TLW's 1990s Historyscope 1990-1999 C.E.

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

William Jefferson Clinton of the U.S. (1946-) Boris Yeltsin of Russia (1931-2007) John Major of Great Britain (1943-) Tony Blair of Britain (1953-) Helmut Kohl of Germany (1930-) Gerhard Schroeder of Germany (1944-) Lech Walesa of Poland (1943-) Nelson Mandela of South Africa (1918-2013) Yitzhak Rabin of Israel (1922-95) U.S. Gen. Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (1934-) Jiang Zemin of China (1924-) Kim Jong-il of North Korea (1942-) Subcommandante Marcos of Mexico Newt Gingrich of the U.S. (1943-) Clarence Thomas of the U.S. (1948-) Bill Owens of the U.S. (1950-) Princess Di Crash, Aug. 31, 1997 Monica Lewinsky (1973-) and Handsome Vladimir Putin of Russia (1952-) Ehud Barak of Israel (1942-) Gen. Pervez Musharraf of Pakistan (1943-) Buster Douglas defeats Mike Tyson, Feb. 11, 1990 Tyson-Holyfield Pay-Per-Chew Fight, June 28, 1997 Nancy Kerrigan of the U.S. (1969-) Bo Jackson (1962-) Tiger Woods (1975-) Jesse 'the Body' Ventura of the U.S. (1951-) O.J. Simpson Mug Shot Timothy McVeigh (1968-2001) Theodore 'Unabomber' Kaczynski (1943-) Marshall Herff Applewhite (1931-97) John Gotti (1940-2002) Robert Mapplethorpe (1946-89) J.K. Rowling (1966-) 'A Few Good Men', 1992 'Ghost', starring Demi Moore (1962-) and Patrick Swayze (1952-), 1990 'The Crying Game', 1992 'Orlando', 1992 'The Playboys', 1992 'Reservoir Dogs', 1992 'Wayne's World', 1992 MC Hammer (1962-) Tina Turner (1939-) Notorious B.I.G. (Biggie Smalls) (1972-97) Britney Spears (1981-) Lucy Lawless (1968-) as Xena the Warrior Princess, 1995-2001 Ellen Degeneres (1954-) Nirvana

1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999

The 1990s (1990-1999 C.E.)



Well, we're leaving, and remember, no itchy and scratchy? The 1990s, Does It Bring a Flood of Memories to Ya Ninetiesmaniacs? The last decade of the Second Millennium is caught with an open container as the Age of Modernism (begun after the French Revolution) ends, and the Age of Postmodernism (Sin is In) (Isaiah 5:20) begins, and not only are all consenting adult lifestyles to be accepted as equally valid, but it can get you thrown in jail to criticize and hurt somebody's feelings, where a PC judge will be waiting to do you, as My Way American Baby Boomers begin ruling the country, creating a PC Regime, while their coddled but numerically challenged kids reach adulthood suffering from a "Generation X" identity crisis, not having the power to make waves like their parents, but feeding on postmodernist views so they can still call them ignorant prejudiced bastards? Maybe the feeling that they don't fill their parents' shoes is why they wear baggy clothes? Millennium Fever is now having its greatest effect over the most people ever? No wonder godless scientific Communism crumbles like toast as its people pull the rug from under its feet? Not that envy of the opulent, interesting lifestyle of Westerners as seen on MTV doesn't help? The kaput Soviet Union fractures into an alphabet soup of new country leaders? In Africa Nelson Mandela is freed after 27 years, while Hutu and Tutsi go ape in Rwanda-Burundi? The decade when Saddam Hussein has his day? A good decade for women in U.S. politics, especially Jewish women? The good ole days of rock and roll fade away into the sunset with phony commercialized acts? Hitler's birthday gets celebrated in sick macabre acts of violence?

Country Leader From To
United States of America George Herbert Walker Bush (1924-) Jan. 20, 1989 Jan. 20, 1993 George Herbert Walker Bush of the U.S. (1924-)
United Kingdom Margaret Hilda Thatcher (1925-2013) May 4, 1979 Nov. 28, 1990 Margaret Thatcher of Britain (1925-)
United Kingdom Queen Elizabeth II (1926-) Feb. 6, 1952 Elizabeth II of Britain (1926-)
Soviet Union Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (1931-) Mar. 11, 1985 Dec. 25, 1991 Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union (1931-)
People's Republic of China Jiang Zemin (1926-) June 24, 1989 Nov. 15, 2002 Jiang Zemin of China (1926-)
Canada Martin Brian Mulroney (1939-) Sept. 17, 1984 June 25, 1993 Brian Mulroney of Canada (1939-)
France Francois Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand (1916-96) May 21, 1981 May 17, 1995 Francois Mitterrand of France (1916-96)
West Germany Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (1930-) Oct. 1, 1982 Oct. 27, 1998 Helmut Kohl of Germany (1930-)
Spain King Juan Carlos I (1938-) Nov. 22, 1975 June 19, 2014 Juan Carlos I of Spain (1938-)
Mexico Carlos Salinas de Gortari (1948-) Dec. 1, 1988 Nov. 30, 1994 Carlos Salinas de Gortari of Mexico (1948-)
Egypt Hosni Mubarak (1928-) Oct. 14, 1981 Feb. 11, 2011 Hosni Mubarak (1928-)
Israel Yitzhak Shamir (1915-2012) Oct. 20, 1986 July 13, 1992 Yitzhak Shamir of Israel (1915-)
Iraq Saddam Hussein (1937-2006) July 16, 1979 Apr. 9, 2003 Saddam Hussein (1937-2006)
Kuwait Sheikh Jaber III al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah (1926-2006) Dec. 31, 1977 Jan. 15, 2006 Sheikh Jaber III al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah of Kuwait (1926-2006)
Papacy John Paul II (1920-2005) Oct. 16, 1978 Apr. 2, 2005 John Paul II (1920-2005)
U.N. Javier Perez de Cuellar y de la Guerra of Peru (1920-) Jan. 1, 1982 Dec. 31, 1991 Javier Perez de Cuellar of Peru (1920-)



1990 - The Prisoner #466 Nelson Mandela Year? Good year for people named Morris and countries named Stan?

Robert Tappan Morris (1965-) Jack Morris (1955-) Mark William Morris (1956-) Boris N. Yeltsin of Russia (1931-2007) John Major of Great Britain (1943-) Lech Walesa of Poland (1943-) Hans Modrow of East Germany (1928-) Nelson Mandela of South Africa (1918-2013) Mary Robinson of Ireland (1944-) Jean-Bertrand Aristide of Haiti (1953-) Joseph-Désiré Mobutu of Zaire (DRC) (1930-97) David Hackett Souter of the U.S. (1939-) Andrew Lamar Alexander Jr. of the U.S. (1940-) Lynn Morley Martin of the U.S. (1939-) Antonia Novello of the U.S. (1944-) April Glaspie of the U.S. (1942-) Cicciolina of Italy (1951-) Franklin Graham of the U.S (1952-) Violeta Barrios de Chamorro of Nicaragua (1929-) Fernando Collor de Mello of Brazil (1949-) Cesar Gaviria Trujillo of Colombia (1947-) Rafael Leonardo Callejas of Hondoruas (1943-) Luis Alberto Lacalle of Uruguay (1941-) Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif of Pakistan (1949-) Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi of Pakistan (1931-) Chandra Shekhar of India (1927-2007) Andrei Lukanov of Bulgaria (1938-96) Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan (1939-) Vytautas Landsbergis of Lithuania (1932-) Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov of Turkmenistan (1940-2006) Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan (1940-) Askar Akayev of Kyrgyzstan (1944-) Helmut Kohl of West Germany (1930-) Slobodan Milosevic of Yugoslavia (1941-2006) Nicéphore Soglo of Benin (1934-) Tariq Aziz of Iraq (1936-) Patricio Aylwin Azocar of Chile (1918-) Dr. Jozsef Antall of Hungary (1932-93) Arpad Goncz of Hungary (1922-) Russian Lt. Gen. Alexander Lebed (1950-2002) U.S. Gen. Michael J. Dugan John Marian Poindexter of the U.S. (1936-) Constantine Mitsotakis of Greece (1918-) Lojze Peterle of Slovenia (1948-) Alija Izetbegovic of Yugoslavia (1925-2003) Idriss Déby of Chad (1952-) Salmin Amour of Zanzibar (1948-) Ali Abdullah Saleh of Yemen (1942-) Dr. Ian Gow of Britain (-1990) Marion Boyd of Canada (1946-) Ertha Pascal-Trouillot (1943-) Kessai Hesa Note of the Marshall Islands (1950-) Sabine Bergmann-Pohl of East Germany (1946-) Ann Richards of the U.S. (1933-2006) Barney Frank of the U.S. (1940-) John Cairncross of Britain (1913-95) Rabbi Meir David Kahane (1932-90) El Sayyid Nosair (1955-) El Sayyid Nosair (1955-) Archbishop George Leonard Carey of Canterbury (1935-) Patriarch Alexei II (1929-) Charles Humphrey Keating Jr. (1923-) Michael Robert Milken (1946-) Robert B. Polhill (1934-99) Farzad Bazoft (1958-90) Robert Mapplethorpe (1946-89) Pablo Escobar (1949-93) Carole Ann-Marie Gist (1969-) Mona Grudt (1971-) Keith Hunter Jesperson (1955-) Neil Bush (1955-) Dalton Prejean (1959-90) Ryan Wayne White (1971-90) Tom Metzger (1938-) Abdurahman Alamoudi Hafiz Muhammad Saeed (1950-) Brent Mussburger (1939-) Buster Douglas defeats Mike Tyson, Feb. 11, 1990 Evander Holyfield (1962- Bill Ranford (1966-) Jaromir Jagr (1972-) Bo Jackson (1962-) Greg LeMond (1961-) Nolan Ryan Jr. (1947-) Ken Griffey Jr. (1969-) Ottawa Senators Bruce Firestone (1951-) Canadian Tire Centre Scott Skiles (1964-) Derrike Cope (1958-) Arie Luyendyk (1953-) Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (1931-) Octavio Paz (1914-98) Richard Edward Taylor (1929-) Jerome Isaac Friedman (1930-) Henry Way Kendall (1926-99) Leonard Berkowitz (1926-) Elias James Corey (1928-) Robert Emerson Lucas Jr. (1937-) Joseph Edward Murray (1919-2012) Edward Donnall Thomas (1920-) Harry Max Markowitz (1927-) William F. Sharpe (1934-) Merton H. Miller (1923-) William French Anderson (1936-) Dr. Francis S. Collins Lawrence Howard Fuchs (1927-2013) Loyd Grossman (1950-) Thomas Lindhqvist (1954-) Norma J. Milanovich Margaret Ray (-1998) Jared Taylor (1951-) Donald Trump (1946-) Ivana Trump (1949-) Marla Maples (1963-) Deborah Norville (1958-) Martin Luther King III (1957-) Andy Rooney (1919-2011) Col Needham (1967-) Internet Movie Database (IMDb) Logo Seiji Ogawa (1934-) Andrei Chikatilo (1936-94) Mike Godwin (1956-) Maeve Binchy (1940-) Robert Bly (1926-) George Jesus Borjas (1950-) John Bradshaw (1933-) Sophy Burnham (1936-) Laurie Cabot (1933-) Geoffrey Canada (1952-) Bill Cooper (1943-2001) Patricia Cornwell (1956-) Elias James Corey (1928-) Michael Crichton (1942-2008) Guy Davenport (1927-2005) Kurt Derungs (1962-) Mona Van Duyn (1921-2004) Bret Easton Ellis (1964-) Joseph Ellis (1943-) Guy Finley (1949-) Barry Gifford (1946-) Steven Macon Greer (1955-) John Grisham (1955-) Tony Hillerman (1925-2008) David Irving (1938-) Deborah Lipstadt (1947-) Sir Richard John Evans (1947-) Michael Jensen (1939-) Ray Kurzweil (1948-) Elmore Leonard (1925-2013) Bernard Lewis (1916-) Peter Mandler (1958-) Corinne McLaughlin (1947-) Steven Naifeh (1952-) and Gregory White Smith (1951-2014) Martin Ravallion (1952-) Zachary Selig (1949-) John Selby (1945-) Mark Skousen (1947-) Hedrick Smith (1933-) Jonathan D. Spence (1936-) Cass R. Sunstein (1954-) Colm Toibin (1955-) 'Surviving at the Top' by Donald Trump (1946-), 1990 Laurel Thatcher Ulrich (1938-) August Wilson (1945-2005) Frank Spangenberg (1957-) Karen Finley (1956-) John Edward Frohnmayer (1942-) Jeanne Louise Calment (1875-1997) Christian Brando (1958-2008) Dag Drollet (1962-90) Cheyenne Brando (1970-95) Wendy Kopp (1967-) Bill McCartney (1940-) Vincent Polakovic Thomas Sowell (1930-) Stephen Fox (1938-) David Hare (1947-) Joan D. Hedrick (1944-) Elinor Lipman (1950-) Law & Order, 1990-2010 Dick Wolf (1946-) 'Beverly Hills, 90210', 1990-2000 'Evening Shade', 1990-4 'The Fresh Prince' starring Will Smith (1968-), 1990-6 'In Living Color', 1990-4 'Northern Exposure', 1990-6 'Twin Peaks', 1990-1 John Guare (1938-) 'Six Degrees of Separation', 1990 'Bird on a Wire', 1990 'By Dawns Early Light', 1990 'Dances with Wolves', 1990 Kevin Costner (1955-) 'Edward Scissorhands', 1990 'Flatliners', 1990 'Ghost', starring Demi Moore (1962-) and Patrick Swayze (1952-), 1990 'Goodfellas', 1990 'Hamlet', 1990 'Home Alone', 1990 'The Hunt for Red October', 1990 'Kindergarten Cop', 1990 'Life Is Sweet', 1990 'Navy SEALs', 1990 'Pretty Woman', 1990 'Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead', 1990 'Total Recall', 1990 Andrew Dice Clay (1957-) Graham King (1961-) 'Vogue' by Madonna (1958-), 1990 Clint Black (1962-) Black Crowes MC Hammer (1962-) Mariah Carey (1970-) Janet Jackson (1966-) Jerry Faye Hall (1956-) Green Day EMF Humpty Hump (Shock G) (Gregory E. Jacobs) (1963-) 2 Live Crew Alice in Chains Depeche Mode Helmet Jesus Jones Mother Love Bone Pantera The Posies Kid Rock (1971-) En Vogue Warrant Uncle Tupelo 'Rust in Peace' by Megadeth, 1990 Queensrÿche Paris (Oscar Jackson Jr.) (1967-) The Flaming Lips Wilson Phillips Boo Radleys Toad the Wet Sprocket Steven Vai (1960-) Extreme Hollywood Records Interscope Records Wacken Open Air, 1990- Kevin Welch (1955-) 'Thicket' by Martin Puryear (1941-), 1990 Martin Kippenberger (1953-97) 'Fred the Frog Rings the Bell' by Martin Kippenberger (1953-97), 1990 SA-22 Greyhound Keuig K-Cups Baltika Brewery

