); incl. March Against the Endless Plain, Departure. Kool and the Gang, Something Special (album #15) (Sept. 24) (#10 in the U.K.); incl. Take My Heart (#17 in the U.S.), Get Down On It (#10 in the U.S.), Steppin' Out (#89 in the U.S.). Leif Garrett (1961-), My Movie of You (album #5). Marvin Gaye (1939-84), In Our Lifetime (album) (Jan. 15); incl. Praise, Funk Me. Bee Gees, Living Eyes (album #14); sells 750K copies; incl. Living Eyes, He's a Liar. J. Geils Band, Freeze Frame (album #12) (Oct. 26) (#1 in the U.S.); incl. Centerfold (#1 in the U.S., #3 in the U.K.) ("Does she walk? Does she talk? Does she come complete? My homeroom homeroom angel always pulled me from my seat"), Freeze Frame (#4 in the U.S.), Angel in Blue (#40 in the U.S.). Genesis, Abacab (album #11) (Sept. 14) (#1 in the U.K.); incl. Abacab, No Reply at All. The Go-Go's, Beauty and the Beat (album) (debut) (#1 in the U.S.) (3M copies); from Los Angeles, Calif., ikncl. Belinda Jo Carlisle (1958-), Jane Wiedlin (1958-), Charlotte Irene Caffrey (1953-), Kathryn "Kathy" Valentine (1959-) (bass), and Regina Ann "Gina" Schock (1957-) (drums); first all-female band to write their own songs and play their own instruments and reach the top of the Billboard charts; incl. We Got the Beat, Our Lips Are Sealed. Merle Haggard (1937-2016), My Favorite Memory; Big City. Van Halen, Fair Warning (album #4) (Apr. 29); incl. So This Is Love?, Mean Street, Push Comes to Shove, Unchained. Herbie Hancock (1940-), Herbie Hancock Trio (album #31); Magic Windows (album #32). Tim Hardin (1941-80), Unforgiven (album) (last) (unfinished); The Tim Hardin Memorial Album (album) (posth.); The Shock of Grace (album) (posth). Emmylou Harris (1947-), Evangeline (album) (Apr.); incl. Evangeline, Mister Sandman. George Harrison (1943-2001), Somewhere in England (album) (June 5) (#11 in the U.S., #13 in the U.K.); incl. All Those Years Ago (tribute to the late John Lennon, w/Ringo Starr, Paul and Linda McCartney, and Denny Laine). Debbie Harry (1945-), Koo Koo (album) (debut) (Aug. 8); incl. The Jam Was Moving, Chrome, Backfired. Isaac Hayes (1942-2008), Lifetime Thing (album); after it flops, he gives up music for acting. Tom Petty (1950-2017) and The Heartbreakers, Hard Promises (album #4) (May 5); John Lennon is scheduled to record in the same studio as Petty, but is murdered before he can show up, causing "WE LOVE YOU JL" to be inscribed on every vinyl copy of the album; incl. The Waiting, Insider (w/Stevie Nicks). Alan Hovhaness (1911-2000), Symphony No. 48 ("Vision of Andromeda"), Op. 355. Janis Ian (1951-), Restless Eyes (album). Billy Idol (1955-), Don't Stop (album) (debut) (Oct. 24); incl. Dancing With Myself, Mony Mony (#1 in the U.K.). Public Image Ltd., The Flowers of Romance (album #3) (Apr. 10). INXS, Underneath the Colours (album) (Oct. 19); incl. Stay Young. The Isley Brothers, Grand Slam (album); incl. Hurry Up and Wait. La Toya Jackson (1956-), My Special Love (album #2) (#175 in the U.S.); incl. Stay the Night. Millie Jackson (1944-), Just a L'il Bit Country (album #15). Rick James (1948-2004), Street Songs (album #5); incl. Super Freak, Ghetto Life, Give It To Me Baby. Joan Jett (1958-), Bad Reputation (album) (Jan. 23); reissue of her 1980 debut album. Joan Jett (1958-) and the Blackhearts, I Love Rock n' Roll (album #2) (Dec.); first with the Blackhearts; sells 10M copies; incl. I Love Rock n' Roll, Crimson and Clover, Do You Wanna Touch Me. Billy Joel (1949-), Songs in the Attic (album) (first live album) (Sept. 10); sells 3M copies. Elton John (1947-), The Fox (album #15) (May 20); incl. Elton's Song; banned in several countries for gay content. Grace Jones (1948-), Nightclubbing (album #5); incl. Pull Up to the Bumper (her biggest hit), I've Seen That Face Before (Libertango). Journey, Captured (Feb.) (first live album); sells 2M copies; last with Gregg Rolie; Escape (E5C4P3) (album #7) (July 31); incl. Open Arms (#2 in the U.S.), Who's Crying Now (#4 in the U.S.), Don't Stop Believin' (#9 in the U.S.), Still They Ride (#19 in the U.S.), Stone in Love, Mother, Father, La Raza del Sol; Captured (album) (recorded on Aug. 8 in Montreal). Dead Kennedys, In God We Trust, Inc. (album) (Dec.); incl. Moral Majority, Religious Vomit, Nazi Punks Fuck Off, Rawhide. Chaka Khan (1953-), What Cha' Gonna Do for Me (album #3) (Apr. 15); incl. What Cha' Gonna Do for Me. Greg Kihn Band, Rockihnroll (album #4); incl. The Breakup Song (They Don't Write 'Em) (#15 in the U.S.); Sheila, The Girl Most Likely. The Kinks, Give the People What They Want (album #18) (Aug. 15); incl. Destroyer, Better Things. Kix, Kix (album) (debut) (Sept.); originally Shooze, then The Generators, from Hagerstown, Md., incl. Steve Whiteman (vocals), Ronnie "10/10" Younkins (guitar), Brian "Damage" Forsythe (guitar), Donnie Purnell (bass), and Jimmy "Chocolate" Chalfant (drums); incl. Love at First Sight, Kix Are for Kids, and Yeah, Yeah, Yeah. Album #2 Cool Kids Gladys Knight (1944-) and the Pips, Touch (album). Kraftwerk, Computer World (album #8) (May); incl. Computer World, Computer Love. Fela Kuti (1938-97), Black President (album). The Human League, Dare (album #3) (Oct. 20) (#1 in the U.K.); incl. Don't You Want Me, Open Your Heart, The Sound of the Crowd, The Things That Dreams Are Made Of, Love Action (I Believe in Love). Def Leppard, High 'n' Dry (album #2) (July 11); produced by Robert John "Mutt" Lange; incl. Bringin' on the Heartbreak. Level 42, Level 42 (album) (debut); from Isle of Weight, England, incl. Mark King (1958-) (vocals, bass), Michael "Mike" Lindup (1959-) (vocals), Rowland Charles "Boon" Gould (1955-) (guitar), and Philip Gabriel "Phil" Gould (1957-) (drums); incl. Love Games, Turn It On, Starchild. Abbey Lincoln (1930-2010) and Cedar Walton (1934-2013), The Maestro (album); incl. The Maestro. Lipps Inc., Designer Music. Thin Lizzy, Renegade (album #11) (Nov. 15); incl. Angel of Death. Meat Loaf (1947-2022), Dead Ringer (album) (Sept. 4); sells 5M copies; incl. The Old Songs, Somewhere Down the Road, Dead Ringer for Love (with Cher). Loverboy, Get Lucky (album #2) (#7 in the U.S.) (Oct. 7) (4M copies); incl. Working for the Weekend, When It's Over. Iron Maiden, Killers (album #2) (Feb. 2); incl. Wrathchild, Purgatory; Maiden Japan (Heavy Metal Army) (album) (Aug.). Barry Manilow (1943-), If I Should Love Again (album #8); incl. If I Should Love Again. Reba McEntire (1955-), Heart to Heart (album #4) (Sept.); incl. Today All Over Again, I Don't Think Love Ought to Be That Way. Steve Miller Band, Circle of Love (album #11) (Oct.); incl. Circle of Love, Macho City. Stephanie Mills (1957-), Stephanie (album); incl. Two Hearts (with Teddy Pendergrass). Ronnie Milsap (1943-), There's No Gettin' Over Me (album #13) (#5 in the U.S.) incl. (There's) No Gettin' Over Me (#1 country) (#5 in the U.S.), I Wouldn't Have Missed It for the World (#1 country) (#20 in the U.S.), Any Day Now (#1 country) (#14 in the U.S.). The Misfits, Halloween (Oct. 31). Depeche Mode, Speak & Spell (album) (debut) (Oct. 5) (#10 in the U.K.); from Basildon, Essex, England, incl. Dave Gahan (1962-) (vocals), Martin Lee Gore (1961-) (guitar), Andrew John "Fletch" Fletcher (1961-) (keyboards), Vince Clarke (Vincent John Martin) (1960-)/ Alan Charles Wilder (1959-) (keyboards); incl. Dreaming of Me, New Life, Just Can't Get Enough. Motorhead, No Sleep 'til Hammersmith (album) (June 27) (#1 in the U.K.); Over the Top (July 11) (#6 in the U.K.). Motorhead and Girlschool, St. Valentine's Day Massacre (Feb. 1) (#5 in the U.K.). Michael Martin Murphey (1945-), Hard Country Soundtrack (album #9). Anne Murray (1945-), Where Do You Go When You Dream (album #16); incl. Blessed Are the Believers. Juice Newton (1952-), Juice (album); incl. Angel of the Morning, Queen of Hearts, The Sweetest Thing (I've Ever Known). Olivia Newton-John (1948-2022), Physical (album #10) (Oct.) (#6 in the U.S.) (10M copies); incl. Physical. Stevie Nicks (with Don Henley), Bella Donna (album); incl. Leather and Lace. Nico (1938-88), Drama of Exile (album #5) (Apr.-May); incl. Genghis Khan, Henry Hudson, Heroes (by David Bowie and Brian Eno). Klaus Nomi (1944-83), Klaus Nomi (album) (debut); incl. The Twist, You Don't Own Me. Luigi Nono (1924-90), Diario Polacco II; indicts Soviet Cold War tyranny. Gary Numan (1958-), Dance (album #3) (Sept.) (#3 in the U.K.); incl. She's Got Claws, Stormtrooper in Drag (w/Paul Gardiner). Hall & Oates, Private Eyes (album #10) (Sept. 1); incl. Private Eyes (#1 in the U.S.), I Can't Go for That (No Can Do), Did It in a Minute. Billy Ocean (1950-), Nights (Feel Like Getting Down) (album #3) (#152 in the U.S.). Midnight Oil, Place Without a Postcard (album #4); incl. Don't Wanna Be the One, Armistice Day, Burnie. Oingo Boingo, Only A Lad (album) (debut) (June 19); incl. Capitalism. OMD (Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark), Architecture & Morality (album #3) (Oct. 30); sells 3M copies; incl. Souvenir, Joan of Arc (Maid of Orleans). Yoko Ono (1933-), Season of Glass (album) (June 8); album cover shows John Lennon's bloody shattered eyeglasses next to a half-filled glass of water and a window overlooking Central Park in the background; features her son Sean Ono Lennon (1975-) reciting a story his daddy John told him; incl. Goodbye Sadness, No, No, No. New Order, Movement (album) (debut) (Nov.); formerly Joy Division, after May 1980 suicide of Ian Curtis; incl. Temptation Ceremony, Doubts Even Here, Dreams Never End, Everything's Gone Green. Ozzy Osbourne (1948-), Diary of a Madman (album) (Nov. 7); incl. Diary of a Madman, Flying High Again, Over the Mountain, S.A.T.O. Dolly Parton (1946-), Nine to Five (9 to 5) (#1 in the U.S.); from the 1980 film; a triple #1 hit (pop, adult contemporary, country). Teddy Pendergrass (1950-2010), It's Time for Love (album); incl. I Can't Live Without Your Love. Humble Pie, Go for the Throat (album #12). Pointer Sisters, Black & White (album #8) (#13 in the U.S.); incl. Slow Hand (#2 in the U.S.), Should I Do It (#13 in the U.S.). The Police, Ghost in the Machine (album #4) (Oct. 2); title comes from Arthur Koestler's "The Ghost in the Machine"; incl. Spirits in the Material World, Invisible Sun, Every Little Thing She Does Is Magic, Demolition Man, Secret Journey. Jean-Luc Ponty (1942-) and Frank Zappa (1940-93), Shut Up 'n Play Yer Guitar (album); incl. Canard du Jour; Mystical Adventures (album). Iggy Pop (1947-), Party (album) (June). Pretenders, Extended Play (album) (Mar. 30); Pretenders II (album #2) (Aug. 15). Billy Preston (1946-2006), The Way I Am (album #14) (Nov. 10). Judas Priest, Point of Entry (album #7) (Feb. 26); incl. Don't Go, Hot Rockin', Heading Out to the Highway. Prince (1958-2016), Controversy (album #4) (Oct. 14); incl. "Private Joy", "Annie Christian", Do Me, Baby, Let's Work, Jack U Off (mutual masturbation). Pure Prairie League, Something in the Night (album #10) (#72 in the U.S.); incl. Still Right Here in My Heart (#28 in the U.S.). Quarterflash, Quarterflash (album) (debut) (Oct. 20) (#8 in the U.S.) (1M copies); from Portland, Ore., incl. Rindy Ross (vocals), Marv Ross (guitar), Jack Charles (guitar), Rick DiGiallonardo (keyboards), Rich Gooch (drums), Brian David Willis (drums); incl. Harden My Heart (#3 in the U.S.), Find Another Fool (#16 in the U.S.). Queen, Greatest Hits (album) (1974-81) (Nov. 8); best-selling album of all time in the U.K. (until ?). Queen and David Bowie (1947-2016), Under Pressure. Eddie Rabbitt (1941-98), Step by Step (album #7) (July 31) (#23 in the U.S.); incl. Someone Could Lose a Heart Tonight (#15 in the U.S.), I Don't Know Where to Start (#35 in the U.S.). Grand Funk Railroad, Grand Funk Lives (album) (July); first since disbanding in 1976. Rainbow, Difficult to Cure (album #5) (Feb. 3); their "Foreigner Junior" period (Ronnie James Dio); first with vocalist Joe Lynn Turner (Joseph Arthur Mark Linquito) (1951-) of Fandango; incl. Jealous Lover (#3 in the U.K.). The Ramones, Pleasant Dreams (album #6) (July 29); incl. The KKK Took My Baby Away. Steve Reich (1936-), Tehillim (Psalms); goes from minimalist back to his Jewish roots. R.E.M., Radio Free Europe (debut); Raging Eternal Miasma?; from Athens, Ga., incl. Michael Stipe (1960-) (vocals), Peter Lawrence Buck (1956-) (guitar), Michael Edward "Mike" Mills (1958-) (bass), William Thomas "Bill" Berry (1958-) (drums); introduces their trademark unintelligible lyrics. The Replacements, Sorry Ma, Forgot to Take Out the Trash (album) (debut) (Aug. 25); from South Minneapolis, Minn.; incl. Paul Westerberg (vocals), Bob Stinson (guitar), Tommy Stinson (bass), and Chris Mars (drums); incl. I'm in Trouble. Lionel Richie (1949-) and Diana Ross (1944-), Endless Love; from the 1981 film. Little River Band, Time Exposure (album #5). Kenny Rogers (1938-), Share Your Love (album #9); incl. Share Your Love With Me, I Don't Need You (#3 in the U.S.), Through the Years, Blaze of Glory; Christmas (album). The Romantics, Strictly Personal (album #3) (Oct.). Rush, Moving Pictures (album #8) (Feb. 7); incl. Tom Sawyer, Red Barchetta, Limelight; Exit... Stage Left (album) (Oct.). Black Sabbath, Mob Rules (album #10) (Nov. 4); Vinny Appice replaces Bill Ward on drums, which Ozzy Osbourne calls "Geezer and the three Wops"; the cover art contains the hidden message "Kill Ozzy"?; incl. The Mob Rules, Turn Up the Night. New Riders of the Purple Sage, Feelin' All Right (album #10). Pharoah Sanders (1940-), Rejoice (album); incl. High Life. Saxon, Denim and Leather (album #4) (Oct. 5); incl. And the Bands Played On, Princess of the Night. A Flock of Seagulls, Modern Love is Automatic (album) (debut); from Liverpool, England, incl. Michael "Mike" Score (1957-) (vocals, keyboards), Paul Reynolds (1962-) (guitar) (known for wearing large white eyeglasses), Alister James "Ali" Score (drums), and Frank Maudsley (bass). Del Shannon (1934-90), Sea of Love (Dec.) (#33 in the U.S.). Carly Simon (1945-), Torch (album #10) (Aug. 1); divorces James Taylor in Sept. Sister Sledge, All American Girls (album #5); incl. All American Girls (#79 in the U.S., #41 in the U.K.), Next Time You'll Know. The Slits, Return of the Giant Slits (album #3) (Oct.); Earthbeat (Dec.). Spizzenergi, Spikey Dream Flower (album #2) (Apr.). Steppenwolf, Live in London (album). Ringo Starr (1940-), Stop and Smell the Roses (album #8) (Nov. 2) (#98 in the U.S.); incl. Wrack My Brain (#38 in the U.S.) (last U.S. top-40 hit). Status Quo, Never Too Late (album #14) (Mar.). Rod Stewart (1945-), Tonight I'm Yours (album) (Nov. 6); incl. Tonight I'm Yours (Don't Hurt Me), Young Turks, How Long? Rolling Stones, Sucking in the Seventies (album) (Mar. 12); Tattoo You (album #18) (Aug. 24) (last to reach #1 in the U.S. - first was "Sticky Fingers" in 1971); incl. Start Me Up, Hang Fire, Slave (with Sonny Rollins), Little T&A , Black Limousine, Neighbours, Worried About You, Waiting on a Friend. George Strait (1952-), Strait Country (Sept. 4) (album) (debut) (MCA Records); incl. Unwound (#6 country) (written by Dean Dillon and Frank Dycus), If You're Thinking You Want a Stranger (There's One Coming Home) (#3 country). launches his record-setting career as "the King of Country" and "King George", going on to surpass Conway Twitty's record 40 Billboard country #1 singles in 2009 with 44, ramping up to 60+ and selling 100M records. Styx, Paradise Theatre (album #10) (Jan.) (#1 in the U.S.); their biggest hit; about a theater in Chicago; incl. Rockin' the Paradise, The Best of Times (#3 in the U.S.), Too Much Time on My Hands (#9 in the U.S.), Snowblind (accused of containing Satanic messages). Donna Summer (1948-2012), I'm a Rainbow (album #10) (double album); not released until Aug. 20, 1996. Survivor, Premonition (album #2); incl. Poor Man's Son, Summer Nights. Taco (Ockerse) (1955-), Puttin' On the Ritz (#3 in the U.S.) (1M copies). James Taylor (1948-), Dad Loves His Work (album #10) (Mar.). Roger Taylor (1949-), Fun In Space (album); incl. Fun In Space. Mel Tillis (1932-), Your Body is an Outlaw (#3 country). The Four Tops, Tonight! (album). Toto, Turn Back (album #3) (Jan.); sells 900K copies. Tommy Tutone, Tommy Tutone 2 (album); incl. 867-5309/Jenny. Thompson Twins, A Product of... (Participation) (album) (debut) (June); named after bumbling dicks Thomson and Thomson in Herge's "The Adventures of Tintin"; from England, incl. Tom Bailey (1953-) (bass, vocals), Pete Dodd (guitar, vocals), Alannah Joy Currie (1957-) (vocals), John Roog (guitar), Chris Bell (drums), Joe Leeway (congas), and Jane Shorter (sax). Bonnie Tyler (1951-), Goodbye to the Island (album #4). U2, October (album #2) (Oct. 21) (#11 in the U.K., 104 in the U.S.); about the conflict between rock and roll and their Christian taith; "It's about God" (Bono); incl. Gloria, With a Shout (Jerusalem), Tomorrow. The Undertones, Positive Touch (album #3) (May) (#17 in the U.K.); incl. It's Going to Happen (#18 in the U.K.), Julie Ocean (#41 in the U.K.). Vangelis (1943-), Chariots of Fire Soundtrack (album) (Apr.); incl. Chariots of Fire Theme (#1 in the U.S.), Jerusalem. The Vapors, Magnets (album #2); poor sales cause the group to vaporize?; incl. Magnets. The Ventures, 60's Pops (album). Romeo Void, It's a Condition (album) (debut) (July); from San Francisco, Calif., incl. Debora Kay Iyall (1954-) (vocals). Wall of Voodoo, Dark Continent (album #2) (Aug. 18) (#177 in the U.S.). Joe Walsh (1947-), There Goes the Neighborhood (album #5) (Mar. 10); incl. A Life of Illusion, Rivers (of the Hidden Funk). Mary Wells (1943-92), Gigolo. Whitesnake, Come an' Get It (album #5) (Apr. 11); incl. Don't Break My Heart Again, Wine, Women An' Song, Would I Lie to You. The Who, Face Dances (album #9) (Mar. 16); new drummer Kenney Jones; incl. You Better You Bet. Kim Wilde (1960-), Kids in America. Men at Work, Who Can It Be Now? (debut); from Australia, incl. Colin James Hay (1953-) (vocals), Ron Strykert (1957-) (vocals), Greg Ham (1953-) (keyboards, sax), Jerry Speiser (1953-) (drums); Business As Usual (album) (debut) (Nov. 9) (#1 in the U.S. and U.K.) (first to have simultaneous #1 album and #1 single in the U.S. and U.K.) (15M copies); incl. Who Can It Be Now?, Be Good Johnny, (Land) Down Under (#1 in U.S. and U.K.); successfully sued in 2010 for violating the 1934 copyright of Marion Sinclair (1895-1988) for "Kookaburra Sits in the Old Gum Tree". Bow Wow Wow, See Jungle! See Jungle! Go Join Your Gang, Yeah. City All Over! Go Ape Crazy (album #2) (#192 in the U.S.). (Oct.); from England, incl. Annabella Lwin (Myint Myint Aye) ("high high cool") (1966-) (Burmese father, English mother). Tammy Wynette (1942-98), You Brought Me Back (album); incl. Cowboys Don't Shoot Straight (Like They Used To). Generation X, Kiss Me Deadly (album #3); Billy Idol (1955-), Tony James; incl. Dancing With Myself (about masturbation?), which is redone by Billy Idol when he goes solo this year. Yello, Claro Que Si (album #2); incl. The Evening's Young. Neil Young (1945-) and Crazy Horse, Re-ac-tor (album) (Oct. 28); incl. Surfer Joe and Moe the Sleaze, T-Bone. Frank Zappa (1940-93), Tinseltown Rebellion (double album) (May 17); incl. Fine Girl, Brown Shoes Don't Make It, Peaches III; Shut Up 'n Play Yer Guitar (triple album) (May 11); You Are What You Is (double album) (Sept. 23); incl. You Are What You Is (video features a Ronald Reagan lookalike in an electric chair, along with the lyric "I ain't no nigger no more"). Movies: A good year for action flicks? Jean-Claude Tramont's All Night Long (Mar. 6) is a comedy starring Gene Hackman as middle age George Dupler, who throws a temper tantrum in his boss' office and is demoted to midnight shift mgr. of an all-night pharmacy/convenience store, hooking up with Cheryl (Barbra Streisand). John Landis' An American Werewolf in London (Aug. 21) (PolyGram Pictures) (Gruber-Peters Co.) (Universal Pictures), filmed in Wales and Surrey, England stars David Naughton as David Kessler, and Griffin Dunne as Jack Goodman, two Yank college students who decide to go on a hike in the Yorkshire Moors and get mixed up with werewolves, who kill Jack and turn David into one, after which he is taken to a London hospital where he hooks up with hot Nurse Alex Price (Jenny Agutter); does $62M box office on a $10M budget; followed by "An American Werewolf in Paris" (1997). Steve Gordon's Arthur (July 17) stars Dudley Moore as spoiled alcoholic "world's richest playboy" Arthur Bach, who stands to lose everything if he scorns his planned marriage to heiress Susan Johnson (Jill Eikenberry) for poor waitress Linda Marolla (Liza Minnelli), while his butler Hobson (John Gielgud) tries to hold him together; score by Burt Bacharach incl. Arthur's Theme, sung by Christopher Cross; "I race cars. I play tennis. I fondle