1990 Doomsday Clock: 10 min. to midnight. Chinese Year: Horse (Jan. 27) (lunar year 4688). Time Mag. Man of the Year: George Herbert Walker Bush (1924-). The Twenty-First (21st) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 248,718,301 (9.8% increase) (70.6 per sq. mi.); white pop. 83.9%; birth/death rate per thousand 16.6/8.6; legal immigration 1981-1990 7,338,062 (1,090,924 in 1989, 1,536,483 in 1990). Beginning this year the U.S. Fat Boom Generation begins to be born, with avg. body fat jumping from 4% for the previous gen. to 30%, setting them on schedule to become the first U.S. gen. that is outlived by their parents. The U.S. supports 3K different religious belief systems; pop.: Protestant: 79.3M, Catholic: 57M, agnostic: 21.7M (N. America), Buddhist: 7.5M, Jewish: 5.9M, Muslim: 4.6M, Mormon: 4.2M, Native Am. (peyote users): .5M, Hindu: .75M, Sikh: .25M, Quaker: .2M, Bahai: .1M, Unification Church: 30K; atheist: 1.2M (est.). Muslim immigrants to the U.S. are less than 5% of new immigrants; too bad, between 1992-2010 1.7M Muslims immigrate, with the U.S. State Dept. wilfully blinding itself by not asking religious affiliation of refugees while relaxing the enforcement of visa limits, allowing the Muslim Brotherhood to run an insidious program to prepare for future Muslim takeover. U.S. traffic fatalities are 44,599, and begin to slide for the next 20 years (until 2005), with a decrease each year from 1985-2004. Early in this decade Caltrans (Calif. Dept. of Transportation) begins mounting Illegal Immigrant Family Crossing Signs along I-5 near the Mexican border, designed by John Hood. In this decade U.S. corps. begin relaxing dress codes; by 1999 51% of corps. employing over 5K workers allow casual attire. China begins dominating the world production of rare earth elements. The Great Syrian Drought begins (ends 2012), becoming the worst in 9 cents. The Grunge (Seattle Sound) movement in U.S. music becomes big in the first half of this decade, groups incl. Nirvana and Pearl Jam, causing the Britpop reaction in the U.K., groups incl. Suede, Blur, and the Boo Radleys. In this decade the use of the term "globalization" (first used in English in 1930) takes off. On Jan. 1 Mikhail Gorbachev (1931-) is named Time mag.'s Man of the Decade for the 1980s. On Jan. 1 USC defeats Michigan by 17-10 to win the 1990 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 1 David Norman Dinkins (1927-) is sworn-in as New York City's first black mayor (#106) (until Dec. 31, 1993). On Jan. 2 the Dow Jones Industrial Avg. ends the day above 2,800 for the first time (2,810.15). On Jan. 2 Yugoslavia introduces new economic measures to combat inflation, then on Jan. 23 the Yugoslavian Commnist League (YCL) votes to relinquish the party's political monopoly, while the Slovenian delegation demands greater autonomy for all the repubs., and on Feb. 4 the Slovenian Communist League declares itself independent from the YCL. On Jan. 3 ousted Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega surrenders to U.S. forces 10 days after taking refuge in the Vatican's diplomatic mission; on Jan. 4 he is arraigned in federal district court in Miami on drug trafficking charges; on Jan. 5 Pres. Bush tells a news conference that the U.S. has a strong case against him and that he is convinced he will receive a fair trial - the CIA agents who helped him do the trafficking receive no trial? On Jan. 4 a train collision in Sangi Village in Sindh Province, Pakistan kills 210+ and injures 700, becoming Pakistan's worst train wreck (until ?). On Jan. 5 Hungary's parliament adopts a resolution calling for withdrawal of Soviet troops by the end of 1991; on Mar. 10 the Soviet Union agrees, and finishes the withdrawal by June 19, 1991. On Jan. 6 U.S. defense secy. Dick Cheney tells CNN that the U.S. invasion of Panama should not be viewed as a new "Bush doctrine" inclined toward military intervention in countries where dem. elections have been subverted - wait till his son becomes pres.? On Jan. 7 El Salvador pres. (1989-94) Alfredo Cristiani (1948-) admits in a nationally broadcast address that military men 2 mo. earlier had massacred six Jesuit priests, their housekeeper and her daughter. On Jan. 8 military tribunals in Romania began trials of the country's dreaded security forces who are accused of resisting the rev. that toppled Nicolae Ceausescu. On Jan. 9 Space Shuttle Columbia is launched on a 10-day mission. On Jan. 10 the NCAA approves random drug testing for college football players. On Jan. 10 Kessai Hesa Note (1950-) becomes the first commoner pres. of the Marshall Islands (until Jan. 7, 2008) - I'm king of Bikini Atoll? On Jan. 10 Chinese PM Li Peng lifts Beijing's 7-mo.-old martial law and says that by crushing pro-democracy protests the army has saved China from "the abyss of misery". On Jan. 11 Soviet Pres. Mikhail S. Gorbachev visits Lithuania, where he assures supporters of independence that they will have a say in their republic's future - yes, or yes? On Jan. 12 astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia retrieve an 11-ton floating science lab in a rescue mission that keeps it from plunging to Earth. On Jan. 12 civil rights activist Rev. Al Sharpton is stabbed in Bensonhurst, Brooklyn. On Jan. 16 two Bank of Credit and Commerce (BCCI) members plead guilty to money laundering. On Jan. 16 the Soviet Union sends 11K reinforcements to the Caucasus to halt a civil war between Armenians and Azerbaijanis. On Jan. 17 a federal judge in Miami sets Mar. 1990 for the trial of ex-Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega on drug trafficking charges. On Jan. 18 in an FBI sting at the Vista Hotel in Washington, D.C., the city's mayor Marion Shepilov Barry Jr. (1936-) is arrested for drug possession; he is later convicted of a misdemeanor after his June trial shows fuzzy 90-min. videotapes of him making sexual advances toward longtime model friend Rasheeda Moore (working for the police) in Room 727, arguing with her about whether to smoke crack, then lighting and smoking the pipe himself, after which the feds rush in and bust him, causing him to exclaim "I got tricked... Bitch set me up"; she testifies that she used drugs with him 100+ times from 1986-9. On Jan. 18 a jury in Los Angeles acquits former preschool operators Raymond Buckey and his mother Peggy McMartin Buckey of 52 child molestation charges. On Jan. 19 Elias Zayek, leader of the Christian Phalange party of Lebanon is shot and killed in Byblos by Samir Geagea, leader of the of the Lebanese Forces militia. On Jan. 20 the Space Shuttle Columbia returns from its 11-day mission. On Jan. 20 Azerbaijani attacks on Armenians trigger the Soviets, led by Russian Lt. Gen. Alexander Ivanovich Lebed (1950-2002) to attack the nationalist Azeri Popular Front in Baku, leaving dozens dead and wounded; on Jan. 21 Pres. Aliyev makes his first public appearance since his 1987 resignation from the Soviet Politburo and urges internat. condemnation of the Soviet attack; on Jan. 21 in the Soviet Repub. of Azerbaijan mutinous military cadets fire on troops patrolling the capital during a crackdown on a nationalist uprising; on Jan 22 up to 2M Azerbaijanis march through Baku to mourn those killed. On Jan. 22 there is a Human Chain across the Ukraine to support independence; on July 16 Verkhovna Rada adopts a resolution proclaiming Ukraine's sovereignty. On Jan. 22 a jury in Syracuse, N.Y. convicts graduate student Robert Tappan Morris (1965-) of federal computer tampering charges for unleashing an Internet worm. On Jan. 23 the Hungarian Dem. Forum calls for an investigation of the Hungarian secret service. On Jan. 23. in Oregon Keith Hunter Jesperson (1955-) begins his 8-murder career as the "Happy Face" serial killer with the sexual assault and murder of Taunja Bennett. On Jan. 24 the U.S. House votes 390-25 to override Pres. Bush's veto of legislation protecting Chinese students from deportation; Bush prevails in a Senate vote on Jan. 25. On Jan. 25 former Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega is transferred to a Miami federal jail. On Jan. 25 an Avianca Boeing 707 runs out of fuel and crashes in Cove Neck, N.Y., killing 73 of 161 aboard. On Jan. 26 attys. for Manuel Noriega challenge the jurisdiction of U.S. courts to try him, claiming that he should be declared a POW - and sent to Gitmo? On Jan. 27 in Romania four top associates of executed dictator Nicolae Ceaucescu go on trial for abetting genocide. On Jan. 29 Rafael Leonardo Callejas Romero (1943-) of the Nat. Party of Honduras (PNH) becomes pres. of Honduras (until Jan. 27, 1994), going on to open the economy to foreign investment. On Jan. 28 Super Bowl XXIV (24) ("Massacre Bowl") is held in New Orleans, La.; the San Francisco 49ers (NFC) blow out the totally lame Denver Donkeys (Broncos) (AFC) 55-10 in the most lopsided SB win ever, giving the 49ers their 4th SB title and leaving the hapless Broncos 0-4 in Super Bowls; MVP 49ers QB Joe Montana completes 22 of 29 passes for 297 yards and a record 5 TDs; as Jerry Rice crosses the goal line for the 3rd time he raises his arm in a magic moment that summarizes the game. On Jan. 28 Hillary Clinton gives a speech that calls black gangbangers "super predators", with "no conscience, no empathy", which is later used to hound her. On Jan. 29 former Exxon Valdez skipper Joseph Hazelwood goes on trial in Anchorage, Alaska on charges stemming from the nation's worst oil spill; he is later acquitted of the major charges and convicted of a misdemeanor; his ship is prohibited from entering Prince William Sound, and renamed the "Sea River Mediterranean". On Jan. 30 a federal judge orders former Pres. Reagan to provide excerpts of his personal diaries to former nat. security advisor John Marian Poindexter (1936-) for his Iran-Contra trial (the highest-ranking Reagan admin. member to be implicated in the scandal); he later reverses himself, deciding that the material is not essential; on Feb. 16 Reagan begins two days of videotaped depositions in Los Angeles, which is released on Feb. 22, in which he says that he didn't have "any inkling" that his aides were secretly arming the Nicaraguan Contras; on Mar. 8 opening arguments are heard in the trial, and on Mar. 9 former White House aide Oliver North testifies; on Apr. 7 after claiming 184 "lapses of memory", Poindexter is convicted of five counts, and on June 11 sentenced to 6 mo. in priz for making false statements to Congress about the Iran-Contra Affair; in 1991 the convictions are overturned on a technicality. On Jan. 31 McDonald's Corp. opens its first fast food restaurant in Moscow - Communism's days are numbered? In Jan. Mt. Redoubt erupts again in Alaska, sending baseball-sized pieces of pumice more than 20 mi. from the cone. In Jan. in Albania demonstrations at Shkodra force authorities to declare a state of emergency. In Jan. Georgia peach Deborah Norville (1958-) replaces Jane Pauley as co-host of NBC's The Today Show, causing mass defections to rival ABC's Good Morning America as she is dissed as a "breakfast blonde", "the other woman", and "home wrecker", and only lasts until next year, leaving in Feb. 1991 when she gets pregnant. On Feb. 1 East German Communist PM Hans Modrow (1928-) appeals for negotiations with West Germany to forge a "united fatherland". On Feb. 2 South African Pres. F.W. de Klerk lifts a ban on the African Nat. Congress (ANC), and promises to free 71-y.-o. ANC leader Nelson Rolihlahla "Madiba" Mandela (1918-2013), which is done on Feb. 11 after 27 years in captivity; he emerges in a famous triumphal walk - four more years? On Feb. 3 the parliament of Bulgaria elects Jewish economist Andrei Karlov Lukanov (1938-96) to replace a hardline Communist, becoming Bulgaria's last Communist PM (until Dec. 7), going on to face corruption, civil unrest incl. protests and strikes, and a huge consumer goods deficit. On Feb. 4 nine people are killed as guerrillas attack a bus carrying Israeli tourists near Cairo. On Feb. 4 cheering protesters throng Moscow streets to demand that the Communists surrender their stranglehold on power. On Feb. 4 Cisco Systems goes public. On Feb. 5 Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev tells the Communist Party it has to earn the right to rule instead of taking it for granted as an unchallenged right; on Feb. 6 Soviet Communist Party leaders decide to extend a 2-day party session for another day amid controversy over Gorbachev's proposals to revamp the country's political structure, and on Feb. 7 the Communist Party agrees to let other political parties compete for control of the country, giving up its monopoly on power - those McDonald's hamburgers and fries are starting to work? On Feb. 7 the American Trader, an 811-ft. tanker spills 400K gal. of Alaskan crude off the coast of Huntington Beach, Calif. On Feb. 7 police kill 22 anti-nationalist demonstrators in Karachi, Pakistan. On Feb. 8 CBS-TV suspends 60 Minutes curmudgeonly commentator Andy Rooney (1919-2011) for 3 mo. without pay for anti-gay and anti-black remarks, incl. a Dec. 28 CBS special in which he cited homosexual unions as one of a list of things causing "self-induced" death, a statement in an interview in the gay mag. The Advocate to the effect that blacks had "watered down their genes", and a letter to them in which he said he finds male homosexual acts "repugnant"; after the NAACP backs him, his suspension is lifted in time for the Mar. 5 show. On Feb. 9 John Gotti (1940-2002) is acquitted of charges that he commissioned the Irish Westies gang to shoot a union official in Manhattan's Hell's Kitchen (W. 51st St. and 10th Ave.), earning him the nickname "the Teflon Don". On Feb. 9 Perrier Group of America, Inc. (named after a French physician who died in 1912) announces that it is voluntarily recalling its inventory of 160M bottles of mineral water in the U.S. after tests show the presence of carcinogenic benzene in a small number of bottles because they forgot to change the filters in the factory. On Feb. 9 the Galileo satellite flies by Venus. On Feb. 11 the Soviets launch the Soyuz TM-9 spacecraft, carrying cosmonauts Anatoly Yakovlevich Solovyev (1948-) and Alexander Nikolayevich Balandin (1952-), which docks with Mir then returns on Aug. 9; meanwhile on Aug. 1 Soyuz TM-10 blasts off carrying cosmonauts Gennadi Mikhailovich Manakov (1950-) and Gennady Mikhailovich Strekalov (1940-2004), which docks with Mir then returns on Dec. 10 after Soyuz TM-11 blasts off on Dec. 2 carrying Viktor Mikhaylovich Afanasyev (1948-), Musa Khiramanovich Manarov (1951-), and reporter Toyohiro Akiyama (1942-) (first Japanese citizen in space), who returns on Soyuz TM-10. On Feb. 12 Pres. Bush rejects Soviet Pres. Gorbachev's new initiative for troop reductions in Europe, but predicts a "major success" on arms control at the upcoming superpower summit in June. On Feb. 12 a riot against Salman Rushdie in Islamabad, Pakistan sees police fire on the mob, killing five and injuring 83. On Feb. 13 at a conference in Ottawa, the U.S. and its European allies forge an agreement with the Soviet Union and East Germany on a 2-stage formula to reunite Germany. On Feb. 14 Voyager 1 takes photographs of the entire solar system. On Feb. 14 Indian Airlines Flight 605 crashes on final approach to Bangalore Airport, killing 92. On Feb. 15 Pres. Bush and the leaders of Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru meet in Cartagena, Colombia for a drug-fighting summit - close the windows so we can light up? On Feb. 18 in gen. elections, Japan's conservative governing party holds onto its 34-y.-o. majority in the Parliament's lower house. On Feb. 19 after U.S. defense secy. Dick Cheney is snubbed by Philippine Pres. Corazon Aquino because of the unsettled question of U.S. military bases, he meets in Manila with defense minister Fidel Valdez Ramos and gets more serious about it. On Feb. 19 police kill eight demonstrators calling for a multi-party system in Nepal. On Feb. 20 Pres. Bush welcomes new Czech. Pres. Vaclav Havel to the White House, promising trade rewards for Prague's moves toward democracy; on Feb. 21, addressing the U.S. Congress, Havel says his nation welcomes U.S. help after decades of Soviet domination, but also says Europe should eventually "decide for itself" how long U.S. and Soviet troops should remain. On Feb. 21 the German pop duo Milli Vanilli (Turkish for "positive energy"), a duo composed of black German Rob Pilatus (1965-98) and black Frenchman Fabrice Morvan (1966-) wins a Grammy for Best New Artist; too bad, they are caught lip-synching, revealing that somebody else was doing the singing, and the fit hits the shan, causing the Grammy to be revoked and their albums to be pulled by Arista Records, after which Pilatus dies of an OD in 1998. On Feb. 25 Nicaraguans give an upset V to opponents of the ruling Sandinistas as pro-U.S. Violeta Barrios Torres de Chamorro (1929-) (widow of Pedro Joaquin Chamorro, who was assassinated by Somoza's men in 1978) is elected pres., ousting Communist pres. Daniel Ortega; the Sandinistas are ordered to disarm on Feb. 26; on Mar. 12 U.S. vice-pres. Dan Quayle meets in Santiago, Chile with Ortega, who promises to peacefully relinquish power to her; on Mar. 13 Pres. Bush lifts trade sanctions against Nicaragua in a show of support, and on Apr. 25 she is sworn-in as pres. of Nicaragua (until Jan. 10, 1997), ending 11 years of leftist Sandinista rule, promising to abolish the draft and seek U.S. economic aid; she becomes the 1st elected govt. head in Latin Am. and 2nd woman pres. in North Am. On Feb. 25 26-y.-o. Terry Schiavo (1963-2005) collapses in her home from a potassium imbalance caused by an eating disorder; oxygen flow to her brain is interrupted for 5 min., causing her to go into a persistent vegetative state; her husband Michael is appointed as her legal guardian - definitely maybe starts Valentine's day? On Feb. 26 the Soviet Union agrees to withdraw all of its 73.5K troops from Czech. by July 1991. On Feb. 27 in Washington v. Harper the U.S. Supremely Nuts Court rules that prison officials can force inmates to take powerful anti-psychotic drugs without a judge's consent. On Feb. 27 Exxon Corp. and Exxon Shipping are indicted on five criminal counts for the oil spill at Valdez, Alaska; on Mar. 12 Exxon pleads guilty and agrees to pay a $100M fine in a $1.1B settlement, plus $5B in punitive damages, which it doesn't pay until ? On Feb. 28 Space Shuttle Atlantis blasts off from Cape Canaveral on a secret mission to place a spy satellite in orbit; it returns on Mar. 4. In Feb. the U.N. admits Tuvalu as its 189th full member. On Mar. 1 the controversial Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant in N.H. wins federal permission to go online after two decades of protests and legal struggles. In Feb. Benin dictator-pres. Mathiew Kerekou permits a nat. conference to be held, and on Mar. 1 it nullifies the constitution and declares sovereignty, keeping him in office (until 1991) but stripping him of power; on Mar. 12 World Bank economist Nicephore Dieudonne (Nicéphore Dieudonné) Soglo (1934-) becomes PM (until 1991); on Dec. 2 a new 1990 Benin Constitution is overwhelmingly approved in a referendum. On Mar. 1 Luis Alberto Lacalle (1941-) is sworn-in as pres. of Uruguay (until Mar. 1, 1995). On Mar. 1 East Germany takes the first step towards privatizing state industries while trying to prevent a wholesale buyout by West Germans. On Mar. 1 Panamanian Pres. Guillermo Endara goes on a hunger strike to protest the planned cutting of U.S. aid. On Mar. 1 Gen. Michel Aoun and his U.S.-made M-48 tanks break through the defences of rival Samir Geagea's Lebanese Forces (Christian) militia in E Beirut as their showdown enters a 2nd month. On Mar. 1 Martin Luther King III (1957-) (son of MLK Jr.) apologizes for saying that "something may be wrong" with homosexuals, saying that he needs to examine his own feelings. On Mar. 1 the FBI recovers a 1611 ed. of Shakespeare's "Hamlet" worth $1M along with five other rare classics that had been stolen from a U. of Penn. library. On Mar. 2 6K+ drivers go on strike against Greyhound Lines; the co. declares an impasse and fires them on Apr. 12, hiring new ones; the strike continues for three years, and Greyhound ends up filing for bankruptcy. On Mar. 2 20-y.-o. 5'11-3/4" Carole Ann-Marie Gist (1969-) of Mich. becomes the first African-Am. Miss USA, crowned at its 39th pageant in Wichita, Kan., then on Apr. 15 becomes runner-up to green-eyed white redhead ("the Beauty Queen from Hell") Mona Grudt (1971-) of Norway in the Miss Universe pageant; the first $10K Quality of Life Award (sponsored by Fruit of the Loom) is awarded by the Miss America Pageant to Michelle Kline of Penn. - now the ratings will tank for sure? On Mar. 3 Pres. Bush sparks controversy by expressing opposition to the settlement of Soviet Jewish refugees in East Jerusalem. On Mar. 4 voters in the Soviet repubs. of Russia, Byelorussia, and the Ukraine participate in local and legislative elections, resulting in notable gains for reformists and nationalists. On Mar. 5 to the cheers of onlookers, workers in Bucharest, Romania finally succeed in removing a 25-ft.-tall, 7-ton bronze Statue of Vladimir Lenin from its foundation. On Mar. 6 the Soviet parliament overwhelmingly approves legislation allowing people to own factories and hire workers for the first time in nearly seven decades. On Mar. 7 U.S. HHS Secy. Louis Sullivan announces that the govt. will propose a more informative food labeling system that requires the disclosure of the fat, fiber and cholesterol content of nearly all packaged foods. On Mar. 8 a pro-independence coalition wins, making dirt-poor Slovenia a repub., and on Dec. 23 a referendum approves it. On Mar. 8 New York's copycat Zodiac Killer shoots his first victim, Mario Orosco. On Mar. 9 Puerto Rico-born Dr. Antonia Coello Novello (1944-) is sworn-in as U.S. surgeon gen., succeeding C. Everett Koop and becoming the first woman and first Hispanic to hold the job, also the first lefty. On Mar. 10 Haitian ruler Lt. Gen. Prosper Avril resigns during a popular uprising against his military regime. On Mar. 11 in Chile Gen. Augusto Pinochet gives up power after 16 years, and is replaced as pres. by Patricio Aylwin Azocar (1918-). On Mar. 11 the 124-delegate parliament of Lithuania unanimously votes to break away from the Soviet Union and restore its independence, becoming the first Soviet repub. to do so; Vytautas Landsbergis (1932-), head of the Sajudis reform movement is elected pres. (until Nov. 25, 1992). On Mar. 13 Indian troops leave Sri Lanka. On Mar. 13 the Soviet Congress of People's Deputies approves Gorbachev's proposals for a multiparty political system headed by a more powerful pres., and on Mar. 14 elects Gorbachev to that very post. On Mar. 13 supreme court chief justice Ertha Pascal-Trouillot (1943-) becomes the provisional pres. of Haiti (until Feb. 7, 1991), the first woman pres. of Haiti. On Mar. 14 the U.S., Soviet Union, Britain, France, and West and East Germany hold their first formal meeting on reunifying the German states. On Mar. 15 Iraq executes Iranian-born London-based journalist Farzad Bazoft (b. 1958) as a spy. On Mar. 15 the Israeli govt. of PM Yitzhak Shamir loses a vote of confidence in the Knesset after Shamir refuses to accept a U.S. plan for Israeli-Palestinian peace talks. On Mar. 15 Jiang Zemin of China visits North Korea to meet with Kim Il-sung. On Mar. 16 South African Pres. F.W. de Klerk announces that exiled African Nat. Congress leaders could return home for talks with the white-led govt. Gorby is no Ivan the Terrible? On Mar. 17 Lithuanian pres. Vytautas Landsbergis rejects a deadline set by Moscow for renouncing his republic's independence; on Mar. 19 the Kremlin warns Lithuania against taking over factories, putting up border posts; on Mar. 21 Gorbachev increases pressure on the breakaway repub., ordering its citizens to turn in their guns; on Mar. 24 Soviet military vehicles rumble through the heart of the capital of Vilnius as lawmakers vote to transfer their power to foreign soil if they are attacked or arrested; on Mar. 27 Soviet soldiers begin rounding up Lithuanians who had fled the Red Army after the republic's declaration of independence; on Mar. 31 Gorbachev warns Lithuania to annul its declaration of independence or face "grave consequences"; on Apr. 1 yet more military vehicles rumble through Vilnius. On Mar. 18 Indian soldiers shoot to death 18 Muslim independence protesters in Kashmir. On Mar. 18 former Mexican Interpol head Miguel Aldana Ibarra is arrested on drug and firearms charges. On Mar. 18 Christian Dems. win a landslide V in the first dem. election held in postwar East Germany. On Mar. 18 (1:24 a.m.) the Gardner Art Heist (biggest art theft until ?) sees robbers dressed as police walk out with 13 blue-chip art works from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston, incl. Rembrandt's Storm on the Sea of Galilee, A Lady and Gentleman in Black, Vermeer's The Concert (one of only 35 Vermeers in existence), Manet's Chez Tortoni and five Degas, worth $300M, all from an uninsured museum, becoming the biggest art theft in U.S. history; the case is solved in ?. On Mar. 19 Latvia's political opposition claims a V in the first free elections in 50 years, and reformers also claim Vs in crucial runoffs held in Russia, Byelorussia, and Ukraine. On Mar. 19 Margaret Mary Ray (1952-98) of Crawford, Colo., who claims to be the wife of talk show host David Letterman ("nerd amid late TV" scrambled) is arrested for the 6th time since 1988 (when she is found driving his Porsche in N.J.) for breaking into his home, and is convicted on June 1; on Mar. 18 she had been found sleeping in one of his bedrooms; diagnosed with schizophrenia she serves 10 mo. in prison and 14 mo. in a mental institution, escapes on Mar. 31, 1991 and returns to Colo., then commits suicide in 1998 by kneeling in front of a train. On Mar. 20 rock band Depeche Mode holds a record-signing session at the Wherehouse record store in Los Angeles, Calif., drawing 10K fans and sparking a near-riot before the police shut it down. On Mar. 21 Namibia becomes an independent nation, marking the end of 75 years of South African rule and 25 years of guerrilla war; South Africa continues to occupy Walvis Bay for the next four years; on Mar. 21 U.S. secy. of state James A. Baker meets with black nationalist leader Nelson Mandela in Namibia. On Mar. 21 the Wild Lily student democracy movement in Taiwan culiminates in a sit-in demonstration by 300K in Memorial Square, Taipei, calling for direct elections; surprisingly, dictator pres. Lee Teng-hui mellows and invites some of them into his pres. office for talks, pledging to support full democracy, causing the date to begin to be annually celebrated; on Mar. 23, 1996 Lee becomes the first democratically elected pres. of Taiwan with 54%. On Mar. 22 a jury in Anchorage, Alaska finds former tanker Capt. Joseph Hazelwood innocent of three major charges in connection with the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, but convicts him of a minor charge of negligent discharge of oil; on Mar. 23 he is sentenced to clean up Prince William Sound and pay $50K in restitution. On Mar. 24 Indian troops leave Sri Lanka. On Mar. 24 the Treaty on Open Skies is signed by 34 nations, providing for overflights of each others' territories for open surveillance purposes, going into effect on Jan. 1, 2002. On Mar. 25 87 people, most of them Honduran and Dominican immigrants are killed when an arson fire races through the illegal Happy Land Social Club in New York City. On Mar. 26 police fire on segregation demonstrators in Sebokeng, South Africa, killing 17 and wounding 380, causing the ANC to abandon talks scheduled with the govt. for Apr. 11. On Mar. 26 the 62nd Academy Awards awards the best picture Oscar for 1989 to Warner Bros.' Driving Miss Daisy, along with best actress to Jessica Tandy; best dir. goes to Oliver Stone for Born on the Fourth of July; best actor goes to Daniel Day-Lewis, and best supporting actress to Brenda Fricker for My Left Foot; best supporting actor goes to Denzel Washington for Glory. On Mar. 27 the U.S. begins test broadcasts of TV Marti to Cuba, which promptly jams the signal; on Aug. 26 Pres. Bush signs a determination that the broadcasts are feasible and won't interfere with domestic TV. On Mar. 28 late track star Jesse Owens (1913-80) receives the Congressional Gold Medal from Pres. Bush. On Mar. 28 following an 18-mo. investigation by U.S. and British authorities, British customs officials announce they have foiled an attempt to supply Iraq with 40 U.S.-made devices for triggering nuclear weapons. On Mar. 29 Pres. Bush, addressing the Nat. Leadership Coalition on AIDS, declares that his admin. is "on a wartime footing" against the disease, and calls for compassion not discrimination toward the infected - judgments of God himself, hmmph? On Mar. 30 Idaho Gov. Cecil Andrus vetoes a highly restrictive state abortion measure, saying the bill gives a woman and her family no flexibility in cases of rape and incest. On Mar. 31 hundreds of people are injured in rioting in London over Britain's poll tax. In Mar. 700+ from around the world gather for the First Internat. Ecocity Conference in Berkeley, Calif. In Mar. after masses of Hindus leave Kashmir, Pres. Farooq Abdullah resigns and Indian rule is imposed. In Mar.-Apr. Hungary forms a non-Communist govt., and the center-right Hungarian Dem. Forum wins 60% of parliamentary seats, then on May 23 forms a 3-party coalition govt. with Dr. Jozsef Antall (1932-93) as PM (until Dec. 12, 1993), who begins privatization and attracting foreign investment. On Apr. 1 U.S. Census Day sees most census questions delivered to U.S. citizens in official envelopes. On Apr. 1 CBS-TV fires sportscaster Brent Mussburger (1939-), popular host of "The NFL Today" (began 1973) for having too much power, and he leaves with the parting soundbyte "Folks, I've had the best seat in the house. Thanks for sharing it, I'll see you down the road"; he moves to ABC-TV. On Apr. 1 in Salem, Ore. it becomes illegal to be within 2 ft. of nude dancers - nobody has a tongue that long? On Apr. 4 U.S. secy. of state James A. Baker meets in Washington, D.C. with counterpart Eduard Shevardnadze for three days of talks on the Lithuanian crisis and arms control; on Apr. 14 Lithuanian officials, facing a Kremlin deadline to back away from their declaration of independence acknowledge that an economic blockade could result in huge layoffs; on Apr. 17 Pres. Bush warns the Soviet Union of "appropriate responses" should they carry out their blockade; on Apr. 18 the Soviets shut off a pipeline that supplies Lithuania with crude oil, and on Apr. 19 severely reduce the flow of natural gas. On Apr. 4 securities law violator Ivan Boesky is released from federal custody. On Apr. 5 Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (1946-) becomes the last head of state of East Germany (until Oct. 2), and the first woman. On Apr. 5 it is announced that Pres. Bush and Pres. Gorbachev will hold their first full-scale summit in the U.S. On Apr. 5 Paul Newman wins a court victory over Julius Gold to keep giving all profits from Newman Foods to charity. On Apr. 7 an exhibit of sexually-graphic porno, er, artistic photos by Long Island-born, Roman Catholic-raised dead gay photographer Robert Mapplethorpe (1946-) opens at Cincinnati's Contemporary Arts Center; on the same day the center and its dir. are indicted on obscenity charges; on Oct. 5 both are acquitted. On Apr. 7 an arson fire aboard a ferry en route from Norway to Denmark kills 158 people. On Apr. 7 "Father of Junk Bonds" Michael Robert Milken (1946-) pleads innocent to security law violations; on Apr. 20 he agrees to plead guilty to six felonies and pay $600M in penalties to settle the largest securities fraud case in history. On Apr. 8 nat. elections in Greece give the New Democracy Party 150 out of 300 seats in parliament, allowing it to form the first 1-party govt. since 1981, with Constantine (Konstantinos) Mitsotakis (1918-) (nephew of Eleutherios Venizelos) as PM #7 on Apr. 11 (until Oct. 13, 1993), ending PASOK Socialist rule; on May 4 Constantine Karmanlis becomes pres. again (until 1995); the new govt. begins privatizing state-owned industrial cos. On Apr. 8 the bizarre-but-cool cult series Twin Peaks, set in never-sunny Wash. state debuts on ABC-TV for 30 episodes (until June 10, 1991), about the mystery of who killed homecoming queen Laura Palmer (Sheryl Lee), starring Kyle Merritt MacLachlan (1959-) as Special Agent Dale Cooper, Michael Leonard Ontkean (1946-) as Sheriff Harry S. Truman, Raymond Herbert "Ray" Wise (1947-) as Laura's father Leland Palmer, Dana Vernon Ashbrook (1967-) as Bobby Briggs, George Richard Breymer Jr. (1938-) as Ben Horne, Madchen E. Amick (1970-) as Shelly Johnson, Lara Flynn Boyle (1970-) as Donna Hayward, Sherilyn Fenn (1965-) as Audrey Horne, Everett McGill (1945-) as Ed Hurley, Margaret Ann "Peggy" Lipton (1946-) as Norma Jennings, and Michael Heinrich Horse (1951-) as Tommy "Hawk" Hill, flooding the eyes with endless shades of brown and orange, and the ears with endless weird music by Angelo Badalamenti (1937-). On Apr. 8 hemophiliac Ryan Wayne White (b. 1971), the 18-y.-o. AIDS patient who contracted HIV in 1984 from a blood transformation and was heavily discriminated against, gaining nat. attention dies in Indianapolis, Ind.; on Aug. 18 the U.S. Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency (CARE) Act is passed, providing federal funding for HIV/AIDS patients. On Apr. 10 three European hostages (a French woman, a Belgian man and their 2-y.-o. daughter, who was born in captivity) are released in Lebanon by the Abu Nidal Palestinian guerrilla group following an appeal by Libyan leader Col. Muammar al-Gaddafi. On Apr. 10 in Hong Kong real estate tycoon Teddy Wang Tei-huei (b. 1933) is kidnapped for a 2nd time (1st time 1983) by abductors demanding $60M (first time $33M); after his wife only pays $34M he is thrown in the sea and his body is never found. On Apr. 12 singer James Brown moves to a work-release center after serving 15 mo. On Apr. 12 in its first meeting East Germany's first democratically elected parliament acknowledges responsibility for the Nazi Holocaust, and asks the forgiveness of Jews and others who had suffered, becoming the first of a new wave of remorseful public apologies for past wrongs issued by the world's leaders - a sign of Millennium Fever? On Apr. 13 Pres. Gorbachev admits the responsibility of Stalin's secret police in the 1940 Katyn Forest Massacre. On Apr. 15 the sketch comedy series In Living Color debuts on Fox Network for 125 episodes (until May 19, 1994), created by brothers Keenen Ivory Wayans Sr. (1958-) and Damon Kyle Wayans Sr. (1960-), making stars of comedians James Eugene "Jim Carrey" (1962-), and Jamie Foxx (Eric Marlon Bishop) (1967-); pop music star Jennifer Lopez (Jay-Lo) and Carrie Ann Inaba are members of the dance troupe. On Apr. 16 the Supreme Court rejects appeals by Dalton Prejean (b. 1959), a nearly retarded black man who was condemned to die for the 1977 murder of a sacred cow La. state trooper, allowing him to be executed on May 18 - they'll disallow execution of mental defectives on the next round if it ain't a sacred cow cop? On Apr. 17 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules unanimously in Employment Div. v. Smith that the govt. may criminalize acts done as part of a religious ritual incl. use of peyote, although they states may choose to tolerate them, causing Congress to pass the 1993 U.S. Religious Freedom Restoration Act on Nov. 16, 1993 to "ensure that interests in religious freedom are protected", requiring a strict scrutiny standard and a narrowly tailored regulation serving a compelling govt interest in any case substantially burdening the free exercise of religion, but the court rules that Sect. 5 of the 14th Amendment prohibits Congress from substantially increasing the scope of rights determined by the judiciary, and may only enact remedial or preventative measures, hence the law doesn't apply to the states. On Apr. 18 the U.S. Screwpreme (Rehnquist) Court rules 6-3 in Osborne v. Ohio that states may make it a crime to possess or look at child pornography, even in the privacy of one's home, regardless of the First Amendment - the Christian Right sees an opportunity using children to 'get' adults who don't go with their moral views? On Apr. 18 a bankruptcy court forces Frank Lorenzo to give up Eastern Airlines. On Apr. 19 Nicaragua's 9-y.-o. civil war appears near an end as Contra guerrillas, leftist Sandinistas and the incoming govt. agree to a truce and a deadline for the rebels to disarm. On Apr. 21 Pope John Paul II is greeted by hundreds of thousands of people as he visits Czech. to help celebrate the nation's peaceful overthrow of Communist rule. On Apr. 22 pro-Iranian kidnappers in Lebanon free U.S. hostage (Beirut U. accounting prof.) Robert B. Polhill (1934-99) after 39 mo. of captivity. On Apr. 22 millions of Americans join in a worldwide 20th anniv. celebration of the first Earth Day. On Apr. 22 the series Jeeves and Wooster debuts on BBC-TV (until June 20, 1993), starring Hugh Laurie (1959-) as Bertie Wooster, and Stephen Fry (1957-) as his valet Jeeves before WWII. On Apr. 23 a nuclear war will start, according to Elizabeth Clare Prophet (Guru Ma), head of the Church Universal and Triumphant, causing them to build underground bomb shelters in Mont.; some followers incl. her husband are convicted of federal weapons charges for maintaining an arsenal. On Apr. 24 the Space Shuttle Discovery blasts off from Cape Canaveral carrying the $1.5B Hubble Space Telescope, which deploys its 94.5-in. primary mirror on Apr. 25; the shuttle lands safely on Apr. 29; on May 20 the Hubble Space Telescope sends back its first photos; on June 27 NASA announces that a flaw in the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope is preventing the instrument from achieving optimum focus; it is repaired in Dec. 1993. On Apr. 24 West and East Germany agree to merge currency and economies on July 1. On Apr. 25 France and Germany hold a Summit on German Reunification. On Apr. 26 Israeli PM Yitzhak Shamir, leader of the right-wing Likud bloc is chosen to form a new govt. after Labor Party leader Shimon Peres fails to form a coalition. On Apr. 28 hundreds of thousands of anti-abortion demonstrators march in Washington D.C. On Apr. 29 wrecking cranes begin tearing down the Berlin Wall at the Brandenburg Gate. On Apr. 30 hostage Frank Reed is released by his captives in Lebanon, becoming the 2nd American freed in eight days. In Apr. the Aum Shinrikyo doomsday cult of Japan (founded in 1984) sends three trucks into C Tokyo to spray poisonous botulin mists, then attacks U.S. bases at Yokohama and Yokosuka; when the botulin does not work the cult turns to anthrax. In Apr. the Irish govt. proposes formal abolition of the death penalty and a mandatory 40-year prison term. On May 1 Soviet Pres. Mikhail S. Gorbachev and other Kremlin leaders are jeered by thousands of people during the annual May Day parade in Red Square. On May 2-4 the govt. of South Africa and the African National Congress hold their first formal talks aimed at paving the way for more substantive negotiations on dismantling apartheid. On May 3 the U.S. govt. approves the use of the drug AZT to treat children infected with the AIDS virus. On May 3 patriarch (since 1971) Pimen I dies, and Estonian-born metropolitan Alexei of Leningrad is elected Russian Orthodox patriarch #16 of Moscow and all Russia Alexei II (Ridiger) (1929-). On May 4 Latvia's parliament votes 138-0 (1 abstention) for independence. On May 6 former pres. P.W. Botha quits South Africa's ruling National Party. On May 7 the White House puts aside Pres. Bush's 1988 campaign pledge of "Read my lips: no new taxes", saying talks to strike a budget deal with Congress would have "no preconditions"; OMB dir. Richard Darman (member of the Trilateral Commission?) is blamed for talking Bush into it. On May 7-9 Operation Sundevil seizes 42 computer systems throughout the U.S. (25 of them computer bulletin board systems or BBSes) in a crackdown on computer crime, pissing-off the hacker community. On May 8 one crewman is killed and 18 injured in a fire aboard the guided missile destroyer USS Conyngham in the Atlantic, 100 mi. SE of Norfolk, Va. On May 9 Pres. Bush and congressional leaders announce plans for emergency budget talks, with tax increases and spending cuts on the negotiating table. On May 9 Newsday reporter Jimmy Breslin (1930-) is suspended for a racial slur. On May 9 Pope John Paul II tours Mexico City. On May 10 the govt. of China announces the release of 211 dissidents who had been involved in pro-democracy demonstrations a year earlier. On May 10 the French TGV train sets a record speed of 510.6 kph. On May 10 ever-popular Prince Charles and Princess Diana end their first visit to a Warsaw Pact country by viewing Budapest, Hungary from a boat on the Danube River and riding on a streetcar through the city center. On May 12 the presidents of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania forge a united front by reviving a 1934 political alliance in hopes of enhancing their drive for independence from the Soviet Union; on May 14 in separate decrees Pres. Gorbachev declares that the republics of Estonia and Latvia have no legal basis for moving toward independence; on May 17 Gorbachev meets in Moscow with Lithuanian PM Kazimiera Prunskiene, becoming his first face-to-face meeting with a senior official. On May 13-14 thousands protest across Paris after a Jewish cemetery is desecrated in Carpentras. On May 15 Congressional leaders and Bush admin. officials begin a bipartisan summit on the fiscal 1991 budget and its deficit. On May 16 Aloj "Lojze" Peterle (1948-), chmn. of the Slovene Christian Dem. Party becomes PM of Slovenia (until May 1992). On May 17 the World Health Org. (WHO) declassifies homosexuality as a mental disorder, causing annual celebration of the Internat. Day Against Homophobia, Biphobia and Transphobia (IDAHOBIT). On May 17 the European court grants pension rights to both men and women. On May 17 a gen. synod of the Church of Ireland votes in favor of the ordination of women as priests and bishops. On May 18 in the face of heated student protests, the trustees of all-female Mills College in Oakland, Calif. vote to rescind their earlier decision to admit men. On May 18 East and West Germany sign a monetary union treaty. On May 19 U.S. secy. of state James A. Baker concludes an agreement with the Soviet Union to destroy chemical weapons and settle longstanding disputes over limits on nuclear-tipped cruise missiles. On May 19 By Dawn's Early Light debuts on HBO, based on the 1983 William Prochnau novel "Trinity's Child" about a rogue Soviet group launching a nuke at the U.S., nearly starting WWIII; stars Martin Landau as the U.S. pres., and Nicolas Coster as Gen. Renning AKA Icarus. On May 20 an Israeli gunman opens fire on a group of Palestinian laborers in Rishon Le Ziyyon S of Tel Aviv, killing eight; he is sentenced to life in prison; on May 21 Israeli soldiers kill three Palestinians during a violent protest. On May 20 Romania's ruling Nat. Salvation Front scores Vs in the country's first free elections in more than 50 years. On May 22 Microsoft releases Windows 3.0 - the monopoly is almost complete and they will all be absorbed? On May 22 after 300 years of conflict pro-Western North Yemen and pro-Soviet South Yemen merge to form the Repub. of Yemen under pres. (since 1978) Ali Abdullah Saleh (1942-) (until ?); too bad, the Saudis don't like any kind of Muslim democracy in the region, and use their border dispute as a pretext for war in 1998-2000; meanwhile because he has close ties with Saddam Hussein, Saleh refuses to join the U.S.-led coalition in the First Gulf War, pissing Saudi Arabia off more, along with other Gulf states, after which the Saudis expel 1M Yemeni migrant workers, crippling the Yemeni economy. On May 23 Bill Clinton's campaign for a 5th term as gov. of Ark. receives a $60K loan from the rural Perry County Bank; he receives another $75K loan from them on Oct. 29. On May 23 the cost of rescuing U.S. savings and loan failures is put at $130B - and Bill only got a crumb? On May 23 Neil Mallon Bush (1955-), son of U.S. pres. George H.W. Bush denies any wrongdoing as a dir. of a failed Denver, Colo. savings and loan in testimony before Congress. On May 23 the Soviet Union unveils an economic reform program that incl. plans for a nat. referendum. On May 25 a congressional report casts doubts on the U.S. Navy's official finding that a troubled sailor probably had caused the blast that killed 47 servicemen aboard the battleship USS Iowa. On May 27 the political opposition of Burma scores a V in the country's first free multiparty elections in three decades; the Nat. League of Aung San Suu Kyi wins 392 of 485 contested seats, but the govt. ignores the results; the country's name is changed to Myanmar as a coverup. On May 27 Cesar Augusto Gaviria Trujillo (1947-) of the Liberal Party is elected pres. #36 of Colombia, and he is sworn-in on Aug. 7 (until Aug. 7, 1994); he goes on to build the La Catedral prison near Medellin for Pablo Escobar, who escapes on July 20, 1992; after leaving office, in 1994 he is elected secy.-gen. of the Org. of Am. States (OAS) until 2004. On May 27 Pres. Mikhail Gorbachev tries to calm his nation's economic nerves with a hastily scheduled TV address. On May 28 Iraqi pres. Saddam Hussein opens a 2-day Arab League Summit in Baghdad with a keynote address in which he says that if Israel were to deploy nuclear or chemical weapons against Arabs, Iraq would respond with "weapons of mass destruction" - talk about putting your foot in your mouth? On May 29 the Dow Jones Industrial Avg. reaches a record 2,870.49. On May 29 Soviet maverick politician (longtime Communist Party hack) Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (1931-2007) is elected pres. of #1 the Russian Federation in the 3rd round of balloting, taking office on July 10 (until Dec. 31, 1999) after quitting the Communist party; Russia declares sovereignty, becoming one of 15 repubs. in the dissolving Soviet Union; a vodka lush, he suffers five heart attacks in his first term; too bad, the Siloviki (Russ. "force people", "strongmen") incl. the military and nat. security-intel orgs. form a de facto non-elected inner cabinet, carrying over to Vladimir Putin. On May 29 Pres. Gorbachev visits Canada en route to his May 31 Washington summit with Pres. Bush, in which they sign (June 1) more than a dozen treaties cutting nuclear arms and chemical weapons. On May 29 40 countries found the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) to finance the economic transition in C and E Europe and the CIS. On May 29-30 Peru is struck by a 5.8 earthquake, killing 101. On May 31 New York City's copycat Zodiac Killer shoots 3d victim Joseph Ponce. In May as Soviet tanks roll, the Estonian Soviet parliament and the Congress of Estonia proclaim the restoration of the independent state of Estonia as huge crowds stand as human shields to protect TV and radio stations; the Singing Rev. (begun 1988) achieves independence without bloodshed, accelerating the disintegration of the Soviet Union. On June 1 E! Entertainment Television (founded in 1987 as Movietime) and the Cowboy Channel are launched on cable. On June 1 the Dow Jones Industrial Avg. hits a record high of 2,900.97. On June 3 Mikhail Gorbachev ends the summit then flies to Minn. for a whirlwind tour of Minneapolis-St. Paul, then on June 4 flies to N Calif. to hold a reunion with former Pres. Reagan. On June 4 Detroit, Mich. pathologist Dr. Jacob "Jack" Kevorkian (1928-2011) assists Janet Adkins of Portland, Ore. in his first physician-assisted suicide; the authorities of Oakland County, Mich. react on June 5, and "Doctor Death" begins his long run-in with the law, reaching at least 130 before being stopped. On June 5 Mikhail Gorbachev meets with South Korean pres. Roh Dae Woo in Earthquake City San Francisco, Calif. causing diplomatic relations to be opened effective Oct. 1. On June 6 a federal judge in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. declares the 1989 2 Live Crew album As Nasty As They Wanna Be to be obscene; the decision is later overturned on appeal by the 11th Circuit; on June 10 two members of the group are arrested after performing in a nightclub in Hollywood, Fla.; they and a 3rd band member are acquitted by a jury of obscenity charges on Oct. 20 after the publicity makes them big bucks, and the authorities see the handwriting on the bathroom wall; meanwhile one Ft. Lauderdale record store owner is arrested and convicted for selling their album, and fined $1K. On June 7 South African Pres. F.W. de Klerk announces that he is lifting a 4-y.-o. state of emergency in three of the country's four provinces, with the exception of Natal. On June 8 Israeli PM Yitzhak Shamir announces that he had formed a new right wing coalition govt., ending a 3-mo. political crisis. A new plesident of Pelu? On June 10 political newcomer Alberto Fujimori (1938-) is elected pres. of Peru by a narrow margin over novelist Mario Vargas Llosa, and is sworn-in on July 28, soon leading an economic rebound, crippling the Shining Path rebels, and sponsoring public works projects to win the support of the poor. On June 11 the U.S. Supreme Court does something rational for a change when it strikes down a federal law prohibiting desecration of the U.S. flag (not just govt. owned flags, but privately owned flags, such as icing flags on cakes, flag designs on suits, etc., making the whole idea smack of insanity?); the same day Pres. Bush announces his support for a constitutional amendment to get around the court - just like King George III would do? On June 12 in a speech to the Supreme Soviet, Pres. Gorbachev eases his objections to a reunified Germany holding membership in NATO. On June 12 Boris N. Yeltsin leads a vote at the Congress of Peoples Deputies on a "declaration of sovereignty for Russia". On June 13 U.S. secy. of state James A. Baker, testifying before the House Foreign Affairs Committee urges Israel to accept a U.S. plan for peace talks, and gives out the telephone number for the White House switchboard, telling the Israelis publicly, "When you're serious about this, call us". On June 14 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 6-3 in Mich. Dept. of State Police v. Sitz to uphold the Fourth Amendment constitutionality of police checkpoints that examine drivers for signs of intoxication. On June 15 real estate mogul Donald Trump (1946-) misses an $18M interest payment due on junk bonds used to finance his Trump Castle Atlantic City resort, forcing the former paper billionaire into bankruptcy. On June 16 after meeting with Pope John Paul II in Vatican City, African Nat. Congress (ANC) leader Nelson Mandela is greeted by a crowd in the Netherlands, then flies to Ottawa on June 17, followed by an 11-day tour of the U.S., starting with a ticker-tape parade in New York, then an address to the U.N. on June 22, where he says victory is "within our grasp" in South Africa; on June 25 he meets with Pres. Bush at the White House, and addresses the U.S. Congress on June 26. On June 18 James Edward Pough (b. 1948) goes on a shooting rampage at an auto financing office in Jacksonville, Fla., fatally wounding nine before killing himself. On June 20 the Communist Initiative creates the neoconservative Russian Communist Party. On June 20 the Uzbek Supreme Soviet declares the sovereignty of Uzbekistan within a "renewed Soviet federation"; on Nov. 1 the council of ministers is replaced with a cabinet led by mean Khrushchev lookalike pres. Islam Abdug'aniyevich Karimov (1938-), who rules with an iron hand (until ?). On June 21 an estimated 50K are killed and 200K wounded in a 7.7 earthquake in N Iran, followed by an aftershock on June 24. On June 22 the president's son George W. Bush, a dir. of Tex. oil co. Harken Energy Corp. sells 212,140 shares at $4 per share just before huge losses are reported, causing accusations of insider trading and influence peddling; too bad, no wrongdoing is found by authorities. On June 23 Moldova declares its sovereignty, and in Aug. the Soviets attempt a coup, causing the Moldovan Communist Party to be banned (until 1993). On June 24 Health and Human Services Secy. Louis Sullivan is drowned out by jeering demonstrators as he addresses the Sixth Internat. AIDS Conference in Baghdad by the Bay San Francisco, Calif. On June 25 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules 5-4 in Cruzan v. Director, Mo. Dept. of Health that a state may require "clear and convincing evidence" of a patient's wishes for removal of life support, causing the creation of advance health directives. On June 26 Pres. Bush, who campaigned for office on a pledge of "no new taxes" concedes that tax increases would have to be included in any deficit-reduction package worked out with congressional negotiators; meanwhile on June 25-28 U.S. and Japanese negotiators hammer out the Structural Impediments Initiative, an accord over U.S. access to Japanese markets, causing talk that the Japanese pressured Bush to reduce the federal budget deficit, causing him to flop and advocate tax increases. On June 28 Calif. brush fires explode across the state, fed by heat, drought, and arson, destroying over 500 homes (most in Calif. history) from Santa Barbara to San Diego; Calif. Gov. George Deukmejian offers $50K rewards for arsonists; the fires cause Michael Jackson's 2.7K-acre Neverland Valley Ranch N of Santa Barbara, Calif. to be mentioned in the press for the first time; it incl. a Ferris wheel. On June 28 seven current-former U.S. Coast Guardsmen are indicted for stealing narcotics from drug smugglers then selling them for profit. On June 30 the Common Cold Research Centre in the Harvard Hospital near Salisbury, England (80 mi. W of London) (founded 1946) closes after conceding defeat in finding a cure for the common cold, saying that there are 200 different strains of the virus; 18K volunteers had undergone 10-day quarantine tests. In June the FTC launches a secret probe into possible collusion between Microsoft and IBM. In June in Bulgaria the former Communist Party, renamed the Socialist Party wins the parliamentary elections. In June Hungary's parliament votes for total withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact by the end of 1991. In June in Romania miners transported into Bucharest in govt. vehicles destroy hundreds of Interior Ministry files. Don't get sick in Turkmenistan? In June former electrical engineer Saparmurt Atayevich Niyazov (1940-2006), chmn. (since 1985) of the Supreme Soviet of the 90% Karakum ("Black Sand") Desert Soviet Repub. of Turkmenistan N of Afghanistan and Iran declares independence from the Soviet Union, followed by sovereignty on Aug. 27, wins the pres. election unopposed on Oct. 27, becoming pres. #1 of Turkmenistan on Nov. 2 (until Dec. 21, 2006), setting up a personality cult where criticism of his policies is treated as treason, later closing down all nat. parks and rural libraries, firing 15K health care workers and replacing them with untrained military conscripts, closing down all hospitals outside the capital and ordering physicians to give up the Hippocratic Oath and swear allegiance to him instead. In June Mexican pres. Carlos Salinas de Gortari creates the Nat. Commission on Human Rights to deal with police brutality - hardly deal with it? In June Billy Joel becomes the first to hold a rock concert in Yankee Stadium in New York City. In June radio stations in Kan., Okla. et al. stop playing records by lesbian singer "k.d. lang" after she begins a "Meat Stinks" campaign for 300K-member People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) - she only means male meat? On July 1 East Germans line up to obtain West German deutsche marks as a state treaty unifying their monetary and economic systems goes into effect. On July 2 1,426 Muslim pilgrims are killed in a stampede inside a pedestrian tunnel leading to Mecca in Saudi Arabia. On July 2 the Soviet Union's 28th Communist Party Congress opens with an address by Pres. Gorbachev, who concedes mistakes while defending perestroika; on July 3 in Moscow, Kremlin hardliner Yegor Kuzmich Ligachev (1920-) receives an enthusiastic reception at the Communist Party Congress as he criticizes reforms by Gorbachev, saying that perestroika had been marred by "limitless radicalism". On July 2 MasterChef debuts on BBC-TV (until July 3, 2001), then again on Feb. 21, 2005 (until ?), hosted by Marblehead, Mass.-born gastronome Loyd Daniel Gilman Grossman (1950-), featuring amateur cooks vying to cook the best 3-course meal in 2 hours; it spawns MasterChef: The Professionals (Aug. 25, 2008-), Celebrity MasterChef (2006-), Junior MasterChef (Aug. 14, 1999-Aug. 1, 1999, May 20, 2010-), MasterChef Australia (Apr. 27, 2009-) et al. On July 4 400 New Kids on the Block fans are treated for heat exhaustion in Minn. On July 4 France performs yet another nuclear test at Muruora Island. On July 5 NATO leaders open a 2-day meeting in London to revise the alliance's strategy in light of easing East-West tensions in Europe and the unraveling of the Warsaw Pact. On July 7 Pres. Bush welcomes fellow leaders of the Group of Seven countries in sweating hot Houston, Tex. for their 16th annual economic summit, calling on Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to accept Western aid. On July 9 the Three Tenors (Placido Domingo, Jose Careras, Luciano Pavarotti) debut at the Baths of Caracalla in Rome, Italy on the eve of the 1990 FIFA World Cup Final, with the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino orchestra conducted by Zubin Mehta, along with the Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, becoming the best-selling classical album of all time (until ?); their last performance is on Sept. 28, 2003 at an arena in Columbus, Ohio. On July 10 Mikhail Gorbachev handily wins reelection as leader of the Soviet Communist Party, then on July 12 shocks them by announcing his resignation from the party. On July 11 a clear sunny day suddenly ends with softball-sized hail in Denver, Colo., stripping most of the branches and all of the leaves off trees, and causing $625M in property damage to roofs and cars, incl. TLW's white Mitsubishi Galant, which is pockmarked like a golf ball; a power failure traps 47 in a Ferris wheel, causing them to be battered by the hail. On July 11 New York City police arrest Jerome "Dartman" Wright (1957-) for stabbing 53 light-skinned women in business suits or skirts with darts in the buttocks during the summer. On July 12 Northern Exposure (debuts on CBS-TV) for 110 episodes (until July 26, 1995), starring Robert Alan "Rob" Morrow 9192-) as newly-minted Jewish doctor Joel Fleischman from New York City, who moves into the Alaskan town of Cicely for four years to replay his student loans, where he meets local millionaire Maurice Minnifield (Barry Corbin), ex-felon disc jockey Chris Stevens (John Corbett), bush pilot Maggie O'Connell (Janine Turner), and beauty queen Shelly Marie Tambo Vincoeur (Cynthia Geary), wife of sexagenarian bar owner Holling Vincoeur (John Collum); in 2008 Repubs. compare Maggie with Sarah Palin. On July 13 the Gayssot Act (Law) is passed in France, making the diffusion of historical revisionism about the Holocaust a crime, stifling freedom of speech. On July 14-16 West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl holds talks in Moscow with Soviet Pres. Gorbachev aimed at soothing Kremlin concerns about German unification; Moscow drops its objection to a united Germany's membership in NATO. On July 15 tens of thousands of people march in Moscow to protest the Communist Party's control of the govt., the army and the KGB. On July 17 the seven nations negotiating German unification reach agreement in Paris on Poland's permanent border, clearing the way for the merger of East and West Germany. On July 17 Pres. George H.W. Bush declares the 1990s the Decade of the Brain - his son's presidency is out until the next decade then? On July 17 the ruling Serbian Communist Party renames itself the Serbian Socialist Party. On July 18 Joni Leigh Penn is arrested after breaking into the home of actress Sharon Gless with a rifle and 500 rounds of ammo and threatening to shoot herself in front of her; she is sentenced to six years in prison. On July 19 Pres. Bush joins former presidents Ronald Reagan, Gerald Ford, and Richard Nixon at ceremonies dedicating the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda, Calif. On July 20 liberal U.S. Supreme Court justice (since 1956) William J. Brennan (b. 1906) announces his retirement; on July 23 Pres. Bush announces his choice of Melrose, Mass.-born "stealth justice" David Hackett Souter (1939-) (Protestant) (never been married) of N.H. to succeed him; he is confirmed as U.S. Supreme Court justice #105 on Oct. 2, and sworn-in on Oct. 9 (until June 29, 2009). On July 20 a federal appeals court sets aside Oliver North's three Iran-Contra convictions, reversing one outright. On July 22 voters in Mongolia begin casting ballots in their Communist-ruled nation's first multiparty election. On July 22 Hungary's govt. agrees to reprivatize farmlands. On July 23 as rebel forces close in on the pres. palace, Liberian Pres. Samuel K. Doe refuses to leave until the civil war is decided; Charles Taylor tries to take Monrovia. On July 24 Iraq, accusing Kuwait of conspiring to harm its economy through oil overproduction masses tens of thousands of troops and hundreds of tanks along the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border to make it into Iraq's 19th province; what really made Saddam Hussein decide to invade was when Kuwaiti leader Sheik Jaber Al Ahmed Al Sabah told him that he was going to turn every Iraqi woman into a $10 ho? On July 25 April Glaspie (1942-), U.S. ambassador to Iraq meets with Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein to discuss Iraq's economic dispute with Kuwait. On July 25 the Senate formally denounces Sen. Dave Durenberger (1934-) (R-Minn.) for financial improprieties. On July 26 Pres. Bush signs the U.S. U.S. Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), extending the 1964 U.S. Civil Rights Act to Americans with disabilities, imposing accessibility requirements on public accomodations, but only requiring covered employers to provide reasonable accomodations to disabled employees; in 2008 Pres. George W. Bush signs an amended version, effective on Jan 1, 2009. On July 26 the U.S. House of Reps. reprimands Jewish member (D-Mass.) (1981-) Barnett "Barney" Frank (1940-) (2nd openly gay U.S. Rep. since 1987) for ethics violations - I like frank jokes here? On July 26 the U.S. Center for Disease Control reports that a young woman, later identified as Kimberly Bergalis had been infected with the AIDS virus by her dentist - I'm trying to picture that? On July 27 La. Gov. Buddy Roemer vetoes a tough abortion bill passed by his state's legislature, but the latter overrides his veto. On July 28 a 500K gal. oil spill in Galveston Bay, Tex. becomes the worst in Tex. until 2010. On July 29 Nelson Mandela gives a speech at the Rally to Relaunch the South African Communist Party (SACP), which had been banned since 1950, praising them as a staunch ally of the ANC although denying he's a member himself, claiming to support their right to exist because he supports democracy; after his death on Dec. 6, 2013, the SACP confirms that Mandela was a member at the time of his 1962 arrest. The centennial of the suicide of Vincent Van Gogh already? On July 29 (night) Vincent Polakovic, on the 100th anniv. of the death of Vincent van Gogh sees his ghost on the roof of a small house near his grave in France, inspiring to raise funds for Danubiana in Poprad, Slovakia, modelled after a yellow house he once lived in with Gaugin. On July 30 British Conservative Party lawmaker Dr. Ian Reginald Edward Gow (b. 1937) is killed in an IRA bombing in Hankham, East Sussex. On July 31 Shoal Creek, a private club in Birmingham, Ala. that drew criticism for being all-white announces that it had accepted token black businessman Louis Willie as an honorary member; 10 years later it's still all-white? In July the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait causes oil prices to increase, triggering the 1990-1 U.S. Recession that lasts for 8 mo. In July young people demonstrate against the regime in Tirana, Albania, causing the Milosevic regime to order the mass firing of ethnic Albanians from all civil service posts; on July 2 Albanian delegates of the Kosovo assembly declare independence from Serbia as a full constituent repub. within the Yugoslavian federation, causing Serbia to abolish the Kosovo assembly and govt. of Kosovo, close down the only Albanian newspaper, and take over the state-owned TV and radio. In July East End, London-born George Leonard Carey (1935-) becomes archbishop #103 of Canterbury, England (until 2002), replacing retiring Robert Runcie, and becoming the first to never attend Oxford U. or Cambridge U.; he is formally confirmed next Mar. 27 in the church of St. Mary-le-Bow. On Aug. 1 in Trinidad dozens of Muslim militants surrender and free 42 hostages they had seized six days earlier in a failed bid to overthrow the govt. Saddam's big miscalculation? On Aug. 2 Black Thursday sees Iraqi troops invade Kuwait and set up a well-oiled puppet govt.; on Aug. 2 by a 14-0 vote the U.N. Security Council condemns Iraq, and in Resolution 660 demands the unconditional withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait; PLO chief Yasser Arafat's support of Sodamn Insane results in the PLO's isolation; on Aug. 3 thousands of Iraqi soldiers push to within a few mi. of the border with Saudi Arabia, heightening world concerns about the invasion spreading; on Aug. 6 the U.N. imposes sanctions on Iraq, barring it from selling oil except in exchange for food and medicine; on Aug. 6-7 Operation Desert Shield begins as Pres. Bush at the request of King Fahd sends U.S. troops to Saudi Arabia to guard it, and are joined on Aug. 11 by Egyptian and Moroccan troops from the Arab League; on Aug. 8 Iraq annexes Kuwait as its 19th province, with Saddam Hussein's cousin Ali Hassan Al-Majid as military gov.; Italian politician Cicciolina (Ilona Staller) (1951-) offers to have sex with Saddam Hussein if he will release all foreign hostages; the Saudis permit U.S. troops to use a base in their country, angering Muslim conservatives, who see infidels polluting their soil, while Kuwaitis are more practical, but politely request Army chaplains to remove religious insignia from their uniforms and get antsy about the sight of women driving cars and carrying guns?; after seeing women soldiers among the U.S. forces, 47 women from the Saudi intelligentsia go for a joy ride to protest Saudi Arabia being the world's only country that keeps women from driving, getting arrested and crushed by the regime; meanwhile Am. Christian evangelist Franklin Graham (1952-) is told by Saudi officials that Christian Bibles and religious material is illegal to send to Saudi Arabia in the mail, along with alcohol and porno - the U.S. is faced with the dilemma that destroying minority Sunni control of Iraq will make it easy for Shiite Iran to absorb it, opening a royal road to Israel through Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, which is why they don't attack and cut off Baghdad when the Iraqi troops are out in Kuwait, but just try to drive them back? Too bad that Bush Jr. isn't up to speed when he gets in the White House? On Aug. 3 the Hungarian nat. assembly elects Arpad Goncz (Göncz) (1922-) of the Alliance of Free Dems. as pres. (until 2000); on Oct. 14 the opposition wins municipal elections. In other words, I hate all you infidels? On Aug. 5 the 57-member Org. of the Islamic Conference (OIC) signs the upside-down Cairo Declaration of Human Rights, a rebuke to the Dec. 10, 1948 U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), substituting you-guessed-it Sharia, declaring "the place of mankind in Islam as viceregent of Allah on Earth", a reference to Quran 3:110, proclaiming Muslim supremacy, and calling Christians and Jews (People of the Book) "perverted transgressors". On Aug. 6 PM Benazir Bhutto is ousted after 20 mo. in office (Dec. 2, 1988) by Pres. Ghulam Ishaq Khan on charges of incompetence and corruption; an interim govt. is led by Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi (1931-) (until Nov. 6). On Aug. 12 Air Force SSgt. John Campisi (b. 1960) of West Covina, Calif. dies after being hit by a military truck in Saudi Arabia, becoming the first U.S. casualty of the Persian Gulf War. On Aug. 12 Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein seeks to tie any withdrawal of his troops from Kuwait to an Israeli withdrawal from the occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip. On Aug. 13 Pres. Bush orders U.S. defense secy. Dick Cheney to the Persian Gulf for the 2nd time since Iraq invaded Kuwait. On Aug. 13-14 Iraq says that approx. 9K foreigners, incl. North Ams., Europeans and Australians may not leave Iraq and Kuwait until hostilies cease. On Aug. 15 in an attempt to gain support against the U.S.-led coalition, Saddam Hussein offers to make peace with longtime enemy Iran. On Aug. 16 Pres. Bush meets with Jordan's King Hussein in Kennebunkport, Maine, where he urges him to close Iraq's access to the sea through the port of Aqaba. On Aug. 16 Saddam Hussein repeatedly calls Pres. Bush a liar and says the outbreak of war could result in "thousands of Americans wrapped in sad coffins". On Aug. 17 the Log Rev. in Croatia sees ethnic Serbs block roads between Croatia and Dalmatia with logs, leading to the Croatian War of Independence next year. On Aug. 18 a U.S. frigate fires warning shots across the bow of an Iraqi tanker in the Gulf of Oman, becoming the first shots fired by the U.S. in the Persian Gulf crisis. On Aug. 18 the Serbian minority in Croatia votes for political autonomy in an official referendum, which the govt. declares illegal. On Aug. 19 Saddam Hussein offers to free all foreigners detained in Iraq and Kuwait provided the U.S. promises to withdraw its forces from Saudi Arabia and guarantees that an internat. economic embargo is lifted; on Aug. 20 for the first time since Iraq began detaining foreigners, Pres. Bush publicly refers to the detainees as hostages, and demands their release. On Aug. 20 East and West Germany sign the East-West Election Treaty, providing for nat. elections of a unified Germany in Dec.; on Aug. 31 they sign the Unification Treaty to join legal and political systems. On Aug. 20 three former Northwest Airlines pilots are convicted in Minneapolis, Minn. of flying while intoxicated. On Aug. 22 Pres. Bush signs an order calling up reservists to bolster the U.S. military buildup in the Persian Gulf. On Aug. 23 Iraqi state TV shows Saddam Hussein meeting with a group of about 20 Western detainees, telling the "guests" that they are being held "to prevent the scourge of war". On Aug. 24 Iraqi troops surround foreign missions in Kuwait. On Aug. 24 Irish hostage Brian Keenan is released by his captors in Lebanon after being held over four years. On Aug. 24 Pres. Gorbachev sends a message to Saddam Hussein warning that the Persian Gulf situation is "extremely dangerous". On Aug. 25 the U.N. gives the world's navies the right to use force to stop vessels trading with Iraq. On Aug. 26 55 Americans who had been evacuated from the U.S. Embassy in Kuwait leave Baghdad by car, headed for the Turkish border. On Aug. 26 the bodies of two slain college students are found in their off-campus apt. in Gainesville, Fla.; three more bodies are discovered in the next few days, causing a panic. On Aug. 27 the U.S. State Dept. orders the expulsion of 36 Iraqi diplomats. On Aug. 28 German spy Juergen Mohamed Gietler (1957-) is arrested for passing military info. to Iraq on Western knowledge of Scud missiles. On Aug. 28 Iraq declares occupied Kuwait the 19th province of Iraq, renames Kuwait City Kadhima, and creates a new district named after Saddam Hussein, setting up a 9-member puppet regime under Alaa Hussein Ali (1948-) (until 1991); all foreign women and children are allowed to leave Iraq and Kuwait. On Aug. 29 a defiant Saddam Hussein declares in a TV interview that the U.S. can't defeat Iraq, with the soundbyte "I do not beg before anyone". On Aug. 30 in a moment of clarity forever repeated by conspiracy theorists, Pres. Bush tells a news conference that a "We can see a... new world order" coming into being from the Gulf crisis - an Orwellian global police state? On Aug. 30 in Colombia a series of abductions by the Medellin drug cartel of Pablo Escobar (1949-93) begins with the kidnapping of Diana Turbay (1950-91), a Bogota TV news dir. and daughter of former pres. Julio Cesar Turbay; on Jan. 25, 1991 she is killed while being rescued by police. On Aug. 30 U.N. secy.-gen. Javier Perez de Cuellar arrives in Jordan to try to mediate the Persian Gulf crisis in meetings with Iraqi foreign minister (1983-91) Tariq (Tareq) Aziz (Mikhail Yuhanna) (1936-) (a Christian). If I can make it here, I can make it anywhere, Tirana, Tirana, Tirana? In Aug. Albania abandons its monopoly on foreign commerce and begins to open to foreign trade, ending four decades of isolation under dictator Enver Hoxha (d. 1985). In Aug. Yugoslavia begins breaking up into several Serb Autonomous Regions; in Nov. 1991 they unite to form the Repub. of Serbian Krajina in Croatia, and the Republika Srspka in Bosnia-Herzegovina. In Aug. South Ossetia, a region of NC Georgia with a pop. of 100K and ties to Persia declares itself sovereign. In Aug.-Sept. secret talks for a peace deal between Israel and Syria are conducted by Am. businessman Ronald Lauder and George Nader, ed. of the journal Middle East Insight; too bad, despite Benjamin Netanyahu's support, it is tabled over objections by Israeli defense and foreign ministers. On Sept. 1 Pres. Bush announces that he and Pres. Gorbachev will meet in Helsinki, Finland for a "free-flowing" 1-day summit on the Persian Gulf crisis and other issues. On Sept. 2 dozens of Americans are airlifted from Iraq. On Sept. 3 Florida dentist David J. Acer (b. 1949) dies of AIDS after infecting five of his patients with HIV virus; on Sept. 7 Kimberly Bergalis (1968-91) of Ft. Pierce, Fla. comes forward as one of his victims, dying next Dec. 8 at age 23. On Sept. 5 Saddam Hussein urges Arabs to rise up in a holy war (jihad) against the West and all former allies who have turned against him. On Sept. 5 Pres. Gorbachev meets with Christian Iraqi foreign minister Tariq Aziz in Moscow. On Sept. 5-7 the PMs of North and South Korea meet for two days, becoming the highest level contact since the Korean War. On Sept. 6 the New Dems., led by Marion Boyd (1946-) defeat the Liberals in Ontario, Canada to become the province's first Socialist majority govt., and the first E of Manitoba led by the New Dem. Party. On Sept. 6 thieves steal 20 art works by Picasso, Renoir, Degas et al. worth $190M from a 5th floor apt. in Cannes, France. On Sept. 8 the Ellis Island Historical Site opens on Ellis Island, which has processed 12M immigrants into the Am. melting pot; look up your ancestors' arrival records on www.ellisisland.org - did your family come over the 3K-mi. Pond on the boat? Are you first, second, or third generation Ellis? On Sept. 9 Pres. Bush and Pres. Mikhail Gorbachev hold a 1-day summit in Helsinki, Finland, condemning Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. On Sept. 9 Liberian dictator pres. (since 1980) Samuel K. Doe (b. 1951) is killed after being captured by rebels. On Sept. 10 Iran agrees to resume full diplomatic ties with former enemy Iraq. On Sept. 10 The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air debuts on NBC-TV for 148 episodes (until May 20, 1996), starring Willard Christopher "Will" Smith Jr. (1968-) as a street-smart black teenie from West Philly who moves in with his wealthy relatives in Calif.; Smith takes the role after he underpays his income taxes from his rapper career and gets a $2.8M penalty from the IRS and must pay it back; Smith writes and performs the Fresh Prince Theme Song. On Sept. 11 Pres. Bush addresses Congress on the Persian Gulf crisis, vowing that "Saddam Hussein will fail" in his takeover of Kuwait. On Sept. 11 the four victorious allies of World War II and the two Germanies formally end World War II, signing on Sept. 12 a treaty clearing the way for a united Germany on Oct. 3 - 9/11 minus 11? On Sept. 13 NBC-TV's cop-courtroom drama Law & Order, created by Richard Anthony "Dick" Wolf (1946-) debuts on NBC-TV for 456 episodes (until May 24, 2010), presenting a positive picture of the U.S. criminal justice system. On Sept. 13 Iraqi troops storm the residence of the French ambassador in Kuwait. On Sept. 14 during the Persian Gulf crisis, the U.S. Navy reports that U.S. troops fired a warning shot at an Iraqi tanker, then boarded it briefly before allowing it to proceed. On Sept. 15 France announces it is sending 4K more soldiers to the Persian Gulf and expelling Iraqi military attaches in Paris in response to Iraq's raids on French, Belgian and Canadian diplomatic compounds in Kuwait. On Sept. 16 Iraqi TV broadcasts an 8-min. videotaped address by Pres. Bush, warning the Iraqi people that Saddam Hussein's brinksmanship could plunge them into war "against the world"; on Sept. 20 demanding equal time, Iraq asks U.S. networks to broadcast a message by Sodamn Insane in response. On Sept. 17 U.S. defense secy. Dick Cheney sacks Air Force chief of staff Michael J. Dugan as chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force after 79 days for imprudent comments to reporters about planning for the 1991 Gulf War, and he retires on Dec. 31; he openly discussed contingency plans to launch massive air strikes against Baghdad and target Saddam Hussein personally? On Sept. 18 Atlanta, Ga. is named the site of the 1996 Summer Olympics. On Sept. 18 former savings and loan chief exec Charles Humphrey Keating Jr. (1923-) is jailed in Los Angeles, Calif. in lieu of $5M bail after being indicted on criminal fraud charges regarding the 1989 S&L scandal. On Sept. 19 Iraq begins confiscating foreign assets from countries that were imposing sanctions against them. On Sept. 21 during a meeting of the Supreme Soviet, Gorbachev scolds legislators for dragging their feet on an economic rescue plan, and asks for sweeping new emergency powers to stabilize the economy. On Sept. 21 the sitcom Evening Shade debuts on CBS-TV for 98 episodes (until May 23, 1994), starring Burton Leon "Burt" Reynolds (1936-) as ex-Pittsburgh Steelers football player Woodrow "Wood" Newton, who becomes the coach of the losing h.s. football team in small-town Evening Shade, Ark.; Mary Lucy Denise "Marilu" Henner (1952-) plays his district atty. wife Ava Evans Newton; each episode closes with Ponder Blue, played by Raiford Chatman "Ossie" Davis (1917-2005) summing up the events and ending with "...in a place called Evening Shade". On Sept. 22 Saudi Arabia expels most of the Yemeni and Jordanian envoys in Riyadh, accusing them of unspecified "activities jeopardizing the peace and security of the kingdom". On Sept. 22 after a 6-week 400-mi. march by 500 protesters, the Bolivian govt. reaches an agreement with Indian groups to stop deforestation. On Sept. 23 Iraq threatens to destroy Middle East oilfields and attack Israel if other nations try to force it from Kuwait. On Sept. 23-27 the PBS-TV documentary The Civil War airs, narrated by David McCullough, based on the photographs of Mathew Brady and the work of historian Shelby Foote, making the latter famous after it becomes the most-watched program in the network's history. On Sept. 24 South African pres. F.W. de Klerk meets with Pres. Bush at the White House. On Sept. 24 the Supreme Soviet votes to give preliminary approval to a plan for switching the Soviet Union to a free-market economy. On Sept. 25 in a videotaped Message to Infidel Americans, Sodamn Insane of Iraq warns that if Pres. Bush launches a war against his country, "it would not be up to him to end it". On Sept. 25 the U.N. Security Council votes 14-1 to impose an air embargo against Iraq; Cuba casts the lone dissenting vote. On Sept. 26 the Supreme Soviet ends decades of religious repression with a declaration forbidding govt. interference in religious activities. On Sept. 26 the Motion Picture Assoc. of Am. (MPAA) announces a new NC-17 rating, designed to bar moviegoers under the age of 17 from certain films without the commercial stigma of the old "X" rating; Henry and June becomes the first film to receive the rating. On Sept. 27 the deposed emir of Kuwait deliveres an emotional address to the U.N. General Assembly in which he denounces the "rape, destruction and terror" inflicted upon his country by Iraq; on Sept. 28 he visits the White House and boo-hoos some more. On Sept. 29 top leaders of Congress and the Bush admin. begin closed-door negotiations in an attempt to reach an 11th-hour budget agreement; on Sept. 30 they forge a $500B five-year compromise package of tax increases and spending cuts. On Sept. 29 Japan and North Korea decide to talk about opening diplomatic relations, but the mention of paying reparations to victims of Japanese colonialism throw them off track. In Sept. biological weapons scientists take control of a foot-and-mouth vaccine plant in Daura, Iraq and begin producing anthrax and botulinum toxin. On Oct. 1 Croatian Serbs declare their areas autonomous regions, causing violence between police and citizens which leads the Serbian govt. to call on the Yugoslavian federal authorites to intervene to stop "Croatian repression"; on Oct. 3 the pres. of Slovenia meets with the pres. of Croatia in Zagreb to work together to gain full autonomy. On Oct. 2 the Senate votes 90-9 to confirm the nomination of Judge David H. Souter to the U.S. Supreme Court. On Oct. 2 a Xiamen Airlines 737 is hijacked, and the hijacker detonates a bomb on approach to Guangzhou (Canton), causing it to hit a parked 757, killing 75 of 93 passengers and 7 of 9 crew, along with 46 of 110 passengers in the 757. On Oct. 3 East and West Germany reunify after 45 years, and the burly Berlin Wall officially comes down. On Oct. 3 Saddam Hussein makes his first visit to Kuwait since his country seized control - hello again, hello? On Oct. 4 for the first time in nearly six decades, German lawmakers meet in the Reichstag for the first meeting of reunified Germany's parliament. On Oct. 4 Tarin Kot, capital of Uruzgan Province in Afghanistan falls to Muslim guerrillas after they shoot down 95 Afghan soldiers who had surrendered; two weeks later another 125 soldiers are murdered while negotiating the surrender of Qalat, capital of neighboring Zabul Province. On Oct. 4 Beverly Hills, 90210 debuts on Fox Network for 293 episodes (until May 17, 2000), producing by Aaron Spelling Television, about upscale twins Brandon Walsh, played by Jason Bradford Priestley (1969-) and Cindy Walsh, palyed by Carol Potter (1948-), who moved to star-studded you know where and attend West Beverly Hills H.S., followed by Calif. U. while exploring date rape, gay rights, animal rights, alcoholism and drug abuse, domestic violence, sex, AIDS and teenage pregnancy and suicide, and anti-Semitism; Aaron Spelling's daughter Victoria Davey "Tori" Spelling (1973-) plays Donna Martin. On Oct. 5 the U.S. House of Reps. rejects the $500B budget agreement forged by congressional leaders and the Bush admin; on Oct. 6 Pres. Bush vetoes stopgap spending legislation passed by the Congress following the collapse of his deficit-reducing budget agreement; on Oct. 7 U.S. House and Senate Dems. put together their own budget proposal. On Oct. 6 Space Shuttle Discovery blasts off on a 4-day mission, returning on Oct. 10. On Oct. 6 (eve.) whites attack Japanese students at the Teikyo Loretto Heights U. campus in Denver, Colo. with baseball bats, causing Denver's jungle, er, Negro, er, Uncle, er, black district atty. Norm Early to throw the book at them; meanwhile Japan's new justice minister Seiroku Kajiyama makes a lame comment that foreign prostitutes in Japan help deteriorate neighborhoods just like blacks do in the U.S. On Oct. 8 the U.S.House approves a revised deficit-reducing budget plan, and both chambers of Congress approve stopgap spending legislation to end a govt. shutdown. On Oct. 8 (Black Mon.) (10 a.m.) after Palestinians rain stones on Jews at the Western Wall in Jerusalem observing the Feast of Sukkot, Israeli police open fire on them on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, killing 20+ and injuring 150+, becoming known as the Al-Aqsa (Temple Mount) Massacre; on Oct. 12 the U.N. Security Council votes unanimously to condemn them via Resolution 672, sending a mission to investigate, which Israel snubs, causing Resolution 673 to be passed on Oct. 24 urging them to reconsider, which they won't, after which the U.N. pub. a report anyway. On Oct. 8 balding "pompad-over"-coiffed (poof squirrel-do) Trump gives an interview to Larry King, announcing plans to run for the nomination of the Reform Party for U.S. president, going on to lose in 2000 to Pat Buchanan, who loses the gen. election to George W. Bush. On Oct. 9 Pres. Bush tells a news conference that he would be willing to consider higher income tax rates for the wealthy, but later backs off after talking with, the er, wealthy? On Oct. 11 Octavio Paz (1914-98) becomes the first Mexican winner of the Nobel Prize for lit.; on Oct. 15 Mikhail S. Gorbachev is named the winner of the Nobel Peace Prize. On Oct. 11 60K rally in Prague, Czech. in support of a govt. proposal to seize all Communist Party property without compensation. On Oct. 13 at the start of a 3-day conference in Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, the crown prince of Kuwait promises greater democracy for the emirate after it is freed from Iraqi occupation. On Oct. 13 after Syrian troops enter Beirut, and Christian rebel Gen. Michel Aoun ends his mutiny against the Lebanese govt., the Lebanese Civil War finally ends after 15 years (since Apr. 13, 1975), with 130K-250K killed and 1M wounded. On Oct. 15 South Africa's Separate Amenities Act, which barred blacks from public facilities for decades is formally scrapped. On Oct. 16 comedian Steve Martin and his actress wife Victoria Tennant visit U.S. GIs in Saudi Arabia. On Oct. 16 Mikhail Gorbachev submits to the Soviet legislature a scaled-back plan to transform the Soviet economy to a free-market system; the Supreme Soviet approves it on Oct. 19 - say again? On Oct. 16-20 the Cincinnati Reds (NL) defeat the Oakland Athletics (AL) 4-1 to win the Eighty-Seventh (87th) World Series. On Oct. 18 Iraq offers to sell its oil to anyone, incl. the U.S. for $21 a barrel, the same price before the invasion of Kuwait. On Oct. 19 Iraq orders all foreigners in occupied Kuwait to report to authorities or face punishment. On Oct. 19 after reaching the Brazilian wild in 1957, Africanized honey bees officially reach the U.S. On Oct. 21 a Palestinian stabs three Israelis to death during a rampage in a Jerusalem neighborhood in retaliation for the police killings of 17 Arabs on the Temple Mount. On Oct. 23 deficit-reduction negotiations continue between the White House and Congressional leaders with Pres. Bush, campaigning in New England, blaming the Dem.-controlled Congress for the budget impasse; on Oct. 27 the Senate gives final legislative approval to a record package of taxes and spending cuts just hours after the House approves the plan. On Oct. 23 the Hungarian parliament declares Oct. 23 as a nat. holiday in honor of the 1956 rev. On Oct. 24 the Senate fails to override Pres. Bush's veto of a major civil rights bill by a vote of 66-34, one vote short of the two-thirds majority needed. On Oct. 24 in Pakistan the 9-party Dem. Alliance of Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif (1949-), former chief minister of Punjab Province wins a two-thirds majority in the nat. assembly, and on Nov. 1 he becomes PM of Pakistan (until July 18, 1993). On Oct. 25 defense secy. Dick Cheney says the Pentagon is laying plans to send as many as 100K more troops to Saudi Arabia. Borat-land comes online? On Oct. 25 the oil-rich make-benefit glorious nation of Repub. of Kazakhstan (pop. 15M), Genghis Khan's country proclaims itself, becoming the 9th largest country by area (twice the size of Texas), and one of three new repubs. (along with Belarus and Ukraine) with its own nukes; Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (1940-), an authoritarian who has ruled the country since 1989 becomes pres. #1 (until ?). On Oct. 25 Salmin Amour (1948-) becomes pres. #5 of Zanzibar (until Nov. 8, 2000). On Oct. 26 the U.S. State Dept. issues a warning that terrorists could be planning an attack on a passenger ship or aircraft. On Oct. 28 Dem. philosopher-writer (pres. of the Academy of Sciences) Askar Akayev (1944-) becomes pres. (until 2005) of the new 75% Muslim, 25% Orthodox landlocked mountainous Kyrgyzstan (Kirghizstan) Repub. (the 7th "stan" country?), which declares itself sovereign on Oct. 30, and names itself on Dec. 13; by the end of the cent. his influential wife and family egg him into enriching themselves and ruling with an iron hand; meanwhile the poverty-stricken Uzbek pop. in the S grumbles against the richer Kyrgyz pop. in the N? On Oct. 28 in a surprise move Iraq says it is halting gasoline rationing imposed earlier in response to global economic sanctions. On Oct. 29 the U.N. Security Council votes to hold Saddam Hussein's regime liable for human rights abuses and war damages during its occupation of Kuwait; in Sept. 2010 Iraq quietly agrees to pay the U.S. $400M to settle all claims by U.S. citizens who claim to have been tortured or traumatized. On Oct. 30 the Iraqi News Agency quotes Saddam Hussein as saying that Iraq is making final preparations for war, and that he expects an attack by the U.S. and its allies within days. On Oct. 30 in the Persian Gulf 10 U.S. sailors are killed when a steam pipe ruptures aboard the USS Iwo Jima. On Oct. 30 Slovenia imposes custom duties on Serbian goods, killing the unified Yugoslavian internal market. ON Oct. 30 Pres. Bush signs the U.S. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), enduring that students with a disability are provided with free appropriate public education tailed to their individual needs. On Oct. 31 during a campaign swing in suburban Washington, D.C., Pres. Bush utters the soundbyte: "I have had it" with the way Iraq is treating U.S. diplomats and hostages, saying "The people out there are not being resupplied. The American flag is flying over the Kuwait embassy and our people inside are being starved by a brutal dictator", but adds that he has no timetable for deciding on a possible military strike. In Oct. a $12.5M verdict against the White Aryan Resistance (WAR) ("White Revolution is the Only Solution") is returned by a court for the killing of Ethiopian student Mulugeta Seraw in Portland, Ore.; WAR leader Thomas "Tom" Linton Metzger (1938-) then switches tactics to the "lone wolf lifestyle", doing nothing overt but waiting for the Great Serpent of the U.S. federal govt. to weaken. In Oct. tall Tutsi exiles from Uganda, led by Paul Kagama and calling themselves the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) invade Rwanda from Uganda, attempting to topple the 18-y.-o. humbler-sized Hutu regime of Juvenal Habyrimana, and ending in stalemate (ends 1993). In Oct. the Labour Party in New Zealand is decisively defeated. In Oct. massive protests force Ivory Coast pres. Felix Houphouet-Boigny (d. 1993) to hold a contested pres. election, which he wins with 81% of the vote. In Oct. the first swarm of Africanized killer bees is detected in Hidalgo, Tex. In Oct. 31-y.-o. meat packer Diana Lumbrera (1959-) is tried in the same courtroom in Garden City, Kan. as "In Cold Blood" murderers Perry Smith and Richard Hickock for seven murders, and is convicted on Oct. 6 of smothering her 4-y.-o. son Jose to death while lying in his bed with his teddy bear on May 1, the last of six brothers and sisters who all died before reaching age five from 1976-84 when she lived in the Tex. panhandle, which are only discovered after her arrest in Kan.; a 7th child under her care died in 1980; the prosecution claims she has Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy, despite receiving $15K in insurance claims; she is later tried in Tex. for the other counts and convicted - I know today's your birthday, and I did not find no rose, but I wrote this song instead, Popsicle Toes? On Nov. 1 during a trip to Orlando, Fla., Pres. Bush accuses Iraqi forces of engaging in "barbarism" and "brutality," adding a history ignoramous soundbyte "I don't believe that Adolf Hitler ever participated in anything of that nature." On Nov. 3 U.S. secy. of state James A. Baker embarks on a fast-paced 7-country tour to "lay the foundation" for possible military action against Iraq. On Nov. 4 Iraq issues a new broadside, saying it is prepared to fight a "dangerous war" rather than give up Kuwait. On Nov. 5 Pres. Bush signs the U.S. 1990 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act to reduce the federal budget deficit, creating a 31% rate on the "rich"; it incl. the 1990 Budget Enforcement Act, which features a "pay as you go" process for entitlements and taxes. On Nov. 5 Brooklyn-born Jewish Defense League founder rabbi Meir David Kahane (b. 1932) is assassinated during a speech in the Marriott Hotel in Manhattan, N.Y. by Egyptian-born Am. Muslim El Sayyid Nosair (1955-), which many Jews consider as the beginning of the al-Qaida anti-U.S. jihad; after a trial in which he draws sketches of Princess Diana, Nosair, whose defense by prominent Jewish ACLU Chicago Seven atty. William Moses Kunstler (1919-95) is financed by Osama bin Laden is acquitted in Dec. 1991 of murder, but convicted of assault and possession of an illegal firearm, causing Muslims to dance in the streets, and judge Alvin Schlesinger to say "I believe the defendant conducted a rape of this country, of our Constitution and of our laws, and of people seeking to exist peacefully together"; after receiving a light sentence of 7-22 years, Nosair later gets life plus 15 years in connection with an investigation of Egyptian "Blind Sheik" Omar Abdel-Rahman (1938-2017). On Nov. 6 U.S. Dem. increase their congressional voting strength in midterm elections; quick-quipping Texas-twanging Dem. Ann (Dorothy Ann Willis) Richards (1933-2006), elected as state treasurer in 1982 after treatment for alcoholism in 1980 becomes gov. of Texas (until 1994) (2nd female Texas gov., the first being Ma Ferguson in 1925), and is sworn-in on Jan. 15 next year in Austin, going on to fulfill campaign vows to create a "New Texas" and "open government to everyone" by appointing women and minorities. On Nov. 6 20% of the Universal Studios Backlot in S Calif. is destroyed in an arson fire; it burns again on June 1, 2008. On Nov. 7 British PM Margaret Thatcher gets tough and warns Saddam Hussein that time is "running out" for a peaceful solution - ch-ch-ch-ch-changes? On Nov. 8 Pres. Bush orders a new round of troop deployments in the Persian Gulf, adding up to 150K soldiers to the multinat. force facing off against Iraq, which nearly doubles its size. On Nov. 8 the U.S. Clery Act (Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act) is signed by Pres. Bush, named after a Lehigh U. freshman who was raped and murdered in her campus residence hall in 1986, requiring all colleges and univs. receiving federal aid to keep and disclose info. about crime on and near their campuses. On Nov. 9 (first anniv. of the Fall of the Wall) Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union signs a historic nonaggression treaty with Germany, winning praise from German leaders in Bonn for his role in the peaceful fall of the Berlin Wall, with crowds holding placards reading "Thank you, Gorby"; on Nov. 10 chancellor Helmut Kohl promises German financial assistance for the collapsing Soviet Union, but gives no specifics, then foreign minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher adds that aiding Moscow is not solely a German responsibility. On Nov. 9 back in yee-haw Saudi Arabia, mufti Sheikh 'Abd Al-'Aziz ibn Baz (1912-99) issues a fatwa against women drivers, causing the Saudi interior ministry to follow suit on Nov. 15. On Nov. 10 Socialist Chandra Shekhar (1927-2007) is sworn-in as PM #11 of India (until June 21, 1991), pledging "to create a society of equals". On Nov. 10 three Burmese hijackers demanding release of pro-dem. activists hijack a Thai Airways Airbus 300 en route from Bangkok to Rangoon using fake bombs made out of soap bars, and it lands in Calcutta, India with all 221 passengers and crew later released unharmed - and smelling delightful? On Nov. 11 Guatemalans go to the polls amid a climate of violence which has killed 15 since July. On Nov. 12 56-y.-o. poetry and tropical fish-loving Japanese Yamato emperor #125 Akihito (Heisei) (1933-) formally assumes the Chrysanthemum Throne in $64K 12-layer silk kimono, with his wife Empress Michiko (a commoner he met on a tennis court) ascending the smaller Michodai throne in a $100K 5-layered silk damask robe; a 10-day $97M coronation party is attended by heads of state from 158 nations, with only Afghanistan, North Korea, and Iraq not invited - does it tickle? On Nov. 14 Simon and Schuster announces the dropping of plans to pub. the controversial Bret Easton Ellis (1964-) novel American Psycho because of passages in "questionable taste"; Vintage pub. it in 1991, and it draws charges of misogyny, nihilism, sadism, and pornography; Roger Rosenblatt of the New York Times writes "Snuff this book", making it more popular? On Nov. 15 the Senate Ethics Committee begins hearings on the Keating Five, U.S. senators accused of going too far in helping failed S&L owner Charles H. Keating Jr.; on Nov. 16 four of the five, incl. John McCain of Ariz. deny any wrongdoing. Vanilli Gate? On Nov. 15 Frank Farian, the German producer of the rock group Milli Vanilli confirms rumors that the dreadlocked duo of Rob Pilatus and Fab Morvan had not done any of the singing on their debut album Girl You Know It's True (released on Mar. 7, 1989), but only lip-synched; on Nov. 19 they are stripped of their 1989 Grammy Award for best new artist, which they won on Feb. 12; they counter with the claim that Arista chief Clive Davis had been aware of the hoax; their former mgr. Todd Headlee says "They may not have deserved the Grammy... but they sure as hell did deserve an Oscar." On Nov. 15 Space Shuttle Atlantis is launched on a secret military mission, returning Nov. 20. On Nov. 16 Mikhail Gorbachev tells an angry Soviet legislature that he will fire govt. and military officials if they block his reform plans. On Nov. 17 Pres. Bush, on the first visit to Czech. by a U.S. pres. tells a cheering crowd of 100K in Prague that "America will stand with you" through hard times ahead. On Nov. 18 Pres. Bush begins a series of meetings in Paris with allied leaders aimed at solidifying support for his Persian Gulf policies. On Nov. 18 Mikhail Gorbachev meets with Pope John Paul II in the Vatican, and the pope says that all possible efforts should be made to avoid war in the Persian Gulf. On Nov. 19 leaders of 16 NATO members and the remaining six Warsaw Pact nations sign treaties in Paris making sweeping cuts in conventional arms throughout Europe and pledging mutual non-aggression. On Nov. 20 the Soviet Union again vetoes Pres. Bush's efforts to rally support for a U.N. Security Council resolution authorizing military force against Iraq. On Nov. 20 impotent Ukrainian-born "Butcher/Ripper of Rostov" ("the Red Ripper") Andrei Romanovich Chikatilo (1936-94) is arrested, and confesses to 56 murders since 1978; on Feb. 14, 1994 after being convicted of 52 murders, he is executed; his modus operandi is to stab the victim in order to get off sexually and ejaculate, then eviscerate them; in July 1983 innocent Alexander Kravchenko was executed for one his murders. On Nov. 21 Pres. Bush arrives in Saudi Arabia, where he confers with Saudi King Fahd and Kuwait's exiled emir. On Nov. 21 junk-bond financier Michael R. Milken, who had pled guilty to six felony counts is sentenced by a federal judge in New York to ten years in prison; he serves two. On Nov. 22 Pres. Bush and his wife Barbara, along with top congressional leaders share Thanksgiving dinner with U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia. On Nov. 22 after Sir Geoffrey Howe resigns and PM Margaret Thatcher fails to defeat Michael Heseltine in the first round of a Conservative leadership election, she announces her resignation. On Nov. 23 Pres. Bush confers separately with Egyptian Pres. Hosni Mubarak in Cairo and Syrian Pres. Hafez Assad in Geneva, seeking Arab support for his drive to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait; Bush returns home on Nov. 24. On Nov. 25 Poland holds its first popular pres. election, and Solidarity founder Lech Walesa receives a plurality of votes, winning a runoff against PM Tadeusz Mazowiecki on Dec. 9 by a landslide; he is sworn-in on Dec. 22 (until 1995). On Nov. 26 Hungary holds a nat. referendum in which voters decide that the country's next pres. will be chosen by parliament, following free elections. On Nov. 27 107 are killed when a bomb blamed by police on drug traffickers destroys a Colombian jetliner minutes after takeoff from Bogota's internat. airport. On Nov. 27 the canton Appenzell Rhodes-Interieur is required to count women's votes by a decision of the Swiss Federal Tribunal, becoming the last Swiss state to finally give women the right to vote. On Nov. 28 after Conservative (Tory) British PM (since 1979) Margaret Thatcher attempts to pass a poll tax and sees her popularity tank, she resigns during an audience with Queen Elizabeth II, and is succeeded by John Major (1943-) (until May 2, 1997) (9th PM under Elizabeth II), who struggles with a slim 21-seat majority in Commons, which shrinks toward zero by the end of his term. On Nov. 29 the U.N. Security Council, led by the U.S. votes 12-2 to authorize military action if Iraq does not withdraw its troops from Kuwait and release all foreign hostages by Jan. 15, 1991. On Nov. 30 Pres. Bush names outgoing Fla. Gov.` Bob Martinez to head the war on drugs. In Nov. the U.S. stock market begins a 4-mo. decline of 22%. In Nov. in atheistic Albania private religious practice is finally permitted - as long as you keep the curtains drawn? In Nov. in Macedonia a party that advocates a confederation of independent states of Yugoslavia wins power, and forms a non-Communist govt. in Dec. On Dec. 1 Iraq accepts a U.S. offer to talk about resolving the Persian Gulf crisis. On Dec. 1 British and French workers digging the Channel Tunnel (Chunnel) finally meet and shake hands after knocking out a passage in a service tunnel large enough to walk through. On Dec. 2 Western German chancellor (since Oct. 1, 1982) Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (1930-), leader of the center-right Christian Dem. Union (CDU) is elected chancellor of a united Germany (until Oct. 27, 1998) in the first free all-German election since 1932; censorship ends. On Dec. 3 after Brian Lenihan is brought down by a scandal, Mary Robinson (1944-) becomes the first female pres. of Ireland (until Sept. 12, 1997), with Charles Haughey continuing as PM (until 1992) - if Britain can do it? On Dec. 3 a Northwest Airlines DC-9 collides on the runway with a Northwest Boeing 727 at Detroit Metropolitan Airport, resulting in a fire and killing eight. On Dec. 3 Pres. Bush begins a 5-nation South Am. tour starting in Brazil; on Dec. 4 in Uruguay Bush says he is not convinced that "sanctions alone" will bring Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein "to his senses" about invading Kuwait. On Dec. 4 Iraq promises to release 3.3K Soviet citizen hostages; on Dec. 6 it promises to release all its hostages, telling foreigners they can begin leaving in two days. On Dec. 6 Bangladesh pres. (since 1982) Gen. Hossain Mohammad Ershad resigns amid violent protests and allegations of corruption. On Dec. 7 Hindu-Muslim riots begin again in India, claiming 300 lives in the next 10 days, and thratening to take down PM Shekhar the way they did PM Singh; on Dec. 17 he threatens to use "any amount of force needed" if they don't stop. On Dec. 8 Tirana U. students demonstrate in the streets, calling for the dictatorship in Albania to end; on Dec. 12 Ramiz Alia meets with the students and agrees to a multiparty system; the Albanian Dem. Party, the first opposition party is established. On Dec. 8 Kay Bee toy stores pull Disney's Steve the Tramp Doll from shelves nationwide after homeless and their advocates picket a mall in Stamford, Conn., calling it degrading to them; one of 14 "Dick Tracy action figures", described as an "ignorant bum... dirty and scarrred from a life on the streets. You'll smell him before you see him"; "I'd like to let Disney know that Jesus Christ was homeless, too", says Carlton Whitehorn of the New Covenant soup kitchen. On Dec. 10 a stand-in for Mikhail Gorbachev accepts the 1990 Nobel Peace Prize - I'm the least unfunny person I know? On Dec. 10 the U.S. FDA approves Norplant, the long-acting matchstick-like contraceptive upper arm implant. On Dec. 10 Space Shuttle Columbia returns from its tenth mission. On Dec. 11 Hungary signs a trade agreement with the Soviet Union. On Dec. 12 Pres. Bush announces that he and Soviet Pres. Gorbachev will hold a summit next Feb. in Moscow. On Dec. 12 Lauro Cavazos resigns as U.S. secy. of education; on Dec. 17 Pres. Bush nominates former Repub. Tenn. gov. (1979-87) Andrew Lamar Alexander Jr. (1940-) as U.S. education secy. #5 (Mar. 22, 1991 to Jan. 20, 1993). On Dec. 13 a final evacuation flight from Iraq arrives in Germany carrying the U.S. ambassador to Kuwait and his staff, who had endured a 110-day Iraqi siege of their embassy. On Dec. 14 Pres. Bush gets Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein to agree to talks on the Persian Gulf crisis by Jan. 3. On Dec. 14 Pres. Bush nominates Repub. Lynn Morley Martin (1939-) to succeed Elizabeth H. Dole (who resigned in Oct.) as U.S. labor secy. (until Jan. 20, 1993). On Dec. 15 European Community leaders wrap up a historic summit in Rome committed to creating a politically-unified federation. On Dec. 16 after Pres. Avril resigns, and U.S. vice-pres. Dan Quayle visits Haiti and tells army leaders "No more coups", dem. elections finally take place, and Roman Catholic priest (exponent of liberation theology, who was expelled from the Salesian order in 1988, and resigns the priesthood in 1995) Jean-Bertrand Aristide (1953-) is elected pres., being sworn-in on Feb. 7, 1991, replacing interim pres. Ertha Pascal-Trouillot. On Dec. 16 Shining Path rebels shoot and kill pro-Fujimori congressman Victoria Mendoza (of Fijimori's Change 90 Pary) on the outskirts of Lima, Peru. On Dec. 17 Pres. Bush pledges "no negotiation for one inch" of Kuwaiti territory, repeating his demand for Iraq's complete withdrawal. On Dec. 17 pres. (since 1964) Kenneth Kaunda of Zambia approves legislation legalizing opposition parties after 17 years of 1-party rule. On Dec. 17 an earthquake in S injures 21. Christmas is in the air as Gorby skates and the Soviet Union cracks like thin ice under his feet? On Dec. 17 Sov. Pres. Gorbachev asks the 2.25K-member Fourth Congress of People's Deputies to strengthen his pres. powers and streamline the executive branch, saying that perestroika is in deep doodoo and that 12-18 mo. of this new arrangement are necessary to save the country; he proposes the replacement of the 89-member Council of Ministers (headed by PM Nikolai Rhyzhkov) with a 17-member Federation Council headed by himself, and consisting of a new vice-pres. and the presidents of the 15 Soviet repubs.; the emasculated COM would no longer make policy decisions; meanshile, separatism marches on, and the Lithuanian and Armenian delegates boycott the congress, while those from Estonia and Latvia ixnay a proposed new union treaty; early in the congress, deputy Sazhi Umulatova tells them that she is ashamed the nation accepts foreign food aid, and calls for Gorby's resignation, saying he "does not have the moral right to hold his post", that he "brought devastation, hunger, cold, blood, tears" and that "innocent people are perishing". On Dec. 17 former British cop Rodney Whitchelo (1947-) is sentenced in London to 17 years for trying to extort $7.27M from children and animal food companies by lacing their food with rat poison and razor blades; he got the idea from a police seminar on extortion techniques, and is caught when he tries to withdraw some of the loot from an ATM. On Dec. 19 Iraq urges its people to stockpile oil to avoid shortages should war break out, and Saddam Hussein declares he is "ready to crush any attack". On Dec. 20 in Yugoslavia Alija Izetbegovic (1925-2004) (a Bosnian Muslim or Bosniak whose dream is a Muslim-run Bosnia-Herzegovina) becomes pres. #1 of a 7-member rotating presidency consisting of two Bosnians, two Croats, two Serbs, and one Yugoslavian; too bad, ethnic fighting between Croats and Serbs in Croatia rocks the ship of state. On Dec. 20 Soviet foreign minister Eduard Shevardnadze shocks Soviet lawmakers by announcing his resignation, warning that "dictatorship is coming". On Dec. 21 British PM John Major meets with Pres. Bush at Camp David, where they express their unity on the Persian Gulf crisis. On Dec. 21 the Croatian assembly proclaims a new 1990 Croatian Constitution proclaiming sovereignty and the right to secede from Yugoslavia, which is boycotted by ethnic Serbian deputies. On Dec. 22 21 sailors returning from shore leave to the aircraft carrier USS Saratoga drown when the Israeli ferry they are travelling on capsizes. On Dec. 23 Slovenians vote overwhelmingly for secession from Yugoslavia. On Dec. 24 after joining the Church of Scientology and divorcing Scientologist Mimi Rogers, super-bankable 27-y.-o. Am. actor Tom Cruise marries 22-y.-o. Australian Roman Catholic actress Nicole Kidman; after they adopt Isabella Cruise and Connor Cruise, he dumps her 2 mo. after their 10th anniv. in 2001, and she marries Australian country singer Keith Urban in June 2006 (until ?); in 1998 they win a libel suit against a London tabloid for suggesting they're gay and their marriage a sham, and in 1999 the supermarket tabloid Star pub. and retracts a story that they hired sex experts to tutor them on physical intimacy for Eyes Wide Shut. On Dec. 25 Soviet Pres. Gorbachev wins sweeping new powers from the Congress of People's Deputies, and now has to be their Santa Claus or he's out - the original Bad Santa? On Dec. 25 Romania's former monarch King Michael arrives on his first visit to his homeland since Communist rulers forced him to abdicate four decades earlier; he is deported by the new Bucharest govt. less than 12 hours later. On Dec. 26 Nancy Cruzan, the young woman in an irreversible vegetative state whose case led to a U.S. Supreme Court decision on the right to die, dies at a Mo. hospital. On Dec. 26 Soviet Pres. Gorbachev nominates Gennady I. Yanayev to be the Soviet Union's first vice-pres. On Dec. 28 the U.S. govt. reports that its chief economic forecasting gauge, the Index of Leading Indicators plunged 1.2% the previous month, for the 5th consecutive monthly drop. On Dec. 28 two people are killed in a subway fire in New York City; meanwhile 33 people are injured in a trolley collision in Boston. On Dec. 29 Iraq denies a report that it was engaged in secret contacts with the U.S. to avert war, and might withdraw from Kuwait before the Jan. 15 U.N. deadline. On Dec. 29 former South Korean pres. Chun Doo-hwan returns to Seoul after two years of voluntary internal exile. On Dec. 30 Iraq's information minister Latif Nussayif Jassim utters the soundbyte that Pres. Bush "must have been drunk" when he suggested Iraq might withdraw from Kuwait, adding "We will show the world America is a paper tiger." On Dec. 31 Israeli PM Yitzhak Shamir fires science minister Ezer Weizman, accusing him of meeting with officials of the PLO. In Dec. in Bulgaria the Socialist-dominated Parliament forms a coalition govt. headed by nonparty lawyer Dimitar Popov. In Dec. China opens the A share capital market for Chinese citizens. In Dec. in Serbia Slobodan Milosevic (1941-2006) is elected pres. (until 1997), and his Socialist (formerly Communist) Party captures 194 of 250 parliamentary seats - sounds like something to do with snot and mucous? In Dec. former Tex. gov. John B. Connally Jr., along with Coastal Oil Corp. chmn. Oscar Wyatt meet with Iraqi pres. Saddam Hussein, and persuade him to release his "guests", foreign hostages held at strategic military sites. In Dec. Emerson Moser, top crayon molder at Crayola retires after 37 years after molding 1.4B crayons, revealing that he is partially colorblind. Fernando Collor de Mello (b. 1949) becomes Brazil's youngest pres. following the first public election in 29 years. In Dec. the U.S. FDA warns that chloral hydrate, a drug commonly used as a sedative for children may cause cancer in humans. Mozambique begins working towards a mutli-party democracy. The U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments are passed, dealing with acid rain, with the goal of reducing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions by half, and also targeting ozone in urban areas and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The U.S. Budget Enforcement Act is passed, requiring PAYGO (pay-as-you-go) for any legislative action, incl. a tax cut; too bad, it expires in 2002, allowing Pres. George H.W. Bush's son George W. Bush to implement expensive legislation, incl. prescription drug benefits for seniors with no corresponding tax increase and no way of paying for them? The Front Islamique du Salut (FIS) wins a sweeping V in municipal elections in Algeria. Yemen Arab Repub. and the People's Dem. Repub. of Yemen merge. Defense minister Idriss Deby (Déby) (1952-) (head of the Patriotic Salvation Movement) (son of a herder) overthrows Hissen Habre and seizes power in Chad (until ?), suspending the constitution, dismissing the legislature, and going on to become a corrupt dictator - I'll not call it quits even with arthritic knee pain? Malta applies for membership in the European Community; on June 30, 1993 its application is favorably renewed with a few concerns. The C African country of Burundi goes nuts and begins deforestation at a rate of 9% a year - figure it out? After the execution of his close personal friend Nicolae Ceausescu last Xmas, Zaire pres. (1965-97) Mobutu Sese Seko (Joseph-Desire Mobutu) (Joseph-Désiré Mobutu) (1930-97) announces a plan to "democratize" Zaire; too little too late? The crumbling Soviet Union cuts off its huge financial aid and favorable trade agreements to Cuba, causing it to enter a 2-year "special period" where necessities are in short supply and people wait in line for hours for bread and milk; surprisingly, Castro signs agreements with Canada and Euro countries for nickel and other raw materials, and ramps up the tourist industry, saving his Commie Rev., while beginning to wear business suits; he gave up cigars in 1985; numbah-two-try-hadah China gives them 400K bicycles. The U.S. Native Am. Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) is passed, protecting the sensitive spirituality of existing Amerindians but hampering scientific mining of Indian lands; the U.S. Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990, co-sponsored by U.S. Rep. Ben Nighthorse of Colo. (North Cheyenne) makes it a federal crime for non-Indians to fraudulently market their work as authentic Indian art. Am. canned tuna producers announce that they will no longer accept fish caught in nets that also kill dolphins. After years of hunting for the "fifth man" in the Cambridge Five group of Soviet moles into British intel (Kim Philby, Anthony Blunt, Guy Burgess, Donald Maclean), John Cairncross (1913-95) is finally ratted out by Soviet defectors Yuri Modin and Oleg Gordievsky; he claims he only helped the Soviets during WWII to defeat the Nazis, and isn't a member of the Cambridge Five. The U.S. creates the EB-5 Investor Visa, allowing foreigners who invest $1M to start a business that creates at least 10 jobs to get a green card; if the business is located in a high unemployment area, the price is cut in half; in fiscal 2011 there are 3.8K applications. Pres. George H.W. Bush reluctantly bans offshore oil drilling for Calif., Ore., Fla., Wash., and the North Atlantic; in 2009 just before leaving office, his son Pres. George W. Bush lifts the executive order and asks the Congress to lift their 1980 ban covering most federally-controlled waters; on Mar. 23, 2010 Pres. Obama lifts the ban on 85% of the U.S. coastline. The U.S. Congress sets up the f--cked up U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform, with former Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy chmn. Dr. Lawrence Howard Fuchs (1927-2013) of Brandeis U. as co-chmn; it goes on to recommend stronger policing of employers, and urge top priority for skilled workers and immediate family members, letting the border sieve problem ride. The U.S. Federal Election Commission reports that PACs gave $159.3M to House and Senate campaigns in the 1989-90 election cycle ($98.3M to Dems., $60.8M to Repubs.), with incumbents receiving $126M (79.1%), and just 10.2% going to challengers of federal-level incumbents; a Common Cause study shows that on avg. House incumbents had 6.5x more campaign money in the 1990 elections; the biggest spender was the Teamsters' Pac, which spent $10.5M, mostly on local election candidates; the Realtors' PAC gave the most ($3M) to congressional candidates; the Am. Medical Assoc. and the Teamsters each gave $2.3M; labor PACS gave 71% of their contributions to incumbents, up from 64% in 1987-8. The French state-owned TGV high-speed railway opens lines to Tours and the Loire Valley. In 1990-2 Hillary Clinton serves on the board of dirs. of the Lafarge Corp., which in 1992 is fined $1.8M by the EPA for burning hazardous waste in cement plants in Ohio, but has the fine reduced to $600K after Bill Clinton takes office; it is later implicated in a CIA-backed covert arms export network to Saddam Hussein in the late 1980s, and is caught supporting ISIS by paying taxes to it to operate a cement plant in Syria and buying oil from it; in 2015 it donates $100K to the Clinton Foundation. The militant Islamist org. Lashkar-e-Taiba (Army of the Pure or Righteous) is founded in Afghanistan by Pakistani univ. prof. Hafiz Muhammad Saeed (1950-) and Zafar Iqbal (1955-), with HQ in Muridke (near Lahore), Pakistan; it operates under cover of the Jama'at-ud-Da'wah (Jamaat-ud-Dawa) charitable org., which the U.N. Security Council declares a terrorist front group on Dec. 11, 2008. Entertainment Weekly begins pub.; the debut cover features Canadian singer k.d. lang. Princeton U. college student Wendy Kopp (1967-) founds Teach for America, recruiting recent college grads to teach in disadvantaged schools for two years, starting with 500 teachers this year, growing to 3.7K by 2009. Swiss New Age anthropologist Kurt Derungs (1962-) founds the field of Landscape Mythology (Anthropology), combining totemism, shamanism, and matriarchal mythology with anthropology, archeology, and ethnology. The Leaning Tower of Pisa is closed for repairs, which take 12 years. Univ. of Colo. football coach William Paul "Bill" McCartney (1940-) founds the bizarre crypto-Christian cult called the Promise Keepers, which likes to assemble adult males in football stadiums for some kind of ritual love fest sansa sex to help men "keep their promises" to spouses, families, God, their churches, and themselves; by 1996 they have a budget of $115M and a staff of 400, and attract over 1M to 22 stadium events during the year - love for all except feminists, homosexuals, religious and political liberals, non-Christians...? Handsome mustachioed New York City Transit police officer Frank Spangenberg (1957-) sets the 5-day cumulative winnings record on the game show "Jeopardy!", becoming the first person to win more than $100K ($102,597) in five shows, and the show's first superstar; too bad, the show caps his winnings at $75K, and he donates $27,597 to the Gift of Love Hospice, operated by the Missionaries of Charity. Actress Kelly Preston is accidentally shot in her apt. while living with Charlie Sheen - accidentally living? As of this year the New York City police force has 35,603 members, which exceeds the pop. of eight U.S. state capitals: Montpelier (Vt.), Pierre (S.D.), Augusta (Me.), Dover (Del.), Helena (Mont.), Juneau (Alaska), Frankfort (Ky.), and Concord (N.H.). In this decade the right extremist Militia Movement grows throughout the U.S., fearing growing federal govt. power and its threat on their right to bear arms, establishing paramilitary training camps in wilderness areas. Early in this decade the Salifist Osbat (Asbat) an-Ansar (League of the Partisans) is founded to overthrow the Lebanese govt. Sometime in this decade the emerald ash borer enters the U.S. through a shipment of goods from the Far East to Detroit; by the time it is discovered in the summer of 2002 it has killed millions of ash trees in SE Michigan, and by 2005 15M trees are dead or dying. The shrinking Aral Sea between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan splits in two, with a patch of desert in between. Swedish economist Thomas Lindhqvist (1954-) proposes the Polluter Pays Principle, AKA Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR). The Public Committee Against Torture in Israel is formed to warn the world that it uses painful shackling and other inhumane methods on Palestinians. The American Prospect is founded as "an authoritative magazine of liberal ideas" by Robert Kuttner (1943-), Robert Bernard Reich (1946-), and Paul Starr (1949-). Eritrean-born Abdul Rahman Al-Amoudi (Abdurahman Alamoudi) founds the Muslim Brotherhood front called the Am. Muslim Council, which gets him invited to help choose Muslim chaplains for the U.S. military and serves as an advisor to Pres. Clinton, appearing with Pres. George W. Bush days after 9/11 at Washington Nat. Cathedral for a prayer service in memory of the victims; in Oct. 2004 he is sentenced to 23 years in prison after pleading guilty to his role in a Libyan plot to assassinate Saudi crown prince (later king) Abdullah using al-Qaida operatives, Newsweek calling him an "expert in the art of deception". The term "Islamofascism" is coined by Scottish writer Malise Ruthven. The Muslim Council of Sweden is founded; a front for the Muslim Brotherhood? Charlotte, N.C.-born physician Steven Macon Greer (1955-) founds the Center for the Study of Extraterrestrial Intelligence (CSETI); in 1993 he founds The Disclosure Project, as in make the govt. cough up the real dope on UFOs by interviewing past and present govt. officials. The first Wacken Open Air summer heavy music festival is held in Wacken, Schleswig-Holstein, N Germany, becoming the #1 Euro heavy metal festival, drawing up to 80K attendance. Lorne Michael's Saturday Night Live (SNL) (begun 1975), run completely by Baby Boomers starts out the decade fast by kicking the writing quality up a notch, with writers Al Franken, Jim Downey, Tina Fey, Adam McKay, Paula Pell, and Steve Higgins feeding a lineup incl. Mike Myers and Dana Carvey (Wayne's World), Chris Rock, David Spade, Chris Farley (as Newt Gingrich and a Chippendales model), Adam Sandler (as Operaman and Cajunman), and Dana Carvey (as Pres. George H.W. Bush); too bad, by the middle of the decade TV critics begin a mantra of writing "Saturday Night Live is dead" columns, causing the entire cast to be fired in 1994, and a new cast to be hired for the 1995-6 season, incl. Will Ferrell, Darrell Hammond (as Pres. Bill Clinton and Alex Trebek), Phil Hartman, Molly Shannon (as armpit-sniffing Mary Katherine Gallagher), Sarah Silverman, Jimmy Fallon, Tim Meadows (as Sen. Ted Kennedy), Colin Quinn, Amy Gasteyner (as Martha Stewart), Cheri Oteri, Kevin Nealson, and Norm MacDonald (as Burt Reynolds and the host of "Update"), who is fired around Xmas 1997 about the time that Phil Harman and Chris Farley die, causing a mini purge; the decade ends with guest hosting by John Goodman, Alec Baldwin, and Christopher Walken. Geoffrey Canada (1952-) becomes pres. of the Harlem Children's Zone (founded 1970), going on to increase graduation and college entrance rates as described in the 2010 film "Waiting for Superman". Hollywood Records is founded the Walt Disney Co., signing the defunct band Queen's catalog, then signing and destroying The Dead Milkmen in 1995; in 1998 they acquire top indie label Mammoth Records, which was founded in 1989 in Carrboro, N.C. by Jay Faires, then finally get a hit act in 2003 with Hilary Duff, after which they begin rolling out hit acts incl. The Cheetah Girls, Vanessa Hudgens, Raven-Symone (Raven-Symoné), Miley Cyrus, Demi Lovato, Selena Gomez and The Scene, and the Jonas Brothers. Interscope Records is founded Jimmy Iovine and Ted Field as a subsidiary of Atlantic Records; their first release on Jan. 29, 1991 is Gerardo's "Rico Suave"; they go on to sign Helmet, Tupac Shakur, Primus, Nine Inch Nails, and No Doubt. The Rottweiler dog breed skyrockets in popularity in the U.S. in this decade, rising to #2 in purebred registrations with the AKC. Am. choreographer Mark William Morris (1956-) and Russian dancer Mikhail Baryshnikov (1948-) found the White Oak Dance Project in the U.S. The Hispanic Federation (HF) is founded in New York City to "empower and advance the Hispanic community" through grantmaking, lobbying, leadership training, voter registration drives et al., going national and moving to Washington, D.C. Australian economist Martin Ravallion (1952-) of the World Bank proposes the $1 a day poverty line. Bob Hope's wife Dolores Hope (1909-) becomes the first female entertainer allowed to perform in Saudi Arabia. In this decade Kwaito (Afrikaans "Kwaai" = angry) music is created in Johannesburg, South Africa, featuring shouting and chanting rather than singing or rapping. In this decade the underground feminist punk Riot grrrl music movement in the Am. Pacific Northwest flourishes, featuring groups incl. Bikini Kill, Bratmobile, Excuse 17, Heavens to Betsy, Fifth Column, and Sleater-Kinney. In this decade the cheap irritating Vuvuzela plastic horn, modelled after an antelope horn becomes popular among soccer fans in South Africa. In this decade the supermodel era is launched by the "Big Six", incl. Linda Evangelista (1965-), Cynthia Ann "Cindy" Crawford (1966-), Christy Turlington (1969-), Naomi Campbell (1970-), Claudia Schiffer (1970-), and Katherine Ann "Kate" Moss (1974-); Campbell, Evangelista and Turlington are called "the Trinity"; on Nov. 21 Rolling Stones singer Mick Jagger unofficially marries 6' Tex.-born supermodel Jerry Faye Hall (1956-) in Bali; annulled in 1999 after having kids Elizabeth in 1984, James in 1985, Georgia May in 1992, and Gabriel in 1997. English physicist Steven Hawking leaves his wife (since 1965) Jane Wilde for his married female nurse Elaine Mason, wife of David Mason, designer of his talking computer; he divorces her in 2006 - mazel tov Gaylord and Focker world's greatest nurse? Am. atty. Michael Wayne "Mike" Godwin (1956-) proposes Godwin's Law of Nazi Analogies: "As an online discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Nazis or Hitler approaches 1"; in 2006 Quinn's Law is posted on Slashdot, changing it to Microsoft bashing. After N.C. Sen. Jesse Helms puts pressure on them, NEA chmn. #5 (1989-92) John Edward Frohnmayer (1942-) vetoes the grants of the NEA Four, incl. performance artists Karen Finley (1956-), John Fleck (1951-), Holly Hughes (1955-), and Tim Miller (1958-), who sue and win their case in court in 1993, causing Congress to pressure them into stopping all funding of individual artists - there's quite a lot of guys named Angel in here? GK Films (originally Initial Entertainment Group until 2008) is founded in Britain by Graham King (1961-), going on to produce "Liebestraum" (1991), "Rent-a-Kid" (1995), "Little City" (1997), "Family Plan:" (1997), "Walking Thunder" (1997), "Montana" (1998), "Savior" (1998), "Very Bad Things" (1998), "Traffic" (2000), "Ali" (2001), "The Dangerous Lives of Altar Boys" (2002), "Gangs of New York (2002), "Laws of Attraction" (2004), "The Aviator" (2004), "The Ballad of Jack and Rose" (2005), "An Unfinished Life" (2005), "The Departed" (2006), "Blood Diamond" (2006), "Next" (2007), "Gardener of Eden" (2007), "Bangkok Dangerous" (2008), "The Young Victoria" (2009), "Edge of Darkness" (2010), "The Town" (2010), "London Boulevard" (2010), "The Tourist" (2010), "Rango" (2011), "The Rum Diary" (2011), "Hugo" (2011), "In the Land of Blood and Honey" (2011), "Dark Shadows" (2012), "Argo" (2012), "World War Z" (2013), "Jersey Boys" (2014), "The 5th Wave" (201), "Allied" (2016), "High Noon" (2017), and "Tomb Raider" (2018). The Olivia travel co., founded in 1973 as Olivia Records by Judy Dlugacz offers its first lesbian (all-woman) cruise; fans incl. Martina Navratilova, Sheryl Swoopes, and Rosie Jones; in 1998 its ad for the coming out episode of "Ellen" is rejected by ABC-TV. The word "Hoodie" becomes popular. Am. white nationalist-supremacist Samuel Jared Taylor (1951-) founds Am. Renaissance mag. in Nov., eloquently promoting white racial identity while dodging the Southern Poverty Law Center, Jewish Anti-Defamation League et al.; "Race is an important aspect of individual and group identity. Of all the fault lines that divide society - language, religion, class, ideology — it is the most prominent and divisive. Race and racial conflict are at the heart of some of the most serious challenges the Western World faces in the 21st century. The problems of race cannot be solved without adequate understanding. Attempts to gloss over the significance of race or even to deny its reality only make problems worse. Progress requires the study of all aspects of race, whether historical, cultural, or biological. This approach is known as race realism." British HP computer programmer Colin "Col" Needham (1967-) launches the Internet Movie Database (IMDb) Web site; in 1998 it is acquired by Amazon.com; by 2014 it has 6M personalities, 2.95M titles, and 54M registered users. Harley-Davidson bgins marketing the Fatboy (used in "Terminator 2") and Sturgis models. Campbell's Soup launches the Cream of Broccoli flavor, sponsoring a recipe contest with broccoli-hating pres. George H.W. Bush in mind. In 1990 Baltika Brewery is founded in St. Petersburg, Russia, becoming the 2nd largest brewing co. in Russia (20M barrels/year); in ? it is acquired by Baltic Beverages Holding Co. Architecture: Sports: On Feb. 7 Lisa Leslie (1972-) of Morningside H.S. in Inglewood, Calif. scores 101 points in a single half in 16 min. in a basetball game against South Torrance H.S., causing the loser team to quit at halftime, robbing her of the chance to break Cheryl Miller's nat. record of 105 points in a game despite being allowed to make four foul shots at the start of the 2nd half, which are disqualified. On Feb. 11 the "Upset of the Century" sees 37-0 heavyweight champion Michael Gerard "Iron Mike" Tyson (1966-) KOd in round 10 (same day Nelson Mandela is freed) by unknown Columbus, Ohio native James "Buster" Douglas (1960-) in Tokyo, Japan. On Feb. 15 ML baseball owners lock out their players over a labor dispute; on Apr. 9 the ML baseball season opens a week late. On Feb. 18 the 1990 (32nd) Daytona 500 is won by Derrike Cope (1958-). On Apr. 20 baseball's all-time hits leader Pete Rose pleads guilty to hiding $300K in income; on July 19 he is sentenced in Cincinnati, Ohio to 5 mo. in prison for tax evasion. On Apr. 21 a NL umpire is arrested for stealing baseball cards. On May 15 during a home game of the Toronto Blue Jays against the Seattle Mariners, a couple in a room in the 348-room SkyDome Hotel overlooking the stadium watch the game naked wrapped in towels in front of 40K fans, then start making love in the 7th inning, causing the hotel to warn occupants against doing it again. On May 15-24 the 1990 Stanley Cup Finals see the Edmonton Oilers defeat the Boston Bruins 4-1, becoming the last of eight straight Finals with a team from Alberta (Oilers 6x, Flames 2x); MVP is Oilers goaltender William Edward "Bill" Ranford (1966-). On May 27 the 1990 (74th) Indianapolis 500 (AKA the Fastest 500) is won by "the Flying Dutchman" Arie Luyendyk (Luijenjijk) (1953-) of Netherlands, who takes the lead with 32 laps to go, becoming his first championship-level V, setting a record avg. speed of 185.981 mph (299.307 km/h), which stands until 2013. On June 5-14 the 1990 NBA Finals is won 4-1 by the Detroit Pistons over the Portland Trail Blazers; MVP is Isiah Thomas. On June 29 Fernando Valenzuela of the Los Angeles Dodgers and Dave Stewart of the Oakland A's become the first pitchers to hurl no-hitters in both the NL and AL on the same day: Oakland vs. Blue Jays 5-to-0, and Los Angeles vs. St. Louis Cardinals 6-0. On June 16 Kladno, Czech.-born Jaromir Jagr (1972-) is selected #5 overall by the Pittsburgh Penguins, going on to win two straight Stanley Cups in 1991-2 and become the most productive Euro player in NHL history. On July 4 the 14th FIFA World Cup of Soccer sees West Germany defeat England ?-?; on July 4 rioting erupts in 30 English towns following England's defeat, killing 30; Argentine-born Telemundo sportscaster Andres Cantor first uses his signature call "Go-o-o-o-o-o-lll!" at the World Cup of Soccer. On July 7 Martina Navratilova (1956-) captures a record 9th women's title at Wimbledon, easily defeating Zina Garrison 6-4, 6-1. On July 11 All-Star Game MVP Vincent Edward "Bo" Jackson (1962-) of the Kansas City Royals makes his "wall run", catching a ball 2-3 strides from the outfield wall, then walking like Spider-Man up and down it in a game against the Baltimore Orioles; on July 17 he hits three consecutive at-bat homers in the 1st, 3rd, and 5th innings before being replaced in the middle of the 6th inning after dislocating his shoulder trying to catch a ball hit by Deion Sanders; he returns on Aug. 26, hitting a homer in his first at-bat in the 2nd inning; too bad, after winning the 1985 Heisman Trophy he decides to play NFL football too, and next Jan. 13 he suffers a severe hip injury playing for the Los Angeles Raiders against the Cincinnati Bengals, causing him to be released, but next June he begins walking without crutches, and the month after that new "Bo Knows" Nike ads incl. him again; he signs with the Chicago White Sox, but turns out to be washed-up. On July 25 comedian Roseanne Barr (1952-) sparks controversy with a disrespectful, crotch-grabbing, off-key rendition of "The Star-Spangled Banner" during a double-header at Jack Murphy Stadium in San Diego. On July 31 Nolan Ryan Jr. (1947-) ("the Ryan Express") of the Texas Rangers, who at age 43 threw a no-hitter on June 11 becomes the 20th major leaguer to win 300 games as he leads his team to a V over the Milwaukee Brewers 11-3. On Aug. 31 center fielder George Kenneth "Ken" "The Kid" "Junior" Griffey Jr. (1969-) of the Seattle Mariners and his outfielder father George Kenneth "Ken" Griffey Sr. (1950-) of the Seattle Mariners become the first father-son pair to play in the ML at the same time in a game against the Kansas City Royals, hitting back-to-back singles in inning #1 and both scoring; on Sept. 14, 1990 they hit back-to-back homers in a game off Calif. Angels pitcher Kirk McCaskill (a first) (next ?); they play 51 games together before Sr. retires in June 1991; Junior goes on to win 10 straight Gold Gloves in 1990-9, resulting in a Wheaties cereal box cover and his own sneaker line at Nike. On Oct. 6 the Fifth Down Game sees the U. of Colo. Buffaloes defeat the Missouri Tigers 33-31 in Faurot Field in Columbia, Mo. after the officials goof and give the Buffaloes a you know what, allowing them to score a TD on their last play of the game. On Oct. 25 Ala.-born, Atlanta, Ga.-raised Evander Holyfield (1962-) KOs Buster Douglas in round 3 of their fight in Las Vegas to become world heavyweight boxing champ #26; he goes on to defend it 3x, lose it to Riddick Bowe in 1992, regain it in 1993 in a rematch, lose it again to Michael Moorer in 1994, then win it for a 3rd time in Nov. 1996 against Mike Tyson as a 25-1 underdog; meanwhile Douglas retires on his $24.6M for the Holyfield fight, gains weight to almost 400 lbs., almost dies from a diabetic coma, and tries a comeback. On Oct. 26 Wayne Gretzky of the Los Angles Kings becomes the first NHL player to reach 2,000 career points after scoring an assist against the Winnipeg Jets by passing the puck to Tony Granato, who passes it to Tomas Sandstrom, who beats Jets goalie Bob Essena at 14:32 into the first period; the Jets win 6-2 after Gretzky fails to score a goal; on Jan. 3, 1991 Gretzky scores his 700th goal (4th NHL player) in a game against the New York Islanders, going on to score 5+ goals in four games in the season and score an NHL record 93rd playoff goal on Apr. 10. On Oct. 27 the 1990 Breeders' Cup Distaff at Belmont Park sees 3-y.-o. American Thoroughbred filly Go For Wand (1987-90) duel with Argentine mare Bayakoa (1984-97) (previous year's winner), going neck and neck to the home stretch, when Go For Wand tripS, breaking her right foreleg, and has to be put down. On Oct. 27 (Sat.) the Stanford U. marching band gets into trouble again when it lampoons the Northwest spotted owl controversy at a U. of Oregon football game in Eugene, suggesting that marijuana growers use it as a cover for their illegal crops; "This puts a little twist on Ben Franklin's saying, 'Just remember kids, an owl a day keeps the DEA away'." On Nov. 2 the Golden State Warriors defeat the Denver Nuggets by 162-158 in McNicholas Arena, setting the NBA record for most points scored by two teams in a non-OT game (320). On Nov. 2 the first major sports event to be played by a U.S. team outside North Am. sees the NBA Phoenix Suns defeat the Utah Jazz by 119-96 in Tokyo, Japan; on Nov. 3 the Jazz win by 102-101. On Dec. 30 Scott Allen Skiles (1964-) of the Orlando Magic (#4) scores an NBA record 30 assists in 155-116 win over the Denver Nuggets, breaking Kevin Porter's record of 29, going on to win the NBA most improved player award. Georgia Tech in Atlanta has a big sports year, with its basketball team reaching the NCAA Final Four and its football team winning a share of the nat. championship (11-0-1). Scotland defeats England to win the Rugby Grand Slam. Gregory James "Greg" LeMond (1961-) of the U.S. wins his 3rd and last Tour de France (1986, 1989). The NFL introduces a 17-week regular season with byes, and expands the playoffs to 12 teams, adding two wild card teams to bring in more TV money and streamline a complex tie-breaking system; as of the Jan. 2005 wild card playoffs, the home team is 42-18 vs. the visiting team, 18-12 for the NFC and 24-6 for the AFC; in Jan. 2001 all four home teams win for the first time; 3 home teams win 11x; 2 home teams win 2x; in 2005 only 1 home team wins. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (1931-) (Soviet Union) [Glasnost and Perestroika]; Lit.: Octavio Paz (1914-98) (Mexico); Physics: Richard Edward Taylor (1929-) (Canada), Jerome Isaac Friedman (1930-) (U.S.), and Henry Way Kendall (1926-99) (U.S.) [quark model]; Chem.: Elias James Corey (1928-) (U.S.) [retrosynthetic analysis]; Medicine: Joseph Edward Murray (1919-2012) (U.S.) and Edward Donnall "Don" Thomas (1920-) (U.S.) [organ transplantation]; Economics: Harry Max Markowitz (1927-) (U.S.), William Forsyth Sharpe (1934-) (U.S.), and Merton Howard Miller (1923-2000) (U.S.) [stock-bond valuation]. Inventions: The first Saturn car, produced in Spring Hill, Tenn. is introduced, becoming known for no-haggle pricing. Ordinyl, the first new drug in 40 years to treat African sleeping sickness is approved by WHO. The U.S. govt.-run Arpanet is decommissioned, and the Internet takes over and goes commercial, immediately being swamped with porno Web sites, which make big bucks while driving millions of men crazy and ruining marriages and families?; Archie becomes the first Web search engine, followed next year by Veronica and Jughead; by the late 1990s San Fernando Valley N of the Hollywood Hills in Calif. becomes San Pornando Valley as the porno industry moves in bigtime, generating billions in sales each year (until ?). "Business-to-business publication" PC Magazine reviews Microsoft Windows 3.0 in its July issue, calling it "dazzling" and "the best implementation of a graphical environment for PC users available anywhere", and gives Microsoft Word for Windows an "Editor's Choice" designation among graphical word processors. Sony and Philips introduce the CD-Recordable (CD-R). Swiss mathematicians invent the (Internat. Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) to replace the aging DES Algorithm, which had been adopted by the U.S. govt. in 1977. Colby College roommates Peter Dragone and John Sylvan invent Keurig K-cups for single-cup coffeemaking, founding Keurig Green Mountain Co. in Waterbury, Vt. in 1992; in 1997 Sylvan sells out for $5K; in 1998 they introduce K-Cup pods, which become popular in offices, followed by homes, causing sales to grow to $4.7B by 2014, after which Sylvan publicly regrets inventing them because they're not recyclable. Rollerblades are invented by two Minn. brothers as a way for hockey players to practice in the off season. In this decade movie theaters begin using stadium seating, becoming the biggest improvement since color in the 1940s. Science: In this decade after ozone depletion is discovered in 1984, Hydroflurocarbons (HFCs) are introduced to replace ozone-depleting cloroflurocarbons (CFCs) such as freon in refrigerators, air conditioners, and insulating foam; too bad, while the ozone shield recovers, the HFCs cause a super greenhouse effect, with 4,470x the heat-trapping power of carbon dioxide. Am. psychologist Leonard Berkowitz (1926-) pub. the Cognitive Neoassociation Model of Aggressive Behavior to cover the cases missed by the Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis. Yakima, Wash.-born economist Robert Emerson Lucas Jr. (1937-) uses the rational expectation theory of John F. Muth to develop the Lucas Paradox (Puzzle) (1990), that capital doesn't flow from developed to developing countries despite the lower levels of capital per worker. Japanese scientist Seiji Ogawa (1934-) discovers Functional MRI (fMRI), which uses blood oxygen levels to image the brain while performing various functions. U.S. physician William French Anderson (1936-) successfully injects healthy genes into 4-.y.-o. Ashanti DeSilva, founding the field of gene therapy; too bad, on July 19, 2006 he is convicted of repeatedly molesting a colleague's 10-y.-o. daughter who took martial arts classes at his home - blue jean therapy? On Aug. 12 Susan Hendrickson discovers the fossilized Tyrannosaurus Rex "Sue" in S.D., bringing the total number of known specimens to a whopping nine. In Oct. the Human Genome Project begins, led by Dr. Francis Collins (1950-) (a theist). The Pistol Star is discovered by the Hubble Telescope, becoming the brightest star known, 10M times brighter than the Sun. A Harvard team studying a 700-gene stretch from mitochondria finds that human and chimpanzee genes differ by 9.6%, while gorilla and chimp genes vary by 13.1% - but what about over the entire genome? Walter Hasselbring of Crescent City, Ill. wins the Nat. Corn Growers Assoc. award in Mar. for bringing in 296 bushels per acre, the highest yield in the U.S., using 105 bison to fertilize his fields. Nonfiction: Peter Ackroyd (1949-), Dickens. Mortimer Adler (1902-2001), Intellect: Mind Over Matter; Truth in Religion: The Plurality of Religions and the Unity of Truth. Raymond Andrews (1934-91), The Last Radio Baby (autobio.). James Andreoni (1959-), Impure Altruism and Donations to Public Goods: A Theory of Warm-Glow Giving; proposes the Theory of Warm-Glow Giving. Darryl Anka (1951-), Blueprint for Change: A Message from Our Future. Timothy Garton Ash (1955-), The Magic Lantern: The Revolution of 1989 Witnessed in Warsaw, Budapest, Berlin, and Prague. Mohammad Yousuf Azraq (1937-92), History of Afghan Independence; Islamic Cultural and Academic Institutions of Afghanistan. Bernard Bailyn (1922-), Faces of Revolution. Ian Graeme Barbour (1923-), Religion in an Age of Science. Drew Barrymore (1975-), Little Girl Lost (autobio.); the Barrymore curse of alcohol and drug abuse. Jack Benny (1894-1974) and his daughter Joan, Sunday Nights at Seven: The Jack Benny Story. Bruce Berger, The Telling Distance: Conversations With the American Desert (essays); "After several decades of journeying in the wild, I find the self is just as elusive as ever". Peter Ludwig Berger (1929-) (ed.), The Capitalist Spirit: Toward a Religious Ethic of Wealth Creation. Sir Isaiah Berlin (1909-97), The Crooked Timber of Humanity: Chapters in the History of Ideas; based on Immanuel Kant's line: "Out of the crooked timber of humanity no straight thing was ever made." Michael R. Beschloss (1955-), Eisenhower [1890-1969]: A Centennial Life. H.G. "Buzz" Bissinger (1954-), Friday Night Lights: A Town, A Team, and A Dream; bestseller (2M copies) about the ill-fated 1988 Permian Panthers of Odessa, Tex., who lose the state 5A football title to the Dallas Carter Cowboys by 14-9, after which on June 20, 1989 two Carter players are arrested for robbing video stores starting five days after the game, leading to 21 robberies by 15 teenies incl. six players uncovered, causing the title to be stripped in Jan. 1991; filmed in 2004 starring Billy Bob Thornton. William Bloom (1948-), Personal Identity, National Identity and International Relations. Robert Bly (1926-), Iron John: A Book About Men; the spiritual roots of maleness. Rosalie Bonanno, Mafia Marriage. John Bradshaw (1933-), Homecoming: Reclaiming and Championing Your Inner Child; NYT #1 bestseller. George J. Borjas (1950-), Friends or Strangers: The Impact of Immigrants on the U.S. Economy; #1 U.S. immigration economist argues that the U.S. must attract more skilled immigrants, Sylvia Browne (1936-), Adventures of a Psychic: The Fascinating and Inspiring True-Life Story of One of America's Most Successful Clairvoyants; her spirit guide Francine; the book that convinced U.S. TV host Montel Williams? Peter Burke (1937-), THe French Historical Revolution: The Annales School 1929-89. Sophy Burnham (1936-), A Book of Angels: Reflections on Angels Past and Present, and True Stories of How They Touch Our Lives; based on the article "Angels and Ghosts I Have Known" in New Woman mag. (Apr. 1985). James MacGregor Burns (1918-2014), Cobblestone Leadership: Majority Rule, Minority Power (Nov.). Ken Burns (1953-), Geoffrey C. Ward, and Ric Burns, The Civil War: An Illustrated History. Bryan Burrough and John Helyar, Barbarians at the Gate; the Oct.-Nov. 1988 Wall Street frenzy and the $31B RJR Nabisco takeover. Laurie Cabot (1933-), The Power of the Witch: The Earth, the Moon, and the Magical Path to Enlightenment. Robert A. Caro, Means of Ascent; bio. of LBJ. Carolyn Cassady (1922-), Off the Road: My Years with Cassady, Kerouac, and Ginsberg; wife of "Dean Moriarty in On the Road" Neal Cassady, who drove Ken Kesey's 1964 psychedelic bus. Ron Chernow, The House of Morgan: an American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance. Andrei Codrescu (1946-), The Disappearance of the Outside: A Manifesto for Escape. Robert Coles (1929-), The Spiritual Life of Children. Robert Conquest (1917-2015), The Great Terror: A Reassessment; sequel to "The Great Terror" (1968). Phil Cousineau (1952-), The Hero's Journey: Joseph Campbell on His Life and Work. Robert Creeley (1926-2005), Autobiography. Lawrence Arthur Cremin (1925-90), Popular Education and Its Discontents (last book). David Brion Davis (1927-), Revolutions: American Equality and Foreign Liberations. John Dos Passos (1896-1970), Afterglow and Other Undergraduate Writings (posth.). Rachel Ehrenfeld, Narco-Terrorism: How Governments Around the World Used the Drug Trade to Finance and Further Terrorist Activities. Barbara Ehrenreich (1941-), The Worst Years of Our Lives: Irreverent Notes from a Decade of Greed. Steven Emerson (1953-), The Fall of Pan Am 103: Inside the Lockerbie Investigation. Robert Evans (1930-) The Kid Stays in the Picture (autobio.). George Fetherling (1949-), The Rise of the Canadian Newspaper. Guy Finley (1949-), The Secret of Letting Go. Stephen Fox (1938-), The Unknown Internment: An Oral History of the Relocation of Italian Americans During World War II. Frank Freidel (1916-93), Franklin D. Roosevelt: A Rendezvous with Destiny; a 1-vol. condensed version of his 5-vol. bio. of FDR (1952-73); "It was a time of acute national privation and foreboding that the closing of the banks reinforced. Roosevelt instantly countered the pessimism with a bold, reassuring inaugural address that shifted the national spirit from gloom toward optimism. From an ambiguous figure seeming to possess more charm than backbone, Roosevelt emerged amazingly as a confident, commanding President"; too bad, he dies in 1993 leaving his 6th bio. volume on FDR unfinished. Lawrence H. Fuchs (1927-2013), The American Kaleidoscope: Race, Ethnicity, and the Civic Culture; becomes a std. textbook on multiculturalism in the U.S. John William Gardner (1912-2002), On Leadership. Peter Gay (1923-2015), Reading Freud: Explorations & Entertainments; wins the first Heineken Prize for History. Felix Gilbert (1905-91), History: Politics or Culture? Reflections on Ranke and Burckhardt. Mark Girouard (1931-), The English Town: A History of Urban Life. Francoise Giroud (1916-2003), Private lessons; "If you advance, you die; if you retreat, you die; so why retreat?" (quoting a Zulu proverb). Chris Glaser, Coming Home!; stories about gays and lesbians finding their Christian spirituality. Charles Glass (1951-), Money for Old Rope: Disorderly Compositions (essays). Sita Ram Goel et al., Hindu Temples: What Happened To Them (Apr.); lists 2K mosques that were built on top of Hindu temples as victory flags. Galia Golan, Soviet Policies in the Middle East from World War Two to Gorbachev. Albert Goldman (1927-94), Elvis: The Last 24 Hours; claims he committed suicide. Naomi Greene, Pier Paolo Pasolini: Cinema as Heresy. Stanislav Grof (1931-) and Christina Grof, The Stormy Search for the Self: A Guide to Personal Growth through Transformative Crisis. Ian M. Hacking (1936-), The Taming of Chance (Ideas in Context). Eugene Halliday (1911-87), Contributions from a Potential Corpse (4 vols.) (posth.). Peter Handke (1942-), The Jukebox and Other Essays on Storytelling. Shirley Hazzard (1931-), Countenance of Truth: The United Nations and the Waldheim Case. Carolyn Heilbrun (1926-2003), Hamlet's Mother and Other Women. Michel Henry (1922-2002), Phenomenologie Materielle; Du Communisme au Capitalisme: Theorie d'une Catastrophe. George V. Higgins (1939-99), On Writing. Philip Hoare (1958-), Serious Pleasures: The Life of Stephen Tennant. Adam Hochschild (1942-), The Mirror at Midnight: A South African Journey. Bert Hoelldobler and Edward Osborne Wilson, The Ants (Pulitzer Prize). Sidney Hook (1902-89), Convictions (posth.). Bob Hope (1903-2003) and Melville Shavelson (1917-2007), Don't Shoot, It's Only Me: Bob Hope's Comedy History of the United States. A.E. Hotchner (1920-), Blown Away: The Rolling Stones and the Death of the Sixties. Irving Howe (1920-93), Selected Writings, 1950-1990. Michael Jensen (1939-) and Kevin J. Murphy, CEO Incentives: It's Not How Much You Pay, But How; causes Section 162 (m) of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code to be passed in 1993, making it cost-effective to pay executives with stock options, which backfired when they begin manipulating accounting figures and outsourcing labor to use the savings to repurchase stock, with total stock buypacks reaching the trillions of dollars in 20 years. Kaylie Jones (1960-), A Soldier's Daughter Never Cries (autobio.); the daughter of novelist James Jones (1921-77). Tony R. Judt (1948-2010), Marxism and the French Left: Studies on Labour and Politics in France, 1830-1982. Ward Just (1935-), Twenty-one: Selected Stories. Jon Kabat-Zinn (1944-), Full Catastrophe Living: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and Illness (May 1). Wendy Kaminer (1949-), A Fearful Freedom: Women's Flight from Equality. Stanley Karnow (1925-), In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines (Pulitzer Prize). Jonathan Ned Katz (1938-), The Invention of Homosexuality; repub. in 1995; the evolution from procreative to non-procreative definitions. Mary Margaret Kaye (1908-2004), Share of Summer (autobio.) (3 vols.) (1990-7). Joseph Morgan Kousser (1943-), How to Determine Intent: Lessons from L.A.. Morton Keller (1929-), Regulating a New Society; Regulating a New Economy. Russell Amos Kirk (1918-94), The Conservative Constitution. Charles Kuralt (1934-97), A Life on the Road. Ray Kurzweil (1948-), The Age of Intelligent Machines; predicts the World Wide Web and that a computer will defeat a world chess champ - but never actually invents anything? Stanley I. Kutler, The Wars of Watergate. Gavin Lambert (1924-2005), Norma Shearer: A Life. Bernard Lewis (1916-), Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry; The Roots of Muslim Rage; how the West and Islam are coming into increasing conflict; coins the terms "Islamic fundamentalism" and "clash of civilizations". Robert Jay Lifton (1926-) and Eric Markusen, The Genocidal Mentality: Nazi Holocaust and Nuclear Threat. Peter Maas (1929-2001), In a Child's Name: The Legacy of a Mother's Murder; filmed in ?. Dale Maharidge and Michael Williamson, And Their Children After Them (Pulitzer Prize); the traumatic decline of King Cotton. Rian Malan, My Traitor's Heart: A South African Exile Returns to Face His Country, His Tribe, and His Conscience. Janet Malcolm (1934-), The Journalist and the Murderer; journalist Joe McGinniss is sued for his book "Fatal Vision" by Jeffrey MacDonald for misleading him while writing it by playing along as if he thought he were innocent then portraying him as guilty; MacDonald ends up with a 5-1 hung jury in his favor, shocking journalists. Peter Mandler (1958-), Aristocratic Government in the Age of Reform: Whigs and Liberals, 1830-1852 (first book); shows how the British aristocracy stayed in power for 16 of the 22 years between 1830-52 by resisting liberal pressures. Peter Mandler (1958-) (ed.), The Uses of Charity: The Poor on Relief in the 19th-Century Metropolis. Ali al-Amin Mazrui (1933-), Cultural Forces in World Politics. William S. McFeely (1930-), Frederick Douglass. Corinne McLaughlin (1947-) and Gordon Davidson, Builders of the Dawn: Community Lifestyles in a Changing World; in 1996 they found the Center for Visionary Leadership. John McPhee (1931-), Looking for a Ship. John Milbank (1952-), Theology and Social Theory founds Radical Orthodoxy, which rejects modernity and its atheistic worldview and returns to Neoplatonism. Alice Miller (1923-2010), Breaking Down the Wall of Silence: The Liberating Experience of Facing Painful Truth; her abusive childhood. Kate Millett (1934-), The Loony-Bin Trip; her bipolar disorder. Millie (1985-97) (as told to Barbara Bush), Millie's Book. Norma J. Milanovich, We the Arcturians: A True Experience; the Arcturians, whom she channels. Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973), Money, Method, and the Market Process; Economic Freedom and Interventionism (posth.). Noel E. Monk and Jimmy Guterman, 12 Days on the Road: The Sex Pistols and Ermica; their Jan. 1978 tour of the U.S. South and West. Alberto Moravia (1907-90), Vita di Alberto Moravia (autobio.). Richard Ward Morris (1939-2003), The Edges of Science: Cross the Boundary from Physics to Metaphysics. V.S. Naipaul (1932-), India: A Million Mutinies Now. Shinya Nishimaru, The 41 Years of Life Theory; claims that Western fast food is reducing the lifespan of Japanese born after 1959 to 41 (current: 77 for men, 82 for women). Elinor Ostrom (1933-), Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. Victor Ostrovsky and Claire Hoy, By Way of Deception: The Making and Unmaking of a Mossad Officer. Thomas Pakenham (1933-), The Scramble for Africa. Francis Edwards Peters, Judaism, Christianity and Islam: The Classicl Texts and Their Interpretation (3 vols.). Kevin Phillips (1940-), The Politics of Rich and Poor: Wealth and Electorate in the Reagan Aftermath. Daniel Pipes (1949-), Greater Syria: The History of an Ambition; The Rushdie Affair: The Novel, the Ayatollah, and the West. Richard Pipes (1923-), The Russian Revolution. Roy Porter (1946-2002), The Enlightenment. Michael S. Radu (1947-2009), Latin American Revolutionaries: Groups, Goals, Methods; The New Insurencies: Anticommunist Guerrillas in the Third World. James Randi (1928-), The Mask of Nostradamus: The Prophecies of the World's Most Famous Seer. Ed Regis, Great Mambo Chicken and the Transhuman Condition: Science Slightly Over the Edge. Richard Rhodes (1937-), A Hole in the World: An American Boyhood (autobio.). Paul Michael Romer (1955-), Endogenous Technological Change. Henry Rosovsky (1927-), The University: An Owner's Manual. Walt Whitman Rostow (1916-2003), Theorists of Economic Growth from David Hume to the Present. Conrad Russell (1937-2004), Unrevolutionary England, 1603-1642; claims that any change caused by the English Civil War was unplanned; The Causes of the English Civil War (Nov. 1). Morley Safer (1931-), Flashbacks on Returning to Vietnam. Kamal Salibi, A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered. John Selby (1945-) and Zachary Selig (1949-), Kundalini Awakening: A Gentle Guide to Chakra Activation and Spiritual Growth. Hans F. Sennholz (1922-2007), Three Economic Commandments. Kate Simon (1912-90), Etchings in an Hourglass (autobio.). Zecharia Sitchin (1920-2010), The Lost Realms; Genesis Revisited: Is Modern Science Catching Up With Ancient Knowledge? Mark Skousen (1947-), The Structure of Production; 2nd ed. 2007; pushes the supply-side Austrian macroeconomics as a better solution than the Keynesian aggregate demand and consumer spending model for global economics. Hedrick Smith (1933-), The New Russians. George Soros (1930-), Opening the Soviet System. Gary Soto (1952-), A Summer Life (autobio.). Thomas Sowell (1930-), Preferential Policies: An International Perspective. Jonathan D. Spence (1936-), The Search for Modern China; becomes std. textbook on 17th cent.-20th cent. Chinese history. Timothy Steele (1948-), Missing Measures: Modern Poetry and the Revolt Against Meter. Gloria Steinem (1934-), Revolution from Within: A Book of Self-Esteem. Victor J. Stenger (1935-), Physics and Psychics: The Search for a World Beyond the Senses. Monika Jenson Stevenson and William Stevenson, Kiss the Boys Goodbye: How the United States Betrayed Its Own POWs in Vietnam. John A. Stormer (1928-), None Dare Call It Treason... 25 Years Later; update of 1964 1st ed. William Styron (1925-2006), Darkness Visible: A Memoir of Madness (autobio.). Cass R. Sunstein (1954-), Feminism and Political Theory; After the Rights Revolution: Reconceiving the Regulatory State. Alan Taylor (1955-), Liberty Men and Great Proprietors: The Revolutionary Settlement on the Maine Frontier 1760-1820 (first book). Lewis Thomas (1913-93), Et Cetera, Et Cetera: Notes of a Word-Watcher. Tony Thomas, Errol Flynn: The Spy Who Never Was; disses Charles Higham's 1980 bio. Kenneth R. Timmerman (1953-), The Poison Gas Connection: The Chemical Weapons Programs of Iraq and Libya. Alvin Toffler (1928-), Powershift: Knowledge, Wealth and Violence at the Edge of the 21st Century. Jeffrey Toobin (1960-), The Run of His Life: The People v. O.J. Simpson; filmed in 2016. Donald Trump (1946-) and Charles Leerhsen, Trump: Surviving at the Top (Aug. 14); claims that the U.S. govt. has covered-up the presence of U.S. POWs in Vietnam left after the war ends; full of factual errors? Laurel Thatcher Ulrich (1938-), A Midwife's Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard Based on Her Diary, 1785-1812 (Pulitzer Prize). John Harvey Wheeler (1918-2004), The Structure of Human Reflexion. Stuart Wilde (1946-), The Secrets of Life. George F. Will, Men at Work: The Craft of Baseball. Garry Wills (1934-), Under God: Religion and American Politics. Edmund Osborne Wilson (1929-), The Ants; first prof. science work to win a Pulitzer Prize (until ?). Robert Anton Wilson (1932-2007), Quantum Psychology: How Brain Software Programs You & Your World; disses Aristotelian reasoning, and promotes E-Prime, English without the words "is" or "to be". George Woodcock (1912-95), British Columbia: A History of the Province. Virginia Yans-McLaughlin (ed.), Immigration Reconsidered: History, Sociology, and Politics (Nov. 15). Daniel Yergin, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money and Power; bestseller. Arthur Middleton Young (1905-95), Mathematics, Physics and Reality: Two Essays; Which Way Out? and Other Essays. Art: Martin Kippenberger (1953-97), Fred the Frog Rings the Bell (Feet First) (Prima i Pied) (4' sculpture); a frog in a loincloth is being crucified while holding a mug of beer and an egg. Sally Mann, Last Light (photo). Roberto Matta (1911-2002), A l'Interieur de la Rose; Omnipuissance du Rouge; Navigateur; Haiku. Geoffrey Proud (196-), Portrait of Dorothy Hewett [1923-2002]. Martin Puryear (1941-), Thicket (sculpture). Bridget Riley (1931-), Shadow Play. Carla Williams, A Virtuous Negro's Head (1990-1). Music: AC/DC, The Razor's Edge (album #13) (Sept. 21); sells 5M copies; incl. Moneytalks, Thunderstruck. Jane's Addiction, Ritual de lo Habitual (album #2) (last album) (Aug. 21) (#19 in the U.S.); album has two covers, a clean one and one with nudity; incl. Been Caught Stealing, Stop!, Three Days, Classic Girl; they break up next year after a farewell tour. a-ha, East of the Sun, West of the Moon (album #4) (Oct. 22); sells 3M copies worldwide; incl. Crying in the Rain. Dead or Alive, Fan the Flame (Part 1) (album #5) (Dec. 13). Allman Brothers Band, Seven Turns (album #10); first album since 1981. incl. Good Clean Fun. Eric Ambler (1909-98), No Fences; sells 16M copies; incl. Friends in Low Places, The Thunder Rolls, Unanswered Prayers. Adam Ant (1954-), Manners and Physique (album) (Mar.); incl. Room at the Top. Anthrax, Persistence of Time (album #5) (Aug. 21); incl. In My World (featured on "Married... with Children"), Got the Time (by Joe Jackson). Asia, Then & Now (album). Fairground Attraction, Ay Fond Kiss (album #2). Anita Baker (1958-), Compositions (album #4) (June 21) (#5 in the U.S.); incl. Talk to Me. Marcia Ball (1949-), Dreams Come True (album). Pat Benatar (1953-), True Love (album). George Benson (1943-), Big Boss Band (album). Clint Black (192-), Put Yourself in My Shoes (album #2) (Nov. 27) (#1 country) (#18 in the U.S.) (3M copies); incl. Put Yourself in My Shoes (#4 country), Loving Blind (#1 country), Where Are You Now (#1 country), One More Payment (#7 country). Mother Love Bone, Apple (album) (debut) (July 19); from Seattle, Wash.; originally scheduled to be released in Mar., days after the death of frontman "Father of Grunge" Andrew Patrick Wood (1966-90); incl. Stardog Champion, Crown of Thorns, This Is Shangrila, Pet Shop Boys, Behaviour (album) (Oct. 22); incl. Being Boring, So Hard, My October Symphony. Billy Bragg (1957-), The Internationale (album #4) (May). Laura Branigan (1952-2004), Laura Branigan (album #6) (); incl. Never In a Million Years, Moonlight on Water, Turn the Beat Around. Garth Brooks (1962-), No Fences (album #2); sells 17M copies; incl. Friends in Low Places, The Thunder Rolls, Unanswered Prayers, Two of a King, Workin' on a Full House. Echo and the Bunnymen, Reverberation (album #6) (Dec.); incl. Enlighten Me. Mariah Carey (1970-), Mariah Carey (album) (debut) (June 12) (#1 in the U.S.); sells 12M copies; incl. Vision of Love, There's Got to Be a Way, I Don't Wanna Cry, Love Takes Time, Someday. Alice in Chains, Facelift (album) (Aug. 21) (debut); from Seattle, Wash., incl. Layne Thomas Staley (1967-2002) (vocals), Jerry Fulton Cantrell Jr. (1966-) (guitar), Sean Kinney, Mike Inez, William DuVall; incl. Man in the Box, We Die Young, Sea of Sorrow. Ray Charles (1930-2004), Quincy Jones (1933-), and Chaka Khan (1953-), I'll Be Good To You. Blue Cheer, Highlights and Lowlives (album #8). Cinderella, Heartbreak Station (album #3) (Nov. 20) (1M copies); incl. Heartbreak Station (#44 in the U.S.), Shelter Me (#36 in the U.S.), The More Things Change. Joe Cocker (1944-2014), Joe Cocker Live (album) (May). Judy Collins (1939-), Fires of Eden (album #21); Baby's Bedtime (album #22); Baby's Morningtime (album #23). Bad Company, Holy Water (album #9) (June 12); incl. Holy Water. The Cramps, Stay Sick! (album) (Feb. 12); incl. Bikini Girls with Machine Guns. Crosby, Stills & Nash, Live It Up (album) (June 11). The Black Crowes, Shake Your Money Maker (album) (debut) (Jan.) (#4 in the U.S.) (5M copies); from Atlanta, Ga., incl. brothers Christopher Mark "Chris" Robinson (1966-) and Rich Robinson (1969-); incl. Hard to Handle, She Talks to Angels, Jealous Again, Twice As Hard. Green Day, 39/Smooth (album) (debut) (Apr. 13); from East Bay, Calif., inc. Billie Joe Armstrong (1972-) (vocals), Mike Dirnt (Michael Ryan Pritchard) (1973-) (bass), and Tre (Tré) Cool (Frank Edwin Wright III) (1972-) (drums); incl. Green Day, At the Library. Grateful Dead, Without a Net (album) (Sept.). John Denver (1943-97), Earth Songs (album); incl. Earth Day Every Day; The Flower That Shattered the Stone (album) (Sept.); Christmas, Like a Lullaby. Devo, Smooth Noodle Maps (album #8) (last album) (June); incl. (Walk Me Out in the) Morning Dew. Ani DiFranco (1970), Not a Pretty Girl (album #6) (July 18); incl. 32 Flavors. Hamza El Din (1929-2006), Nubiana Suite: Live in Tokyo (album #7). Celine Dion (1968-), Unison (album) (debut) (Apr. 2); her first English language album after 14 French language ones; incl. Unison, Have a Heart, Listen to the Magic Man (for the film "The Peanut Butter Solution"). Don Dokken (1953-), Up from the Ashes (album) (solo debut); incl. Crash N Burn. Goo Goo Dolls, Hold Me Up (album #3) (Oct. 16); incl. There You Are. Duran Duran, Liberty (album #6) (Aug. 20); incl. Violence of Summer (Love's Taking Over), Serious. Bob Dylan (1941-), Under the Red Sky (album #27) (Sept. 10); dedicated to 4-y.-o. daughter "Gabby Goo Goo". EMF, Unbelievable (debut) (#1 in the U.S., #3 in the U.K.); samples comedian Andrew Dice Clay; Epsom Mad Funkers, from Cinderford, Gloucestershire, England; incl. James Saul Atkin (1969-) (vocals), Ian Dench (1964-) (guitar) , Derry Brownson (1970-) (keyboard), Mark Decloedt (1969-) (drums). Public Enemy, Fear of a Black Planet (album #3) (Apr. 10) (#10 in the U.S.); incl. Fear of a Black Planet ("Man you ain't gotta worry 'bout a thing 'bout your daughter, nah she ain't my type. But supposin' she said she loved me, are you afraid of the mix of black and white, we're living in a land where the law say the mixing of race makes the blood impure. She's a woman I'm a man but by the look on your face see ya can't stand it... Excuse us for the news, I question those accused, why is this fear of black from white influence who you choose?"), Fight the Power, Anti-Nigger Machine ("Instead of peace the police just wanna wreck and flex on the kid. What I did was try to be the best so they fingered the trigger, figured I was a bigger nigger, and started to search"), 911 Is a Joke, Burn, Hollywood, Burn (w/Ice Cube and Big Daddy Kane). Modern English, Pillow Lips (album #5). Eric B. & Rakim, Let the Rhythm Hit 'Em (album #3) (May 25); incl. Let the Rhythm Hit 'Em, In the Ghetto. Exodus, Impact Is Imminent (album #4); last with Rob McKillop; first with John Tempesta (drums); incl. Impact Is Imminent. Extreme, Extreme II: Pornograffitti (A Funked Up Fairy Tale) (album #2) (Aug. 7) (#10 in the U.S.); incl. More Than Words, Hole Hearted, Decadence Dance, Get the Funk Out. Marianne Faithfull (1946-), Blazing Away (album). Earth, Wind, and Fire, Heritage (album #15) (Jan.) (#70 in the U.S.); incl. Heritage, For the Love of You, Wanna Be the Man. Dan Fogelberg (1951-2007), The Wild Places (album). Gang of Four, A Brief History of the Twentieth Century (album) (Dec.). AQi Fzono (1969-), Echoes (album #2). Andy Gibb (1958-88), After Dark (album #3) (last album) (Feb.); incl. Desire. Debbie Gibson (1970-), Anything Is Possible (album #3) (Nov. 13) (#41 in the U.S., #69 in the U.K.); incl. Anything Is Possible. Everything But the Girl, The Language of Life (album #6) (Feb. 20); incl. Driving. MC Hammer (1962-), Please Hammer Don't Hurt 'Em (album #3) (Feb. 12); first diamond hip-hop album; sells 10M copies; incl. U Can't Touch This, Dancin' Machine, Have You Seen Her, She's Soft and Wet. Roy Harper (1941-), Once (album #16); incl. Black Cloud of Islam (w/Nick Harper). Emmylou Harris (1947-), Brand New Dance (album). Jeff Healey (1966-2008), Hell to Pay (album). Heart, Brigade (album #11) (Mar. 26) (#3 in the U.S.); incl. All I Wanna Do is Make Love To You (#2 in the U.S.). Helmet, Strap It On (album) (debut); from New York City, incl. Page Hamilton (1960-) (vocals, guitar); incl. Repetition, Sinatra. Hans Werner Henze (1926-), Das Verratene Meer (opera); based on the Yukio Mishima novel "Gogo no Eiko"; Requiem (1990-3). Whitney Houston (1963-2012), I'm Your Baby Tonight (album #3) (Nov. 6) (#3 in the U.S., #4 in the U.K.) (10M copies); incl. I'm Your Baby Tonight (#1 in the U.S., #5 in the U.K.), All the Man That I Need (#1 in the U.S., #13 in the U.K.). Billy Idol (1955-), Charmed Life (album #4) (May); incl. Cradle of Love. INXS, X (album #7) (Sept. 25); incl. Suicide Blonde, Disappear, Bitter Tears. LL Cool J (1968-), Mama Said Knock You Out (album); incl. Mama Said Knock You Out, The Boomin' System, Around the Way Girl. Janet Jackson (1966-), Rhythm Nation 1814 (album #4) (Sept. 19) (#1 in the U.S.) (14M copies) (#1 album in the U.S. for 1990, generating a record seven top-5 hits, incl. 4 #1s, 2 #2s, and 1 #4); "We are a nation with no geographic boundaries, bound together by our beliefs. We are like-minded individuals, sharing a common vision, pushing toward a world rid of color lines"; Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in 1814, R is the 18th letter, N is the 14th letter, and guess what day the album is released; oh yes, in 1814 women were granted education beyond the 8th grade; incl. Rhythm Nation, State of the World, Miss You Much, Love Will Never Do (Without You), Alright, Escapade, Black Cat, Come Back to Me - she's not really Michael with a wig? Flotsam and Jetsam, When the Storm Comes Down (album #3) (May 1); incl. The Master Sleeps. Joan Jett (1958-) and the Blackhearts, The Hit List (album); incl. Dirty Deeds Done Dirt Cheap, Love Hurts, Have You Ever Seen the Rain. Elton John (1947-), To Be Continued (4-disc set) (Nov. 8); The Very Best of Elton John (album) (Oct. 1). Quincy Jones et al., Back on the Block (album). Jon Bon Jovi (1962-), Young Guns II (Blaze of Glory) Soundtrack (album); incl. Blaze of Glory. The KLF, Chill Out (album) (Feb.); incl. What Time Is Love? (Live at Transcentral) (a mythical night journey up the U.S. Gulf Coast from Tex. to La.). L7, Smell the Magic (album #2) (Sept. 1); incl. Shove. Laibach, Macbeth (album #7). The La's, Timeless Melody; The La's (album) (debut). Human League, Romantic? (album) (#6) (Sept.); incl. Soundtrack to a Generation. The Flaming Lips, In a Priest Driven Ambulance (With Silver Sunshine Stares) (album #4) (Sept.); first with drummer Jonathan Daniel Donahue (1966-); incl. Unconsciously Screamin', What a Wonderful World. Fleetwood Mac, Behind the Mask (album #14) (Apr. 10); ; first with Billy Burnette and Rick Veto replacing Lindsey Buckingham; #1 in the U.K.; incl. Save Me, Skies the Limit. Madonna (1958-), I'm Breathless: Music from and Inspired by the Film Dick Tracy (album) (May 22) (#2 in the U.S. and U.K.) (7M copies); incl. Vogue, Hanky Panky; The Immaculate Collection (album) (Nov. 9) (#2 in the U.S., #1 in the U.K.) (30M copies); incl. Justify My Love, Rescue Me. Iron Maiden, No Prayer for the Dying (album #8) (Oct. 1); incl. Holy Smoke; Bring Your Daughter... to the Slaughter. Yngwie Malmsteen (1963-), Eclipse (album #5) (#112 in the U.S.); incl. Eclipse, Making Love, Bedroom Eyes. Mana (Maná), Falta Amor (July 2) (album) (debut); Jose Fernando "Fher" Olvera (vocals), Cesar "Vampiro" Lopez (guitar), Juan Calleros (bass), Ivan Gonzalez (keyboards), Alex Gonzalez (drums); Rayando El Sol. 10,000 Maniacs, Hope Chest: The Fredonia Recordings 1982-1983 (album) (Oct. 1). Curtis Mayfield (1942-99), Take It to the Streets (album #18). Paul McCartney (1942-), Tripping the Live Fantastic (album) (Oct. 29) (#26 in the U.S., #16 in the U.K.). Reba McEntire (1955-), Rumor Has It (album #17) (Aug. 17); incl. Fancy. Megadeth, Rust in Peace (album #4) (Sept. 24) (#23 in the U.S.); first with Martin Adam "Marty" Friedman (1962-) and Nick Menza (1964-); incl. Holy Wars... The Punishment Due, Hangar 18. The Dead Milkmen, Metaphysical Graffiti (album #5) (July 1); incl. Methodist Coloring Book. Kylie Minogue (1968-), Rhythm of Love (album #3) (Nov. 12) (#9 in the U.K.); incl. Better the Devil You Know, Step Back in Time, What Do I Have to Do?, Shocked. Depeche Mode, Violator (album #7) (Mar. 19) (#7 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.); incl. Personal Jesus (#28 in the U.S., #13 in the U.K.), Enjoy the Silence (#8 in the U.S., #6 in the U.K.), Policy of Truth, World in My Eyes. Van Morrison (1945-), The Best of Van Morrison (album) (Jan.); Enlightenment (album #20); incl. Real Real Gone. Michael Martin Murphey (1945-), Cowboy Songs (album #16). Vomito Negro, Human (album #6); Save the World (album #7). Matthew Nelson (1967-) and Gunnar Nelson (1967-), (Can't Live Without Your) Love and Affection. Hall & Oates, Change of Season (album #14) (Nov. 13); incl. So Close (#11 in the U.S.). Sinead O'Connor (1966-), I Do Not Want What I Haven't Got (album #2) (Mar.); sells 7M copies; incl. Nothing Compares 2 U. Midnight Oil, Blue Sky Mining (album #9) (Feb. 25); incl. Blue Sky Mine; Forgotten Years, King of the Mountain, Bedlam Bridge, One Country; The Green Disc (album #10). Morrissey (1959-), Bona Drag (album) (Oct. 25); incl. Piccadilly Palare, Interesting Drug, November Spawned a Monster ("Jesus made me so Jesus save me from petty sympathy and people discussing me"), The Last of the Famous International Playboys. Oingo Boingo, Dark at the End of the Tunnel (album #6) (Feb. 20); incl. Run Away, Flesh 'N Blood. Robert Palmer (1949-2003), Don't Explain (album #11) (#9 in the U.K.). Pantera, Cowboys from Hell (album #5) (July 24); their breakthrough album after they dump glam rock and pioneer groove metal; from Arlington, Va., incl. Philip Hansen "Phil" Anselmo (1968-) (vocals), Dimebag (Diamond) Darrell Lance Abbott (1966-2004) (guitar), Rex Brown (bass), and Vinnie Paul (drums); incl. Cowboys from Hell, Psycho Holiday, Cemetery Gates. Paris (Oscar Jackson Jr.) (1967-), The Devil Made Me Do It (album) (debut) (Oct. 9) (300K copies);incl. The Devil Made Me Do It (banned by MTV, making it more popular?). Graham Parker (1950-) and the Rumour, Human Soul (album) (Jan.); incl. <Big Man on Paper. Peter and the Test Tube Babies, Live and Loud! More Chin Shouting (album #6); The $hit Factory (album #7). Wilson Phillips, Wilson Phillips (album) (debut) (May 8) (#2 in the U.S., #7 in the U.K.); sells 10M copies, incl. 5M in the U.S., making them the best-selling female group of all time ahead of the Supremed until ?; from Los Angeles, Calif., incl. Carnie Wilson (1968-), Wendy Wilson (1969-), and Chynna Phillips (1968-); incl. Hold On, Release Me, You're in Love, Impulsive. Big Pig, You Lucky People (album #2); incl. Justifier, Hanging Tree, King of Nothing. Pixies, Bossanova (album #4) (Aug. 13); incl. Velouria (#4 in the U.S.), Allison, Dig for Fire (#11 in the U.S.). The Pogues, Yeah Yeah Yeah Yeah Yeah (album); Hell's Ditch (album). Pointer Sisters, Right Rhythm (album #14). Basil Poledouris (1945-), The Hunt for Red October Soundtrack (album); incl. The Hunt for Red October Theme (Hymn to Red October). Iggy Pop (1947-), Brick by Brick (album) (June); incl. Candy, Pussy Power. The Posies, Dear 23 (album) (album #2) (Aug.); major label debut; from Seattle, Wash., incl. Jonathan P. "Jon" Auer (1969-) (vocals), Kenneth Stuart "Ken" "Power Pop" Stringfellow (1968-) (vocals), Rick Roberts (bass), and Mike Musberger (drums); incl. Golden Blunders, Suddenly Mary. The Pretenders, Packed! (album #5) (May 22). Judas Priest, Painkiller (album #12). Skinny Puppy, Too Dark Park (album #6) (Oct. 30); incl. Tormentor, Spasmolytic. Queensryche, Empire (album #5) (Aug. 20); sells 3M+ copies; incl. Silent Lucidity (#9 in the U.S.), Jet City Woman, Della Brown, Empire, Another Rainy Night (Without You). Eddie Rabbitt (1941-98), Jersey Boy (album #12) (Apr. 9); incl. On Second Thought (has list #1 country hit), American Boy (hit with U.S. Gulf War soldiers). The Boo Radleys, Ichabod and I (album) (debut) (July); name taken from a char.in Harper Lee's 1960 novel "To Kill a Mockingbird"; from Wallasey, Merseyside, England, incl. Sice Rowbottom (vocals), Martin Carr (1968-) (guitar), Timothy "Tim" Brown (1969-) (bass), Steven James "Steve" Hewitt (1971-)/Rob Cieka (drums). Ratt, Detonator (album #5) (Aug. 21) (#23 in the U.S.); incl. Lovin' You's a Dirty Job, Givin' Yourself Away. Sacred Reich, The American Way (album #3); incl. The American Way. The Replacements, All Shook Down (album #7) (last) (Sept. 25); incl. Merry Go Round, Someone Take the Wheel, When It Began, Happy Town; they disband in 1991, then reuinite in 2012. Kid Rock (1971-), Grits Sandwiches for Breakfast (album) (debut); incl. Yo-Da-Lin in the Valley, Wax the Booty, Pimp of the Nation; "There's only two types of men, pimps and johns, but there's one type of bitch, and that's a ho"; "I've been a pimp so long I knew Gandhi when he had an Afro". Run-D.M.C., Back from Hell (album #5). Black Sabbath, Tyr (album #15) (Aug. 20); the son of Odin; incl. Anno Mundi (The Vision). Salt-N-Pepa, Blacks' Magic (album #3) (Mar. 19) (#38 in the U.S.); incl. Let's Talk About Sex (#13 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.), You Showed Me (#47 in the U.S., #15 in the U.K.), Expression (#26 in the U.S, #23 in the U.K.), Do You Want Me. Pharoah Sanders (1940-), Moon Child (album); Welcome to Love (album). Scorpions, Crazy World (album) (Nov. 6); incl. Wind of Change, Send Me an Angel. Pete Seeger (1919-2014), Folk Songs for Young People (album); American Folk Songs for Children. Selena (1971-95), Mis Primeros Exitos (album) (Mar. 3); Ven Conmigo (album #9) (Oct. 6); incl. Aunque No Salga El Sol, Baila Esta Cumbia, Ya Ves. Carly Simon (1945-), My Romance (album #14) (Mar. 13); Have You Seen Me Lately (album #15) (Sept. 25); incl. Better Not Tell Her. Slayer, Seasons in the Abyss (album #5) (Oct. 5) (#40 in the U.S., #18 in the U.K.) Information Society, Hack (album #4) (Sept.); incl. Think, How Long. REO Speedwagon, The Earth, A Small Man, His Dog and a Chicken (album #13) (Aug. 30) (last album to chart, #129); incl. Live It Up, Love Is a Rock. Tracie Spencer (1976-), Make the Difference (album #2) (Aug. 20); incl. Save Your Love, This House, Tender Kisses. Toad the Wet Sprocket, Pale (album #2) (Jan. 16); incl. Come Back Down. Ringo Starr (1940-), Ringo Starr and His All-Starr Band (first live album) (Oct. 8). Styx, Edge of the Century (album #12) (Oct. 9); incl. Show Me the Way (#3 in the U.S.) (adopted by the Gulf War Troops as their anthem), Love Is the Ritual (#9 in the U.S.), Love At First Sight (#25 in the U.S.). Steppenwolf, Rise & Shine (album #12); incl. The Wall. Suicidal Tendencies, Lights... Camera... Revolution! (album #4) (July 3) (#101 in the U.S.); incl. You Can't Bring Me Down, Send Me Your Money. Testament, Souls of Black (album #4) (Oct. 9); incl. Souls of Black. Therion, Time Shall Tell (album #3). They Might Be Giants, Flood (album #3) (Jan. 15) (#75 in the U.S.) (#14 in the U.K.) (1.M copies) (first on Elektra Records); incl. Birdhouse in Your Soul (#3 in the U.S., #6 in the U.K.), Istanbul (Not Constantinople), Twisting. ZZ Top, Recycler (album #10) (Mar. 23, 1990); incl. Doubleback (used in the 1990 film "Back to the Future Part III"), Concrete and Steel, My Head's in Mississippi. Babes in Toyland, Spanking Machine (album) (debut) (Apr. 16); from Minneapolis, Minn., incl. Katherine "Kat" Bjelland (1963-) (vocals, guitar), Michelle Leon (bass), Lori Barbero (1961-) (drums); incl. Swamp Pussy, Dust Cake Boy. Cheap Trick, Busted (album). Travis Tritt (1963-), Country Club (album) (debut) (Feb. 22); incl. Help Me Hold On (#1 country), I'm Gonna Be Somebody (#2 country), Drift Off to Dream (#3 country). Jethro Tull, Live at Hammersmith '84 (album) (Dec. 10). Uncle Tupelo, No Depression (album) (debut) (June 21); from Belleville, Ill., incl. Jay Farrar, Jeff Tweedy, and Mike Heidorn; recorded at the Ft. Apache South Studio in Boston, Mass.; incl. Factory Belt, Atomic Power; launches Alternative Country Music, combining elements of rock and roll, adopted by Wilco, Son Volt, Bottle Rockets, Blood Oranges, Drive-By Truckers, Blood Oranges, Whiskeytown et al.; in Sept. 1995 the quarterly mag. No Depression is launched for alternative country music fans. Digital Underground, Sex Packets (album) (debut) (Mar. 26); incl. The Humpty Dance (#11 in the U.S.); from Oakland, Calif., incl. Gregory E. "Shock G" Jacobs (1963-); "Oh yes, ladies, I'm really being' sincere/ 'Cause in a 69 my humpty nose will tickle ya rear"; "Black people, do the Humpty Hump, do the Humpty Hump/ White people, do the Humpty Hump, do the Humpty Hump". Steve Vai (1960-), Passion and Warfare (album #2) (July) ("Jimi Hendrix meets Jesus Christ at a party that Ben Hur threw for Mel Blanc"); incl. For the Love of God. Vangelis (1943-), The City (album). The Vaughan Brothers, Family Style (album); incl. Hillbillies from Outer Space. Suzanne Vega (1959-), Days of Open Hand (album #3) (Apr. 10). En Vogue, Born To Sing (album) (Apr. 3) (debut); Cindy Herron (Miss Black Calif.), Maxine Jones, Dawn Robinson, Terry Ellis; incl. Hold On, Lies, You Don't Have to Worry. Warrant, Cherry Pie (album #2) (Sept. 11) (#7 in the U.S.); incl. Cherry Pie (#19 in the U.S.), I Saw Red (#14 in the U.S.), Uncle Tom's Cabin (#19 in the U.S.), Blind Faith (#39 in the U.S.). Kevin Welch (1955-), Kevin Welch (album) (debut) (Apr. 11); incl. Hello I'm Gone. Great White, Live in London (album). Traveling Wilburys, Traveling Wilburys Vol. 3 (album #2) (last album) (Oct. 29). Winger, In the Heart of the Young (album #2) (July 24) (#15 in the U.S.); incl. Can't Get Enuff, Easy Come Easy Go, Miles Away. Steve Winwood (1948-), Refugees of the Heart (album #6); incl. One and Only Man, I Will Be Here. Tammy Wynette (1942-98), Heart Over Mind (album); incl. Suddenly Single; We're Strangers Again (with Randy Travis). Neil Young (1945-) and Crazy Horse, Ragged Glory (album) (Oct. 11); incl. Over and Over, Love to Burn, Love and Only Love. Paul Young (1956-), Other Voices (album #4) (June 4) (#4 in the U.K.) (100K copies); incl. Oh Girl (by The Chi-Lites) (#8 in the U.S., #25 in the U.K.), Softly Whispering I Love You (#21 in the U.K.). Movies: Renny Harlin's The Adventures of Ford Fairlane (July 11) stars Andrew Dice Clay (Andrew Clay Silverstein) (1957-) in his first starring role as a crude-rude-cool "rock & roll detective" in LA; too bad, he becomes a target for the fledgling PC police for sexism, and is banned from MTV, and boycotted by Sinead O'Connor when hosting "Saturday Night Live", after which his career tanks. Jane Campion's An Angel At My Table (Sept. 5), based on her 1984 autobio. stars Kerry Fox, Alexia Keogh, and Karen Fergusson as Kiwi novelist Janet Frame (1924-2004). John Badham's Bird on a Wire (May 18) (Universal Pictures) is a romantic comedy starring Mel Gibson as hunk Rick Jarmin, who has been on the FBI witness protection program for 15 years until his former fiancee Marianne Graves (Goldie Hawn) blows his cover, causing them to go on the run as he hides behind a string of ex-lovers and she chases him; does $138.7M box office on a $20M budget; "He's every woman's dream and one woman's nightmare." Brian De Palma's The Bonfire of the Vanities (Dec. 21), based on the 1987 Tom Wolfe novel stars Tom Hanks as Wall St. investor Sherman McCoy, Melanie Griffith as his babe Maria Ruskin, Bruce Willis as Peter Fallow, and Kim Cattrall as Judy McCoy; too bad, it only does $15.7M box office on a $47M budget. George Ogilvie's The Crossing (Oct. 18) stars Russell Crowe and Danielle Spencer as Sam and Meg, who get in a love triangle; Crowe gets a lost front tooth (lost while playing rugby as a youngster) fixed to star in the flick, then romances actress Meg Ryan? Kevin Costner's Dances with Wolves (Nov. 21) (Majestic Films) (Orion Pictures), based on the 1988 Michael Blake novel about why palefaces shoulda loved rather than hated the injuns stars Costner as Civil War Union Lt. John Dunbar, who exiles himself to a remote outpost in Sioux country, and goes injun with white babe Stands With a Fist (Mary McDonnell), Kicking Bird (Graham Greene), Wind In His Hair (Rodney A. Grant), Ten Bears (Floyd "Red Crow" Westerman) et al.; the most pro-Indian Western ever, incl. Sioux language lessons; film score by James Bond Theme man John Barry; #3 movie of 1990 ($185M U.S. and $424M worldwide box office on a $22M budget). Warren Beatty's Dick Tracy (June 15), based on the Chester Gould comic strip stars Beatty as Dick Tracy, Madonna as Breathless Mahoney, Glenne Headly as Tess Truehart, William Forsythe as Flattop, Mandy Patinkin as 88 Keys, Paul Sorvino as Lips Manlis, Al Pacino as Big Boy Caprice, R.G. Armstrong as Pruneface, and Dustin Hoffman as Mumbles; #9 movie of 1990 ($104M). Renny Harlin's Die Hard 2 (July 4), based on a novel by Walter Wager stars Bruce Willis as cop John McClane, who takes on airport terrorists; popularizes the fictitious Glock 7 porcelain hand gun, undetectable by airport metal detectors; #8 movie of 1990 ($117M). Tim Burton's Edward Scissorhands (Dec. 7) (20th Cent. Fox) is a revisioning of the Frankenstein story, starring Johnny Depp as a freak with you know whats for hands, who finds sympathy from Kim (Winona Ryder) and Peg (Dianne Wiest) before the Am. suburban mob comes with torches; O-Lan Jones plays Esmeralda; does $86M box office on a $20M budget; "The story of an uncommonly gentle man." Joel Schumacher's Flatliners (Aug. 10) stars Kiefer Sutherland as medical school student Nelson Wright, who talks four classmates (William Baldwin, Kevin Bacon, Oliver Platt, and Julie Roberts) into helping him discover what lies beyond death by flatlining for 1 min. before they resuscitate him, then getting them to do ditto; "Some lines shouldn't be crossed"; brings in $141M on a $26M budget. Jerry Zucker's Ghost (July 13), written by Bruce Joel Rubin stars Patrick Swayze as Sam Wheat, a murdered investment consultant coming back in ghost form to protect his lover Molly Jensen (Demi Moore) from a hit; Whoopi Goldberg is medium Oda Mae Brown; the ghost-human love scene at the potters wheel makes the movie the #2 grosser of 1990 ($218M). Martin Scorsese's Goodfellas (Sept. 19) (Warner Bros.), based on the life of mobster Henry Hill and the 1986 book "Wiseguy" by Nicholas Pileggi is the quintessential flick about the sleazy Italian "wiseguys" of the Lucchese crime family in the 1950s-1980s, who stink up the East coast but are fun to watch from the safety of your anonymous seat; makes a star of Newark, N.J.-born Raymond Allen "Ray" Liotta (1954-) as Henry Hill; also stars Robert De Niro as James "Jimmy the Gent" Conway, Joe Pesci as Tommy DeVito, Paul Sorvino as Paul "Paulie" Cicero, and Lorraine Bracco as Karen Hill; does $47M box office on a $25M budget; "As far back as I can remember, I always wanted to be a gangster" (Liotta); "Never rat on your friends, and always keep your mouth shut" (Liotta); "I'm funny how... I'm funny like a clown, do I amuse you?" (Joe Pesci). Franco Zeffirelli's Hamlet (Dec. 19) (Nelson Entertainment) (Icon Productions) (Warner Bros.), based on the Shakespeare play (first film from Gibson's Icon Productions) stars Mel Gibson as Hamlet, Glenn Close as Queen Gertrude, Stephen Dillane as Horatio, and Helena Bonham Carter as Ophelia; does $20.7M box office. Philip Kaufman's Henry & June (Oct. 5) (first film to receive NC-17 rating), based on the Anais Nin book about "Tropic of Cancer" novelist Henry Miller (Fred Ward) and his wife June (Uma Thurman) goes into salty taboo lezzie sex with Anais Nin (Maria de Medeiros). Chris Columbus' Home Alone (Nov. 16) stars Macaulay Carson Culkin (1980-) as Kevin McCallister, a 8-y.-o. left behind at home and sieged by burglars Joe Pesci and Daniel Stern, turning him into a slapstick mini-Rambo; meanwhile John Candy plays the leader of a polka band travelling cross-country with his mom Catherine O'Hara; #1 movie of 1990 ($286M); "A family comedy without the family." John McTiernan's The Hunt for Red October (Mar. 2), based on the 1984 Tom Clancy novel stars Sean Connery as Soviet Capt. Marko Ramius (after he steals the part from Klaus Maria Brandauer), who leads a mutiny to deliver a super sub to the U.S. to forestall WWIII, while CIA analyst Jack Ryan (Alec Baldwin) tries to keep the U.S. from blowing it up; the bizarre non-Russian accents of the lead actors actually make it more gripping?; Scott Glenn plays U.S. sub cmdr. Bart Manucso, Sam Neil plays Soviet Capt. Vasily Borodin, Tim Curry plays chief medical officer Lt. Yevgeniy Petrov, James Earl Jones plays U.S. Adm. James Greer, Richard Jordan plays jellybean-loving U.S. ambassador Jeffrey Pelt, and Joss Ackland plays Soviet ambassador Andrei Lysenko; #6 movie of 1990 ($121M). Jan Mohammad's International Guerillas (Gorillay) (Apr. 27) is a Pakistani film portraying Salman Rushdie (Afazaal Ahmad) as a villain, and madass Muslims out to kill him as the good guys; a dramatized version of the Feb. 12, 1990 mob scene in Islamabad, which becomes a hit in Pakistan. Tommy Lee Wallace's It miniseries, based on the 1986 Stephen King novel debuts on ABC-TV on Nov. 18-20, starring Tim Curry as Pennywise the Clown; filmed in New Westminster, B.C., Canada. John Patrick Shanley's Joe Versus the Volcano (Mar. 9), written by Shanley after a near-death experience stars Tom Hanks as Joe Banks, a hypochondriac told that he has only months to live and who decides to leap into a you know what; Meg Ryan appears in three roles (DeDe, Angelica Graynamore, Patricia Graynamore); "A story of love, lava and burning desire"; Hanks performs the Shanley song "The Cowboy Song" on the ukelele. Ivan Reitman's Kindergarten Cop (Dec. 21), written by Murray Salem stars Ahnuld as Det. John Kimble, who has to go undercover you know where; #10 movie of 1990 ($92M). Mike Leigh's Life Is Sweet (Nov. 22) (Thin Man Films) (October Films) is about a working-class North London family's life one summer, starring Jim Broadbent as cook Andy, Timothy Spall as family friend Aubrey, Alison Steadman as Wendy, Claire Skinner as Natalie, and Jane Horrocks as her bulimic twin sister Nicola. does $1.5M box office; first release from Thin Man Films, founded by dir. Mike Leigh and producer Simon Channing Williams, named after their non-thinness, which shares offices on Greek St., London with Potboiler Production, founded in 2000 by Williams and Gail Egan, which goes on to produce "Nicholas Nickleby" (2002) and "The Constant Gardener" (2005); Thin Man Films goes on to produce "Naked" (1993), "Secrets & Lies" (1995), "Career Girls" (1997), "Topsy-Turvy" (1999), "All or Nothing" (2002), "Vera Drake" (2004), "Happy-Go-Lucky" (2008), "Another Year" (2010), and "Mr. Turner" (2014). Michael Caton-Jones' Memphis Belle (Oct. 12), a fictional treatment of the 1943 documentary "Memphis Belle: A Story of a Flying Fortress by William Wyler stars Matthew Modine and Eric Stoltz, and is the film debut of singer Harry Connick Jr. Ethan and Joel Coen's Miller's Crossing (Oct.) (one of the top gangster films of all time?) stars Albert Finney ,and "Jesus, Tom" Gabriel Byrne as gangsters Liam "Leo" O'Bannon and Tom Reagan, and Marcia Gay Harden as Verna Bernbaum, who sleeps with them both to protect her small-time crook brother Bernie (John Turturro); "What's the rumpus?"; "Whatsa matter, somebody hit you?" Rob Reiner's Misery (Nov. 30), based on the 1987 Stephen King novel stars James Caan as a pulp novelist who crashes his car near the home of his "biggest fan ever" Kathy Bates, who tortures him into resurrecting her favorite char. Misery Chastain; "Paul Sheldon used to write for a living. Now he is writing to stay alive." Spike Lee's Mo' Better Blues (Aug. 3) stars Denzel Washington as jazz trumpeter Bleek Gilliam. Lewis Teague's Navy SEALs (July 20) (Orion Pictures), a vague clone of jingoistic "Top Gun" shows off the macho acts of "Terminator" recycles Michael Biehn and Bill Paxton, plus Charlie Sheen; Joanne Whalley-Kilmer plays a reporter; does $25M box office on a $21M budget; mentioned in Kevin Smith's "Clerks" as the most rented video in the store's history ("most intellectually devoid movies on the rack"). Mike Nichols' Postcards from the Edge (Sept. 12), based on a semi-autobio. novel written by Carrie Fisher stars Meryl Streep as recovering drug addict Suzanne Vale, who writes you know whats to Shirley MacLaine, Dennis Quaid, Gene Hackman et al. Trevor Nunn's Othello (June 23) debuts on BBC-TV's "Theatre Night", starring Ian McKellen as Othello, Imogen Stubbs as Desdemona, and Willard White as Othello. Garry Marshall's Pretty Woman (Mar. 23), written by J.F. Lawton turns Julia Roberts (after Molly Ringwald turns it down) into a superstar in the role of Vivian Ward, a pretty hooker with a heart of gold, who gets rich dream hunk Edward Lewis (Richard Gere) to give her the fairy tale and let him kiss her on the mouth, despite already naming her price (it's true what they say, opposites attract?); Hector Elizondo continues his habit of showing up in Garry Marshall movies, playing capable Beverly Hills Hotel mgr. Barney Thompson; Jason Alexander plays Gere's schmucky friend Philip Stuckey, and Laura San Giacomo plays Roberts' ho friend Kit De Luca; #4 movie of 1990 ($121M). Tom Stoppard's Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead (Sept. 5) (Stoppard's dir. debut), shot in Yugoslavia based on chars. in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" stars Gary Oldman as Rosencrantz, Tim Roth as Guildenstern, Richard Dreyfuss as the leading player, Iain Glen as Hamlet, and Ian Richardson as Polonius; does a paltry $739K box office. Fred Schepisi's The Russia House (Dec. 19), based on the John le Carre novel stars Sean Connery as British publisher Bartholomew Scott "Barley Blair, who gets in a spy game with Dante (Klaus Maria Brandauer) and Katya Orlova (Michelle Pfeiffer). Steven Soderbergh's sex, lies and videotape (Aug. 18) (his debut) wins the first prize at the Cannes Film Festival, despite its slow pace and way too much dialogue and too little sex? Phil Joanou's State of Grace (Sept. 14) (Orion Pictures), a neo-noir written by playwright Dennis McIntyre stars Sean Penn as undercover cop Terry Noonan, whose psychotic childhood pal Jackie Flannery (Gary Oldman) joins a Westlies-like gang in Hell's Kitchen, New York City, which is run by his snakelike brother Frankie Flannery (Ed Harris), hooking up with Jackie's sister Kathleen (Robin Penn Wright) and getting into the middle of fratricide; musical score by Ennio Morricone; John Turturro plays Terry's boss Nick; Joe Viterelli (film debut) plays Italian mob boss Borelli; does only $1.9M box office after competitor "Goodfellas" comes out. ?'s Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles; #5 movie of 1990 ($136M). Paul Verhoeven's Total Recall (June 1) (TriStar Pictures), based on the 1966 Philip K. Dick story "We Can Remember It For You Wholesale" is memorable as one of the few films in which Ahnuld (Arnold Schwarzenegger) can actually almost act (like a comic book char.); his big one-liner here is "Consider that a divorce" as he shoots his double-agent pretend wife, played by Sharon Yvonne Stone (1958-), who steals every scene from him, and makes directors realize that the phony action movie sequences can be done by a beautiful babe instead of a muscular hunk and get higher ratings, spelling the end to Ahnuld's career?; #7 movie of 1990 ($119M U.S. and $261M global box office on a $60M budget); refilmed in 2012. Ron Underwood's Tremors (Jan. 19), starring Kevin Bacon, Fred Ward, Finn Carter, Michael Gross and Reba McEntire is a comedic monster flick about a small Nevada town fighting subterranean worm monsters called graboids, which later transform into shriekers and ass-blasters; spawns a TV series. Michael Rubbo's Vincent and Me features 124-y.-o. longevity champ and French actress Jeanne Louise Calment (1875-1997) going back in time to meet Vincent Van Gogh; she is actually one of the last people to have met him in real life, at age 14? Robert Altman's Vincent & Theo (Apr. 27) stars Tim Roth and Paul Rhys and captures Van Gogh's work? David Lynch's Wild at Heart (Aug. 17) stars Nicolas Cage as Elvis clone Sailor Ripley and Laura Dern as his hot lover Lula, who get chased across the South by Lula's vengeance-seeking mama. Plays: Douglas Carter Beane (1959-), As Bees in Honey Drown (July 15) (Lucille Lortel Theater, New York); stars J. Smith-Cameron and Jo Foxworth. Howard Brenton (1942-) and Tariq Ali (1943-), Moscow Gold. Horton Foote (1916-), Talking Pictures. Michael Frayn (1933-), Listen to This: Sketches and Monologues; Jamie on a Flying Visit and Birthday; Look Look. Simon Gray (1936-2008), Hidden Laughter (Vaudeville Theatre). John Guare (1938-), Six Degrees of Separation (Mitzi E. Newhouse Theater, New York) (May 16) (Vivian Beaumont Theater, New York) (Nov. 8) (485 perf.); dir. by Jerry Zaks; explores the premise that all people are connected to each other via a chain of no more than six acquaintances; based on the real-life story of 1980s con man David Hampton, who tried to con Osborn Elliott and Inger McCabe Elliott in Oct. 1983; stars Stockard Channing as Ouisa Kittredge, John Cunningham as Flan Kittredge, and Courtney B. Vance as Paul; filmed in 1993 by Fred Schepisi. Women and Water. David Hare (1947-), Racing Demon. Seamus Heaney (1939-2013), The Cure at Troy. Beth Henley (1952-), Abundance. John Keyes, The Importance of Being Micheal; about Micheal MacLiammoir (1899-1978). Reynolds Price (1933-), New Music. Tom Stoppard (1937-), The Invention of Love (Oct. 1) (Court Theatre, London); stars Guy Adkins and Paxton Whitehead as poet A.E. Housman. August Wilson (1945-2005), The Piano Lesson (Apr. 16) (New York) (Pulitzer Prize). Poetry: Elizabeth Alexander (1962-), The Venus Hottentot (debut). Margaret Atwood (1939-), Selected Poems 1966-1984. Frank Bidart (1939-), In the Western Night: Collected Poems 1965-90. Amy Clampitt (1920-94), Westward; Manhattan: An Elegy, and Other Poems. Robert Creeley (1926-2005), Have a Heart; Places. Mona Van Duyn (1921-2004), Near Changes (Pulitzer Prize). Donald Hall Jr. (1928-), Old and New Poems. George Fetherling (1949-), The Dreams of Ancient Peoples. Marilyn Hacker (1942-), Going Back to the River. Seamus Heaney (1939-2013), The Tree Clock; his mother is "the wishing tree that died". Anthony Hecht (1923-2004), The Transparent Man. Ha Jin (1956-), Between Silences (debut). Ronald Johnson (1935-98), ARK; took 20 years to write. Jane Kenyon (1947-95), Let Evening Come. Brad Leithauser (1953-), The Mail from Anywhere. Mary Oliver (1935-), . Robert Pinsky (1940-), The Want Bone; Shirt. John Enoch Powell (1912-98), Collected Poems. Reynolds Price (1933-), The Use of Fire. John Ross (1938-2011), Whose Bones. Charles Simic (1938-), The Book of Gods and Devils. Dave Smith (1942-), Cuba Night. Gary Soto (1952-), Who Will Know Us? Mark Strand (1934-), The Continuous Life; New Poems. James Tate (1943-), Distance from Loved Ones. Derek Walcott (1930-), Omeros; rewrite of Homer's Odyssey as a journey around the Caribbean, the U.S. West and London. Robert Wilson (1941-), William S. Burroughs (1914-97), and Tom Waits (1949-), The Black Rider. Charles Wright (1935-), Xionia; The World of the Ten Thousand Things. Novels: Walter Abish (1931-), 99: The New Meaning. Catherine Aird (1930-), The Body Politic. Lisa Alther (1944-), Bedrock. Reinaldo Arenas (1943-90), El Asalto (The Assault). Louis Auchincloss (1917-), The Lady of Situations; Natica Chauncey. Jean Marie Auel (1936-), The Plains of Passage (Nov.); Earth's Children #4; more adventures of blonde babe Ayla and her throbbing Jondalar among the Zelondii. Paul Benjamin Auster (1947-), The Music of Chance. Letitia Baldridge (1925-), Public Affairs Private Relations. J.G. Ballard (1930-2009), War Fever (short stories). Greg Bear (1951-), Queen of Angels; set in the year 2048, when nanotechnology rules peoples' minds. Thomas Berger (1924-), Orrie's Story; retelling of the Oresteia, with Agamemnon as a WWII vet. Wendell Berry (1934-), Remembering (Aug.); a journalist on a single day in 1976 San Fran. Maeve Binchy (1940-), Story Teller: A Collection of Short Stories; Circle of Friends; filmed in 1995. T. Coraghessan Boyle (1948-), East Is East; title from the Rudyard Kipling poem "The Ballad of East and West": "Oh East is East, and West is West, and never the twin shall meet." Barbara Taylor Bradford (1933-), The Women in His Life. David Brin (1950-), Earth. Anita Brookner (1928-), Brief Lives. Rita Mae Brown (1944-), Wish You Were Here; introduces the feline char. Mrs. Murphy; co-authored with her cat Sneaky Pie Brown. James Lee Burke (1936-), A Morning for Flamingoes. A.S. Byatt (1936-), Possession: A Romance; bestseller. Scott Carpenter, The Steel Albatross; Rick Tallman and an underwater glider. Joseph D. Cirzone, The Shepherd. Paul Coelho (1947-), Brida. J.M. Coetzee (1940-), Age of Iron. Jackie Collins (1937-2015), Lady Boss; Lucky Santangelo #3. Laurie Colwin (1944-92), Goodbye Without Leaving. Richard Condon (1915-96), Emperor of America. Robin Cook (1940-), Harmful Intent; anesthesiologist Jeffrey Rhodes is framed for malpractice. Catherine Cookson (1906-98), The Gillyvors. Stephen Coonts (1946-), Under Siege; Rear Adm. Jake Grafton #5 fights Columbian drug lords that have wounded Pres. George H.W. Bush and left Dan Quayle in charge. William Cooper (1910-2002), From Early Life. Robert Cormier (1925-2000), Other Bells for Us to Ring (Darcy). Patricia Cornwell (1956-), Postmortem; bestseller introducing medical examiner Kay Scarpetta, launching the morgue novel genre; rejected by seven pub. houses before Avon Books takes a chance on it; first novel to win the Edgar, Creasey, Anthony, and Macavity awards in a single year. Harry Crews (1935-), Body. Michael Crichton (1942-2008), Jurassic Park; bestseller about an amusement park filled with reconstituted dinosaurs; filmed in 1993. Clive Cussler (1931-), Dragon; Dirk Pitt #10. Iris Rainer Dart, Mommy & Me; by the author of "Beaches" (1985). Guy Davenport (1927-2005), The Drummer of the Eleventh North Devonshire Fusiliers (short stories). J.P. Donleavy (1926-), That Darcy, That Dancer, That Gentleman; sequel to "Leila" (1983). Len Deighton (1929-), Spy Sinker. Roddy Doyle (1958-), The Snapper; #2 in the Barrytown Trilogy (1987-91); filmed in 1993. Allen Drury (1918-98), Toward What Bright Glory. Bret Easton Ellis (1964-), American Psycho; serial killer yuppie Patrick Bateman. James Ellroy (1948-), L.A. Confidential. Howard Fast (1914-2003), Bunker Hill. Jonathan Fast (1948-), Stolen Time. Carrie Fisher (1956-), Surrender the Pink. Penelope Fitzgerald (1916-2000), The Gate of Angels. Margaret Forster (1938-), Lady's Maid. Robert Lull Forward (1932-2002), Rochworld. Paula Fox (1923-), The God of Nightmares. Nicolas Freeling (1927-2003), Flanders Sky (The Pretty How Town) (Henri Castang #12). George Garrett (1929-2008), Entered from the Sun; the murder of Christopher Marlowe. Thomas Gee, The Uses of Disguise. William Gibson (1948-) and Bruce Sterling (1954-), The Difference Engine; about an alternate Victorian Britain in which Charles Babbage succeeded in building a mechanical computer. Barry Gifford (1946-), Wild at Heart: The Story of Sailor and Lula; Sailor and Lula #1 of 7. Winston Graham (1908-2003), The Twisted Sword; Poldark Saga #11. Patrick Grainville (1947-), L'Orgie, la Neige; a teenie is initiated into sexuality and death in the snow. Andrew M. Greeley, The Search for Maggie Ward. Ursula K. Le Guin (1929-), Tehanu (#4 and last in the Earthsea series). Arthur Hailey (1920-2004), The Evening News. Joe Haldeman (1943-), The Hemingway Hoax; about Hemingway scholar John Baird discovering Hemingway's long-lost 1921 ms. and getting into a time travel adventure. Peter Handke (1942-), Once Again for Thucydides. Jim Harrison (1937-2016), The Woman Lit By Fireflies. Gustav Hasford (1947-93), The Phantom Blooper; sequel to "The Short-Timers"; uses the royalties to pay damages for stealing 10K library books to research a book on the U.S. Civil War. George V. Higgins (1939-99), Victories. Tony Hillerman (1925-), Coyote Waits. Alice Hoffman (1952-), Seventh Heaven. Peter Hoeg (1957-), Tales of the Night. Victoria Holt, Snare of Serpents. Janette Turner Hospital (1942-), Isobars; A Very Proper Death as by "Alex Juniper". . Elizabeth Jane Howard (1923-), The Light Years. Clifford Irving (1930-), Final Argument. Susan Isaacs (1943-), Magic Hour. Charles R. Johnson (1948-), Middle Passage. Ismail Kadare (1936-), The File on H. Adrienne Kennedy (1931-), Deadly Triplets: A Theatre Mystery and Journal. Jamaica Kincaid (1949-), Lucy. Stephen King (1947-), Four Past Midnight (short stories). Dean Koontz (1945-), The Bad Place; Cold Fire. Michael Korda (1933-), Curtain. Judith Krantz (1928-), Dazzle. Milan Kundera (1929-), Immortality; his last novel in the Czech language, preferring French. Dominique Lapierre (1931-), Beyond Love (Plus Grands que l'Amour). Siegfried Lenz (1926-), Die Klangprobe. Elmore Leonard (1925-2013), Get Shorty; about Miami loan shark Chili Palmer; filmed in 1995. Ira Levin (1929-2007), Sliver. Elinor Lipman (1950-), Then She Found Me (first novel). Robert Ludlum (1927-2001),, The Bourne Ultimatum. Peter Maas (1929-2001), In a Child's Name. Peter Matthiessen (1927-), Killing Mister Watson. Colleen McCullough (1937-), The First Man in Rome; Masters of Rome #1; the rise of Roman Gen. Gaiius Marius; based on extensive historical research. Ian McEwan (1948-), The Innocent. John McGahern (1934-2006), Amongst Women; IRA veteran Michael Moran, who is getting tired of the "small-minded gangsters" running his country. Larry McMurtry (1936-), Buffalo Girls; Calamity Jane. James A. Michener (1907-97), Pilgrimage: A Memoir of Poland and Rome; The Eagle and the Raven. Stanley Middleton (1919-2009), Changes and Chances. Sue Miller (1943-), Family Pictures. William Ormond Mitchell (1914-98), Roses Are Difficult Here. Patrick Modiano (1945-), Honeymoon (Voyage de Noces). Brian Moore (1921-99), Lies of Silence. David Morrell (1943-), Fifth Profession. Sir John Mortimer (1923-2009), Rumpole a La Carte; Titmuss Regained; Great Law and Order Stories. Nicholas Mosley (1923-), Hopeful Monsters; part #5 of 5 of the Catastrophe Practice Series. Walter Mosley (1952-), Devil in a Blue Dress; black Watts P.I. Ezekial "Easy" Rawlins and Raymond "Mouse" Alexander. Alice Munro (1931-), Friend of My Youth (short stories). Albert Murray (1916-), The Seven League Boots; sequel to "The Spyglass Tree" (1991). Ruth Nichols (1948-), The Burning of the Rose. Joyce Carol Oates (1938-), Because It Is Bitter, and Because It Is My Heart. Edna O'Brien (1930-), Lantern Slides (short stories). John O'Brien (-1995), Leaving Las Vegas. Tim O'Brien (1946-), The Things They Carried; stories about the Vietnam War. Kenzaburo Oe (1935-), A Quiet Life (Shizuka na Seikatsu). Sara Paretsky (1947-), Burn Marks; V.I. Warshawski #6. Robert Brown Parker (1932-2010), Stardust; Spenser #17. Milorad Pavic (1929-), Landscape Painted with Tea; mixes a novel with a crossword puzzle. M. Scott Peck, A Bed by the Window: A Novel of Mystery and Redemption; crippled Stephen Solaris is murdered hooking up with nurse Heather. Harry Mark Petrakis (1923-), Ghost of the Sun. Robert Pinget (1919-97), Du Nerf (Be Brave). Mario Puzo (1920-99), The Fourth K. Reynolds Price (1933-), The Tongues of Angels. V.S. Pritchett (1900-97), Complete Short Stories. Thomas Pynchon (1937-), Vineland. Anne Rice (1941-), The Witching Hour. Angelo Rinaldi (1940-), La Confession des Collines. Kim Stanley Robinson (1952-), Pacific Edge; an alternate future Calif. Judith Rossner (1935-2005), His Little Women. Salman Rushdie (1947-), Haroun and the Sea of Stories. Lawrence Sanders (1920-98), Sullivan's Sting. Melissa Scott (1960-), Mighty Good Road. Sidney Sheldon (1917-2007), Memories of Midnight. Anne Rivers Siddons (1936-), Kings Oak. Alan Sillitoe (1928-2010), Last Loves. Robert Silverberg (1935-), The Queen of Springtime. Dan Simmons (1948-), The Fall of Hyperion; Entropy's Bed at Midnight; Prayers to Broken Stones (short stories). Lee Smith (1944-), Me and My Baby View the Eclipse (short stories). LaVyrle Spencer (1943-), Morning Glory (Mar. 1); ex-con Will Parker answers a husband-wanted ad. Scott Spencer (1945-), Secret Anniversaries. Ivan Stang (ed.), Three-Fisted Tales of "Bob". Danielle Steel (1947-) Heartbeat; No Greater Love. Gerald Stern (1925-), Two Long Poems; Leaving Another Kingdom: Selected Poems. Whitley Strieber (1945-), Billy. Rosemary Sutcliff (1920-92), The Shining Company; a retelling of the Y Gododdin story. Donald Michael Thomas (1935-), Lying Together. Colm Toibin (1955-), The South (first novel). Thomas Tryon (1926-91), The Wings of the Morning. John Updike (1932-2009), Rabbit At Rest (Pulitzer Prize); 2 PPs in 9 years (1982). Gore Vidal (1925-2012), Hollywood; sequel to "Empire". Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (1922-2007), Hocus Pocus. Joseph Wambaugh (1937-), The Golden Orange. James Welch (1940-2003), The Indian Lawyer; Sylvester Yellow Calf. Fay Weldon (1931-), Darcy's Utopia. Morris L. West (1916-99), Lazarus. John Edgar Wideman (1941-), Philadelphia Fire. Raymond Henry Williams (1921-88), The Eggs of the Eagle (posth.); vol. 2 of 2 of "People of the Black Mountains". Louis Zukofsky (1904-78), Collected Fiction (posth.). Births: Am. "Matt McGuire in Lizzie McGuire" actor Jake Thomas on Jan. 30 in Knoxville, Tenn. Ethiopian Olympic marathoner (black) Feyisa Lilesa on Feb. 1. Kosovo Albian Muslim Frankfurt Airport jihadist Arid Uka on Feb. 9 in Kosovska Mitrovica. Am. 6'1" football WR (black) (Seattle Seahawks #15, 2012-) Jermaine Kearse on Feb. 6 in Lakewood, Wash.; educated at the U. of Wash. Am. 6'7" basketball guard (black) (Golden State Warriors #11, 2011-) Klay Alexander Thompson on Feb. 8 in Los Angeles, Calif.; grows up in Lake Oswego, Ore.; educated at Washington State U.; one of the two Splash Brothers with Stephen Curry (1988-). Am. 6'2" football QB (Washington Redskins #10, 2012-) (black) Robert Griffin III on Feb. 12 in Okinawa; educated at Baylor U. Am. 5'11" football CB (black) (New England Patriots #21, 2014-) Malcolm Terel Butler on Mar. 2 in Vicksburg, Miss.; educated at West Ala. U. Am. "Julie Mayer in Desperate Housewives" actress Andrea Elizabeth Bowen on Mar. 4 in Columbus, Ohio. Am. 6'7" basketball forward (black) (Golden State Warriors #23, 2012-) Draymond Jamal Green on Mar. 4 in Saginaw, Mich.; educated at Mich. State U. English princess Eugenie of York on Mar. 23 in London; 2nd daughter of Prince Andrew (1960-) and Duchess Sarah of York (1959-); sister of Princess Beatrice (1988-). Am. "Get Me Some of That" country singer Thomas Rhett (Thomas Rhett Akins Jr.) on Mar. 30 in Valdosta, Ga.; son of Rhett Akins (1969-). Am. jihadist (Sunni Muslim) Pfc. Naser Jason Abdo on Apr. 1 in Garland, Tex. Am. "Isabella Bella Swan in Twilight", "Lisa in Zathura", "Em in Adventureland" actress Kristen Jaymes Stewart on Apr. 9 in Los Angeles, Calif.; Australian immigrant mother. Am. "My Church" country musician Maren Larae Morris on Apr. 10 in Arlington, Tex. English "John in I Am Number Four" actor Alexander Richard "Alex" Pettyfer on Apr. 10 in Stevenage, Hertfordshire. English "Hermione Granger in Harry Potter" actress Emma Charlotte Duerre Watson on Apr. 15 in Paris, France; English lawyer parents; moves to Oxford at age 5; educated at Brown U.; highest-grossing actress of the 2000s decade. British "Jamal Malik Slumdog Millionaire" actor Dev Patel on Apr. 23 in Harrow, London; Hindu Gujarati Indian parents from Nairobi, Kenya. Am. "Nikki Westerly in Summerland", "Daphne Powell in No Ordinary Family" actress Stephanie Kay Panabaker on May 2 in Orange, Tex.; sister of Danielle Panabaker (1987-). Am. 6'0" golfer Brooks Koepka on May 3 in West Palm Beach, Fla.; educated at Fla. State U. English "Newt in The Maze Runner" actor-musician Thomas Brodie-Sangster on May 16 in Southwark, London; 2nd cousin once removed of Hugh Grant (1960-). Am. "Losing Isaiah" actor (black) Marc John Jefferies on May 16 in New York City. Am. 6'1" auto racer Joseph Thomas "Joey" Logano on May 24 in Middletown, Conn. Am. rock drummer Zachary Wayne "Zac" Farro (Paramore) on June 4 in Vorhees Township, N.J.; brother of Josh Farro (1987-). Australian "Pussy" singer-model ("New Face of Levi Jeans") Iggy Azalea (Amethyst Amelia Kelly) on June 7 in Sydney; moves to the U.S. at age 16. Italian "Don Fanucci in The Godfather Part II" actor Gastone Moschin on June 8 in San Giovanni Lupatoto. English "Dave Lizewski in Kick-Ass" actor Aaron Perry Johnson on June 13 in Holmer Green, Buckinghamshire. English "Love Me Again" musician John William Peter Newman on June 16 in Settle, North Yorkshire. Australian "Naomi Lapaglia in The Wolf of Wall Street" actress Margot Elise Robbie on July 2 in Gold Coast. Am. "Jordan Thomkins Bernie Mac", "Tyson Tidwell in Jerry Maguire" actor (black) Jeremy Steven Suarez on July 6 in Burbank, Calif. Danish tennis player Caroline Wozniacki on July 11 in Odense. Australian "Harley Quinn in Suicide Squad" actress Margot Elise Robbie on July 2 in Dalby, Queensland; educated at Somerset College. Am. actor Nicholas Allen "Nick" Bollea on July 27 in Clearwater, Fla.; son of Hulk Hogan (1953-); brother of Brooke Hogan (1988-). Am. child beauty queen JonBenet Ramsey (d. 1996) on Aug. 6 in Atlanta, Ga.; daughter of John Bennett (1943-) and Patricia "Patsy" Ramsey (1956-2006). Italian 6'3" soccer player (black) Mario Balotelli on Aug. 12 in Palermo; Ghanaian parents. Am. "Silver Linings Playbook", "Raven in X-Men", "Katniss Everdeen in The Hunger Games" actress (feminist) Jennifer Shrader Lawrence (AKA Jenlaw) on Aug. 15 in Louisville, Ky. Am. 6'3" football nose tackle (black) (Kansas City Chiefs #92, 2012-) Dontari Poe on Aug. 18 in Memphis, Tenn.; educated at Memphis U. Am. "Claire Bennet in Heroes" actress-singer Hayden Leslie Panettiere on Aug. 21 in Palisades, N.Y.; sister of Jansen Panettiere (1994-). South Korean figure skater Kim Yu-Na on Sept. 5 in Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do. Am. 6'4" basketbal player (black) (Washington Wizards #2, 2010-) Johnathan Hildred "John" Wall Jr. on Sept. 6 in Raleigh, N.C.; educated at the U. of Ky. Am. 6'1" football QB (Cincinnati Bengals #5, 2014-) Raymond Anthony "AJ" McCarron Jr. on Sept. 13 in Mobile, Ala.; educated at the U. of Ala. Am. 6'1" football linebacker (black) (Cincinnati Bengals #55, 2012-) Vontaze DeLeon Burfict Jr. on Sept. 24 in Los Angeles, Calif.; educated at Arizona State U. Am. "Ray Boyd in Jerry Maguire" actor (Jewish) Jonathan William Lipnicki on Oct. 22 in Westlake Village, Calif. Am. 5'4" basketball player (black) (Muslim) Bilqis "Qisi" Abdul-Qaadir on Nov. 11 in Springfield, Mass.; educated at the U. of Memphis, and Indiana State U. British "Hot Right Now" singer-songwriter Rita Sahatciu Ora on Nov. 26 in Pristina, Yugoslavia; emigrates to Britain at age 1. Norwegian chess champ #16 (2013-) Sven Magnus Oen (Øen) Carlsen on Nov. 30 in Tonberg, Vestfold. Am. "Too Little Too Late" pop-R&B singer-songwriter-actress JoJo (Joanna Noelle Blagden Levesque) on Dec. 20 in Brattleboro, Vt.; French, Polish, Irish, Native Am. ancestry. Am. 5'11" football linebacker (white) (San Francisco 49ers #50, 2014) Christopher "Chris" Borland on Dec. 26 in Kettering, Ohio; educated at the U. of Wisc. Am. singer-songwriter (American Idol Season 7 runner-up) (Mormon) David James Archuleta on Dec. 28 in Miami, Fla. Tahitian model-actor Tuki Brando on ? in ?; son of Cheyenne Brando (1970-95) and Dag Drollet (1962-90); grandson of Marlon Brando (1924-2004); on May 16, while he is still a bun in the oven his daddy is shot dead by his mommy's half-brother Christian Brando (1958-2008) at Marlon Brando's home on Mulholland Drive in Los Angeles, Calif., for which he gets 10 years for voluntary manslaughter after daddy puts on a great act for the jury?; he is released in 1996 after Cheyenne Brando commits suicide on Apr. 16, 1995. Deaths: Belgian Gen. Albert de Selliers de Moranville (b. 1884) on Jan. 12. Russian-born French artist Erte (Erté) (b. 1892) on Apr. 21. Am. psychiatrist Karl Menninger (b. 1893) on July 18: "I never had any confidence that Scrooge was going to be different the next day." Russian-born Am. "Brother Can You Spare a Dime?" songwriter Jay Gorney (b. 1894) on June 14. French theologian Marie-Dominique Chenu (b. 1895) on Feb. 11 in Paris. Am. historian Lewis Mumford (b. 1895) on Jan. 26 in Amenia, N.Y. Am. WWI ace #1 Douglas Campbell (b. 1896) on Dec. 16 in Greenwich, Conn. Am. Gen. Dynamics mogul Henry Crown (b. 1896) on Aug. 14. English "101 Dalmations" novelist-playwright Dodie Smith (b. 1896) on Nov. 24 in Uttlesford, Essex: "Noble deeds and hot baths are the best cures for depression"; "Contemplation seems to be about the only luxury that costs nothing"; "The family, that dear octopus from whose tentacles we never quite escape, nor, in our inmost hearts, ever quite wish to"; "I have noticed that when things happen in one's imaginings, they happen in one's life"; "I have found that sitting in a place where you have never sat before can be inspiring." Am. actress Jane Novak (b. 1896) on Feb. 3 in Woodland Hills, Calif. Italian-born Am. Radio Flyer creator Antonio Pasin (b. 1897) on July 5 in River Forest, Ill. Am. surgeon Warren Henry Cole (b. 1898) on May 25. Am. actress Irene Dunne (b. 1898) on Sept. 4 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. internat. trader (Occidental Petroleum founder) Armand Hammer (b. 1898) on Dec. 10. Am. ambassador Willard L. Beaulac (b. 1899) in Aug. Romanian-born Am. "Kiss Me, Kate" playwright Bella Spewack (b. 1899) on Apr. 27 in New York City; invented the idea of Girl Scouts selling cookies to raise money. Am. diplomat Clifton R. Wharton Sr. (b. 1899) on Apr. 25 in Phoenix, Ariz. English philosopher Richard Braithwaite on Apr. 21 in Cambridge. Am. novelist Brainard Cheney (b. 1900). Am. "Fanfare for the Common Man" composer Aaron Copland (b. 1900) on Dec. 2 in North Tarrytown (Sleepy Hollow), N.Y (Alzheimer's). Spanish-Am. bandleader Xavier Cugat (b. 1900) on Oct. 27 in Barcelona. Canadian gov.-gen. #20 (1967-74) Roland Michener (b. 1900) on Aug. 6 in Toronto, Ont. Australian-born Am. labor leader Harry Bridges (b. 1901) on Mar. 30 in San Francisco, Calif.; "I would have worked with the Devil himself if he'd been for the 6-hour day and worker control of the hiring hall"; July 28, 2001 is declared Harry Bridges Day by the gov. of Calif. Am. actor Charles Farrell (b. 1901) on May 6 in Palm Springs, Calif. English novelist Rosamond Lehmann (b. 1901) on Mar. 12 in London. Am. photographer Eliot Porter (b. 1901). German "BMV" musicologist Wolfgang Schmieder (b. 1901) in Nov. in Freiburg im Breisgau. Am. CBS-TV founder William S. Paley (b. 1901) on Oct. 26. Am. "A River Runs Through It" writer Norman Maclean (b. 1902) on Aug. 2 in Chicago, Ill. Austrian-born Am. child psychologist Bruno Bettelheim (b. 1903) on Mar. 13 (suicide). Swiss psychiatrist Medard Boss (b. 1903) on Dec. 21. Am. stroboscope inventor Harold Eugene "Doc" Edgerton (b. 1903) on Jan. 4 in Cambridge, Mass. English commentator and Christian apologist Malcolm Muggeridge (b. 1903) on Nov. 14 in Sussex. Malaysian PM (1957-70) Sir Tunk Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj (b. 1903) on Dec. 6 in Kuala Lumpur. German nerve agent chemist Gerhard Schrader (b. 1903) on Apr. 10. Dutch auxin biologist Frits Warmolt Went (b. 1903) on May 1 in Little Valley, Nev. Guatemalan pres. (1945-51) Juan Jose Arevalo (b. 1904) on Oct. 8 in Guatemala City. Am. automobile designer Gordon Buehrig (b. 1904) on Jan. 22 in Grosse Pointe Woods, Mich. Soviet physicist Pavel Cherenkov (b. 1904) on Jan. 6 in Moscow; 1958 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. Skinner Box #1 psychologist B.F. Skinner (b. 1904) on Aug. 18 in Cambridge, Mass. (leukemia). Am. Miss America Mary Katherine Campbell (b. 1905) on June 7 in San Francisco, Calif. Swedish "I do not vant to be alone" actress Greta Garbo (b. 1905) on Apr. 15 in New York City. Italian fashion house owner Aldo Gucci (b. 1905) on Jan. 19 in Rome. English "The Spy in Black" film dir. Michael Powell (b. 1905) on Feb. 19 in Avening, Gloucestershire (cancer). German-born Am. Gestalt Therapy psychotherapist Laura Perls (b. 1905) on July 13. Am. congressional investigator Carmine S. Bellino (b. 1906) on Feb. 27 in Coconut Creek, Fla. (prostate cancer); helped bring down Teamsters bosses Jimmy Hoffa and Dave Beck. Am. aviator Jackie Cochran (b. 1906) on Aug. 9 in Indio, Calif. Norwegian Lt. Cmdr. Leif Andreas Larsen (b. 1906) on Oct. 12. U.S. Air Force Gen. Curtis E. LeMay (b. 1906) on Oct. 1. English historian A.J.P. Taylor (b. 1906) on Sept. 7 in London: "Life is a school of probability"; "Nothing is inevitable until it happens"; "All other forms of history - economic history, social history, psychological history, above all sociology - seem to me history with the history left out." English pshrink John Bowlby (b. 1907) on Sept. 2 in Skye. Am. actor Mike Mazurki (b. 1907) on Dec. 9 in Glendale, Calif. Italian novelist Alberto Moravia (b. 1907) on Sept. 26 in Rome. Spanish artist Francisco Ribera Gomez (b. 1907). Am. actress Barbara Stanwyck (b. 1907) on Jan. 20: "I want to go on until they have to shoot me." Am. "Our Miss Brooks" actress Eve Arden (b. 1908) on Nov. 12 in Los Angeles, Calif. (colorectal cancer and heart disease). English actress Jill Esmond (b. 1908) on July 28 in Wandsworth, London. Soviet physicist Ilya Frank (b. 1908) on June 22 in Moscow; 1958 Nobel Physics Prize. U.S. Supreme Court justice #94 (1962-5), labor secy. and U.N. ambassador Arthur J. Goldberg (b. 1908) on Jan. 19 in Washington, D.C.; found dead in his apt. English actor Rex Harrison (b. 1908) on June 2 in New York City. Am. football player-wrestler Bronko Nagurski (b. 1908) on Jan. 7 in International Falls, Minn. Am. "Jeff King in King of the Rocket Men" actor Tristram Coffin (b. 1908) on Mar. 26 in Santa Monica, Calif. English bandleader Joe Loss (b. 1909) on June 6. Am. architect Gordon Bunshaft (b. 1909) on Aug. 6 in New York City. French chef Raymond Oliver (b. 1909) on Nov. 5 in Paris. German U-boat Capt. Otto Schuhart (b. 1909) on Mar. 10 in Stuttgart. English historian Antony Andrewes (b. 1910) on June 13. Am. "Amy in Little Women" actress Joan Bennett (b. 1910) on Dec. 7 in Scarsdale, N.Y. Am. actor Robert Cummings (b. 1910) on Dec. 2 in Woodland Hills, Calif. (renal failure). Am. actress Paulette Goddard (b. 1910) on Apr. 23 in Ticino, Switzerland (heart failure). Am. aircraft engineer Kelly Johnson (b. 1910) on Dec. 21. Am. "Sgt. Grover in McCloud" actor Ken Lynch (b. 1910) on Feb. 13 in Burbank, Calif. (virus). Russian Orthodox patriarch #14 (1971-90) Pimen I (b. 1910) on May 3 in Moscow. Am. Japanese scholar Edwin O. Reischauer (b. 1910) on Sept. 1 in La Jolla, Calif. English "The Stripper" bandleader David Rose (b. 1910) on Aug. 23 in Burbank, Calif. English fashion designer Ted Tinling (b. 1910) on May 23. Austrian chancellor (1970-83) Bruno Kreisky (b. 1911) on July 29 in Vienna. Vietnamese Communist Party founder Le Duc Tho (b. 1911) on Oct. 13. English actor Terry-Thomas (b. 1911) on Jan. 8 in Godalming, Surrey (Parkinson's); "The last great gentleman of the cinema" (Lionel Jeffries). Am. "Our Miss Brooks" actress Eve Arden (b. 1912) on Nov. 12 in Los Angeles, Calif. (heart disease). English "The Alexandria Quartet" expatriate novelist Lawrence Durrell (b. 1912) on Nov. 7 in Sommieres, France (stroke). Australian novelist Patrick White (b. 1912) on Sept. 30 in Sydney; 1973 Nobel Lit. Prize. Am. "Dustin Hoffman's atty. in Kramer vs. Kramer" actor Howard Duff (b. 1913) on July 8 in Santa Barbara, Calif. (heart attack). Soviet nuclear physicist Georgy Flyorov (b. 1913) on Nov. 19 in Moscow. Am. writer John G. Fuller (b. 1913) (lung cancer). Am. tennis player Alice Marble (b. 1913) on Dec. 13 in Palm Springs, Calif.; won 18 Grand Slam titles in 1936-40. Am. composer Jimmy Van Heusen (b. 1913). Am. actress Mary Martin (b. 1913) on Nov. 3 in Rancho Mirage, Calif. (colorectal cancer). Am. "Hud" film dir. Martin Ritt (b. 1914) on Dec. 8 in Santa Monica, Calif. Am. opera singer Eleanor Steber (b. 1914) on Oct. 3 in Langhorne, Penn. German SS Lt. Col. Otto Weidinger (b. 1914) on Jan. 11 in Aalen. Am. children's writer Oliver Butterworth (b. 1915) on Sept. 17 in West Hartford, Conn. (cancer). Am. writer-publisher and "Saturday Review" ed. Norman Cousins (b. 1915) on Nov. 30: "History is an accumulation of error." Am. physicist Robert Hofstadter (b. 1915) on Nov. 17; 1961 Nobel Physics Prize. English "James and the Giant Peach" novelist Roald Dahl (b. 1916) on Nov. 23 in Great Missenden, Buckinghamshire. English cricketer Sir Leonard Hutton (b. 1916) on Sept. 6 in Kingston-upon-Thames, Surrey (heart attack). English actress Margaret Lockwood (b. 1916) on July 15 in London. Am. novelist Walker Percy (b. 1916) on May 10 in Covington, La. Am. "The Prize" novelist Irving Wallace (b. 1916) on June 29 in Calif. (pancreatic cancer). Am. "Larry Tate in Bewitched" actor David White (b. 1916) on Nov. 27 in North Hollywood, Calif. (heart attack). Am. football coach George Allen (b. 1918) on Dec. 31 in Palos Verdes Estates, Calif. Am. singer-actress Pearl Bailey (b. 1918) on Aug. 17 in Philadelphia, Penn.: "There is a way to look at the past. Don't hide from it. It will not catch you if you don't repeat it." Irish Bell's Inequality physicist John Stewart Bell (b. 1918) on Oct. 1. Am. conductor-composer Leonard Bernstein (b. 1918) on Oct. 14 in New York City (emphysema). Am. psychologist Irving Janis (b. 1918) on Nov. 15 in Santa Rosa, Calif. (lung cancer). Am. historian Leonard Krieger (b. 1918) on Oct. 12. Am. conservative columnist Victor Lasky (b. 1918) on Feb. 22 in Washington, D.C. Am. "Droodles", "Mad Libs" humorist Roger Price (b. 1918) on Oct. 31 in Studio City, Calif. Am. biographer Benjamin Lawrence Reid (b. 1918) on Nov. 30 in South Hadley, Mass. Am. country music record exec Wesley Rose (b. 1918) on Apr. 26 in Nashville, Tenn. Am. jazz musician Art Blakey (b. 1919) on Oct. 16 in New York City (lung cancer). Am. publisher Malcolm Forbes (b. 1919) on Feb. 24 in N.J. (heart attack); his funeral on Mar. 1 in St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church in New York City is attended by Pres. Nixon and Elizabeth Taylor: "People who never get carried away should be." French publisher Maurice Girodias (b. 1919) on July 3. Am. football player-sportscaster Tom Harmon (b. 1919) on Mar. 15 in Los Angeles, Calif. (heart attack). British "Man from Moscow", "Man from Odessa" spy Greville Wynne (b. 1919) on Feb. 28 in London (throat cancer); served 15 years in a Soviet prison. Canadian-born Am. "The Peter Principle" writer Laurence J. Peter (b. 1919) on Jan. 12: "A pessimist is a man who looks both ways when he's crossing a one-way street." Am. game show host Bill Cullen (b. 1920) on July 7 in Bel Air, Calif. (lung cancer). English-born Am. composer Peter Racine Fricker (b. 1920) on Feb. 1. Chinese-born Am. Wang Labs founder An Wang (b. 1920) on Mar. 24 in Mass. (cancer). Swiss dramatist Friedrich Durrenmatt (b. 1921) on Dec. 14 in Neuchatel. Am. "Skipper in Gilligan's Island" actor Alan Hale Jr. (b. 1921) on Jan. 2 in Los Angeles, Calif. (cancer). Am. hall-of-fame auto race Wendell Scott (b. 1921) on Dec. 23 in Danville, Va. (spinal cancer). Am. historian William Appleman Williams (b. 1921) on Mar. 5 near Corvallis, Ore. Am. actress Ava Gardner (b. 1922) on Jan. 25 in London. Am. basketball player Nathaniel Clifton (b. 1922) on Aug. 31 in Chicago, Ill. Am. actress Barbara Baxley (b. 1923) on June 7 in Manhattan, N.Y. (heart attack). Am. jazz tenor saxophonist Dexter Gordon (b. 1923) on Apr. 25 in Philadelphia, Penn. Italian composer Luigi Nono (b. 1924) on May 8 in Venice. Am. jazz singer "Sassy" "the Divine One" Sarah Vaughan (b. 1924) on Apr. 3 in Hidden Hills, Calif. (lung cancer). Am. educational historian Lawrence A. Cremin (b. 1925) on Sept. 4 in New York City (heart attack): "When the Russians beat us into space, the public blamed the schools, not realizing that the only thing that had been proved was that their German scientists had gotten ahead of our German scientists." Am. Rat Pack entertainer Sammy Davis Jr. (b. 1925) on May 16 in Beverly Hills, Calif. (throat cancer). El Salvadoran pres. (1984-9) Jose Napoleon Duarte (b. 1925) on Feb 23 in San Salvador. Canadian hockey coach Fred Shero (b. 1925) on Nov. 24 in Camden, N.J. Am. civil rights leader Rev. Ralph D. Abernathy (b. 1926) on Apr. 17. South African singer Virginia Lee (b. 1927) on Jan. 7 in Houghton, Johannesburg. Am. IC chip inventor Robert Noyce (b. 1927) on June 3 (heart failure). Am. singer Johnnie Ray (b. 1927) on Feb. 24 in Los Angeles, Calif. (cirrhosis of the liver). French actress Capucine (b. 1928) on Mar. 17 in Lausanne, Switzerland (suicide by jumping out of her 8th floor apt. window); she was only married for 6 mo. in her 20s, had a 2-year affair with William Holden in the 1960s, and never married, l eaving only three cats - waste of good lesbian meat? Am. "Rockin' Robin" singer Bobby Day (b. 1928) on July 27 in Los Angeles, Calif. (cancer). Soviet cosmonaut Vasily Grigoyrevich Lazarev (b. 1928) on Dec. 31 in Moscow; dies of alcoholism after he is injured in the aborted Soyuz 18a launch and has to appeal directly to PM Leonid Brezhnev go get his spaceflight bonus pay. Am. actor Albert Salmi (b. 1928) on Apr. 23 (wife murder-suicide). Am. "Mel Sharples in Alice", "Jojo Krako in Star Trek" actor Vic Tayback (b. 1929) on May 25 in Glendale, Calif. (heart attack): "Hey Pete Rose, what does a man really want in an after-shave lotion?" (Aqua Velva ad). French "Lola" dir. Jacques Demy (b. 1931) on Oct. 27 in Paris. Am. singer Thurston Harris (b. 1931) (Lamplighters) on Apr. 14 in Pomona, Calif. Indian guru Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (Osho) (b. 1931) on Jan. 19 in Pune. Am. fashion designer Halston (b. 1932) on Mar. 26 in San Francisco, Calif. (AIDS); fired from his own co. in Oct. 1984. Am. JDL founder Rabbi Meir Kahane (b. 1932) on Nov. 5 in New York City (assassinated). Argentine "Kiss of the Spider Woman" novelist Manuel Puig (b. 1932) on July 22 in Cuernavaca, Mexico. Am. astronaut Ronald Evans (b. 1933) on Apr. 7 in Scottsdale, Ariz. Am. "Hill St. Blues" actor Rene Enriquez (b. 1934) on Mar. 24 (pancreatic cancer). Am. "Runaway" singer Del Shannon (b. 1934) on Feb. 8 in Santa Clarita, Calif. (suicide). Am. "Cats" cartoonist Bernard Kliban (b. 1935) on Aug. 12 in San Francisco, Calif. (heart failure). Am. R&B singer (Platters, Coaster) Cornell Gunter (b. 1936) on Feb. 26 in Las Vegas, Nev.; dies after being shot in his car. Am. Muppets creator Jim Henson (b. 1936) on May 16. English "Leila Kalomi in Star Trek" actress Jill Ireland (b. 1936) on May 17 (breast cancer). English opera singer Elizabeth Harwood (b. 1938) on June 21 in Ingatestone, Essex (cancer). Am. musician-producer Gary Usher (b. 1938) on May 25. British historian Timothy Wright Mason (b. 1940) on Mar. 5 in Rome (suicide). Cuban writer Reinaldo Arenas (b. 1943) on Dec. 7 in New York City (suicide by OD from AIDS). Am. dir. Richard Benner (b. 1943) on Dec. 2 in Toronto, Ont., Canada (AIDS). Am. "Rusty Williams in Make Room for Daddy" actor Rusty Hamer (b. 1947) on Jan. 18 in DeRidder, La. (suicide). English Teacup Poisoner Graham Young (b. 1947) on Aug. 1 in Parkhurst Prison, Isle of Wight (heart attack). Am. "David in Sesame Street" actor Northern Calloway (b. 1948) on Jan. 9 (excited delirium syndrome). Scottish "Eric Liddell in Chariots of Fire" actor Ian Charleson (b. 1949) on Jan. 6 in London (AIDS); first British celeb to die of AIDS. Am. Lynyrd Skynyrd musician Allen Collins (b. 1952) on Jan. 23 (chronic pneumonia from paralysis caused by a 1986 automobile accident). Am. actor David Rappaport (b. 1951) on May 2 (suicide). Am. blues musician Stevie Ray Vaughan (b. 1954) on Aug. 27 in East Troy, Wisc. (heli accident) - the good die young? Am. 31-in.-tall E.T. actress Tamara De Treaux (b. 1959) on Nov. 28 (heart failure). Am. grunge musician Andrew Wood (b. 1966) on Mar. 16 in Seattle, Wash. (heroin OD). Am. basketball player Hank Gathers (b. 1967) on Mar. 4 in Los Angeles, Calif.; collapses and dies of a heart condition during a game against the Portland Pilots at the West Coast Conference (WCC) Tournament.