women, but I have the weekends off and I am my own boss." Lawrence Kasdan's Body Heat (Aug. 28) (The Ladd Co.) (Warner Bros.) makes stars of still-straight-in-Hollyweird William McChord Hurt (1950-) (as Ned Racine) and raspy-voiced Kathleen Turner (1954-) (as Matty Walker) (film debut); Mary Ann Simpson assumes the identity of Matty Tyler to marry a rich man, kill him, get the money, and frame incompetent lawyer Racine after seducing him; Mickey Rourke is an arsonist, and Ted Danson does a soft shoe; Turner, tired of being a vamp on the TV soap "The Doctors" wows Kasdan by staging an impromptu drunk scene and hurling an ashtray?; does $24M box office on a $9M budget; Turner is paid only $27.5K and has to wait tables in New York City for 8 mo. until the movie opens? Carl Gottlieb's Caveman (Apr. 17), filmed in Zacatecas, Mexico stars Ringo Starr as Atouk, who fights Lar (Dennis Quaid) and Tonda (John Matuszak) for Lana, played by bodacious Barbara Bach (Goldbach) (1947-), who marries Ringo on Apr. 27. George Schafer's The Bunker (Jan. 27), a CBS-TV movie based on the 1975 book by James P. O'Donnell stars Anthony Hopkins as Adolf Hitler, who wows fellow actors with his performance, causing those playing German soldiers to snap to attention when he arrives on the set. Hugh Hudson's Chariots of Fire (Mar. 30) (Warner Bros.) (his first dramatic film) (title comes from the William Blake poem "Jerusalem": "Bring me my Chariot of fire", based on 2 Kings 2:11, 6:17) tells the behind-the-scenes story of the 1924 Paris Olympics, starring London, England-born Harry Bernard "Ben" Cross (1947-) (non-Jewish, obviously?) as Jewish English chip-on-shoulder runner Harold Abrahams, and Glasgow, Scotland-born Ian Charleson (1949-90) as Christian Scottish runner Eric Liddell, who run for religious and personal reasons, with every supporting actor hitting all cylinders, incl. Ian Holm (1931-) as half-Italian half-Arab trainer Sam Mussabini, Upington, South Africa-born Alice Maud Krige (1954-) as Abraham's opera star babe Sybil Gordon, Nigel Allan Havers (1951-) as ultra-pampered blonde Anglo-Saxon Lord Andrew Lindsay, Essex, England-born Nicholas Farrell (Frost) (1955-)) (film debut) as "my complete man" Aubrey Montague (the narrator, based on real letters he wrote), Robert Creel "Brad" Davis (1949-91) and squeaky-voiced Dennis Christopher (Carreli) (1955-) as Am. superstar athletes Jackson Scholz and Charles Paddock, Cheryl Campbell (1949-) as Liddell's monomaniac sister Jennie, Arthur John Gielgud (1904-2000) and Lindsay Gordon Anderson (1923-1994) as the snobby English masters of Trinity and Caius (pr. like keys) Colleges, and Arthur Nigel Davenport (1928-2013) as Lord Birkenhead, all to cool electronic music by Greek composer Vangelis (Evangelos Odysseas Papathanassiou) (1943-), whose father was a runner, starting a trend; the climax is Liddell refusing to run on Sunday, hanky please; yes, they shot on Sundays; they have to use period costumes from "Reds", which gets behind schedule, causing a crunch; in real life Charleson is faster than Cross; sales start out er, slow until Christian orgs. begin showing it, after which a glowing review by Roger Ebert gets it going, and the portrayal of English discrimination against Jews turns on Am. black audiences, taking it over the top at the box office, and it ends up doing $58.9M box office on a £3M budget; costumes by Melena Canonero; at the beginning they put the word "shit" into the script to get a PG rating to make more money; one of the first uses of steady-cam; after the real Cambridge U. refuses them permission, they film at Eaton; "I believe in the pursuit of excellence, and I'll carry the future of me" (Cross); "Well, there goes your Semite, Hugh. A different god, a different mountaintop" (Gielgud); the greatest pure non-gimmicky religious movie of all time?; on TLW's all-time top-5 list; first release by British film co. Goldcrest Films (founded 1977), followed by "Escape from New York" (1981), "Gandhi" (1982), and "The Killing Fields" (1984); executive producer is Egyptian-born Emad El-Din Mohamed Abdel Moneim "Dodi" Fayed (1955-97), later known as the last beau of Princess Diana; "I know God made me for a purpose, but I also know he made me fast." Volker Schlondorff's Circle of Deceit stars Bruno Ganz and Hanna Shygulla. Michael Apted's Continental Divide (Sept. 18) stars John Belushi as a Chicago journalist who falls for eagle researcher Nell Porter (Blair Brown) in the Rocky Mts. Bertrand Tavernier's Coup de Torchon stars Philippe Noiret and Isabelle Huppert. Jean-Jacques Beineix's Diva (Mar. 11), based on a novel by Daniel Odier star Frederic Andrew as a French postal worker who is smitten with African-Am. soprano Wilhelmenia Wiggins Fernandez (Jessye Norman?), and is sucked into a vortex of opera, Zen, dirty cops, and Taiwanese pirates; dir. debut of French dir. Jean-Jacques Beineix (1946-). Matthew Robbin's Dragonslayer (June 26) (a Disney film, becoming controversial for its violence) stars Peter MacNicol (1954-) in his film debut as Galen Bradwarden, young apprentice of old sorcerer Ulrich of Craggenmoor (Sir Ralph Richardson), who must slay 400-y.o. dragon Vermithrax Pejorative for 6th cent. King Casiodorus of Urland (Peter Eyre) while courting cross-dressing love babe Valerian (Caitlin Clarke); Sydney Bromley plays Ulrich's elderly servant Hodge; John Hallam plays mean centurion Tyrian; Ian McDiarmid plays village priest Brother Jacopus; Chloe Salaman plays Princess Elspeth; Albert Salmi plays Greil; both Richardson and Bromley kick off by 1987. Shohei Imamura's Eijanaka stars Shigeru Izumiya in the days leading to the Meiji Restoration of 1868. Franco Zeffirelli's Endless Love (July 17), based on the 1979 novel by Scott Spencer stars hot Brooke Shields as Jade Buttefield, and Martin Hewitt as David Axelrod, who fall in love after being introduced by Jade's brother Keith (James Spader), becoming the film debut of Tom Cruise (Thomas Cruise Mapother IV) (1962-); does $32.5M box office; the Endless Love Theme by Diana Ross and Lionel Richie is a #1 hit in the U.S., and Ross' best-selling single of her career. John Carpenter's Escape from New York (July 10) (AVCO Embassy Pictures), set in 1997 stars Kurt Russell as leather-clad eye-patched Snake Plissken, a disgraced war hero given 24 hours to rescue the even more snaky U.S. Pres. (Donald Pleasance) being held hostage in a future Manhattan, which has been turned into a no-escape prison controlled by felons; so campy and corny that it's good?; Russell, king of grade B action movies keeps a straight face regardless?; does $25.2M box office on a $6M budget; the Aug. 9, 1996 sequel (a bomb) Escape from L.A. features Russell wearing the same tight leather outfit, which still fits?; Sam Raimi's The Evil Dead (Oct. 15) (Renaissance Pictures) (New Line Cinema) is a "splatstick" about four Mich. State U. students led by Ash Williams (Bruce Campbell), who vacation in an isolated cabin in rural Tenn., where they find the Naturan Demanto, a Sumerian version of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, which resurrects a demonic being who gives them hell; does $2.4M box office on a $400K budget, going on to become the #1 cult horror film of all time?; followed by "Evil Dead II" (1987), "Army of Darkness" (1992). John Boorman's Excalibur (Apr. 10) (Orion Pictures) (Warner Bros.) retells the King Arthur legend in style, starring Nigel Terry as Arthur, Nicol Williamson as Merlin, Cherie Lunghi as Guenevere, Nicholas Clay as Lancelot, Helen Mirren as Morgana Le Fay, Patrick Stewart as King Leondegrance, and Liam Neeson as Sir Gawain; film debut of Irish actor Ciaran (Ciarán) Hinds (1953-) as King Lot; does $35M box office on an $11M budget; features Richard Wagner's Funeral March from "Gotterdämmerung", Act III. Ronald Neame's First Monday in October (Aug. 21), based on a play by Jerome Lawrence and Robert E. Lee stars Jill Clayburgh as Ruth Loomis, the first U.S. woman Supreme Court justice; also stars Walter Matthau as justice Daniel Snow, and Barnard Hughes as chief justice James Jefferson Crawford. Werner Herzog's Fitzcarraldo stars tow-headed German Klaus Kinski, who brings opera to backward Indians in Iquitos, Peru. Arthur Penn's Four Friends (Dec. 11), a semi-autobio. flick written by Steve Tesich stars Craig Wasson as Yugoslavian-born Long Island teenie Danilo Prozor, Jim Metzler as WASP jock Tom, Michael Huddleston as Jewish mama's boy David, and Jodi Thelen as free spirited Georgia Miles, who hooks up with all three in turn as they grow up in the 1960s; film debut of Glenne Headly as Lola; "From immigrant passions fired in steel mills... to the icy power of the super-rich." Daniel Petrie's Fort Apache, the Bronx (Feb. 6), set in South Bronx, N.Y., run by the crime-ridden NYPD 41st precinct stars Paul Newman, Ken Wahl, Ed Asnwer, Danny Aiello, and gay playwright Miguel Pinero. John Glen's For Your Eyes Only (June 24) (Eon Productions) (United Artists) (James Bond 007 film #12) (#5 with Roger Moore), starring Topol as good guy Milos Columbo, cool-eyed Carole Bouquet as Bond girl Melina Havelock, Julian Glover as bad guy Aristotle Kristatos, and hot Lynn-Holly Johnson as Olympic skater and bed-bunny Bibi Dahl, in a Cold War spy game involving the British ATAC missile command system; the For Your Eyes Only Theme is sung by sexy Sheena Easton, who becomes the first singer shown singing a Bond theme song until 1995; another version by Blondie is rejected; the first of five 007 films dir. by Glen; does $195.3M box office on a $28M budget, saving United Artists from bankruptcy after the 1980 "Heaven's Gate" disaster, after which they merge with MGM and concentrate on blockbusters; since Bernard Lee, who plays M is sick, the script it changed to say that he is on leave, and the confession booth meeting with 007 is changed to Q. Karel Reisz' The French Lieutenant's Woman (Sept. 18), adapted by Harold Pinter from the 1969 John Fowles novel stars Meryl Streep and Jeremy Irons as actors Anna and Mike, who transform into their 19th cent. English chars. Sarahand Charles Henry Smithson. Bruce D. Clark's Galaxy of Terror (Mindwarp) (Oct.), produced by Roger Corman stars Edward Albert as Cabren, leader of a space expedition to Morganthus on the Quest, Erin Moran as empath Alluma, Ray Walston as cook Kore, and Grace Zabriskie as Capt. Trantor, who are forced to crash by a mysterious force; brings in $4M on a $1.8M budget. Peter Weir's Gallipoli (Aug. 13) (Village Roadshow) (Paramount Pictures) (Cinema Internat. Corp.), about the scandalous Allied Gallipoli campaign in WWI stars hunk Mel Gibson as unemployed railroad worker Frank Dunne, and Mark Lee as prize-winning sprinter and stockman Archie Hamilton, who enlist in infantryand end up losing their innocence; does $11.7M box office on a $2.8M budget. Ghost Story (Dec. 18) (Universal Pictures), set in winter 1979 in a peaceful New England village stars Fred Astaire as Ricky Hawthorne, Melvyn Douglas as Dr. John Jaffrey, Douglas Fairbanks Jr. as Edward Charles Wanderley, and John Houseman as Sears James, four old fart members of the Chowder Society, who like to tell horror stories to each other, and father to discuss the late Eva Galli (Alice Krige), who they killed in 1929 (drowned alive in a car in a lake), and whose ghost is haunting them; last film featuring Astaire, Fairbanks, and Douglas, who dies on Aug. 4; does $23.37M box office. Bill Forsyth's Gregory's Girl (Apr. 23) (ITC Entertainment), set in a state secondary school in Abronhill, Cumbernauld, Scotland stars John Gordon Sinclair as h.s. soccer player Gregory Underwood, and Dee Hepburn as female player Dorothy, whom all the boys want to make the team so they can make her; Clare Grogan plays Dorothy's friend Susan; does £25.7M box office on a £200K budget. James Szalapski's Heartworn Highways (May 13) (Warner Bros.) documents the Outlaw Country movement in Nashville in late 1975 and early 1976, incl. David Allan Coe, Guy Clark, Rodney Crowell, Charlie Daniels, Steve Earle, Gamble Rogers, Larry Jon Wilson, Steve Young, and Townes Van Zandt. Moshe Mizrahi's I Sent a Letter to My Love, based on a novel by Bernice Rubens stars Simone Signoret as a middle-aged woman who needs love and is stuck caring for her paraplegic brother Jean Rochefort, getting into a pen-pal romance. Andrzej Wajda's Man of Iron, about the Polish Solidarity movement stars Jerzy Radziwilowicz as Maciej Tomczyk, and Lech Walesa as himself. Margarethe von Trotta's Marianne and Juliane (Die Bleierne Zeit) (The Leaden Times) (The German Sisters), a bout the Italian Years of Lead stars Barbara Sukowa and Jutta Lampe as German sisters Marianne (Gudrun Ensslin) (a Red Army Faction member) and Juliane (Christine Ensslin) (a reporter) in 1968. Jonathan Demme's Melvin and Howard (Sept. 19) stars Paul Le Mat as dumb-and-dumber Melvin Dummar, and Jason Robards as billionaire nutburger Howard Hughes; Mary Steenburgen plays first wife and alleged Hughes heir Lynda Dummar. Frank Perry's Mommie Dearest (Sept. 18), based on the book by Christina Crawford stars Faye Dunawaye doing Joan Crawford in such an over-the-top fashion that it inspires a cult of gay men who watch it just to clap when she dishes abuse to her adopted daughter? George Mihalka's My Bloody Valentine (Feb. 11) is a slasher film set in Valentine Bluffs, where a methane gas explosion at Hanniger Coal Mine traps five miners, and only Harry Warden survives by eating them and going mad, then escapes the mental institution on Valentine's Day and kills and eats the heart of the foreman whose negligence trapped them; after young miners defy a warning never to celebrate you know what again, a slasher in mining gear terrorizes them; refilmed in 2009. Louis Malle's My Dinner With Andre (Oct. 11) stars Andre Gregory as a globetrotting spiritual pilgrim Manhattan Project theater dir., and Wallace Shawn as a bumbling failed actor-playwright in the most interesting 2-hour philosophical artsy-fartsy restaurant dinner conversation in film history until ? - roast and blend, or vice-versa? John G. Avildsen's Neighbors (Dec. 18), based on the 1980 novel by Thomas Berger stars John Belushi as Earl, who gets into a war with his neighbors Vic and Ramona, played by Dan Aykroyd and Cathy Moriarty. Bruce Malmuth's Nighthawks (Apr. 4) stars Sylvester Stallone as an intelligent cop for once in an exciting hunt for internat. terrorist Wulfgar (Belgian pretty-boy actor Rutger Hauer in his U.S. screen debut) who brings terrorism to U.S. shores (NYC); Billy Dee Williams plays Stallone's Man Friday, er, partner, Bionic Woman Lindsay Wagner his babe, Nigel Davenport the all-so-British terrorism expert, and Persis Khambatta Hauer's exotic terrorist babe, who never has hot flashes except out of the barrel of her gun? Mark Rydell's On Golden Pond (Dec. 4), based on the play by Ernest Thompson and filmed on Babe Paley's Kiluna North Estate on Squam Lake, N.H. stars Henry Fonda and Katharine Hepburn as old farts Norman and Ethel Thayer, and Jane Fonda as their estranged daughter Chelsea Thayer Wayne, who battle out their gripes at Great Pond, Belgrade, Maine, allegedly mirroring their real lives; Henry wears Spencer Tracy's lucky hat, which Kate gives him, since they never met before filming; grosses $118M (#2). Peter Hyams' Outland (May 22) stars Sean Connery as Marshal William T. O'Niel, Peter Boyle as Mark Sheppard, and Frances Sternhagen as Dr. Lazarus in a remake of "High Noon" set on Io; does $20M box officeon a $16M budget. Hector Babenco's Pixote (May 5), based on the book "The Childhood of the Dead Ones" by Jose Louzeiro is a documentary of Brazil's delinquent youth, starring Fernando Ramos da Silva and Marilia Pera. John Waters' Polyester (May 29) stars Divine as troubled suburban Baltimore housewife Francine Fishpaw, who runs a sleazy movie theater, while her daughter performs lewd dances in the high school cafeteria for money; resurfaces forgotten gay actor Tab Hunter in an offbeat "Father Knows Best gone berserk", filmed in Odorama, complete with scratch-n-sniff cards given to the audience. Milos Forman's Ragtime (Nov. 20), produced by Dino di Laurentiis based on the 1975 E.L. Doctorow novel about racist 1906 America during the 1906 Evelyn Nesbit-Harry K. Thaw scandal is James Cagney's last film performance as police commissioner Rheinlander Waldo; Elizabeth McGovern plays Evelyn Nesbit, Robert Joy plays Thaw, and Howard E. Rollins Jr. plays black ragtime pianist Coalhouse Walker Jr.; also features Mandy Patinkin and Mary Steenburgen. Steven Spielberg's Raiders of the Lost Ark (June 12) (Paramount Pictures) becomes a quantum leap in action movies, making Chicago, Ill.-born Harrison Ford (1942-), who plays ophidiophobic (snake-loathing) Indiana Jones (after Tom Selleck turns it down) a household name as he and his colleague Marcus Brody (Denholm Elliott) and Egyptian sidekick Sallah (John Rhys-Davies) (after Danny DeVito turn it down) and feisty jilted girlfriend Marian Ravenwood (Karen Allen) battle rival French archeologist Rene Belloq (Paul Freeman) and a nasty bunch of Nazis incl. Wolf Kahler as sadistic Col. Dietrich, and Ronald Lacy as Maj. Arnold Toht in the 1930s to gain control of the fabled Jewish Ark of the Covenant; Alfred Molina plays Satipo; the first 3 min. has more action than most other movies, and it ramps up from there, exhausting every plot trick and never suffering from a boring moment where people just stand around or walk or talk; George Harris plays Katanga; Terry Richards plays the swordsman whom Indy shoots; the booby-trapped Peruvian temple and Amazonian jungle are portrayed by Kipu Ranch and the Anahola Mts. in Kauai, Hawaii; shot in 73 days for $18M; #1 film of the year, grossing $242M in the U.S. and $389.9M worldwide on an $18M budget. Warren Beatty's Reds (Dec. 4) portrays the life of "Ten Days that Shook the World" author John Reed, his girlfriend Louise Bryant (Diane Keaton), his efforts to start a U.S. Communist Party, and his reporting of the Russian Rev.; Maureen Stapleton plays Emma Goldman; George Jessel (d. 1981) appears as himself in his last screen appearance; Jack Nicholson plays Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953), causing his estranged daughter (since 1943) Oona O'Neill Chaplin to write him a letter saying "Thanks to you, I now can love my father." George Miller's The Road Warrior (Mad Max 2) (Dec. 24) a futuristic take on the Last of the Mohicans starring Mel Gibson as Mad Max Rockatansky climaxes with one of the most exciting chase scenes ever, and virtually creates the action-adventure pic of the 1980s; co-stars Emil Minty as the Feral Kid, Mike Preston as Pappagallo, Vernon Wells as Wez, Max Phipps as the Toadie, Bruce Spence as the Gyro Captain, and Swedish-born Kjell Nilsson as facemask-wearing radiation-scarred bodybuilder Lord Humungus; a parable of the peaceful civilized Jews trying to survive while surrounded by a sea of barbaric Palestinians?; does $23.7M U.S. box office on a $10.8M budget; preceded by "Mad Max" (1979); followed by "Mad Max Beyond Thunderdome" (1985). David Cronenberg's Scanners (Jan. 14) stars Jennifer O'Neill, Stephen Lack, Michael Ironside, and Patrick McGoohan in a sci-fi yarn about people with telepathic powers that can make peoples' heads explode; "There are 4 billion people on earth. 237 are Scanners. They have the most terrifying powers ever created... and they are winning." Jim Sharman's Shock Treatment (Oct. 30), a sequel to "The Rocky Horror Picture Show" stars Cliff De Young as Brad Majors, and Jessica Harper as Janet Majors, who find out that Denton, USA has been encased in a TV studio for the DTV network, owned by fast food king Farley Flavors (De Young). Kenji Misumi's Shogun Assassin is a gory samurai flick selected from the "Lone Wolf and Cub" series, starring Tomisaburo Wakiyama as widowed samurai Ogami Itto, who travels with his young son Daigoro in a lethal trick baby cart while slicing and dicing. Ivan Reitman's Stripes (June 26) (Columbia) stars Bill Murray, Harold Ramis, John Candy, and Warren Oates in a comedy about boot camp at Ft. Arnold; does $85M box office on a $10M budget. Richard Lester's Superman II (2) (June 19) pisses-off anti-smoking activists after Marlboro pays big bucks to be prominently featured; otherwise it's a rare sequel that's as good as the original; grosses $108M (#3). Harold Becker's Taps (Dec. 18), based on the 1979 Devery Freeman novel "Father Sky" about Bunker Hill Military Academy's war with the Nat. Guard stars George C. Scott as Brig Gen. Harlan Bache, Timothy Hutton as Cadet Maj. Brian Moreland, Ronny Cox as Col. Kerby, and Tom Cruise as Cadet Capt. David Shawn, and is the film debut of Sean Justin Penn (1960-) as Cadet Capt. Alex Dwyer; does $35M box office on a $14M budget. Ralph L. Thomas' Ticket to Heaven (Sept. 10) is about a man who is recruited into a cult then forcibly freed and deprogrammed by his friends. Terry Gilliam's Time Bandits (July 10) (HandMade Films) (Avco Embassy Pictures) is a fantasy film starring Kevin Warnock as 11-y.