1991 - The I'm Melting, Yeltsing Killeen Texas Year? The U.S.-led Gulf War pumps up American patriotism, while Pope John Paul II has a big year publicity-wise? Meanwhile as Dorothy and the Wizard of Oz kick indisputably evil Iraqi butt and atone for Vietnam, the Wicked Witch of the West (the Soviet Union), dissolves, along with the Cold War, allowing Boris N. Yeltsin to stumble Russia into the new era of the World Wide Web?

U.S. Gen. Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (1934-2012) Clarence Thomas of the U.S. (1948-) Anita Faye Hill (1946-) John Claggett 'Jack' Danforth of the U.S. (1936-) Joseph Robinette 'Joe' Biden of the U.S. (1942-) Sharon Pratt Dixon of the U.S. (1944-) Robert Schwarz Strauss of the U.S. (1918-) Edith Cresson of France (1934-) Kiichi Miyazawa of Japan (1919-2007) Paul John Keating of Australia (1944-) Aleka Papariga of Greece (1945-) Maria Damanaki of Greece (1952-) Milo Dukanovic of Montenegro (1962-) Momir Bulatovic of Montenegro (1956-) Svetozar Marovic of Montenegro (1955-) Gen. Mohamed Farrah Aidid of Somalia (1934-96) Ali Mahdi Mohammad of Somalia (1938-) Gen. Mustafa Tlass of Syria (1932-) Elias Hrawi of Lebanon (1925-2006) Harald V of Norway (1937-) Kaci Kullmann Five of Norway (1951-) Jorge Serrano Elias of Guatemala (1945-) Zviad Gamaskhurdia of Georgia (1939-) Mircea Ion Snegur of Moldova (1940-) Leonid Kravchuk of Ukraine (1934-) Stjepan Mesic of Croatia (1934-) Levon Ter-Petrosian of Albania (1945-) Sali Berisha of Albania (1944-) Dzhokhar Dudayev of Chechnya (1944-96) Akhmed Zakayev of Chechnya (1959-) Zeljko Raznatovic of Bosnia (1952-2000) Radovan Karadzic of Bosnia (1945-) Salah Khalaf (Abu Iyad) (1933-91) Frederick Jacob Titus Chiluba of Zambia (1943-) Foday Sankoh of Sierra Leone (1937-2003) P.V. Narasimha Rao of India (1921-2004) Subramanian Swamy of India (1939-) Egyptian Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi (1935-) Khaleda Zia of Bangladesh (1945-) Gen. Raoul Cedras of Haiti (1949-) Joseph Nérette of Haiti (1924-2007) Robert Gates of the U.S. (1943-) Ed Rendell of the U.S. (1944-) Yegor Gaidar of Russia (1956-2009) Alfreds Rubiks of Latvia Mintimer Shaimiev of Tatarstan (1937-) Helen Patricia Sharman of Britain (1963-) Archbishop Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz (1949-) Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat of Malaysia (1931-) James W. King (1936-) Rodney King (1965-) Rodney King (1965-) Rodney King (1965-) Daryl Gates (1926-2010) Hitoshi Igarashi (1947-91) Frank L. Rizzo (1920-91) William Kennedy Smith (1960-) Patricia Bowman (1961-) Rita Johnston of Canada (1935-) U.S. Sen. Henry John Heinz III (1938-91) John Forbes Kerry (1943-) and Teresa Heinz Kerry (1938-) of the U.S. Richard L. 'Dick' Thornburgh of the U.S. (1932-) Harris L. Wofford of the U.S. (1926-) Emanuel Cleaver II of the U.S. (1944-) Marianne Wiggins (1947-) Lesley R. Stahl (1941-) Daw Aung San Suu Kyi (1945-) Donald Henry Gaskins (1933-91) George Hennard (1956-91) Nadine Gordimer (1923-) Pierre-Gilles de Gennes (1932-2007) Richard R. Ernst (1933-) Erwin Neher (1944-) Bert Sakmann (1942-) Ronald Coase (1910-) Tim Berners-Lee (1955-) Wellington E. Webb of the U.S. (1941-) The Cat in the Hat W.W. Herenton of the U.S. Willis Harman (1918-97) Sandra Ingerman Gary A. Kowalski (1953-) John Patrick McCarthy (1956-) Nadine Strossen (1951-) Bishop William C. Frey Patriarch Bartholomew I (1940-) Abdurajak Abubakar Janjalani (1959-98) Albader Parad (-2010) Robert LiButti Katie Couric (1957-) Yasser Arafat (1929-2004) and Suha Arafat (1963-) Joseph Brodsky (1940-96) Andrew Cohen (1955-) Countess Marion Dönhoff (1909-2002) U.S. Lt. Col. William Richard 'Rich' Higgins (1945-90) Ernie Irvan (1959-) Earvin 'Magic' Johnson (1959-) Jim Courier (1970-) Andre Agassi (1970-) Kirby Puckett (1960-) Jack Morris (1955-) Del Ballard Jr. (1963-) Karen Armstrong (1944-) Pamela Smart (1967-) Isaac Asimov (1920-92) Amano Atsushi (1955-) Pat Barker (1943-) Guillermo Calvo (1941-) Gerald Celente (1946-) Tom Clancy (1947-2013) Len Colodny (1938-) Susan Charlotte Faludi (1959-) Jostein Gaarder (1952-) Albert Hourani (1915-93) Kitty Kelley (1942-) Frank McGuinness (1953-) Mark E. Neely Jr. (1944-) Michael Savage (1942-) Simon Schama (1945-) Michael Talbot (1953-) Jane Smiley (1949-) Kenneth R. Timmerman (1953-) Siraj Wahhaj (1950-) Bjorn Daehlie (1967-) Willie Shoemaker (1931-2003) Frank Chin (1940-) Mary Higgins Clark (1927-) Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio (1940-) Paula Deen (1947-) E.J. Dionne (1952-) Bobby Flay (1964-) Marshall Govindan Charles Glass (1951-) Campbell Harvey (1958-) Wayne E. Ferson John Grisham (1955-) Davis R. Ignatius (1950-) 'Trumped' by John R. O'Donnell, 1991 Richard Powers (1957-) Lewis Burwell Puller Jr. (1945-94) Norman Rush (1933-) Patricia Smith (1955-) Dinesh D'Souza (1961-) Anna Sui (1964-) Jeffrey Toobin (1960-) Linus Benedict Torvalds (1969-) 'The Art of Survival' by Donald Trump (1946-), 1991 Bruce Alan Wagner (1954-) David Wojnarowicz (1954-92) Naomi Wolf (1962-) Phil Zimmermann Jr. (1954-) Paul 'Pee-Wee Herman' Reubens (1952-) Pee-Wee Herman (Paul Reubens) (1952-) Jeff Lebesch and Kim Jordan New Belgium Brewery Logo High Hops Brewery 'JFK', 1991 Oliver Stone (1946-) Kevin Costner (1953-) 'Home Improvement', 1991-9 'Rugrats', 1991-2004 Tony Kushner (1956-) Bill Graham (1930-91) Liz Taylor (1932-) and Larry Fortensky (1952-) Per Yngve Ohlin (1969-92) Brian Selznick (1966-) The Divinyls Red Hot Chili Peppers Metallica Nirvana Courtney Love (1964-) Pearl Jam Crash Test Dummies The KLF Tom Cochrane (1953-) Marky Mark (1971-) Type O Negative Skid Row Primal Scream Seal (1963-) U2 Right Said Fred Bonnie Raitt (1949-) Wynonna Judd (1964-) Shabba Ranks (1966-) Tupac Shakur (1971-96) Ricky Martin (1971-) Gerardo (1965-) The Divinyls Gerardo (1965-) Death Row Records Suge Knight (1965-) Dr. Dre (1965-) Naughty by Nature 'Blossom', 1991-5 'The Commish', 1991-6 'Stomp', 1991 'Assassins', 1991 'Sisters', 1991-6 'AEon Flux', 1991-5 'The Secret Garden', 1991 Sir Cameron Mackintosh (1946-) 'The Commitments', 1991 'Fried Green Tomatoes', 1992 Oliver Stone (1946-) 'JFK', 1991 'King Ralph', 1991 'Let Him Have It', 1991 'My Own Private Idaho', 1991 'Point Break', 1991 'The Prince of Tides', 1991 'Prosperos Books', 1991 'The Silence of the Lambs', 1991 'The Silence of the Lambs', 1991 Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country', 1991 'T2', 1991 'Thelma and Louise', 1991 Damien Hirst (1965-) 'The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living' by Damien Hirst, 1991 National Firefighters Memorial, 1991 Cyril Demarne (1905-2007) San Jose Sharks Logo San Jose Arena