-o. Kevin, who travels from his bedroom back in time using a magic map, meeting Napoleon (Ian Holm), King Agamemnon (Sean Connery), Robin Hood (John Cleese), Pansy (Shelley Duvall), Winston the Ogre (Peter Vaughn), Mrs. Ogre (Katherine Helmond), Vincent (Michael Palin), the Supreme Being (Ralph Richardson), and Evil (David Warner); does $42.4M box office on a $5M budget; first of Gilliam's Trilogy of Imagination, incl. "Brazil" (1985) and "The Adventures of Baron Munchausen" (1988). Austin Chambers' The Wave (Oct. 4), based on Ron Jones' "The Third Wave" experiment stars Bruce Davison as teacher Ben Ross, who turns his school into a mini-Nazi Germany in an experiment gone awry. Shohei Imamura's What the Hell stars Yohei Koono and Shigeru Tsuyuguchi. John Badham's Whose Life Is It Anyway? stars Richard Dreyfuss as artist Ken Harrison, who gets in an auto accident and ends up paralyzed, meeting up with Dr. Michael Emerson (John Cassavetes) and going on trial to be allowed to die. Michael Wadleigh's Wolfen (July 24) (Orion Pictures) (Warner Bros.), based on Whitley Strieber's 1978 novel "The Wolfen" stars Albert Finney as NYPD det. Dewey Wilson, who partners with pshrink Rebecca Neff (Diane Venora) to investigate a string of violent murders in Battery Park and discovers a pack of werewolves led by Old Indian (Dehl Berti), who are higher on the food chain than humans and cull the herd while remaining invisible; does $10.6M box office on a $17M budget. Francois Truffaut's The Woman Next Door (La Femma d'a Cote) (Sept. 30), about married former lovers moving in next door to each other stars Gerard Depardieu as Bernard Coudray, and makes a star out of Truffaut's babe Fanny Ardant (as Mathilde Bauchard). Plays: Jean Anouilh (1910-87), Le Nombril (The Navel). Samuel Beckett (1906-89), Rockaby (State U. of New York at Buffalo, Apr. 8); stars Billie Whitelaw; Ohio Impromptu (Stadium II Theater) (May 9). Howard Brenton (1942-), Thirteenth Night. Jerome Chodorov (1911-2004) and Norman Panama (1914-2003), A Talent for Murder (Biltmore Theater, New York) (Oct. 1) (77 perf.); stars Claudette Colbert, Jean-Pierre Aumont. Caryl Churchill (1938-), Cloud Nine (New York); the British colonial effect on Africans. Bill C. Davis, Mass Appeal (Booth Theatre, New York) (Nov. 12) (212 perf.); stars Milo O'Shea and Michael O'Keefe. Nell Dunn (1936-), Steaming (Theatre Royal, London) (July 1); three women meet in a steam room and fight to keep it from being closed; filmed in 1985. Per Olov Enquist (1934-), Rain Snakes (Fran Regnormarnas Liv). Tom Eyen (1940-91) and Henry Krieger (1945-), Dreamgirls (musical) (Imperial Theatre, New York) (Dec. 21) (1,522 perf.) (Ambassador Theatre Group, London) (Dec. 14, 2016); stars Jennifer Holliday in a story of the African-Am. female singing trio from Chicago called the Dreams; filmed in 2006 by Bill Condon starring Jennifer Hudson. Jules Feiffer (1929-), Grownups (Lyceum Theatre, New York) (Dec. 12) (13 perf.); stars Frances Sternhagen, Harold Gould, Bob Dishy. Harvey Fierstein (1952-), Torch Song Trilogy (Richard Allen Center, New York) (Oct. 16) (Actors' Playhouse, Greenwich Village) (Jan. 5, 1982) ((117 perf.) (Little Theatre, New York) (June 10, 1982) (1,222 perf.); dir. by Peter Pope; three plays incl. "International Stud", "Fugue in a Nursery", "Widows and Children First!"; stars Fierstein as torch song-singing Jewish New York effeminate drag queen Arnold Beckoff, who longs for love and family. William Finn (1952-), March of the Falsettos (Playwrights Horizons Theater, New York) (May 20) (268 perf.); stars Michael Rupert as gay bud Marvin, Stephen Bogardus, Alison Fraser. Dario Fo (1926-), Trumpets and Raspberries; Fiat CEO (1966-2003) Gianni Agnelli survives a kidnap attempt disfigured in the jacket of his employee Antonio, and the hospital gives him his face by mistake. Horton Foote (1916-), The Man Who Climbed Pecan Trees (Loft Theatre, Los Angeles). Maria Irene Fornes (1930-), A Visit. David French (1939-), The Riddle of the World (Taragon Theater, Toronto); title comes from an Alexander Pope poem; Ron the stockbroker and ex-priest Steve are abandoned by their mates. Charles H. Fuller Jr. (1939-), A Soldier's Play (Theater Four, New York) (Nov. 5) (468 perf.). George Furth (1932-2008) and Stephen Sondheim (1930-), Merrily We Roll Along (Alvin Theatre, New York) (Nov. 16) (16 perf.); dir. by Harold Prince; based on the 1934 play by George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart; after it flops, Prince and Sondheim don't work together again until 2003's "Bounce", which also flops; incl. Merrily We Roll Along. Amlin Gray (1946-), How I Got That Story; a Vietnam War drama starring Edith Oliver. Simon Gray (1936-2008), Quartermaine's Terms (Queen's Theatre, London) (July 30); St. John Quartermaine (Edward Fox) and six other teachers at a Cambridge school for teaching English to foreigners. John Guare (1938-) and Duke Ellington, Sophisticated Ladies (musical) (Lunt-Fontanne Theatre, New York) (Feb. 1) (767 perf.); stars Phyllis Hyman, P.J. Benjamin. Albert Ramsdell Gurney Jr. (1930-), The Golden Age. Beth Henley (1952-), Crimes of the Heart (John Golden Theatre, New York) (Nov. 4) (535 perf.) (Pulitzer Prize); about unsettled sisters Meg Magrath, Babe Magrath Botrelle, and Lenny Magrath in Hazelhurst, Miss.; filmed in 1986; stars Mia Dillon, Mary Beth Hurt, Lizbeth McKay, and Peter MacNicol as Doc Porter; Am I Blue (Dec.). Velina Hasu Houston (1957-), Morning Has Broken (Asa Ga Kimashita) (first play). David Henry Hwang (1957-), The Dance and the Railroad; the 1867 Chinese transcontinental railroad strike; Family Devotions; the destructive influence of Christianity on a Chinese-Am. family. John Kander (1927-), Fred Ebb (1928-2004), and Peter Stone (1930-2003), Woman of the Year (musical) (Palace Theatre, New York) (Mar. 29) (770 perf.); based on the screenplay by Ring Lardner Jr. and Michael Kanin for the 1942 Katharine Hepburn-Spencer Tracy film; stars Lauren Bacall as TV personality Tess Harding and Harry Guardino as cartoonist Sam Craig. Thomas Keneally (1935-), Bullie's House. Emily Mann (1952-), Still Life. Mark Medoff (1940-), The Majestic Kid. Larry Shue (1946-85), The Nerd (West End, London) (Apr.); a dinner party is interrupted by a house guest from Hell. Stephen Sondheim (1930-), Marry Me a Little (musical) (Actor's Playhouse, New York) (Mar. 12) (96 perf.); stars Craig Lucas, Suzanne Henry; features Marry Me a Little, Can That Boy Foxtrot, There Won't Be Trumpets. Tom Stoppard (1937-), On the Razzle (Nat. Theatre, London) (Sept. 18); based on the 1842 Johann Nestroy play "He'll Go on a Spree" that was turned into "The Merchant of Yonkers" in 1938 and "The Matchmaker" in 1955 by Thornton Wilder, sans Dolly. Cecil Philip Taylor (1929-81), Good (Warehouse, London) (Sept. 2) (Royal Shakespeare Co.); stars Alan Howard as liberal German prof. Halder, who is drawn into Nazism while seeing himself as a "good man"; Taylor dies on Dec. 9 from pneumonia from his habit of writing in his garden shed; reopens next Apr. 20 at the Aldwych Theatre, London. Ernest Thompson (1949-), The West Side Waltz (Ethel Barrymore Theatre, New York) (Nov. 19) (126 perf.); elderly widowed pianist Margaret Mary Elderice (Katharine Hepburn), her violinist neighbor (Dorothy Loudon), in the Upper West Side, and a young companion. Paula Vogel (1951-), Bertha in Blue; The Oldest Profession; five aging hos sitting on a bench near Broadway and 72nd St. practice Supply Side Economics. Kevin Wade (1954-), Key Exchange (Orpheum Theatre, New York) (July 14); stars Brooke Adams, Mark Blum, and Ben Masters. Andrew Lloyd Webber (1948-), Cats (musical) (New London Theatre, London) (May 11) (Winter Garden Theatre, New York) (Oct. 17); becomes the longest-running Broadway musical on June 19, 1997 with 6,138 perf. before closing on Sept. 10, 2000 after 7,485 perf.; lyrics from T.S. Eliot's 1939 "Old Possum Book of Practical Cats"; stars Elaine Paige followed by Betty Buckley as Grizzabella, making them big stars singing Memory. Arnold Wesker (1932-), Caritas (Nat. Theatre, London) (Oct. 7). Lanford Wilson (1937-), A Tale Told (Talley & Son); Talley Saga #3; family quarrel over their garment biz. Poetry: Archie Randolph Ammons (1926-2001), A Coast of Trees. John Ash (1948-), The Bed. John Ashbery (1927-2017), Shadow Train (May 28); Apparitions. Amiri Baraka (1934-2014), Reggae or Not. Robert Bly (1926-2021), The Man in the Black Coat Turns. Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986), La Cifra (The Figure). Lorna Dee Cervantes (1954-), Emplumada (debut). Fred Chappell (1936-), Midquest; his first four poetry vols. (1975-9) combined. Gregory Corso (1930-2001), Herald of the Autochthonic Spirit (Oct. 1). Robert Creeley (1926-2005), Mother's Voice. Thomas Michael Disch (1940-2008), ABCDEFG HIJKLM NOPQRST UVWXYZ (Apr. 30). Edward Dorn (1929-99), Yellow Lola. Stephen Dunn (1939-), Work & Love. Mari Evans (1923-), Night Star 1973-1978. William Faulkner (1897-1962), Helen: A Courtship and Mississippi Poems. George Fetherling (1949-), Subroutines. Carolyn Forche, The Country Between Us. Sheila Fugard (1932-), Mystic Things. George Garrett (1929-2008), Luck's Shining Child: A Miscellany of Poems and Verses. Barry Gifford (1946-), Beautiful Phantoms: Selected Poems 1968-1980. Peter Handke (1942-), Walk About the Villages. Jim Harrison (1937-2016), Natural World: A Bestiary. Josephine Jacobsen (1908-2003), The Chinese Insomniacs: New Poems (Oct. 1). Irving Layton (1912-2006), Europe and Other Bad News. Larry Levis (1946-96), The Dollmaker's Ghost. Rod McKuen (1933-2015), The Beautiful Strangers; Book of Days and a Month of Sundays (Oct.). Simon J. Ortiz (1941-), A Poem is a Journey; From Sand Creek: Rising in This Heart Which is Our America. Linda Pastan (1932-), Waiting for My Life (Mar. 17). Sylvia Plath (1932-63), The Collected Poems (posth.) (Pulitzer Prize). Adrienne Rich (1929-2012), A Wild Patience Has Taken Me This Far: Poems, 1978-1981. John Ross (1938-2011), The Daily Planet. Michael Ryan (1946-), In Winter. Luis Omar Salinas (1937-2008), Prelude to Darkness. Ntozake Shange (Paulette Williams) (1948-), Some Men. Alan Shapiro (1952-), After the Digging (debut). Shel Silverstein (1930-99), A Light in the Attic. Dave Smith (1942-), Dream Flights; Homage to Edgar Allan Poe; Blue Spruce. Gilbert Sorrentino (1929-2006), New and Selected Poems 1958-1980. Gary Soto (1952-), Where Sparrows Work Hard. Gerald Stern (1925-), The Red Coal. Donald Michael Thomas (1935-), Dreaming in Bronze. David Wagoner (1926-), Landfall. John B. Wain (1925-94), The Twofold. Derek Walcott (1930-), Selected Poetry; The Fortunate Traveller. Robert Penn Warren (1905-89), Rumor Verified: Poems, 1979-1980 (Aug. 12). Charles Wright (1935-), The Southern Cross. Novels: Edward Abbey (1927-89), The Fool's Progress: An Honest Novel; sequel to "The Monkey Wrench Gang" (1975). Chris Van Allsburg (1949-), Jumanji; filmed in 1995 starring Robin Williams. Lisa Alther (1944-), Original Sins. Eric Ambler (1909-98), The Care of Time; an insane Arab ruler sponsors internat. terrorism. Martin Amis (1949-), Other People. Margaret Atwood (1939-), Bodily Harm; journalist Rennie Wilford survives breast cancer then goes on vacation in St. Antoine Island in the Caribbean, hooks up with Paul, and ends up in a rev. survival struggle. Louis Auchincloss (1917-), The Cat and the King; Louis de Rouvroy, 2nd duc de Saint-Simon at the court of Sun King Louis XIV. J.G. Ballard (1930-2009), Hello America; about an expedition to 2114 America after it collapses ecologically and its pop. is evacuated. Lynne Reid Banks, The Indian in the Cupboard. Russell Banks (1940-), Trailerpark (short stories); Flora Pease, #11 in Granite State Trailerpark, Claudel in #5, Noni in #7. Julian Barnes (1946-), Fiddle City; pub. under alias Dan Kavanagh. Donald Barthelme (1931-89), Sixty Stories. Samuel Beckett (1906-89), Ill Seen Ill Said. Nathaniel Benchley (1915-81), All Over Again (June). Thomas Berger (1924-), Reinhart's Women; Carlo Reinhart in his 50s. Alfred Bester (1913-87), The Deceivers (last sci-fi novel); Rogue Winter the Synergist. Maeve Binchy (1940-), Dublin 4 (short stories). Lady Caroline Blackwood (1931-96), The Fate of Mary Rose (Jan.); 10-y.-o. Maureen is raped and tortured in Kent, England. Robert Bloch (1917-94), Out of My Head (short stories); Mysteries of the Worm (short stories); based on H.P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu tales. Judy Blume (1938-), Tiger Eyes; 15-y.-o. Davey Wexler's father is murdered in a 7-11 in Atlanta, and moves with the family to Los Alamos, where she hooks up with a man who gives her strength. Heinrich Boll (1917-85), Das Vermachtnis (A Soldier's Legacy); Was Soll aus dem Jungen Bloss Werden? (What's to Become of the Boy?). Pierre Bourgeade (1927-2009), Le Foutball, c'est la Guerre Poursuivie par d'Autres Moyens (Football is War Continued by Other Means). Ben Bova (1932-), Orion; first in the Orion series (1984-2011), about marketing chief John O'Ryan, who discovers that he's really Orion the Hunter, who must prevent Ahriman the Dark Lord from conquering Earth; Voyagers; first in the Voyagers series (1981-2009), about Stoner, who fights a worldwide conspiracy over the approach of a fiery alien object. David Bradley (1950-), The Chaneysville Incident; based on the real-life discovery of the graves of some runaway slaves on a farm in Bedford County, Penn. John Braine (1922-86), One and Last Love. Anita Brookner (1928-), A Start in Life in America: The Debut (first novel). Frederick Buechner (1926-), Godric; about animal-loving English hermit St. Godric of Finechale (1065-1170); finalist for the Pulitzer Prize. William S. Burroughs (1914-97), Cities of the Red Night; a group of gay pirates visit a city suffering from an AIDS-like sexual virus. Robert Olen Butler (1945-), The Alleys of Eden (first novel); first of his Vietnam War Trilogy (1982, 1985); a Vietnam deserter decides to stay in Vietnam "because, with all its troubles, Vietnam seems to him to retain more of its integrity, its sense of self, than the America he has left behind"; rejected by 21 publishers until Horizon Press takes a chance on it. Raymond Carver (1938-88), What We Talk About When We Talk About Love (short stories); "My friend Mel McGinnis was talking. Mel is a cardiologist, and sometimes that gives him the right." Alice Childress (1920-94), Rainbow Jordan; 14-y.-o. Rainbow Jordan, her single go-go dancer mother Kathie, her foster mother Miss Josie, her ho friend Beryl, and her boyfriend Eljay. Peter Otto Chotjewitz, The Thirty Years Peace. James Clavell (1924-94), Noble House; 1963 Hong Kong. Jackie Collins (1937-2015), Chances; Lucky Santangelo, the "dangerously beautiful" daughter of gangster Gino Santangelo. Laurie Colwin (1944-92), The Lone Pilgrim (short stories); the theme of first love. Richard Condon (1915-96), The Entwining. Robin Cook (1940-), Brain. Robert Coover (1932-), Spanking the Maid; novel for spanking fetishists. Bernard Cornwell, Sharpe's Eagle: Richard Sharpe and the Talavera Campaign, July, 1809. Harry Crews (1935-), The Enthusiast. John Crowley (1942-), Little, Big; or, The Fairies' Parliament; leans on deceased British occult historian Dame Frances Amelia Yates (1899-1981). E.V. Cunningham (Howard Fast) (1914-2003), The Case of the Sliding Pool; Masao Masuto #4. Guy Davenport (1927-2005), Eclogues: Eight Stories; Trois Caprices (short stories). Robertson Davies (1913-95), The Rebel Angels; first in the Cornish Trilogy ("What's Bred in the Bone", "The Lyre of Orpheus"). Len Deighton (1929-), XPD; "expedient demise". Samuel R. Delany (1942-), Distant Stars (short stories). Gordon R. Dickson, Lost Dorsal. Thomas Michael Disch (1940-2008), Neighboring Lives; pub. under alias Charles Naylor; set in Chelsea, London. Allen Drury (1918-98), The Hill of Summer; new U.S. pres. Hamilton Delbacher vs. Soviet PM Yuri Serapin. James Ellroy (1948-), Brown's Requiem (first novel); mysterious caddie Fat Dog Baker hires LA-based detective Fritz Brown to spy on his sister Jane and her sugar daddy Sol Kupferman, ending up attending a crooked golf tournament. Paul Emil Erdman (1932-2007), The Last Days of America. Philip Jose Farmer (1918-2009), The Unreasoning Mask. Howard Fast (1914-2003), The Legacy. Jonathan Fast (1948-), The Beast. Margaret Forster (1938-), Marital Rites. John Fowles (1926-), Mantissa. Nicolas Freeling (1927-2003), One Damn Thing After Another (Arlette) (Van der Valk #12); Wolfnight (Henri Castang #6). Carlos Fuentes (1928-2012), Agua Quemada (Burnt Water); 4 novellas about Mexico City. Alan Furst (1941-), The Paris Drop (May); The Caribbean Account. Carlo Emilio Gadda (1893-1973), Le Bizze del Capitano in Congedo e Altri Racconti (posth.). John Gardner (1933-82), The Art of Living and Other Stories (short stories). Ellen Gilchrist (1935-), In the Land of Dreamy Dreams (short stories) (debut). Nadine Gordimer (1923-), July's People; a black revolt in South Africa puts whites on the run, incl. Maureen and Bamford Smales and their former servant July. Caroline Gordon, The Collected Stories. Mary Catherine Gordon (1949-), The Company of Women; Father Cyprian and Felicitas Taylor, who is attracted to his magnetic personality; "Felicitas Maria Taylor was called after the one virgin martyr whose name contained some hope for ordinary human happiness..." Winston Graham (1908-2003), The Stranger from the Sea; Poldark Saga #8. Alasdair Gray (1934-), Lanark: A Life in Four Books (first novel); Duncan Thaw; #1 Scottish novel of the last half of the 20th cent.? Joanne Greenberg (1932-), A Season of Delight. Peter Handke (1942-), Child Story. Thomas Harris (1940-), Red Dragon; serial killers Francis "the Tooth Fairy" Dolarhyde and Dr. Hannibal "the Cannibal" Lecter. Jim Harrison (1937-2016), Warlock; John Lundgren gets new boss Dr. Rabun and begins battling poachers in the haunted wilderness of N Mich. while spying on his boss' wife and son in Key West. Mark Helprin (1947-), Ellis Island and Other Stories. Michel Henry (1922-2002), Le Fils du Roi (The Son of the King); locked up in a mental hospital. George V. Higgins (1939-99), The Rat on Fire; slumlord pays Jimmy and Leo to torch his bldgs. Patricia Highsmith (1921-95), The Black House (short stories). Sandra Hochman (1936-), Playing Tahoe. John Irving (1942-), The Hotel New Hampshire; hotel proprietors Win and Mary Berry of Dairy, N.Y. and their five children John (narrator), Frank (gay), Franny, Lilly, and Egg; filmed in 1974 starring Beau Bridges. Rona Jaffe (1931-2005), Mazes and Monsters; a D&D type game turns into violence and attempted suicide. Richard Jessup (1925-82), Threat (last novel). Pamela Hansford Johnson (1912-81), A Bonfire (last novel). Gayl Jones (1949-), Song for Anninho (debut). Ismail Kadare (1936-), The Palace of Dreams; satire of Commie Albania, which bans it. Molly Keane (1905-96), Good Behaviour; the sex-obsessed Anglo-Irish St. Charles family. Elias Khoury (1948-), City Gates. Stephen King (1947-), Cujo; a rabid St. Bernard in Castle Rock, Maine. Fletcher Knebel (1911-93), Crossing in Berlin. Emma Lathen, Green Grow the Dollars; John Putnam Thatcher #19. Elmore Leonard (1925-2013), Split Images. Ira Levin (1929-2007), Break a Leg: A Comedy in Two Acts. Mario Vargas Llosa (1936-), The War of the End of the World; the 1897 War of the Canudos in Brazil starring Antonio Vicente Mendes Macel, AKA O Conselheiro. Graham Lord (1943-), The Nostradamus Horoscope. Naguib Mahfouz (1911-2006), Arabian Nights and Days; the day following the Thousand and One Nights; Wedding Song; unknown playwright Abbas Karam Younis is implicated in the death of his sick wife then vanishes; "Abbas could never betray his mother. He may have scorned everything else, but not my love. Love is stronger than evil itself"; "A lay is just a play. Nothing more. Otherwise the law would have the right to put ninety percent of our authors in the prisoner's dock." Gabriel Garcia Marquez (1927-2014), Chronicle of a Death Foretold. Bobbie Ann Mason (1940-), Shiloh and Other Stories (debut). Gregory Mcdonald (1937-2008), The Buck Passes Flynn; police inspector Francis Xavier Flynn chases somebody trying to wreck the U.S. economy by giving away money; Fletch and the Widow Bradley. Leonard Michaels, The Men's Club. Patrick Modiano (1945-), Memory Lane. Brian Moore (1921-99), The Temptation of Eileen Hughes; innocent Northern Irish girl is chased by her boss Bernard McAuley, who just wants a platonic relationship. Toni Morrison (1931-2019), Tar Baby; white French art historian hooks up with black upper middle class model Jadine Childs,who has no affinity with the Afro-Am. heritage. Sir John Mortimer (1923-2009), Rumpole for the Defence (Dec. 31); Regina v. Rumpole. Nicholas Mosley (1923-), Serpent. Percy Howard Newby (1918-97), Feelings Have Changed (Oct.). John Treadwell Nichols (1940-), The Nirvana Blues; New Mexico Trilogy #3. Francois Nourissier (1927-), L'Empire des Nuages (The Empire of Clouds). Joyce Carol Oates (1938-), Angel of Light; govt. minister Maurice Halleck, a direct descendent of martyr John Brownis is accused of wrongdoing then dies in a car accident, causing his children Kirsten and Owen to try to clear his name and avenge his murder. Patrick O'Brian (1914-2000), The Ionian Mission; Aubrey-Maturin #8. Robert Brown Parker (1932-2010), A Savage Place; Spenser #8; Spenser works as a bodyguard for reporter Candy Sloan in Hollywood. Ralph Peters (1952-), Bravo Romeo (first novel); leftist radicals in Germany. David Plante (1940-), The Country; Francoeur Family Trilogy #2. Frederik Pohl (1919-), The Cool War; about a world reliant on solar power. Reynolds Price (1933-), The Source of Light. Francine Prose (1947-), Household Saints; the Santangelos in New York's Little Italy in the 1950s; filmed in 1993 by Nancy Savoca. James Purdy (1914-2009), Mourners Below (June 15); #2 in the Sleepers in Moon-Crowded Valleys Trilogy (begun 1970). Mary Renault (1905-83), Funeral Games; Alexander the Great's successor generals. Alain Robbe-Grillet (1922-2008), Djinn (Le Rendez-vous); narrator Simon Lecoeur introduces the reader to elements of French grammar in a textbook fashion. Nora Roberts (1950-), Irish Thoroughbred (first novel) (Jan.); she goes on to pub. over 175 romance novels and sell 300M copies. Marilynne Robinson, Housekeeping (first novel). Philip Roth (1933-2018), Zuckerman Unbound; sequel to "The Ghost Writer", about Nathan Zuckerman, who gets flack for pub. a controversial novel a la Portnoy's Complaint. Salman Rushdie (1947-), Midnight's Children; India's struggle to gain independence from Britain; Saleem Sinai is born at the exact moment. Francoise Sagan (1935-2004), Le Femme Fardee (The Painted Lady); Musiques de Scene (short stories). Lawrence Sanders (1920-98), The Third Deadly Sin. Jesus Fernandez Santos (1926-88), Cabrera. Thomas Savage (1915-), Her Side of It. Maurice Sendak (1928-), Outside Over There; young Ida has to rescue her baby sister who has been kidnapped by goblins, blowing her wonder horn and donning her mother's yellow rain cloak, then exiting the window backwards and entering you know what. Luigi Serafini (1949-), Codex Seraphinianus; illustrated encyclopedia of imaginary things. Michael Shaara (1928-88), The Noah Conspiracy. Irwin Shaw (1913-84), Bread Upon the Waters; Manhattan school teacher Allen Strand. Robert Joseph Shea (1933-94), Shike. Alix Kates Shulman (1932-), On the Stroll. Anne Rivers Siddons (1936-), Fox's Earth. Leslie Marmon Silko (1948-), Storyteller (short stories). Clifford D. Simak (1904-88), The Visitors; about giant black boxes that land on Earth and eat trees. Dorothy Simpson, The Night She Died; introduces Inspector Luke Thanet. Jane Smiley (1949-), At Paradise Gate. Dave Smith (1942-), Onliness (first novel). Lee Smith (1944-), Cakewalk (short stories). Martin Cruz Smith (1942-), Gorky Park; bestseller introducing Soviet homicide detective Arkady Renko, who finds a corpse on the right bank of the Moscow River; filmed in 1983. Gilbert Sorrentino (1929-2006), Crystal Vision. Muriel Spark (1918-2006), Loitering with Intent; wannabe novelist Fleur Talbot sees his employer Sir Quentin Oliver get hold of his novel, after which its scenes begin coming true. Elizabeth Spencer (1921-), Marilee (short stories). Danielle Steel (1947-), To Love Again; Remembrance; Loving; Bettina Daniels' famous author father dies and leaves her penniless. George Steiner (1929-), The Portage to San Cristobal of A.H.; Jewish Nazi hunters find Adolf Hitler alive in the Amazon jungle. Robert Stone (1937-), A Flag for Sunrise; ex-CIA operative in a Central Am. country is amused by Yankees who think they can tell another country how to modernize. Rosemary Sutcliff (1920-92), The Sword and the Circle; Arthurian Trilogy #1; The Road to Camlann; Arthurian Trilogy #3. Graham Swift (1949-), Shuttlecock; Prentis, senior clerk in the Dead Crimes Dept. of the London police suspects his boss Quinn of being involved in the mental breakdown of his spy father Shuttlecock. Walter Tevis (1928-81), Far from Home (short stories). Paul Theroux (1941-), The Mosquito Coast; Yankee inventor Ally Fox tries to bring his ice machine to a Central Am. jungle village. Donald Michael Thomas (1935-), The White Hotel; half-Jewish opera singer Frau Anna G (Lisa Erdman)undergoes psychoanalysis by Freud in 1919; uses material from Anatoly Kuznetsov's "Babi Yar". Roderick Thorp (1936-99), Jenny and Barnum: A Novel of Love. Rose Tremain (1943-), The Cupboard; 87-y.-o. Erica March decides to die in a cupboard. John Updike (1932-2009), Rabbit is Rich (Pulitzer Prize); Rabbit Angstrom #3; his son Nelson gets uppity. Antonio Buero Vallejo (1916-2000), Caiman (Caimán) Gore Vidal (1925-2012), Creation; 5th cent. B.C.E. Persian diplomat Cyrus Spitama, grandson of Zoroaster. Vernor Vinge (1944-), True Names; early cyberspace novel. Peter De Vries (1910-93), Sauce for the Goose (Sept.); feminist journalist goes undercover to bait male chauvinism in a male publisher, then falls for him. Alice Walker (1944-), You Can't Keep a Good Woman Down (short stories). Joseph Wambaugh (1937-), The Glitter Dome; his last LAPD novel until 2006. Morris L. West (1916-99), The Clowns of God; Pope Gregory XVII receives a revelation that the world is about to end. John Edgar Wideman (1941-), Hiding Place; Damballah; #1 and #2 in the Homewood Trilogy. Andrew Norman Wilson (1950-), Who Was Oswald Fish? Robert Anton Wilson (1932-2007), Masks of the Illuminati; Sir John Babcock and his drinking buddies James Joyce and Albert Einstein take it on. Tobias Wolff (1945-), In the Garden of the North American Martyrs (Hunters in the Snow (short stories) (debut). Helen Yglesias (1915-2008), Sweetsir; a mean New England man's 5th wife decides to stab him. Sol Yurick (1925-2013), Richard A. Roger Zelazny (1937-95), Madwand; sequel to "Changeling" (1980); The Changing Land; about a mixed-race elf-human who is turned into a statue by evil sorcerer Jelerak. Births: Am. 6'4" football QB (New York Giants #?) Elisha Nelson "Eli" Manning on Jan. 3 in New Orleans, La.; brother of Peyton Manning (1976-). Japanese "Naoko in Norwegian Wood", "Mako Mori in Pacific Rim" actress Rinko (Yuriko) Kikuchi on Jan. 6 in Hadano, Kanagawa. Am. "Kris Furillo in Wildfire" actress Genevieve Cortese on Jan. 8 in San Francisco, Calif. Canadian baseball pitcher (lefty) (Colo. Rockies #26, 2004-) Jeffrey William "Jeff" Francis on Jan. 8 in North Delta, B.C. Am. businessman (Jewish) James Corey Kushner on Jan. 10 in New York City; educated at Harvard U., and NYU; husband (2009-) of Ivanka Trump (1981-). British "Superstar" R&B singer-actress (black) Jamelia Niela Davis on Jan. 11 in Smethwick, West Midlands; Zimbabwean father, Jamaican mother. Am. 5'4" boxer ("the Real Million Dollar Baby") Maureen Carranza Shea on Jan. 11 in Bronx, N.Y.; of Irish and Mexican descent. Am. rapper-producer Pitbull (Armando Christian Perez) (Pérez) on Jan. 15 in Miami, Fla. Am. rock guitarist Nicholas "Nick" Valensi (Strokes) on Jan. 16 in New York City; Tunisian father, French mother. Am singer (black) Ray J (Willie Ray Norwood Jr.) on Jan. 17 in McComb, Miss.; brother of Brandy (1979-). Am. "Fallin'" R&B singer-actress (black) Alicia Keys (Alicia Augello Cook) on Jan. 25 in Manhattan, N.Y.; African-Am. father, white Scottish-Irish-Italian descent mother. Irish "Captain Killian Hook Jones in Once Upon a Time" actor Colin Arthur O'Donoghue on Jan. 26 Drogheda, County Louth; cousin of Harry O'Donoghue (1954-). Venezuelan conductor Gustavo Adolfo Dudamel Ramirez on Jan. 26 in Barquisimeto, Lara. Am. "Frodo Baggins in Lord of the Rings" actor Elijah Jordan Wood on Jan. 28 in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Am. blues guitarist-singer Jonny Lang (Jon Gordon Langseth Jr.) on Jan. 29 in Fargo, N.D.; of Norwegian descent. Am. "SexyBack", "Cry Me a River", "Rock Your Body" singer-songwriter-producer Justin Randall Timberlake ('N Sync) on Jan. 31 in Memphis, Tenn. Saudi 9/11 hijacker Salem al-Hazmi (d. 2001) on Feb. 2 in Mecca. Am. "Audrey Parker in Haven" actress Emily Rose on Feb. 2 in Renton, Wash.; educated at UCLA, and Vanguard U. of Southern Calif. Am. "Suzanne 'Crazy Eyes' Warren in Orange Is the New Black" actress (black) uzoamaka Nwanneka "Uzo" Aduba on Feb. 10 in Boston, Mass.; Nigerian Igbo immigrant parents; grows up in Medfield, Mass.; educated at Boston U. Am. "Dilemma" R&B singer (black) Kelendria Trene "Kelly" Rowland (Destiny's Child) on Feb. 11 in Atlanta, Ga. Am. "Philipe Petit in The Walk", "Edward Snowden in Snowden", "Tommy Solomon in 3rd Rock from the Sun" actor-dir. (Jewish) Joseph Leonard Gordon-Levitt on Feb. 17 in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at Columbia U. Am. heiress Paris Whitney Hilton on Feb. 17 in New York City; sister of Nicky Hilton (1983-). Russian-Am. 6'9" basketball player (Utah Jazz #47, 2001-2011) Andrei Gennadyevich "AK-47" Kirilenko on Feb. 18 in Izhevsk, Russia; becomes U.S. citizen in Jan. 2011. Venezuelan "Maria DeLuca in Roswell", "Vanessa in Traffic" actress-musician Majandra (Maria Alejandra) Delfino on Feb. 20 in Caracas; half-Cuban. Am. singer-songwriter-producer-actor Joshua Winslow "Josh" Groban on Feb. 27 in Los Angeles, Calif.; #1-selling artist in the U.S. (22M in the U.S. and 25M worldwide). Am. "Kate Connor in Terminator Salvation", "Ivy Elizabeth Walker in The Village", "Claire Dearing in Jurassic World" actress Bryce Dallas Howard on Mar. 2 in Los Angeles, Calif.; daughter of Ron Howard (1954-) and Cheryl Howard (1953-). Am. "10 Things I Hate About You" actress Julia O'Hara Stiles on Mar. 28 in New York City. Am. "Glinda in Wicked" actress Megan Kathleen Hilty on Mar. 29 in Bellevue, Wash. Am. "Michelle Bauer Santos in Guiding Light", "Haley James Scott in One Tree Hill" singer-actress Bethany Joy Galeotti (Lenz) on Apr. 2 in Hollywood, Fla. Canadian "John Carter" actor Taylor Kitsch on Apr. 8 in Kelowna, B.C. U.S. Rep. (D-Hawaii) (2013-) Tulsi (Hindi "basil") Gabbard on Apr. 12 in Leloaloa, Am. Samoa; Samoan-Euro descent father, Hindu mother from Decatur, Ind.; emigrates to Hawaii at age 2; educated at Hawaii Pacific U. Am. "Lauren in Home Improvement" actress Courtney Peldon on Apr. 13 in New York City; sister of Ashley Peldon (1984-). Canadian "Anakin Skywalker and Darth Vader in Star Wars" actor Hayden Christensen on Apr. 19 in Vancouver, B.C. Colombian "Maria Full of Grace" actress Catalina Sandino Moreno on Apr. 19 in Bogota. Am. football safety (Pittsburgh Steelers #43, 2003-) Troy Aumua Polamalu on Apr. 19 in Garden Grove, Calif.; educated at USC. Am. "X5-452 Max Guevara in Dark Angel", "Sue Storm in Fantastic Four", "Nancy Callahan in Sin City" actress Jessica Marie Alba on Apr. 28 in Pomona, Calif.; Mexican-Am. father, French-Danish mother. English "Smokers Outside the Hospital Doors", "Munich" singer-musician Thomas Michael Henry "Tom" Smith (Editors) on Apr. 29 in Stroud, Gloucestershire. British "Rajesh Koothrappali in The Big Bang Theory" actor Kunal Nayyar on Apr. 30 in London; of Indian descent; educated at Temple U., and U. of Portland. Am. singer-songwriter Justin DeYarmond Edison Vernon (Bon Iver) on Apr. 30 in Eau Claire, Wisc. English R&B singer-songwriter (black) Craig Ashley David on May 5 in Southampton, Hampshire; Grenadian father, Jewish English mother. Maltese-Am. "Topanga Lawrence in Boy Meets World" actress Danielle Christine Fishel on May 5 in Mesa, Ariz. Am. Midwest Pipe Bomber Lucas John Helder on May 5 in in Pine Island, Minn.; educated at the U. of Wisc. Canadian "Oliver Queen in Green Arrow" actor Stephen Adam Amell on May 8 in Toronto, Ont. Am. "Freddie Mercury in Bohemian Rhapsody", "Elliot Alderson in Mr. Robot" actor (Coptic Orthodox) Rami Said Malek on May 12; Egyptian immigrant parents with Greek ancestry; identical twin brother is named Sami; emigrates to the U.S. in 1978; educated at the U. of Evansville. Australian "Jade/Amitiel in Gabriel" actress Samantha C. Noble on May 15 in Adelaide, South Australia; daughter of John Noble (1948-). Am. "Meadow Soprano in The Sopranos" actress Jamie-Lynn Sigler (nee DiScala) on May 15 in Queens, N.Y.; Jewish-Am. father, Cuban mother. German actress Cosma Shiva Hagen on May 17 in Los Angeles, Calif.; daughter of Nina Hagen (1955-). Am. "Fight Song" singer-songwriter (Jewish) Rachel Ashley Platten On May 20 in New York City; Irish descent mother; educated at Trinity College. Am. Olympic swimmer (black) Anthony Lee Ervin on May 26 in Valencia, Calif.; African-Native Am. father, white Jewish mother; first of African-Am. descent to make the U.S. Olympic swimming team (2000). Am. singer-pianist Isaac Edward Slade (The Fray) on May 26 in Denver, Colo.; educated at the U. of Colo. Denver. Am. actor-composer Devendra Banhart on May 30 in Houston, Tex.; grows up in Caracas, Venezuela. Am. "Karl Martin in Lost", "Mortiz Stiefel in Spring Awakening" actor (Jewish) Blake Warren Bashoff on May 30 in Philadelphia, Penn. Am. "Inside Amy Schumer", "The Girl with the Lower Back Tattoo" comedian-actress-writer-producer (Jewish) Amy Beth Schumer on June 1 in Manhattan, N.Y.; educated at Towson U. Am. Obama speechwriter Jonathan "Jon" Favreau on June 2 in Winchester, Mass.; educated at College of the Holy Cross; not to be confused with actor Jon Favreau (1966-). Am. "Jack Hammer/Weasel in Deadpool" actor-dir. Todd Joseph "T.J." Miller on June 4 in Denver, Colo.; educated at George Washington U. Canadian rock musician Sebastien Alexander "Seb" Lefebvre (Pepin) (Simple Plan) on June 5 in Quebec. Am. 5'7-1/2" tennis player-model Anna Sergeyevna Kournikova on June 7 in Moscow, Russia. Am. "The Secret World of Alex Mack" actress Larisa Romanova Oleynik on June 7 in Santa Clara County, Calif. Israeli-Am. 5'3" "Mathilda in The Professional", "Queen Amidala in Star Wars" actor-producer (Jewish) (vegetarian) Natalie Portman (Hershlag) on June 9 in Israel; only child of Polish Israeli doctor father Avner (1951-) and Russian-Austrian Am. artist mother Shelley (1952-); great-grandparents died in Auschwitz; grows up in Washington, D.C. and Syosset, N.Y.; educated at Harvard U.; discovered in a pizza parlor. English sitar player Anoushka Shankar on June 9 in London; daughter of Ravi Shankar (1920-); half-sister of Norah Jones (1979-). Am. "Aaron Samuels in Mean Girls" actor (gay) Jonathan D. Bennett on June 10 in Rossford, Ohio. Am. "Captain America", "Human Torch in Fantastic Four" actor (Roman Catholic) Christopher Robert "Chris" Evans on June 13 in Boston, Mass.; Italian-Irish descent mother; grows up in Sudbury, Mass.; brother of Scott Evans (1983-); educated at NYU. Am. 6'6"football nose tackle (black) (Tennessee Titans, 2002-8) (Washington Redskins, 2009-) Albert Haynesworth III on June 17 in Hartsville, S.C.; educated at the U. of Tenn. Am. animal rights activist (founder of Direct Action Everywhere) Wayne Hsiung on June 18 in Ind.; Chinese immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Chicago. Am. rock musician (Mormon) Brandon Richard Flowers (The Killers) on June 21 in Henderson (near Las Vegas), Nev. Am. "Proust Was a Neuroscientist" journalist-writer (Jewish) Jonah Richard Lehrer on June 25 in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at Columbia U., and Oxford U. French "A Prophet" actor Tahar Rahim on July 4 in Belfort. Am. 6'2" football cornerback (Oakland Raiders #21, 2003-) (black) Nnamdi Asomugha (pr. AH-sum-wah) on July 6 in Lafayette, La.; educated at UCB. Serbian-Australian "Elizabeth Lizzie Needham in Instinct" actress Bojana Novakovic on July 12 in Belgrade; emigrates to Australia in 1988. Palestinian-Am. comedian (Muslim) Mohammed "Mo" Amer on July 24 in Kuwait. Am. 5'9" soccer goalie Hope Amelia Solo on July 30 in Richland, Wash.; educated at the U. of Wash. Am. Quora founder Charlie Cheever on Aug. 2 in Pittsburgh, Penn.; educated at Harvard U.; collaborator of Adam D'Angelo (1984-). Am. R&B singer-actor (black) Marques Houston on Aug. 4 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Amy Jessup in Fringe", "Rachel Zane in Suits" actress-model (black) Rachel Meghan Markle, Duchess of Sussex on Aug. 4 in Los Angeles, Calif.; grows up in Hollywood, Calif.; white Episcopalian father Thomas Markle Sr. (1945-), black Protestant mother Doria Loyce Ragland (1956-); educated at Northwestern U.; father is a Hollywood lighting dir. and a descendant of King Edward III, hence a distant relation of Prince Harry. Am. rapper Travis Lazarus "Travie" McCoy (Gym Class Heroes) on Aug. 6 in Geneva, N.Y. Swiss 6'1" tennis player Roger Federer on Aug. 8 in Basel. English "Prince Caspian in Narnia" actor Benjamin "Ben" Barnes on Aug. 20 in London. Am. 6'5" Facebook co-founders and Olympic rowers Tyler Howard Winklevoss and Cameron Howard Winklevoss on Aug. 21 in Southampton, N.Y.; educated at Harvard U. Am. "Summer Roberts in The O.C." actress Rachel Sarah Bilson on Aug. 25 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Barefoot Blue Jean Night" country singer-songwriter Joshua Ryan "Jake" Owen on Aug. 28 in Winter Haven, Fla.; fraternal twin brother Jarrod; educated at Fla. State U. Canadian porno actress Lanny (Lannie) Barby on Aug. 29 in Montreal, Quebec. Am. "Crazy in Love", "Baby Boy" singer-actress-model (black) Beyonce (Beyoncé) Giselle Knowles (Destiny's Child) on Sept. 4 in Houston, Tex.; African-Am. father; mother Tina Dereon (Deréon) Beyince is of French and Cherokee descent; sister of Solange (1986-). Australian gang rapist (Muslim) Bilal Skaf on Sept. 14 in Sydney. Chinese "My Fair Princess", "Lost in Beijing" actress Fan Bingbing on Sept. 16 in Qingdao, Shandong. Am. "Rory gilmore in Gilmore Girls" actress Kimberly Alexis Bledel on Sept. 16 in Houston, Tex.; wife (2014-) of Vincent Kartheiser (1979-). Am. actress-dancer Jill Latiano on Sept. 17 in Manhattan, N.Y.; wife (2009-) of Glenn Howerton (1976-). Am. "The Simple Life" celeb Nicole Camille Richie (Escovedo) on Sept. 21 in Berkeley, Calif.; father Peter Michael Escovedo is a member of Lionel Richie's band, and mother Brenda is backstage asst.; moves in with Lionel and wife Brenda at age 3, and is adopted at age 9; godfathers are Quincy Jones and Michael Jackson; calls herself "a mix of everything". German-English singer Cascada (Natalie Christine Horler) on Sept. 23 in Bonn, West Germany; English parents. Am. R&B singer-songwriter (black) Christina Milian (Christine Flores) on Sept. 26 in Jersey City, N.J. Am. baseball pitcher (Colo. Rockies, 2005-) Michael Anthony "Mike" Esposito on Sept. 27 in Los Angeles, Calif.; son of Joe Esposito (1948-). Am. tennis player (black) Serena Jameka Ross Evelyn Williams on Sept. 26 in Saginaw, Mich.; younger sister of Venus Williams (1980-). Am. Olympic gold medal gymnast Dominique Helena "Domi" Moceanu on Sept. 30 in Holywood, Calif.; of Romanian descent. U.S. Rep. (D-Minn.) (2019-) (black) (Sunni Muslim) Ilhan Abdullahi Omar on Oct. 4 in Mogadishu, Somalia; grows up in Baydhabo, Somalia; emigrates to the U.S. in 19915 educated at North Dakota State U.; first Somali-Am., one of first two Muslim women, and first black U.S. rep from Minn. in Congress. Canadian 6'1" hockey player (Philadelphia Flyers, Carolina Hurricans, Los Angeles Kings, Washington Capitals) Justin Williams on Oct. 4 in Cobourg, Ont. Russian 5'11" tennis player Elena Viatcheslavovna Dementieva on Oct. 15 in Moscow. Am. 5'8" boxer-martial artist ("The Preacher's Daughter") Holly Holm on Oct. 17 in Albuquerque, N.M.; educated at the U. of N.M. French Nat. Front conservative politician (gay) Florian Philippot on Oct. 24 in Croix, Nord; grows up in Bondues, Lille. Am. "Nica Pierce in Curse/Cult of Chucky" actress Fiona Dourif on Oct. 30 in Woodstock, N.Y.; daughter of Brad Dourif (1950-). Am. musician Frank Anthony Thomas Iero Jr. (My Chemical Romance) on Oct. 31 in Belleville, N.J. Am. model-businesswoman Ivanka Maria Trump on Oct. 31 in New York City; daughter of Donald Trump (1946-) and Ivana Trump (1949-); sister of Donald Trump Jr. (1977-) and Eric Trump (1984-). Am. "Badger in Breaking Bad" actor Matthew L. "Matt" Jones on Nov. 1 in Sacramento, Calif. Am. "Cassie Newton in Buffy the Vampire Slayer", "Jane in