1991 Doomsday Clock: 17 min. to midnight - the safest year since it began in 1947, since everybody knows they got a long 9 years till the End of Days? Chinese Year: Sheep (Feb. 15) (lunar year 4689). Time Mag. Man of the Year: Ted Turner (1938-). World pop.: 5.4B; China: 1B: India: 844M; Soviet Union: 285M; U.S.: 253M; worldwide 250K babies are born a day, with 95% of the growth occurirng in developing countries (where total pop. has gone from 1.7B to 4.1B since 1950), and the other 5% in industrialized countries (where total pop. has gone from 832M to 1.2B since 1950), according to the U.N. Fund for Pop. Activities (released in May); 51% of women use birth control, compared to 10% in 1950; beginning this year the number of people moving out of Calif. is greater than the number moving in (until ?). By this year 50% of the food eaten in the Soviet Union is being grown outside the official Communist system. In Jan. the final 1990 U.S. Census figures are announced, and Los Angeles passes Chicago as the 2nd most populous city in the U.S. after New York City; 6 of the 10 largest U.S. cities are now in the South or West, and all but Houston are still growing rapidly; New York City gains 3.5% in pop., while Chicago, Philly, and Detroit lose pop. between 1980-90. This is the Year That Punk Broke? On Jan. 1 Washington defeats Iowa by 46-34 to win the 1991 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 1 the U.S. Luxury Tax for automobiles over $30K in retail value goes into effect. On Jan. 2 Sharon Pratt Dixon (Kelly) (1944-) is sworn-in as the first black female mayor (#3) of Washington, D.C. (until Jan. 2, 1995). On Jan. 3 the sitcom Blossom debuts on NBC-TV for 114 episodes (until May 22, 1995), starring Mayim Bialik as bright enterprising teenie Blossom Russo, whose best friend is Six LeMeure, played by Jenna van Oy (Oÿ) (1977-), who has a crush on Joseph "Joey" Russo, played by Joey Lawrence (Joseph Lawrence Mignogna Jr.) (1976-). On Jan. 3-5 the French make an unsuccessful peace initiative to Baghdad. On Jan. 4 Les Peer wins his case before the Colo. Supreme Court entitling him to collect $11M from the Aspen Skiing Co. for a 1982 Thanksgiving Day accident on Aspen Mt.'s "Ruthie's Run" that left him with a broken neck; the case caused the Colo. Legislature to pass legislation limiting a resort's liability to $1M. On Jan. 5-6 windstorms kill 28 in Great Britain and Ireland at sea. On Jan. 6 conservative Christian businessman Jorge Serrano Elias (1945-) of the Solidarity Action Movement, backed by the military wins a 5-year term as pres. of Guatemala (ends 1993); inflation runs at over 75%, unemployment at over 40%, and almost 100K have been killed since the guerrilla war began in the 1960s, but Serrano pledges to end human rights abuses, carry out agrarian reforms and distribute wealth more fairly, although his party fails to control a majority of seats in the nat. legislature and is unable to deliver; his govt. holds talks with the rebels from Apr.-July. On Jan. 7 Time mag. names the Two George Bushes as their Men of the Year. On Jan. 7 U.S. defense secy. Dick Cheney cancels plans to purchase the A-12 Avenger stealth attack plane for the Navy. On Jan. 9 U.S. secy. of state James A. Baker and Iraqi foreign minister Tariq Aziz meet in Switzerland, and fail to reach agreement. On Jan. 9 teachers' unions in Greece order a strike after a teacher is murdered by right-wingers, causing riots in Athens, hospitalizing over 100; on Feb. 27 moderate Aleka (Alexandra) Papariga (1945-) is elected gen. secy. of the Greek Communist Party, becoming the first woman to hold the post - not literally? On Jan. 11 the breakaway 94% Sunni Muslim Chechen Repub. (Chechnya) AKA Ichkeria ("land of minerals") (pop. 1.2M) is proclaimed; the Sunni-Sufi Repub. of Ingushetia (pop. 500K) also splits off from the former Chechen-Ingush ASSR, and declares independence next June 4; on Nov. 1 Soviet Air Force Gen. Dzhokhar Musayevich Dudayev (1944-96) is elected pres. #1 of Chechnya (until Apr. 21, 1996); Boris Yeltsin, who is responsible for breaking up the Soviet Union suddenly flip-flops and refuses to recognize it, then sends troops, but recalls them when faced with armed resistance led by former actor Akhmed Khalidovich Zakayev (1959-). On Jan. 12 over the objections of defense secy. Dick Cheney, Pres. Bush receives authorization from Congress to use force to end Iraq's occupation of Kuwait; Pope John Paul II warns that a Persian Gulf War would represent "a decline for all humanity", as one of more than 50 appeals for peace between last Aug. and the Feb. ceasefire; when the war is successful and popular at home, Dems. incl. John Kerry and Joe Biden who voted against the authorization knock themselves out of the running for U.S. pres., opening the way for Bill Clinton? On Jan. 12 a Singapore-registered cargo ship sinks in stormy seas off Newfoundland, killing all 33 crew aboard. On Jan. 13 Soviet troops storm Lithuania's radio-TV center, killing 14. On Jan. 13 42 are killed in a brawl and stampede during a soccer match in Orkney (near Johannesburg), South Africa. On Jan. 14/15 a turncoat bodyguard working for the Abu Nidal faction assassinates Yasser Arafat's two senior deputies, Salah Mesbah Khalaf (Abu Iyad) (b. 1933), and Fakhri al-Omari (Abu Mohammed), and PLO security chief Hayel Abdel-Hamid in a house outside Tunis, then holds Abdel-Hamid's wife and daughters hostage for six hours before being arrested; Khalaf had flopped to support a 2-state solution? On Jan. 14 France presents a 6-point peace plan in an effort to avert a war in the Persian Gulf, but U.S. officials reject it as offering Saddam Hussein too many concessions. On Jan. 15 anti-war protesters around the U.S. demonstrate in front of federal bldgs. and many are arrested, incl. 35 in Boulder, Colo. and 22 in Denver; meanwhile tens of thousands of Iraqi demonstrate in support of their brave heroic 54-y.-o. leader's stand and against Western "arrogance". On Jan. 15 (Martin Luther King Jr.'s birthday) the Peace Choir (20+ rockers, incl. Yoko Ono, Sean Lennon, Lenny Kravitz, MC Hammer, Bonnie Raitt, Tom Petty, Peter Gabriel, L.L. Cool J., Run D.M.C., Cyndi Lauper) release a version of John Lennon's "Give Peace a Chance" with new lyrics by 15-y.-o. Sean Lennon. On Jan. 15 New York City-born chef (French Culinary Inst. grad) Robert William "Bobby" Flay (1964-) opens the Mesa Grill in New York City, going on to expand his restaurant empire and appear on Food Network and Cooking Channel, getting in a TV feud with Iron Chef Masaharu Morimoto on Iron Chef America in 2000 that increases his popularity. On Jan. 15-16 (midnight) the U.S. deadline for Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait expires, and the White House comments, "Jan. 15 was a day for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait. It was not a deadline for U.N. action. The choice for peace remains with Saddam Hussein"; on Jan. 16 ABC, CBS, NBC and CNN cover the start of the war, with CNN featuring on-site reporting from Peter Arnett, Bernard Shaw, and John Holliman from a Baghdad hotel room. On Jan. 16 Pres. Bush orders the first-ever drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. On Jan. 16 ailing Eastern Airlines shuts down after 62 years in business. On Jan. 16 the Vatican appoints 10 bishops for the Ukraine, rebooting the country's Roman Catholic hierarchy after years of atheist Communist suppression; on Mar. 30 Myroslav Cardinal Lubachivsky returns to his Ukrainian diocese of Lvov after 45 years in exile; on Apr. 13 Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz (1949-) is appointed archbishop of Moscow, becoming the highest Roman Catholic public official in the Soviet Union since the 1917 Oct. Rev. On Jan. 16 (Wed.) the (Persian) Gulf War (ends Apr. 11) is launched by the U.N. to recover Kuwait less than 17 hours after Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein fails to meet a U.N. deadline for withdrawal of military forces from his "19th province"; 680K Allied troops (incl. Arab, British and French and 415K Americans) are arrayed against 545K Iraqi troops (with 480K reserves) concentrated in Kuwait and SE Iraq; U.S. forces incl. 245K Army, 75K Marines, 50K Navy, and 45K Air Force (who have use of NATO air bases in Turkey); the U.S. has 13 combat ships in the Mediterranean, 26 in the Red Sea, incl. aircraft carriers Saratoga, Kennedy, Roosevelt, and America, and 34 in the Persian Gulf, incl. the aircraft carrier Midway and amphibious ships; the U.S. Central Command is just E of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; no-fly zones are declared and patrolled by U.S. and British planes; U.S. troops are vaccinated for anthrax in preparation for the war; the Styx song Show Me the Way is adopted by the Gulf War Troops as their anthem; Operation Desert Storm, under the command of U.S. Gen. Herbert "Stormin'" Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (1934-2012) is launched as allied forces begin a 6-week air attack on Iraq; CNN correspondents Peter Arnett, Bernard Shaw, and John Holliman report the start of the war live from a Baghdad hotel; Iraq fires eight Scud surface-to-surface missiles at Israel; in early Feb. 1.5K allied tanks and 150K allied troops are positioned for a flanking maneuver along Iraq's lightly defended S border with Saudi Arabia; on Feb. 24 the U.S.-led coalition opens its ground war against Iraq, faking a frontal invasion in S Kuwait, with the real forces attacking from the W on three points; Capt. Michael Scott Speicher becomes the first U.S. service member lost in the Gulf War, and it takes until Aug. 2, 2009 to identify his remains; on Feb. 26 the main highway from Kuwait to Basra becomes the Highway of Death in a huge traffic jam of fleeing Iraqis, and 10K Iraqis die; on Feb. 27-28 Saddam stages his last stand with a fierce tank battle (largest since WWII), in which 200 Iraqi tanks and no U.S. tanks are destroyed (during the war U.S. Abrams M1 and M2 tanks kill 2K Iraqi tanks without a loss); the fighting ends on Feb. 28 after 110K Iraqi soldiers and tens of thousands of Iraqi civilians are killed, and 30K Iraqi POWs are taken; Saudi Arabia is charged $60B to pay for their defense, and takes out its first-ever ($4.5B) loan to pay for it (paid up on May 22, 1995); no Medals of Honor are issued for this action. On Jan. 17 king (since 1957) Olav V (b. 1903) dies, and his only son Harald V (1937-) becomes king of Norway (until ?), the first to be born in Norway in 567 years (since Denmark ran it from 1381-1814, followed by Sweden from 1814-1905). On Jan. 18 three teenagers are trampled and killed during an AC/DC concert at the Salt Palace (built 1969) in Salt Lake City, Utah, causing "festival seating" to be discontinued; the palace is demolished in 1994. On Jan. 18 the Iraqis begin launching Scud missiles against Israel. On Jan. 20 in Latvia "black beret" commandos of the Soviet Interior Ministry attack the Interior Ministry HQ, killing five; Communist leader Alfreds Rubiks supports a Soviet crackdown against the independence movement, but is arrested on Aug. 23 and charged with "treason to the USSR", and sentenced to eight years on July 27, 1995. On Jan. 21 Iraq announces it has scattered POWs in targeted areas; Pres. Bush announces that Saddam Hussein will be held personally responsible. On Jan. 22 Soviet pres. Mikhail Gorbachev decrees that all existing 50 and 100 ruble banknotes are no longer legal tender, and that they can be exchanged for new notes for three days only and only in small quantities; on Jan. 26 he gives police the authority to search any place of business and demand its records at will; the economy goes into a tailspin. On Jan. 22 Pope Paul II issues the 153-page encyclical The Church's Missionary Mandate, urging the faithful to proselytize in Christian areas of Africa and the Middle East where Islam is making inroads - within a decade they better start proselytizing in England, Netherlands, and Sweden too? On Jan. 23 Iraq deliberately creates a huge oil spill in the Persian Gulf. On Jan. 26 there are massive demonstrations for and against Operation Desert Storm across the U.S.; the largest is held in Washington, D.C. On Jan. 26 in Somalia long-time Red China-friendly Marxist dictator-pres. #3 (since Oct. 21, 1969) Mohamed Siad Barre (1919-95), who attemped to end the clan wars in vain is forced to flee to Nigeria when rebels capture the capital of Mogadishu, which becomes the stage for fighting by rival militias (until ?) after former partners (pres. #5 from June 15, 1995-Aug. 1, 1996) Gen. Mohammad Farrah Aidid (Aideed) (1934-96) and pres. #4 (Jan. 1991-June 1995) Gen. Ali Mahdi Mohammad (1938-) split and start a clan-based civil war, which leads to the starvation of 100K+ by next year as the country is left in the hands of guerrilla groups and warlords who hijack aid shipments and fight with each other, while pirates flourish on the lawless Horn of Africa, threatening shipping. On Jan. 27 the super-patriotic Super Bowl XXV (25) is held in Tampa, Fla.; Whitney Houston sings a stirring rendition of The Star-Spangled Banner, which is the first-ever to reach the top 40; the N.Y. Giants (NFC) defeat the Buffalo Bills (AFC) 20-19 after Bills' Scott Norwood's 47-yard field goal attempt with 4 sec. remaining sails wide right; Giants' QB Ottis Jerome "O.J." Anderson (1957-) is MVP. On Jan. 30 four Cuban refugees, a doctor and his wife, plus a U. of Havana prof. and his wife wash up in wetsuits at the dock of laid-back singer-songwriter Jimmy Buffett in Key West, Fla.; he gives them coffee and calls immigration on them. In Jan. Pres. Bush announces that the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) (AKA Star Wars) (proposed by Pres. Regan on Mar. 23, 1983) will be cut down to defend the U.S. mainland against rogue missiles with the 1988 Brilliant Pebbles (formerly Smart Rocks) concept of 4K low-Earth orbit satellites that fire high-velocity watermelon-sized projectiles at incoming ICBMs, which is abandoned in 1993, and ground-based interceptor missiles (Ballistic Missile Defense Org.) substituted, with U.S. defense secy. Les Aspin announcing that he's "taking the Star out of Star Wars"; deployment is set for 2005. On Feb. 1 34 (22 aboard the big plane, 12 on the small plane) are killed when a USAir Boeing 737 crashes atop a SkyWest commuter turboprop plane while landing at Los Angeles Internat. Airport (LAX). On Feb. 1 the 1-mo. Manitoba Nursing Strike in Canada ends as 10.5K nurses acccept a 2-year 14% salary increase. On Feb. 1 a 6.8 earthquake kills 1.2K in Afghanistan and N Pakistan - don't hide your feelings, Earth Boy? On Feb. 3 U.S. military officials confirm that seven of 11 Marines who were killed in combat on Jan. 30 died from friendly fire. On Feb. 3 the rate for a first-class U.S. postage stamp rises to 29 cents. On Feb. 5 a Greek military transport crashes in the Othris Mts. in Greece in stormy weather, killing all 66 aboard. On Feb. 6 Jordan's King Hussein denounces the "savage" war against Iraq as an attempt by the U.S. to control the Middle East; this comes after eight Jordanian tanker drivers are killed in allied air attacks while transporting gasoline to Iraq in violation of the U.N. embargo; on Feb. 7 Pres. Bush orders a reappraisal of $55M in U.S. aid to Jordan, and in Mar. Congress votes to cut $20M in military assistance and $30M in economic aid; on Feb. 8 Pres. Bush steps up pressure on Jordanian king Hussein not to join forces with Saddam Hussein, uttering the soundbyte: "He seems to have moved over, way over, into Saddam Hussein's camp"; in July after Jordan agrees to attend the Oct. 30 Middle East peace conference, economic aid is restored, followed by military aid on Oct. 30. On Feb. 7 Rev. Jean-Bertrand Aristide is sworn-in as Haiti's first democratically-elected pres.; too bad, he is overthrown on Sept. 30. On Feb. 10 approx. 100 celebs in L.A. record Voices That Care in support of allied troops in the Gulf War. On Feb. 13 41 Ash Wednesday worshippers die in a panic in a narrow alley leading to a packed church in Chalma, Mexico. On Feb. 14 two San Francisco men become the first gay couple to register as domestic partners under a new city ordinance - where did they put the ring? On Feb. 15 Saddam Hussein makes a conditional offer to withdraw from Kuwait, but the allies reject it. On Feb. 15 a truck carrying dynamite overturns and explodes in Phang-Nga Province, Thailand, killing 171 onlookers. On Feb. 15 Milo Dukanovic (1962-) is appointed PM #1 of the first democratically elected govt. of Montenegro (until Feb. 5, 1998), with the blessings of Slobodan Milosevic of Serbia, becoming the youngest PM in Europe; meanwhile his Montenegran League of Communists, which scored a V in 1990 parliamentary elections changes its name to the Dem. Party of Socialists (DPS), and Dukanovic shares power with fellow party members Momir Bulatovic (1956-) (pres. #1 from Dec. 23, 1990 to Jan. 15, 1998) and Svetozar Marovic (1955-) - well I'll be a Sonofavic? On Feb. 18 the Irish Repub. Army claims responsibility for a bomb that exploded in a London rail station, killing a commuter. On Feb. 20 Slovenia votes for secession from Yugoslavia. On Feb. 22 the U.S. and its Gulf War allies give Iraq 24 hours to begin withdrawing from Kuwait or face a final all-out attack; on Feb. 22 the U.S. invades Kuwait and quickly chases out the Iraqi forces; on Feb. 24 the USS Tarawa (launched in 1973) lands troops in Kuwait; U.S. soldiers may have been exposed to minute amounts of the Russian nerve gas agent Substance 33; the drug PB (pyridostigmine bromide) is issued to U.S. troops, and many abuse it for the rush it gives. On Feb. 23 French forces unofficially start the Persian Gulf ground war by crossing the Saudi-Iraqi border. On Feb. 23 tanks roll in the streets of Bangkok, Thailand in a coup against the corrupt govt. of PM Gen. Chatichai Choonhavan (1922-98). On Feb. 24 the allies launch the official ground war against Iraq and Kuwait. On Feb. 24 a mudslide in Papua, New Guinea wipes out several villages and kills at least 200. On Feb. 25 an Iraqi Scud missile hits a crowded U.S. barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 28; meanwhile, Iraqi soldiers carrying white flags and copies of the Quran surrender to coalition troops in Kuwait en masse; some Iraqi units have a 40% casualty and 30%-50% desertion rate, and in some cases had already left their trenches when Allied troops crossed into Iraq and Kuwait. On Feb. 26 Allied troops take control of Kuwait after a 100-hour ground war as Saddam Hussein calls for a troop withdrawl; a ceasefire in Kuwait is announced by Pres. Bush on Feb. 27, and on Feb. 28 Iraq announces an end to all hostilities; on Mar. 1 Pres. Bush announces: "We've kicked the Vietnam syndrome once and for all"; Saddam has the last laugh as he orders 730 Kuwaiti oil wells set afire (causing a 26K-sq.-mi. smoke cloud), and a Kuwaiti refinery spiked to release 240M gal. of oil into the Persian Gulf (25x as much as the 1989 Exxon Valdez accident); oil minister Homoud al-Roqbah (pr. RUG-bah) is put in charge of putting out the fires in 597 leaking and burning oil wells; total U.S. war dead: 382; total Iraqi war dead: 100K, incl. 80K in the air campaign and 20K after the ground war was launched; "It wasn't a war, it was a slaughter. The other side didn't show up and forfeited the game. Then we killed them in the parking lot." (Scott Armstrong, Am. U. in Washington, D.C.); too bad, after the Gulf War ends, in Mar. Kuwait expels 450K Palestinians for PLO support of Saddam Hussein, lowering their percentage of the 2.2M pop. from 30% to 3%. On Feb. 29 the multiethnic (44% Muslim, 31% Orthodox Catholic Serb, 17% Roman Catholic Croat) Socialist Repub. of Bosnia and Herzegovina passes a referendum for independence from the Federal Repub. of Yugoslavia; on Apr. 6-7 the European Community and U.S. recognize the breakaway Repub. of Bosnia, pissing-off Bosnian Serbs, who on Aug. 12 declare the Republika Srpska, and begin the Bosnian War (ends Dec. 14, 1995) to ethnically cleanse their new nation of Muslims, led by "the Butcher of Bosnia" Gen. Zeljko "Arkan" Raznatovic (1952-2000) and his 10K-man Tigers in the Vukovar region of Croatia; Gen. Radovan Karadzic (1945-) orders numerous Muslim massacres across Bosnia that kill 7.5K; in Nov. Bosnian Croats declare the Croat Community of Herzeg-Bosnia. In Feb. First Lady Barbara Bush flies from Washington, D.C. to Indianapolis, Ind. to calm public fears about terrorism related to the Gulf War, becoming her first commercial flight as First Lady. In Feb. Va.-born Katherine Feinstein "Katie" Couric (1957-) (whose career began in 1979 at ABC getting coffee for Frank Reynolds) subs for pregnant Deborah Norville as co-host of NBC's The Today Show, and when Norville pisses-off the mgt. over a breastfeeding photo in People mag., it becomes permanent on Apr. 5 (until 2006); in 1995 Norville becomes host of Inside Edition on CBS (until ?). On Mar. 1 a ship carrying Somalian refugees strikes a reef in the Indian Ocean off Malindi, Kenya, killing 160+ passengers. On Mar. 1 the Nielsen SoundScan system, created by Mike Fine and Mike Shalett begins tracking sales data for the May 25 issue of Billboard mag. On Mar. 1-Apr. 5 after apparent encouragement by U.S. pres. George H.W. Bush, the 1991 Iraqi Uprisings see Shiite Muslims and Kurds rise up against Saddam Hussein in an intifada, but on Mar. 26 the Americans refuse to help and they are crushed; 50K are killed, and 1M flee to Turkey and Iran, wondering what the *!*?! is wrong with Amerika; Saddam Hussein begins an extermination war against the 100K Shiite Marsh Arabs (Ma'dan), launching a massive construction program using all of Iraq's equipment to build a series of canals to divert the Tigris River around them and turn the marshes into desert, reducing their pop. by 2003 to 1.6K, after which the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq allows the dikes to be breached, so that by 2011 50% of the wetlands are restored, and 20K Ma'dan return, with 80K-120K still in refugee camps in Iran. On Mar. 2 Syrian defense minister Lt. Gen. Mustafa Tlass (1932-) says in a radio broadcast that Yasser Arafat has lost all his internat. standing for supporting Iraq in the Gulf conflict, calling it a betrayal because Kuwait's ruling al-Sabah family supported his mainstream Fatah movement within the PLO. On Mar. 3 (shortly after midnight) after a 117 mph car chase, black motorist Rodney Glen King (1965-) is arrested by Los Angeles, Calif. police, who severely beat him when he's down while bystander George Holliday videotapes it all from a distance, shocking the U.S. with the appearance of Third World police brutality in the Land of the Free. On Mar. 3 United Airlines Flight 585 (Boeing 737) inexplicably crashes nose-first into a park while approaching the airport in Colorado Springs, Colo., killing all 25 aboard; a reversed rudder is later blamed. On Mar. 3 Latvia and Estonia vote to become independent of the Soviet Union. On Mar. 3 Switzerland lowers the voting age from 20 to 18. On Mar. 5 all 43 people aboard are killed when a Venezuelan jetliner crashes on a mountain near Santa Barbara, Venezuela. On Mar. 5 Iraq releases 15 U.S., 9 British, 9 Saudi, one Kuwaiti and one Italian POW, followed by the last 35 U.S. POWs on Mar. 6 as a condition for a ceasefire, causing the U.S. on Mar. 6 to release 294 Iraqi POWs, the first of 63K to be released; 30K Kuwaiti civilians are released by the Iraqis later. On Mar. 9 an anti-Communist demonstration in Belgrade is suppressed by Serbian pres. Slobodan Milosevic, who vies to topple the collective state presidency of Yugoslavia, pressuring the presidents of Montenegro and Vojvodina to resign, and causing the six presidents of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia to meet on Mar. 28 to discuss the crisis. On Mar. 10 hundreds of thousands of demonstrators in Moscow demand the resignation of Pres. Gorbachev. On Mar. 10 flash floods near Mulanje, Malawi kill 500. On Mar. 11 former Greek PM Andreas Papandreou goes on a televised trial with three others for illegal arms dealings with the Middle East; he is acquitted next Jan. 17, and in May the parliament votes to drop all charges against him. On Mar. 14 Sheik Jaber al-Ahmed al-Sabah, emir of Kuwait returns home after 7 mo. in exile. On Mar. 14 a British court reverses the convictions of the Birmingham Six (who had spent 16 years in prison for an IRA bombing), and orders them released. On Mar. 16 a plane crash kills seven members of singer Reba McEntire's entire reba, er, band. On Mar. 17-18 a referendum in the Soviet Union favors preserving the union, at the same time favoring electing Boris N. Yeltsin to the presidency. On Mar. 18 Maria Damanaki (1952-) is elected pres. of the Left Alliance coalition in Greece. On Mar. 20 Khaleda Zia (1945-), widow of assassinated pres. Ziaur Rahman (1936-81) becomes PM #9 of Bangladesh (until Mar. 30, 1996) (first woman PM). On Mar. 20 the U.S. Supreme Court rules unanimously in the Automobile Workers v. Johnson Controls case that employers can't use "fetal protection" policies (from lead etc.) as excuses for banning women from hazardous jobs. On Mar. 20 4-y.-o. Conor Clapton (b. 1986), son of guitarist Eric Clapton and Italian actress Lori Del Santo falls to his death in New York City; he is buried on Mar. 28 in Ripley, England. On Mar. 21 the U.N. releases a report stating that Iraq's public works have been bombed into a "pre-industrial" age. On Mar. 21 two U.S. Navy sub-hunting planes collide in midair over the Pacific Ocean off San Diego, Calif. during a training exercise, killing 27 crew members in the worse naval air crash in decades. On Mar. 24 "Jeopardy!" host Alex Trebek becomes a guest announcer at the WWE (World Wrestling Entertainment) WrestleMania VII, and interviews Jake "the Snake" Roberts, getting scared away by his snake Damien. On Mar. 22 not-so-smart high school employee Pamela Ann Smart (1967-) is convicted of manipulating her 15-y.-o. student lover William Flynn and three of his friends into killing her 24-y.-o. husband Gregory Smart in Derry, N.H. in 1990, and receives a life sentence. On Mar. 23 (11:37 local) a Soviet jetliner skids off a runway and smashes into concrete construction blocks in Tashkent, killing all four crew and 30 of 59 passengers. On Mar. 23 Libyan-trained Foday Saybana Sankoh (1937-2003) leads Rev. United Front (RUF) rebels into Sierra Leone and begins the 11-year Sierra Leone Civil War (ends Jan. 18, 2002), which kills 75K and displaces 2M; it becomes known for atrocities, incl. mass rapes, sex slaves, and large numbers of women soldiers. On Mar. 23(Sun.) an airplane crash kills most of the members of the touring band of country star Reba McEntire. On Mar. 24 police clash with armed blacks in a township E of Johannesburg, South Africa, killing 12 and injuring 29; another 16 deaths are reported in the Joberg area over the previous 24 hours. On Mar. 24 Benin dictator-pres. (since 1972) Mathieu Kerekou is voted from office after 18 years, and granted full amnesty for all his murders and theft; on Apr. 4 PM (since 1991) Nicephore Soglo becomes the new pres. (until 1996), founding the Renaissance Party of Benin (PRB), restoring human rights and instituting austerity measures; too bad, the latter make him unpopular. On Mar. 25 in the Soviet Union Gorbachev's cabinet enacts a 3-week ban on street demonstrations in Moscow, putting police under the control of the Interior Ministry and taking away the authority of the elected Moscow City Council after it approves a rally on Mar. 28 in Manezh Square near the Kremlin. On Mar. 25 the 63rd Academy Awards are held in Los Angeles, and hosted by Billy Crystal; the best picture Oscar for 1990 goes to Orion's Dances With Wolves (2nd Western to win after Cimarron), along with best dir. to Kevin Costner; best actor goes to Jeremy Irons for Reversal of Fortune, best actress to Kathy Bates for Misery, best supporting actor to Joe Pesci for Goodfellas, and best supporting actress to Whoopi Goldberg for Ghost; "The first thing I ever did at White Station High School was to play one of Simon Legree's dogs in the ballet 'The King and I'" (Bates to Memphis Commercial-Appeal). On Mar. 25 a military transport plane crashes near Bangalore, India, killing 25 Indian Air Force trainees and three crew members. On Mar. 25 world chess champ Gary Kasparov tells reporters in Los Angeles to "Leave us alone", saying "Within a year, there will be no Gorbachev, there will be no Communists. There will be something else. It will happen." On Mar. 26 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules 6-3 in Ariz. v. Fulminante that a confession of murder in prison in exchange of an offer of protection from the other prisoners is coerced, and can't be used against him in court, but that criminal defendants whose coerced confessions are improperly used as evidence are not always entitled to new trials. On Mar. 26 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules in Equal Employment Opportunity Commission v. Arabian Am. Oil Co. and ARAMCO Services Co. that the 1964 U.S. Civil Rights Act does not apply to Americans working for U.S. companies abroad; Congress overturns the ruling in the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1991 (Nov. 21, 1991). On Mar. 26 Dem. United Methodist pastor Emanuel Cleaver II (1944-) is elected the first black mayor of Kansas City, Mo. (until 1999). On Mar. 26 an Austrian Boeing 767 charter jet en route to Vienna explodes in midair then crashes into the jungle near Bangkok, Thailand, killing all 223 aboard; in June an Austrian investigation reports that a computer malfunction caused an engine to accidentally switch into reverse. On Mar. 26 Singapore Airlines Flight 117 is hijacked by four gunmen of the Pakistan Peoples Party; on Mar. 27 Singapore special ops forces storm the plane, killing all four and freeing all 114 passengers and nine crew in 30 sec. with no injuries. On Mar. 27 Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf publicly questions Pres. Bush's judgment in calling a ceasefire in the Gulf War; he apologizes on Mar. 29. On Mar. 27 PM Kaysone Phomivihan opens the Fifth Congress of the Laotian Communist Party in Vientiane, vowing to continue economic reforms aimed at "our gradual advance toward Socialism" without political reforms, a strategy that has garnered them $180M in internat. aid. On Mar. 27 an Israeli gunboat thwarts a suicide attack by two Palestinians in a rubber dingy packed with explosives, sinking it and killing them. On Mar. 27 police seal off Red Square and haul away supporters of Boris N. Yeltsin; "Don't shoot, brothers, we are of the same blood" reads the front page of the radical newspaper Kuranty. On Mar. 28 tens of thousands defy the govt. ban on rallies to march in support of Boris N. Yeltsin in Moscow, but back away from a major clash with 50K Kremlin forces blocking their path, settling on Tverskaya St. 1 mi. W of the Kremlin instead of the planned spot of Manezh Square; the authorities reportedly beat several protesters, grab and tear up posters, hit them with water cannons, tear gas and truncheons, and do other fun stuff with their gloved hands; meanwhile Yeltin's supporters block hardliners in the Russian parliament from ousting him, and win a vote condemning Gorby's order to ban protests in the capital, but fail to present a no-confidence motion against Gorby; the Soviet state's ass is now grass, and Yeltsin has the lawnmower? On Mar. 27 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules unanimously in Feist Publications Inc. v. Rural Telephone Service Co. that copyright protection is extended to cover originality and creativity not mere sweat of the brow such as in telephone books. On Mar. 28 the Lebanese govt. orders the disbanding of all Christian and Muslim militias, as well as Palestinian guerrillas as part of a peace plan brokered by the cabinet of pres. (1989-98) Elias Hrawi (1925-2006) with the Arab League; the weapons ban takes effect on Apr. 30. On Mar. 28 a petition signed by 110 U.S. congressmen is presented to Chinese PM Li Peng by a group of visiting congressmen seeking the release of 77 people imprisoned because of violating the law requiring worship only in state-supervised churches; the list incl. Catholic bishops and priests. On Mar. 28 a bus carrying Easter pilgrims crashes into a water truck on the outskirts of Jauja, Peru, killing 11 and injuring 21. Plug it in, plug it in: Kennedy, a family company? On Mar. 30 (Easter weekend) (2 p.m.) Jupiter, Fla. resident Patricia Bowman (1961-) tells authorities that she was raped by Sen. Edward Kennedy's nephew William Kennedy Smith (1960-) at the Kennedy's Palm Beach estate at 3:30-4:30 a.m. while Sen. Kennedy and a group of friends are orgying, er, staying there; after a giant clamboomba expenditure and "justice for the rich" show trial (first big feeding frenzy in the cable-news era?), he is acquitted by a jury in West Palm Beach, Fla. on Dec. 11 of rape and battery (and O.J. gets an idea?); in 2001 news that he is considering a run for Congress from N Chicago causes him to back out in three days. On Mar. 31 Albania holds a multi-party election for the first time in 50 years, and the Communist Albanian Party of Labor, which wielded totalitarian power for 46 years wins a sweeping V over the 3-mo.-o. Dem. Party, winning 178 of 250 seats; Communist Ramiz Alia is reelected pres. over Dem. Party leader Dr. Sali Ram Berisha (1944-), who captures over 60% of the vote in the capital of Tirana, winning the industrial cities of Elbasan, Kavaje, Vlora and the port of Durres, while the Commies win in the rural areas; on Apr. 3 the first-ever U.S. foreign aid team visits Albania two weeks after the two countries reestablish diplomatic relations, ending a 50-year break. On Mar. 31 voters in the Repub. of Georgia declare its independence in a referendum backed by Zviad Gamaskhurdia (1939-), who becomes pres. on Apr. 14 (until Jan. 6, 1992). On Mar. 31 Soviet foreign minister Alexander Bessmertnykh visits Beijing for a summit of the Soviet and Chinese Communist Parties. On Mar. 31 "Partridge Family" star Danny Bonaduce (1960-) is arrested in Phoenix, Az. for robbing and beating a transvestite prostitute - everyone has a calling? In Mar. 90%-Muslim Mali becomes a democracy after a rev., which doesn't stop half the pop. living below the internat. poverty line while the country is the #3 gold producer in Africa. In Mar. a freak ice storm hits upstate New York, paralyzing much of Rochester and surrounding communities for over a week. In Mar. a survey sponsored by the Wall Street Journal indicates that voters prefer Gen. Colin Powell (Chmn. of the Joint Chiefs of Staff) to Dan Quayle as Bush's 1992 running mate by 50% to 23%; White House Chief of Staff John Sununu disses it, saying that Quayle's spot on the ticket is "lock-solid". In Mar. visitors to the Statue of Liberty are banned from gum chewing, with supt. M. Ann Belkov uttering the soundbyte: "The statue is becoming one big glob of chewing gum." In Mar. Michael Jackson signs a 15-year 6-album $175M contract with Sony; in Nov. he splits with longtime producer Quincy Jones Dangerous album. On Apr. 1 the 36-y.-o. 6-nation Warsaw Pact (Soviet Union, Hungary, Poland, Czech., Romania, Bulgaria) is dissolved less than 18 mo. after demonstrators climb atop the Berlin Wall in protests that began the domino effect for the Soviet bloc; one Hungarian newspaper calls it "the winning of the Third World War"; Soviet Gens. Pyotr Lushev and Vladimir Lobov give up their titles of Warsaw Pact commander and chief of staff - on a fitting day? On Apr. 1 the Romanian govt. more than doubles basic food prices. On Apr. 1 the U.S. Supreme Court rules ?-? in Powers v. Ohio that trial prosecutors may not bar prospective jurors for racial reasons, even if they are of a different race than the defendant. On Apr. 1 the Rev. Pat Robertson's Christian Coalition demands the resignation of Nat. Endowment for the Arts chmn. John E. Frohnmayer because of its $25K grant for the Todd Haynes film Poison, which contains gay imagery; "The NEA has slapped the face of every taxpayer in America by continuing to fund filth at a time when the government is going broke", says exec dir. Ralph Reed - wait till Brokeback Mountain comes out and pay for it yourself? On Apr. 1 Iran's spiritual leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei forms a new police force to replace the feared Komiteh as part of a program by Pres. Hashemi Rafsanjani to eliminate competing power centers in Iran. On Apr. 1 the U.S. Treasury Dept. announces that it has identified 52 firms and 37 persons worldwide who are fronts for Saddam Hussein's war machine and the up to $10B he has embezzled from skimming Iraq's oil and arms trade, incl. Bay Industries of Santa Monica, Calif. and Matrix Churchill Corp. of Cleveland, Ohio; the U.S. firms are closed and their assets seized; meanwhile U.S. officials report that Iraqi troops have retaken Dohuk, Erbil, and Zahko, the last major cities held by the Kurds as they crush the Kurdish rebellion in N Iraq, while simultaneously crushing a rebellion in S Iraq by pro-Iranian Shiites; Pres. Bush steadfastly refuses to interfere. On Apr. 1 a small Belize City-based Tropic Air Cessna 402 en route to San Pedro crashes in the Caribbean, killing all eight aboard. On Apr. 1 Am. vegetarian novelist Marianne Wiggins (1947-) announces that she is seeking to divorce her husband Salman Rushdie after 13 mo. (Jan. 1988) for "ideological differences". On Apr. 2 Rita Margaret Johnston (1935-) becomes the first woman PM (#29) of Canada (until Nov. 5) after British Columbia's Social Credit Party selects her to replace William N. Vander Zalm, who was ousted for violating conflict of interest guidelines; she is voted out of office in Oct. On Apr. 2 black Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley calls for the resignation of white police chief (1978-92) Daryl (Darrel Francis) Gates (1926-2010) (known for telling the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee that casual drug users are guilty of "treason" and "ought to be taken out and shot") 1 mo. after the Mar. 3 Rodney King incident, saying "I simply will not stand by as our city is being torn apart"; one hour earlier the ACLU announces it has 20K signatures calling for it; councilmen Zev Yaroslavsky and Michael Woo had already called for it; trouble is, Bradley doesn't have the power to fire him, and the Police Commission must do it; Gates replies that he will resign if the two blue ribbon citizen's panels in L.A. find him derelict in his duty, and calls the mayor's actions "kind of sneaky". On Apr. 2 Sotheby's reveals that a man paid $4 for an old painting and found a concealed 15-1/2" x 19-3/4" copy of the U.S. Declaration of Independence that was printed on July 4, 1776, worth $1M, one of only 24 in existence; in Jan. 1990 another copy sold for a record $1.59M. On Apr. 3 the U.N. Security Council adopts a Gulf War truce resolution demanding that Iraq renounce its annexation of Kuwait, release all POWs, return stolen property, pay war reparations, renounce terrorism, abolish weapons of mass destruction (WMD) (except ballistic missiles with a range less than 90 mi.), and pay reparations; Iraq accepts on Apr. 6 - but then the fun begins? On Apr. 4-5 a series of earthquakes in Peru kills 39. That's a lotta ketchup? On Apr. 4 U.S. Sen. Henry John Heinz III (b. 1938) (R-Penn.) and six others are killed when his plane collides with a heli over a school yard, leaving his Portuguese-born widow Teresa Heinz Kerry (nee Maria Teresa Thierstein Simoes-Ferreira) (1938-) his $500M fortune, which Sen. John Kerry fu, er, marries into in 1995; on Nov. 5 Repub. 2-term Penn. gov. (1979-87) Richard L. "Dick" Thornburgh (1932-), who had resigned as U.S. atty. gen. to run for his seat sees a 44-point lead in the polls evaporate, and is trounced by his Dem. opponent Harris Llewelyn Wofford (1926-) - John Kerry gets his teeth whitened again? On Apr. 5 U.N. Security Council Resolution 688 is passed, condemning Iraq's suppression of the Kurds, and establishing a safe haven above Iraq's 36th parallel where they can set up safe enclaves. On Apr. 5 Space Shuttle Atlantis blasts off on a mission to deploy the NASA TRW Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and returns on Apr. 11; the mission decays out of orbit on June 4, 2000. On Apr. 5 former Texas Sen. (1961-85) John Goodwin Tower (b. 1925) and 22 others are killed in a commuter plane crash near Brunswick, Ga., home of Brunswick Stew. On Apr. 6 a passenger train derails near Manacas, Cuba, killing 56, becoming Cuba's worst reported rail accident (until ?). On Apr. 7 the U.S. belatedly drops supplies to Kurdish refugees in N Iraq and warns Iraq to not interfere; U.S. secy. of state James A. Baker tours the refugee camps on Apr. 8; on Apr. 10 the U.S. and Britain impose a no-fly zone to protect Kurdish provinces in Iraq. On Apr. 8 TLW-favorite TV show Twin Peaks ends its weird ride on TV. On Apr. 9 a fire in a double-decker tourist bus in Istanbul, Turkey kills 36. On Apr. 10 200K workers stage a work stoppage in Minsk, Belarus. On Apr. 10 a car ferry collides with an anchored oil tanker in the fog in the Ligurian Sea off Leghorn (Livorno), Italy, killing at 151 passengers and crew. On Apr. 11 the U.N. Security Council issues a formal ceasefire to end the Gulf War (begun Jan. 16, 1991); on Apr. 14 the final withdrawal of U.S. combat troops from S Iraq begins 88 days after the offensive began. On Apr. 16-18 Gorbachev visits to Japan, failing to win a major aid package, then goes to South Korea. On Apr. 16 235K U.S. rail workers strike; Congress stops it by Apr. 18. On Apr. 16 700K leather, textile, and metal workers strike in Serbia for guaranteed min. wages, and the govt. caves in within 24 hours. On Apr. 17 the Dow-Jones Industrial Avg. closes above 3,000 for the first time (3004.46). On Apr. 20 Kaci Kullmann Five (1951-) is elected leader of the Norwegian Conservative Party; women now lead three of the four major parties, and hold one-third of seats in the Storting and one-half of the cabinet positions - should call it the Storking? On Apr. 22 an earthquake rocks Costa Rica and Panama, killing 60-95. On Apr. 23 a launch of the Space Shuttle Discovery is scrubbed. On Apr. 23 the Soviet Union officially grants its repubs. the right to secede under certain conditions - that makes it more just than the U.S.? On Apr. 24 the Kurdish rebellion ends. On Apr. 25 Pres. Gorbachev offers his resignation as party leader, which is rejected. On Apr. 26 the Kan.-Okla. Tornoado Outbreak of 1991 sees four dozen tornadoes rake Kansas and Okla., killing 25 (20 in Kansas). On Apr. 28 hundreds of thousands of anti-abortion protesters march in Washington, D.C. On Apr. 29-30 the 1991 Bangladesh Cyclone kills 138K in Chittagong and coastal areas and leaving 10M homeless, becoming the worst natural disaster of 1991. On Apr. 29 an earthquake strikes the Repub. of Georgia, killing 100-360. In Apr. after offering the services of his Afghan mujahadeen fighters to Saudi regent Abdullah against Sadam Hussein, only to have him accept 500K U.S. troops instead, Osama bin Laden calls the Saudi govt. traitors and flees, moving to Pakistan, then to Sudan (until 1996); meanwhile returning from Afghanistan where he fought against the Soviets alongside Osama bin Laden, who gives him seed money, Abdurajak Abubakar Janjalani (1959-98), Albader Parad (-2010) et al. form the militant Islamist Abu Sayyaf (Arab. "bearers of the sword of Islam") (AKA al-Harakat al-Islamiyya) group in the S Philippines, carrying out terrorist operations to create an independent Islamic province from the Roman Catholic Philippines (until ?); in 1998 Janjalani is killed in a shootout, and his men degenerate into a guerrilla gang that supports itself with kidnapping for ransom, along with torture, rape, and murder - like a Muslim Johnny Appleseed, sowing the seeds of hate apples? In Apr. FBI Dir. William S. Sessions meets with black FBI agents to discuss their claims of racial discrimination and head off a threatened lawsuit - wake up, people? On May 2 Pope John Paul II issues The Hundredth Year to mark the 100th anniv. of the encyclical On the Condition of Workers, issued in 1891 by Pope Leo XIII in defense of private property and the free market against Socialism. On May 3 the Declaration of Windhoek is a statement of free press principles by African newspaper journalists. On May 3 an era comes to an end when the last episode of TLW-favorite Dallas is aired on CBS-TV. On May 4 East German officials are charged with a shoot-to-kill policy during the Berlin Wall period. On May 4 a landslide in Uzbek Repub. kills at least 50 in a mountain village. On May 6 a ferry crashes into an oil tanker in the Maranon River in Peru, killing 150 passengers. On May 8 at the Third Annual Governor's Quality Management Conference at the Excelsior Hotel in Little Rock, Ark. Gov. Bill Clinton invites state employee Paula Corbin Jones to a private meeting and exposes the future head of the country; days later she files a sexual harassment complaint in U.S. District Court in Little Cock, er, Rock, seeking 7 inches, er, $700K in damages. On May 8 an explosion at a fireworks factory in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia spreads to six more factories and 50 houses, killing 100+. On May 9 the Yugoslavian collected state presidency gives the army greater power within Croatia. On May 10 Socialist Francois Mitterrand (d. 1996) defeats incumbent Valery Giscard d'Estaing (a horndog whose mistresses fill the salons of Paris?) in the 2nd round of France's pres. election; on May 15 after Michel Rocard is asked to step down, Mitterrand appoints Edith Cresson (1934-) as France's first female PM (until 1992); Mitterrand stipulates that the Louvre Pyramid in Paris have exactly 666 panes of glass, but when finished it comes out to 673 (666+6)? On May 10 Alexander Bessmertnykh becomes the first Soviet foreign minister to visit Israel. On May 11 the drama series Sisters debuts on NBC-TV for 127 episodes (until May 4, 1996), becoming the first U.S. prime-time TV drama series to focus on the lives of women, becoming a hit with er, women; about four sisters in Winnetka, Ill., whose recently deceased father Dr. Thomas Reed wanted males, causing him to give them male names, incl. Swoosie Kurtz (1944-) as Alexandra "Alex" Reed Halsey Baker, Sela Ann Ward (1956-) as Theodora "Teddy" Reed Margolis Falconer Sorenson, Patricia Kathryn Kalember (1957-) as Georgiana "Georgie" Reed Whitsig, and Julianne Phillips (1960-) as Francesca "Frankie" Reed Margolis; Elizabeth Hoffman (1927-) plays their ex-alcoholic mother Beatrice; in season 4 sister #5 is discovered, Dr. Charlotte "Charley" Bennett Hayes, played by Jo Anderson (1958-). they love chatting in a steam bath every week. On May 12 300M watch The Simple Truth, a satellite broadcast charity concert to benefit Kurdish refugees in London's Wembley Arena, starring Rod Stewart, Sting, Sinead O'Connor, et al. On May 12 Pope John Paul II says Mass for 50K on Portugal's Madeira Island. On May 13 Winnie Mandela is convicted of abducting four young black men and keeping them at her Soweto home - I can't guess what for? On May 14 Queen Elizabeth II visits the U.S.; on May 15 she watches two innings of a ML baseball game (Orioles and Athletics); on May 16 she becomes the first English monarch to address the U.S. Congress (joint session); her visit to the White House is marred by failure to provide the short monarch a stairstep behind her podium, making her look like a dwarf. On May 14 Mao Tse Tung's widow Jiang Qing (b. 1914) commits suicide by hanging; she had been sentenced to die in 1981, and the sentence was commuted to house arrest for life in 1983. On May 14 a train collision near Shigaraki in W Japan kills 42. In mid-May flash floods in E Turkey kill at least 30. On May 18 the Soviets launch Soyuz TM-12, carrying cosmonauts Anatoly Pavlovich Arsebarsky (1956-) (Antole Arts and Parties?), Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalev (Krikalyov) (1958-), and chocolate chemist Helen Patricia Sharman (1963-) (first Brit in space as part of Project Juno); on Oct. 2 Soyuz TM-13 blasts off from Kazakhstan, carrying cosmonauts Alexander Aleksandrovich Volkov (1948-), Toktar Ongarbayuly Aubakirov (1946-) (first Kazakhstani cosmonaut), and Franz Artur Viehbock (Viehböck)(1960-) (first Austrian in space, who is included after Austria pays $7M); on Oct. 10 Soyuz TM-12 returns after the failed coup against Mikhail Gorbachev rocks the Soviet Union; Soyuz TM-13 returns next Mar. 25 with Klaus-Dietrich Flade, and Krikalev, who becomes known as "the last citizen of the U.S.S.R". On May 18 France performs a nuclear test on Muruora Island. On May 20 pres. contender Mohamed Hussein Tantawi (1935-) is appointed Egyptian armed forces CIC and defense minister (until ?). On May 21 Rajiv Gandhi (b. 1944) is assassinated while campaigning for an election in the S Indian state of Tamil Nadu. On May 21 (Mon.) while on a 4-day visit to Israel, Lech Walesa gives a Speech in the Israeli Knesset apologizing for past Polish anti-Semitism, and asking for forgiveness, after which the two countries become allies (until ?). On May 21 Ethiopia's Marxist pres. (since 1977) Mengistu Haile Mariam resigns and flees into exile in Zimbabwe as rebels close in; on May 24-25 Israel airlifts 15K Ethiopian (black) Jews to safety in Operation Solomon; the rebels seize Addis Ababa on May 28; the Ark of the Covenant is rumored to be secretly taken from Axum, Ethiopia to Israel at this time in anticipation of rebuilding the Jewish Temple; in Dec. 2006 Mariam is convicted in Addis Ababa of genocide. On May 23 the last Cuban troops leave Angola. On May 23 China celebrates the 40th anniv. of the "peaceful liberation" of Tibet; despite virtual martial law, independence demonstrations break out in three parts of Lhasa on May 26. On May 26 an Austrian Lauda Air Boeing 767 crashes in Thailand, killing all 223 aboard. On May 30 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 5-3 in Calif. v. Acevedo that "The police may search an automobile and the containers within it where they have probable cause to believe contraband or evidence is contained"; prosecutors can be sued for the legal advice they give police and can be forced to pay damages when that advice leads to someone's rights being violated. On May 31 Pres. Jose Eduardo dos Santos signs a peace treaty with Jonas Savimbi of UNITA, ending a 16-y.-o. civil war. In May ethnic Serbs in Croatia vote overwhelmingly for union with Serbia, and the disintegration of Yugoslavia accelerates after Serbia and Montenegro refuse to endorse Croatian PM #1 (May 30-Aug. 24, 1990) Stjepan "Stipe" Mesic (1934-) as head of the collective state presidency; on June 30 he becomes pres. #14 of Yugoslavia (until Dec. 6). In May Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia is elected by a large majority as pres. of the former Soviet state of Georgia, but his dictatorial policies turn the public against him, and he flees to Armenia on Jan. 6, 1992. In May ex-Communists Imre Pozsgay and Zoltan Biro form the Nat. Dem. Alliance in Hungary. In May High Times first pub. the use of the term 420 to indicate marijuana smoking in progress, after which it turns into a yearly event for pot smokers despite 4-20 being Hitler's birthday and the date of the 1999 Columbine H.S. Massacre. On June 2 Pope John Paul II makes a pilgrimage to his native Poland, visiting the town of Przemysl, close to the Soviet border, causing 10K Ukrainians to cross the Polish border to see him; he uses his platform to speak out frequently against abortion and secularism. On June 2 200 drown after 30 fishing boats sink during a typhoon in the Meghna River in Bangladesh. On June 3 Mount Unzen in the S Japanese island of Kyushu (near Nagasaki) erupts, killing 43. On June 4 Pres. Bush picks Dem. nat. chmn. Robert Schwarz Strauss (1918-) as the new ambassador to the Soviet Union (until Nov. 1992). On June 5 the Episcopal Diocese of Washington, D.C. ordains lesbian priest Elizabeth Carl. On June 8 a passenger train crashes into a parked freight train in Sind Province, Pakistan, killing 100. On June 9-16 Mt. Pinatubo on Luzon Island in the Philippines erupts for the first time in 400 years, killing 450 (most on June 15-16), becoming the 2nd largest volcanic eruption of the cent.; mudslides raise the death toll to 700. On June 10 celebrations are staged across the U.S. to welcome troops returning from the Middle East; New York City stages a ticker tape parade. On June 11 actors Julia Roberts and Kiefer Sutherland call off their marriage three days before it is scheduled to take place. Russia responds to a decade of American cowboy Reagan by becoming as wild as the Old American West? On June 12 Boris N. Yeltsin (1931-2007) wins the Russian Federation's first popular pres. election with 57%; on June 18 he arrives in the U.S. for visits with U.S. officials, and meets with Pres. Bush on June 20; he begins "shock therapy" on the economy, adopting the liberalization program of Yegor Gaidar (1956-2009) which eliminates price controls and cuts state spending, causing a decade-long decline in standards of living and a drop in the GDP of 50%, ending in a financial crisis by 1998. On June 12 Muslim ethnic Tatar Mintimer Sharipovich Shaimiev (1937-) becomes pres. of Tatarstan, a repub. within Russia (until Mar, 25, 2010). On June 13 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules 5-3 in McNeil v. Wisc. that a jailed suspect represented by a lawyer in one criminal case sometimes may be questioned by police about another crime without the lawyer present. On June 16 (9:14 a.m.) (Sun.) the Father's Day Bank Massacre in Denver, Colo. takes place when a lone gunman talks and shoots his way into the vault area of the United Bank at 17th Ave. and Broadway, killing four unarmed guards and making off with $200K; police later arrest former Denver police sgt. and bank security guard James W. King (1936-), but he is acquitted after testifying in his own behalf; no one else is ever charged, as the police claim they had their man. On June 17 the remains of U.S. Pres. Zachary Taylor are briefly exhumed in Louisville, Ky. to test a theory that he had died of arsenic poisoning from bad cherries; results prove negative; he was poisoned with bad cherries infected with Asian cholera? On June 17 PM Mahathir bin Mohamad of Malaysia presents the New Development Policy, a successor to the New Economic Policy of 1971, which is declared a success in easing racial tensions. On June 18 6'5" Chicago, Ill.-born Wellington E. Webb (1941-) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Dr. Seuss' Cat in the Hat?) is elected as the first African-Am. mayor of Denver, Colo., taking office as Denver mayor #42 on July 15 (until July 21, 2003). On June 18 mudslides claim at least 116 in Antofagasta, Chile. On June 19 Pablo Escobar, head of Colombia's Medellin drug cartel surrenders to the authorities. On June 20 German lawmakers vote to move the seat of the nat. govt. from Beethoven's birthplace Bonn to Hitler's deathplace Berlin; the transfer is completed in 1999. On June 20 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 6-3 in Houston Lawyers' Association et al. v. Attorney General Of Texas et al. that the 1965 U.S. Voting Rights Act applies to the election of state judges, incl. to the establishing of voting district boundaries. On June 21 U.S. secy. of state James A. Baker visits Yugoslavia, followed by Albania on June 22. On June 21 Pamulaparti Venkata Narasimha Rao (1921-2004) becomes PM #10 of the Repub. of India (until May 16, 1996), becoming known as "the Father of Economic Reforms" and "New Chanakya" as he launches free market reforms created by Indian economist Subramian (Subramiam) Swamy (1939-) that rescue the nearly-bankrupt country despite heading a minority govt.; the govt. starts off by airlifting 67 tons of gold for a loan. On June 23 the Soviet Union becomes the first associate member of the IMF. On June 24 the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the First Amendment does not shield news orgs. from being sued when they publish the names of sources who had been promised confidentiality. On June 24 state councilor Wang Fang calls for a "people's war" against drug addiction in China, claiming that narcotics use is the worst since the early 1950s. On June 25 Slavonia and Croatia declare themselves independent from Yugoslavia, forming the Serb Autonomous Oblast of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Syrmia, followed on Aug. 12 by the Serb Autonomous Oblast of Western Slavonia, and the federal govt. refuses to recognize them, causing fighting to erupt and civil war to begin, with the federal army dominated by Serbs; on Sept. 17 Macedonia declares independence. On June 27 the U.S. Supreme Court rules that juries considering life or death for convicted murderers may take into account the victim's character and the suffering of relatives. On June 28 a 5.8 earthquake strikes S. Calif., killing two. On June 28 the South African Parliament abolishes the July 7, 1950 Population Registration Act, their last major apartheid law; on July 10 the U.S. lifts most of its economic sanctions against South Africa. The token black on the court changes faces, but the difference is between the legs not the ears? On June 28 liberal black U.S. Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall (since 1967) retires, and on July 1 conservative black Pin Point, Ga.-born U.S. Court of Appeals judge for the District of Columbia (since 1990) (chmn. of the EEOC in 1982-90) Clarence Thomas (1948-) is nominated by Pres. George H.W. Bush, winning Senate confirmation by 52-48 on Oct. 15 after a bumpy confirmation process, championed by U.S. Sen. (R-Mo.) John Claggett "Jack" Danforth (1936-); on Oct. 23 he becomes U.S. Supreme Court justice #106 (until ?), and the 2nd African-Am.; his confirmation is plagued by criticism by civil rights groups for his opposition to affirmative action programs and school desegregation busing, and is almost derailed by a leaked FBI report on allegations of sexual harassment made by U. of Okla. (Norman) law prof. Anita Faye Hill (1956-), who had worked for him at the Dept. of Ed. and the EEOC, and publicly woo-woos about his sexual advances on her, incl. his bragging about the size of his brains?; in early Oct. the Senate Judiciary Committee, chaired by Sen. Joseph Robinette "Joe" Biden Jr. (1942-) (D-Del.) explores the charges, which Thomas calls a "high-tech lynching", but they decide are not conclusive; after joining the court, Thomas converts to Roman Catholicism; "He told me that if I ever told anybody, it would ruin his career" (Hill). On June 28-30 the federal base-closing commission votes to shut down 24 military bases, incl. the massive Philadelphia Navy Shipyard. In June the Hungarian nat. assembly agrees to recompensate those whose property was expropriated by the old Communist regime. In June the number of inmates in U.S. prisons reaches a record 804,524, 46,230 of which are women; 2-6% are infected with AIDS, compares to 0.1% of the general pop. On July 1 Court TV debuts, owned by Turner Broadcasting System; on Jan. 1, 2008 it becomes TruTV. On July 2 a Guns N' Roses concert at Riverport Amphitheater in Maryland Heights (outside St. Louis), Mo. gets violent after lead singer Axl Rose dives off the stage to confront a fan, causing an hour-long melee injuring 60 and causing $200K damage, and getting Axl charged with inciting (later dropped); the album cover of "Use Your Illusion" later contains a hidden message "Fuck You, St. Louis!" On July 4 the Nat. Civil Rights Museum in Memphis, Tenn. (housed in the Lorraine Hotel, where Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in 1968) is dedicated. On July 5 eight countries shut down the Bank of Credit and Commerce Internat., causing a worldwide financial scandal. On July 5 Howard Nemerov (b. 1920) dies of cancer, and exiled Russian poet Joseph Brodsky (1940-96) is named U.S. poet laureate #5 on May 10. On July 9 at least 978 are announced killed by flooding in the Yangtze River Basin in China; by mid-May the toll rises to 1,700. On July 11 a leased Nationair Canada DC-8 Super 61 jetliner carrying Muslim pilgrims home to Nigeria from Jidda, Saudi Arabia nose-dives and explodes on the tarmac while trying to make an emergency landing shortly after the tires blow during takeoff, killing all 261 aboard. On July 11 a total solar eclipse is visible in Hawaii and Mexico. On July 1 Japanese Arab and Persian history-lit. scholar (convert to Islam) Hitoshi Igarashi (b. 1947), Japanese translator of Salman Rushdie's novel "The Satanic Verses" is knifed to death in his office at the U. of Tukuba, Ibaraki, Japan by a suspected Iranian hitman carrying out Ayatollah Khomeini's fatwa. On July 16 "tough cop" and former 2-term Philly mayor Frank L. Rizzo (b. 1920) dies of a heart attack after winning the Repub. nomination for Philly mayor in May, turning a close race into an easy win for Dem. Edward Gene "Ed" Rendell (1944-), a former city prosecutor, who next Jan. 6 becomes Philly mayor #96 (until Jan. 3, 2000); Mayor W. Wilson Goode is prevented by a 2-term limit law from seeking reelection; Rendell goes on to become Penn. gov. #45 on Jan. 21, 2003 (until ?). On July 26 Paul Reubens (b. 1952), star of Pee-Wee's Playhouse on CBS-TV since 1986 is arrested in a porno theater in Sarasota, Fla. and charged with indecent exposure, causing his children's TV career to sputter and peter out - but wait till them kids grow up and figure what he was doing? On July 28 a dam in Bacau, Romania bursts after heavy rains, killing 66. On July 30 a dike in Mohad, India (near New Delhi) bursts after heavy rains, killing 500. On July 31 U.S. Pres. Bush and Soviet Pres. Gorbachev sign the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) I in Moscow, effective Dec. 5, 1994, limiting the U.S. and Soviet Union to 6K nuclear warheads and 1.6K ICBMS and bombers; it expires on Dec. 5, 2009. In July the Soviet Union for the first time acknowledges the existence of unemployment, offering to register the jobless and give them benefits a la the U.S. In July Iran announces a pop. explosion (4% in some areas), and announces that beginning next year families with three children will not receive any additional benefits if they have more children. In July high-level Guatamalan officials of the prior admin. are accused of having taken bribes from the Bank of Credit and Commerce Internat. (BCC) to keep quiet about illegal coffee smuggling. In July a ceasefire is declared in Slovenia, while fighting continues in Croatia, and the Serbian-dominated Yugoslav nat. army takes almost one-third of its territory by Sept.; too bad, non-Serbs begun to bug out of the Yugoslav nat. army. In July the Unity Coalition for Israel is founded in the U.S. by a coalition of Christian and Jewish orgs. On Aug. 1 the Serb Autonomous Region of Krajina, made up of Croatian cities with a majority Serb pop. secedes from Croatia and declares itself part of Serbia; the Serbian assembly fails to endorse it. On Aug. 1 the Wardha River overflows in the Nagpur region of India, killing 350. On Aug. 8 British journalist John Patrick McCarthy (1956-), kidnapped by Lebanese Shiite Muslims in Apr. 1986 is released, looking tanned, slim and trim and smiling. On Aug. 11 Lebanese Shiite Muslims release Edward Tracey, an American held for almost 5 years, and Jerome Leyraud, a Frenchman abducted three days earlier by a rival group. On Aug. 11 the Rugrats animated series debuts on Nickelodian for 172 episodes (until June 8, 2004), created by Arlene Klasky, Gabor Csupo, and Paul Germain, about toddlers Tommy, Chuckie, Phil, Lil, and Angelica. On Aug. 12 the Serbian Autonomous Region of Western Slavonia is established. On Aug. 14 Pope John Paul II returns to Poland to lead the World Day of Youth, which draws a crowd of 1M to the Jasna Gora Monastery, which houses Poland's most sacred icon, the Black Madonna; he also visits Hungary; the monastery is declared an official historic monument on Oct. 16, 1994. On Aug. 15 750K people hear Paul Simon perform a nationally-televised free Concert in the Park in Central Park in New York City. On Aug. 16 an Indian Airlines jet en route from Calcutta to Imphal, Manipur catches fire and crashes 27 mi. short of its destination, killing all 69 aboard. On Aug. 16-20 Category 3 Hurricane Bob rips through New England, killing 17 and causing $1.5B in damage, incl. in Cape Cod. The Guns of August, with flowers in their nozzles? On Aug. 19 a Communist putsch against Mikhail Gorbachev is attempted by Communist hardliners, who announce his removal and place him under house arrest, but it it fails as flowers are stuck in tank nozzles by protesters while Boris N. Yeltsin heroically stands defiantly atop an armored personnel carrier and shames the soldiers into giving up, becoming his defining moment, even after he later presides over the nation's steep decline; he is helped by pro-dem. journalists, who fly copies to TV stations around the nation; 30K citizens then respond to Yeltsin's call to surround the Russian White House to protect him from an all-out tank and air assault, and by the next morning only a few are dead as Yeltsin and his people talk thousands of soldiers into disobeying orders; on Aug. 21 Gorbachev is released from house arrest, and Yeltsin hauls him before the Soviet parliament and shows proof on nat. TV that it was Gorby's own Communist Party that was behind the coup, causing chastened Gorby to outlaw the party the next day, cementing the Yeltsin ascendancy; that evening, Ukraine, the 2nd largest Soviet Union repub. declares independence; on Aug. 23 Pope John Paul II wires Gorby that the Commie coup attempt had given him "intense apprehension", and that he thanks God for his safe return. On Aug. 19 in the evening Yosef Lifsh, an Orthodox Jewish driver strikes and kills 7-y.-o. (black) Guyanese immigrant Gavin Cato after jumping a curb in Crown Heights in Brooklyn; later that night 29-y.-o. Hasidic scholar (from Australia) Yankel Rosenbaum is stabbed to death on a Crown Heights street by a gang of black youths in reprisal; on Aug. 27 a Brooklyn grand jury indicts a black youth for murder; on Sept. 5 another grand jury refuses to indict Lifsh for vehicular homicide - gracias por nada, crackers? On Aug. 23 the FBI announces that it has disciplined eight agents for their role in harassing former agent Donald Rochon, a black; a 1990 settlement awards him over $1M, and he agrees to leave the FBI. On Aug. 27 Moldova declares independence from the Soviet Union; on Dec. 8 former Communist Party chmn. Mircea Snegur (1940-) is elected pres. #1 with 98% of the vote and an 82% turnout (until 1997). On Aug. 28 a bus plunges into a ravine in Dogubeyazit, Turkey, killing 52 of 53 aboard. On Aug. 28 a subway train on the Lexington Ave. line in New York City derails and smashes through metal beams as it approaches 14th St. Station, killing five and injuring 200, becoming the worst NYC subway accident since 1928. On Aug. 29 the Supreme Soviet suspends all activities of the Communist Party, which is now kaput - okay let's get this Winterfest started? On Aug. 30 Azerbaijan declares its independence from the Shrinking Soviet Union - join the stampede? On Aug. 31 Uzbekistan declares its independence from the Soviet Disunion and changes its name to the Repub. of Uzbekistan; on Dec. 29 Islam Karimov wins reelection with 86% of the vote after the opposition party is banned from participating. On Aug. 31 Kyrgyzstan proclaims its independence from the Soviet Union. In Aug. the KGB CVoup fails to save the Soviet Union from Mikhail Gorbachev's refosm. On Sept. 3. a fire in a chicken-processing plant in Hamlet, N.C. kills 25 trapped in freezers - they fired them 15 times, so why don't they leave? On Sept. 6 the State Council of the Soviet Union votes unanimously to recognize the independence of the repubs. of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. On Sept. 6 after being convicted of nine counts of murder, then claiming 100-110 murders in 1953-82 to journalist Wilton Earle, incl. 80-90 hitchhikers in 1969-82, Donald Henry "Pee Wee" Gaskins Jr. (nee Parrott) (b. 1933), known as "the Redneck Charles Manson", "the Hitchhikers' Killer", and "the Meanest Man in America" is executed in the electric chair in Columbia, S.C. On Sept. 7 Albania initiates diplomatic relations with the Vatican. On Sept. 8 Hollywood actor Robert Creel "Brad" Davis (b. 1949) (memorable for Chariots of Fire and Midnight Express) becomes the first allegedly heterosexual actor to die of AIDS; it later comes out that he was bi - the Gatorade didn't work? On Sept. 11 Pres. George H.W. Bush gives his New World Order Speech to Congress; after 9/11 conspiracy theorists have a field day. On Sept. 16 a federal judge in Washington, D.C. dismisses all three felony charges against former Marine Lt. Col. and Reagan admin. Nat. Security Council member Oliver North, ruling that independent prosecutor Lawrence E. Walsh could not prove that the witnesses against North hadn't been influenced by North's own testimony at the 1987 Congressional hearings where he had been granted immunity; Poindexter waits in the wings. On Sept. 17 Home Improvement debuts on ABC-TV for 204 episodes (until May 25, 1999), starring Tim Allen (Timothy Allen Dick) (1953-) as Tim the Tool Man Taylor, who works for the Binford Tool Co., Patricia Castle Richardson (1951-) as his wife Jill, and Richard Karn (1956-) as his sidekick Al Borland; bodaceous tatas Pamela Denise Anderson (1967-) co-stars in the first two seasons. On Sept. 21 the Repub. of Armenia declares independence from the Soviet Disunion. On Sept. 24 New York gov. Mario Cuomo announces a $7B rebuilding plan for New York City. On Sept. 26 four men and four women begin their 2-year stay in Biosphere II in Oracle, Ariz. in an attempt to develop technology for future space colonies (ends 1993). On Sept. 27-28 a typhoon near Osaka, Japan kills 45 and injures 700. On Sept. 28 150K-500K attend the free Monsters of Rock concert at Moscow's Tushino Airfield, featuring AC/DC, Metallica, the Black Crowes, and Pantera. On Sept. 28 the crime dramedy series The Commish debuts on ABC-TV for 94 episodes (until Jan. 11, 1996), starring not-yet-bald Michael Charles Chiklis (1963-) as Eastbride, Upstate New York pollice commissioner Tony Scali. On Sept. 30 The Jerry Springer Show debuts, hosted by former mayor #56 of Cincinnati, Ohio (1977-8) Gerald Norman "Jerry" Springer (1944-), becoming known for using the grossness of its guests to achieve high ratings. In Sept. Pres. Jean-Bertrand Aristide of Haiti addresses the U.N. Gen. Assembly, and on Sept. 30 returns to a surprise coup by Duvalier-backed forces led by Brig. Gen. Raoul Cedras (1949-), causing him to flee to Venezuela; 300 are killed in street fighting in Port-au-Prince; on Oct. 8 the OAS calls for a hemisphere-wide embargo against the new regime, which the same day elects Haitian Supreme Court justice Joseph Nerette (Nérette) (1924-2007) as interim pres.; on Oct. 9 Pres. Bush bans all commercial trade with Haiti effective Nov. 5; 10K refugees flee Haiti for the U.S. in small boats, and are forcibly turned back by the U.S. Coast Guard, but on Nov. 19 a U.S. federal judge orders them housed at the U.S. naval base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, but in Dec. a U.S. federal appeals court orders them returned to Hellish Haiti - Jesus can be their friend? In Sept. the Moderate Party of Carl Bildt assumes power in Sweden. In Sept. the number of people in New York City on welfare rises to 955K, with the 1M mark predicted for next year. In Sept. Doug Bower and Dave Chorley claim they are responsible for all the crop circles in England, and show how they did it - we're rethinking what a spaceship company can be? In Sept. the animated series AEon Flux debuts on MTV (until Oct. 10, 1995), based on New/Old Age Gnostic concepts and set in a bizarre dystopian future world, starring a tall leather-wearing secret agent ninja babe from the anarchist country of Monica, who tries to infiltrate the neighboring police state of Bregna, ruled by Trevor Goodchild, her sometimes lover. On Oct. 3 W.W. Herenton is elected the first African-Am. mayor of Memphis, Tenn. (until ?). On Oct. 3 the Toronto Islamic Terrorist Plot sees five black Muslims belonging to the Pakistani Jamaat Al Fuqra org. of Sheik Mubarik Ali Gilani attempt to enter the U.S. at Niagara Falls with a plan to kill 4.5K in two Indian bldgs. in Toronto during the Hindu Diwali festival; too bad, the border guards find a sheet of paper with "dying as a soldier of Allah" on it, along with maps and floor plans, bomb-making instructions etc. On Oct. 5 a military transport plane carrying airmen taking part in Armed Forces Day crashes shortly after takeoff in Jakarta, Indonesia, killing all 132 aboard (plus a guard in the building) after one of the engines catches fire. On Oct. 12 Coffee Talk with Linda Richman debuts on Saturday Night Live (until Oct. 15, 1994), starring Mike Myers, who spoofs his real Yiddish-speaking Jewish mother-in-law. On Oct. 12-21 Pope John Paul II visits Brazil, urging its 115M Catholics to crusade against fundamentalist Protestant groups, who have made 35M converts (600K a year). On Oct. 14 imprisoned Burmese democracy fighter Daw Aung San Suu Kyi (1945-) is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. On Oct. 16 Levon Ter-Petrosian (1945-) becomes pres. of Albania (until 1998); as the Soviet bloc melts, Albania goes on to embrace democracy and idolize the U.S., with families beginning to name their children Bill, Hillary, and George. On Oct. 16 (12:39 p.m.) George Jo (Georges Pierre) Hennard (1956-91) smashes his pickup through a Luby's Cafeteria window in Killing, er, Killeen, Tex. near Ft. Hood, firing on the customers with high-powered Glock 17 and Ruger P89 pistols, killing 23 and injuring 27; he ends up committing suicide. On Oct. 19-27 the Minnesota Twins (AL) defeat the Atlanta Braves (NL) by 4-3 to win the Eighty-Eighth (88th) World Series; on Oct. 26 Twins center fielder #34 Kirby Puckett (1960-) ("Minny's Mighty Mite") hits a winning homer in the 11th inning of Game 6; on Oct. 27 the Twins win 1-0 in 10 innings with mustachioed pitcher #47 John Scott "Jack" Morris (1955-); the Braves had gone from last to first to get to the series. On Oct. 20 wildfires sweep through 1.8K acres of the Oakland Hills section of Oakland, Calif., killing 25, injuring 148, leaving 5K homeless, and destroying 1.8K homes and 900 apt. units, causing $2B in damage. On Oct. 20 a 45-sec. earthquake in N Uttar Pradesh, India near Uttarkashi kills 1.6K. On Oct. 21 Am. student Jesse Turner is freed in Lebanon after almost five years in captivity by the Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine. On Oct. 22 Kosovo Province of Serbia passes a sovereignty referendum by 99% with 87% voter turnout. On Oct. 27 the first free parliamentary elections are held in Poland, and there is a low voter turnout, with 29 parties winning seats in the 460-member Sejm (lower house of parliament), and none achieving a majority, with the most (62) going to the pro-Solidarity Dem. Union, and 60 to the Communist-backed Alliance of the Dem. Left; Pres. Lech Walesa offers to become PM, but is rejected. On Oct. 28 the U.S.-Bahrain Defense Pact is signed; it is renewed in 2001 and 2011; it allows U.S. access to bases in strategically located Bahrain, home the U.S. Fifth Fleet, and allows the U.S. to preposition its military equipment. On Oct. 28-Nov. 4 the 75 mph Perfect Storm (Halloween Nor'easter of 1991) absorbs Hurricane Grace and rocks the U.S. E coast, killing 13 and causing $200M damage; on Oct. 28 the swordfishing boat Andrea Gail out of Gloucester, Maa. sinks 180 mi. NE of Canada's Sable Island, becoming the basis of the 2000 Sebastian Junger film "The Perfect Storm". On Oct. 30-Nov. 3 the Madrid Conference attempts to negotiate peace in the Middle East, opened by Pres. Bush and Pres. Gorbachev, and attended by Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon; Israeli and Arab reps. refuse to shake hands; the talks end with no progress, incl. an agreement on where the 2nd phase talks will take place; physician Haidar Abdel-Shafi (Abdul Shaffi) (1919-2007) is the head of the Palestinian delegation; he is advised by Francis A. Boyle; since the Perfect Storm occurs on Nov. 1, this proves that God gets even with the U.S. every time it mistreats Israel? On Oct. 31 union leader Frederick Jacob Titus Chiluba (1943-) of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy wins multiparty pres. elections in Zambia, ousting Kenneth Kaunda and his UNIP party; on ? he is sworn-in as pres. # of Zambia (until ?). On Oct. 31 80 people are killed by an explosion near the railway station in Pyongyang, capital of the "hermit nation" North Korea - ukeleles and Communist Party literature flying everywhere? In Oct. Bosnia-Herzegovina declares independence and forms a non-Communist govt. On Nov. 1 graduate student ? kills five U. of Iowa employees plus himself. On Nov. 2 Bartholomew I (1940-) becomes ecumenical patriarch of the 250M-member Eastern Orthodox Church in Constantinople (jntil ?), where he lives couped up in the tiny Phanar compound and treated like merde by the Muslim govt. and pop. On Nov. 3 the Grateful Dead, Santana et al. perform before a crowd of 300K at San Francisco's Golden Gate Park in honor of rock concert promoter Bill Graham (b. 1930), who died in a heli crash on Oct. 25. On Nov. 4 Ronald Reagan opens his Reagan Pres. Library in Simi Valley, Calif. On Nov. 5 Liberal Dem. Kiichi Miyazawa (1919-2007) becomes PM #78 of Japan (until Aug. 9, 1993), going on to deal with economic malaise in Japan, negotiate a trade agreement with the U.S., and get a law passed allowing Japan to send forces overseas for peacekeeping missions. On Nov. 5 the U.S. announces a trade embargo against Haiti in response to the overthrow of pres. Jean-Bertrand Aristide. On Nov. 5 flash floods sweep parts of Negros and Leyte Islands in the Philippines, killing 6K. On Nov. 7 a 24-hour gen. strike is called in Greece by two principal unions and PASOK over the govt.'s economic policy, causing 30K workers to march on parliament calling for action against unemployment and high cost of living; on Nov. 29 the Greek govt. presents a new 1992 budget calling for more austerities. On Nov. 10 Francois Mitterrand announces plans to reform the French constitution to reduce the pres. term from seven to five years and strengthen the parliament and judiciary. On Nov. 14 Norodom Sihanouk returns to Cambodia after 13 years in exile, becoming head of state again (until Sept. 24, 1993). On Nov. 14 a former postal clerk kills three and injures six in a shooting rampage at a postal center in Royal Oak, Mich. (2 mi. N of Detroit, Mich.). On Nov. 15 retired Navy rear Adm. John Poindexter's convictions are overturned by the Washington, D.C. federal appeals court after it rules that his 1987 Congressional hearing testimony had been unfairly used against him. On Nov. 18 a sailboat carrying 135 Haitian refugees capsizes in high seas off Cape Maisi, Cuba, killing all aboard. On Nov. 18 Terry Waite and Thomas Sutherland are freed by their Shiite kidnappers in Lebanon. On Nov. 19 an abandoned runaway train kills 50 in Tehuacan, Mexico. On Nov. 20 White House counsel C. Boyden Gray issues a proposed pres. order telling federal agencies to eliminate their requirements for affirmative action programs, incl. requirements for cos. holding federal contracts; a public outcry causes it to be rescinded on Nov. 21. On Nov. 21 (after threatening to veto it until Repub. Mo. Sen. John C. Danforth drafts a compromise bill) Pres. Bush signs the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1991, which overturns a series of Supreme Court rulings and extends to women, the handicapped, and religious minorities the power to collect monetary awards and limited punitive damages. On Nov. 22 the KGB completes a study of Dossier No. 31451, its file on Lee Harvey Oswald the Soviet Union in Oct. 1959 to June 1962, which shows they believed that he worked for the CIA, and claims that his wife Marina didn't work for the KGB; it also tells about his numerous misses during hunting expeditions. On Nov. 27 the U.N. Security Council begins deploying peacekeeping troops as requested by Serbia and Croatia. In Nov. rationing of basic foods begins in Moscow as a severe drought in E Siberia and Kazakhstan, combined with flooding in the Ukraine cause the grain harvest to fall by 26% from 1990 bumper crop levels; by the end of the year the Soviet economy almost collapses, with inflation at 250%. On Dec. 1 the Ukraine becomes an independent nation, with Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (1934-) of the Social Dem. Party as pres. on Dec. 5 (until July 19, 1994). On Dec. 3 the Hungarian nat. assembly votes to host the 1996 World Expo. On Dec. 4 U.S. news correspondent Terry A. Anderson, who had been kidnapped in 1985 is released; nine other Western hostages (incl. five American) are released between Aug. and Dec., but two German hostages remain in captivity. On Dec. 4 planned talks between Arabs and Israelis in Washington, D.C. are suspended when the Israelis don't show up, insisting that they need to Dec. 9 to prepare. On Dec. 6 the U.S. announces a trade embargo against Yugoslavia because of failure to end the civil war. On Dec. 7 CBS-TV airs Remember Pearl Harbor, a joint production with the Tokyo Broadcasting System anchored by Charles Kuralt and Gen. H. Norman Schwarzkopf. Ding Dong the witch is dead - which old witch? On Dec. 8 the Commonwealth of Independent States Treaty is signed by Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus (formerly Byelorussia), putting an end to the U.S.S.R. (Soviet Union) (founded Apr. 1922); on Dec. 21 Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova join the five Central Asian repubs. Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan (formerly Kirghiz), Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in agreeing to join the Commonwealth; as Boris N. Yeltsin begins to gain control of the govt., Gorbachev diplomatically resigns on Dec. 25, giving him the nuclear codes; the collapse of the Soviet Union creates a "short twentieth century", framed by the 1917 Russian Rev. and this year, throwing the U.S. out of work as the needed counterforce to the evil empire, and giving it more of an old United Kingdom imperialist role?; "The collapse of communism in effect signified the collapse of liberalism, removing the only ideological justification behind U.S. hegemony" (Immanuel Wallerstein, "Pax Americana is Over"); Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan return their nuclear weapons inherited from the Soviet Union. On Dec. 11 Ivana Trump (1949-) divorces real estate mogul Donald Trump (1946-) after 14 years of marriage after the latter is romantically linked with Ga.-born model Marla Maples (1963-) and she encounters her on the ski slopes at Aspen, Colo. during a 1990 Christmas holiday trip; next Mar. 24 she receives a $20M cash settlement, plus a $14M mansion, $5M housing allowance, and $350K/year alimony plus plus plus, going on to marry Riccardo Mazzuchelli than divorcing him before the 2nd anniv.; on Dec. 19, 1993 after she appears on WWF Wrestlemania VII in 1991 and her publicist Chuck Jones is caught on July 15, 1992 stealing her high-heeled shoes then is found with a copy of Spike mag. for shoe fetishists, Trump marries Maples, and they have one child, Tiffany Trump (1993-); after hosting the Miss U.S.A. and Miss Universe pageants for two straight years, they divorce on June 9, 1999, after which she goes on to date Norman Mailer's son Michael Mailer and turn spirtualist. On Dec. 15 an OAS team announces a tentative agreement to return Jean-Bertrand Aristide to power in Haiti; on Dec. 22 Aristide accepts a proposal to allow Haitian Communist Party leader Rene Theodore to become PM in order to prove that an Aristide critic has a place in his "democratic govt." - and the walls come tumbling tumbling down? On Dec. 15 a ferry carrying 649 passengers (religious pilgrims) sweeps against a reef in the Red Sea off Safaga, Egypt in high waves, killing 471. On Dec. 16 nat. elections in Guyana are postponed until next year, the 2nd time since May. On Dec. 16 the U.N. Gen. Assembly repeals their 1975 resolution equating Zionism with racism - look who finally got his basement back? On Dec. 19 Pres. George H.W. Bush signs the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. Improvement Act (FDICIA), increasing the powers of the FDIC and giving it authority to borrow directly from the U.S. Treasury to replenish the Bank Insurance Fund (BIf) and to close failing banks in the most cost-effective manner; it incl. the U.S. Foreign Bank Supervision Enhancement Act (FBSEA), establishing federal stds. for creating foreign banks in the U.S., and authorizing the Federal Reserve Board to supervise and regulate foreign banking operations in the U.S. On Dec. 20 Paul John Keating (1944-) of the Labor Party becomes PM #24 of Australia (until Mar. 11, 1996). On Dec. 21 Kyrgyzstan joins the Commonwealth of Independence States. On Dec. 22 a WWII-vintage DC-3 chartered by a film crew crashes into a hillside near Heidelberg, Germany, killing 26 of 30 aboard. On Dec. 22 the body of U.S. hostage Marine Lt. Col. William Richard "Rich" Higgins (1945-90) is found dumped along a highway in Lebanon. On Dec. 25 did-I-mention Mikhail Gorbachev announces his resignation as pres. of the sagging Soviet Union. On Dec. 26 elections in Algeria threaten to hand the fundamentalist Muslims the majority in Parliament, leading to a near civil war. On Dec. 30 the Commonwealth of Independent States agrees that member states can form their own armies, although all states are to be equal. In Dec. Roman Catholic Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger declares the 1981 Final Report of the Anglican-Roman Catholic Internat. Commission to not be in accord with the fullness of the Catholic faith; meanwhile a special Synod on the Problems of Europe called by Pope John Paul II is snubbed by the Eastern Orthodox Church, which is pissed-off at Roman Catholic proselytism in C and E Europe. In Dec. Hollywood actor Mel Gibson (1956-) gives an interview to El Pais mag. in Spain, with the soundbyte: "With this look, who's going to think I'm gay? It would be hard to take me for someone like that. Do I sound like a homosexual? Do I talk like them? Do I move like them?", pissing-off the gay community; he refuses to apologize, telling Playboy in 1995: "I'll apologize when Hell freezes over. They can fuck off." A peace deal makes elections possible in Angola, but Unita rejects the outcome and resumes the civil war. The European Union (EU) Treaty is signed in Maastricht in SE Netherlands on the Maas River, known for its ruined castles. The U.S. Congress extends the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964 to provide for the elimination of discrimination in the private and federal workplace based on sex, race, religion, and nat. origin. Kan.-born Soviet history Ph.D (Georgtown U.) Robert Gates (1943-) (Pres. Bush's deputy nat. security advisor since 1989) succeeds William Webster, becoming CIA dir. #15 (until 1993); the 3rd career officer to become dir. France passes the toughest anti-smoking legislation in Europe, banning smoking in all but designated areas, requiring a health warning on tobacco products, then banning cigarette advertising in 1993 - but isn't France about cigarettes and stale perfume? Former Iranian PM Shahpour Bakhtiar is murdered in Paris; on Dec. 6, 1994 two Iranians are convicted. Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat (1931-) becomes spiritual leader (Mursyidul Am) of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (until ?). The polluting 18 de Marzo Refinery in Mexico City is closed, and later converted into a park commemorating the 2010 bicentennial. Zimbabwe signs up for the IMF's Economic Structural Adjustment Programme (ESAP), which soon cripples the country with compound interest rates, causing inflation just as one of its worst droughts hits, causing a stock market crash and crippling the economy, after which in 1997 the Zimbabwe dollar falls 74% in one day, causing pres. Robert Mugabe to reimpose food price controls, steep luxury import taxes, and controls on conversion of corporate foreign exchange accounts to local currency, which doesn't stop fatcat white farmers and mirners from going bust by 1999, allowing Mugabe to plot to grab their holdings and hand them to blacks. The Islamic Sharia-based Sudan Criminal Code of 1991 is passed, which incl. Article 149 on rape, requiring a woman to obtain four male witnesses to an alleged rape else face being charged with adultery and punished by 100 lashes if unmarried or death by stoning if married. Having been cleared of fraud, Imelda Marcos is permitted to return to the Shoepines, er, Philippines; meanwhile the Philippine Senate votes to remove U.S. bases. The Visegrad Three, consisting of Czech., Poland, and Hungary is formed as a regional framework; on May 12 it announces the formation of a battle group under command of Poland, to be in place by 2016 as a force independent of NATO. 62-y.-o. Yasser Arafat marries his 28-y.-o. private secy. Suha Arafat (nee Daoud Tawil) (1963-)) in a secret ceremony, stunning Palestinians; daughter of West Bank journalist and political activist Raymonda Tawil, she was raised a Roman Catholic and converted to Islam before her marriage; in July 1995 they have a daughter named Zahwa after Arafat's mother. Siraj Wahhaj (1950-) (Arab. "bright light"), an African-Am. male born Jeffrey Kearse, who converted to the Nation of Islam in 1969 under the name Jeffrey12x, grooving on the "white people are devils" talk, then after the 1975 death of Elijah Muhammad switched to Sunni Wahhabism and studied in Mecca becomes the first Muslim to recite an opening prayer before the U.S. House of Reps; U.S. secy. of state Madeline Albright later hosts him; too bad, although claiming to represent moderate Islam, he calls 1991 Operation Desert Storm "one of the most diabolical plots ever in the annals of history", giving a speech in Sept. 1991 where he utteres the soundbyte "Americans are not your friends... Canadians are not your friends... Europeans are not your friends. Your friend is Allah, the Messenger, and those who believe"; in 1992 he adds that Muslims should replace the U.S. Constitution with Sharia and a caliphate; in 1995 he is named by the U.S. as a possible co-conspirator in the 1993 WTC bombing, which he brushes off before testifying in 1999 as a character witness for Sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman. The U.S. Shaker congregation of perpetual celibates is down to nine people by this year, eight of which live in Sabbathday Lake, Maine, the last in Canterbury, N.H.; "The whiter your bread, the sooner you're dead" (their slogan explaining why they only eat dark bread). An Asian ship releases infected ballast water, starting a cholera epidemic in Peru, which had been free of the disease for 100 years; by 1995 1M Latin Ams. are infected. South Africa completes the dismantling of its nuclear weapons, becoming the first (only?) country to do so; meanwhile Brazil and Argentina sign a bilateral agreement to use nuclear energy peacefully. A criminal investigation of the Bank of Credit and Commerce Internat. (BCCI) implicates former U.S. defense secy. (1968-9) Clark Clifford, who made $6M in profits from bank stock purchased with an unsecured loan from them; he dies in 1998 before charges can be prosecuted. The U.S. Dept. of Justice files charges against 53 defendants in 30 cases involving hate crimes this year, 14 of them involving members of the KKK and other organized groups; by year's end only six result in convictions, 36 in plea bargains, and one in acquittal; 35 cases were filed in 1990. Women are elected mayor for the first time this year in Salt Lake City, Utah (Deedee Corradini), Ft. Worth, Tex. (Kay Granger), and Las Vegas, Nev. (Jan Laverty Jones). Nadine Strossen (1951-) becomes the first woman pres. of the Am. Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), succeeding Norman Dorsen (b. 1931). Boris N. Yeltsin suspends pub. of the Communist newspaper Pravda (Russ. "Truth") (founded 1912). After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Committees of Correspondence for Democracy and Socialism is formed as a moderate splinter group from the Communist Party USA by Angela Davis, Pete Seeger et al. to reject Leninism; members later incl. Van Jones. The annual Hammett Prize, named after Dashiell Hammett is established by the Internat. Assoc. of Crime Writers, North Am. Branch for the best crime novel in English by a Canadian or U.S. English author; the first award goes to Elmore Leonard for "Maximum Bob". The journal Feminism & Psychology is founded. The Congressional Progressive Caucus (CPC) is formed by the Dem. Caucus of the U.S. Congress, with members incl. Vt. indep. Bernie Sanders, who becomes chmn. until 2001. New English Archbishop of Canterbury (1990-2002) George Leonard Carey (1935-) approves a resolution asking for more study of homosexual rights, causing Colo. Bishop William C. Frey to warn that the issue could be a "disaster" for the Anglican Church. N.J. mobster Robert LiButti is banned from N.J. casinos for his ties to Mafia boss John Gotti; Trump Plaza in Atlantic City, N.J. is fined $200K by N.J. for violating anti-discrimination laws after they accede to his demands to remove women and black dealers at his tables; in 1994 LiButti is convicted of tax fraud in the largest federal income tax evasion case in N.J. history (until ?). After Gen. Custer's shine wears off, the name of the Custer Battlefield Nat. Monument in SE Mont. is changed to the Little Bighorn Nat. Monument. Huntington Library in Calif. releases the Dead Sea Scrolls to the public, scooping the secretive possessive scholars. Buell Theater in Denver, Colo. opens with "The Phantom of the Opera". Auguste Escoffier School of Culinary Arts is founded, with campuses in Austin, Tex. and Boulder, Colo. Lesley R. Stahl (1941-) joins CBS-TV's 60 Minutes. Vinyl records leave the mainstream; they continue to be manufactured until ? With financial assistance from Interscope Records, Marion "Suge" Knight Jr. (1965-) and Andre Romelle "Dr. Dre" Young (1965-) form Death Row Records, going on to sign Snoop Dogg. New Belgium Brewing Co. is founded in Fort Collins, Colo. near the Cache la Poudre River on the grounds of an old Great Western Sugar plant by bicycle-loving husband-wife team Jeff Lebesch and Kim Jordan to produce their flagship brand Fat Tire Amber Ale, growing to 400+ employees and being named the best place to work in the U.S. in 2008 by Outside mag., becoming the 3rd largest craft brewery in the U.S. and 7th largest in the U.S. by 2010, producing 712.8K barrels in 2011; other brands incl. Sunshine Wheat, Skinny Dip, Heavy Melon Watermelon Lime Ale, Tart Lychee, and Mothership Wit Wheat Beer; in Jan. 2013 it becomes 100% employee-owned. High Hops Brewery is founded in Windsor, Colo. by greenhouse operators Amanda Weakland and Pat Weakland, producing the Noble One et al.; in 2007 a massive hop shortage causes them to start their own hop farm. After divorcing her hubby in 1989, Albany, Ga.-born Southern chef Paula Ann Hiers Deen (1947-) opens The Lady & Sons Restaurant in Savannah, Ga., getting named "International Meal of the Year" by USA Today in 1999; in 1997 she self-pub. The Lady & Sons Country Cooking, launching her celeb chef career; in Nov. 2002 Paula's Home Cooking debuts on Food Network (until ?); too bad, on June 21, 2013 she admits to having used racial slurs sometime in the past, causing the PC police to come out and get Food Network to not renew her contract, causing her on Sept. 24, 2014 to announce her own network; meanwhile after several cos. cancel endorsement contracts, ex-pres. Jimmy Carter urges the public to forgive her, with the soundbyte: "I think she has been punished, perhaps overly severely, for her honesty"; in Nov. 2005 she launches the mag. Cooking with Paula Deen, which reaches 7.5M circ. in Mar. 2009; in Apr. 2007 she pub. her memoir It Ain't All About the Cookin'; in 2009 she and Martha Nesbit pub. Cookbook for the Lunch-Box Set, which gets dissed by Barbara Walters, Anthony Bourdain et al. for its pushing of high fat, salt, and sugar on children; in 2009 she is diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes, covering it up until Jan. 17, 2012, drawing more criticism for being a paid spokesperson for the Danish pharmaceutical co. Novo Nordisk, an insulin manufacturer. Elizabeth Taylor (b. 1932) sues National Enquirer for $20M and receives one of the biggest settlements ever for claiming that she had been drinking while hospitalized for pneumonia in Santa Monica, Calif. in Sept. 1990, was suicidal, and suffered from the disease lupus; meanwhile the new trim 59-y.-o. Liz meets and marries #8, 41-y.-o. blonde hunk construction worker Lawrence Lee "Larry" Fortensky (1952-) while at the Betty Ford Clinic (until 1996) (her 7th hubby and 8th marriage, counting two to Richard Burton) - she goes for his long fortensky? After years working out of her apt., Detroit, Mich.-born fashion designer Anna Sui (1964-) holds her first show, becoming a hit and growing a fashion empire. Mix-and-match species rescues? The black-footed ferret, nearly extinct in the U.S. by the 1986 (down to 18 specimens), is returned to the wild after rescue efforts by the Wyo. Fish and Game Dept.; in June Calif. condor chicks are returned to the wild in the Sespe Condor Sanctuary in the Los Padres Nat. Forest (70 mi. NW of Los Angeles). AT&T buys Nat. Cash Register Corp. in a $7.4B hostile takeover. A $10K investment in Microsoft stock this year will grow to $100K-$200K by 2005? Bob Dylan receives a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, and mumbles a speech so weird that some of the crowd laughs at him; "At times I felt like I don't want to do this anymore", he tells Rolling Stone in Nov. Bob Schieffer becomes anchor of CBS-TV's "Face the Nation" (until 2008). Singer Willie Nelson marries 4th wife Annie D'Angelo (1974-), a makeup artist he met in 1986, succeeding Martha Matthews (1952-62), Shirley Collie (1963-71), and Connie Koepke (1971-88). The annual Lollapalooza Music Festival for alternative rock bands is launched by Jane's Addiction's farewell tour. British theatrical producer Sir Cameron Anthony Mackintosh (1946-) (Les Miserables", "The Phantom of the Opera", "Oliver!", "Mary Poppins, "Cats", and "Miss Saigon") founds the Delfont Mackintosh Theatres, incl. the Gielgud Theatre, Noel Coward Theatre, Novello Theatre, Prince Edward Theatre, Prince of Wales Theatre, Queen's Theatre, Victoria Palace Theatre, and Wyndham's Theatre, with HQ in London. Baltic Beverages Holding Co. is founded by the Finnish Hartwall Brewery and the Swedish Pripps Brewery, going on to acquire 19 breweries incl. Aldaris Brewery in Latvia (founded 1865), Svyturys Brewery in Lithuania (founded 1784), Utenos Alus Brewery in Lithuania (founded 1977), Kalnapilis Brewery in Lithuania, Saku Brewery in Estonia (founded 1820), and Baltika Brewery in Russia (founded 1990); in ? it is acquired by Carlsberg and Scottish & Newcastle, which is acquired in Apr. 2008 by Carlsberg. Architecture: The Nat. Firefighters Memorial is built S of St. Paul's Cathedral in London, with three bronze statues sculpted by John W. Mills, based on the original concept of WWII London Blitz firefighter Cyril Thomas Demarne (1905-2007). The San Jose Sharks NHL team is founded in San Jose, Calif., playing their home games at the $162.5M San Jose Arena AKA the Shark Tank (opened Sept. 7, 1993); in 2001 it becomes the Compac Center; in 2002 it becomes HP Pavillion; in June 2013 it becomes SAP Center. Sports On Feb. 17 the 1991 (33rd) Daytona 500 is won by Virgil Earnest "Ernie" Irvan (1959-); Richard Petty comes in 2nd; after a racing accident last fall, A.J. Foyt misses his first Daytona 500 since 1965. five unsponsored cars feature paint schemes representing the five branches of the U.S. military in honor of Operation Desert Storm. On Mar. 2 the Ballard Gutterball Incident at the PBA Fair Lanes Open in Baltimore, Md. sees Peter Weber get three strikes in frame 10, forcing Richardson, Tex.-born Delmas Perry "Del" Ballard Jr. (1963-) (1989 PBA Tournament of Champions winner) to get two strikes and 7 pins for the win; too bad, after getting the two strikes he throws the final shot into the right gutter to hand the title to Weber. On Apr. 8 famed jockey William Lee "Willie" Shoemaker (1931-2003) is left paralyzed by an auto accident that breaks his neck; his 8,833rd and last V was on Jan. 20, 1990 riding Beau Genius at Gulfstream Park, Fla; his last race was at Santa Anita Park and he came in 4th on Patchy Groundfog. On Apr. 19 Evander Holyfield scores a decision over George Foreman to retain his heavyweight boxing title in Atlantic City, N.J. On Apr. 6 Argentine soccer star Diego Armando Maradona (1960-) is suspended for 15 mo. by the Italian League for cocaine use. On May 1 pitcher Nolan Ryan Jr. (1947-) throws his record 7th and last no-hitter as a Texas Ranger, striking out 16 in a 3-0 win over the Toronto Blue Jays. On May 15-25 the 1991 Stanley Cup Finals (first all-U.S. Finals since 1981) see the Pittsburgh Steelers (first Finals appearance) defeat the Minn. North Stars (first Finals appearance) 4-2, becoming their first win, and the first U.S. franchise to win since 1983, also the first Finals since 1982 not featuring the Calgary Flames or Edmonton Oilers, and the first since 1981 with no team from W Canada; the first Finals not extending into June; MVP is Mario Lemieux. On May 26 the 1991 (75th) Indianapolis 500 is won by Rick Mears, who joins the 4th win club along with A.J. Foyt and Al Unser Sr. On June 2-12 the 1991 NBA Finals (first broadcast by NBC-TV after 17 years with CBS-TV) sees the Chicago Bulls win their first NBA championship, defeating the Los Angeles Lakers (coach Mike Dunleavy) by 4-1; MVP is Michael Jordan of the Bulls. On June 13 during the first round of the U.S. Open golf tournament at the Hazeltine National Golf Club in Chaska, Minn. lightning strikes, killing one spectator and leaving five others hospitalized. In June Miami and Denver are selected to become the homes of two Nat. League baseball expansion teams, the Florida Marlins and the Colorado Rockies, to begin playing in the 1993 season; the 1991 season sets a record of 56.9M spectators at games; on Nov. 11, 2011 the Marlinsabecome the Miami Marlins. On Aug. 2-16 Cuba hosts the XI Pan Am. Games, turning a dilapidated hotel in Old Havana into the Hall of Prado boxing arena, erecting a 55-bldg. Pan Am. Village, complete with Roman Catholic and Protestant chapels (the first religious structures built since the 1959 Rev.), and hoarding food for months to feed the thousands of foreign visitors; 4.5K athletes (850 from the U.S.) from 39 countries compete in 350 events in 31 sports; the U.S. Treasury Dept. bars ABC-TV from paying Cuba the $6M broadcasting fee for coverage, citing the trade embargo. On Nov. 7 Los Angeles Lakers basketball star Earvin "Magic" Johnson Jr. (1959-) announces that he is HIV-positive, offering to retire for fear of infecting others, returning to play in the 1992 All-Star Game and winning the MVP award, then retiring again for four years, returning in 1996 to play 32 games for the Lakers before retiring for the last time. On Nov. 16-30 the first 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup of Soccer in Guangdong, China, attended by 510K (19.6K per match) is won by the U.S., followed by Norway, Sweden, and Germany. Bjorn Daehlie (1967-) of Norway wins his first cross-country skiing world title on ?, followed by a record 28 more in world championships or the Olympics by 1999. On Dec. 21 the 100th anniv. of the invention of basketball by Dr. James Naismith is celebrated in Springfield, Miss. with a gala featuring players Julius Erving, George Mikan, Bob Kurland, Rick Barry, and coach John McLendon. Tonya Harding becomes the first U.S. woman to land a triple axel in competition on ? (#2 is Kimmie Meissner in 2006). After being drafted #53 in the 1989 NHL draft, 6'1" Swedish-born defenceman Erik Nicklas Lidström (1970-) joins the Detroit Red Wings, playing 20 seasons and winning four Stanley Cups and seven James Norris Memorial Trophies. The Atlanta Braves wear "JWM" on their sleeves this season in memory of long time (since 1947) mgr. and vice-pres. John W. Mullen (1924-91) (who was responsible for signing Hank Aaron), who died of a heart attack on Apr. 3 during spring training. Am. tennis player James Spencer "Jim" Courier Jr. (1970-) wins his first Slam at the French Open on ? after defeating Andre Agassi (1970-). Nobel Prizes: Peace: Aung San Suu Kyi (1945-) (Burma); Lit.: Nadine Gordimer (1923-) (South Africa); Physics: Pierre-Gilles de Gennes (1932-1007) (France) [ordering of molecules]; Chem.: Richard Robert Ernst (1933-) (Switzerland) [NMR spectroscopy]; Med.: Erwin Neher (1944-) and Bert Sakmann (1942-) (Germany) [confirmation of ion channels via the patch clamp]; Econ.: Ronald Harry Coase (1910-) (U.S.) [transaction costs, externalities]. Inventions: The World Wide Web (WWW), which had been a company-only net called Enquire Within Upon Everything is released globally by 1989 inventor, English-born Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee (1955-) of CERN (European Particle Physics Lab) in Switzerland, based on the HTML (HyperText Mark-Up Language), URLs (universal resource locators), and HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol); the French trans. World Wide Web as "Toile d'Araignee Mondiale"; the Hebrew letter waw is equivalent to 6, so WWW equals 666? - could it have something to do with the Swiss love of fondue? Wi-Fi is invented by NCR Corp./AT&T in Nieuwegein, Netherlands. On May 13 Apple releases Macintosh System 7.0, with a corrected floating-point unit. Linus Benedict Torvalds (1969-) of Finland creates the Linux operating system as an alternative to Windows, fighting a steep uphill battle to get people to use it when they already had to pay for Windoze whether they wanted it or not? BeOS is created by Be Inc. to run on BeBox hardware as a competitor to Mac OS and Microsoft Windows; too bad, it flops. Philip R. "Phil" Zimmermann Jr. (1954-) releases the first version of Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) personal computer software, bringing military-grade cryptography to the masses for free. All Nippon Airways becomes the first to offer in-flight video games to passengers. U. of Minn. researchers release the Honeycrisp Apple, followed by the early season cold climate Zestar Apple in 1998 ("a hint of brown sugar"). Science: In Apr. AT&T Bell Labs announces that carbon buckyballs (buckminsterfullerenes) (60 carbon atoms arranged at the corners of a 32-sided solid consisting of 20 hexagons and 12 pentagons) can be made superconducting at -427 deg. F by adding potassium atoms. In Sept. 5.3K-y.-o. Otzi (Ötzi) is dug up on the Tisenjoch Pass of the Otzal Alps in N Italy, complete with yew longbow, chamois quiver with 14 arrows, a copper axe, and a flint-bladed dagger in a woven sheath; he has bad teeth; his complete genome is pub. in 2012, allowing 19 people in Tyrol to identified as his descendants in 2013. Japanese cardiac surgeon Amano Atsushi (1955-) pioneers Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery; on Feb. 18, 2012 he performs a successful operation on Emperor Akihito. The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope is built in Green Bank, W. Va. to replace the one that collapsed on Nov. 15, 1988, becoming the largest steerable radio telescope on Earth. Albany, N.Y.