Zoe, Duncan, Jack and Jane" actress Azura Skye (Azura Dawn Storozynski) on Nov. 8 in Northridge, Calif. Am. "Beth Pearson in This is Us" actress (black) Susan Kelechi (Igbo "Thank God") Watson on Nov. 11 in Brooklyn, N.Y.; Jamaican immigrant parents; educated at Howard U. Am. 5'9" golfer William Chesney "Chez" Reavie on Nov. 12 in Wichita, Kan.; educated at Arizona State U. Am. fraternal First Twins Jenna Welch Bush Hager and Barbara Pierce Bush ("Twinkle and Turquoise" to the Secret Service) on Nov. 25 in Dallas. Tex.; daughters of Pres. George W. Bush (1946-) and Laura Bush (1946-); Jenna graduates from the U. of Texas, and Barbara from Yale U. Russian soccer player Ruslan Valeryevich Pimenov on Nov. 25 in Moscow; father of Kristina Pimenova (2005-). English "Take Me Away" singer-songwriter Natasha Anne Bedingfield on Nov. 26 in London. Am. "...Baby One More Time", "Oops!... I Did It Again", "Womanizer" pop singer Britney Jean Spears on Dec. 2 in McComb, Miss.; raised in Kentwood, La.; sister of Jamie Lynn Spears (1991-); wife (2004-7) of Kevin Federline (1978-); mother of Sean Preston Federline (2005-); sells 100M+ records. Am. "Alexander Rozhenko in ST: TNG", "Andy Keaton in Family Ties" actor Brian Eric Bonsall on Dec. 3 in Torrance, Calif. Am. 6'5" football QB (San Diego Chargers #17, 2004-) Philip Rivers on Dec. 8 in Decatur, Ala. Am. 5'4" bowler Melissa "Missy" Parkin (nee Bellinder) on Dec. 9 in Laguna Hills, Calif.; educated at Cal State Fullerton. Am. "Casey Cooper MacGillis in Major Dad" actress Chelsea Hertford on Dec. 13. Am. "Jane Margolis in Breaking Bad" actress Krysten Alyce Ritter on Dec. 16 in Bloomsburg, Penn. Am. "Genie in a Bottle", "What a Girl Wants" singer Christina Maria Aguilera on Dec. 18 in Staten Island, N.Y. Am. "Jack Twist in Brokeback Mountain" actor Jacob Benjamin "Jake" Gyllenhaal ' on Dec. 19 in Los Angeles, Calif; son of Stephen Gyllenhaal (1949-) and Naomi Foner (1946-). Am. Olympic swimmer (black) Maritza "Ritz" Correia on Dec. 23 in San Juan, Puerto Rico; first Puerto Rican of African descent on the U.S. Olympic swimming team; first African-Am. to set a U.S. and world swimming record. Australian "Claire Littleton in Lost" actress Emilie de Ravin on Dec. 27 in Mount Eliza, Victoria. Japanese figure skater Shizuka Arakawa on Dec. 29 in Shinagawa, Tokyo. Am. "Craigslistlieder" singer-songwriter (Jewish) Gabriel Kahane on ? in Venice Beach, Calif.; son of Jeffrey Kahane (1956-); educated at Brown U. Am. porno actress Haley Paige (Maryan Irene Haley) (d. 2007) on Dec. 30 in Mexico. Deaths: Am. ACLU founder Roger Nash Baldwin (b. 1884) on Aug. 26. Am. physicist Harvey Fletcher (b. 1884) on July 23 in Provo, Utah. Am. "Smith and Dale" comedian Joe Smith (b. 1884) on Feb. 22 in Englewood, N.J. Am. historian-philosopher Will Durant (b. 1885) on Nov. 7 in Los Angeles, Calif. (heart failure); dies two weeks after his wife Ariel: "History repeats itself in the large because human nature changes with geological leisureliness"; "Most history is guessing, and the rest is prejudice." Am. "Sands of Iwo Jima" film dir. Allan Dwan (b. 1885) on Dec. 28 in Woodland Hills, Calif. (stroke on Nov. 12). German-born Am. chess master Edward Lasker (b. 1885) on Mar. 25 in New York City. Am. tampon inventor Earle Haas (b. 1888). Canadian hockey player Jeff Malone (b. 1888). Am. New York City planner Robert Moses (b. 1888) on July 29 in West Islip, N.Y. (heart failure): "Cities are for traffic"; "If the ends don't justify the means, what does?" Am. actor Glenn Anders (b. 1889) on Oct. 26 in Englewood, N.J. English "National Velvet", "The Chalk Garden" novelist-playwright Enid Bagnold (b. 1889) on Mar. 31 in St. John's Wood, London. Am. actress Beulah Bondi (b. 1889) on Jan. 11 in Los Angeles, Calif. (pulmonary failure after tripping over her cat and breaking ribs). French "Napoleon", "J'Accuse" dir. Abel Gance (b. 1889) on Nov. 10 in Paris (pulmonary edema). Am. Knott's Berry Farm founder Walter Knott (b. 1889) on Dec. 3. Am. "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes" writer Anita Loos (b. 1889) on Aug. 18 in New York City. Am. "Reader's Digest" co-founder DeWitt Wallace (b. 1889) on Mar. 30 in Mt. Kisco, N.Y. (pneumonia) - how many issues was that? Italian PM #29 (1945) Ferruccio Parri (b. 1890) on Dec. 8 in Rome. Am. "Horace Vandergelder in The Matchmaker" actor Loring B. Smith the Great (b. 1890) on July 8 in Fairfield, Conn. Am. Douglas Aircraft Co. founder Donald Wills Douglas Sr. (b. 1892) on Feb. 1 in Palm Springs, Calif. English novelist David Garnett (b. 1892) on Feb. 17 in Chateau de Charry, Montcuq (near Cahors), France. Am. "Old Man Nathan Radley in To Kill a Mockingbird" actor Richard Hale (b. 1892) on May 18 in Northridge, Calif. (heart failure). British Capt. Gordon Charles Steele (b. 1892) on Jan. 4 in Winkleigh, Devon. Am. journalist-explorer Lowell Thomas (b. 1892) on Aug. 29 in Pawling, N.Y. (heart attack). U.S. gen. Omar N. Bradley (b. 1893) on Apr. 8 in New York City (heart failure); last surviving U.S. 5-star gen.; in 1981 the new Bradley Fighting Vehicle, a replacement for the 1960s M113 Armored Personnel Carrier is named after him. English actress Isobel Elsom (b. 1893) on Jan. 12 in Woodland Hills, Calif. Japanese feminist politician Fusae Ichikawa (b. 1893) on Feb. 11. Am. "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes" novelist Anita Loos (b. 1893) on Aug. 18 in New York City (heart attack). Chinese Communist leader Madame Sun Yat-sen (Chingling Soong) (b. 1893) on May 29 in Beijing dies after being admitted to the Chinese Communist Party and named the first (only?) honorary chairwoman of the People's Repub. of China on May 16. Am. chemist Harold Clayton Urey (b. 1893) on Jan. 5 in La Jolla, Calif. (heart failure). Am. "Chattanooga Choo Choo", "Jeepers Creepers", "That's Amore", "I Only Have Eyes For You", "You Must Have Been a Beautiful Baby" songwriter-composer Harry Warren (b. 1893) on Sept. 22 in Los Angeles, Calif.; pub. 500+ songs for 56 feature films, which appear in 300+ films and 112 Warner Brothers Looney Tunes cartoons; "The familiarity of Harry Warren's songs is matched by the anonymity of the man" (William Zinsser). Am. composer Robert Russell Bennett (b. 1894) on Aug. 18 in New York City. Am. "In Abraham's Bosom" playwright Paul Eliot Green (b. 1894) on May 4 in Chapel Hill, N.C. Am. ambassador Donald R. Heath (b. 1894) on Oct. 15 in Orinda, Calif. Ukrainian-born Am. psychiatrist Leo Kanner (b. 1894) on Apr. 3 in Sykesville, Md. (heart failure). Am. "first Jane in Tarzan movies", "Barney Fife's landlady in The Andy Griffith Show", "Grandma Pyle in Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C." Enid Markey (b. 1894) on Nov. 15 in Bay Shore, N.Y. Romanian-born Am. astronomer Jerzy Neyman (b. 1894) on Aug. 5 in Oakland, Calif. Am. Knight-Ridder Inc. newspaper publisher John Shively Knight (b. 1894) on June 16 in Akron, Ohio (heart attack). Am. "Penhally" novelist Caroline Gordon (b. 1895) on Apr. 11 in San Cristobal, Mexico (surgery after stroke). Am. architect Wallace K. Harrison (b. 1895) on Dec. 9 in New York City; designed the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City; co-designer of the Lincoln Center in New York City. Am. Northrop Corp. founder John Knudsen Northrop (b. 1895) on Feb. 18. English actor Jack Warner (b. 1895) on May 24 in London (pneumonia). German-born Am. pshrink Fredric Wertham (b. 1895) on Nov. 18 in Kempton, Penn. Am. dancer Adele Astaire (b. 1896) on Jan. 25 in Tucson, Ariz. (stroke); sister-partner of Fred Astaire. Scottish "The Keys of the Kingdom" novelist A.J. Cronin (b. 1896) on Jan. 6 in Montreux, Switzerland (bronchitis). Am. actress-psychic Jean Dixon (b. 1896) on Feb. 12 in New York City; not to be confused with Am. psychic Jeane L. Dixon (1904-97). Am. composer-conductor Howard Hanson (b. 1896) on Feb. 26 in Rochester, N.Y. Am. "Over the Rainbow" songwriter Yip Harburg (b. 1896) on Mar. 4 in Hollywood, Calif.; dies in an auto accident on Sunset Blvd. Italian poet Eugenio Montale (b. 1896) on Sept. 12 in Milan (heart failure); 1975 Nobel Lit. Prize. Am. MCA founder Jules Stein (b. 1896) on Apr. 29 in Los Angeles, Calif. (heart failure). Romanian-born Am. psychologist David Wechsler (b. 1896) on May 12. Danish-born Swedish actor Nils Asther (b. 1897) on Oct. 19 in Farsta. Norwegian chemist Odd Hassel (b. 1897) on May 11; 1969 Nobel Chem. Prize. Am. costume designer Edith Head (b. 1897) on Oct. 24 in Los Angeles, Calif. (bone marrow disease). Soviet economist Evsei Liberman (b. 1897) on Nov. 11 in Kharkiv. Am. opera soprano Rosa Ponselle (b. 1897) on May 25 in Baltimore, Md. English guru Paul Brunton (b. 1898) on July 27. French silent film dir. Rene Clair (b. 1898) on Mar. 15 in Neuilly-sur-Seine. Am. historian Ariel Durant (b. 1898) on Oct. 25 in Los Angeles, Calif.; wife of Will Durant (1885-1981). Am. "Hollywood's Toastmaster General" entertainer George Jessel (b. 1898) on May 23 in Los Angeles, Calif. (heart attack). Austrian "Rosa Klebb in From Russia with Love" actress-singer Lotte Lenya (b. 1898) on Nov. 27 in New York City (cancer). Am. "Willie Walters in The Bing Crosby Show" actor Frank McHugh (b. 1898) on Sept. 11 in Greenwich, Conn. Irish-born Am. New Thought minister Joseph Murphy (b. 1898) on Dec. 16 in Laguna Hills, Calif. English "Island in the Sun" cocktail-swigging novelist Alec Waugh (b. 1898) on Sept. 3: "The first duty of a wine is to be red. The second is to be a Burgundy"; "I am prepared to believe that a dry martini slightly impairs the palate, but think what it does for the soul." Russian-born Am. physicist Gregory Breit (b. 1899) on Sept. 11. Am. "Stardust" songwriter Hoagy Carmichael (b. 1899) on Dec. 27 near Palm Springs, Calif. (heart attack). Canadian "Little Big Man" actor Chief Dan George (b. 1899) on Sept. 23 in Vancouver, B.C. Am. TVA chmn. (1941-6) David E. Lilienthal (b. 1899) on Jan. 15 in New York City (heart attack): "A river has no politics." Am. "Boys Town", "Blue Hawaii" film dir. Norman Taurog (b. 1899) on Apr. 7 in Rancho Mirage, Calif. Am. Pan-Am co-founder Juan Trippe (b. 1899) on Apr. 3 in New York City. English historian Dame Frances Amelia Yates (b. 1899) on Sept. 29 in Surbiton, Surrey. Am. FDR pres. advisor Thomas G. Corcoran (b. 1900) on Dec. 6 in Washington, D.C. (pulmonary blood clot). German-born English chemist Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (b. 1900) on Nov. 22 in Oxford; 1953 Nobel Med. Prize. French actor-writer Jean Nohain (b. 1900) on Jan. 25 in Paris. Am. "E.M. Frimbo, World's Greatest Railroad Buff" New Yorker writer Rogers E.M. Whitaker (b. 1900) on May 11 in New York City (cancer). Am. "Ninotchka", "Hud", "Being There", "I Never Sang for My father" actor Melvyn Douglas (b. 1901) on Aug. 4 in New York City (cancer); won two Oscars, one Tony, and one Emmy. Dutch world chess champ #5 (1935-7) Max Euwe (b. 1901) on Nov. 26 in Amsterdam. Hungarian-born Am. psychologist George Katona (b. 1901) on June 18 in West Berlin, Gemany. French psychiatrist Jacques Lacan (b. 1901) on Sept. 9. British politician-diplomat Malcolm John MacDonald (b. 1901) on Jan. 11 in Maidstone, Kent. Am. civil rights leader and NAACP pres. (1964-77) Roy Wilkins (b. 1901) on Sept. 8 in New York City (kidney failure). Hungarian-born Am. architect Marcel Breuer (b. 1902) on July 1 in New York City; co-designed the Whitney Museum of Am. Art in New York City with Hamilton Smith. Am. writer Jonathan Worth Daniels (b. 1902) on Nov. 6 in Hilton Head, S.C. Am. actress Ann Harding (b. 1902) on Sept. 1 in Sherman Oaks, Calif. Am. gymnast Alfred Jochim (b. 1902). French-born Am. "Ben-Hur", "Mrs. Miniver", "The Best Years of Our Lives" dir. William Wyler (b. 1902) on July 27 in Beverly Hills, Calif. (heart attack). Am. historian Ray Allen Billington (b. 1903) on Mar. 7 in San Marino, Calif.; the Org. of Am. Historians (OAH) establishes the Ray Allen Billington Prize this year for the best book about Am. frontier history, incl. North Am., South Am., all post-1492 pioneer experiences, and comparisons between Am. frontiers and other around the world; the first award (1981) goes to John D. Unruh for "The Plains Across: The Overland Emigrants and the Trans-Mississippi West, 1840-60". Am. artist Louis Schanker (b. 1903) in Stamford, Conn. Am. anthropologist Carleton S. Coon (b. 1904) on June 3 in Gloucester, Mass. French-born Am. socialite Nicolas de Gunzburg (b. 1904) on Feb. 20 in New York City. Am. "Three Men on a Horse" playwright John Cecil Holm (b. 1904) on Oct. 24 in Westerly, R.I. Am. painter Vance Kirkland (b. 1904) in Denver, Colo. German physicist Walter Heitler (b. 1904) on Nov. 15 in Zollikon, Meilen, Switzerland. Am. "Joe Pendleton in Here Comes Mr. Jordan" actor Robert Montgomery (b. 1904) on Sept. 27 in New York City (cancer); his children Elizabeth Montgomery (1933-95) and Robert Montgomery Jr. (1936-2000) also die of cancer. Am. blues musician Tampa Red (b. 1904) on Mar. 19 in Chicago, Ill.; dies alcoholic and destitute. Am. NYT film critic (1940-67) Bosley Crowther (b. 1905) on Mar. 7 in Mt. Kisco, N.Y. (heart failure); known for panning Joan Crawford, "Lawrence of Arabia" (1962), "The Great Escape" (1963), and "Bonnie and Clyde" (1967), the last one getting him canned. Am. psychologist Harry Harlow (b. 1905) on Dec. 6 in Tucson, Ariz. Am. novelist Meyer Levin (b. 1905) on July 9 in Israel. Am. Manchester Union Leader publisher William Loeb (b. 1905) on Sept. 13 in Burlington, Mass. (cancer); known for calling Pres. Eisenhower "Dopey Dwight" and Pres. Ford "Gerald the Jerk". German Nazi industrial genius Albert Speer (b. 1905) on Sept. 1 in London (cerebral hemorrhage). English "The 7th Voyage of Sinbad", "Marplon in Star Trek" actor Torin Thatcher (b. 1905) on Mar. 4 in Thousand Oaks, Calif. Am. "The Snake Pit" novelist Mary Jane Ward (b. 1905) on Feb. 17 in Tucson, Ariz. Am. "Harvey" writer Mary Coyle Chase (b. 1906) on Oct. 20 in Denver, Colo.; dies in "the House that Harvey Built" (505 Circle Dr.); her tombstone is inscribed "Harvey". German-born Am. biophysicist Max Delbruck (b. 1906) on Mar. 9 in Pasadena, Calif.; 1969 Nobel Med. Prize. Italian basketball official Renato William Jones (b. 1906) on Apr. 22 in Munich, Germany. Am. auto racer Mauri Rose (b. 1906) on Jan. 1 in Royal Oak, Mich. Am. "Manny Rosen in The Poseidon Adventure" actor Jack Albertson (b. 1907) on Nov. 25 in Hollywood, Calif. (cancer). Am. painter Ilya Bolotowsky (b. 1907). Swedish actress-swinger Zarah Leander (b. 1907) on June 23 in Stockholm (stroke). English actress-singer Jessie Matthews (b. 1907) on Aug. 19 in Eastcote, London (cancer). Am. "Frosty the Snowman" songwriter Steve Edward Nelson (b. 1907) on Nov. 23. U.S. U.N. ambassador #9 (1969-71) Charles Woodruff Yost (b. 1907) on May 21 in Washington, D.C. (cancer). Japanese physicist Hideki Yukawa (b. 1907) on Sept. 8/9 in Kyoto (pneumonia); 1949 Nobel Physics Prize. Venezuelan pres. (1945-8, 1954-64) Romulo Betancourt (b. 1908) on Sept. 28 in New York City; Pres. Reagan expresses sorrow at his death. Ukrainian nationalist leader Taras Bulba-Borovets (b. 1908) on May 15 in Toronto, Canada. English "M in James Bond 007" actor Bernard Lee (b. 1908) on Jan. 16 in London (stomach cancer). Am. writer Hildegarde Dolson Lockridge (b. 1908) on Jan. 15 in Columbus, N.C.; her writer hubby Richard Orson Lockridge dies next year. Am. actor Arthur O'Connell (b. 1908) on May 18 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "The Human Comedy" novelist William Saroyan (b. 1908) on May 18 in Fresno, Calif. (cancer): "The greatest happiness you can have is knowing that you do not necessarily require happiness." Am. novelist Nelson Algren (b. 1909) on May 9 in Sag Habor, Long Island, N.Y. (heart attack): "It is strange how fragile this man-creature is... in one second he's just garbage. Garbage, that's all." Am. "Topsy Part 2" jazz drummer Cozy Cole (b. 1909) on Jan. 31 in Columbus, Ohio (cancer). Am. country singer Denver Darling (b. 1909) on Apr. 27. Am. actress Madge Evans (b. 1909) on Apr. 26 in Oakland, N.J. (cancer). Am. playwright-novelist Ketti Frings (b. 1909) on Feb. 11 in Los Angeles, Calif. (cancer). Canadian Seabiscuit jockey Red Pollard (b. 1909) on Mar. 7. Am. psychologist Helen Schucman (b. 1909) on Feb. 9 (pancreatic cancer). Am. composer Samuel Barber (b. 1910) on Jan. 23 in New York City (cancer): "How awful that the artist has become nothing but the after-dinner mint of society." Am. "No, No, Nanette" actress Patsy Kelly (b. 1910) on Sept. 24 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, Calif. English-born Canadian New Age writer Lobsang Rampa (b. 1910) on Jan. 25 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Am. jazz composer-pianist Mary Lou Williams (b. 1910) on May 28 in Durham, N.C. (bladder cancer). English physical anthropologist Kenneth Page Oakley (b. 1911) on Nov. 2 in Amersham, Buckinghamshire. Am. children's writer Irwin Shapiro (b. 1911). Am. "Ellery Queen's secy. Nikki Porter" actress Marian Shockley (b. 1911) on Dec. 14 in Los Angeles, Calif. Trinidadian "Capitalism and Slavery" historian and PM #1 (1959-81) Eric Williams (b. 1911) on Mar. 29 in Port of Spain. Am. "Bullitt" author Robert L. Fish (b. 1912) on Feb. 23 in Trumbell, Conn.; the Robert L. Fish Memorial Award is established by the Mystery Writers of Am. in his honor. Am. folk singer Roscoe Holcomb (b. 1912) on Feb. 1 (emphysema). English writer Pamela Hansford Johnson (b. 1912) on June 18 in London; wife of C.P. Snow. Am. "Be-Baba-Leba" R&B singer Helen Humes (b. 1913) on Sept. 9 in Santa Monica, Calif. (cancer). German-born Am. psychologist Heinz Kohut (b. 1913) on Oct. 8 (cancer). Am. architect Louis Armet (b. 1914) on Oct. 11 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "The Weavers" folk singer Lee Hays (b. 1914) on Aug. 26 in Croton-on-Hudson, N.Y. (diabetes). Canadian "I'll Never Smile Again" songwriter Ruth Lowe (b. 1914) on Jan. 4 in Toronto. Russian conductor-composer Kirill Petrovich Kondrashin (b. 1914) on Mar. 7 in Amsterdam (heart attack). Am. heavyweight boxing champ (1937-49) Joe Louis (b. 1914) on Apr. 12 in Paradise, Nev. (heart attack); a greeter at Caesar's Palace, he dies hours after appearing at the Larry Holmes vs. Trevor Berbick heavyweight title fight; buried in Arlington Nat. Cemetery; Max Schmeling pays for part of his funeral and acts as pallbearer. Am. jazz composer-arranger Eddie Sauter (b. 1914) on Apr. 21 in New York City (heart attack). Am. "Pal Joey" bandleader-actor Bobby Sherwood (b. 1914) on Jan. 23 in Auburn, Mass. (throat cancer). English economist Barbara Mary Ward (b. 1914) on May 31. Am. "Sinbad the Sailor" novelist and children's writer Nathaniel Benchley (b. 1915) on Dec. 14 in Boston, Mass. (liver infection). Am. historian Fawn McKay Brodie (b. 1915) on Jan. 10 (cancer). Israeli defense minister (1953-8) Moshe Dayan (b. 1915) on Oct. 16 in Tel Aviv (heart attack). Am. writer Ruth Hurmence Green (b. 1915) on July 7 in Fla. (suicide after being diagnosed with terminal cancer). Am. jazz musician Cat Anderson (b. 1916) on Apr. 29 in Norwalk, Calif. (cancer). Am. big band singer Bob Eberly (b. 1916) on Nov. 17 in Glen Burnie, Md. (lung cancer). Am. educator Thomas F. Jones Jr. (b. 1916): "Friends may come and go, but enemies accumulate." English novelist Robin Maugham (b. 1916) on Mar. 13 in Brighton (pulmonary embolish). English writer-journalist Theodore Philip Toynbee (b. 1916) on June 15 in St. Briavels, Gloucestershire (cancer). Am. "The Teahouse of the August Moon" novelist Vernon J. Sneider (b. 1917) in Monroe, Mich. Am. meteorologist Jule Gregory Charney (b. 1917) on June 16. Am. poet Glen Coffield (b. 1917). Am. nutritionist-biochemist Philip Handler (b. 1917) on Dec. 29 in Boston, Mass. (pneumoma and lymphoma). Am. "Password" game show host Allen Ludden (b. 1917) on June 9 in Los Angeles, Calif. (stomach cancer). Ukrainian-born Am. film dir. Boris Sagal (b. 1917) on May 22 in Portland, Ore.; semi-decapitated by a heli in the parking lot of the Timberline Lodge (used for the exterior aerial shots of the Overlook Hotel in "The Shining"). Am. actor William Holden (b. 1918) on Nov. 16 in Santa Monica, Calif.; found dead in his apt. 1 week after falling into an alcoholic stupor, tripping on his bathroom rug, gashing his head on the furniture, and bleeding to death. Egyptian pres. (1970-81) Anwar al-Sadat (b. 1918) on Oct. 6 in Cairo (assassinated). Am. "1776" songwriter Sherman Edwards (b. 1919) on Mar. 30. Am. composer Hershy Kay (b. 1919) on Dec. 2 in Danbury, Conn. (heart failure). Trinidadian jazz singer-pianist Hazel Scott (b. 1920) on Oct. 2 in New York City (cancer). Am. burlesque queen Georgia Sothern (b. 1920) on Oct. 14 in New York City (cancer). Am. actress-dancer Vera-Ellen (b. 1921) on Aug. 30 in Los Angeles, Calif. (cancer). English novelist Charles Eric Maine (b. 1921) on Nov. 30 in London. Am. actor Yuki Shimoda (b. 1921) on May 21 in Los Angeles, Calif. (cancer). Am. artist H.C. Westermann (b. 1922) on Nov. 3 in Danbury, Conn. Am. auto racer Johnny Beauchamp (b. 1923) on Apr. 17. Am. "Paint Your Wagon" playwright Paddy Chayefsky (b. 1923) on Aug. 1 in New York City (cancer). Am. "The Bad and the Beautiful" actress Gloria Grahame (b. 1923) on Oct. 5 in New York City (stomach cancer). U.S. Sen. (D-Ohio) (1957-81) Frank Church (b. 1924) on Apr. 7 in Bethesda, Md. (pancreatic cancer): "I know the capacity that is there to make tyranny total in America, and we must see to it that this agency [the National Security Agency] and all agencies that possess this technology operate within the law and under proper supervision, so that we never cross over that abyss. That is the abyss from which there is no return." Am. basketball player George Nostrand (b. 1924) on Nov. 8. Am. R&B singer Roy Brown (b. 1925) on May 25 in San Fernando, Calif. (heart attack). Am. "Rock Around the Clock" singer Bill Haley (b. 1925) on Feb. 9 in Harlingen, Tex. (brain tumor and/or heart attack). Am. singer Alice Lon (b. 1926) in Apr. in Dallas, Tex. Am. actress Wanda Hendrix (b. 1928) on Feb. 1 in Burbank, Calif. (double pneumonia). Scottish-born British "Good" playwright Cecil Philip Taylor (b. 1929) on Dec. 9 in Newcastle on Tyne (pneumonia). Am. actor Pat Conway (b. 1931) on Apr. 24 in Santa Barbara County, Calif. English record producer Kit Lambert (b. 1935) on Apr. 7 in London (cerebral hemorrhage). Am. actress Natalie Wood (b. 1938) on Nov. 28 (night) off Santa Catalina Island, Calif.; drowns during the filming of "Brainstorm" (1983). Ecuadorian pres. #33 (1979-81) Jaime Roldos Aguilera (b. 1940) on May 24 near Guachanama, Celica Canton, Loja Province (airplane crash on Huairapungo Hill). Am. "Taxi" singer Harry Chapin (b. 1942) on July 16 in Jericho, Long Island, N.Y. (accident on the Long Island Expressway in his 1975 VW Rabbit); dies en route to give a free concert at Eisenhower Park before a crowd of 25K. Am. rock guitarist Mike Bloomfield (b. 1943) on Feb. 15 in San Francisco, Calif. (heroin OD): "It's [blues] a natural. Black people suffer externally in this country. Jewish people suffer internally. The suffering's the mutual fulcrum for the blues." Am. Canned Heat singer Bob Hite (b. 1943) on Apr. 5 in Los Angeles, Calif. (heart attack from an accidental heroin OD). Jamaican reggae musician Bob Marley (b. 1945) on May 11 in Miami, Fla. (malignant melanoma in his right big toe and/or brain cancer); loved to smoke foot-long bongs: "Herb is the healing of a nation, alcohol is the destruction." Am. "Naked Lunch" novelist William S. Burroughs Jr. (b. 1947) on Mar. 3 in Orange City, Fla. (cirrhosis of the liver). Am. Steppenwolf musician Rushton Moreve (b. 1948) on July 1 in Santa Barbara, Calif. (motorcycle accident).