-born economist Paul Robin Krugman (1953-) delivers a set of lectures in Leuven, followed by the paper Geography and Trade, founding New Economic Geography, which emphasizes how economic regions with the most production will be the the most profitable and attract even more production. Alex Wolszczan and Dale Frail find evidence of three extra-solar planets orbiting the spinning remains of Pulsar B1257+12, becoming the first planets discovered outside our solar system. The Human Genome Diversity Project, a sister to the Human Genome Project to look for genetic differences among world pops. and find how the DNA sequence in the human genome varies from one pop. to another is proposed by pop. geneticists, but runs into political opposition from those accusing it of racism, and others accusing it of being a "vampire project" for extracting medical info. from endangered tribes without paying them; it pub. its first major analysis in 2002. Nonfiction: Peter Ackroyd (1949-), Introduction to Dickens. Mortimer Adler (1902-2001), Haves Without Have-Nots: Essays for the 21st Century on Democracy and Socialism; Desires, Right & Wrong: The Ethics of Enough. Francesco Alberoni (1929-), The Envious. Ellen Alderman and Caroline Kennedy (1957-), In Our Defense: The Bill of Rights in Action; case studies of the U.S. Bill of Rights by a babe who looks like JFK and wears black slacks, and another atty. she met in a civil rights class at Columbia? Stephen Ambrose (1936-2002), Nixon: The Ruin and Recovery of a Politician, 1973-1990. Karen Armstrong (1944-), Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet; ex-Roman Catholic nun tries to launder Islam for Westerners, claiming that jihad means a Muslim's duty to fight for a just decent society, making her a hit in the Islam ignoramus West. Isaac Asimov (1920-92), Asimov's Chronology of the World: The History of the World from the Big Bang to Modern Times (Nov. 6)ends in 1945; weak on dates - spell my name again? Isaac Asimov (1920-92) and Frederik Pohl (1919-), Our Angry Earth. Pat Barker (1943-), Regeneration (Pulitzer Prize); about Siegfried Sassoon, Wilfried Owen, army pshrink W.H.R. Rivers, and fictional Lt. Billy Prior in WWI; first in the Regeneration Trilogy about the trauma aftermath angle of WWI (1991-5). Wayne Barrett, Trump: The Greatest Show on Earth: The Deals, the Downfall, the Reinvention. Herbert Benson (1935-), MindScience - An East-West Dialogue. Michael R. Beschloss (1955-), The Crisis Years: Kennedy and Khrushchev, 1960-1963. Stephen Birmingham (1932-), The Rothman Scandal. David Bohm (1917-92) and Mark Edwards, Changing Consciousness: Exploring the Hidden Source of the Social, Political and Environmental Crises Facing Our World. Sissela Bok (1934-), Alva Myrdal: A Daughter's Memoir. Erma Bombeck (1927-96), When You Look Like Your Passport Photo, It's Time to Go Home. Tom Brown Jr. (1950-), The Quest: One Man's Search for Peace, Insight, and Healing in an Endangered World. Rock Brynner, Yul: The Man Who Would Be King; by Yul Brynner's son, co-founder of Hard Rock Cafes. Frederick Buechner (1926-), Telling Secrets (autobio.). Vincent Bugliosi (1934-2015) and Bruce Henderson, And the Sea Will Tell. Alan Bullock (1914-2004), Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives; how their careers fed off each other; his magnum opus? James C. Burbank, Vanishing Lobo - The Mexican Wolf and the Southwest; "There are only 33 Mexican wolves left in the United States and Mexico." Sophy Burnham (1936-), Angel Letters. James MacGregor Burns (1918-2014) and Stewart Burns, A People's Charter: The Pursuit of Rights in America (Dec. 3). Guillermo Calvo (1941-), The Perils of Sterilization (Dec.); about the situation in which a central bank responds to a money supply increase in the nat. economy by selling securities and/or taking deposits to "sterilize" it and lessen the inflationary consequences, which backfires when the larger amount of govt. debt itself induces higher inflationary expectations "because sticking to a stable price level... would make servicing the public debt excessively costly from a social and political point of view." Stephen L. Carter (1955-), Reflections of an Affirmative Action Baby (autobio.); a black who got affirmative-actioned through Stanford and Yale ends up dissing affirmative action - and makes a buck from white readers? Norman F. Cantor (1929-2004), Inventing the Middle Ages: The Lives, Works and Ideas of the Great Medievalists of the Twentieth Century. George Carpozi Jr., Poison Pen: The Unauthorized Biography of Kitty Kelley. Gerald Celente (1946-), Trend Tracking: The System to Profit from Today's Trends (Sept. 1); prophesies a "New Black Plague". Wilt Chamberlain (1936-99), A View From Above (autobio.); lifelong bachelor claims to have had sex with 20K women, but hastens to point out none were married; 1 a day for 40 years? Deepak Chopra (1946-), Perfect Health; Ayurveda for Westerners. Clark Clifford (1906-98) and Richard C. Holbrooke (1941-2010), Counsel to the President. Andrei Codrescu (1946-), The Hole in the Flag: A Romanian Exile's Story of Return and Revolution. Andrew Cohen (1955-), Enlightment is a Secret: Teachings of Liberation. Len Colodny (1938-) and Robert Gettlin, Silent Coup: The Removal of a President; White House counsel John Dean orchestrated the 1972 Watergate burglary to destroy info. linking his future wife Maureen Bner to a call girl ring?; 2nd ed. in Jan. 1992. Robert Conquest (1917-2015), Stalin: Breaker of Nations. Bill Cooper (1943-2001), Behold a Pale Horse (Dec. 1); the superconspiracy that's behind everything from the Illuminati and the JFK assassination to UFOs and AIDs, and is trying to rule Da World via pop. control; he later retracts the UFO stuff?; "The manifesto of the militia movement" (Terry Nichols); "There was even a time in history when the king was a sacrificial king. Just like John F. Kennedy was in the Temple of the Sun known as Dealey Plaza." David Cope (1941-), Computers and Musical Style. Robert Cormier (1925-2000), I Have Words to Spend (autobio.). Richard Ben Cramer (1950-), Ted Williams: The Seasons of the Kid. Harry Crews (1935-), Madonna at Ringside. Robert Warren Cromey (1931-), In God's Image: Christian Witness to the Need for Gay/Lesbian Equality in the Eyes of the Church. William Cronon (1954-), Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West (Bancroft Prize); brings out the fundamental interconectedness of city and country, with the demands of the capitalist market grafting a second Nature on the first (natural) Nature. Robert Dallek (1934-), The Lone Star Rising; bio. of LBJ. G. Brent Dalrymple (1937-), The Age of the Earth. John Darwin (1948-), The End of the British Empire: The Historical Debate (Making Contemporary Britain) (Jan. 10). Alan Dershowitz (1938-), Chutzpah; on being a schmuck, er, schlemiel, er, ewish. Jared Mason Diamond (1937-), The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal; rev. ed. 2004; humans and chimps share 98% of their genes, and both are known for murdering their own kind and ruining their environment - ergo chimps descended from humans? E.J. Dionne (1952-), Why Americans Hate Politics (first book) (bestseller); claims that the two major parties are ignoring a silenct centrist majorit8y. Countess Marion Doenhoff (1909-2002), Before the Storm: Memoirs of My Youth in Old Prussia; anti-Hitler resistance leader and post-WWII German journalist. Eric Drexler (1955-), Chris Peterson, and Gayle Pergamit, Unbounding the Future. Dinesh D'Souza (1961-), Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus; PC police at U.S. univs. Martin Bauml Duberman (1930-), Cures: A Gay Man's Odyssey. Kitty Dukakis (1936-), Now You Know (autobio.); admits her battle with alcoholism. Jacques Ellul (1912-94), Anarchy and Christianity; socially following the same goal? Steven Emerson (1953-), Terrorist: The Inside Story of the Highest-Ranking Iraqi Terrorist Ever to Defect to the West. Steve Endean (1948-93), Into the Mainstream (autobio.). Joseph Epstein (1937-), A Line Out for a Walk: Familiar Essays. Susan C. Faludi (1959-), Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women; the 1980s backlash against feminism was full of hypocritical women? Leslie Fiedler (1917-2003), Fielder on the Roof: Essays on Literature and Jewish Identity. Nancy Friday (1933-), Women on Top: How Real Life Has Changed Women's Sexual Fantasies. Isaiah Friedman, Palestine Betrayed. Robert Fulghum (1937-), Uh-Oh. Paul Fussell Jr. (1924-2012), BAD: or, The Dumbing of America. Curt Gentry (1931-2014), J. Edgar Hoover: The Man and the Secrets. Barry Gifford (1946-), New Mysteries of Paris. Sir Martin Gilbert (1936-2015), Churchill: A Life. Charles Glass (1951-), Tribes With Flags: A Dangerous Passage Through the Chaos of the Middle East; his travels in the Levant, incl. his 62-day hostage ordeal in Beirut. Ernst Gombrich (1909-2001), The Uses of Images. Studies in the Social Function of Art and Visual Communication. Jane Goodall (1934-), Through a Window: My 30 Years with the Chimpanzees of Gombe; "At the turn of the century chimpanzees were found, in their hundreds of thousands, in 25 African nations" - today, don't ask? Mary Catherine Gordon (1949-), Good Boys and Dead Girls, and Other Essays. Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002), Bully for Brontosaurus (essays). Marshall Govindan, Babaji and the 18 Siddha Kriya Yoga Tradition; a fraud? Germaine Greer (1939-), The Change: Women, Aging and the Menopause. A.B. Guthrie Jr. (1901-91), A Field Guide to Writing Fiction. Uta Hagen, A Challenge for the Actor. David Halberstam (1934-2007), The Next Century; predicts that Japan and Germany will surpass the U.S. economically. Victor Davis Hanson (1953-), Hoplites: The Classical Greek Battle Experience. Peter Handke (1942-), Essay About the Successful Day: A Winter Day's Dream. Donna Haraway (1944-), Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature. Willis Harman (1918-97), New Traditions in Business: Spirit and Leadership in the 21st Century. Jim Harrison (1937-2016), Just Before Dark: Collected Nonfiction. Campbell Harvey (1958-) and Wayne E. Ferson, The Variation of Economic Risk Premiums; argues that not only the business cycle but risk exposures and premia should be predictable. William Least Heat-Moon (1939-), PrairyErth (A Deep Map): An Epic History of the Tallgrass Prairie Country. Katharine Hepburn (1907-2003), Me: Stories of My Life (autobio.); #1 bestselling book of 1991. Josephine Herbst (1892-1969), The Starched Blue Sky of Spain and Other Memoirs (posth.). Charles Higham (1931-2012) and Roy Moseley (1938-), Elizabeth and Philip: The Untold Story of the Queen of England and Her Prince; she loves gems and wealth-building, he's a boor? Albert Otto Hirschman (1915-2012), The Rhetoric of Reaction: Perversity, Futility, Jeopardy. Michel Houellebecq (1956-), Lovecraft: Against the World, Against Life; H.P. Lovecraft. Albert Hourani (1915-93), A History of the Arab Peoples; internat. bestseller. Samuel Phillips Huntington (1927-2008), The Third Wave: Democratiztion in the Late Twentieth Century. Joe Hyams, Flight of the Avenger: George Bush at War. Sandra Ingerman, Soul Retrieval: Mending the Fragmented Self; how to journey to the spirit world to retrieve parts of the soul that have been lost as a result of earlier trauma. Michael F. Jacobson, The Fast Food Guide (Dec.). Peter James et al., Centuries of Darkness; proposes shifting ancient Greek history forward by 200-250 years. Haynes Johnson (1931-), Sleepwalking Through History: America in the Reagan Years. Philip Johnson, Darwin Trial; launches the Intelligent Design Theory, AKA Creationism sans the Bible. Gayl Jones (1949-), Liberating Voices: Oral Tradition in African-American Literature. Pauline Kael (1919-2001), Movie Love. Efraim Karsh (1953-), Soviet Policy Towards Syria Since 1970. Efraim Karsh (1953-) and Insari Rautsi-Karsh, Saddam Hussein: A Political Biography. Nuh Ha Mim Keller (1954-), Reliance of the Traveller and Tools of the Worshipper; 14th cent. Shafi'i Sunni Islamic legal ref. work on Sharia; the first std. Islamic ref. work on Sharia trans. into a Euro language. Kitty Kelley (1942-), Nancy Reagan: The Unauthorized Biography; dices her rep "with the zest of a Benihana chef" (Michael Crowley), claiming affairs with Frank Sinatra, reliance on astrology, marijuana use by her and hubby Ronald Reagan et al., causing Ronny to utter the soundbyte "While I am accustomed to reports that stray from the truth, the flagrant and absurd falsehoods... clearly exceed the bounds of decency." Frank R. Kemerer, William Wayne Justice [1920-2009): A Judicial Biography; the LBJ-appointed activist judge who desegregated Tex. public schools and opened them to illegal immigrants from Mexico. Philip Kerr (ed.), The Penguin Book of Lies; "For the perfect every lie is a mortal sin" (St. Augustine); Thomas Aquinas' three types of lie: mischievous (intending injury), jocose (for pleasure), officious (intending charity or benefit). Ken Keyes Jr. (1921-95) and Benjamin B. Ferencz, Planethood: The Key to Your Future. Rashid Khalidi (1948-), The Origins of Arab Nationalism. Alexander King (1909-2007) and Bertrand Schneider (1929-), The First Global Revolution (Sept. 3); by the Club of Rome (founded 1968); sequel to the 1972 bestseller "The Limits to Growth", claiming that time has run out and it's now or never for radical environmental actions; "The common enemy of humanity is man. In searching for a new enemy to unite us, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like, would fit the bill." Alex Kotlowitz, There Are No Children Here: The Story of Two Boys Growing Up in the Other America. Gary A. Kowalski (1953-), The Souls of Animals. Jonathan Kozol (1936-), Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools; how rich school districts spend more per capita on education. Mark Lane (1927-), Plausible Denial; claims that the CIA killed JFK, and that E. Howard Hunt was involved - follow the signs and prepare to what? Christopher Lasch (1932-94), The True and Only Heaven: Progress and Its Critics. Robert Lawlor (1939-), Earth Honoring: The New Male Sexuality. Michael Lewis (1960-), The Money Culture; Pacific Rift. Mario Vargas Llosa (1936-), A Writer's Reality. Graham Lord (1943-), Ghosts of King Solomon's Mines (autobio.). James Lovelock (1919-), Scientists on Gaia; Gaia: The Practical Science of Planetary Medicine. Manning Marable (1950-2011), Race, Reform and Rebellion. Ralph G. Martin, Henry and Clare: An Intimate Portrait of the Luces. Martin Emil Marty (1928-) and R. Scott Appleby (eds.), The Fundamentalism Project (5 vols.). Rollo May (1909-94), The Cry for Myth. David McCullough (1933-), Brave Companions: Portraits in History (essays). William Meredith Jr. (1919-2007), Poems Are Hard to Read. Fatema Mernissi (1940-), Doing Daily Battle: Interviews with Moroccan Women. Agnes de Mille (1905-93), Martha: The Life and Work of Martha Graham. Albert Murray (1916-), Romare Bearden: Finding the Rhythm. Mark E. Neely Jr. (1944-), The Fate of Liberty: Abraham Lincoln and Civil Liberties (Pulitzer Prize). Oliver North (1943-) and William Novak, Under Fire (autobio.). John R. O'Donnell and James Rutherford, Trumped!: The Inside Story of the Real Donald Trump-His Cunning Rise and Spectacular Fall (May); a tell-all by a protege of casino magnate Steve Wynn, who worked for Trump in 1987-90 as CEO of Trump Plaza, running his only profitable casino, portraying him as a cocksure boor and narcissist who like to blame his mistakes on subordinates, and isn't good at weighing the downside of investment risks, revealing his chirophobia (fear of shaking hands because of germs), love of gossip, abstemiousness, and penchant for extramarital affairs, airing his dirty laundry incl. reporting an alleged personal comment that "Laziness is a trait in blacks", referring to a black accountant, along with "Black guys counting my money - I hate it. The only kind of people I want counting my money are short guys that wear yarmulkes every day"; Trump responds in an interview with Playboy mag. in 1999, containing the soundbyte: "Nobody has had worse things written about them than me. And here I am. The stuff O'Donnell wrote about me is probably true. The guy's a fucking loser. A fucking loser. I brought the guy in to work for me; it turns out he didn't know that much about what he was doing. I think I met the guy two or three times total. And this guy goes off and writes a book about me, like he knows me!" Robert Evan Ornstein (1942-), The Evolution of Consciousness. P.J. O'Rourke (1947-), Parliament of Whores: A Lone Humorist Attempts to Explain the Entire U.S. Government. John Osborne (1929-94), Almost a Gentleman: An Autobiography: 1955-1966 (autobio.); sequel to "A Better Class of Person" (1981). Abraham Pais (1918-2000), Niel Bohr's Times: In Physics, Philosophy, and Polity. Harry Mark Petrakis (1923-), The Founder's Touch: The Life of Paul Galvin of Motorola. Julia Phillips, You'll Never Eat Lunch in This Town Again. Daniel Pipes (1949-), Damascus Courts the West: Syrian Politics 1989-1991. Roy Porter (1946-2002), Doctor of Society: Thomas Beddoes and the Sick Trade in Late Enlightnment England. Steve Potz-Rayner and Richard Lockwood, A Little Book of Lies (Penguin Gynaecology for Beginners. John Enoch Powell (1912-98), Reflections of a Statesman. Karl H. Pribram (1919-), Brain and Perception: Holonomy and Structure in Figural Processing. V.S. Pritchett (1900-97), Complete Collected Essays. Lewis Burwell Puller Jr. (1945-1994), Fortunate Son: The Healing of a Vietnam Vet (Pulitzer Prize). Michael S. Radu (1947-2009), The Dynamics of Soviet Policy in Sub-Saharan Africa. James Randi (1928-), James Randi: Psychic Investigator. Marcus Raskin (1934-), Essays of a Citizen: From National Security State to Democracy. James Reston (1909-95), Deadline (autobio.). Howard Rheingold (1947-), Virtual Reality: Exploring the Brave New Technologies of Artificial Experience and Interactive Worlds from Cyberspace to Teledildonics; first popular treatment of computer virtual reality (VR) technology. Bernie Rhodes and Russell P. Calame, D.B. Cooper: The Real McCoy; claims that hijacker Richard Floyd McCoy Jr. (1942-74) is also hijacker D.B. Cooper, based on the modus operandi and a tie and Brigham Young U. medallion with McCoy's initials left on the plane by Cooper; his widow sues, but after suspicions of her involvement in the hijacking her request for injunction to stop sales of the book is denied. Robert Maynard Pirsig (1928-), Lila: An Inquiry into Morals. Andrew Roberts (1963-), The Holy Fox: A Biography of Lord Halifax. Nathan Rosenberg (1927-) and David C. Mowery, Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth. Murray Newton Rothbard (1926-95), Freedom, Inequality, Primitivism, and the Division of Labor. Conrad Russell (1937-2004), The Fall of the British Monarchies, 1637-1642. John E. Sarno (1923-), Healing Back Pain: The Mind-Body Connection. Mark Ivor Satin (1946-), New Options for America: The Second American Experiment Has Begun. Michael Savage (1942-), The Death of the White Male. Simon Schama (1945-), Dead Certainties (Unwarranted Speculations); tries to make a connection between the deaths of Gen. James Wolfe and George Parkman, uncle of Francis Parkman, exploring the historian's inability "ever to reconstruct a dead world in its completeness however thorough or revealing the documentation", and speculatively bridging "the teasing gap separating a lived event and its subsequent narration"; "Historians shouldn't make it up, but I did." In 1995 he pub. the hit Peter Dale Scott (1929-), Cocaine Politics: Drugs, Armies, and the CIA in Central America. Mary Lee Settle (1918-2005), Turkish Reflections: A Biography of Place. Gail Sheehy (1937-), The Silent Passage: Menopause. Rupert Sheldrake (1942-), The Rebirth of Nature: The Greening of Science and God; agitates for ditching the mechanistic view of Nature. Kenneth Silverman (1936-), Edgar A. Poe: Mournful and Never-ending Remembrance. Robert Sobel (1931-99), The Life and Times of Dillon Read. George Soros (1930-), Underwriting Democracy: Encouraging Free Enterprise and Democratic Reform Among the Soviets and in Eastern Europe. Art Spiegelman (1948-), Maus: A Survivor's Tale (2 vols.) (first vol. 1986). James B. Stewart, Den of Thieves. Michael Coleman Talbot (1953-1992), The Holographic Universe; claims that the Universe is a hologram, which gains a giant publicity boost with the 1999 release of the film The Matrix. Hugh Thomas (1931-), Ever Closer Union. Kenneth R. Timmerman (1953-), The Death Lobby: How the West Armed Iraq; claims it was a response to the overthrow of the shah of Iran; "The Islamic revolution in Iran upset the entire strategic equation in the region. America's principle ally in the Gulf, the Shah, was swept aside overnight, and no one else on the horizon could replace him as the guarantor of U.S. interests in the region", causing the U.S. to support Sadam Hussein as a weapon against the Islamic Repub. of Iran, removing Iraq from its list of state sponsors of terrorism in 1982; The BNL Blunder: How the U.S. Policy Allowed a Bank in Atlanta to Finance Saddam Hussein's War Machine. Sir Michael Tippett (1905-98), Those Twentieth Century Blues (autobio.). Jeffrey Toobin (1960-), Opening Arguments: A Young Lawyer's First Case - U.S. vs. Oliver North. Sir George Trevelyan (1906-96), Exploration into God. Donald Trump (1946-) and Charles Leerhsen, Trump: The Art of Survival (July); his shifting fortunes from the construction of the Taj Mahal in Atlantic City to his pending divorce from Ivana Trump; doesn't mention how he stiffed contractors of $60M. John Updike (1932-2009), Odd Jobs (essays). Kurt Vonnegut Jr. (1922-2007), Fates Worse Than Death: An Autobiographical Collage. Benjamin J. Wattenberg (1933-), The First Universal Nation. Cornel West (1953-), Breaking Bread: Insurgent Black Intellectual Life (with bell hooks?); The Ethical Dimensions of Marxist Thought. Terry Tempest Williams, Refuge; Utah naturalist describes the devastation the rising waters of the Great Salt Lake do to a bird sanctuary. David Wojnarowicz (1954-92), Close to the Knives: A Memoir of Disintegration - his gay lifestyle leads to AIDS? Fred Alan Wolf (1934-), The Eagle's Quest: A Physicist's Search for Truth in the Heart of the Shamanic World. Naomi Wolf (1962-), The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty Are Used Against Women; claims that the "iron-maiden" ideal of unattainable beauty is used by the male power structure to keep women down. Bob Woodward (1943-), The Commanders. Rainer Zitelmann (1957-), Adenauer's Opponents: Fighters for Unity; claims that Conrad Adenauer's critics were right to accuse him of making unification of Europe more important than reunification of Germany. Art: Damien Hirst (1965-), In and Out of Love; potted plants, caterpillars and monochrome canvases; A Thousand Years; a cow head, an insect electrocutor, and maggots; The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living; a 14-ft. tiger shark embalmed in formaldehyde in a glass case; makes him the #1 British artist of the 1990s. Roberto Matta (1911-2002), Parmi les Desirs; Ma-Dame. Larry Rivers (1923-2002), Early Chaplin. Music: Chunky A, Large and In Charge (album); rap album by Arsenio Hall; incl. Owww. Paula Abdul (1962-), Spellbound (album #2) (May 14); sells 8.5M copies; incl. Rush Rush, The Promise of a New Day, Blowing Kisses in the Wind, Vibeology, Will You Marry Me? Bryan Adams (1959-), Waking Up the Neighbours (album #6) (Sept. 24); sells 10M copies; incl. Can't Stop This Thing We Started, Thought I'd Died and Gone to Heaven, There Will Never Be Another Tonight, (Everything I Do) I Do It for You. Allman Brothers Band, Shades of Two Worlds (album #11) (July). Eric Ambler (1909-98), Ropin' the Wind (album) (Sept.); first album to enter the pop charts at #1 thanks to 4M advance orders; incl. "What She's Doing Now". America, Encore: More Greatest Hits (album) (June 24). Massive Attack, Blue Lines (album) (debut) (Apr. 8) (#13 in the U.K.); first trip hop album; from Bristol, England, incl. Robert "3D" Del Naja (1966-), Grantley Even "Grant" "Daddy G" Marshall (1959-), and Andrew Lee Isaac "Andy" "Mushroom" Vowles (1967-); incl. Unfinished Sympathy. Joan Baez (1941-), Brothers in Arms (album). Siouxsie Sioux (1957-) and the Banshees, Superstition (album #10) (June 10); incl. Kiss Them for Me (#23 in the U.S.). Moody Blues, Keys of the Kingdom (album #15) (June 25); incl. Say It With Love, Bless the Wings (That Bring You Back). David Bowie (1947-2016) and the Tin Machine, Tin Machine II (album) (Sept. 2); cover features dangly nude Kouroi statues; incl. Baby Universal, Goodbye Mr. Ed. . Pet Shop Boys, Discography (album) (Nov. 4); incl. DJ Culture, Was It Worth It?. Billy Bragg (1957-), The Peel Sessions Album (album); Don't Try This At Home (album #4) (Sept. 17); incl. Sexuality. Garth Brooks (1962-), Ropin' the Wind (album #3) (Sept.); has advance orders of 4M copies, becoming the first country album to become #1 on the pop charts; first country artist with three albums in the pop top 20 in the same week; incl. Shameless, What She's Doing Now, The River. James Brown (1933-2006), Star Time (4-CD box set) (May 7). Kate Bush (1958-), Rocket Man. Mariah Carey (1970-), Emotions (album #2) (Sept. 17) (#4 in the U.S.) (3.5M copies); incl. Emotions, Can't Let Go, Make It Happen, If It's Over, Till the End of Time. Kim Carnes (1945-), Checkin' Out the Ghosts. Clarence Carter (1936-), Strokin'; "I stroke it to the east, and I stroke to the west, and I stroke it to the woman that I love the best... Have you ever made love before breakfast?" Blue Cheer, Dining With the Sharks (album #9); next album in 2007. Cher (1946-), Love Hurts (album) (June 11); sells 17M copies; incl. Love Hurts. Tom Cochrane (1953-), Mad Mad World (album) (solo debut); incl. Life is a Highway (#6 in the U.S.). Metal Church, The Human Factor (album #4); incl. Human Factor, In Harm's Way. Joe Cocker (1944-2014), Night Calls (album #13) (Oct. 7). Marc Cohn (1959-), Marc Cohn (album); incl. Walking in Memphis, True Companion. Natalie Cole (1950-2015), Unforgettable... with Love (album). Alice Cooper (1948-), Hey Stoopid (album #19). John Corigliano (1938-), The Ghosts of Versailles (opera). Elvis Costello (1954-), Mighty Like a Rose (album) (May 14); incl. The Other Side of Summer; G.B.H. Soundtrack (album). The Cramps, Look Mom No Head! (album) (Nov.). Motley Crue, Decade of Decadence (album) (Oct. 19) (#2 in the U.S.). The Grateful Dead, One From the Vault (album) (Apr. 15); recorded on Aug. 13, 1975 in San Francisco; Infrared Roses (album) (Nov. 1). John Denver (1943-97), Different Directions (album) (Sept. 24). Divinyls, Divinyls (album #4) (Jan. 29) (#15 in the U.S.); incl. I Touch Myself (#4 in the U.S., #10 in the U.K.); recorded at Jackson Browne's Groove Masters Studio in Santa Monica, Calif., with backing band incl. Randy Jackson (bass), Benmont Tench (keyboards), and Charley Drayton (drums); the video was filmed in a nunnery in Pasadena. Doobie Brothers, Brotherhood (album #11) (Apr. 15); incl. Dangerous. Crash Test Dummies, The Ghosts that Haunt Me (album) (debut); from Winnipeg, Man. Canada, incl. Bradley Kenneth "Brad" Roberts (1964-), Ellen Reid, Dan Roberts, Mitch Dorge, and Benjamin Darvill; sells 400K copies; incl. Superman's Song. Bob Dylan (1941-), The Bootleg Series, Vols. 1-3 (album) (Mar. 26). Big Audio Dynamite II, The Globe (album) (debut); Mick Jones (vocals), Nick Hawkins (guitar), Gary Stonadge (bass), Chris Kavanaugh (drums); incl. The Globe, Rush. Electronic, Electronic (album) (debut) (May 28); incl. Get the Mesage. EMF, Schubert Dip (album) (debut) (May 6) (#3 in the U.K.). Public Enemy, Apocalypse 91: The Enemy Strikes Back (album #4) (Oct. 3) (#4 in the U.S.); incl. Bring the Noise (w/Anthrax). Enya (1961-), Shepherd Moons (album #3) (Nov. 4); sells 12M copies; incl. Caribbean Blue, How Can I Keep from Singing?, Book of Days, Lothlorien, Marble Halls. Gloria Estefan (1957-), Into the Light (album #2) (Jan. 25) (3.8M copies); incl. Coming Out of the Dark (#1 in the U.S.), Seal Our Fate (#53 in the U.S., #24 in the U.K.), Can't Forget You (#43 in the U.S.), Live for Loving You (#22 in the U.S.). Europe, Prisoners in Paradise (album #5) (Sept. 23); incl. Prisoners in Paradise, I'll Cry for You. Eurythmics, Greatest Hits (album) (Mar. 18). Exodus, Good Friendly Violent Fun (album). Violent Femmes, Why Do Birds Sing? (album); incl. American Music. Fishbone, The Reality of My Surroundings (album #3) (Apr. 23) (#49 in the U.S.); incl. Sunless Saturday, Everyday Sunshine. Foreigner, Unusual Heat (album #7) (June 4); Johnny Edwards replaces Lou Gramm; a flop. Gang of Four, Mall (album #5). Jean Francaix (1912-97), Double Concerto for Flute, Clarinet and Orchestra. Right Said Fred, I'm Too Sexy (July 15) (#1 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.); from London, England, incl. Richard Peter John Fairbrass (1953-) (vocals) and Fred Fairbrass; "I'm too sexy for my shirt, too sexy for my shirt/ So sexy it hurts/ And I'm too sexy for Milan, too sexy for Milan, New York and Japan/ And I'm too sexy for your party/ Too sexy for your party/ No way I'm disco dancing." Psychedelic Furs, World Outside (album). Jerry Garcia Band, Jerry Garcia Band (album #2) (Aug. 27); incl. Deal, The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down. Bee Gees, High Civilization (album #17) (Mar. 25); incl. Secret Love, When He's Gone, The Only Love. Genesis, We Can't Dance (album #14) (Oct. 28) (#4 in the U.S., #1 in the U.K.) (4M copies in the U.S.); last with Phil Collins; incl. I Can't Dance (#7 in the U.S. and U.K.), No Son of Mine (#12 in the U.S., #6 in the U.K.), Hold on My Heart (#16 in the U.K.), Jesus He Knows Me (#23 in the U.S., #20 in the U.K.). Gerardo (1965-), Mo' Ritmo (album) (debut) (#36 in the U.S.) (Jan. 29); incl. Rico Suave (#7 in the U.S). Everything But the Girl, Worldwide (album #7) (Oct. 1); incl. Old Friends, Love Is Strange. Indigo Girls, Nomads Indians Saints (album #3) (Sept. 21); incl. Hammer and a Nail (#12 in the U.S.). Nina Hagen (1955-), Street (album #7); incl. Blumen Fur Die Damen, In My World, Berlin (Is Dufte!) Van Halen, For Unlawful Carnal Knowledge (FUCK) (album #9) (June 18); incl. Poundcake, Runaround, Top of the World, The Dream is Over, Right Now, Man on a Mission. MC Hammer, Too Legit to Quit (album #4) (Oct. 29) (#5 in the U.S.) (5M copies); drops the "MC" from his name; incl. Too Legit to Quit, This Is the Way We Roll, Do Not Pass Me By, Addams Groove (#7 in the U.S., #4 in the U.K.) (from the 1991 film "The Addams Family"). Procol Harum, The Prodigal Stranger (album #11) (Aug. 27); incl. The Truth Won't Fade Away. Heart, Rock the House Live! (album) (Oct. 5). Uriah Heep, Different World (album #18) (Feb.). Hole, Pretty on the Inside (album) (debut) (Sept. 17); sells 400K copies; Courtney Love (1964-), Eric T. Erlandson (1963-); incl. Teenage Whore, Garbage Man. Men Without Hats, Sideways (album #5); next album in 2003; incl. I Am the Walrus. Crowded House, Woodface (album #3) (July 2) (#83 in the U.S., #6 in the U.K.); incl. Fall At Your Feet, Weather With You, Chocolate Cake; Kiwi band disses the U.S.; no wonder Princess Di calls them her favorite band? Alan Hovhaness (1911-2000), Symphony No. 65 ("Artstakh"), Op. 427. Janis Ian (1951-), Under the Covers. INXS, Live Baby Live (album). Alan Jackson (1958-), Don't Rock the Jukebox (album). Michael Jackson (1958-2009), Dangerous (album #8) (Nov. 26) (#1 in the U.S.) (32M copies, most outside the U.S. and U.K.) (most successful New Jack Swing album until ?); incl. Black or White (by Bill Bottrell) (fastest rising single since the Beatles' "Get Back" in 1969; he gives the video to MTV and Fox on the condition that they refer to him as "the King of Pop"), Remember the Time, In the Closet, Jam, Who Is It, Heal the World Millie Jackson (1944-), Young Man, Older Woman (album #20). Pearl Jam, Ten (album) (debut) (Aug. 27); sells 10M copies; from Seattle, Wash, incl. Eddie Vedder (Edward Louis Severson III) (1964-) (vocals), Mike McCready (guitar), Dave Krusen (drums), Jeff Ament (bass), Stone Gossard (guitar); incl. Alive, Even Flow, Jeremy, Oceans. Joan Jett (1958-), Notorious (album #7); incl. Backlash. Elton John (1947-), Two Rooms: Celebrating the Songs of Elton John (1947-) andBernie Taupin (album); how they work in separate rooms; incl. Basque. Jesus Jones, Doubt (album #2) (Jan. 29) (#25 in the U.S., #1 in the U.K.); incl. Right Here, Right Now (#2 in the U.S., #1 in the U.K.) (about the fast finish to the Cold War) (used in K-Mart ads), Real Real Real. Journey, The Ballade (album). Wynonna Judd (1964-), Wynonna (album) (debut); sells 5M copies. Sammy Kershaw (1958-), Don't Go Near the Water (album) (debut). Kix, Hot Wire (album #5) (July 9) (#64 in the U.S.) (200K copies); incl. Hot Wire, Girl Money, Tear Down the Walls, Same Jane. The KLF, The White Room (album) (Mar.); incl. Church of the KLF, 3 A.M. Eternal (Live at the S.S.L.), Last Train to Transcentral (Live from the Lost Continent), Justified and Ancient (Stand by The JAMs) (with Tammy Wynette); It's Grim Up North; The Black Room (album) (unreleased). Gladys Knight (1944-), Good Woman (album); incl. Men, Superwoman. Kraftwerk, The Mix (album) (June). Patti LaBelle (1944-), Burnin' (album); incl. Somebody Loves You Baby (You Know Who It Is). David Lanz, Return to the Heart (album). Murphy's Law, The Best of Times (album #4) (Nov. 5); incl. Ebony and Ivory; Good for Now (album). Julian Lennon (1963-), Help Yourself (album #4) (Aug. 20); incl. Saltwater (#6 in the U.K.). Level 42, Guaranteed (album #9); incl. Guaranteed (#17 in the U.K.). Huey Lewis (1950-) and the News, Hard at Play (album #6) (Jan.); incl. Couple Days Off, It Hit Me Like a Hammer. Marky Mark and the Funky Bunch, Music for the People (album) (debut) (July 23); Mark Robert Michael Wahlberg (1971-); incl. Good Vibrations (no connection to the Beach Boys song), Wildside. Bob Marley (1945-81), Talkin' Blues (album) (posth.) (Feb. 4). Ricky Martin (1971-), Ricky Martin (album) (solo debut) (Nov. 6) (500K copies). Young M.C. (1967-), Brainstorm (album #2) (#66 in the U.S.) (500K copies). Paul McCartney (1942-), Unplugged (The Official Bootleg (album) (May 20); Paul McCartney's Liverpool Oratorio (album) (Oct. 11). Reba McEntire (1955-), For My Broken Heart (album #18) (Oct. 1); incl. For My Broken Heart, Is There Life Out There. Mike + the Mechanics, Word of Mouth (album #3) (Apr. 2) (#11 in the U.K.); incl. Word of Mouth (#78 in the U.S., #13 in the U.K.). John Mellencamp (1951-), Whenever We Wanted (album). Metallica, Metallica (The Black Album) (album #5) (Aug. 13); sells 22M copies, incl. 650K the first week, and 15M in the U.S.; incl. Enter Sandman, The Unforgiven, Nothing Else Matters, Wherever I May Roam, Sad But True, The God That Failed. Kylie Minogue (1968-), Let's Get To It (album #4) (Oct. 14) (#15 in the U.K.); incl. Word Is Out, If You Were With me Now (w/Keith Washington), Give Me Just a Little More Time, Finer Feelings. Joni Mitchell (1943-), Night Ride Home (album #14) (Feb. 19); incl. Come In From the Cold. Van Morrison (1945-), Hymns to the Silence (double album #21); Why Must I Always Explain? Alanis Morrissette (1974-), Alanis (album) (debut); incl. Too Hot, Walk Away, Feel Your Love. Morrissey (1959-), Kill Uncle (album). Motorhead, 1916 (album #9) (Feb. 26); incl. 1916. Michael Martin Murphey (1945-), Cowboy Christmas: Cowboy Songs II (album #17). Anne Murray (1945-), Everyday. Naughty by Nature, Naughty by Nature (album #2) (Sept. 3) (#16 in the U.S.); from East Orange, N.J., incl. Treach, Vin Rock, and DJ Kay Gee; incl. O.P.P., Everything's Gonna Be Alright, Uptown Anthem. Type O Negative, Slow, Deep and Hard (original title "None More Negative"); from Brooklyn, N.Y., incl. 6'8" bass-baritone bassist Peter Steele (Petrus Thomas Ratajczyk) (1962-2010); incl. Unsuccessfully Coping with the Natural Beauty of Infidelity, Der Untermensch, Prelude to Agony. Vomito Negro, The New Drug (album #8). Robbie Nevil (1958-), Day 1 (album #3). Nirvana, Nevermind (album #2) (Sept. 24) (#1 in the U.S., #7 in the U.K.) (26M copies); takes grunge mainstream; incl. Smells Like Teen Spirit, Lithium, Come As You Are, In Bloom. Yannick Noah (1960-), Black or What (album); incl. Saga Africa. Gary Numan (1958-), Outland (album #10) (Mar.) (#39 in the U.K.); incl. Heart (#43 in the U.K.), My World Storm (#46 in the U.S.). N.W.A., Efil4zaggin (album) (June). OMD, Sugar Tax (album #8) (May 7); incl. Sailing on the Seven Seas, Pandora's Box, Then You Turn Away, Call My Name, Neon Lights. Ozzy Osbourne (1948-), No More Tears (album) (Sept. 17). Teddy Pendergrass (1950-2010), Truly Blessed (album); incl. It Should've Been You. Red Hot Chili Peppers, Blood Sugar Sex Magik (album) (Sept. 24) (#3 in the U.S., #5 in the U.S.); sells 13M copies; incl. Give It Away (#1 in the U.S.) (their first #1 single), Under the Bridge (#2 in the U.S.), Breaking the Girl (#15 in the U.S.), Suck My Kiss (#15 in the U.S.), Sir Psycho Sexy. Peter and the Test Tube Babies, Cringe (album #8). Tom Petty (1950-2017) and The Heartbreakers, Into the Great Wide Open (album) (July 2) (#13 in the U.S., #3 in the U.K.); incl. Into the Great Wide Open (music video stars Johnny Depp as Eddie, who finished h.s., went to Hollywood and got a tattoo), Out in the Cold, Learning to Fly. The Pixies, Trompe le Monde (Fool the World) (album #5) (last album) (Sept. 23); incl. Trompe le Monde, Planet of Sound, Alec Eiffel, Head On, Letter to Memphis; they disband in 1993, and reunite in 2004, playing to sold-out world tours; on June 14, 2013 Kim Deal quits the band to work with her band The Breeders, formed with sister Kelly Deal in 1990. Jean-Luc Ponty (1942-), Tchokola (album). Manic Street Preachers, Motown Junk (Jan. 21) ("I laughed when Lennon got shot"); from Blackwood, Wales, incl. James Dean Bradfield (1969-) (vocals), Nicky Wire (Nicholas Allen Jones) (1969-) (bass), Sean Anthony Moore (1968-) (drums), and Richard James "Richey" Edwards (1967-95) (guitar). Prince, Diamonds and Pearls (album #13); incl. "Gett Off", "Cream", "Money Don't Matter 2 Night", "Insatiable". Smashing Pumpkins, Gish (album) (debut) (May 28); from Chicago, Ill., incl. William Patrick "Billy" Corgan Jr. (1967-) (vocals), James Yoshiobu Iha (1968-) (guitar), D'arcy Wretzky (1968-) (bass), Jimmy Chamberlin (1964-) (drums); incl. Rhinoceros. Quarterflash, Girl in the Wind (album #4) (last album); incl. Rindy Ross, Marv Ross, Sandin Wilson (bass), Greg Williams (drums), Doug Fraser (guitars), Mel Kubik (keyboards/sax). Queen, Innuendo (album #14) (Feb. 5) (last with Freddie Mercury, who dies from too much innuendo and headlong?); incl. Innuendo, I'm Going Slightly Mad, Headlong, These Are the Days of Our Lives. Eddie Rabbitt (1941-98), Ten Rounds (album #3) (Aug. 27); incl. Hang Up the Phone. Bonnie Raitt (1949-), Luck of the Draw (album #11) (June 25); sells 7M copies; incl. Something to Talk About, I Can't Make You Love Me. LeAnn Rimes (1982-), Everybody's Sweetheart (album) (debut). Queen, Greatest Hits II (album) (Oct.); Freddie Mercury (b. 1946), who had been gaunt-looking since 1988 dies on Nov. 23 of AIDS at age 45. Queensryche, Operation: LIVEcrime (album) (Oct. 28). Sacred Reich, A Question (EP) (July). R.E.M., Out of Time (album #7) (Mar. 8) (#1 in the U.S. and U.K.) (18M copies); incl. Losing My Religion (based on a mandolin riff) (#4 in the U.S.) (highest-charting U.S. hit) ("That's me in the corner, that's me in the spotlight losing my religion"), Radio Song, Shiny Happy People, Near Wild Heaven. Shabba Ranks (1966-), Just Reality (album); incl. Dem Bow, which launches the Reggaeton movement. Keith Richards (1943-), Live at the Hollywood Palladium, December 15, 1988 (album) (solo debut). Guns N' Roses, Use Your Illusion I (album #3) (Sept. 17) (#2 in the U.S.) (5M copies in the U.S.); incl. Don't Cry, Live and Let Die (by Paul and Linda McCartney), November Rain; Use Your Illusion II (album #4) (Sept. 17) (#1 in the U.S.); sells 25M copies; last album of original material until ?; incl. You Could Be Mine, Yesterdays, Civil War, Knockin' on Heaven's Door, Estranged. Skid Row, Slave to the Grind (album #2) (June 11) (#1 in the U.S.) (first heavy album to debut at #1 on the Billboard 200); incl. Slave to the Grind, Monkey Business, In A Darkened Room, Wasted Time, Get the Fuck Out. Roxette, Joyride (album #3) (Mar. 28) (#12 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.)) (11M copies); incl. Joyride (#1 in the U.S.), Fading Like a Flower, The Big L, Spending My Time, Church of Your Heart. Rush, Roll the Bones (album #14) (Sept. 13); incl. Roll the Bones, Where's My Thing?. Richie Sambora (1959-), Stranger in the Town (album); incl. Mr. Bluesman (with Eric Clapton). Primal Scream, Screamadelica (album #3) (Sept. 23) (#8 in the U.K.); first commercial success; incl. Slip Inside This House, Loaded. Seal (1963-), Seal (album) (debut) (May) (#1 in the U.K.); incl. Killer (w/Adamski) (#8 in the U.K.), Crazy (#2 in the U.K.), Future Love Paradise (#12 in the U.K.). Pete Seeger (1919-2014), Abiyoyo and Other Story Songs for Children (album). Bob Seger (1945-) and the Silver Bullet Band, The Fire Inside (album) (Aug. 27); incl. The Real Love. Tupac Shakur (1971-96), 2Pacalypse Now (album) (debut) (Nov. 12); incl. Young Black Male, Trapped (w/Shock G); in 1992 a teenager who is listening to the album kills a Texas state trooper, pissing off U.S. vice-pres. Dan Quayle, who tries unsuccessfully to get stores to remove it from their shelves - only making it more popular? Lynyrd Skynyrd, Lynyrd Skynyrd 1991 (album #6) (June 11); all new members; incl. Smokestack Lightning. Slayer, Decade of Aggression (double album) (Oct. 22). Smithereens, Blow Up (album). Soundgarden, Badmotorfinger (album #3) (Oct. 8) (#39 in the U.S., #39 in the U.K.) (1.5M copies); incl. Outshined, Jesus Christ Pose, Rusty Cage. Dusty Springfield (1939-99), Reputation (album). Bruce Springsteen (1949-), Human Touch (album #9) (Mar. 31) (#2 in the U.S.); incl. Human Touch (#16 in the U.S.); Lucky Town (album #10) (Mar. 31); Lucky Town. Toad the Wet Sprocket, Fear (album #3) (Aug. 27) (#49 in the U.S.); incl. All I Want (#15 in the U.S.), Walk on the Ocean (#18 in the U.S.). Status Quo, Rock 'til You Drop (album #20) (Sept. 24). Al Stewart (1945-), Rhymes in Rooms (album #13). Rod Stewart (1945-), Vagabond Heart (album #16) (Mar. 25); #10 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.; incl. Rhythm of My Heart, It Takes Two (with Tina Turner). The Rolling Stones, Flashpoint (album) (Apr. 8). Dire Straits, On Every Street (album #6) (Sept. 10) (#12 in the U.S., #1 in the U.K.) (8M copies, incl. 1M in the U.S.); after a world tour in 1992 they disband in 1995; incl. Calling Elvis, Heavy Fuel, On Every Street, The Bug. Donna Summer (1948-2012), Mistaken Identity (album #15) (Aug. 23). Swans, White Light From the Mouth of Infinity (album #12). Talk Talk, Laughing Stock (album #5) (last album) (Nov. 19); released on Verve Records sans Paul Webb; incl. After the Flood, Myrrhman. James Taylor (1948-), New Moon Shine (album #13) (Sept. 24); incl. Copperline. Therion, Of Darkness... (album #4) (Feb.); incl. Morbid Reality, Megalomania. Babes in Toyland, To Mother (album); incl. Catatonic. Travis Tritt (1963-), It's All About to Change (album #2) (May 28) (3M copies); incl. Anymore (#1 country), Bible Belt (featured in the 1992 film "My Cousin Vinny"). Jethro Tull, Catfish Rising (album #19) (Sept. 10); first with Andrew Giddings. Tina Turner (1939-), Simply the Best (album) (Oct. 22) (7M copies worldwide); incl. (Simply) The Best, Nutbush City Limits (The 90s Version), Way of the World, Love Thing, I Want You Near Me. Shania Twain (1965-), Shania (album) (debut); incl. What Made You Say That, Dance with the One That Brought You. Thompson Twins, Queer (album #8) (last album) (Sept. 24); it flops, and they change their name to Babble; incl. Come Inside, The Saint. Bonnie Tyler (1951-), Bitterblue (album #3); incl. Bitterblue. U2, Achtung Baby (album #7) (Nov. 19) (#1 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.) (18M copies); named after a phrase uttered in "The Producers"; incl. The Fly, Mysterious Ways, One, Even Better Than the Real Thing, Who's Gonna Ride Your Wild Horses. Joe Walsh (1947-), Ordinary Average Guy (album #9) (Apr. 23). Great White, Hooked (album #5) (Feb. 26) (#18 in the U.S.); incl. Call It Rock n' Roll, Heartbreaker, The Original Queen of Sheba. Trisha Yearwood (1964-), Trisha Yearwood (album) (debut); incl. She's in Love with the Boy. Yello, Baby (album #7); incl. Jungle Bill, Ocean Club. Yes, Union (album #13) (Apr. 30); incl. Lift Me Up. Neil Young (1945-) and Crazy Horse, Ragged Glory (album); recorded at Young's 2K-acre Broken Arrow Ranch in N Calif.; Arc (album) Neil Young (1945-) and Crazy Horse, Weld (album) (Oct. 22). Frank Zappa (1940-93), The Best Band You Never Heard in Your Life (double album) (Apr. 16); You Can't Do That On Stage Anymore, Vol. 4 (album) (June 14); Make a Jazz Noise Here (album) (June 4); Beat the Boots (album) (July 7). Movies: Barry Sonnenfeld's The Addams Family (Nov. 22), a remake of the 1960s TV show based on the chars. by Charles Addams stars Raul Julia and Anjelica Huston as Gomez and Morticia Addams, Christopher Lloyd as Uncle Fester, Christina Ricci and Jimmy Workman as siblings Wendy and Pugsley, Carel Struycken as Lurch, and Judith Malina as Grandma; #6 movie of 1991 ($114M). Walt Disney's Beauty and the Beast (Nov. 13) is based on the fairy tale by Jeanne-Marie Leprince de Beaumont stars the voices of Robby Benson as the Beast and Paige O'Hara as Belle; does $425M box office on a $25M budget; first animated film to be nominated for a best picture Oscar. Barry Levinson's Bugsy (Dec. 13) (TriStar Pictures) stars Warren Beatty as Las Vegas founder Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel, Annette Bening as his moll Virginia Hill, Ben Kingsley as mob boss Meyer Lansky, Harvey Keitel as mobster Mickey Cohen, Elliott Gould as mobster Harry Greenberg, and Joe Mantegna as mob-connected actor George Raft; does $49M box office on a $30M budget; "Twenty dwarves took turns doing handstands on the carpet." Martin Scorsese's Cape Fear (Nov. 13), a remake of the 1962 Robert Mitchum-Gregory Peck film based on the 1957 John D. MacDonald novel "The Executioners" stars Robert De Niro as convicted rapist Max Cady, who returns to get even with Sam Bowden, the atty. who defended him, along with his wife Leigh (Jessica Lange) and daughter Danielle (Juliette). Ron Underwood's City Slickers (June 7) stars Billy Crystal, Daniel Stern, Bruno Kirby et al. as midlife-crisis businessmen who go to a dude ranch, where they meet up with trail boss Curly Washburn (Jack Palance), who teaches them about the open air life on a cattle drive from N.M. to Colo.; #4 movie of 1991 ($124M). Alan Parker's The Commitments (Aug. 7) (Beacon Communications) (First Film Co.) (Dirty Hands Productions) (20th Cent. Fox), based on the 1987 novel by Roddy Doyle is about a working class Am. (black) soul band in Northside, Dublin, Ireland, led by Jimmy Rabbitte (Robert Arkins), incl. Declan "Deco" Cuffe (Andrew Strong), Imelda Quirke (Angeline Ball), Natalie Murphy (Maria Doyle), Bernie McGloughlin (Bronagh Gallagher), and Joey "the Lips" Fagan (Johnny Murphy); does $14.9M box office on a $12M budget; it goes on to gain a cult following. Julie Dash's Daughters of the Dust (Jan.) is about three generations of Gullah women from the Sea Islands. Albert Brooks' Defending Your Life (Mar. 22) stars Brooks as Daniel Miller, who dies in a car accident and arrives in Judgment City, where he is put on trial "for being afraid", and meets Meryl Streep, Rip Torn, Lee Grant, and Shirley MacLaine. Tom Mankiewicz's Delirious (Aug. 9) (MGM) stars John Candy as "Beyond Our Dreams" soap opera writer Jack Cable, who bumps his head and wakes up in the midst of his own soap opera; the last film role for Raymond Burr; does $5.5M box office on an $18M budget. Rolf de Heer's Dingo, about a young man in the Australian bush who hears jazz trumpeter Miles Davis play is his only film appearance; released in the U.S. next Jan. 31. Michael Caton-Jones' Doc Hollywood (Aug. 2), based on the book "What? Dead Again?" by Dr. Neil Shulman is a romantic comedy starring Michael J. Fox as newly-minted plastic surgeon Dr. Benjamin Stone, who crashes in his 1956 Porsche 356 Speedster en route to Beverly Hills in rural Grady, S.C., and ends up falling for smalltown candy pants girl Vailula (Julie Warner), while Nancy Lee Nicholson (Bridget Fonda) tries to get her hooks in him; Woody Harrelson plays rival Hank Gordon; David Ogden Stiers plays mayor Nick Nicholson; does $54.8M box office on a $17M budget. Ate de Jong's Drop Dead Fred (Apr. 19) stars Phoebe Cates as repressed Lizzie Cronin, who loses everything during lunch hour and moves in with her domineering mother Polly (Marsha Mason), and releases her childhood imaginary friend Rik Mayall, who sets her life back on track. Agnieszka Holland's Europa, Europa (Nov. 14), a German flick about Jewish boy Solomon Perel escaping the WWII Holocaust by passing for German and trying to uncircumcize himself so pisses the German govt. off that it won't submit it for the Academy Awards? - visit Daphne's Greek Cafe down the corner? Charles Shyer's Father of the Bride (Dec. 20), a remake of the 1950 Spencer Tracy flick stars Steve Martin and Diane Keaton as George and Nina Banks, and Kimberly Williams-Paisley as their daughter Kimberly; #8 movie of 1991 ($89M). Luc Besson's La Femme Nikita (Apr.), starring Anne Parillaud as a French noir Pygmalion hit woman becomes a cult classic and spawns a 1993 Hollywood ripoff, John Badham's Point of No Return starring Bridget Fonda, and the way cooler 1997-2001 TV series starring Peta Wilson. Terry Gilliam's The Fisher King (Sept. 20) stars Robin Williams as a crazed bum in search of the Holy Grail in Manhattan, and co-stars Jeff Bridges, Amanda Plummer, and Mercedes Ruehl, along with real street people; "A Modern Day Tale About the Search for Love, Sanity, Ethel Merman and the Holy Grail". John Duigan's Flirting (Mar. 21), a sequel to "The Year My Voice Broke" (1987) stars Noah Taylor as Danny Embling again, and features Nicole Kidman before she moves to Hollywood. Peter Weir's Green Card (Jan. 11) stars innocent Am. horticulturist Andie MacDowell, who falls in love with cultured and experienced French composer Gerard Depardieu (who forgets to tell her that she looks like the Mona Lisa?) as they attempt to fool the INS; Depardieu's English-language debut. Jon Avnet's Fried Green Tomatoes (Dec. 27) (Universal Pictures), based on the novel "Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe" by "Match Game" panelist Fannie Flagg stars Jessica Tandy as 83-y.-o. Ninny Threadgoode, who reminisces to Evelyn (Kathy Bates) about her Ala. childhood as Idgie (Mary Stuart Masterson), whose friend Ruth (Mary-Louise Parker) has a bad marriage; #10 movie of 1991 ($80M U.S. and $119.4M worldwide box office on a $11M budget). Patrice Leconte's Girl on the Bridge (Mar. 31) stars Daniel Auteuil and French pop star Vanessa Paradis, who leans over the Seine River with tears in her eyes and a violent yearning to drown her sorrows, then meets an older man. Steven Spielberg's Hook (Dec. 11), based on the J.M. Barrie play stars Robert Williams as Peter Pan (Banning), Dustin Hoffman as Capt. Hook, Julia Roberts as Tinkerbell, and Bob Hoskins as Smee; #5 movie of 1991 ($120M). Sean Penn's The Indian Runner (Sept. 20) is Penn's debut as writer-dir.; it pits good cop Joe against his bad brother Frank in Nebr., and is based on the Bruce Springsteen song Highway Patrolman. Spike Lee's Jungle Fever (June 7) stars Wesley Snipes and Annabella Sciorra as mixed-race lovers Flipper Purify and Angie Tucci. David S. Ward's King Ralph (Feb. 15) (Universal), based on the novel "Headlong" by Emlyn Williams stars TLW, er, John Goodman as a Las Vegas lounge lizard who suddenly becomes king of England, going on to romance low-born Miranda Greene (Camille Coduri) while rejecting high-born Princess Anna (Joely Richardson); meanwhile royal secy. Sir Cedric Charles Willingham (Peter O'Toole) tries to tutor the Yank, and snide Lord Percival Graves (John Hurt) tries to get him ousted so he can restore his Stuart clan; does $52.5M box office on a $23M budget - one of TLW's top 100 comedies of all time for pure wish fulfillment? Oliver Stone's JFK (Dec. 22) changes the public's perception of the JFK assassination even more to the side of the conspiracy theorists; stars Kevin Costner as New Orleans DA Jim Garrison, Sissy Spacek as his wife Liz, Gary Oldman as lone gunman Lee Harvey Oswald, Edward Asner as bad guy Guy Bannister, Brian Doyle-Murray as Jack Ruby, Joe Pesci as David Ferrie, Tommy Lee Jones as Clay Shaw, John Candy as Dean Andrews, and Kevin Bacon as Willie O'Keefe; Steve Reed and Jodie Forber star as JFK and Jackie. James Dearden's A Kiss Before Dying (Apr. 26), based on the 1953 Ira Levin Novel (first filmed in 1956) about a ruthless social climber who murders his lovers stars Matt Dillon and Sean Young. Peter Medak's Let Him Have It (British Screen Productions), is based on the 1952 case of 19-y.-o. illiterate retarded (IQ 66) Derek William Bentley (1933-53) (played by Christopher Eccleston) who is railroaded into the noose by justice-for-the-bobby British justice for shouting you know what at his friend 16-y.-o. Christopher Craig (1936-) (played by Paul Reynolds) on a roof while under arrest and restraint, followed by Craig killing a bobby; did he mean give him the cold steel or give him the hot lead, as if it should matter other than that it's a sacred cow who can shoot you with impunity and cover it up? Howard Zieff's My Girl (Nov. 27) stars Dan Aykroyd and Jamie Lee Curtis along with child actor Anna Chlumsky, and is the film debut of child star Macaulay Carson Culkin (1980-), who has his first onscreen kiss; spawns 1994 sequel "My Girl 2". Gus Van Sant's My Own Private Idaho (Oct. 18), based on the 1963 John Rechy novel "City of Night" and Shakespeare's "Henry IV" and "Henry V" stars River Phoenix and Keanu Reeves as gay street hustlers Mikey Waters and Scott Favor, who don't think they're gay; the title is taken from a 1980 B-52's song, which isn't played in the film; does $6.4M box office on a $2.5M budget. David Zucker's Naked Gun 2-1/2: The Smell of Fear (June 28) stars Leslie Nielsen as Lt. Frank Drebin, Priscilla Presley as Jane Spencer, George Kennedy as Capt. Ed Hockey, and spooky (in retrospect) O.J. Simpson as Nordberg; #9 movie of 1991 ($87M). Brian Gilbert's Not Without My Daughter (Jan. 11) (MGM) stars Sally Field as Am. citizen Betty Mahmoody, whose Iranian hubby Sayed Bozorg "Moody" Mahmoody (Alfred Molina) tricks her into visiting Iran for two weeks then forces her to stay, causing her to plan her escape with daughter Mahtob (Sheila Rosenhal); does $14.8M box ofice on a $22M budget; the film brings out the PC police for allegedly misrepresenting Paradise Iran. Michael Lindsay-Hogg's The Object of Beauty (Apr. 12) stars John Malkovich as Jake, Andie MacDowell as Tina, who live in an expensive London hotel beyond their means, and try to sell Tina's Henry Moore sculpture until it is stolen by deaf-mute maid June (Lolita Davidovich), who claims that it spoke to her. Chris Columbus' Only the Lonely (May 24) (20th Cent. Fox), based on the 1955 film "Mary" stars John Candy as 38-y.-o. Chicago policeman Danny Muldoon, who still lives with his overbearing Irish mother Rose (Maureen O'Hara), and tries to court funeral home cosmetician Luna (Ally Sheedy); does $21.8M box office. Kathryn Bigelow's Point Break (July 12) (20th Cent. Fox) stars Keanu Reeves as rookie FBI agent Johnny Utah (former Ohio State U. QB), who infiltrates a gang of surfers called the Ex-Presidents who rob banks wearing rubber president masks (Reagan, Nixon, LBJ, Carter) to pay for their surfing habit, led by extreme sports nut Bodhi (Patrick Swayze); also stars Gary Busey as Utah's partner Angelo Pappas, and Lori Petty as surfer girl Tyler Endicott; does $83.5M box office on a $24M budget. Barbra Streisand's The Prince of Tides (Dec. 25) (Columbia Pictures), based on the 1986 Pat Conroy novel stars Nick Nolte and Blythe Danner as the Wingo twins Tom and Savannah of Sowth Cayrohlayna, who have their personal demons exorcized by New York pshrink Susan Lowenstein (Streisand); does $110M box office on a $30M budget. Peter Greenaway's Prospero's Books (Aug. 30), based on Shakespeare's "The Tempest" stars 87-y.-o. John Gielgud as Prospero, and Isabelle Pasco as his innocent daughter Miranda, showing how he relishes his 24-book recipe for life in a nudity-filled visual feast; features Michael Clark as Caliban; musical score by Michael Nyman. Steve Rash's Queens Logic (Feb. 1) stars Kevin Bacon, Linda Fiorentino, John Malkovich, Joe Mangetna, and Jamie Lee Curtis in a comedy about a bachelor's party and wedding. Martha Coolidge's Rambling Rose (Sept. 20) stars Laura Dern as a sexually liberated vixen taken in by a Southern family in 1935 and rocking their gonads; she and her mother Diane Ladd become the first (only?) mother-daughter nominated for Oscars for the same film? Kevin Reynolds' Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves (June 14) stars miscast S Calif.-accented Kevin Costner as Robin Hood, Morgan Freeman as cool Muslim Azeem, miscast Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio as Maid Marian, Christian Slater as Will Scarlett, and well-cast Alan Rickman as the sheriff of Nottingham; features the Michael Kamen song (Everything I Do) I Do It For You, sung by Bryan Adams, which becomes the #1 song of the year worldwide. Joe Johnston's The Rocketeer (June 21), produced by Walt Disney Pictures based on the comic by Dale Stevens, which is a homage to Commando Cody stars Billy Campbell as stunt pilot Cliff Secord AKA the Rocketeer, Jennifer Connelly as his babe Jenny Blake, and Alan Arkan as mechanic A. "Peevy" Peabody; brings in $62M on a $42M budget. Glenn Jordan's Sarah, Plain and Tall (Feb. 3), a TV movie based on the 1985 Patricia MacLachlan novel stars Glenn Close as a New England schoolteacher who answers an ad for a wife and goes to Kansas in 1910 to care for the family of widowed farmer Christopher "Wacked Out" Walken, who plays out of type perfectly. Jonathan Demme's The Silence of the Lambs (Jan. 30) (Orion Pictures, a horror-thriller based on the 1988 Thomas Harris novel features a duel of wits between FBI cadet Clarice Starling (Jodie Foster) (Michelle Pfeiffer was originally cast?) and serial killer, psychiatrist, and Renaissance man "Hannibal the Cannibal" Lecter (Anthony Hopkins), who tries to mimic a wildcat with his eyes and body language, models his voice after Truman Capote, Katharine Hepburn, and HAL 9000, and is transported wearing a hockey mask so he can't bite off your face; Ted Levine is perfectly cast as the sexually mixed-up serial murderer Buffalo Bill, which Hannibal helps Clarice catch only after she reveals her inner self to him so he can mess with her mind; #3 movie of 1991 ($131M U.S. and $272.7M worldwide box office on a $19M budget); first horror film to win a Best Picture Oscar, and 3rd to be nominated after "The Exorcist" (1973) and "Jaws" (1975); followed by the sequel "Hannibal" (2001) and the prequels "Red Dragon" (2002) and "Hannibal Rising" (2007); features the Buffalo Bill Dance to the 1988 song "Goodbye Horses" by Q Lazzarus; "A census taker once tried to test me. I ate his liver with some fava beans and a nice Chianti [slurp slurp slurp]" (Hannibal) - the con bites male flesh? Richard Linklater's Slacker (July 5), about 20-somethings in Austin, Tex. becomes a Gen X classic, showing them as not interested in careers but in UFOs, who killed JFK, and other bogus intellectual pursuits. Nicholas Meyer's Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (Dec. 6) rescues the Star Trek franchise with a space Cold War plot; the final appearance of the original series cast; Kim Cattrall plays Vulcan babe Valeris; grosses $96.9M worldwide. James Cameron's Terminator 2: Judgment Day (AKA T2) (July 3) ("same make, same model, new mission") is a quantum leap in sci-fi and a super hit, well-spending the $100M budget and $15M paycheck ($21,429 per word for 700 words of dialogue) to Ahnuld ($12M in the form of a jet); Robert Patrick kicks Ahnuld's hydraulically-suspended ass as the advanced T-1000 liquid metal man; Edward Furlong plays Linda Hamilton's love child from T1; #1 movie of 1991 ($205M). Ridley Scott's Thelma and Louise (May 24) makes stars of Virginia Elizabeth "Geena" Davis (1956-) as Thelma Yvonne Dickinson, and Susan Abigail Sarandon (nee Tomalin) (1946-) as Louise Elizabeth Sawyer, two Okla. women who start out in Louise's 1966 Ford Thunderbird convertible for a 2-way vacation that turns into a vengeful anti-male crime spree after an attempted rape; Harvey Keitel plays sympathetic detective Hal Slocumb; Brad Pitt plays J.D.; the film is criticized for male bashing, turning it into a cult hit; does $45.4M box office on a $16.5M budget. Alek Keshishian's Truth or Dare (May 10) is a semi-documentary about bottle-loving Material Girl Madonna (1958-), ex-beau Warren Beatty, admirer Kevin Costner et al. Steve Milner's Wild Hearts Can't Be Broken (May 24) stars Gabrielle Anwar as Depression era runaway Sonora Webster, who joins the girl-horse high-diving act of Dr. Carver (Cliff Robertson), and falls for Carver's son Al (Michael Schoeffling), ending up blind and trying to make a last jump. Plays: Alan Bennett (1934-), The Madness of George III (Nat. Theatre, London) (Nov. 28); dir. by Nicholas Hytner; the year he almost lost it (1788-9); stars Nigel Hawthorne as George III; filmed in 1994. Robert Woodruff Anderson (1917-), Absolute Strangers; The Last Act is a Solo. Angela Carter (1940-92), The Holy Family Album. Luke Creswell (1963-), John McAuley, and Steve McNicholas (1955-), Stomp (Bloomsbury Theatre, London) (summer) (Sadler's Wells Theatre, London) (Jan. 1994) (Orpheum Theatre, New York) (Feb. 1994) (Ambassadors Theatre, West End, London) (Sept. 27, 2007) (6K+ perf.); percussion group; a physical performance using rhythms, acrobatics, and pantonime. Per Olov Enquist (1934-), Captain Nemo's Library (Kapten Nemos Bibliotek). Dario Fo (1926-), A Woman Alone. Michael Frayn (1933-), Audience. Athol Fugard (1932-), Blood Knot. Christopher Hampton (1946-), White Chameleon. David Hare (1947-), Murmuring Judges. Arthur Kopit (1937-), Success. Tony Kushner (1956-), Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes, Pt. 1: Millennium Approaches (May) (Eureka Theatre, San Francisco) (Pulitzer Prize). Frank McGuinness (1953-), The Bread Man. Arthur Miller (1915-2005), The Ride Down Mount Morgan. Robert Manson Myers (1921-), Quintet: A Five-Play Cycle Drawn from The Children of Pride; based on his 1972 book "The Children of Pride". Lucy Simon (1943-) and Marsha Norman (1947-), The Secret Garden (musical) (St. James Theatre, New York) (Apr. 25) (709 perf.); based on the 1911 Frances Hodgson Burnett novel; dir. by Susan H. Schulman; choreography by Michael Lichtefeld; stars Daisy Eagan as Mary Lennox. Neil Simon (1927-), Lost in Yonkers (Pulitzer Prize). Stephen Sondheim (1930-) and John Weidman (1946-), Assassins (musical) (Playwrights Horizons, New York) (Dec. 18) (73 perf.); a revue of successful and unsuccessful U.S. pres. assassins incl. Leon Czolgosz, John Hinckley, Charles Guiteau, Giuseppe Zangara, Samuel Byck, Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, Sara Jane Moore, and John Wilkes Booth. Derek Walcott (1930-), Steel. Michael Weller (1942-), Buying Time. Robert Wilson (1941-), Richard Wagner's Parsifal; Gertrude Stein's Doctor Faustus Lights the Lights (Hebbel Theatre, Berlin). Poetry: Archie Randolph Ammons (1926-2001), The Really Short Poems. John Ash (1948-), The Burnt Pages. John Ashbery (1927-), Flow Chart. Margaret Atwood (1939-), Poems 1965-1975. Earle Birney (1904-95), Last Makings. William Bronk (1918-99), Living Instead. Turner Cassity (1929-2009), Between the Chains. Lorna Dee Cervantes (1954-), From the Cables of Genocide: Poems on Love and Hunger. Andrei Codrescu (1946-), Comrade Past and Mister Present. Billy Collins (1941-), Questions About Angels. Robert Creeley (1926-2005), Gnomic Verses; The Old Days. Thomas Michael Disch (1940-2008), Dark Verses and Light; Haikus of an AmPart. Mark Doty (1944-), Bethlehem in Broad Daylight. Stephen Dunn (1939-), Landscape at the End of the Century. Odysseus Elytis (1911-96), The Elegies of Oxopetra. Dana Gioia, The Gods of Winter. Jorie Graham (1950-), Region of Unlikeness. Allen Grossman, The Ether Dome And Other Poems. Marilyn Hacker (1942-), The Hang-Glider's Daughter: New and Selected Poems. Seamus Heaney (1939-2013), Squarings; Seeing Things. David Ignatow (1914-97), Despite the Plainness of the Day: Love Poems. Erica Jong (1942-), Becoming Light: Poems, New and Selected. Philip Levine (1928-), What Work Is. Larry Levis (1946-96), The Widening Spell of the Leaves. Czeslaw Milosz (1911-2004), Farther Surroundings (Dalsze Okolice). Howard Nemerov (1920-91), Trying Conclusions: New and Selected Poems, 1961-1991. Linda Pastan (1932-), Heroes in Disguise. Ronald Ribman (1932-), The Rug Merchants of Chaos (Pasadena Playhouse, Calif.). Patricia Smith (1955-), Life According to Motown (debut). Mark Strand (1934-), The Monument. James Tate (1943-), Selected Poems (Pulitzer Prize). Mona Van Duyn (1921-2004), Near Changes (Pulitzer Prize). Diane Wakoski (1937-), Medea the Sorceress. Richard Wilbur (1921-), More Opposites. C.K. Williams (1936-), Helen. George Woodcock (1912-95), Tolstoy at Yasnaya Polyana and Other Poems. Jay Wright (1934-), Boleros. Louis Zukofsky (1904-78), Complete Short Poetry (posth.). Novels: Kobo Abe (1924-93), Kangaroo Notebook. Alice Adams (1926-99), Caroline's Daughters. Isabel Allende (1942-), The Infinite Plan. Barbara D'Amato, Hard Tack; a Cat Marsala novel. Eric Ambler (1909-98), Waiting for Orders (The Story So Far) (short stories). Raymond Andrews (1934-91), Jessie and Jesus and Cousin Claire. Aharon Appelfeld (1932-), Iron Tracks. Margaret Atwood (1939-), Wilderness Tips (short stories). Beryl Bainbridge (1934-), The Birthday Boys. Ed Baldwin, Bookman. The Kindness of Women; sequel to "Empire of the Sun" (1984). Russell Banks (1940-), The Sweet Hereafter; based on the Sept. 21, 1989 accident between a school bus and a Dr. Pepper truck in Alton, Tex.; filmed in 1997. Clive Barker (1952-), Imajica. Julian Barnes (1946-), Talking It Over. John Barth (1930-), The Last Voyage of Somebody the Sailor; Simon William Behler. Ann Beattie (1947-), What Was Mine (short stories). Peter Benchley (1940-2006), Beast. Wendell Berry (1934-), Fidelity: Five Stories. Alfred Bester (1913-87), Tender Loving Rage (posth.). Barbara Bickmore, The Moon Below. Robert Bloch (1917-94), Psycho House. Barbara Taylor Bradford (1933-), Remember. Anita Brookner (1928-), A Closed Eye. Christopher Buckley (1952-), Wet Work; rich man Charley Becker declares war on drugs. Pat Cadigan (1953-), Synners; about people who turn images from the minds of performers into commercial products. Orson Scott Card (1951-), Xenocide; Ender #2. Philip Caputo (1941-), Means of Escape. John le Carre (1931-), The Secret Pilgrim. Angela Carter (1940-92), Wise Children. David Caute (1936-), The Women's Hour. Michael Chabon (1963-), A Model World and Other Stories. Frank Chin (1940-), Donald Duk (first novel); a young boy in San Francisco's Chinatown is embarrassed by his Chinese heritage until he learns about the transcontinental railroad workers. Agatha Christie (1890-1976), Problem at Pollensa Bay and Other Stories (posth.). Tom Clancy (1947-2013), The Sum of All Fears; the Israelis lose a nuke and it ends up blowing up in the Bronco's Stadium parking lot in Denver; filmed in 2002. Mary Higgins Clark (1927-), Loves Music, Loves to Dance. Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio (1940-), Onitsha; about young boy Fintan, who travels from Bordeaux to Marseilles and sails along the African caost to Onitsha on the Niger River in colonial Nigeria with his Italian mother Maou in 1948. Paul Coelho (1947-), The Greatest Gift. Richard Condon (1915-96), The Venerable Bead. Robin Cook (1940-), Vital Signs. William Cooper (1910-2002), Immortality at Any Price. Robert Coover (1932-), Pinocchio in Venice; Dr. Chen's Amazing Adventure. Evan S. Connell Jr. (1924-), The Alchymist's Journal. Catherine Cookson (1906-98), My Beloved Son; The Rag Nymph. Robert Cormier (1925-2000), We All Fall Down. Patricia Cornwell (1956-), Body of Evidence; 2nd Kay Scarpetta novel. Robertson Davies (1913-95), Murther and Walking Spirits. Douglas Day (1932-2004), The Prison Notebooks of Ricardo Flores Magon. Len Deighton (1929-), MAMista. Don DeLillo (1936-), Mao II (June 20); reclusive novelist Bill Gray, who claims that terrorists are making novelists obsolete with their "raids on consciousness". Thomas Michael Disch (1940-2008), The M.D.: A Horror Story. Roddy Doyle (1958-), The Van; Jimmy Sr. and Bimbo buy a used fish and chips van; filmed in 1996; #3 in the Barrytown Trilogy (begun 1987). Margaret Drabble (1939-), The Gates of Ivory. Andre Dubus (1936-99), Broken Vessels (short stories). George Alec Effinger (1947-2002), The Exile Kiss; last in the Marid Audran Trilogy (begun 1987). Stanley Elkin (1930-95), Mrs. Ted Bliss. Harlan Ellison (1934-), Run for the Stars. Joseph Epstein (1937-), The Goldin Boys: Stories. Louise Erdrich (1954-) and Michael Dorris (1945-97), The Crown of Columbus. Berry Fleming, The Bookman's Tale (last novel). Ken Follett (1949-), Night Over Water. Margaret Forster (1938-), The Battle for Christabel. Frederick Forsyth (1938-), The Deceiver; British secret agent Sam McCready. Robert Lull Forward (1932-2002), Martian Rainbow. Lacey Fosburgh (1942-93), India Gate. Michael Frayn (1933-), A Landing on the Sun. Carlos Fuentes (1928-2012), Ceremonias del Alba. Alan Furst (1941-), Dark Star; Night Soldiers #2. Jostein Gaarder (1952-), Sophie's World: A Novel About the History of Philosophy bestseller (30M copies); English trans. 1995; 14-y.-o. Sophie Amundsen receives mysterious correspondence from 50-y.-o. philosopher Alberto Knox, Albert Knag, and his 15-y.-o. daughter Hilde. Diana Gabaldon (1952-), Outlander; 20th cent. nurse Claire Beauchamp Randall through time to 1743 Scotland and falls in love with Jamie Fraser - don't talk to the mayo I'm telling you he's trouble? Neil Gaiman (1960-), The Books of Magic; an English teenie in the DC Universe discovers his destiny as the world's greatest wizard. Barry Gifford (1946-), Sailor's Holiday: The Wild Life of Sailor and Lula; Sailor and Lula #2 of 3. Sue Grafton (1940-), 'H' is for Homicide; Calif. loner Kinsey Millhone and her one dress. Joanne Greenberg (1932-), With the Snow Queen (short stories). John Grisham (1955-), The Firm (Feb. 1); bestselling novel of 1991, causing Grisham to begin pub. one new novel a year, all bestsellers, selling 61M copies by 2000, and 250M copies by 2008, with #1s in 1994-5, 1998-2000, 2002, 2005; filmed in 1993. Allan Gurganus (1947-), White People: Stories and Novellas. Peter Handke (1942-), The Dreamer's Farewell to the Ninth Country. Barry Hannah (1942-), Never Die. Ron Hansen (1947-), Manette in Ecstasy; a cloistered Catholic nun with stigmata. Mark Helprin (1947-), A Soldier of the Great War. George V. Higgins (1939-99), The Mandeville Talent. Jack Higgins (1929-), The Eagle Has Flown; Liam Devlin #4; sequel to "The Eagle Has Landed" (1975). Patricia Highsmith (1921-95), Ripley Under Water (Ripley #5). Josephine Humphreys (1945-), The Fireman's Fair. David R. Ignatius (1950-), SIRO. Susan Isaacs (1943-), Magic Hour. Denis Johnson (1949-), Rescuscitation of a Hanged Man. Ward Just (1935-), The Translator. Ismail Kadare (1936-), Albanian Spring. Thomas Keneally (1935-), Flying Hero Class; Palestianian hijackers take on Australian aborigines; Chief of Staff (pub. under alias William Coyle). Stephen King (1947-), The Wastelands; 3rd vol. of the Dark Tower Series. Dean Koontz (1945-), Cold Fire. Emma Lathen, East is East; John Putnam Thatcher #21. Elmore Leonard (1925-2013), Maximum Bob (first-ev Hammett Prize) Charles de Lint (1951-), The Little Country. Gordon Lish (1934-), My Romance. Penelope Lively (1933-), City of the Mind. Lois Lowry (1937-), The Giver; bestseller (10M copies) (Newbery Medal), about 12-y.-o. Jonas, who lives in a utopian society which has eliminated pain and strife with Sameness, becoming the official Receiver of memory and struggling with stories of life without Sameness; the first young adult dystopian novel? Norman Mailer (1923-2007), Harlot's Ghost; fictional chronicle of CIA man Harry Hubbard, whose mentor Hugh Montague (the Harlot) has mysteriously died, and whose wife Kitteredge falls for another man, causing him to flee to Metropol, Russia and read his own file titled "The Game"; based on his 1970s essay "A Harlot High and Low". Wallace Markfield (1926-2002), Radical Surgery. Paule Marshall (1929-), Daughters. Nellie McClung (1873-1951), Flowers for the Living (posth.). Colleen McCullough (1937-), The Grass Crown; Masters of Rome #2; the Roman Social War of -91 to -88. Gregory Mcdonald (1937-2008), The Brave. Stanley Middleton (1919-2009), Beginning to End. David Morrell (1943-), The Covenant of the Flame. Mary McGarry Morris (1943-), A Dangerous Woman; filmed in 1993 starring Debra Winger. Albert Murray (1916-), The Spyglass Tree; sequel to "Train Whistle Guitar" (1974). Percy Howard Newby (1918-97), Coming in With the Tide. Patrick O'Brian (1914-2000), The Nutmeg of Consolation; Aubrey-Maturin #14. Joseph O'Connor, Cowboys and Indians (first novel); Eddie Virago and his rock and roll dreams. Amos Oz (1939-), To Know a Woman. Grace Paley (1922-2007), Long Walks and Intimate Talks (short stories). Michael Palmer, Extreme Measures; doctors dabbling with the living dead? Robert Brown Parker (1932-2010), Pastime; Spenser #18. Ralph Peters (1952-), The War in 2020. Marge Piercy (1936-), Body of Glass (He, She and It); a future environmentally-ruined world with megacities and a futuristic Internet. Robert Pinget (1919-97), Theo ou Le Temps Neuf (Theo, or The New Era). Frederik Pohl (1919-), Stopping at Slowyear; about a planet with a 19-year-long year, and sheep with a form of prion disease. Charles Portis (1933-), Gringos. Richard Powers (1957-), The Gold Bug Variations; DNA and J.S. Bach's Goldberg Variations. Reynolds Price (1933-), The Forseeable Future. John Rechy (1934-), The Miraculous Day of Amalia Gomez; a huger silver cross is seen over Hollywood, causing her to feel chosen of God. Philip Roth (1933-), Patrimony. Norman Rush (1933-), Mating (first novel); Botswana in the 1980s. Francoise Sagan (1935-2004), Les Faux-Fuyants. Lawrence Sanders (1920-98), The Seventh Commandment. Jose Saramago (1922-2010), The Gospel According to Jesus Christ (O Evangelho Gegundo Jesu Cristo); he'll get it right this time? Brian Selznick (1966-), The Houdini Box (first novel). Michael Shaara (1928-88), For Love of the Game (posth.); 37-y.-o. baseball great Billy Chapel at the end of his career. Robert Joseph Shea (1933-94), Shaman. Sidney Sheldon (1917-2007), The Doomsday Conspiracy. Anita Shreve (1946-), Strange Fits of Passion. Anne Rivers Siddons (1936-), Outer Banks. Leslie Marmon Silko (1948-), Almanac of the Dead. Alan Sillitoe (1928-2010), Leonard's War: A Love Story; Shylock the Writer. Dan Simmons (1948-), Summer of Night; a Stephen King "It" clone set in Elm Haven, Ill. Jane Smiley (1949-), A Thousand Acres (Pulitzer Prize); bestseller based on Shakespeare's "King Lear"; filmed in 1979. Gilbert Sorrentino (1929-2006), Under the Shadow. Gary Soto (1952-), Taking Sides (first novel). Muriel Spark (1918-2006), Symposium. Elizabeth Spencer (1921-), The Night Travellers; On the Gulf (short stories). LaVyrle Spencer (1943-), Bitter Sweet (Mar. 1); Maggie Pearson and Eric Severson. Norman Spinrad (1940-), Children of Hamelin; Russian Spring. Danielle Steel (1947-), Jewels; Mixed Blessings. Steve Stern (1947-), Harry Kaplan's Adventures Underground. Whitley Strieber (1945-), The Wild. Raymond Strother, Cottonwood; the moral decline of a political consultant. Patrick Suskind (1949-), The Story of Mr. Sommer. Amy Tan (1952-), The Kitchen God's Wife. William Trevor (1928-), Reading Turgenev. Anne Tyler (1941-), Saint Maybe. Thomas Tryon (1926-91), In the Fire of Spring. Bruce Alan Wagner (1954-), Force Majeure (first novel); black novel about Hollyweird, "A dreary industrial town controlled by hoodlums of enormous wealth" (S.J. Perelman), starring failed Jewish screenwriter Bud Wiggins. Paul West (1930-), The Women of Whitechapel and Jack the Ripper. William Wharton (1925-2008), Last Lovers. Robert Anton Wilson (1932-2007), Cosmic Trigger II: Down to Earth; Nature's God; pt. 3 of 3 of "The Historical Illumunatis Chronicles". Births: Am. hockey player (Colorado Avalanche, 2009-) Matthew "Matt" Duchesne on Jan. 16 in Haliburton, Ont. Am. 5'8" football RB (black) (Denver Broncos #22, 2013-) Cortrelle Javon "C.J." Anderson on Feb. 2 in Vallejo, Calif. Am. "Unfabulous", "Chanel Oberlin in Scream Queens" actress Emma Rose Roberts on Feb. 10 in RhineBeck (1970-), N.Y.; daughter of Eric Roberts (1956-); niece of Julia Roberts (1967-) and Lisa Roberts Gillan (1965-). English "The A Team", "Lego House" singer-songwriter Edward Christopher "Ed" Sheeran on Feb. 17 in Hebden Bridge, West Yorkshire. Am. auto racer Trevor Bayne on Feb. 19 in Knoxville, Tenn. Canadian 6'9" basketball player (black) (Cleveland Cavaliers #13, 2011-) Tristan Trevor James Thompson on Mar. 13 in Toronto, Ont.; educated at UTA. Am. rock bassist Wolfgang William Van Halen (Van Halen) on Mar. 16; son of Eddie Van Halen (1955-) and Valerie Bertinelli (1960-); nephew of Alex Van Halen (1953-); named after Wolgang Amadeus Mozart. Am. 6'5" "Barefoot Bandit" Colton A. "Colt" Harris-Moore on Mar. 22 in Camano Island, Wash. Am. "Zoey 101" actress-singer Jamie Lynn Marie Spears on Apr. 4 in Kentwood, La.; sister of Britney Spears (1981-). Am. actress-singer-songwriter Amanda Joy Michalka (Aly & AJ) on Apr. 10 in Torrance, Calif. Am. 3B baseball player (Colo. Rockies #28, 2013-) Nolan James "Sharknado" Arenado on Apr. 16 in Newport Beach, Calif. Am. 6'8" basketball forward (black) (Minn. Timberwolves #23, 2011-) Derrick LeRon Williams on May 25 in La Mirada, Calif.; educated at the U. of Ariz. Dominican baseball pitcher (Kansas City Royals #30, 2013-) Yordano Ventura Hernandez on June 3 in Samana. Am. "All Barone in Everybody Loves Raymond" actress Madylin Sweeten on June 27 in Brownwood, Tex. Am. 6'7" basketball player (San Antonio Spurs #2, 2011-) (black) Kawhi Anthony Leonard on June 29 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "Oliver Beene" actor Grant Mandel Rosenmeyer on July 3 in Manhasset, N.Y. Am. singer-pianist (black) Karina Pasian on July 18 in New York City; of Dominican and Armenian descent. Am. "Stiles in Teen Wolf", "Thomas in The Maze Runner" actor-dir.-musician Dylan O'Brien on Aug. 26 in New York City. Australian trans model Andreja (Andrej) Pejic on Aug. 28 in Tuzla, Bosnia-Herzegovina; of Bosnian Croat and Bosnian Serb descent. English "Edmund Pevensie in The Chronicles of Narnia" actor Alexander Amin Casper "Skandar" Keynes on Sept. 5 in Camden, London; of Lebanese, Persian, and Turkish descent; descendant of John Maynard Keynes and Charles Darwin. Am. Miss USA 2017 (black) Kara Deidra McCullough on Sept. 9 in Naples, Italy; educated at S.C. State U. Am. tennis player Melanie Oudin on Sept. 23 in Marietta, Ga.; has twin sister. Am. "Wanted" country singer-songwriter Hunter Easton Hayes on Sept. 29 in Beaux Bridge, La. Am. "Amy Juergens in The Secret Life of the American Teenager", "Beatrice Tris Prior in Divergent" Shailene Diann Woodley on Nov. 15 in San Bernardino County, Calif.; grows up in Simi Valley, Calif. Dutch 6'0" tennis player Kiki Bertens on Dec. 10 in Wateringen. Am. composer (Jewish) (child prodigy) Jay "Bluejay" Greenberg on Dec. 13 in New Haven, Conn. Am. 6'6" football quarterback (Kansas City Chiefs #9, 2013-) Tyler Ian Bray on Dec. 27 in Clovis, Calif.; educated at the U. of Tenn. Deaths: Am. longevity champ Carrie Joyner White (b. 1874) on Feb. 14. New York Repub. rep. (1920-45) Hamilton Fish III (b. 1888) on Jan. 18; all the Hamilton Fishes (I-IV) are congressmen. Am. pathologist (father of modern immunology) Michael Heidelberger (b. 1888) on June 25. Am. FDR's 6th cousin Margaret Suckley (b. 1891) on June 29 in Rhinebeck, N.Y. Am. Olympic track and field athlete Abel Kiviat (b. 1892) on Aug. 24. Am. baseball player Jimmy "Scoops" (James Edward) Cooney (b. 1894) on Aug. 7; made an unassisted triple play as shortstop for the Chicago Cubs (NL) in 1926. Am. "Ain't She Sweet" lyricist Jack Yellen (b. 1892) on Apr. 17 in Concord, N.Y. Soviet politician Lazar Kaganovich (b. 1893) on July 25 in Moscow. Am. choreographer and modern dance pioneer ("the priestess of modern dance") ("the Picasso and Stravinsky of dance") ("a national treasure" - Pres. Ford) Martha Graham (b. 1894) on Apr. 1 in Manhattan, N.Y. (heart failure): "Every dance is a kind of fever chart, a graph of the heart"; "The instrument through which the dance speaks is also the instrument through which life is lived... the human body"; "Censorship is the height of vanity." Russian leader Lazar Moyseyevich Kaganovich (b. 1894) on July 25; last surviving original (pre-1917) Bolshevik leader. Am. Conservative Judaism leader Louis Finkelstein (b. 1895) on Nov. 29. German pianist Wilhelm Kempff (b. 1895) on May 23. Polish-born Am. ballroom dancing teacher Arthur Murray (Moses Teichman) (b. 1895) on Mar. 3. Am. silent film actress Gladys Hulette (b. 1896) on Aug. 8 in Montebello, Calif. Am. "Jailhouse Rock" film dir. Richard Thorpe (b. 1896) on May 1. Italian-born Am. "It's a Wonderful Life" dir. Frank Capra (b. 1897) on Sept. 3 in La Quinta, Calif. British epidemiologist Sir Austin Bradford Hill (b. 1897) on Apr. 18; established a link between smoking and cancer in 1952. Am. photographer Berenice Abbott (b. 1898) on Dec. 10 in Monson, Maine. Am. baseball #2 commissioner (1945-50) Happy Chandler (b. 1898) on June 15 in Versailles, Ky. (heart attack). U.S. ambassador Karl Lott Rankin (b. 1898) on Jan. 15 in Kennebunk, Maine (protate cancer). Am. "Burke's Law" actor Regis Toomey (b. 1898) on Oct. 12 in Los Angeles, Calif.; acted in 200+ movies. Am. pioneer aviator and USAF Maj. Gen. Leigh Wade (b. 1897) on Aug. 31 in Ft. Belvoir, Va.; participated in the first round-the-world flight in 1924. Catholic archbishop of Seattle (1951-75) Thomas A. Connolly (b. 1899) on Apr. 18. English actress-producer-dir. Eva Le Gallienne (b. 1899) on June 3 in Weston, Conn. Am. ballet dancer-teacher Ruth Page (b. 1899) on Apr. 7. Mexican Renaissance abstract artist Rufino Tamayo (b. 1899) on June 24. Am. "Shane" actress Jean Arthur (b. 1900) on June 19 in Carmel, Calif. German Nazi sculptor Arno Breker (b. 1900) on Feb. 13 in Dusseldorf. Finnish scientist Ragnar Arthur Granit (b. 1900) on Mar. 12 in Stockholm, Sweden; 1967 Nobel Medicine Prize. Austrian-born Am. composer Ernst Krenek (b. 1900) on Dec. 22 in Palm Springs, Calif. Irish writer Sean O'Faolain (John F. Whelan) (b. 1900) on Apr. 20. Am. "Lovey Howell in Gilligan's Island" actress Natalie Schafer (b. 1900) on Apr. 10 in Los Angeles, Calif. Canadian Newfoundland PM #1 (1949-72) Joey Smallwood (b. 1900) on Dec. 17. Am. Preparation H and Aspercreme inventor George Speri (b. 1900) on Apr. 30 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Am. silent film actress Carol Dempster (b. 1901) on Feb. 1 in La Jolla, Calif. (heart failure). U.S. Sen. (R-Ky.) John Sherman Cooper (b. 1901) on Feb. 21. Am. "Death of a Salesman" actress Mildred Dunnock (b. 1901) on July 5. Am. contract bridge champ Charles H. Goren (b. 1901) on Apr. 3 in Encino, Calif. Am. poet-novelist Laura Riding (b. 1901) on Sept. 2 in Wabasso, Fla.; gave up poetry in 1941. Am. hypertension researcher Irvine H. Page (b. 1901) on June 10. Hungarian-born Am. "Anchors Aweigh" dir. Joseph Pasternak (d. 1901) on Sept. 13. Am. poet Laura Riding (b. 1901) on Sept. 2 in Wabasso, Fla. French Olympic gold medal figure skater Pierre Brunet (b. 1902) on July 27. French Brig. Gen. Christian Marie Fernand de la Croix De Castries (b. 1902) on July 30; surrendered in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu. Am. "Mark Trail" cartoonist Ed Dodd (b. 1902) on May 27. Am. "The Big Sky", "The Way West" novelist A.B. Guthrie Jr. (b. 1901) on Apr. 26. French violinist Zino Francescatti (b. 1902) on Sept. 17 in La Ciotat. Am. chmn. #1 of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (1957-69) John A. Hannah (b. 1902) on Feb. 23. Am. AEC chmn. (1958-61) and CIA dir. (1961-5) John A. McCone (b. 1902) on Feb. 14. Am. "John Q. Public" cartoonist Vaughn Shoemaker (b. 1902) on Aug. 18. Polish-born Am. "Yentl" novelist Isaac Bashevis Singer (b. 1902) on July 24 in Miami, Fla.; 1978 Nobel Lit. Prize. Am. economist-historian Joseph John Spengler (b. 1902) on Jan. 2 in Durham, N.C. (Alzheimer's); in 2004 the History of Economics Society establishes the Joseph J. Spengler Prize. U.S. gen. Arthur G. Trudeau (b. 1902) on June 5 in Middlebury, Vt. Chilean concert pianist Claudio Arrau (b. 1903) on June 9 in Murzzuschlag, Austria. Am. Negro League outfielder Cool Papa (James) Bell (b. 1903) on Mar. 7. Am. Western novelist-screenwriter Niven Busch (b. 1903) on Aug. 24. Am. "rabbit test" physician Maurice H. Friedman (b. 1903) on Mar. 8 in Sarasota, Fla. Am. "Galloping Ghost" hall-of-fame football player Red Grange (b. 1903) on Jan. 28 in Lake Wales, Fla. British "Col. Pickering in My Fair Lady" actor Wilfrid Hyde-White (b. 1903) on May 6. Am. "Twelve O'Clock High" actor Dean Jagger (b. 1903) on Feb. 5. Spanish "El Exigente in Savarin coffee commercials" actor-dancer Carlos Montalban (b. 1903) on Mar. 28. Norwegian king (1957-91) Olav V (b. 1903) on Jan. 17. Czech concert pianist Rudolf Serkin (b. 1903) on May 8. French cooking teacher Simone Beck (b. 1904) on Dec. 20. Am. "FDR in Sunrise at Campobello" actor Ralph Bellamy (b. 1904) on Nov. 29 in Santa Monica, Calif. English "The Quiet American" novelist Graham Greene (b. 1904) on Apr. 3 in Vevey, Switzerland: "Heresy is another word for freedom of thought." Am. writer-composer Jay Richard Kennedy (b. 1904) on Oct. 14 in Westlake, Calif. Chinese-born Am. "teacher in Kung Fu" actor Keye Luke (b. 1904) on Jan. 12. Am. "Cat in the Hat" author-illustrator Dr. Seuss (Theodor Seuss Geisel) (b. 1904) on Sept. 24 in La Jolla, Calif.; wrote and illustrated 44 children's books with a total sales of 200M in 15 languages. Am. writer (in Yiddish) Isaac Bashevis Singer (b. 1904) on July 24: "God is the sum of all possibilities." Am. physicist Carl David Anderson (b. 1905) on Jan. 11 in San Marino, Calif.; 1936 Nobel Physics Prize. Am. "Nice guys finish last" baseball hall-of-fame shortstop-mgr. Leo Durocher (b. 1905) on Oct. 7 in Palm Springs, Calif.; 2,009 career victories as a mgr., along with 95 career ejections. Hungarian travel guide writer Eugene Fodor (b. 1905) on Feb. 18. German-born Am. historian Felix Gilbert (b. 1905) on Feb. 14. French anti-Vatican II Roman Catholic archbishop Marcel Lefebvre (b. 1905) on Mar. 25; excommunicated in 1988. Am. Rep. (D-Tex.) Omar T. Burleson (b. 1906) on May 14. Canadian political scientist (founder of the African Studies Assoc). Gwendolen M. Carter (b. 1906) on Feb. 20. Am. abstract expressionist sculptor Herbert Ferber (b. 1906) on Aug. 20. Am. jazz saxophonist Bud (Lawrence) Freeman (b. 1906) on Mar. 15. Japanese Honda Motor Co. founder Soichiro Honda (b. 1906) on Aug. 5 in Tokyo. Am. composer Arthur Kreutz (b. 1906) on Mar. 12 in Oxford, Miss. Scottish-born Am. voice actor James MacDonald (b. 1906) on Feb. 1 in Glendale, Calif. (heart failure); the voice of Mickey Mouse in 1947-77. Am. baseball hall-of-fame shortstop (Chicago White Sox) (1930-50) Luke Appling (b. 1907) on Jan. 3 in Cumming, Ga. Spanish Catholic priest (head of the Jesuit Order in 1965-83) Pedro Arrupe y Gondra (b. 1907) on Feb. 5. English actress Dame (1956-) Peggy Ashcroft (b. 1907) on June 14 in London. German parapsychologist Hans Bender (b. 1907) on May 7 in Freiburg: "You shall always find what you created in your mind, for instance, a benevolent God or an evil Devil. Between them are countless facets. Therefore, concentrate on the depth of your consciousness and on what you consider to be positive and good"; "Good and evil do not exist for me any more. The fear of evil is merely a mass projection here and on Earth"; "Things you create with your mind are always part of your postmortal life, whether they seem real or not"; "Please, do not visualize that we exist above you such as in heaven. The concepts above and below are products of your mind. The soul does not swing upwards. It exists in the center and orients itself in every direction." Am. reporter Homer Bigart (b. 1907) on Apr. 16. Am. historian (on China) John K. Fairbank (b. 1907) on Sept. 14. Canadian hockey hall-of-famer Herbert A. Lewis (b. 1907) on Jan. 20. Am. actor John McIntire (b. 1907) on Jan. 30; replaced Ward Bond as the wagonmaster in TV's "Wagon Train". Am. chemist Edwin Mattison McMillan (b. 1907) on Sept. 7 in El Cerrito, Calif.; 1951 Nobel Chem. Prize. Am. jazz cornetist Jimmy McPartland (b. 1907) on Mar. 13. British actor Lord Bernard Miles (b. 1907) on June 14; 2nd British actor after Laurence Oliver to be honored with the peerage. Am. congressman-lobbyist James Roosevelt (b. 1907) on Aug. 13; son of Pres. FDR. Am. "Shane" author Jack W. Schaefer (b. 1907) on Jan. 24. Am. atty. William A. Shea (b. 1907) on Oct. 3; Shea Stadium, home of the New York Mets is named for him for helping to win their NL franchise for New York City. German organist-harpsichordist Helmut Walcha (b. 1907) on Aug. 11. Am. physicist (transistor co-inventor) John Bardeen (b. 1908) on Jan. 30 in Boston, Mass.; 1956 and 1972 Nobel Physics Prizes. Am. "The Shadow" radio announcer Andre Baruch (b. 1908) on Sept. 15. Am. football coach (founder of the Cleveland Browns and Cincinnati Bengals) Paul Brown (b. 1908) on Aug. 5 in Cincinnati, Ohio. Am. "Batman", "The Greeen Hornet" TV producer William Dozier (b. 1908) on Apr. 23 in Santa Monica, Calif. Am. Space Needle architect Jhn Graham Jr. (b. 1908) on Jan. 29 in Seattle, Wash. British "Lawrence of Arabia" dir. Sir David Lean (b. 1908) on Apr. 16. German historian Richard Lowenthal (b. 1908) on Aug. 9 in Berlin. Am. "My Three Sons" actor Fred MacMurray (b. 1908) on Nov. 5. Am. jazz trumpeter Jabbo (Cladys) Smith (b. 1908) on Jan. 16. British boxer Jack Berg (Judah Bergman) (b. 1909) on Apr. 22. Am. actress Edwina Booth (b. 1909) on May 18. Am. Dem. Fla. gov. (1955-61) LeRoy Collins (b. 1909) on Mar. 12. Am. Fender Stratocaster guitar designer Leo Fender (b. 1909) on Mar. 21 in Fullerton, Calif.; the guitar of choice for Buddy Holly, Jimi Hendrix, Eddie Van Halen et al. Am. atty. Charles R. Garry (1909) on Aug. 16; defended 1960s radicals. Am. newspaper publisher James L. Knight (b. 1909) on Feb. 5; with his brother John built the Knight-Rider (Detroit Free Press et al.) media empire. Am. photography pioneer and Polaroid Corp. founder Edwin Herbert Land (b. 1909) on Mar. 1 in Cambridge, Mass.; received 535 patents, compared to 1,097 for Thomas Edison. British nuclear physicist Lord William George Penney (b. 1909) on Mar. 3; dir. of Britain's first A-bomb development. Am. global warming expert Roger Revelle (b. 1909) on July 15. Am. composer Elie Siegmeister (b. 1909) on Mar. 10; composed eight symphonies, eight operas, plus numerous concertos. Am. baseball pitching star Bucky Walters (b. 1909) on Apr. 20. Am. apparel co. founder Jack A. Winter (b. 1909) on Feb. 9. USAF Gen. Joseph Carroll (b. 1910) on Jan. 20. Am. movie score composer Carmine Coppola (b. 1910) on Apr. 26; father of dir. Francis Ford Coppola; won an Oscar for musical score for "The Godfather", making the Coppolas one of only two families with three Oscars (Carmine Coppola, Francis Ford Coppola, Sofia Coppola) (Walter Huston, John Huston, Angelica Huston). Am. "Wo Fat in Hawaii Five-O" actor Khigh Dheigh (b. 1910) on Oct. 25 in Mesa, Ariz. Am. "Joe Hill" composer Earl Robinson (b. 1910) on July 20 in Seattle, Wash. (automobile accident). Italian writer Mario Tobino (b. 1910) on Dec. 11 in Agrigento. Am. New York City Mayor (1954-65) Robert F. Wagner (b. 1910) on Feb. 12. Am. sports impresario Sonny Werblin (b. 1910) on Nov. 21 in Manhattan, N.Y.; signed QB Joe Namath to his first pro football contract. Am. political scientist Frederick C. Barghoorn (b. 1911) on Nov. 20. Am. jazz trumpeter Buck Clayton (b. 1911) on Dec. 8. Am. civil rights champion and Ky. gov. Bert T. Combs (b. 1911) on Dec. 4. Am. "Rex Morgan" "Judge Parker" "Apartment 3-G" cartoonist Nicholas P. Dallis (b. 1911) on July 6. Swiss architect-playwright Max Frisch (b. 1911) on Apr. 4 in Zurich (cancer). Am. golfer Johnny Revolta (b. 1911) on Mar. 3. Mexican diplomat-politician Alfonso Garcia Robles (b. 1911) on Sept. 2; 1982 Nobel Peace Prize. Am. producer Lee Sabinson (b. 1911) on Apr. 14 in Englewood, N.J.; played Nikita Khrushchev in "The Twilight Zone", episode "The Whole Truth". Am. economist George Joseph Stigler (b. 1911) on Dec. 1 in Chicago, Ill.; 1982 Nobel Econ. Prize. Am. psychologist Silvan Tomkins (b. 1911) on June 10. Am. economist Joe Staten Bain (b. 1912) on Sept. 7 in Columbus, Ohio. Am. novelist John Campbell Crosby (b. 1912) on Sept. 7. Canadian literary critic Herman Northrop Frye (b. 1912) on Jan. 23. Australian concert pianist Eileen Joyce (b. 1912) on Mar. 25. Italian-born Am. microbiologist Salvador E. Luria (b. 1912) on Feb. 6 in Lexington, Mass.; 1969 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. journalist Ethel L. Payne (b. 1912) on May 28; first black female commentator on U.S. network TV. Am. "Dirty Harry", "The Shootist" dir. Don Siegel (b. 1912) on Apr. 20. German "Nazi Butcher of Lyon" Klaus Barbie (b. 1913) on Sept. 25 in Lyon, France; (dies in jail while serving a life sentence given on July 4, 1987 - creator of the Barbie doll? Am. jazz saxophonist-bandleader Charlie Barnet (b. 1913) on Sept. 4 in San Diego, Calif. Australian actress Coral Browne (b. 1913) on May 29. Czech leader Gustav Husak (b. 1913) on Nov. 18. Am. New York City Ballet musical dir. (1958-89) Robert A. Irving (b. 1913) on Sept. 13. Am. employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) pioneer Louis O. Kelso (b. 1913) on Feb. 17. Am. geneticist Derald Langham (b. 1913) on May 10 in Welton, Ariz. Am. financial columnist Sylvia Porter (b. 1913) on June 5 in Pound Ridge, N.Y. English economist Sir Richard Stone (b. 1913) on Dec. 6; 1984 Nobel Econ. Prize. English novelist Sir Angus Wilson (Angus Frank Johnstone-Wilson) (b. 1913) on May 31. Iranian PM #74 (last0 (1979) Shapour Bakhtiar (b. 1914) on Aug. 6 in Suresnes, France. South Arican-born Am. "What's My Line?" TV host (1950-67) John Charles Daly (b. 1914) on Feb. 25 in Chevy Chase, Md. (heart attack). Am. nightclub owner Bill Gazzarri (b. 1914) on Mar. 21 in West Hollywood; owner of the Sunset Strip nightclub that launched the Doors, and Caesar and Cleo (AKA Sonny and Cher). Am. tennis racket inventor Howard Head (b. 1914) on Mar. 3. Australian gov.-gen. (1974-7) Sir John Kerr (b. 1914) on Mar. 24. Am. composer-conductor Sir Andrzej Panufnik (b. 1914) on Oct. 27. Chinese strongwoman and Gang of Four convict (Mao Tse Tung's widow) Jiang Qing (Madame Mao) (b. 1914) on May 14 in Beijing (hangs herself in a hospital bathroom where she lived under the alias Li Runquing after writing a note saying "Chairman! I love you! Your loyal student and comrade is coming to see you!") Am. "Make Room for Daddy" comedian Danny Thomas (b. 1914) on Feb. 6 in Los Angeles, Calf.; his funeral is at the Roman Catholic Church of the Good Shepherd in Beverly Hills, where Loretta Young goes daily. Am. Olympic gold medalist hurdler Forest G. Towns (b. 1914) on Apr. 9. Canadian hockey star Phil (Phillipe Henri) Watson (b. 1914) on Feb. 1. Australian historian Manning Clark (Charles Manning Hope Clark) (b. 1915) on May 23. British economist Sir Arthur Lewis (b. 1915) on June 15; first black to win the Nobel Economics Prize (1979). Am. abstract expressionist artist Robert Motherwell (b. 1915) on July 16: "To end up with a canvas that is no less beautiful than the empty canvas is to begin with." German WWII soldier Walter Reder (b. 1915) on Apr. 26 in Vienna, Austria. Am. "The Poseidon Adventure, "The Towering Inferno" film producer Irwin Allen (b. 1916) on Nov. 20. Soviet sniper hero Capt. Vasily Zaitsev (b. 1915) on Dec. 15 in Kiev. Am. Mo. Dem. Rep. Richard W. Bolling (b. 1916) on Apr. 21. Australian "The Great Escape" novelist-journalist Paul Brickhill (b. 1916) on Apr. 23. Am. "Festus Haggen in Gunsmoke" actor-singer Ken Curtis (b. 1916) on Apr. 28 in Fresno, Calif. Am. cookbook writer Theodora FitzGibbon (b. 1916) on Mar. 25. Am. "Flat Foot Floogie" jazz musician Slim Gaillard (b. 1916) on Feb. 26 in London, England. German novelist-playwright Wolfgang Hildesheimer (b. 1916) on Aug. 21. Am. WWII combat vet and Japanese-Am. activist Mike M. Masaoka (b. 1916) on June 26. Am. "Dale Arden in Flash Gordon" actress Jean Rogers (b. 1916) on Feb. 24 in Sherman Oaks, Calif. Mongolian PM (1952-84) Yumjaagiyn Tsedenbal (b. 1916) on Apr. 20. Am. novelist Frank Yerby (b. 1916) on Nov. 29 in Madrid, Spain (heart failure). English-born Am. Episcopal priest Dennis J. Bennett (b. 1917) on Nov. 1. Australian-born Am. novelist-playwright Sumner Locke Elliott (b. 1917) on June 24. Am. scientist Marcel Vogel (b. 1917). Am. Int. Ladies' Garment Workers' Union pres. (1975-86) Sol Chick Chaikin (b. 1918) on Apr. 1. English historian Ralph Henry Carless Davis (b. 1918) on Mar. 12. Am. "12 O'Clock High" actor-producer William D. Gordon (b. 1918) on Aug. 12. English painter Sir Lawrence Gowing (b. 1918) on Feb. 5 (heart failure). English flyweight boxing champ (1938-43) Peter Kane (Cain) (b. 1918) on July 23. German opera dir. Friedelind Wagner (b. 1918) on May 8; granddaughter of Richard Wagner (1813-83); fled Nazi Germany after attacking Nazi culture. Am. NASA head James C. Fletcher (b. 1919) on Dec. 22; launched the Shuttle program. English ballerina Dame Margot Fonteyn (b. 1919) on Feb. 21 in Panama City, Panama. Am. "Sixteen Tons" singer Tennessee Ernie Ford (b. 1919) on Oct. 17. Am. crewcut comedian George Gobel (b. 1919) on Feb. 24. Am. singer Billy Vaughn (b. 1919) on Sept. 26 in Escondido, Calif. (mesothelioma). Am. poet Howard Nemerov (b. 1920) on July 5 in University City, Mo. Am. Philadelphia mayor Frank L. Rizzo (b. 1920) on July 16: "The streets are safe... it's only the people who make them unsafe." Egyptian PM (1964-5) Aly Sabry (b. 1920) on Aug. 3. Am. "Laura", "Lucy Muir in The Ghost and Mrs. Muir" actress Gene Tierney (b. 1920) on Nov. 6 in Houston, Tex. U. Rep. (R-Mass.) (1959-91) Silvio O. Conte (b. 1921) on Feb. 8 in Bethesda, Md. Am. baseball player-exec. Hoot Evers (b. 1921) on Jan. 25. Am. "Jane Hathaway on The Beverly Hillbillies" actress Nancy Kulp (b. 1921) on Feb. 3. Canadian "Studio One" dir. Fletcher Markle (b. 1921) on May 23 in Pasadena, Calif. Am. newspaperman Clark R. Mollenhoff (b. 1921) on Mar. 2. Italian-born French actor-singer Yves Montand (b. 1921) on Nov. 9 in Senlis, Oise, France (heart attack). Am. "A Chorus Line", "Hair" theatrical producer Joseph Papp b. 1921) on Oct. 31 (prostate cancer). Am. country singer Webb Pierce (b. 1921) on Feb. 24 in Nashville, Tenn. (pancreatic cancer). Am. producer and Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry (b. 1921) on Oct. 24 in Santa Monica, Calif.: "We must question the story logic of having an all-knowing all-powerful God, who creates faulty humans, and then blames them for his own mistakes." Am. "Marshal Dan Troop in The Lawman" actor John Russell (b. 1921) on Jan. 19 in Los Angeles, Calif. German font designer Otl Aicher (b. 1922) on Sept. 1 in Rotis uber Leutkirch. Am. "My Favorite Husband" actress Joan Caulfield (b. 1922) on June 18. Am. "Sanford and Son" actor-comedian Redd Foxx (John Elroy Sanford) (b. 1922) on Oct. 11 in Los Angeles, Calif. (heart attack); dies on the set of The Royal Family, grabbing a chair and falling to the floor while the castmates think he's putting on his usual act. Am. civil rights leader (CORE) Floyd B. McKissick (b. 1922) on Apr. 28. Am. blues musician William Nix (b. 1922) on July 8 in Leland, Miss. Czech-born British billionaire media mogul Robert Maxwell (Jan Ludwig Hoch) (b. 1923) on Nov. 5 at sea near the Canary Islands (falls overboard from his luxury yacht Lady Ghislaine) (suicide?) (murdered by the Mossad?); buried in Jerusalem. Am. TV "60 Minutes" newscaster Harry Reasoner (b. 1923) on Aug. 6. Am. poet James Marcus Schuyler (b. 1923) on Apr. 12 in Manhattan, N.Y. (stroke). Am. Beat artist Harry Everett Smith (b. 1923) on Nov. 27 in New York City. Japanese foreign minister (1982-6) Shintaro Abe (b. 1924) on May 15. Cuban horse trainer Lazaro Sosa Barrera (b. 1924) on Apr. 25; trained 1978 Triple Crown winner Affirmed. Am. Pennzoil pres.-CEO William C. Liedtke Jr. (b. 1924) on Mar. 1. Soviet sci-fi novelist Arkady Strugatsky (b. 1925) on Oct. 12. U.S. Sen. (R-Tex.) (1961-85) John Goodwin Tower (b. 1925) on Apr. 5 in Brunswick, Ga. Am. Charlie Chaplin's wife Oona, Lady Chaplin (b. 1926) on Sept. 27 in Corsier-sur-Vevey, Switzerland (pancreatic cancer). Am. jazz trumpeter Miles Davis (b. 1926) on Sept. 28 in Santa Monica, Calif. Canadian-born Am. "voice of Pazuzu in The Exorcist III", "Marilla Cuthbert in Anne of Green Gables" actress Colleen Dewhurst (b. 1926) on Aug. 22 in South Salem, N.Y. (cervical cancer). Polish-born German movie actor Klaus Kinski (b. 1926) on Nov. 23. Am. baseball player Dale Long (b. 1926) on Jan. 27 in Palm Coast, Fla. Am. "Battle Cry" actor Aldo Ray (DaRe) (b. 1926) on Mar. 27 in Crockett, Calif. Am. actor-novelist Thomas Tryon (b. 1926) on Sept. 4 in Los Angeles, Calif. (cancer). Am. Western Swing bandleader Billy Jack Wills (b. 1926) on Mar. 3. Am. FCC chmn. (1969-74) Dean Burch (b. 1927) on Aug. 4. Am. baseball player (pinch-hitter champ) Smoky (Forest) Burgess (b. 1927) on Sept. 15. Am. cool jazz saxophonist Stan Getz (b. 1927) on June 6 in Malibu, Calif. French poet-songwriter Serge Gainsbourg (b. 1928) on Mar. 2 in Paris (heart attack); "He was our Baudelaire, our Apollinaire... He elevated the song to the level of art" (Francois Miterrand). English Tom Jones" dir. Tony Richardson (b. 1928) on Nov. 14 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. basketball player Ray Felix (b. 1930) on July 28 in Queens, N.Y. Am. concert promoter Bill Graham (Wolfgang Grajonca) (b. 1930) on Oct. 25 (heli crash en route from a Huey Lewis concert). Am. Apollo 15 moonwalking astronaut James B. Irwin (b. 1930) on Aug. 8. Am. singer-actor (Tony in the original Broadway production of West Side Story) Larry Kert (b. 1930) on June 5. Am. journalist Douglas Kiker (b. 1930) on Aug. 14. Am. dancer and "Steve Allen's Tonight Show" TV producer Nick Vanoff (b. 1930) on Mar. 23 in Los Angeles, Calif. Am. "King of Gospel" musician-composer James L. Cleveland (b. 1931) on Feb. 9. New Brunswick PM (1970-87) Richard Bennett Hatfield (b. 1931) on Apr. 26. Am. hockey coach Bob Johnson (b. 1931) on Nov. 26. Am. poet Etheridge Knight (b. 1931) on Mar. 10 in Indianapolis, Ind. English runner Gordon Pirie (b. 1931) on Dec. 7. Am. contract bridge champ Jim Jacoby (b. 1932) on Feb. 8. Am. country singer Dottie West (b. 1932) on Sept. 4. British comedian Bernie Winters (Weinstein) (b. 1932) on May 4. Am. serial murderer Donald Henry Gaskins (b. 1933) on Sept. 6 in Columbia, S.C. (electrocuted). Palestinian PLO #2 man (founder of Black September?) Salah Mesbah Khalaf (Abu Iyad) (b. 1933) on Jan. 14 in Tunis (assassinated). Polish-born Am. "Being There" novelist Jerzy Kosinski (b. 1933) on May 3 (suicide). Am. Fluxus cellist Charlotte Moorman (b. 1933) on Nov. 8 in New York City (cancer). Am. "Here Comes My Baby" country singer Dottie West (b. 1933) on Sept. 4; known for duets with Kenny Rogers. Am. novelist Raymond Andrews (b. 1934) on Nov. 25 in Athens, Ga. (suicide). Am. "Mr. Novak" actor James Franciscus (b. 1934) on July 8 in North Hollywood, Calif. (emphysema). Am. Kingston Trio singer Dave Guard (b. 1934) on Mar. 22 in Rollinsford, N.H. (cancer). Am. economist Leonard Rapping (b. 1934) on Oct. 1 in Boston, Mass. (heart failure). New Zealand-born biochemist and molecular geneticist Allan C. Wilson (b. 1934) on July 23. Am. "Arnold Toht in Raiders of the Lost Ark" actor Ronald Lacey (b. 1935) on May 15 in London. Am. "Hair" co-author Gerome Ragni (b. 1935) on July 10 in New York City (cancer). Am. "Little Joe in Bonanza", "Little House on the Prairie" actor Michael Landon (b. 1936) on July 1 in Malibu, Calif. (pancreatic cancer). Am. actress Lee Remick (b. 1937) on July 2. Pennsylvania Repub. Sen. and H.J. Heinz food heir H. John Heinz III (b. 1938) on Apr. 4. Am. "Dreamgirls" lyricist Tom Eyen (b. 1940) on May 26 in Palm Beach, Fla. (AIDS). Am. "Norman in Nashville" actor David Arkin (b. 1941) on Jan. 14 (suicide). Am. singer-songwriter-musician and Byrds co-founder Gene Clark (b. 1941) on May 24. Am. "Temptations" singer David Ruffin (b. 1941) on June 1. Am. flamboyant gay convict Richard Speck (b. 1941) on Dec. 5 in Joliet, Ill.; dies in prison of a heart attack. Am. sports journalist Peter M. Axthelm (b. 1943) on Feb. 2. Am. Byrds co-founder Gene Clark (b. 1944) on May 24 in Sherman Oaks, Calif. (alcoholism). Indian PM #7 (1984-9) Rajiv Gandhi (b. 1944) on May 21 in Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu; assassinated by Thenmozhi "Gayatri" Rajaratnam of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam). Zanzibar-born British Queen rocker Freddie Mercury (b. 1946) on Nov. 24 (AIDS-related pneumonia); has a Zoroastrian funeral; "There was all that time when we knew Freddie was on the way out, we kept our heads down" (Brian May) - the good fags die young? Am. football player Travis Williams (b. 1946) on Feb. 17 in Martinez, Calif. Am. astronaut Sonny (Manley Lanier) Carter (Jr.) (b. 1947) on Apr. 5. English rocker Steve Marriott (b. 1947) on Apr. 20 in Arkesden, Essex (house fire). French composer Jacques Morali (b. 1947) on Nov. 15 (AIDS); creator of the Village People. Am. female jockey pioneer Mary Bacon (b. 1948) on June 8. Am. "Midnight Express" "Chariots of Fire" actor Brad Davis (b. 1949) on Sept. 8 in Los Angeles, Calif. (OD); billed as "the first heterosexual actor to die of AIDS"; he was really bi? Am. "Little Shop of Horrors", "Beauty and the Beast", "Aladdin" playwright-lyricist Howard Ashman (b. 1950) on Mar. 14 in New York City (AIDS). Am. Repub. Party chmn. Lee Atwater (b. 1951) on Mar. 29. Am. "The Heartbreakers" rock musician Johnny Thunders (b. 1952) on Apr. 23 in New Orleans, La. (OD) (foul play?). Am. "Harry and the Hendersons" actor (7'2") Kevin Peter Hall (b. 1955) on Apr. 10 - the bigger they are? Am. scientist Belinda Mason (b. 1958) on Sept. 9; first HIV-positive member of the Nat. Commission on AIDS. English "Def Leppard" guitarist Steve Clark (b. 1960) on Jan. 8 in London (OD). Am. AIDS crusader Kimberly Bergalis (b. 1968) on Dec. 8; contracted AIDS from her dentist, then fought to have him tested for it. Swedish "Mayhem" black metal vocalist Per Yngve Ohlin (AKA Dead) (b. 1969) on Apr. 8 (suicide); "Excuse all the blood" (death note?).