1982 - The Beat It, Princess Grace, Elk Cloner and Tylenol Heli-Decapitating Year? The Israeli Invasion of Lebanon Causes Palestinian Terrorism To Break Out All Over the World Year?

Michael Jackson (1958-2009) 'Thriller' by Michael Jackson (1958-2009), 1982 Yuri Andropov of the Soviet Union (1914-84) Felipe Gonzalez Marquez of Spain (1942-) Helmut Kohl of West Germany (1930-) George Pratt Shultz of the U.S. (1920-) Dennis Wardlow (1954-) Conch Republic, Apr. 23, 1982 Olof Palme of Sweden (1927-86) Yasuhiro Nakasone of Japan (1918-) Salvador Jorge Blanco of Dominican Republic (1926-) Hernan Siles Suazo of Bolivia (1914-96) Gen. Guido Vildoso Calderon of Bolivia (1937-) Belisario Betancur of Colombia (1923-) Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado of Mexico (1934-2012) Gen. Efrain Rios Montt of Guatemala (1926-) Alvaro Alfredo Magaña of El Salvador (1925-2001) Paul Biya of Cameroon (1933-) Hissène Habré of Chad (1942-) Mswati III of Swaziland (1968-) Fred Ramdat Misier of Suriname (1926-2004) Maj. Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo of Upper Volta (1941-) Princess Grace of Monaco (1929-82) Princess Stephanie of Monaco (1965-) King Fahd of Saudi Arabia (1921-2005) Shlomo Argov of Israel (1929-2003) Agatha Barbara of Malta (1923-2002) Argentine Pres. Gen. Leopoldo Galtieri (1926-2003) Mario Cuomo of the U.S. (1932-2015) Bashir Gemayel of Lebanon (1947-82) Amine Gemayel of Lebanon (1942-) Hussain Mohammed Ershad of Bangladesh (1930-) A.F.M. Ahsannudin Chowdhury of Bangladesh (1915-2001) Asma Jahangir (1952-2018) Sadegh Ghotbzadeh of Iran (1936-82) Yeshayahu Leibowitz (1903-94) Venera 13, 1981-2 Jack Robert Lousma of the U.S. (1936-) Charles Gordon Fullerton of the U.S. (1936-) Thomas Kenneth Mattingly II of the U.S. (1936-) Henry Warren Hartsfield Jr. of the U.S. (1933-) Vance DeVoe Brand of the U.S. (1931-) Robert Franklyn Overmyer of the U.S. (1936-96) Joseph Percival Allen of the U.S. (1937-) William Benjamin Lenoir of the U.S. (1939-2010) Anatoly Berezovoi of the Soviet Union (1942-) Valentin Lebedev of the Soviet Union (1942-) Eduardo Frei of Chile (1911-82) U.S. Gen. Murphy A. Chesney (1927-) Mauno Koivisto of Finland (1923-2017) Andries Treurnicht of South Africa (1921-93) U.S. Gen. Edward L. Rowny (1917-) Paul Henry Nitze of the U.S. (1907-2004) C. Everett Koop of the U.S. (1916-) Kakuei Tanaka of Japan (1918-93) Benjamin Arellano-Felix (1952-) Coral Watts (1953-2007) Cardinal Jozef Glemp (1929-20130 William Bonin (1947-96) 'The Catch', Dwight Clark, Jan. 11, 1982 Joe Montana (1956-) Wayne Gretzky (1961-) Don Mattingly (1961-) Martina Navratilova (1956-) Jimmy Connors (1952-) Michael 'Dynamite' Dokes (1958-) Dan Issel (1948-) James Worthy (1961-) Terry Cummings (1961-) Dominique Wilkins (1960-) Lenny Skutnik (1954-) Earl Anthony (1938-2001) 'Earl Anthony's Million Dollar Strike' by LeRoy Neiman (1921-2012), 1982 Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman (1938-) George Deukmejian of the U.S. (1928-) William Wayne Justice of the U.S. (1920-2009) Young American Bowling Alliance Logo John Z. DeLorean (1925-2005) Juan Maria Fernandez y Krohn (1948-) Uri Avneri (1923-2018) Stanley Ben Prusiner (1942-) James H. Clark (1944-) Alva Myrdal (1902-86) Alfonso Garcia Robles (1911-91) Gabriel Garcia Marquez (1927-2014) Kenneth Geddes Wilson (1936-) Sir Aaron Klug (1926-) Sune Karl Bergstrom (1916-2004) Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson (1934-) Sir John Robert Vane (1927-2004) George Joseph Stigler (1911-91) Charles Geschke (1939-) and John Warnock (1940-) Richard J. Wurtman (1936-) Peter Armbruster (1931-) Gottfried Münzenberg (1940-) Lise Meitner (1878-1968) Joel R. Primack (1945-) Jim Peebles (1935-) George R. Blumenthal (1945-) Sandra Moore Faber (1944-) Martin John Rees (1942-) Sun Microsystems Founders Gordon Matthews (1936-2006) Tara Burke (1993-) Gilbert Trigano (1921-2001) John Coleman (1934-2018) Bryant Gumbel (1948-) Whitney Houston (1963-2012) and Bobby Brown (1960-) Larry Walters (1949-93), July 2, 1982 Enzo Bearzot (1927-2010) Paolo Rossi (1956-) Alain Aspect (1947-) Blas Cabrera Thomas Robert Cech (1947-) Sidney Altman (1939-) Francis S. Collins (1950-) Daniel Chee Tsui (1939-) Horst Ludwig Störmer (1949-) Robert Betts Laughlin (1950-) Robert Koffler Jarvik (1946-) Willem J. Kolff (1911-2009) William DeVries (1943-) Barney Clark (1921-83) James Robert Flynn (1934-) Richard Lynn (1930-) Janette Turner Hospital (1942-) Carol Gilligan (1936-) Lawence Kohlberg (1927-87) Trip Hawkins (1953-) Gregory C. Carr (1959-) Chalmers Ashby Johnson (1931-) Scott A. Jones (1960-) Barry James Marshall (1951-) John Robin Warren (1937-) Eric Robert Wolf (1923-99) Tom Peters (1942-) Charles Douglas-Home (1937-85) Mark Thatcher (1953-) Rick Rubin (1963-) Def Jam Records Peter Ackroyd (1949-) Harriet Stratemeyer Adams (1892-1982) Isabel Allende (1942-) Isaac Asimov (1920-92) Michael Baigent (1948-2013) Henry Lincoln (1930-) Richard Leigh (1943-2007) Russell Baker (1925-) James Bamford (1946-) Pat Barker (1943-) Yaacov Bar-Siman-Tov (1946-) Saul Bellow (1915-2005) Maeve Binchy (1940-) T. Coraghessan Boyle (1948-) William Bronk (1918-99) Roberto Calvi (1920-82) Caryl Churchill (1938-) Natalie Zemon Davis (1928-) Peter Diamond (1940-) Lawrence Durrell (1912-90) Odysseus Elytis (1911-96) Simon Estes (1938-) Bruce Feirstein (1956-) 'Real Men Don't Eat Quiche' by Bruce Feirstein (1956-), 1982 Michael Frayn (1933-) Athol Fugard (1932-) Charles Henry Fuller Jr. (1939-) John Lewis Gaddis (1941-) Jonathan Goldman Sue Grafton (1940-) Stephen Greenblatt (1943-) Lars Peter Hansen (1952-) Benjamin Hoff (1946-) Leroy Hood (1938-) John Jakes (1982-) Rhys Llywelyn Isaac (1937-2010) Thomas Keneally (1935-) Maurice Kenny (1929-) John Kessel (1950-) James Patrick Kelly (1951-) Galway Kinnell (1927-2014) W.P. Kinsella (1935-) Tony Kushner (1956-) Finn E. Kydland (1943-) Brad Leithauser (1953-) Julius Lester (1939-) Meyer Levin (1905-81) Torgny Lindgren (1938-) Paul Robert Milgrom (1948-) Michael Morpurgo (1943-) William Matthews (1942-) Alice McDermott (1953-) Ken McElroy (1935-82) Frank McGuinness (1953-) James Merrill (1926-95) Robert L. Middlekauff (1929-) Herta Müller (1953-) John Naisbitt (1929-) Edward Christian Prescott (1940-) Richard R. Nelson (1930-) Philip Norman (1943-) Ariel Rubenstein (1951-) Kenneth Geddes Wilson (1936-) Sidney Graham Winter (1935-) Sara Paretsky (1947-) John Pielmeier (1949-) Katha Pollitt (1949-) Peter Russell (1946-) John E. Sarno (1923-) Susan Sheehan (1937-) Robert Sobel (1931-99) George Starbuck (1931-96) Paul Starr (1949-) Nancy Stokey (1950-) John Toland (1912-2004) Sue Townsend (1946-) Mona Van Duyn (1921-2004) Alice Walker (1944-) Edmund White (1940-) Domenico Dolce (1958-) and Stefano Gabbana (1962-) John Belushi (1949-82) Cathy Evelyn Smith (1948-) Wolfgang Puck (1949-) Vic Morrow (1929-82) Mary Hart (1950-) Calvert DeForest (1921-2007) Darci Kistler (1964-) 'Cheers', 1982-93 Family Ties, 1982-9 Michael J. Fox (1961-) Gary David Goldberg (1944-) Mr. Hooper in 'Sesame Street', by Will Lee (1908-82) Newhart TV Show, 1982-90 'Knight Rider', starring David Hasselhoff (1952-), 1982-6 'Cagney and Lacey', starring Tyne Daley (1946-) and Sharon Gless (1943-), 1982-88 Georg Stanford Brown (1943-) 'St. Elsewhere', 1982-8 'Inspector Gadget', 1982-6 Paul Coelho (1947-) Kenneth Cole (1954-) 'Basket Case', 1982 'The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas', 1982 'Blade Runner', starring Harrison Ford (1942-), 1982 Daryl Hannah (1960-) in 'Blade Runner' 'Creepshow', 1982 'Diner', 1982 'The Draughtsmans Contact', 1982 'E.T.: The Extra-Terrestrial', 1982 Reese's Pieces, 1978 'Fast Times at Ridgemont High', 1982 Phoebe Cates (1963-) in 'Fast Times at Ridgemont High', 1982 Amy Heckerling (1954-) 'First Blood', 1982 'Gandhi', 1982 'Halloween III: Season of the Witch', 1982 'Liquid Sky', 1982 'The Man from Snowy River', 1982 'An Officer and a Gentleman', starring Richard Gere (1949-) and Debra Winger (1955-), 1982 'Poltergeist', 1982 'Sophies Choice', 1982 'Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan', 1982 'Tempest', 1982 'The Thing', 1982 'Tootsie', 1982 Geena Davis (1956-) 'Tron', 1982 'Victor/Victoria' starring Julie Andrews (1935-), 1982 'The World According to Garp', 1982 'The Year of Living Dangerously', 1982 TriStar Pictures Logo Eddie Murphy (1961-) Asia Boy George (1961-) and Culture Club Laura Branigan (1952-2004) Charlene (1950-) The Clash Joe Cocker (1944-2014) Kenny G (1956-) George Thorogood (1950-) Jennifer Warnes (1947-) Wham! Moon Unit Zappa (1967-) 'Heartlight' by Neil Diamond (1941-), 1982 Philip Glass (1937-) Thomas Dolby (1958-) Glenn Frey (1948-2016) Don Henley (1947-) Hall & Oates Bertie Higgins (1944-) Janet Jackson (1966-) Evelyn 'Champagne' King (1960-) Eddie Money (1949-) John Cougar Mellencamp (1951-) Ozzy Osbourne (1948-) Prince (1958-2016) Survivor 'Eye of the Tiger' by Survivor, 1982 10,000 Maniacs Men Without Hats Modern English Night Ranger Aldo Nova (1956-) Talk Talk Tears for Fears Twisted Sister The Waitresses Wang Chung Musical Youth Haircut 100 Tight Fit Peter and the Test Tube Babies Toni Basil (1943-) Buckner and Garcia Megaforce Records Metal Blade Records Newman's Own, 1982 Martine Kempf (1959-) and Katalavox Minitel, 1982 Boeing 757, 1982 Olive Garden Restaurants, 1982- Barbican Centre, London, 1982 Michael Graves (1934-) Portland Public Service Bldg., 1982 Jean-Michelle Basquiat (1960-88) 'All Colored Cast II' by Jean-Michelle Basquiat (1960-88), 1982 Elizabeth Murray (1940-2007) 'Keyhole' by Elizabeth Murray (1940-2007), 1982 'Lookin to Get Out', 1982 'Making Love', 1982 Gerhard Richter (1932-) 'Two Candles' by Gerhard Richter (1932-), 1982 Al Neuharth (1924-2013) Gaston Glock (1929-) Glock 17 Pistol, 1982 Super Soaker, 1982 Lonnie Johnson (1949-) Bluebird Cafe Bert Grant (1928-2001) Yakima Brewery Logo Banpo Bridge Moonlight Rainbow Fountain, 2009 Maya Ying Lin (1959-) Vietnam Veterans Memorial, 1982

1982 Doomsday Clock: 4 min. to midnight. Chinese Year: Dog (Jan. 25). Time Mag. Man of the Year: The Computer (Dec. 26). A global surplus of crude oil causes gasoline prices to plummet, which doesn't stop a short but severe recession in the U.S. There are 350K facsimile (fax) installations in the U.S. (vs. 69K in 1975); by 1985 there are 500K fax machines installed worldwide. On Jan. 1 Washington defeats Iowa by 28-0 to win the 1982 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 4 U.S. audiences get treated with a black face with their morning coffee as NBC sports personality Bryant Charles Gumbel (1948-) replaces Tom Brokaw as host of Today, teaming with white face Jane "Bipolar" Pauley (until Jan. 3, 1997); too bad, Gumbel makes the mistake of writing a memo in 1989 dissing white Willard Scott and Jew Gene Shalit - a taste of future mass mixed marriages in the U.S.? On Jan. 5 a U.S. federal judge voids a state law requiring balanced classroom treatment of evolution and creationism. On Jan. 5 Exxon Corp. announces a financial settlement with the Libyan govt. for seizing its assets last Nov. after 25 years of operation; on Jan. 20 the London Financial Times reports that the Libyans are paying $95M for assets valued at $120M; meanwhile Muammar al-Gaddafi threatens war if the U.S. violates his self-proclaimed territorial limits in the Gulf of Sidra. On Jan. 6 Iraqi Shiite Muslims damage the 625-mi. Iraq-Iskendrun Pipeline in Turkey carrying oil from Kirkuk, Iraq to the Mediterranean port of Yumurtalik, Turkey; they damage it again on Jan. 8. On Jan. 6 Calif. Freeway Killer William George Bonin (1947-96) is convicted of 14 out of 21+ rape-murders of boys aged 12-19; after years of appeals he is executed on Feb. 23, 1996. On Jan. 7 the German-born LaGrand Brothers rob a bank in Marana, Ariz., killing a man and injuring a woman, after which they are convicted of murder and sentenced to death, and are executed in 1999 (becoming the last use of lethal gas in the U.S. until ?), after which Germany sues the U.S. in the Internat. Court of Justice for not informing them of their right to consular assistance under the Vienna Convention, and wins a decision on June 27, 2001. On Jan. 8 U.S. asst. atty.-gen. William Francis Baxter Jr. (1929-98) settles a 7-y.-o. (1974) case against AT&T (1M employees) with the largest breakup in history, splitting off seven regional and 15 local phone cos. (Baby Bells), effective by Jan. 1, 1984, with AT&T retaining its long distance lines, Western Reserve manufacturing arm, and Bell Labs.; taking advantage of AT&T's failure to replace their copper wires with fiber-optic cables even though Bell Labs is the inventor, MCI (Microwave Communications Inc.) (founded 1963) lays fiber-optic cables by next year, putting the first TV transmission trunk into service in 1983 between New York City and Washington, D.C. (45M bps) and growing to 15K employees from 1.5K in 1980; it is acquired by WorldComm in 1988. On Jan. 8 Bob Jones U. of S.C. and other racial-discrimination-promoting univs. are given tax-exempt status on the orders of Pres. Reagan after 11 years (1971), but on Jan. 12 after a firestorm of controversy he flip-flops; on May 24, 1983 despite an amicus brief filed by the Nat. Assoc. of Evangelicals (NAE), the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court by 8-1 decides that the IRS can revoke the tax-exempt status of orgs. that are contrary to established public policy incl. those who practice racial discrimination, limiting their decision to "religious schools - not churches or other purely religious institutions"; the lone dissenter is Rehnquist. On Jan. 9 Palestinian terrorists bomb the Israeli airline office in Istanbul. On Jan. 9 Margaret Thatcher's playboy son Mark Thatcher (1953-) disappears in the Sahara Desert during the Paris-Dakar Rally along with his co-driver and mechanic, and are declared missing on Jan. 12; after a massive search they are rescued unharmed on Jan. 14 after surprise, no terrorism. On Jan. 10 the lowest-ever temp in the U.K. of -27.2C (-17.0F)is recorded in Braemar, Aberdeenshire, equalling the 1895 record in the same place; it is equalled again in 1995 in Altnaharra. On Jan. 10 the temperature in Harper Adams U., Edgmond, Shropshire reaches -26.1C (-14.98F), becoming the lowest temperature ever recorded in England (until ?). On Jan. 11-17 a record cold spell hits the midwest U.S., capped by Cold Sunday on Jan. 17. On Jan. 12 Peking protests the sale of U.S. planes to Taiwan. On Jan. 13 after takeoff from Nat. Airport, Air Florida Flight 90 (Boeing 737) dramatically crashes into the 14th St. Bridge in Washington, D.C. then into the icy Potmac River during a snowstorm, killing 74 of 79 aboard plus four on the bridge; failure to de-ice the engines is blamed; Martin L. "Lenny" Skutnik (1954-) becomes a hero when he wades into the icy river to rescue Priscilla Tirado, and Pres. Reagon invites him to sit with the First Lady and be recognized during his Jan. 19 1982 State of the Union Address, causing the term "Lenny Skutnik" to be coined for anybody else given similar treatment, and a tradition of introducing heroes during State of the Union speeches to begin. On Jan. 13 a Washington Metro train derails, killing three, becoming the system's first fatal accident since it opened on Mar. 27, 1976. On Jan. 13 an Algerian diplomat is abducted from his home, murdered, and dumped in a Muslim section of Beirut. On Jan. 15 a bomb expodes in an Israeli restaurant in West Berlin, killing a 14-mo.