1992 - The Diluted Pleasure Pass the Perot Tailhook Andrew Melissa Howard Michelangelo Aunt Jemima Achy Breaky Heart Queen Elizabeth George Soros Year?

William Jefferson Clinton of the U.S. (1946-) Bill Clinton (1946-) and Hillary Clinton (1947-) in college H. Ross Perot of the U.S. (1930-) James B. Stockdale of the U.S. (1923-2005) Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant, Colo., 1992, and after cleanup 2000- John Gotti (1940-2002) Yitzhak Rabin of Israel (1922-95) Itamar Franco of Brazil (1930-) Fidel Valdez Ramos of the Philippines (1928-) Thomas Klestil of Austria (1932-2004) Baron Oscar Luigi Scalfaro of Italy (1918-) Belaid Abdessalam of Algeria (1928-) Pierre Bérégovoy of France (1925-93) Albert Reynolds of Ireland (1932-) Kim Young-sam of South Korea (1927-) Jozsef Torgyan of Hungary Istvan Csurka of Hungary (1934-) Dobrica Cosic of Yugoslavia (1921-) Milan Panic of Yugoslavia (1929-) Franjo Tudjman of Croatia (1922-99) Janez Drnovsek of Slovenia (1950-) Branko Crvenkovski of Macedonia (1962-) Rahmon Nabiyev of Tajikistan (1930-93) Emomalii Rahmon of Tajikistan (1952-) Burhanuddin Rabbani of Afghanistan (1940-2011) Than Shwe of Burma (1933-) Chuan Leekpai of Thailand (1938-) Cheddi Berret Jagan of Guyana (1918-97) Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt (1922-) Sam Hinds of Guyana (1943-) Simon Achidi-Achu of Cameroon (1932-) Pascal Lissouba of the Repub. of the Congo-Brazzaville (1931-) Rafik Hariri of Lebanon (1944-2005) Percival Noel James Patterson of Jamaica (1935-) Jocelyn Burdick of the U.S. (1922-) Nancy Kassebaum of the U.S. (1932-) Barbara Mikulski of the U.S. (1936-) Barbara Levy Boxer of the U.S. (1940-) Carol Moseley Braun of the U.S. (1947-) Dianne Feinstein of the U.S. (1933-) Patty Murray of the U.S. (1950-) Kay Bailey Hutchinson of the U.S. (1943-) Larry Nichols (1949-) Gennifer Flowers Tammy Wynette (1942-98) Daniel Wattenberg (1959-) Hanna Suchocka of Poland (1946-) Stella Rimington of Britain (1935-) Jim Guy Tucker Jr. of the U.S. (1943-) Luis Donaldo Colosio Murrieta of Mexico (1950-94) Hassan Nasrallah (1960-) Paul Monette (1945-95) Johnny Carson (1925-2005) Reginald Oliver Denny (1953-) Barry Eichengreen (1952-) Li Hongzhi (1952-) Giovanni Falcone (1939-92) Francisco Goldman (1954-) Sherry Lansing (1945-) Azizah al-Hibri Cynthia Ann McKinney of the U.S. (1955-) Jay Leno (1950-) Rush Limbaugh (1951-) Ben Nighthorse Campbell of the U.S. (1933-) Evelyn Lauder (1936-2011) Cito Gaston (1944-) Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. (1951-) Dominick 'Skinny Dom' Pizzonia (1942-) Ronald Joseph 'Ronnie One Arm' Trucchio (1951-) Paul Toscano Lavinia Fielding Anderson (1944-) Elana Meyer (1966-) of South Africa and Derartu Tulu of Ethiopia (1972-) Evelyn Ashford of the U.S. (1957-) Kyoko Iwasaki of Japan (1978-) Vitaly Scherbo of Belarus (1972-) Yael Arad of Israel (1967-) Davey Allison (1961-93) Al Unser Jr. (1962-) Faraj Fouda of Egypt (1946-92) Art Monk (1957-) Mark Rypien (1962-) Toni Nieminen of Finland (1975-) Bonnie Blair of the U.S. (1964-) Annelise Coberger of New Zealand (1971-) Kristi Yamaguchi of the U.S. (1971-) Midori Ito of Japan (1969-) U.S. Olympic Dream Team, 1992 Tampa Bay Lightning Logo Manon Rhéaume (1972-) Chris Kontos (1963-) Chuck Daly (1930-2009) Stanley Ann Dunham (1942-95) Roberta Lynn Bondar of Canada (1945-) Rigoberta Menchu (1959-) Derek Alton Walcott (1930-) Georges Charpak (1924-) Rudolph A. Marcus (1923-) Edmond H. Fischer (1920-) Edwin Gerhard Krebs (1918-) Jaak Panksepp (1943-) Gary Stanley Becker (1930-) Paula Abdul (1962-) and Emilio Estevez (1962-) Audrey Hepburn (1929-93) in Somalia, 1992 John Gray (1951-) Amy Fisher (1972-) Stephen Edward Ambrose (1936-2002) Joey Buttafuoco (1956-) and Mary Jo Buttafuoco (-1992) Woody Allen (1935-) and Soon Yi Previn (1970-) Stan Greenberg (1945-) Celinda Lake Salvatore 'Toto' Riina (1930-) 'Marlboro Man' Wayne McLaren (-1992) George Soros (1930-) Jeffrey Dahmer (1960-94) Robert Bly (1926-) Douglas Brinkley (1960-) Elaine Brown (1943-) Michael D. Coe (1929-) Anthony Downs (1930-) Esther Freud (1963-) Francis Fukuyama (1952-) Robert Olen Butler (1945-) Stanislav Grof (1931-) Nick Hornby (1957-) David Joel Horowitz (1939-) Townsend Hoopes (1922-2004) David McCullough (1933-) Thomas Moore (1940-) Daniel Quinn (1935-) Hedi Slimane (1968-) Jerome Vered (1958-) Daniel Wattenberg (1959-) Pietro Casasanta (1938-) Diane Mott Davidson (1949-) Denis Johnson (1949-) Stella Liebeck (1913-), Feb. 27, 1992 Dolores Cannon (1931-) Randy Cassingham (1964-) Rita Dove (1952-) Betty Jean Eadie (1942-) Assar Lindbeck (1930-) Cormac McCarthy (1933-) Mary Oliver (1935-) Jodi Picoult (1966-) Robert Schenkkan (1953-) Peter Høeg (1957-) Philip Jenkins (1952-) Herta Müller (1953-) Michael Ondaatje (1943-) Mary Pope Osborne (1949-) E. Annie Proulx (1935-) Dennis Michael Quinn (1944-) Henry Rosovsky (1927-) Harry Turtledove (1949-) Barry Unsworth (1930-2012) Vernor Vinge (1944-) Robert James Waller (1939-) Yanni (1954-) Neal Town Stephenson ( 1959-) Howard Stern (1954-) Aunt Jemima Tori Amos (1963-) Barenaked Ladies Mary J. Blige (1971-) Cracker Dada R. Kelly (1967-) Fear Factory Buju Banton (1973- Billy Ray Cyrus (1961-) P.J. Harvey (1969-) Sophie Ballantine Hawkins (1967-) Jamiroquai (1969-) Martina McBride (1966-) Tim McGraw (1967-) Sir Mix-a-Lot (1963-) Insane Clown Posse Stone Temple Pilots Manic Street Preachers Spiderbait Testament Rage Against the Machine Sublime 'Open Your Mind' by U.S.U.R.A., 1992 The Verve 2 Unlimited The Wallflowers David Ippolito Paulina Rubio (1971-) Alejandro Fernandez (1971-) 'Mad About You', 1992-9 'Melrose Place', 1992-9 'Picket Fences', 1992-6 'Conversations with My Father', 1992 'Alien 3', 1992 Sharon Stone in 'Basic Instinct', 1992 'The Bodyguard', 1992 'The Crying Game', 1992 Jaye Davidson (1968-) 'A Few Good Men', 1992 'Fortress', 1992 'Freejack', 1992 'The Last of the Mohicans', 1992 'The Lawnmower Man', 1992 'A League of Their Own', 1992 'Malcolm X', 1992 'My Cousin Vinny', 1992 'Pure Country', 1992 'Reservoir Dogs', 1992 'A River Runs Through It', 1992 'Scent of a Woman', 1992 'Timescape', 1992 'Toys', 1992 'Unforgiven', 1992 'Universal Soldier', 1992 'Wayne's World', 1992 'White Men Cant Jump', 1992 Arnold Schwarzenegger (1947-) in His Little Old Hummer Spencer Tunick (1967-) Glenda Green (1945-) 'The Lamb and the Lion' by Glenda Green (1945), 1992 'Street Crossing' by George Segal (1924-2000), 1992 Syfy Logo, 1992- Mall of America, 1992