-old girl and injuring 25; six members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) are suspected; on Jan. 17 another bomb explodes outside the office of Lufthansa Airlines in Tel Aviv. On Jan. 16 the U.K. establishes full diplomatic relations with the Vatican - causing Henry VIII and Elizabeth I to roll over in their graves? On Jan. 18 (9 a.m.) U.S. Lt. Col. Charles R. Ray is assassinated as he leaves his home in Paris by the Lebanese Armed Rev. Faction (FARL); in 1984 FARL leader Georges Ibrahim Abdallah is captured, and in Feb. 1987 despite several bombing attacks in France in an attempt to delay the trial he is convicted of this and other crimes and sentenced to life in prison. On Jan. 18 Iraqi-funded Venezuelan terrorist Carlos the Jackal (Ilich Ramirez Sanchez) (1949-) and his new wife Magdalena Cecilina Kopp (1948-) allegedly try to destroy the new Superphenix nuclear power plant under construction in Creys-Malville, France with five RPG-7 rockets which they fire at it over the Rhone River, three of which miss, the other two bouncing off the thick concrete reactor outer shell; in May 2003 Jerusalem-born Swiss Green Party politician Chaim Nissim (1949-) admits to carrying out the attack with equipment obtained from Carlos the Jackal; in Feb. Kopp and Swiss terrorist Bruno Breguet are arrested in Paris in an underground parking garage, attempting to kill the police until their gun misfires; their car is found to contain bombs, and they deny that they're on a terrorist mission; after setting off a number of bombs in retaliation, Carlos the Jackal writes to French interior minister (1981-3) Gaston Deferre (1910-86) demanding their release, which is leaked to the press, ending in the pair getting lighter sentences with the attempted murder charge dropped; they are later found to have been hired by Syrian pres. Hafez al-Assad to bomb the Paris office of the Lebanese weekly mag. Al Watan al Arabi (founded in 1976) for an article linking Syria with the Sept. 4, 1981 assassination of French ambassador to Beirut Louis Delamare; on Apr. 15 after letters demanding the release of Kopp and Breguet don't work, French embassy employee Guy Cavallo is assassinated in Beirut along with his pregnant wife. On Jan. 20 after he began throwing meat at the audience during his Diary of A Madman tour, causing fans to start throwing stuff back, British shock rocker John Michael "Ozzy" Osbourne (1948-) bites the head off a bat in Veterans Memorial Auditorium in Des Moines, Iowa, later claiming he thought it was fake, then getting rabies shots; the fan who threw it on stage later claims it was already dead; in Mar. guitarist Randy Rhoads dies while flying a stolen airplane over the tour bus, after which he is replaced by Bernie Torme then Brad Gillis; in 1982 Ozzy gets banned from San Antonio, Tex. for a decade for urinating on the Alamo while wearing future wife-mgr. Sharon's dress, and in 1989 he tries to strangle her after getting too drunk. On Jan. 21 an overcrowded bus plunges off a bridge in Narayanganj, Bangladesh, killing 28 and injuring 40. On Jan. 21 (they call him Chick?) Charles Everett Koop (1916-) becomes U.S. surgeon gen. #13 (until Oct. 1, 1989), raising the public profile of his position; in Mar. he pub. a Report on Cigarettes, calling cigarette smoking the #1 preventable cause of death, with lung cancer killing 111K Ams. a year, up from 18K in 1950, and costing the U.S. in $13B a year plus $25B loss in wages and production; by the middle of the decade lung cancer will kill more women each year than breast cancer; in 1984 Koop claims that nicotine is as addictive as heroin or cocaine, and calls on Americans to "create a smoke-free society in the U.S. by the year 2000"; he goes on to release seven more health reports on tobacco use, incl. the first report on health consequences of involuntary tobacco smoke exposure; too bad, he goes after gay anal sex as a primary vector of transmission of HIV, upsetting gays one way and the religious the other way by his frankness. On Jan. 22 Pres. Reagan formally links progress in arms control to Soviet repression in Poland. On Jan. 22 Pinochet opposition leader (pres. of Chile in 1964-70) Eduardo Frei Montalva (b. 1911) dies from poisoning by mustard gas; after it is initially reported as septicemia from surgery, the truth comes out and it takes until 2009 for three people to be charged with his murder; meanwhile his son Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle becomes pres. of Chile in 1994-2000. On Jan. 23 (Sat.) CBS-TV airs The Uncounted Enemy: A Vietnam Deception, alleging a conspiracy to falsify intel reports on events leading to the 1968 Vietnamese Tet Offensive, causing Gen. William Westmoreland to sue CBS for $120M for libel, but on Feb. 18, 1985 after former high-ranking military officials testify on CBS' behalf, he drops the suit before it reaches a jury, with CBS issuing a statement that they never meant to impugn his patriotism but stand by their story. On Jan. 24 Super Bowl XVI (16) is held in the new $55.7M Pontiac Silverdome in Pontiac, Mich., the first SB played at a cold weather site; the San Francisco 49ers (NFC) defeat the Cincinnati Bengals (AFC) 26-21 despite being outgained 356-275 total yards and Bengals tight end (#89) Daniel R. "Dan" Ross (1957-2006) having a SB record 11 receptions; a goal line stand by #57 Dan Bunz (1955-), who stops Cincinnati RB Charles Alexander (1957-) after he catches a 3rd down pass before halftime proves pivotal, and becomes known as "the Stop"; MVP is 49ers QB Joseph Clifford "Joe" Montana Jr. (1956-); in Nov. 2009 after the 2008-9 recession, the Silverdome is sold for $583K. On Jan. 24 a draft of an Air Force history of Operation Ranch Hand reveals that the U.S. secretly sprayed herbicides on Laos during the Vietnam War; on Sept. 15 USAF deputy surgeon gen. Maj. Gen. Murphy A. Chesney (1927-) presents a study that claims that Ranch Hand vets had no higher death rate than other vets - they thought the name was Louse? On Jan. 25 (Chinese New Year) Chinese Central TV debuts its Chinese New Year Gala Program, watched by virtually the entire Chinese pop. every year from now on (until ?). On Jan. 26 a train derails on the Algiers-Oran line in Algeria, killing 120. On Jan. 26 unemployment in the U.K. reaches a post-WWII record of 3,070,621. On Jan. 27 PM (since 1979) Mauno Henrik Koivisto (1923-2017) becomes pres. #9 of Finland (until Mar. 1, 1994), becoming the first Social Dem. On Jan. 27 Turkish consul-gen. Kemal Arikan is murdered at a stoplight in his car in West Los Angeles, Calif. by two men, incl. Beirut-born Armenian immigrant Harry Sassounian (1963-) in reprisal for the 1915 Armenian Genocide; his brother Harout Sassounian is in jail for tossing a Molotov cocktail at Arikan's home in Oct. 1980; after Pres. Reagan calls the murder "an apparent act of terrorism", Kemal receives a life sentence. On Jan. 28 Italian anti-terrorism forces rescue U.S. Brig. Gen. James L. Dozier 42 days after being kidnapped by the Red Brigades. On Jan. 29 after a long strike the Philadelphia Bulletin newspaper suspends pub. after 135 years (1847); "Nearly everybody reads the Bulletin." On Jan. 31 two buses collide and plunge into a gorge outside Santiago, Chile, killing 14 and injuring 70. In Jan. Zimbabwe PM Robert Mugabe dismisses Joshua Nkomo (1917-99) as home minister, with the soundbyte: "ZAPU and its leader Dr. Joshua Nkomo are like a cobra in a house - the ony way to deal effectively with a snake is to strike and destroy its head", causing Nkomo's soldiers to desert and return to Matabeleland, where Mugabe sends his pres. guard and Fifth Brigade after them, killing 10K by 1987; Mugabe also discharges manpower and planning minister Edgar Z. Tekere, after he was tried and acquitted of the murder of a white farmer; next Mar. 7 Nkomo flees to exile in London after crossing the Botswana frontier allegedly disguised as a woman. In Jan. in Haiti journalist Richard Brisson is murdered by agents of dictator Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier. In Jan. crop failure for the 4th straight year causes food shortages in the Soviet Union. On Feb. 1 France establishes a 39-hour work week with five weeks of paid vacation. On Feb. 1 Late Night with David Letterman debuts on NBC-TV, with the gnomish face of Calvert DeForest (1921-2007) greeting viewers in a parody of Boris Karloff in "Frankenstein" under the name Larry "Bud" Melman, who goes on to appear regularly as a correspondent until his retirement in 2002. On Feb. 2 the Hama Massacre in Hama, Syria sees the Baathist Syrian army bombard the town to quell a revolt by the fundamentalist Muslim Brotherhood, killing 7K-40K, incl. 1K soldiers, and destroying the city, becoming the deadliest attack by an Arab govt. against its own people in modern times; on Feb. 3 Syrian pres. Hafez al-Assad orders the army to purge the Turkish city of Harran near the Syrian border of the Muslim Brotherhood; survivors flee to Lebanon's Bekaa Valley, Afghanistan, Europe, and the U.S., and don't try it again for the rest of the cent.; too bad, some of them flock to new kid on the block Osama bin Laden. On Feb. 5 after Surname's military establishes a Rev. Front, causing vice-PM Andre Haakmat to be dismissed and flee to the Netherlands, and pres. Henk R. Chin A Sen to resign on Feb. 4, a 4-man military council assumes power in Paramaribo; on Feb. 8 Lachmipersad Frederick "Fred" Ramdat Misier (1926-2004) succeeds Chin A Sen as civilian pres. of Suriname (until Jan. 25, 1988); too bad, on Dec. 9 the military seizes power, and on Dec. 10 imposes martial law, causing the Netherlands to claim that it actually executed the exiles, suspending its $100M/year economic aid on Dec. 12 until democracy is restored; the U.S. follows suit, suspending its $1.5M/year aid program. On Feb. 5 Sir Freddie Laker's London-based Lakers Airways (founded 1966) goes bankrupt, leaving 6K stranded passengers and $270M in debt. On Feb. 9 after suicidal Capt. Seiji Katigiri throws two of the plane's four engines into reverse on approach to Haneda Airport despite efforts to restrain him by the flight engineer and first officer, Japan Air Lines Flight 350 (DC-8) from Fukuoka plunges into Tokyo Bay in shallow water 1K ft. (300m) short of the runway, killing 24 of 166 passengers and none of the eight crew, becoming JAL's first crash of the decade; Katagiri tries to pass himself off as a passenger to get away, and is later found not guilty by reason of insanity. On Feb. 11-13 Francois Mitterrand's French Socialist govt. nationalizes five major industries and 39 banks at a cost of $7B, and imposes new taxes on the rich, giving Paris a new look with the Great Works. On Feb. 12 the house in the Yvelines district outside Paris where Ayatollah Khomeini lived for 5 mo. before returning to Iran in 1979 is blown up and destroyed by pro-Shah Iranians. On Feb. 15 the Ocean Ranger semi-submersible mobile offshore oil-drilling platform sinks off the coast of Newfoundland during a fierce storm, killing all 84 workers. On Feb. 15 Agatha Barbara (1923-2002) becomes pres. #3 of the Repub. of Malta (until Feb. 15, 1987), its first female pres. On Feb. 18 as foreign exchange reserves run out, pres. Jose Lopez Portillo of Mexico devalues the peso by 30%, followed by another 30% by the end of the mo. On Feb. 18 elections in Ireland are a V for Fianna Fail. On Feb. 19 the DeLorean Motor Co. factory in Belfast, Northern Ireland is put into receivership, and the British govt. loses £94M in subsidies of 2K jobs, which they hoped would weaken popular support for the IRA; on Oct. 19 John Zachary DeLorean (1925-2005) is arrested in Los Angeles and accused of putting up $1.8M to bring 100 kilos ($24M) of cocaine into the U.S. to salvage his co.; on Aug. 16, 1984 he is acquitted on the grounds of entrapment by the FBI despite a videotape showing him calling a suitcase full of coke "good as gold", and he retires to his estate in Somerset County, N.J., fighting creditors and declaring bankruptcy in 1999. On Feb. 24 after getting pissed-off at his limited reforms of apartheid to "exchange self-determination for power-sharing", 22 South African Nat. Party MPs led by "Dr. No" Andries Petries Treurnicht (1921-93) (known for his 1976 order as minister of ed. to teach black students in Afrikaans, triggering the Soweto Riots) vote no confidence in the govt. of P.W. Botha, and on Mar. 20 Dr. No and 17 of them quit the Nat. Party and form the Conservative Party, which achieves 31.5% of the vote by 1989; in 2003 it merges with the Freedom Front. On Feb. 25 Kuwaiti Airways Flight KU561 with 150 aboard is seized after landing in Beirut en route from Libya to Kuwait by 12 Shiite gunmen led by Hamza akl Hamieh in retaliation for the 1978 disappearance on Muammar Gaddafi's orders of Iranan-born Islamic leader Imam Moussa Sadr, highest-ranking Muslim cleric in Lebanon, becoming their 7th hijacking protesting his disappearance; after a Shiite cleric promises that their case will be pressed at the U.N. and Internat. Court of Justice, they are released, disappearing into the night, after which a Lebanese official later says "They are probably sipping hot coffee with their kin", and Capt. Les Bradley flies the plane back to Kuwait, saying that they warned the airline to drop this route. On Feb. 25 Air Tanzania Flight ? (Boeing 737 with 99 passengers and crew en route to Dar es Salaam is hijacked by five armed members of the Tanzanian Youth Dem. Movement who want pres. Julius Nyerere removed, making stops in Jeddah, Athens, and Stansted, England, where they are refused refueling, freeing the hostages on Feb. 28 and surrendering after negotiations with exiled Tanzanian foreign minister Oscar Kambona; on Sept. 18 they are sentenced to prison terms of 4-8 years. On Feb. 25 the European Court of Human Rights rules that it is a violation of the Human Rights Convention for teachers to cane, belt, or taste students against the wishes of the parents. In Feb. in Guatemala 100+ men from Rio Negro are killed by Xococ patrolmen. In Feb. Greenland (pop. 50K), home of the world's only source of natural cryolite used in making aluminum votes to withdraw from the European Community, which they had joined as part of Denmark in 1973; Danish pres. Anker Jorgensen supports the move with reluctance. On Mar. 1 Palestinian Arab Liberation Front member Nabil Aranki Hawwad is assassinated in Madrid, Spain by rival groups. On Mar. 1 the Soviet Venera 13 spacecraft launched last Oct. 30 lands successfully on Venus, operating for 127 min. at 1,234 psi and 457C (855F); on Nov. 14 Venera 14 is launched, landing on Venus next Mar.5 590 mi. from Venera 13, and lasts only 57 min. at 1,382 psi and 465C (869F). The Jewish extremists who want to rebuild the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem have a big year? On Mar. 2 15 people from an extreme Jewish Kiryat Arba group attack one of the outside gates (Silsilah or Chain Gate) of the Al-Aqsa Mosqueand assault security guards; on Mar. 5 an explosive device is found on the road leading to themosque near the Bab al Majles entrance; on Mar. 30 two Jewish terrorists of the Temple Mount Faithful group along with Knesset members Guela Cohen and Ben Porat enter the mosque yard; on Apr. 2 another group raids the mosque from the Dung Gate, but are stopped by guards, after a guard is shot; on Apr. 8 the Temple Mount Faithful group place a fake bomb with a note in front of the mosque door; on Apr. 11 Am.-born Israeli soldier Alan Goodman enters the Dome of the Rock Mosque and opens fire, killing a security guards and injuring dozens with the assistance of other soldiers who are outside the mosque, causing a Muslim riot that injures 175, during which police protect him from the mob; he is sentenced to life plus 40 years, but released to the U.S.on Oct. 26, 1997 after 15 years; on Apr. 27 Rabbi Meir Kahane along with 100 other Jewish radicals attempt to attack the Al-Aqsa Mosque while carrying a large diagram of a new Jewish temple; on June 4 a letter is sent to the Islamic Council threatening to blow the mosque up; on July 28 armed Yeshiva students seize three apts. near the mosque, but are evacuated by police. On Mar. 3 a man from a fascist group in Kosovo fires a submachine gun into a crowd of Yugoslav massoccer, er, soccer fans in Brussels, Belgium, killing two and injuring three. On Mar. 3 British queen Elizabeth II opens the £161M Barbican Centre in North London, becoming the largest performing arts center in Europe. On Mar. 5 33-y.-o. actor-comedian John Belushi (b. 1949) is found dead of a heroin-cocaine OD at a rented bungalow at the Chateau Marmont on Sunset Strip in Hollywood, Calif.; on Sept. 2, 1986 his babe, backup singer slash groupie Cathy Evelyn Smith (1948-) is sentenced to three years for involuntary manslaughter for injecting him. On Mar. 8 the U.S. accuses the Soviets of killing 3K Afghans with poison gas - twenty years later they might have praised them for it? On Mar. 9 after being defeated 82-81 on his budget on Jan. 27, Irish PM (since June 30, 1981) Garret FitzGerald resigns, and Charles Haughey is reelected PM of Ireland until Dec. 14, when his economic mismanagement causes him to be replaced by FitzGerald again (until Mar. 10, 1987). On Mar. 9 a munitions-laden Lebanese cargo ship is blown up in Palestinian-controlled port of Tyre. On Mar. 10 all eight planets align on the same side ofthe Sun (a syzygy). On Mar. 10 the U.S. imposes an embargo on Libyan oil imports because of their continued support of daffy Islamic terrorism; they had been importing 150K barrels a day valued at $2B a year,about 25% of Libya's total output; Daffy calls Reagan a "destructive person"and "terrorist" but claims he is ready to resume relations; on Apr. 13 Mobil Corp. notifies Libya that it will surrender all its oil exploration and production activities on July 13; other U.S. oil cos. get around the embargo by laundering the oil in Europe. On Mar. 12 after refusing to obey owner Rupert Murdoch's orders to back the Thatcher govt.'s monetarist policy and U.S. policy in El Salvador, Harold Evans resigns, and conservative Charles Cospatrick Douglas-Home (1937-85) (nephew of former PM Sir Alec Douglas-Home) becomes ed. of The Times of London, seeing circ. grow from 300K to 500K before dying of cancer. On Mar. 13 the Massacre of Rio Negro sees 100+ women and children killed by Xococ patrolmen in Guatemala. On Mar. 13 T.J. Hooker debuts on ABC-TV for 92 episodes (until May 4, 1985, switching to CBS-TV until May 28, 1986), starring Star Trek Capt. Kirk William Alan Shatner (1931-) as Sgt. Thomas Jefferson Hooker, who sought to avenge his partner's death and ended up training LAPD academy recruits, incl. young rookie Vince Romano, played by Adrian Zmed (1954-); Richard Herd Jr. (1932-) plays Capt. Dennis Sheridan; starting in season 2 Heather Deen Locklear (1961-) plays Officer Stacy Sheridan and James Darren (James William Ercolani) (1936-) plays Officer Jim Corrigan. On Mar. 14 the London HQ of the outlawed ANC are bombed with bomb parts sent in a diplomatic pouch to the South African embassy on the orders of South African police minister Louis le Grange; no one is killed. On Mar. 15 Carlos the Jackal detones 12 lb. of explosives in the French Cultural Center in Beirut, killing two profs. and injuring 11 students; on Mar. 29 he explodes another bomb on a Trans Europe express train between Paris and Toulouse, killing five and injuring 30 passengers; Paris mayor Jacques Chirac was scheduled to be on the train but changed his plans. On Mar. 15 the Reagan admin. announces a Libyan plot to kill several hundred Americans in Khartoum, Sudan with two stereo speakers packed with 40 lb. of explosives each in an Am. recreation club; the speakers were allegedly discovered in Nairobi, Kenya en route; a lie to create an excuse to bomb Libya? On Mar. 16 Soviet pres. Leonid Brezhnev announces that he is halting the deployment of new nuclear missiles in Europe, and criticizes the U.S. for evading serious strategic arms limitations talks, which the U.S. dismisses as a propaganda ploy; on May 9 Pres. Reagan outlines a 2-phase proposal, leaving each country with 850 ballistic missiles (down from 1.7K for the U.S. and 2,350 for the Soviet Union), plus long-range missiles to remain at current levels of 400 for the U.S. and 350 for the Soviets, along with a reduction in Soviet SS-18 land-based missiles; on May 20 U.S.-Soviet negotiations resume in Geneva after a 2-mo. break. On Mar. 16 a car bomb near the abandoned (since 1979) Egyptian Embassy in Beirut kills one woman and injures 15. On Mar. 17 Lebanese British diplomat Mohammed al-Mikdad is kidnapped in Beirut and held for $150K ransom. On Mar. 18 after talks in New York City break down in Feb., a group of 50 Argentine scrap metal dealers raise the Argentine flag in Leith Harbor in South Georgia Island in the 300-island Falkland Islands, which Britain has claimed since 1833, while Argentine claims them and calls them the Islas Malvinas; on Apr. 2 Argentine troops seize disputed sheep-filled Falkland (Maldive) Islands located in the S Atlantic from Britain, followed on Apr. 3 by South Georgia Island, causing Britain to launch the Falklands War (ends June 14), imposing a blockade on Apr. 12 after the U.N. Security Council votes 10-1-4 (Panama; China, Poland, Spain, U.S.S.R.) for Resolution 502, demanding an end to hostilities and a complete withdrawal by Argentine forces, giving the U.K. the right to invoke Article 51 of the U.N. Charter and claim the right of self-defense, immediately imposing sanctions supported by the British Commonwealth and the European Economic Community; on Apr. 25 British commandos invade and retake South Georgia Island in Operation Paraquet; on May 2 British nuclear sub HMS Conqueror sinks ARA General Belgrano, Argentina's only cruiser (formerly the U.S. light cruiser Phoenix, which survived the Pearl Harbor Attack with only one bullet hole in a range-finder shield), killing 323; on May 4 HMS Sheffield (D80) is hit by an Argentine Exocet missile, killing 20, then sinking on May 10; on May 14 a British force arrives on the QE2, after which there is heavy fighting and casualties on both sides; on May 21-25 the Battle of San Carlos sees the British successfully establish a beachhead despite repeated attacks by low-flying Argentine jet aircraft on the shores of San Carlos Water, which becomes known as Bomb Alley; too bad, on May 22 HMS Ardent (F184) is sunk by Argentine aircraft, killing 22; on May 24 HMS Antelope (F170) is sunk, followed on May 25 by HMS Coventry (D118) and SS Atlantic Conveyor; on May 26 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 505, reaffirming Resolution 502 and after noting tht the situation has seriously deteriorated, expressing appreciation for the peace efforts of U.N. secy.-gen. Javier Perez de Cuellar, urging both sides to work with him to achieve a ceasefire and arrange for U.N. observers; on June 8 the Bluff Cove Air Attacks see British RFA Sir Galahad (L3005) destroyed; on June 14 Argentina surrenders after 74 days and 1.2K Argentines and 243 British killed; Argentina loses 74 planes and 7 helis, vs. 48 British planes; on June 18 Argentine dictator pres. (since Dec. 22, 1981) Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri Castelli (1926-2003) resigns; the Israelis under PM Menachem Begin secretly supplying arms to Argentina because he wanted to get even for the Brits hanging his friend Dov Gruner in Palestine in 1947? On Mar. 19 Korean dissidents set the U.S. govt. offices in Pusan, South Korea on fire, killing a South Korean student and injuring three, becoming the first attack on a U.S. mission in South Korean history; leaflets are left at the scene demanding U.S. withdrawal; on Apr. 4 after 6K are arrested,nine univ. students are charged, incl. alleged planner Kim Hyon Jang. On Mar. 20 U.S. scientists return from Antarctica with the first land mammal fossils ever found there. On Mar. 22 Topkapi Imports in Cambridge, Mass. owned by honorary Turkish consul-gen. Orhan Gunduz is bombed, injuring Gunduz, after which an anon. caller says the Justice Commandos of Armenian Genocide did it to protest the 1915 Armenian genocide; on May 4 Gunduz is assassinated in rush hour traffic in Somerville, Mass.; after Pres. Reagan orders an all-out manhunt, the only witness is murdered, and the assassin isn't caught (until ?) - the million-plus Armenians murdered by Turkey have no friend in Ronnie? On Mar. 22 Iraqi ambassador Ali Sultan is assassinated by three gunmen (working for Iran?) in East Beirut in the Christian section where he had moved with 60 others after a Dec. blast wrecked the embassy in West Beirut. On Mar. 22 Space Shuttle Columbia blasts off on its 3rd mission STS-3, carrying Jack Robert Lousma (1936-) (USMC) and Charles Gordon Fullerton (1936-) (USAF), and returns on Mar. 30; on June 27 it blasts off on its 4th mission STS-4, carrying Thomas Kenneth "Ken" Mattingly II (1936-) (USN) and Henry Warren "Hank" Hartsfield Jr. (1933-) (USAF), testing the 50-ft. Remote Manipulator System then becoming the first to land on a hard surface in White Sands, N.M.; on Nov. 11 it blasts off on its 5th mission STS-5 carrying Vance DeVoe Brand (1931-) (USMC), Robert Franklyn Overmyer (1936-96) (USMC), Joseph Percival Allen (1937-), and William Benjamin "Bill" Lenoir (1939-2010), deploying the first satellites. On Mar. 23 after the four leading leftist factions in lovely Guatemala, land of the bananas form a coalition in Jan. to strengthen the insurgency that began in the early 1960s (until 1996), a 3-man military junta topples strongman (since 1978) Gen. Romeo Lucas Garcia after he tries to impose a successor via fradulent elections, and ultra-right evangelical Christian Gen. Jose Efrain Rios Montt (1926-) becomes pres. #26 of Guatemala on Mar. 23 (until Aug. 8 1983); too bad, hopes of an end to the brutality die when equally brutal Montt becomes the Pinochet of Guatemala, instituting a scorched Earth policy, murdering entire Indian villages suspected of rebel sympathies, and killing 30K by 1983, incl. 300 driven from church in Huehuetenango on July 16; in Apr. the U.S. Nat. Security Council circumvents a congressional ban and approves $22M in military aid; Amnesty Internat. charges Romeo wherefore art thou Romeo with 5K political murders since his 1978 election - wanna buy a bullet with food stamps? On Mar. 24 Army chief of staff Lt. Gen. Hussain Mohammad Ershad (1930-) ousts pres. Abdus Sattur, ending three years of civilian rule and taking control of 83% Islamic Bangladesh (pop. 140M) in a bloodless coup (until 1990), suspending the constitution and declaring himself pres. #10, then on Mar. 27 appointing former chief justice Abul Fazal Mohammad Ahsanuddin Chowdhury (1915-2001) as pres. #11, then becoming pres. #12 of Bangladesh next Dec. 11 (until Dec. 6, 1990). On Mar. 25 the 1982 Canada Act is approved by the British Parliament; after giving royal assent on Mar. 29, on Apr. 17 the ConstitutionAct is signed by Queen Elizabeth II in Ottawa, replacing the British North Am. Act of 1867 and giving Canada its own (dry?) constitution, with a a bill of rights; the queen proclaims Canada's independence; on Oct. 27 Dominion Day is renamed Canada Dry, er, Day. On Mar. 25 the U.S. consulate in Bombay, India is attacked by a mob of 50 people led by Bandu Shingre of the Azad Hind Sena, who said he did it to "become famous". On Mar. 25 Cagney and Lacey debuts on CBS-TV for 125 episodes (until May 16, 1988), starring Ellen Tyne Daly (1946-) as married NYPD Det. Mary Beth Lacy, and Megan "Meg" Foster (1948-), replaced after six episodes by Sharon Gless (1943-) as single NYPD Det. Sgt. Christine Cagney, becoming the first serious U.S. drama series with two female leads; the disturbing news that Daly is married (1966-90) to Cuban-born black actor Georg Stanford Brown (1943-) (Tom Harvey in "Roots") helps make it more popular? On Mar. 27 a Tuluca-Mexico City passenger bus collides head-on with a trailer truck in the rain outside Mexico City, killing 28 and injuring 32. On Mar. 28 voters in El Salvador elect a new assembly with a rightist majority, which dismisses Jose Napoleon Duarte and replaces him with centrist physician Alvaro Alfredo Magana (Magaña) Borja (1925-2001) as pres. (until 1924); Duarte's land reform program is killed while violence and human rights violations continue. On Mar. 29 minutes after a Jewish-owned clothing store nearby is bombed, Italian police defuse a PLO bomb outside the offices of El Al airline in Rome. On Mar. 29 the 54th Academy Awards are held in the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles, Calif., and hosted by Johnny Carson; the best picture Oscar for 1981 is awarded to Enigma Productions' (Ladd Co./Warner Bros.) Chariots of Fire, which beats Raiders of the Lost Ark; best actor and best actress go to aging Henry Fonda and Katharine Hepburn for On Golden Pond (Fonda dies 8 mo. after the film's release) (her 4th best actress Oscar, with the longest time elapsed since the first, for Morning Glory in 1933, going on to receive 11 nominations); best dir. goes to Warren Beatty, and best supporting actress to Maureen Stapleton for Reds, and best supporting actor to Sir John Gielgud for Arthur (who was also in "Chariots of Fire"). On Mar. 31 three members of the Lebanese Armed Rev. Faction fire 25 pistol shots an an official Israeli arms purchasing mission in Paris. In Mar. Venezuelan pres. Luis Herrera Campins breaks ranks with the U.S. and assails Pres. Reagan's Central Am. policy as interventionist, then becomes one of the sharpest critics of the U.S. decision to back Britain in the Falklands. In the spring the 1982 Lebanon War begins after Palestinian terrorists entrench themselves in S Lebanon, launching rockets and artillery at N Israel; on Apr. 3 Lebanese Armed Rev. Faction terrorist Georges Ibrahim Abdallah assassinates Israeli diplomat Yacov Barsimantov in his Paris apt. with a Czech 7.65 mm pistol used to kill U.S. embassy military attache Charles Robert Ray in Jan., and escapes into the subway, causing Israel to strike PLO strongholds in Lebanon on Apr. 21 (first since the July 30, 1981 ceasefire, during which time the PLO staged 130 guerrilla attacks inside Israel); on Apr. 25 Israeli forces withdraw from the Sinai per the 1978 Camp David Accords; on May 9 Israeli planes strike PLO bases S of Beirut, causing the PLO to reply with artillery fire across the border; Abdallah is convicted in Feb. 1987 of the murders of Ray and Barsimantov and sentenced to life in prison; on June 3 Israeli ambassador Shlomo Argov (1929-2003) is critically wounded in front of the Dorchester Hotel in Park Lane, London by three members of the Abu Nidal Org. (ANO), but although shot in the head and in a coma for 3 mo., he survives; on June 6 never-forgive-never-forget Israel launches Operation Peace for the Galilee to wipe out Palestinian bases and SAM sites in Lebanon, ignoring a June 6 U.N. Security Council vote to withdraw, and capturing the 12th cent. Beaufort Castle on June 6, downing dozens of Soviet-made Syrian MiGs along with Syrian SAMs in the Bekaa Valley, reaching the outskirts of Beirut on June 10, causing Arafat and his PLO loyalists to flee into Beirut, and causing Orthodox Jewish Israeli philosopher Yeshayahu Leibowitz (1903-94) to accuse Israel of a "Judeo-Nazi" mentality; in reaction, with Iranian (Ayatollah Khomeini) help, Islamic radicals form Hezbollah ("party of God"), a radical offshoot of the Shiite Muslim movement Amal, with the goal of making Lebanon an Islamic state and exterminating Israel, causing Yitzhak Rabin to utter the soundbyte "We let the Shia genie out of the bottle"; the Israelis withdraw from Lebanon in 2000, leaving Hezbollah dominant; by 2005 Iran is giving them $20M-$40M per mo. and they form a state within a state; Israeli soldiers Zachary Baumel, Tzvi Feldman, and Yehuda Katz go missing near the Lebanese village of Sultan Yaqub until ?; the air battle over the Bekaa Valley causes the U.S. and Soviet Union to launch crash programs to develop Beyond Visual Range (BVR) fighters incl. the U.S. F-22 and F-35, and the Soviet SU-35. On Apr. 1 the U.S. transfers the Canal Zone to Panama under the terms of the 1977 treaty. On Apr. 1 the FCC votes 6-1 to reject a claim by the Nat. Conservative Political Action Committee (NCPAC) that the 1949 Fairness Doctrine compels broadcasters to sell air time to PACs instead of political candidates; on Apr. 7 FCC chmn. (1981-5) Mark S. Fowler gives a speech to the Nat. Assoc. of Broadcasters attacking the Fairness Doctrine, with the soundbyte that it is "one thing for stations to follow principles like fairness and equal time, it's another when the government enforces those rules. That I call censorship." On Apr. 2 Turkish embassy commercial attache Kani Gungor is wounded by Armenian gunmen in Ottawa, Canada. On Apr. 5 a Lebanese restaurant in Brooklyn, N.Y. is torched, killing a woman, after which an anon. caller claims responsibility for the JDL and claims it was being used as a PLO meeting place; the JDL officially denies responsibility. On Apr. 6 a huge blizzard dumps 1-2 ft. of snow on the NE U.S. On Apr. 11 a bomb damages the office of Egypt Tours in Madrid, Spain; another destroys a Jordanian Alia airline office; Palestinians are suspected. On Apr. 13 an RPG hits the 3rd floor of the U.S. Embassy in Beirut; the Al-Aqsa Group claims responsibility. On Apr. 14 18 Iranian terrorists ransack the Iranian consulate in Geneva, Switzerland, holding six officials hostages while putting anti-Ayatollah Khomeini graffiti on the walls in protest against the execution of Iranian political prisoners. On Apr. 15 the assassins of Anwar Sadat are executed in Egypt, incl. sharpshooter Khaled al-Islambouli, and Muhammad Abed al-Salem, author of "The Missing Commitments", which advocates jihad as an obligatory duty for Muslims; the mastermind, blind radical Muslim cleric Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman (1938-) is found innocent, and is given a visa to enter the U.S. in 1990, holing-up in a N.J. mosque where he plots the 1993 WTC bombing et al. On Apr. 15 French embassy employee Guy Cavalot survives an attempted assassination attempt by a Muslim gunman posing as a flower delivery man at his home; on Apr. 18 the French embassy in Vienna, Austria is bombed by the Islamic Rev. Group; on Apr. 19 the Vienna office of Air France is bombed by ditto. That 1965 Astronaut Barbie really worked? On Apr. 19 Sally Kristen Ride (1951-2012) and Guion Stewart "Guy" Bluford Jr. (1942-) become the first woman and first black to be tapped by NASA for U.S. space missions - ride sally ride, and go on and bluff for the government? On Apr. 21 to force the French govt. to release Magdelana Kopp, terrorists working for Carlos the Jackal explode a truck bomb outside the French embassy in Vienna, Austria, killing a policeman; on Apr. 22 (9:02 a.m.) as Kopp and Breguet are led into court in Paris, a massive car bomb explodes outside the offices of Al Watan al Arabi, killing one and injuring 63; Kopp is sentenced to four years, and Breguet to five, and France expels two Syrian diplomats for spying, blaming Syria for the actions of Carlos the Jackal and the PFLP because of its opposition to the French sharing power in Lebanon; the French ambassador to Damascus is recalled to Paris; in May an RPG is fired at the French consulate in Beirut, and two weeks later a large bomb explodes inside it, killing 11 and wounding 27; in June Christa-Margot Froelich is arrested in Rome while carrying an explosives-laden suitcase, and charged with driving the car on Apr. 22. On Apr. 22 a group of Abu Nidal terrorists attack Jo Goldberg's Restaurant in a Jewish section of Paris with grenades and automatic weapons, killing four and wounding 30. On Apr. 23 Key West, Fla. mayor (since 1981) Dennis Wardlow (1954-) declares the independent Conch Repub. for one day to protest a U.S. Border Patrol blockade, with himself as PM, severely damaging tourism in the Fla. Keys. On Apr. 23 the Unabomber mails a pipe bomb from Provo, Utah, to Penn. State U., which forwards it to Vanderbilt U. scientist Patrick C. Fisher; too bad, on May 5 Vanderbilt U. secy. Janet Smith is injured she opens it for him. On Apr. 24 a bomb explodes outside Agence France Press in West Beirut; on Apr. 26 a French U.N. peacekeeper officer is seriously wounded by Islamic gunmen in West Beirut. On Apr. 25 Israel withdraws from the Sinai pursuant to the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. On Apr. 26 Syrian embassy cultural attache Hassan Dayoub survives an assassination attempt in Madrid, Spain. On Apr. 26 a bomb is discovered and disarmed at the Kuwaiti consulate in The Hague. On Apr. 26 (16:45 local time) Chinese CAAC Flight 3303 (Hawker Siddeley Trident 2E) en route from from Guangzhou (Canton) crashes near Guilin, killing all 104 passengers and eight crew aboard; on Dec. 24 a CAAC Ilyushin 18B catches fire from a cigarette and makes an emergency landing in Canton, killing 25 of 50 passengers and none of the 11 crew. On Apr. 27 the trial of John W. Hinckley Jr. begins in Washington, D.C.; on June 21 he is acquitted by reason of insanity. On Apr. 27 a bomb explodes in the entrance of a French news agency in Beirut; on Apr. 30 a U.S. embassy has his car hijacked by Muslims in West Beirut. In Apr. Nelson Mandela leaves his jail cell on Robben Island in South Africa. In Apr. NASDAQ (founded 1971) creates a Nat. Market System to provide the public with detailed minute-by-minute data on the most actively traded issues; by May 1983 the system tracks 184 stocks within 90 sec. of a transaction. In Apr. the U.S. Committee on Nitrate, Nitrite, and Alternative Curing Agents in Food pub. its report claiming that more research is needed before substitutes can replace nitrates in cured meats. On May 1-Oct. 31 the Knoxville World's Fair in Tenn. (smallest city to host a world's fair) has the slogan "Energy Turns the World", and receives 11M visitors, incl. 100K on the first day, which features an address by Pres. Reagan, becoming the last successful world's fair in the U.S. (until ?); the first touch-screen computer displays are demonstrated at the U.S. Pavilion; the 266-ft.-tall 26-story Sunsphere has only fives stories in the sphere itself. On May 2 (Black Sunday) Exxon announces the dropping of its $5B Colony oil-shale project near Parachute in Garfield County, Colo. and lays off 2.2K workers, killing the W Colo. economy. On May 2 the British sub HMS Conqueror sinks ARA Gen. Belgrano, Argentina's only cruiser in the Falkland Islands War, killing 600 and forcing the Argentine Sea Fleet back to Puerto Belgrano Naval Base. On May 2 Renaldo Franceschi of Waco, Tex. is kidnapped by Kurdish rebels near Irbil, Iraq, and freed on Oct. 2 after intervention by the Iranian govt; his co-worker Guy Boisvert from Canada is freed on Sept. 19. On May 2 (8:00 p.m. ET) Landmark Communications' The Weather Channel debuts on cable TV after a proposal by Alpine, Tex.-born Good Morning America weathercaster John Coleman (1934-2018) to CEO Frank Batten, with the motto "You need us for everything you do", losing $10M this year and not becoming profitable for several years; in 2007 Coleman becomes an outspoken critic of global warming, calling it the "greatest scam in history". On May 3 a bomb destroys a new mosque in Romans-sur-Isere, France. On May 3 the U.S. 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals decides in Engblom v. Carey that a state nat. guard is covered by the Third Amendment, becoming the only significant federal case over the amendment. On May 5 pres. (1970-94) Dawda K. Jawara wins reelection for a 5th 5-year term in tiny Gambia (until 1987) in a vote that is seen as endorsement of the Senegambia Confederation. On May 5 a bomb mailed by the Unabomber explodes in the computer science dept. of Vanderbilt U., injuring secy. Janet Smith. On May 9 a car bomb explodes outside the empty Syrian embassy in Tehran, Iran, destroying the bldg. and wounding 16 bystanders; the Syrian ambassador to Iran blames "Iraq and elements of imperialism and Israel". On May 10 two banks in Geneva, Switzerland are bombed by the Armenian World Punishment Org.; no injuries are reported. On May 11 advice columnist Abigail Van Buren admits reusing letters without informing her readers after her twin sister Ann Landers makes a similar admission. On May 12 Braniff Internat. Airways (founded 1928) ceases operations, and on May 14 files for bankruptcy, becoming the first major U.S. airline to fold and first victim of the 1978 U.S. Airline Deregulation Act. On May 12 in Fatima, Portugal, security guards overpower Spanish Roman Catholic priest (who lives in France) Juan Maria Fernandez y Krohn (1948-), who is armed with a bayonet while trying to reach Pope John Paul II at the altar, who is visiting to thank his dream babe Mother Mary for saving him from the previous assassination attempt; Krohn's seminary was founded by Marcel Lefebvre, who was suspended by the pope for opposition to Vatican II; in Oct. at his trial Krohn says the pope "betrayed the Church and encouraged Communism through compromise with Soviet Bloc countries", adding that he got the idea from seeing Sadat's assassination on TV; he is sentenced to six years and serves three, leaving the priesthood and moving to Belgium, where he becomes an atty., getting into several brushes with the law - JPII mentioned Fatima in his first close call? On May 13 Soyuz T-5 is launched with cosmonauts Anatoly Nikolayevich Berezovoi (1942-) and Valentin Vitaliyevich Lebedev (1942-), who spend the next 211 days in space aboard the Salyut 7 space station and return on Sept. 1 after launching the amateur radio satellite Iskra 2, becoming the first launch of a satellite from an orbiting space station; launched from a low orbit, it remains in space only seven weeks. On May 16 opposition leader Salvador Jorge Blanco (1926-) of the Dominican Rev. (Blanco) Party is elected pres. #41 of the Dominican Repub., taking office on Aug. 16 (until Aug. 16, 1986), enjoying a majority in congress; meanwhile amid corruption charges, on July 4 Dominican Repub. pres. (since 1978) Antonio Guzman is found dead with a gunshot wound to the head, stirring allegations of suicide, ruining his attempts to conduct the first peaceful transfer of power - my dream is to ditch the corner office, even if it's only for a weekend? On May 17 the Israeli govt. decides to avoid confrontations with Palestinian terrorists along the Lebanese border; on May 18 two incendiary devices are tossed at a military vehicle in E Jerusalem. On May 23 Killeen, Tx.-born IQ-75 African-Am. man Carl Eugene "Coral" Watts (1953-2007) is arrested after breaking into the home of two young women in Houston, Tex., after which they give him a plea bargain, allowing him to confess to the murders of 40-80 women since 1974, receiving a 60-year sentence; too bad, a loophole in Tex. law allows him to be released on May 9, 2006, causing a mad scramble to hook him on new charges, and after a nat. TV call he is charged with the stabbing murder of 25-y.-o. Helen Dutcher in Westland, Mich. on Dec. 1, 1979, and convicted on Nov. 17, 2004, receiving a life sentence; on Sept. 21, 2007 he dies of prostate cancer in a hospital in Jackson, Mich. On May 24 Iranian forces recover the port city of Khorramshahr (captured Oct. 26, 1980), taking 30K Iraqi POWs, being later celebrated by Iranians as a turning point in the war. On May 24 a car bomb is detonated by Abu Nidal inside the gates of the French embassy in West Beirut, killing 14 and injuring 72. On May 24 KGB chief Yuri Andropov is appointed to the Communist Party secretariat. On May 26 the artificial lake