1992 Doomsday Clock: 17 min. to midnight. Chinese Year: Monkey (Feb. 4) (lunar year 4690). Time Mag. Man of the Year: Bill Clinton (1946-). Applause, applause, possibilities? The Year of the Woman in U.S. politics, which starts out with three women in the U.S. Senate, Jocelyn Birch Burdick (1922-) (D-N.D.), Nancy Landon Kassebaum (1932-) (R-Kan.) (daughter of Alf Landon), and Barbara Ann Mikulski (1936-) (D-Md.) then after the Clarence Thomas-Anita Hill hearings proves men are, er, shakes things up, ends with four, Barbara Levy Boxer (1940-) (D-Calif.) (Jewish) (whom U.S. pres. George W. Bush cleverly calls "Ali"), Carol Elizabeth Moseley Braun (1947-) (D-Ill.) (first African-Am. woman), Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (1933-) (D-Calif.) (Jewish), and Patricia Lynn "Patty" Murray (1950-) (D-Wash.), followed next year by Kathryn Ann "Kay" Bailey Hutchinson (1943-) (R-Tex.). On Jan. 1 the Washington defeats the Mich. 34-14 to win the 1992 Rose Bowl, sacking Michigan QBs 6 times and giving the Huskies a share of their only nat. championship. On Jan. 6 U.S. pres. George H.W. Bush travels to South Korea for talks. On Jan. 11 right before a 2nd planned election, the military stages a coup in Algeria, forcing Pres. Bendjedid to resign; Muhammad Boudiaf becomes head of the military-backed High Security Council (HSC); the Front Islamique du Salut (FIS) is dismantled and banned on Mar. 4, causing urban terrorism; Boudiaf is assassinated on June 29 and is succeeded by Ali Kafi; on June 29 Belaid Abdessalam (1928-) replaces Sid Ahmed Ghozali as PM (until 1993); French-backed Algerian secular gens. begin a dirty war against the Islamic Salvation Front, killing 150K by 2002. On Jan. 16 after mediation by U.N. secy.-gen. Javier Perez de Cuellar, peace accords are signed between the National Repub. Alliance and the leftist rebels of the FMLN in El Salvador; the civil war ends on Dec. 15 with the disbanding of the FMLN after 75K are killed. On Jan. 22 Space Shuttle Discovery mission STS-42 blasts off, carrying seven astronauts incl. physician Roberta Lynn Bondar (1945-), who becomes the first Canadian woman in space. On Jan. 26 Super Bowl XXVI (26) is held in Minneapolis, Minn.; the Washington Redskins (NFC) defeat the Buffalo Bills (AFC) 37-24, leading 24-0 by the 3rd quarter; Thurman Thomas (1996-) of the Bills misses the first two plays from scrimmage when he can't find his helmet; a reception by James Arthur "Art" Monk (1957-) becomes the first TD overruled by instant replay in a SB; Redskins QB Mark Robert Rypien (1962-) is MVP, passing for 292 yards and two TDs. On Jan. 26, 1992 three days after Star mag. pub. an article about Clinton insider Larry Nichols (1949-), who claims that Bill Clinton diverted Ark. state funds to engage in extramartial affairs with five women incl. Ark. state employee Gennifer Flowers (1950-), Miss America Elizabeth Ward Gracen (nee Elizabeth Grace Ward) (1961-), and Miss Ark. Lencola Sullivan (first African-Am. woman to place in the top-5 in the Miss America pageant - 1981), Bill and his wife Hillary give an Interview with Steve Kroft of 60 Minutes, in which she discusses her hubby Bill's alleged decade-long affair with Flowers, and utters the soundbyte: "I'm not sitting here like some little woman, standing by my man like Tammy Wynette", setting off a firestorm of controversy, after which Tammy Wynette (1942-98) demands and receives an apology, even though she is a Clinton supporter and later performs at a fundraiser for him; too bad, despite Bill denying any relationship with her, she airs tapes of telephone conversations he had with her, incl. admissions that Hillary is bi, surprising his own staff with his mendaciousness; in Aug. 1992 Am. journalist Daniel Eli Wattenberg (1959-) pub. an article in The American Spectator titled The Lady Macbeth of Little Rock, attacking Hillary's ideological and ethical record from a conservative perspective, causing an avalanche of articles comparing her to Lady Macbeth; in May 1995 Flowers pub. Passion and Betrayal, which incl. the soundbyte that Bill told her during their affair that Hillary was bi, and "had eaten more pussy than he had"; in 1998 Bill admits in a deposition to having had sex with Flowers; in Oct. 2016 Flowers reveals that Bill paid her $200 to have an abortion in 1977 after Ark. amends its constitution to prohibit the use of state funds to pay for abortions. On Jan. 28 Pres. Bush announces the end of the W-88 nuclear missile program, causing Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant in Colo. near Denver to be shut down after producing 70K "pits" (nukes without the conventional charge that detonates them); a $7B cleanup begins in 2000, which takes until Oct. 2005 to complete, and in 2001 Colo. Sens. Wayne Allard (R) and Mark Udall (D) get legislation passed making 6K acres of it into a wildlife refuge, where it ends up becoming home to bison; the 385 acre core area is closed to the public forever. On Jan. 30 Charles Haughey announces his resignation as PM of Ireland and leader of Fianna Fail, and on Feb. 11 former finance minister Albert Reynolds (1932-) succeeds him as PM (Taoiseach) #8 (until Dec. 15, 1994). In Jan. United We Stand America third party (Libertarian) candidate, Tex.-born self-made, self-nominated, and self-financed billionaire Henry Ross Perot (b. 1930), 1962 founder of Electronic Data Systems (EDS) enters the U.S. pres. race (smelling of a setup by the Dems. to outmaneuver Bush, but nobody can prove it?) claiming that the ballooning nat. debt needs his folksy common sense simplistic approach as a magic bullet (even though he made his fortune with govt. manpower and welfare check processing contracts?); his running mate is decorated Vietnam War vet vice-adm. James Bond Stockdale (1923-2005), who begins his debate with Quayle and Gore by asking the audience "Who am I? Why am I here?", which makes him the butt of jokes even though he only meant to present himself as a philosopher?; after firing his prof. advisors who wanted Stockdale out, Perot suddenly drops out in July, only to reenter in Oct., costing him millions of followers, who quit believing in his decisiveness? In Jan. Bosnia-Herzegovina begins an ethnic civil war despite the presence of U.N. peacekeeping forces; meanwhile on Jan. 15 the Yugoslavian collective state presidency condemns a decision by the EEC to recognize Croatian and Slovenian independence, claiming violation of the U.N. Charter prohibiting the changing of borders. In Jan. Israel and India begin bilateral trade, growing from $100M this year to $6.6B in 2013. In Jan. a ship sailing from Hong Kong to the U.S. loses a shipment of 29K plastic ducks in a storm; the first ducks make landfall on Baranof Island, Alaska in Nov., and others are found in 1994 N of the Bering Strait; scientists use them to verify that seawater flows from the Pacific through the Arctic Ocean into the Atlantic. In Jan. ex-U.S. defense secy. Robert S. McNamara meets with Fidel Castro, who reveals that 162 missiles and 92 tactical warheads were stationed in Cuba during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, and that he accepted the complete atomic destruction of Cuba if he could have struck the U.S. first. On Feb. 4 George Bush stinks himself up at a Nat. Grocers Assoc. Convention in Orlando, Fla. by getting vowed by a quart of milk, a light bulb, and a bag of candy being run through a checkout stand, showing him up as a sheltered, elitist, out-of-touch Ivy League whimp who has his menials do his shopping for him. On Feb. 4 Luis Rodriguez hijacks a plane in Cuba with eight others, but the plane drops into the sea near the Fla. Keys, killing all aboard. On Feb. 8-23 the XVI (16th) Olympic Winter Games in Albertville, France become the last Winter Games to be staged in the same year as the Summer Games, and the first to be held at the same site with the Winter Paralympics (Mar. 25-Apr. 1); 1,801 athletes (incl. 488 women) from 64 nations participate in 57 events in 7 sports; freestyle mogul skiing, short-track speedskating, and women's biathlon make their debuts; Norway wins every men's cross-country skiing event; Toni Nieminen (1975-) of Finland becomes the youngest male gold medalist at a Winter Olympics, winning two golds and a bronze; U.S. speedskater Bonnie Blair (1964-) wins the 500m and 1Km; Annelise Coberger (1971-) of New Zealand wins the first Winter Olympic medal for the southern hemisphere; Kristi Yamaguchi (1971-) of the U.S. and Midori Ito (1969-) of Japan become the first Asian-descent athletes to win figure skating medals. On Feb. 15 gay cannibal serial killer ("the Milwaukee Cannibal") Jeffrey Lionel Dahmer (1960-94) is sentenced in Milwaukee, Wisc. to life in prison for 15 murders; in 1978 he is sentenced for #16; he is beaten to death in priz in Nov. 1994 - here's the tale of Sweeney Todd? On Feb. 16 Abbas al-Musawi (b. 1952) is assassinated by Israeli forces, and Hassan Nasrallah (1960-) becomes leader of Hezbollah (until ?), uttering the soundbytes "There is no solution to the conflict in this region except with the disapearance of Israel", "Death to Israel", and "What do the Jews want? They want security and money. Throughout history the Jews have been Allah's most cowardly and avaricious creatures. If you look all over the world, you will find no one more miserly or greedy than they are." On Feb. 27 N.M. resident Stella Liebeck (1913-) is badly burned by a 49-cent cup of coffee that she opens in a stationary car and spills on her cotton sweatpants, soaking in and giving 6% of her body 3rd deg. burns, requiring skin grafts; after asking McDonald's for $20K compensation, and the arrogant schmucks blow her off with an offer of $800, she goes to court, and on Aug. 18, 1994, after her atty. S. Reed Morgan proves that McDonald's serves coffee at 180-190F rather than 140F like some other restaurants, and that they had paid over $500K to 700+ customers for coffee burns from 1982-92, a jury awards her $160K in compensatory damages, plus $2.7M in punitive damages, the latter reduced to $480K on appeal (3x actual damages), becoming known as "the poster child of excessive lawsuits" by pro-corp. attys.; McDonald's sticks to a 176-194F policy, and adds sterner labels; in 2002 after the case enters pop. culture, the Stella Awards are founded by Internet journalist Randy Cassingham (1964-) to list ridiculous lawsuits; "The moment you compare yourself to Christ, you've lost the high ground" (Cassingham). In Feb. the EEC recognizes Slovenia, and in May it joins the U.N. In Feb. India (which voted against its creation) finally recognizes Israel, allowing it to open an embassy in New Delhi, followed in May by India opening an embassy in Tel Aviv. In Feb. the UNPROFOR (U.N. Protection Force) peacekeeping mission begins in Yugoslavia, reaching a full strength of 39,992 in Sept. 1994, incl. a Rapid Reaction Force (ends Mar. 1995). On Mar. 1 voters in Montenegro overwhelmingly approve staying within Yugoslavia; meanwhile voters in Bosnia-Herzegovina approve independence, and on Apr. 6 the EEC recognizes the new repub. On Mar. 3 a ceasefire is signed in Somalia; in Apr. massive U.N. relief begins arriving; the U.N. sends 50 unarmed observers to Mogadishu in July; after U.N. secy. gen. Boutros Boutros-Ghali criticizes the U.S. for focusing aid on the "rich man's war" in Bosnia rather than the "poor man's war" in Somalia, U.N. humanitarian relief begins on Aug. 15; hijacking of relief supplies leads U.S. Pres. Bush to order 25K U.S. troops into Somalia on Dec. 5 under Operation Restore Hope (until Mar. 1994); in Sept. Belgian-born British actress Audrey Hepburn (1929-93), UNICEF goodwill ambassador since 1985 makes a publicity-filled visit to help the starving children of Somalia - takes one to know one? On Mar. 3 Hungary's highest court rules a 1991 bill that would have permitted prosecutions of political criminals of the former Communist regime unconstitutional. On Mar. 9-12 mass protests in Belgrade call for the resignation of pres. Slobodan Milosevic. On Mar. 11 Hungary launches phases two of its privatization program. On Mar. 12 Jordan's King Hussein meets with Pres. Bush in Washington, D.C. On Mar. 16 Fox airs Doing Time on Maple Drive, a TV movie about a dysfunctional family, starring James B. Sikking, Bibi Besch, and William McNamara (whose char. Matt discovers his gayness), and featuring an upcoming young actor named Jim Carrey playing alcoholic college dropout Tim. On Mar. 17 a truck bombing at the Israeli embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina kills 28. On Mar. 17 Russia launches Soyuz TM-14 (first Russian Soyuz mission after collapse of the Soviet Union), carrying cosmonauts Alexander Stepanovich Viktorenko (1947-), Alexander Yuriyevich "Sasha" Kaleri (1956-), and Klaus-Dietrich Flade (1952-) of Germany; Soyuz TM-13 on Mar. 25 with Flade, and Krikalev, who becomes known as "the last citizen of the U.S.S.R."; on July 27 Soyuz TM-15 blasts off, carrying cosmonauts Anatoly Yakovlevich Solovyev (1948-), Sergei Avdeyev (1956-), and Michel Tognini of France; it returns next Feb. 1; Soyuz TM-14 returns on Aug. 10 with Viktorenko, Kaleri, and Tognini, a landing system malfunction causing the descent module to land upside down. On Mar. 24 Space Shuttle Atlantis Flight STS-45 blasts off, carrying astronauts Charles Frank "Charlie" Bolden Jr. (1946-), Brian Duffy (1953-), Kathryn Dwyer Sullivan (1951-), David Cornell Leestma (1949-), Colin Michael Foale (1957-), Byron Kurt Lichtenberg (1948-), and Dirk Dries David, Viscount Frimout (1941-) of Belgium (1st Belgian in space); it lands on Apr. 2. On Mar. 26 Yugoslav nat. army troops withdraw from Macedonia. On Mar. 28 Moldovan Pres. Mircea Snegur imposes a state of emergency after 1 mo. of fighting in the self-proclaimed Trans-Dnestr Repub., consisting mainly of Russians and Ukrainians who don't like Moldova's ties with Romania. On Mar. 30 Michael Manley steps down because of bad health, and his deputy PM Percival Noel James Patterson (1935-) of the People's Nat. Party becomes PM #6 of Jamaica (until Mar. 30, 2006). On Mar. 30 the 64th Academy Awards in Los Angeles, Calif. are hosted by Billy Crystal (2nd time), who is wheeled in on a stretcher wearing a ski mask a la Hannibal Lecter; 100-y.-o. Hal Roach Sr. rises from the audience for a standing ovation and decides to give a speech without a a microphone, causing Crystal to comment "I think that's appropriate because Mr. Roach started in silent films"; the best picture Oscar for 1991 goes to Orion's The Silence of the Lambs, along with best dir. to Jonathan Demme, and best actor and actress to Anthony Hopkins and Jodie Foster; best supporting actor goes to Jack Palance for City Slickers, and best supporting actress to Mercedes Ruehl for The Fisher King; Jack Palance shows that he's still spry by doing 1-handed pushups on stage; Elizabeth Taylor receives the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Ward for supporting AIDS research. On Mar. 31 the Russian Federation Treaty is signed by 18 of Russia's autonomous repubs.; Chechen-Ingushetia and Tatarstan abstain. In Mar. Orthodox Church officials accuse the papacy of trying to make converts in "its" territory, causing the dream of unity to go down the holy toilet? In the spring a new star, NL-450, 6.7M l.y. from Earth allegedly appears over Bethlehem, causing some Christians to believe that Jesus is returning to Earth and the End of Days is at hand. On Apr. 1 Nat. Public Radio (NPR) announces that Nixon is seeking office again, stirring panic. On Apr. 2 Ukrainian-descent Socialist Pierre Beregovoy (Bérégovoy) (1925-93) becomes PM of France (until Mar. 29, 1993), replacing Edith Cresson. On Apr. 5 the Siege of Sarajevo by Serb forces under the orders of Radovan Karadzic begins (ends Feb. 29, 1996) in an effort to destroy the new state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. On Apr. 7 the Hungarian nat. assembly approves a second compensation for damages caused by the state between 939-49. On Apr. 9 Sali Berisha of the Dem. Party of Albania is elected pres. of Albania (until July 24, 1997). On Apr. 13 the Great Chicago Flood results from its 100-y.-o. tunnel system filling with water from the Chicago River. On Apr. 15 the Mujahidin Alliance in Afghanistan deposes Muhammad Najibullah, who resigns on Apr. 16; on Apr. 22-24 Kabul is taken without resistance, and an interim govt. takes power until the June 28 election of Burhanuddin Rabbani (1940-2011) as pres. by the people, er, a supreme council of rebel leaders (until Sept. 27, 1996); on Dec. 30 an electoral assembly confirms him, but opponents charge the election with being rigged. On Apr. 15 U.N. Security Council imposes sanctions on Libya for not surrendering two suspects in the bombing of a fatal Pan Am flight over Scotland. On Apr. 22 the Guadalajara Sewer Explosion in Mexico destroys 20 blocks and kills 190 and injures 1.4K, causing the mayor to resign and a number of PEMEX execs to be charged with negligent homicide. On Apr. 22 the nat. assembly of Slovenia passes a no confidence vote on the Slovenian govt. On Apr. 25 Jozsef Torgyan, leader of the Independent Smallholders' Party organizes a demonstration of 20K people in Budapest, calling for the govt. to resign for betraying the anti-Communist rev. On Apr. 27 a new Federal Repub. of Yugoslavia is declared, with only two of the original six members remaining, Serbia and Montenegro. On Apr. 29 the Los Angeles Riots begin (end May 4), killing 55 and injuring 2K after a jury acquits four police officers (three white, one Hispanic) accused of the Mar. 3, 1991 beating of taxi driver Rodney Glen King (1965-2012), with mobs shouting "black justice" and "no justice, no peace"; at 6:46 p.m. white 18-wheel truck driver Reginald Oliver Denny (1953-) (carrying 27 tons of sand) is attacked by the "L.A. Bad Four", a gang of pissed-off black rioters, starting with Antoine "Twan" Miller (1973-), opening the door of his truck at Florence Ave. and Normandie, after which the others pull him out, then Henry Keith "Kiki" Watson (1965-) (who apologizes on the Phil Donahue show in 1993), holds his head down with his foot, then an unknown man throws a 5-lb. piece of medical equipment at him then hits him in the head 3x with a claw hammer, then Damian Monroe "Football" Williams (1973-) hits him in the head with a concrete slab, knocking him unconscious, then does a victory dance over his body and flips-off news helis, while Marika Tur and Bob Tur film the whole sequence from their heli, and later spend years suing everybody who play their video without paying them; finally Anthony Brown spits on him and leaves with Williams, and bystanders throw beer bottles at him and attempt to set his truck on fire, while Gary Williams rifles Denny's pocket and steals his wallet, and Lance Parker (1966-) tries to shoot the gas tank of Denny's truck but misses; enter the "L.A. Good Four" (all black), Bobby Green (truck driver), Titus Murphy and Terri Barnett (boyfriend-girlfriend), and Lei Yuille (dietician), who come to Denny's aid, and Green drives Denny to the hospital in Denny's truck, where he is found to have 91 skull fractures and a dislocated left eye, and suffers a seizure and comes close to death, ending up with a permanent crater in his head; on Aug. 6 after it took a riot to get U.S. prosecutors to do their job on sacred cow cops, a federal jury indicts the four officers for violating Rodney King's civil rights, and this time two of them, Laurence Powell and Stacey Koon are kapow convicted next Apr. and sentenced to 30 mo., while Theodore Brisene and Timothy Wind breeze away; meanwhile non-cops Gary Williams and Football Williams get 3 and 10 years. In Apr. there is a military coup in Freetown, Sierra Leone; Pres. Joseph Momoh flees to Guinea, and Capt. Valentine Strasser announces the formation of a Nat. Provisional Ruling Council (NPRC). On May 5 the Twenty-Seventh (27th) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is finally ratified after Md. became the 1st state to ratify it on Dec. 19, 1789; it prohibits any law that increases or decreases the salary of members of Congress from taking effect until the start of the next set of terms of office for representatives; the last amendment until ?. On May 7 Space Shuttle Endeavour, named after Capt. James Cook's ship blasts off on its maiden flight STS-49, retrieving Intelsat VI 603, which failed to leave low Earth orbit in 1990, and relaunching it with a new upper stage into geosynchronous orbit, becoming the first 3-person EVA (until 2001), returning on May 16. On May 12 Bill Clinton pollsters Stanley Bernard "Stan" Greenberg (1945-) and Celinda Lake pub. the confidential memo Research on Hillary Clinton, which concludes that voters admire the couple's strength, but "they also fear that only someone too politically ambitious, too strong, and too ruthless could survive such controversy so well", concluding: "What voters find slick in Bill Clinton, they find ruthless in Hillary." On May 13 the Hungarian nat. assembly passes a third compensation for govt. expropriations from 1939-89. On May 13 Chinese martial arts master Li Hongzhi (1952-) founds the Falun Gong (Dafa) (Dharma Wheel Practice) at the Fifth Middle School in Changchun City, China, going on to travel throughout China making 70M converts, er, disciples, er, students by 1999, finally pissing the paranoid govt. off, causing them to persecute it beginning in July, 1999. On May 19 underage ho Amy Fisher (1974-), "the Long Island Lolita" shoots Mary Jo Buttafuoco, wife of her lover Joseph A. "Joey" Buttafuoco (1956-) at his Long Island, N.Y. home, and gets 5-15 years for attempted murder (released in 1999), while Joey gets 4 mo. for statutory rape. On May 22 France and Germany agree to form the European Corps, a joint 35K-soldier army corps, to be operational by Oct. 1995, operating under the umbrella of the Western European Union and open to other members. On May 22 (Fri.) Johnny Carson (1925-2005) hosts The Tonight Show for the last time (in NBC's Studio 1A in Hollywood), leaving after a reign of almost 30 years; his last of 22K+ guests is Bette Midler; next to last is Robin Williams; she serenades Carson on his next to last show with One More For My Baby; he makes $30M for his work this year, and wins the Presidential Medal of Freedom this year, followed by the Kennedy Center Honors next year; on May 25 Jay Leno (1950-) becomes the show's 4th host (Steve Allen, Jack Paar); his first guest is Billy Crystal. On May 23 Italian judge Giovanni Falcone (b. 1939) is assassinated after preparing to lead a drive against the Mafia, causing the chamber of deputies to tighten up and approve special police powers to fight the Mafia on Aug. 7. On May 24 Thomas Klestil (1932-2004) of the Austrian People's Party is elected pres. #10 of Austria (until 2004), succeeding beloved Kurt Waldheim; he is sworn-in on July 8 (until July 6, 2004). On May 28 Baron Oscar Luigi Scalfaro (1918-) becomes pres. of Italy (until May 15, 1999). In May the Balkan War ends; the Serbian-controlled Yugoslav army sieges the Croatian city of Dubrovnik, killing more than 250, and damaging more than 70% of its bldgs. (restored within a decade). In May the Tajikistan Civil War begins between Garm and Gorno-Badakhshan provinces vs. Leninabad and Kulyab (Kulyob) provinces, killing 50K-100K by June 1997; in Aug. pres. #1 (since Dec. 2) (former Communist Party first secy. in 1982-5) Rahmon Nabiyev (1930-93) of Leninabad Province resigns amid anti-govt. protests, and on Nov. 20 Emomalii Rahmon (1952-) of Kulyab Province becomes pres. #2 of Tajikistan (until ?). In May after Corazon Aquino decides not to seek another term, pres. elections in the Philippines are won by defense secy. and gen. Fidel Valdez Ramos (1928-) (hero of the 1986 People Power Rev.), who is sworn-in as Philippines pres. #12 on June 30 (until June 30, 1998). In May Hungary is admitted as a participant in the Eureka Initiative on hi-tech projects. In May Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina comes under intensive attack by Serbian forces. On June 6 a new govt. is formed in Bosnia-Herzegovina. On June 9 the Serbian Dem. Movement calls for the resignation of Serbian pres. Slobodan Milosevic; in June Dobrica Cosic (1921-) is elected pres. of Yugoslavia (until 1993); on July 14 U.S.-born entrepreneur Milan Panic (1929-) is elected PM (until 1993) - don't panic? On June 9 Egyptian human rights activist Faraj Fouda (Farag Foda) (b. 1946) is assassinated in Cairo by Jamaa Islamiya for advocating secularism; his murderers are released in 2012. On June 10 Bolivia, leading exporter of Brazil nuts privatizes 66 state-owned cos.; on Nov. 13 it signs a free trade agreement with Peru, eliminating tariffs on 6K items. On June 11 Jozsef Torgyen is suspended as head of the Hungarian Independent Smallholders' Party, and on June 23 Zoltan Kiraly announces a new left-wing Social Dem. People's Party. On June 14 the U.N. Conference onoEnvironment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro reveals Agenda 21, a non-binding voluntary plan for the 21st cent. to combat poverty et al. via sustainable development; 178 nations vote to adopt it. On June 23 "Teflon Don" John Gotti (1940-2002) is sentenced to life in prison on RICO charges, and later dies in priz. On June 24 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules 5-4 in Lee v. Weisman that the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment prohibits schools from sponsoring clergy-led prayers at graduation ceremonies, even non-denominational prayers, even if attendance is voluntary, establishing the Coercion Test, which "seeks to determine whether the state has applied coercive pressure on an individual to support or participate in religion", with Justice Anthony Kennedy writing the soundbyte: "To say a teenage student has a real choice not to attend her high school graduation is formalistic in the extreme. rue, Deborah could elect not to attend commencement without renouncing her diploma; but we shall not allow the case to turn on this point. Everyone knows that, in our society and in our culture, high school graduation is one of life's most significant occasions. A school rule which excuses attendance is beside the point. Attendance may not be required by official decree, yet it is apparent that a student is not free to absent herself from the graduation exercise in any real sense of the term 'voluntary' for absence would require forfeiture of those intangible benefits which have motivated the student through youth and all her high school years"; and "The principle that government may accommodate the free exercise of religion does not supersede the fundamental limitations imposed by the Establishment Clause. It is beyond dispute that, at a minimum, the Constitution guarantees that government may not coerce anyone to support or participate in religion or its exercise, or otherwise act in a way which "establishes a [state] religion or religious faith, or tends to do so"; dissenting Justice Antonin Scalia writes the soundbyte: "In holding that the Establishment Clause prohibits invocations and benedictions at public school graduation ceremonies, the Court - with nary a mention that it is doing so - lays waste a tradition that is as old as public school graduation ceremonies themselves, and that is a component of an even more longstanding American tradition of nonsectarian prayer to God at public celebrations generally. As its instrument of destruction, the bulldozer of its social engineering, the Court invents a boundless, and boundlessly manipulable, test of psychological coercion." On June 25 U.S. Dem. Sen. Joseph Biden gives a speech in the U.S. Senate, announcing the Biden Rule, that a Supreme Court nomination by a lame duck U.S. pres. shouldn't be considered until his successor is elected, with the soundbyte: "It would be our pragmatic conclusion that once the political season is under way, and it is, action on a Supreme Court nomination must be put off until after the election campaign is over. That is what is fair to the nominee and is central to the process. Others may fret that this approach would leave the Court with only eight members for some time, but as I see it... the cost of such a result, the need to reargue three or four cases that will divide the Justices four to four, are quite minor compared to the cost that a nominee, the president, the Senate, and the nation would have to pay for what would assuredly be a bitter fight, no matter how good a person is nominated by the president"; it comes back to haunt him in 2016. On June 29 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules in Planned Parenthood v. Casey to reaffirm Roe v. Wade (1973), with the soundbyte: "Matters, involving the most intimate and personal choices a person may make in a lifetime, choices central to personal dignity and autonomy, are central to the liberty protected by the Fourteenth Amendment", adding the "undue burden" standard for abortion restrictions. In June the U.N. Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro attracts 118 presidents and heads of state. In June after three British journalists pub. a story about detention camps in N Bosnia, the U.N. Security Council sends troops to Bosnia-Herzegovina to force a ceasefire between Bosnian and Serb forces in Sarajevo; Pres. Clinton later writes the soundbyte about French pres. Francois Mitterrand: "He was more sympathetic to the Serbs than I was, and less willing to see a Muslim-led unified Bosnia." On July 3 the first USAF C-130 transport planes from Operation Provide Promise arrive in Sarajevo, Bosnia. On July 4 Pres. Clinton stops Pakistan from nuking India. On July 4 the Mormon Alliance (originally the Mormon Defense League) is founded by atty. Paul Toscano and Lavinia Fielding Anderson (1944-) to document allegations of spiritual and ecclesiastical abuse by the LDS Church (Mormons); both are excommunicated in Sept. 1993 as part of the September Six. On July 8 Melrose Place debuts on Fox Network as a spinoff of "Beverly Hills, 90210) for 226 episodes (until May 24, 1992), about an apt. complex at 4616 Melrose Pl. in West Hollywood, Calif. On July 10 Panamanian leader Gen. Manuel Noriega is convicted of eight counts of drug trafficking et al. and sentenced to 40 years in U.S. federal prison. On July 13 Yitzhak Rabin (1922-95) of the Labour Party becomes PM of Israel for the 2nd time (until Nov. 4, 1995). On July 13-17 the Dem. Nat. Convention in New York City nominates Ark. Gov. William "Bill" Clinton for pres. on the first ballot, and he chooses Tenn. Sen. Albert "Al" Gore for vice-pres.; Clinton is a "New Democrat", preaching equal opportunity for all, not just the poor, in order to move the party to the center and capture some former Reagan voters (esp. former Southern Dems.); Pres. Bush's do-nothing response to the continuing recession (begun in 1990) gives an opening, and the slogan becomes "It's the economy, stupid". On July 15 Pope John Paul II undergoes an operation for a benign tumor on his holy colon, leaving the hospital on July 28, becoming his first public medical problem since 1981. On July 20 Time mag. pub. an article that quotes Pres. Clinton's deputy secy. of state Strobe Talbot as saying: "In the next century, nations as we know it will be obsolete; all states will recognize a single, global authority. National sovereignty wasn't such a great idea after all." On July 22 Am. rodeo star Wayne McLaren (b. 1940), who starred as the Marlboro Man in the 1970s then became an anti-smoking activist, making TV ads before/after he lands in the hospital dies of lung cancer. On July 25-Aug. 9 the XXV (25th) Summer Olympics are held in Barcelona, Spain, birthplace of IOC pres. (1980-2001) Juan Antonio Samaranch (1920-); first Olympics since 1972 that are not boycotted; 9,356 (6,652 men, 2,704 women) from 169 nations participate in 286 events in 32 sports; King Juan Carlos I opens the games, during which Paralympic archer Antonio Rebollo shoots an arrow into the Olympic flame cauldron; Germany sends its first unified team since the 1964 summer games; the debut of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Yugoslavia is barred); South Africa competes for the first time since 1960, and South African runner Elana Meyer (1966-) (white) and Ethopian runner Derartu Tulu (1972-) (black) run against each other in the 10K race, and after Tulu wins (first Ethiopian woman to win a medal), they run a victory lap hand-in-hand; Evelyn Ashford (1957-) of the U.S. wins her 4th gold, in the 4x100m relay; 14-y.-o. Kyoko Iwasaki (1978-) wins a gold in breastroke, becoming the youngest gold medal winner in Olympic swimming; Vitaly Venediktovich Scherbo (1972-) of Belarus wins six golds in artistic gymnastics, tying Eric Heiden's record; baseball debuts, with Cuba winning the gold medal; roller hockey becomes a demonstration sport; Yael Arad (1967-) becomes the first Israeli to win a medal, a silver in judo, followed by Shay-Oren Smadja (1970-), who wins a bronze in judo; the U.S. Basketball Dream Team, coached by Detroit Pistons head coach (1983-92) Charles Jerome "Chuck" Daly (1930-2009) incl. NBA stars Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, Larry Bird et al., and wins gold, beating eight opponents by an avg. of 44 points, causing basketball to explode in popularity worldwide, rivalling soccer; it is followed by Dream Team II at the 1994 FIBA World Championship, and Dream Team III at the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta, Ga. On July 31 a China Gen. Aviation Yak-42D overruns the runway in Jiangsu Province, China, killing 108 of 136 aboard. On Aug. 2 Franjo Tudjman (1922-99) of the ruling Croatian Dem. Community (HDZ) scores an overwhelming V in Croatia's first pres. elections since secession from Yugoslavia. On Aug. 7 the Central Bank of Uzbekistan is established by the govt. On Aug. 8 during a stadium tour with Guns N'Roses, Metallica singer James Hetfield walks into a 12-ft. pyrotechnic flame while performing "Fade to Black", and suffers 2nd and 3rd degree burns. On Aug. 9 Wichita, Kan.-born Stanley Ann Dunham (1942-95), mother of future Pres. Barack Obama is awarded a doctorate in anthropology from the U. of Hawaii under the supervision of Alice Greeley Dewey (1928-), with her 1,043-page dissertation titled "Peasant Blacksmithing in Indonesia: Surviving and Thriving Against All Odds", which claims that Indonesian villagers are just as capitalistic as Westerners, but are kept down by the power elites, who steer all the capital to themselves. On Aug. 10 thousands of Sinhalese mourners go on a rampage in Colombo, Sri Lanka at the funeral of slain military hero Lt. Gen. Denzil Kobbekaduwa, who was killed Aug. 9 along with nine senior military officers by Tamil rebels. On Aug. 10 Sikh militants in India herd 17 villagers into a school yard and shoot them to death to avenge a guerrilla chief. On Aug. 10 a bus plunges off the road on the way to the resort of Puerto Escondido, Mexico, killing three and injuring 25. On Aug. 11 the 4.2M sq. ft. Mall of America, AKA the Megamall in Bloomington, Minn. opens, becoming the biggest shopping mall in the U.S. (until ?). On Aug. 13 Yugoslavia recognizes the independence of Slovenia. On Aug. 13-14 the U.N., spurred by allegations of atrocities holds an extraordinary session of the Human Rights Commission, which passes a resolution condemning the Serbian policy of ethnic cleansing in the Balkan War (forced expulsion of Muslims and Bosnian Catholic Croats by Bosnian Orthodox Serbs); the U.N. Security Council demands access to prison camps in former Yugoslavia and authorizes the use of force to deliver aid. Aug.-Sept. 1992 is the worst month of natural disasters in history to date? On Aug. 16-28 Hurricane Andrew devastates the Bahamas and the U.S. South, causing a record $25B damage and 55 deaths in Fla., La. and the Bahamas, becoming the 3rd known Category 5 hurricane to hit the U.S. mainland (1935 Labor Day Hurricane, 1969 Hurricane Camille). On Aug. 17-21 the 1992 Repub. Nat. Convention in Houston, Tex. celebrates family values to placate the conservative wing of the party, and renominates Pres. Bush and vice-pres. Quayle; Patrick Buchanan utters the soundbyte on stage: "There is a religious war going on for the soul of our country"; Bush's slogan is "Who do you trust?" - whom? On Aug. 19-21 the World Federation of Hungarians holds its Third Congress in Budapest after a 54-year interval, and over 15K attend. On Aug. 23 China and South Korea announce the reopening of diplomatic relations. On Aug. 27 the Gen. Confederation of Greek Workers calls a gen. strike of public sector workers to protest privatization of public transport in Athens, approved by parliament on Aug. 7; on Dec. 2 PM Constantine Mitsotakis dismisses his entire cabinet, and appoints a new one on Dec. 3. On Aug. 31 after pres. (since 1979) Denis Sassou Nguesso introduces mutliparty politics in 1990, Pascal Lissouba (1931-) of the Pan-Malaysianafrican Union for Social Democracy (UPADS) becomes pres. of the Repub. of Congo-Brazzaville (until Oct. 15, 1997), with former pres. Joachim Yhombi Opango appointed as PM next June 23 (until Aug. 23, 1996). In Aug. computer scientist Branko Crvenkovski (1962-) of the Social Dem. Alliance becomes PM of Macedonia (until 1998). In Aug. Am. journalist Daniel Eli Wattenberg (1959-) pub. an article in The American Spectator titled The Lady Macbeth of Little Rock, attacking Hillary's ideological and ethical record from a conservative perspective, causing an avalanche of articles comparing her to Lady Macbeth. On Sept. 13 the highest temp. ever recorded on Earth (136 F) is recorded in Al'Aziziyah, Libya (until ?) - get used to it? On Sept. 16 (Black Wed.) Budapest, Hungary-born Jewish New York investor George Soros (Gyory Schwartz) (1930-) (a student of Karl Popper) (Soros means "will soar" in Esperanto) of the Quantum Fund for super-rich investors (incl. the Rothschild family), based in Curacao, Netherlands Antillies becomes the Man Who Broke the Bank of England by betting $10B on the devaluation of the British pound and selling short, causing a tizzy of speculation that nets him $1.1B in profit in one day after the Bank of England withdraws from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism and devalues the pound at a cost of £3.4B - welcome to burlesque, queenie? On Sept. 18 the drama series Picket Fences debuts on CBS-TV for 88 episodes (until June 26, 1996), filmed in Monrovia, Calif., which doubles for Rome, Wisc., starring Thomas Roy "Tom" Skerritt (1933-) as Sheriff Jimmy Brock, who has to deas with a weird town filled with people turning up dead in freezers, cows' udders exploding, incest, racism, polygamy and polyamory, animal sacrifice, and spontaneous human combusion, as well as every weird kind of sexuality. On Sept. 19 several thousand supporters of ultra right-wing leader Istvan Csurka (1934-) protest outside the nat. assembly in Budapest demanding the resignation of pres. Arpad Goncz; on Sept. 24 a counter-demonstration is organized by the Dem. Charter Movement; on Sept. 29 the Hungarian nat. assembly passes a bill of rights to protect ethnic and nat. minorities. On Sept. 22 Yugoslavia is expelled from the U.N., and NATO imposes a naval blockade on it to enforce the U.N. embargo. On Sept. 23 ethnic Chinese leader of the Dem. Party Chuan Leekpai (1938-) becomes PM of Thailand (until May 24, 1995). On Sept. 23 the newlyweds sitcom Mad About You debuts on NBC-TV for 164 episodes (until May 24, 1999), starring Paul Reiser (1957-) as documentary filmmaker Paul Buchman, and Helen Hunt (1963-) as his public relations specialist wife Jamie Semple Buchman. On Sept. 24 Sci-Fi Channel debuts as part of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast (until ?); on July 7, 2009 it becomes Syfy. On Oct. 5 the U.S. Congress passes a law allowing the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to regulate cable TV co. prices. On Oct. 9 Marxist ethnic East Indian dentist Cheddi Berret Jagan (1918-97), founder of the leftist Progressive People's Party (PPP) (who was removed from power by Britain and the CIA in 1953 for Soviet ties, then became PM in 1957-64 before they did it again) defeats longtime foe Forbes Burnham of the People's Nat. Congress by 54-47 to become pres. of Guyana (until Mar. 6, 1997), putting the PPP in power for the first time in 28 years; Samuel Archibald Anthony "Sam" Hinds (1943-) becomes PM (until ?). On Oct. 11 the govt. of Serbia calls for a referendum to authorize early elections, but it gets boycotted. On Oct. 16 Guatemalan Quiche Maya Indian rights activist Rigoberta Menchu Tum (1959-) is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. On Oct. 17-24 the Toronto Blue Jays (AL) defeat the Atlanta Braves (NL) 4-3 to win the 1992 (89th) World Series; the first WS games played in Canada, which finally beats the U.S. at its own game of baseball; the USMC Color Guard accidentally flies the Canadian fag upside down during the nat. anthems; Cito Gaston (1944-) of the Blue Jays becomes the first African-Am. WS team mgr. On Oct. 26, 1992 the U.S. Pres. John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992 (U.S. JFK Act) becomes effective, creating the Assassinations Records Review Board, and directing the Nat. Archives to make all its records on JFK's assassination publicly available by Oct. 26, 2017. On Oct. 26 Anthony Perkins (lover of actor Tab Hunter) appears in his last film role, a made-for-TV movie thriller In the Deep Woods (also starring Rosanna Arquette) on NBC-TV. On Oct. 31 Pope John Paul II gives an Address to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, finally admitting that Galileo's views on the Solar System were correct, or at least that he was more adept at scriptural interpretation than theologians of his day. On Nov. 3 despite annoying "bimbo eruptions" (Clinton aide Betsey Wright), the candidacy of H. Ross Perot throws the 1992 U.S. Pres. Election away from "sure-win" (because of the popularity of the Gulf War) incumbent George Herbert Walker Bush and running mate Dan Quayle to Dem. challenger William "Bill" Jefferson Clinton (1946-) and his running mate Tenn. Sen. Albert "Al" Gore (1948-); of the 55.1% of the electorate who vote for pres., Clinton receives 44.9M popular (43.0%) and 370 electoral votes to Bush's 39.1M popular (37.4%) and 168 electoral votes; Perot receives 19.7M popular (18.9%) and 0 electoral votes; Dems. win control of both houses of Congress; the 23 Libertarian Party candidates for U.S. Sen. receive over 1M votes, the largest for a nat. third party since 1914; Ill. Dem. Carol Elizabeth Moseley Braun (1947-) becomes the first black woman elected to the U.S. Senate (until Jan. 3, 1999), and the only black in the U.S. Senate other than Edward Brooke (since 1967); Dem. Cynthia Ann McKinney (1955-) becomes the first black woman elected to the U.S. Congress from "Gone With the Wind" Jawjaw (Ga.), where she becomes known for flashy fashions incl. braids and gold tennies; James Guy "Jim" Tucker Jr. (1943-) replaces Clinton as gov. of Ark., resigning in 1996 after the Whitewater prosecutors get him convicted in a separate case involving a scheme to reduce his tax liability on a cable TV system sale; too bad, Clinton reneges on a promise to name a cabinet by Christmas. On Nov. 6 riots in Skopje, Macedonia over police brutality causes three protesters to be killed by brutal police. On Nov. 10-11 Boris N. Yeltsin visits Hungary, and settles several outstanding claims - this will go on your permanent record? On Nov. 15 ABC-TV debuts the 5-hour miniseries The Jacksons: An American Dream, about the childhood of Michael Jackson (1958-2009); highest-rated TV movie of the 1992-3 season. On Nov. 15 Alvaro Dominguez hijacks a Russian-built AN-2 biplane in Cuba and flies it to Miami, Fla. with help from the U.S. Coast Guard. On Nov. 15 the New York Times pub. the article Grunge: A Success Story, about Kurt Cobain and Nirvana, claiming that grungers have their own lexicon incl. "wack slacks" for jeans, and "swingin' on the flippity-flop" for hanging out; too bad, interviewee Megan Jasper made it up to zing them. On Nov. 19 the Norwegian Storting applies for EEC membership following a nat. referendum. On Nov. 20 a fire breaks out in Windsor Castle; on Nov. 28 Queen Elizabeth II volunteers to pay tax on her private income, and later gives a speech saying that "1992 is not a year at which I will look back with undiluted pleasure" - that got to her? On Nov. 24 a China Southern Airlines 737 hits high ground during approach in Guangzhou (Canton), China, killing all 133 passengers and eight crew. On Nov. 28 the PRI selects Luis Donaldo Colosio Murrieta (1950-94), head of the Solidaridad govt. anti-poverty program as its candidate to succeed Mexican pres. Carlos Salinas de Gortari; too bad, he is assassinated before he can run. From Dec. 1-4 a convoy of 150 private vehicles called the Convoy of Hope travels from Dover, Kent, England to Zagreb, Croatia carrying food and aid for Bosnian refugees on a 1,988 mi. round trip, becoming the largest civilian aid convoy to date? On Dec. 3 the double-bottom Greek-flag tanker Aegean Sea spills 21.5M gal. of crude oil when it runs aground and breaks up at La Coruna, Spain. On Dec. 6 the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya, India, erected in 1528 on a site believed to be the birthplace of Hindu Lord Rama is demolished by 150K supporters of the World Hindu Council, sparking weeks of nationwide Hindu-Muslim riots in which 2K-3K are killed. On Dec. 6 former Yugoslavian pres. (1989-90) Janez Drnovsek (1950-2008) of the Liberal Dem. Party is elected PM of Slovenia (until 2002), then confirmed by the nat. assembly next Jan. 12. On Dec. 8 Uzbekistan adopts a new constitution, guaranteeing civil rights and a multi-party democracy - at what point does a govt. become more than just a govt.? On Dec. 9 Britain's Prince Charles and Princess Diana announce their separation; their divorce becomes final on Aug. 28, 1996, and she is thrown out of the royal family (no HRH title). On Dec. 12 a 6.8 earthquake in East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia kills 2.2K. On Dec. 13 Israeli border policeman Nissim Toledano is kidnapped by Hamas; after he is found dead in a ditch, pissed-off Israel arrests 1.6K Palestinians, and on Dec. 16 the govt. orders the deportation to S Lebanon for up to two years of 400 members of Hamas; too bad, after Israel can't prove which ones were responsible for the violent attacks, the U.N. issues a unanimous resolution condemning the deportation, threatening sanctions, and Lebanon refuses to accept them, after which 100 are returned immediately, and the remainder a year later, allowing Hamas to regroup in its efforts to exterminate Israel knowing it can count on worldwide leftist support inside and outside the U.N. which it uses to this day; meanwhile Israeli schoolteacher-rabbi Shmuel Biran is murdered by Hamas while crossing a 2-lane highway, after which Rabin delivers a Speech to the Knesset on Dec. 21, with the soundbyte: "I have no pity in my heart, nor do I shed tears [for Hamas terrorists]. I see the media whining their hypocritical speeches, and I think instead of Nissim Toledano's orphaned children, the widow of Shmuel Biran, and the bereaved parents of Shmuel Geresh." On Dec. 17 after agreeing to allow sale of communal (ejido land) to private owners, Mexico signs the NAFTA treaty, to take effect on Jan. 1, 1994. On Dec. 17 the Hungarian nat. assembly legalizes abortion on demand. On Dec. 19 Kim Young-sam (Yong-sam) (1927-) wins the pres. election in South Korea. On Dec. 20 elections in Yugoslavia reelect hardliner Slobodan Milosevic as pres. On Dec. 24 Pres. Bush grants Christmas Eve pardons to Caspar Weinberger and five others accused in the Iran Contra scandal. On Dec. 25 Thomas Uva and Rose Marie Uva, a young married couple from Queens who had a bad habit of robbing mob-owned social clubs in Brooklyn, Queens, and Little Italy (the Hawaiian Moonlighters, the Veterans and Friends, etc.) with Uzis are each shot several times in the head in broad daylight on a busy Queens thoroughfare as they sit in a car at a traffic light; on Sept. 22, 2005 Gambino family captain Dominick "Skinny Dom" Pizzonia (b. 1942) is arrested and charged with being a part of the hit team; Ronald Joseph "Ronnie One Arm" Trucchio (1951-) is the 2nd shooter? On Dec. 29 Brazilian pres. Fernando Collor de Mello resigns after impeachment processes are started against him for corruption; he is succeeded by vice-pres. Itamar Franco (1930-) (until 1995). On Dec. 29 a bomb explodes in a hotel in Aden, Yemen where U.S. troops had been staying; it is later linked to Osama bin Laden. On Dec. 31 the U.S. Nat. Debt reaches a record 65.9% of GDP (vs. 52.6% for Reagan on Dec. 31, 1988). In Dec. the U.N. Gen. Assembly elects Boutros Boutros-Ghali (1922-) of Egypt as U.N. secy.-gen. #6; he takes office on Jan. 1, 1992 (until Dec. 31, 1996). Privatization begins in Romania. Bowing to outside pressure, the first multi-party elections in 26 years are held in Kenya; the opposition is split, and Pres. Daniel Arap Moi is swept back in power amidst accusations of election rigging. Self-made billionaire business tycoon Rafik Hariri (Rafiq Bahaa El Deen Al-Hariri) (1944-2005) (a Sunni Muslim who was made a citizen of Saudi Arabia in 1978) becomes PM #41 of Lebanon (until 1998), going on to dominate Lebanese politics and help rebuild Beirut. Kyrgyzstan joins the U.N. and the IMF, and adopts a shock therapy economic program; fighting breaks out between ethnic Uzbeks and Kyrgyz in Osh in S Kyrgyzstan, killing 2K. French farmers riot against proposed cuts to French farm subsidies which the U.S. govt. had been encouraging. Cameroon stages its first multi-party elections in 30 years; new PM (until 1996) "Pa" Simon Achidi-Achu (1932-) forms a coalition govt., but pres. Paul Biya regains power in an election accused of fraud. The U.S. Navy Tailhook Scandal is gleefully manipulated by women's lib forces to emasculate the tradition-bound old boys' network in the U.S. military? Hanna Suchocka (1946-) becomes the first female PM in Polish history (until ?) - Hanna does what? Tension in the Baltics builds over the continued presence of Russian troops; new laws adopted by Estonia and Latvia are claimed as discriminatory by ethnic Russians. The first post-occupation elections are held in Kuwait. The Danish Communist Party (DKP) is dissolved. The U.S. Friends of Nations Act votes $16B to aid nations that have split off from the Soviet Union. The U.S. Senate finally ratifies the 1966 U.N. Internat. Covenant on Civil Rights and Political Rights, but not the sister Internat. Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. Up-and-coming terrorist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi is arrested in Jordan for trying to overthrow the monarchy, and spends the next seven years in prison - honing his skills? Mt. Etna in NE Sicily spectacularly erupts, with lava flows threatening the town of Zefferana, which is saved by controlled explosions. The Lindbeck Commission in Sweden, headed by economist Assar Lindbeck (1930-) (opponent of the welfare state) is formed to study the economic crisis, proposing reforms next year. In Sicily two top organized crime investigators are murdered, sparking an Anti-Cosa Nostra Movement by young Sicilians, resulting in the 1993 capture of capo di capi Salvatore "Toto" Riina (1930-), a native of Corleone (whose name was stolen for the film "The Godfather") after 23 years as a fugitive. The remains of Josef Mengele (1911-79), the Nazi death camp "Angel of Death" are positively identified via DNA - and still don't satisfy Jews who never forget and forgive? The Internat. Science and Technology Center in Moscow is founded to foster collaboration between weapons scientists of the former Soviet Union and the West; it is closed in 2010. Health Economics begins pub. (until ?). The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) pub. its Food Guide Pyramid, which cautions to use fats and oils "sparingly". Former English PM Margaret Thatcher becomes a baroness. Russia finally ends its monopoly on vodka. Vt. bans smoking in prisons, even outdoors? The wildlife-filled Danube Delta (the Danube River and its daughters the Kiliya, Sulina and St. George) receives internat. recognition as a biosphere reservation, managed from the SE Romanian city of Tulcea. Gen. Than Shwe (1933-) becomes head of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) in the military-controlled slave labor toilet of Burma (Myanmar), where children are drafted as soldiers, forced labor used on construction projects, and as army porters in war zones; Burmese political leader U Nu is released from political house arrest (until ?). Rwandan farmers uproot 300K coffee trees because they can no longer make a living at it; the World Bank's Internat. Development Assoc. orders privatization of Rwanda'a Electorogaz and telecommunications co., with the money from the privatization going toward the nat. debt. Horse trainer, jeweler and judo champ Ben Nighthorse Campbell (1933-) is elected to the U.S. Senate from Colo., becoming the first Native Am. to serve in over 60 years (until 2004); he is one of the first Indian artists to use diamonds, opals and gold in his jewelry, and the state of Colo. gives free samples to filmmakers to encourage them to film there. The Muslim Parliament of Great Britain is founded in London by Indian-born Dr. Kalim Siddiqui (1931-96). The Ezzedin (Izz ad-Din) al-Qassam Brigades are founded by Hamas as its military wing, going on to stage a series of rocket and suicide bombing attacks on Israeli military and civilian targets in 1994-2000. The U.S. passes a law setting the max. flush of a toilet at 1.6 gal. After being accused by their adult daughter Jennifer, the False Memory Syndrome Foundation is founded by Pamela Freyd and Peter J. Freyd (1936-), who coin the term "False-Memory Syndrome" for people recalling false instances of sexual abuse during childhood. British actress Glenda May Jackson (1936-) is elected to Parliament representing the Labour Party for the London district of Hampstead and Highgate, and retires from showbiz. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. (1951-) takes over from his father Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Sr. as pub. of The New York Times (until ?) 57-y.-o. Am. actor-dir. Woody Allen (1935-) discloses his affair with 22-y.-o. Soon Yi Previn (1970-), adopted daughter of his aging girlfriend Mia Farrow and Andre Previn; wide criticism of his morals and grave-robbing doesn't hurt his career, since being sexually degenerate is his forte, and he marries her on Dec. 24, 1997 in Venice. The U.S. Audio Home Recording Act ineffectually attempts to control music piracy in the U.S. Stella Rimington (1935-) becomes the first female dir.-gen. of Britain's MI5 (until 1996); next year she becomes the first DG to pose for the press. Sherry Lansing (1945-) becomes the first female chmn. of a major studio, Paramount (until 2005). The New Universal Catechism of the Roman Catholic Church is completed after nine drafts, changing the term "mortal sin" to "grave sin", adding terrorism and offenses against the environment to the sin list, and calling for a psychological analysis for sexual sins. Azizah al-Hibri becomes the first woman Muslim law prof. in the U.S. at the U. of Richmond, Va. Nerdy-looking Jerome Vered (1958-) becomes the 2nd superstar of the TV game show "Jeopardy!" by winning five straight games with $68K in winnings, incl. $34K in one game, a record (allowing for the doubling of dollar values in 2001) that is not broken until 2004 by nerdy-looking Ken Jennings ($75K). The FCC fines Infinity Broadcasting, owner of The Howard Stern Show $600K after shock jock Howard Stern (1954-) discusses masturbating to a picture of Aunt Jemima - if he were gay it woulda been Hungry Jack pancake batter? The Denver, Colo. police dept. stinks up its already stinky rep by being tagged by the IRS for granting 70% of all its retired officers disability pensions, incl. several police chiefs, even though many go on to work for many years at other jobs. The TABOR (Taxpayers Bill of Rights) amendment, sponsored by activist Douglas Bruce passes on its third try in Colo., preventing the state govt. from raising taxes without permission from the people; he has to shorten the wording of the amendment, so he takes out "after the first Monday", causing all elections for raising taxes to fall on the first Tues. in Nov. After the Repubs. pack the U.S. Supreme Court with five supposedly anti-abortion justices since Reagan (O'Connor, Kennedy, Scalia, Souter, Thomas), a showdown results in a 5-4 vote to uphold Roe v. Wade, with O'Connor, Kennedy and Souter in the majority, causing them to be labelled by pissed-off Repubs. as traitors; in Freeman v. Pitts the court votes 11-0 (Thomas not participating) to provide standards for ending federal court supervision of formerly segregated school districts, even if some "vestiges of segregation" remain. The Coca-Cola Polar Bears begin appearing in commercials. A 1907 Honus Wagner baseball card is auctioned for $451K; all but about 40 were destroyed because Wagner objected to their sale in tobacco products; by this year 15M U.S. baseball card collectors spend almost $1B on 12B cards; 4M people collect about 3B football cards; 3M people collect about 2B basketball cards; 1.5M people collect about 1B hockey cards; in all, 16M different people collect cards. Arnold Schwarzenegger receives the first civilian model Humvee in the U.S. The first Komodo Dragons are bred in captivity at the Nat. Zoo in Washington, D.C. Pietro Casasanta (1938-), a "tombaroli" or Italian tomb raider who made millions from finds made while digging in broad daylight disguised as a construction worker is turned in and arrested after discovering the stunning Capitoline Triad, a statue of Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva; he ends up retired and nearly broke, living in a small house in Anguillara on Lake Bracciano and being called "professore" by locals. The NAALE Program is founded by the Israeli govt. to support Jewish teenagers from the Diaspora to study for a h.s. diploma in Israel, with the goal of entering the Technion. Heterodoxy Mag. is founded by former leftist David Joel Horowitz (1939-) and Peter Collier as an "antidote for the new orthodoxy" caused by the leftist Baby Boomers, going on to oppose affirmative action and reparations for slavery. The Sam Choy Poke Festival in Hawaii is founded by master chef Sam Choy to promote the yummy Hawaiian raw fish treat of poke (pr. poh-keh), incl. seaweed and kukui nut relish. Am. singer Paula Abdul (1962-) and Am. actor Emilio Estevez (1962-) marry at the height of their fame; they divorce in 1994. New York City musician David Ippolito gives an impromptu summer concert in Central Park in New York City, gaining the attention of Jack Rosenthal of the New York Times, causing him to become popular and begin holding weekend conferences all summer every year (until ?), becoming known as "That Guitar Man from Central Park". The 9,335-sq-.ft. Panorama of New York City is housed at the Queens Museum of Art in Queens, N.Y., and incl. 895K scaled individual structures in all five boroughs. The ASPCA promotes the adoption of retired greyhounds. Paris-born gay French fashion designer Hedy Lamarr, er, Hedi Slimane (1968-) becomes the asst. of Jean-Jacques Picart on the Centenary Monogram Canvas Project of Louis Vitton, which incl. fashion designers Azzedine Alaia, Helmut Lang, Sybilla, Manolo Blahnik, Romeo Gigli, Isaac Mizrahi, and Vivienne Westwood; in 1996 Pierre Berge hires him as the dir. of the ready-to-wear men's clothing line at Yvves Saint Laurent, rising to artistic dir., going on to debut his "skinny" look before leaving in 2001 for Christian Dior, designing the Higher fragrance, making fans of David Bowie, Brad Pitt, Madonna, Nicole Kidman, Mick Jagger, Beck, Jack White, and the rock groups The Libertines, Daft Punk, The Kills, and Franz Ferdinand; in Mar. 2011 he succeeds John Galliano as creative dir. at Dior; in Mar. 2012 he replaces Stefano Pilati as creative dir. at Yves Saint Laurent, working out of his own studio in Los Angeles, Calif.; in Apr. 2016 he is succeeded by Anthony Vaccarello. British author Bram Stoker's 1897 novel Dracula is finally translated into Romanian, and the first Dracula films are shown to Romanians, who are surprised by the whole new and strange saga - so that's why they thought Nadya never smiled? Sports: On Feb. 16 the 1992 (34th) Daytona 500 is won by #28 David Carl "Davey" Allison (1961-93) (son of Bobby Allison) after #43 Richard Petty gives the command to start the engines from the cockpit of his Pontiac; the final Daytona 500 start for 1972 winner "Super Tex" A.J. Foyt. On May 24 the 1992 (76th) Indianapolis 500 is won by Alfred "Little Al" Unser Jr. (1962-) (first 2nd-gen. driver to win), who beats Scott Goodyear by 0.043 sec., becoming the closest finish in Indy history (until ?). On May 26-June 1 the 1992 Stanley Cup Finals see the Pittsburgh Penguins sweep the Chicago Blackhawks (first Finals appearance since 1973) 4-0 after the Blackhawks start out leading the Penguins 4-1 in game 1, becoming their 2nd straight win; MVP is Mario Lemieux; last Finals played in Chicago Stadium, which closes in 1994. On June 3-14 the 1992 NBA Finals sees the Chicago Bulls (coach Phil Jackson) defeat the Portland Trail Blazers (coach Rick Adelman) 4-2, giving them their 2nd straight NBA title; Michael Jordan becomes MVP for the 2nd straight year. On Oct. 7 after 5'7" goaltender Manon Rheaume (Rhéaume) (1972-) becomes the first woman to play in an NHL game during the preseason, the Tampa Bay Lightning (Bolts) play their first game in Expo Hall at the Fla. State Fairgrounds in Tampa, Fla., defeating the Chicago Blackhawks 7-3 incl. four goals by 6'1" wing Christopher T. "Chris" Kontos (1963-). The Nat. Basketball Retired Players Assoc. (NBRPA) (Legends of Basketball) is founded in New York City by NBA hall-of-famers Oscar Robertson, Dave DeBusschere, Dave Cowens, Dave Bing, and Archie Clark, becoming the official alumni org. for the NBA, ABA, WNBA, and Harlem Globetrotters. In the 1992-3 season the Am. Bowling Congress (ABC) introduces resin bowling balls, causing perfect games to increase by 20%; in the late 1990s particle balls are introduced. Architecture: The Underground Temple of Mankind near Vidracco, N Italy, carved out of solid rock inside a small mountain by the neo-pagan Damanhur Federation (founded 1975) is revealed after disgruntled leader Filippo Cerutti sues the community, causing the city of Vidracco to try to have it destroyed then change their minds after being struck by its beauty. Nobel Prizes: Peace: Rigoberta Menchu (1959-) (Guatemala) [indigenous rights]; Lit.: Derek Alton Walcott (1930-) (St. Lucia); Physics: Georges Charpak (1924-2010) (France) [particle detectors]; Chem.: Rudolph Arthur Marcus (1923-) (U.S.) [electron transfer]; Medicine: Edmond H. Fischer (1920-) and Edwin Gerhard Krebs (1918-) (U.S.) [reversible phosphorylation]; Economics: Gary Stanley Becker (1930-) (U.S.) [new home economics]. Inventions: On Mar. 6 the disk-infecting Michelangelo Virus (first found in 1991), timed for the artist's birthday strikes personal computers, rendering infected disks useless; computer store owners do a land office business distributing free floppy disks with anti-virus software. Kodak introduces the PhotoCD for digitizing and storing photos in a CD. IBM begins marketing the ThinkPad laptop PC. Predictions are made that fiber-optic networks will lead to 500 channels with interactive programs, e-mail and telephony. Alkaline Hydrolysis is developed in the U.S. to get rid of animal carcasses by dissolving them in lye at 60 psi and 300F, then flushing the brown syrupy residue down the drain; in ? it becomes accepted for human bodies. John Hunter of Lawrence Livermore Nat. Lab designs a 425-ft. gun to test-launch hypersonic engines, and begins a program to build a 3.6K-ft. gun to launch objects into space cheaply. The first commercialized 6.3K-lb. 7-ft.-wide Hummers are manufactured in Ind. after Hollywood actor Arnold Schwarzenegger falls in love with the military version and talks their execs into redesigning them for the civilian market, then purchases the first two off the assembly line. The Kirby video game series is introduced by Nintendo. The Wolfenstein 3D PC video game is released by id Software on May 5, popularizing the first-person shooter genre. Science: Belgium researchers develop ICSI, a method to produce human pregnancies by injecting a single sperm cell into an egg. The first complete DNA sequence of #6 of 16 chromosomes in a yeast is determined scientifically. A team at Harvard U. led by Gerald Gabrielse determines that protons and antiprotons have identical masses to within 40 parts in a billion, adding support to Einstein's Gen. Theory of Relativity. English physicist Stephen Hawking pub. the Chronology Protection Conjecture, that the fundamental laws of Nature prevent time travel on a macroscopic scale - duh? Estonian-born Am. psychologist Jaak Panksepp (1943-) coins the term Affective Neuroscience for the field that studies the neural mechanisms of emotion, claiming that animals incl. rats have them. On Aug. 21 a 5 in. x 7 in. (world's biggest) cherry-red square block crystal of rhodochrosite ("looks like a slab of Jell-O") is discovered in the Sweet Home Mine near Alma, Colo. (closes Oct. 2004), becoming the Colo. state mineral. The 2-horned Saola, AKA the Asian Unicorn is discovered in the forests of Southeast Asia; the first one is caught by villagers in Laos in 2010. Hacker St. Jude Milhon coins the term "cypherpunk". Nonfiction: Taisha Abelar, The Sorcerer's Crossing: A Woman's Journey; disciple of Carlos Castaneda; she disappears shortly after his 1998 death. Mortimer Adler (1902-2001), A Second Look in the Rearview Mirror: Further Autobiographical Reflections of a Philosopher at Large (autobio.); The Great Ideas: A Lexicon of Western Thought. Francesco Alberoni (1929-), The Nuptial Flight; the gen. feminine tendency to seek out superior love objects, incl. crushes on film stars. Stephen Edward Ambrose (1936-2002), Band of Brothers: 506th Regiment, 101st Airborne from Normandy to Hitler's Eagle's Nest; Maj. Richard Winters from D-Day to Berchtesgaden. Christopher Peter Andersen (1949-), Madonna: Unauthorized (Aug. 1). Paul Benjamin Auster (1947-), The Art of Hunger. George Wildman Ball (1909-94) and Douglas Ball, The Passionate Attachment; complains of the costs of U.S. support for Israel. John D. Barrow, Pi in the Sky: Counting, Thinking and Being. Robert Leroy Bartley (1937-2003), The Seven Fat Years: And How to Do It Again; praises the economic policy of the Reagan admin. Herbert Benson (1935-), The Wellness Book. Peter Ludwig Berger (1929-), A Far Glory: The Quest for Faith in an Age of Credulity; the decline of Protestantism. Kai Bird (1951-), The Chairman: John J. McCloy and the Making of the American Establishment. Fischer Black (1938-95) and Robert Litterman, Global Portfolio Optimization; proposes the Black-Litterman Model of Portfolio Allocation, which applies the views of the investor to an asset allocation. Harold Bloom (1930-), The American Religion: The Emergence of the Post-Christian Nation; how unique religions like Mormonism were born in the funky isolated U.S.; "The American finds God in herself or himself only after finding the freedom to know God by experiencing a total inward solitude... He comes to recognize that his spirit is itself uncreated. Knowing that he is the equal of God, the American Religionist can then achieve his true desideratum, mystical communion with his friend, the godhead" - sometimes the shark looks right into your eyes? John Morton Blum (1921-2011), Years of Discord: American Politics and Society, 1961-1974; from the inauguration of JFK to the resignation of Tricky Dicky Nixon. William Boddy, Fifties Television: The Industry and Its Critics. David Bohm (1917-92), Thought as a System. Kenneth Ewart Boulding (1910-93), Towards a New Economics: Critical Essays on Ecology, Distribution, and Other Themes. Douglas Brinkley (1960-) and Townsend Hoopes (1922-2004), Driven Patriot: The Life and Times of James Forrestal; U.S. defense secy. #1 (1947-9) James Vincent Forrestal (1892-1949); Dean Acheson: The Cold War Yars, 1953-71; U.S. secy. of state #51 (1949-53) Dean Gooderham Acheson (1893-1971). Elaine Brown (1943-), A Taste of Power: A Black Woman's Story (autobio.); her time as chm. of the Black Panther Party (1974-7); "A woman in the Black Power movement was considered, at best, irrelevant. A woman asserting herself was a pariah. If a black woman assumed a role of leadership, she was said to be eroding black manhood, to be hindering the progress of the black race. She was an enemy of the black people... I knew I had to muster something mighty to manage the Black Panther Party." Peter Brown (1935-), Power and Persuasion: Towards a Christian Empire; about how Christianity took over in the 200 years after Constantine the Great. Tom Brown Jr. (1950-), The Journey: A Message of Hope and Harmony for Our Earth and Our Spirits. Christopher Robert Browning (1944-), Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland; how the Nazis who did it were just ordinary guys from Hamburg; thousands of German women went to eastern territories to Germanize them and service the local ethnic German pops. Robert Vance Bruce (1923-2008) and Gabor Boritt (1940-), Lincoln, the War President: The Gettysburg Lectures. Frederick Buechner (1926-), The Clown in the Belfry: Writings on Faith and Fiction; Listening to Your LIfe: Daily Meditations with Frederick Buechner. James MacGregor Burns (1918-2014) and William Crotty, The Democrats Must Lead: The Case for a Progressive Democratic Party. Laurie Cabot (1933-), Love Magic (with Tim Cowan). Dolores Cannon (1931-), Jesus and the Essenes. Ben Carson (1951-), Gifted Hands: The Ben Carson Story (autobio.); bestseller; filmed in 2006 starring Cuba Gooding Jr. Angela Carter (1940-92), Expletives Deleted: Selected Writings. Michael D. Coe (1929-), Breaking the Maya Code; contains the "Berlin Affair" story about Russian linguist Yuri Knosorov rescuing rare Mayan codices from the burning Nat. Library in Berlin in May 1945, which later proves to be moose hockey. Robert Coles (1929-), Anna Freud: The Dream of Psychoanalysis. Robert Coover (1932-), The End of Books. Charles Andrew Crenshaw (1933-2001), JFK: Conspiracy of Silence; emergency room surgeon at Parkland Memorial Hospital claims that JFK was shot twice from the front; pub. the sequel Trauma Room One in 2001 a week before his death. Mary Daly (1928-2010), Outercourse: The Bedazzling Voyage, Containing Recollections from My Logbook of a Radical Feminist Philosopher. Daniel Dennett (1942-), Consciousness Explained. Marcel Desaulniers (1945-), Death by Chocolate: The Last Word on a Consuming Passion. Joan Didion (1934-), After Henry (essays); in honor of her late editor Henry Robbins. Annie Dillard (1945-), The Living. Anthony Downs (1930-), Stuck in Traffic: Coping with Peak-Hour Traffic Congestion (June 1); proposes high occupancy toll lanes on crowded freeways along with congestion road pricing. Eric Drexler (1955-), Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing and Computation Peter Ferdinand Drucker (1909-2005), Managing for the Future: The 1990s and Beyond. Betty Jean Eadie (1942-) and Curtis Taylor, Embraced by the Light; NYT #1 bestseller about her near-death experience in Nov. 1973, claiming to visit Heaven and meet Jesus. Allan W. Eckert (1931-), A Sorrow in Our Heart: The Life of Tecumseh; Shawnee chief Tecumseh (1768-1813). Martin Edmond, The Autobiography of My Father. Rachel Ehrenfeld, Evil Money: Encounters Along the Money Trail. Barry Eichengreen (1952-), Golden Fetters: The Gold Standard and the Great Depression, 1919-1939; claims that those countries that abandoned the gold standard recovered more quickly. Stanley Elkin (1930-95), Pieces of Soap (essays). Robert Etienne, Pompeii, The Day a City Died. William Everson (1912-94), Naked Heart: Talking on Poetry, Mysticism, and the Erotic; On Printing<. Marilyn French (1929-2009), The War Against Women. Milton Friedman (1912-2006), Money Mischief: Episodes in Monetary History; how reckless monetary policies led to hyperinflation. Francis Fukuyama (1952-), The End of History and the Last Man; expands his 1989 essay "The End of History?"; contradicts Karl Marx by claiming that Western liberal democracy may signal the endpoint of human sociocultural evolution; "In watching the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history"; "The triumph of the West, of the Western idea is evident... in the total exhaustion of viable systematic alternatives to Western liberalism"; "What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the Cold War, or the passing of a particular period of post-war history, but the end of history as such: that is, the end point of mankind's ideological evolution and the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government." R. Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983) and Kiyoshi Kuromiya, Cosmography: A Posthumous Scenario for the Future of Humanity (posth.). Joseph Lee Galloway (1941-) and Harold Gregory Moore (1922-), We Were Soldiers Once... And Young; the 1965 Battle of Ia Drang Valley in Vietnam; basis of the 2002 film "We Were Soldiers". Daryl Gates (1926-2010), Chief: My Life in the LAPD (autobio.) (with Diane K. Shah). Henry Louis Gates Jr. (1950-), Loose Cannons: Notes on the Culture Wars. Mark Girouard (1931-), Town and Country. Charles Glass (1951-), Money for Old Rope: Disorderly Compositions. Albert Goldman (1927-94), Sound Bites. Al Gore (1948-), Earth in the Balance: Ecology and the Human Spirit; proposes a "Global Marshall Plan"; first book from a sitting U.S. Sen. to make the NYT bestseller list since JFK's "Profiles in Courage". John Gray (1951-), Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus: The Classic Guide to Understanding the Opposite Sex (A Practical Guide for Improving Communication and Getting What You Want in Your Relationships) (Jan. 1); diploma mill Ph.D. in psychology starts a franchise and goes on to sell 50M+ copies - it's not just shades of gray? Stanislav Grof (1931-) and Hal Zina Bennet, The Holotropic Mind: The Three Levels of Human Consciousness and How They Shape Our Lives. Nigel Hamilton, JFK: Reckless Youth; claims that Joseph P. Kennedy was tyrannical and sexually abusive, and his wife cold, causing Sen. Edward Kennedy and his sisters Eunice Shriver and Patricia Lawford, along with sister Jean Kennedy Smith's daughter Amanda Smith to write a Letter to the New York Times disputing him. Graham Hancock (1950-), The Sign and the Seal: The Quest for the Lost Ark of the Covenant. Jim Harrison (1937-2016), The Raw and the Cooked. James Herriot (1916-95), Every Living Thing. Jean Hill (1931-2000), The Last Dissenting Witness; the "Lady in Red" in the JFK assassination scene clings to her story of seeing Jack Ruby run from the Depository after the shooting. Edward Hoagland (1932-), The Final Fate of the Alligators; Balancing Acts. Benjamin Hoff (1946-), The Te of Piglet; sequel to "The Tao of Pooh" (1982); bestseller. Nick Hornby (1957-), Fever Pitch: A Fan's Life; soccer memoir. Michael F. Jacobson, The Completely Revised and Updated Fast-Food Guide: What's Good, What's Bad, and How to Tell the Difference (Jan. 3). Philip Jenkins (1952-), A History of Modern Wales 1536-1990; Intimate Enemies: Moral Panics in Contemporary Great Britain. Paul Johnson, Modern Times. Tony R. Judt (1948-2010), Past Imperfect: French Intellectuals, 1944-1956. Wendy Kaminer (1949-), I'm Dysfunctional, You're Dysfunctional: The Recovery Movement and Other Self-Help Fashions. Ed Krol, The Whole Internet User's Guide & Catalog. Erik Larson (1954-), The Naked Consumer: How Our Private Lives Become Public Commodities. Rush Limbaugh (1951-), The Way Things Ought to Be; "Women obsessed with abortion & intolerance are 'feminazis'". Graham Lord (1943-), Just the One: The Wives and Times of Jeffrey Bernard. William Roger Louis (1936-), In the Name of God, Go!: Leo Amery and the British Empire in the Age of Churchill (Sept.). Madonna (1958-), Sex (Oct. 21); coffee table book with nude photos of her in suggestive scenes with both genders incl. her beau Vanilla Ice; helps makes female bisexuality acceptable in the U.S.? Robert Malley (1963-), The Call from Algeria: Third Worldism, Revolution, and the Turn to Islam. William Manchester (1922-2004), A World Lit Only By Fire: The Medieval Mind and the Renaissance - Portrait of An Age. Golo Mann (1909-94), Wissen und Trauer. Manning Marable (1950-2001), On Malcolm X: His Message and Meaning. Carol Matthau (1925-2003), Among the Porcupines (autobio.); "I married Saroyan the second time because I couldn't believe how terrible it was the first time. I married Walter because I love to sleep with him." Mary McCarthy (1912-89), Intellectual Memoirs: New York, 1936-1938 (posth.). David McCullough (1933-), Truman (June 15) (Pulitzer Prize). Bill McKibben (1960-), The Age of Missing Information; compares all the info. on one day of 100-channel cable TV in Fairfax, Va. to a day on a mountainop near his home. Fatema Mernissi (1940-), Islam and Democracy: Fear of the Modern World. Norma J. Milanovich, Sacred Journey to Atlantis; the words of Ascended Master Kuthumi about Bimini. Jurgen Moltmann (1926-), The Spirit of Life: A Universal Affirmation. Paul Monette (1945-95), Becoming a Man: Half a Life Story; written while dying of AIDS. Eric Henry Monkkonen (1942-2005), History of Urban Police; Violence and Theft (w/K.J. Saur). Thomas Moore, Care of the Soul: A Guide for Cultivating Depth and Sacredness in Everyday Life; bestseller (500K copies); "Ritual maintains the world's holiness. As in a dream a small object may assume significance, so in a life that is animated by ritual there are no insignificant things." Andrew Morton (1953-), Diana: Her True Story. George Lachmann Mosse (1918-99), Rads: A True Story of the End of the Sixties. John M. Newman, JFK and Vietnam: Deception, Intrigue, and the Struggle for Power. Lyn Nofziger (1924-2006), Nofziger (autobio.) (Oct.). William Nordhaus (1941-), An Optimal Transition Path for Controlling Greenhouse Gases, introduces the Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy (DICE) Model. Don Novello (1943-), The Laszlo Letters; his correspondence with Nixon, Agnew, Ford, Bebe Rebozo, Mr. Bubble et al.; named after Laszlo Toth (1940-), who tried to destroy Michelangelo's Pieta with a sledgehammer on May 21, 1972; "I don't know of anyone who has tried harder than he has to pull his own weight in the greatest of all democracies." Gananath Obyesekere, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook: European Mythmaking in the Pacific. Craig O'Neill, Coming Out Within: Stages of Spiritual Awakening for Lesbians and Gays. P.J. O'Rourke (1947-), Give War a Chance. Steven Ozment, Protestants: The Birth of a Revolution. Michael Parenti (1933-), Make-Believe Media: The Politics of Entertainment. Joseph Chilton Pearce (1926-), Evolution's End: Claiming the Potential of Our Intelligence; claims that non-natural childbirth, lack of breastfeeding et al. inhibit the growth of the child's cortex. Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000), Pursuit of Truth. Tom Peters (1942-) Liberation Management. James Petras, Latin America in the Time of Cholera: Electoral Politics, Market Economics, and Permanent Crisis. Dennis Michael Quinn (1944-), The New Mormon History: Revisionist Essays on the Past; gets him excommunicated from the LDS Church next Sept., allowing him to come out. James Randi (1928-), Conjuring. Marcus Raskin (1934-), Abolishing the War System: The Disarmament and International Law Project of the Institute for Policy Studies and the Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy. Richard Rhodes (1937-), Making Love: An Erotic Odyssey. Andrew Roberts (1963-), Eminent Churchillians. Richard Rodriguez (1944-), Days of Obligation (autobio.). Eli M. Rosenbaum and William Hoffer, Betrayal: The Untold Story of the Kurt Waldheim Investigation and Cover-Up; his WWII Nazi activities. Olivier Roy (1949-), The Failure of Political Islam; the Islamists are led by intellectuals with Western educations and poor Islamic educations, who romanticize the Islamic past and don't 'get' it that there can never be a united Muslim World because of the many schisms? Henry Rosovsky (1927-) and Shumpei Kumon, The Political Economy of Japan: Cultural and Social Dynamics. Barry Rubin (1950-2014), Cauldron of Turmoil: America in the Middle East. Peter Russell (1946-), The White Hole in Time. Waking Up in Time: Finding Inner Peace in Times of Accelerating Change. Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. (1917-2007), The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society; warns of its dangers. Andrew Murray Scott, Alexander Trocchi: The Making of the Monster; the notorious heroin-addicted novelist Alexander Trocchi (1925-84). John Selby (1945-), Peak Sexual Experience. Robert Serber (ed.), The Los Alamos Primer: The First Lectures on How to Build an Atomic Bomb. Mark Skousen (ed.), Dissent on Keynes: A Critical Appraisal of Keynsian Economics; his giant ego led him astray? Richard Slotkin (1942-), Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-Century America; sequel to "The Mythology of the American Frontier" (1973) and "The Fatal Environment" (1985). Steven Stack and Jim Gundlach, The Effect of Country Music on Suicide; concludes that the suicide rate for whites is highter than avg. "independent of divorce, Southernness, poverty and gun availability" when they listen to it; they receive an IgNoble Prize for it in 2004. Wallace Stegner (1909-83), Where the Bluebird Sings to the Lemonade Springs: Living and Writing in the West (autobio.). J.B. Strasser and Laurie Becklund, Swoosh: The Unauthorized Story of Nike and the Men Who Played There. Harry G. Summers Jr. (1932-99), On Strategy II: A Critical Analysis of the Gulf War; vol. 1 in 1982. Cass R. Sunstein (1954-) (ed.), The Bill of Rights and the Modern State. Han Suyin (1917-), Wind In My Sleeve (autobio.). Gay Talese (1932-), Unto the Sons. Henry S. Taylor (1942-), Compulsory Figures: Essays on Recent American Poets. Telford Taylor (1908-98), The Anatomy of the Nuremberg Trials: A Personal Memoir; a former counsel for the prosecution tells how Hermann Goering "cheated the hangman" by taking poison. Lewis Thomas (1913-93), The Fragile Species. David Thomson, Showman: The Life of David O. Selznick. Kenneth R. Timmerman (1953-), Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Cases of Iran, Syria and Libya. Adam Bruno Ulam (1922-2000), Communists: The Story of Power and Lost Illusions; Soviet expert's analysis of the fall of the Soviet Union. Jiri Valenta, Soviet Intervention in Czechoslovakia, 1968: Anatomy of a Decision. Various Writers, Encyclopedia of Mormonism (4 vols.) (Macmillan); semiofficial, containing 1,850 pages and 1M words by 730 contributors; too bad, it whitewashes Mormonism, pissing-off Mormon revisionist historians and leading to the 1993 September Six. Sam Walton (1918-92), Made in America. Michael Walzer (1935-), Civil Society and American Demoracy; Waht It Means to Be an American. Dudley Weeks, The Eight Essential Steps to Conflict Resolution. George Frederick Will (1941-), Restoration: Congress, Term Limits and the Recovery of Deliberative Democracy. Barry Williams (1954-), Growing Up Brady. Garry Wills (1934-), Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America (Pulitzer Prize); his Nov. 19, 1863 Gettysburg Address. Andrew Norman Wilson (1950-), C.S. Lewis; Jesus: A Life. Edward Osborne Wilson (1929-), The Diversity of Life; The Color Complex; the favoritism for light skin among blacks is brought to the white, white light. David Wise, Molehunt: The Secret Search for Traitors that Shattered the CIA; the 1964 HONETOL Committee. Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (Pulitzer Prize). George Woodcock (1912-95), Anarchism and Anarchists: Essays. Music: 2 Unlimited, Get Ready! (album) (debut) (Feb. 24); from Belgium-Holland, incl. Ray Slijngaard (1971-) and Anita Danielle Doth (1971-); incl. Get Ready for This ("Y'all ready for this", sampled from the D.O.C.'s single "It's Funky Enough") (becomes a sporting arena anthem), Twilight Zone. 10cc, ...Meanwhile (album #10); first since 1983. Allman Brothers Band, An Evening with the Allman Brothers Band: First Set (album). Tori Amos (1963-), Little Earthquakes (album) (solo debut) (Jan. 13); incl. Winter, China, Silent All These Years, Crucify. Asia, Aqua (album #4). Clint Black (1962-), The Hard Way (album #3) (July 14) (#2 country) (#8 in the U.S.) (1M copies); incl. When My Ship Comes In (#1 country), We Tell Ourselves (#2 country), Burn One Down (#4 country). Beastie Boys, Check Your Head (album #3) (Apr. 21); incl. So What'cha Want, Finger Lickin' Good, Pass the Mic. Eric Ambler (1909-98), The Chase (album); incl. The Chase. Joan Baez (1941-), Play Me Backwards (album). Buju Banton (1973-), Stamina Daddy (Quick) (album) (debut) (Oct. 16); incl. Stamina Daddy; Mr. Mention (album #2) (June 8); incl. Batty Rider; glorifies the shooting of gay men. Mary J. Blige (1971-), What's the 411? (album) (debut) (July 28) (#6 in the U.S.); founds the new genre of hip-hop soul; incl. You Remind Me, Real Love, Reminisce. Mother Love Bone, Mother Love Bone (Stardog Champion) (album) (Sept. 22). Garth Brooks (1962-), The Chase (album #4); names for the 1992 Los Angeles riots; incl. We Shall Be Free. Bobby Brown (1969-), Bobby Brown (album #3) (Aug. 25); incl. Humpin' Around, Get Away, Good Enough. Chris de Burgh (1948-), Power of Ten (album #9). Mariah Carey (1970-), MTV Unplugged (album #3) (June 2); incl. I'll Be There (with Trey Lorenz), If It's Over. Eva Marie Cassidy (1963-96) and Chuck Brown (1936-2012), The Other Side (album) (debut). Peter Cetera (1944-), World Falling Down (album #4) (July); incl. Restless Heart. Alice in Chains, Dirt (album); incl. Rooster, Them Bones, Down in a Hole; Sap (album); incl. Got Me Wrong. Tracy Chapman (1964-), Matters of the Heart (album #3) (Apr. 28). Chic, Chic-Ism (album #8) (Mar. 3); incl. Chic Mystique, Your Love. Eric Clapton, Unplugged (album). Leonard Cohen (1934-2016), The Future (album) (Nov.); incl. The Future ("I've seen the future, brother, it's murder"), Democracy ("I love the country but I can't stand the scene"), Waiting for the Miracle (used in the film "Natural Born Killers"). Shawn Colvin (1956-), Fat City (album #2) (Oct. 27) (#142 in the U.S.); incl. Polaroids, Round of Blues, I Don't Know Why. Bad Company, Here Comes Trouble (album #10) (Sept.); last with Brian Howe; incl. Here Comes Trouble, How About That. Consolidated, Play More Music. Cracker, Cracker (album) (debut) (Mar. 10) (200K copies); from Calif. incl. David Lowery (vocals) and Johnny Hickman (guitar); incl. Teen Angst (What the World Needs Now), Happy Birthday to Me. King Crimson, The Great Deceiver (album #12). Black Crowes, The Southern Harmony and Musical Companion (album #2) (May 12) (2M copies); first album with four #1 hits since Tom Petty's three in 1989; incl. Remedy, Thorn in My Pride, Sting Me, Hotel Illness. The Cure, Wish (album #9) (Apr. 21) (#2 in the U.S., #1 in the U.K.); sells 4M copies; they forget the "The" on the cover; incl. High (#42 in the U.S.), Friday I'm in Love (#17 in the U.S., #6 in the U.K.), A Letter to Elise. Billy Ray Cyrus (1961-), Achy Breaky Heart (cover of "Don't Tell My Heart" by the Marcy Brothers) (Mar. 23) (debut) (#1 country) (#4 in the U.S.) (#3 in the U.K.) (1.4M copies); becomes the first single to achieve triple platinum status in Australia, becoming his signature song, causing Line Dancing to become a craze; Some Gave All (May 19) (album) (debut) (#1 country) (#1 in the U.S.) (9M copies in the U.S.) (20M copies worldwide); incl. Could've Been Me (1992) (#2 country) (#72 in the U.S.), She's Not Cryin' Anymore (#6 country) (#70 in the U.S.); becomes the first album to enter at #1 in the Billboard country albums chart, the first to log 17 consecutive weeks at #1 in the SoundScan era (43 weeks total), the bestselling U.S. album of 1992 (4.8M copies), and the #2 bestselling debut album by a male country artist after Garth Brooks. Dada, Puzzle (album) (debut) (Sept. 8); incl. Dizz Knee Land (500K copies); from LA, incl. Michael Gurley (guitar, vocals), Joie Calio (bass, vocals), and Phil Leavitt (drums). Green Day, Kerplunk (album #2) (Jan. 17); sells 1M copies; incl. Welcome to Paradise, Who Wrote Holden Caulfield? The Grateful Dead, Two from the Vault (album) (May); recorded in L.A. on Aug. 24, 1968. Hamza El Din (1929-2006), Pieces of Africa (album #8). Celine Dion (1968-), Celine Dion (album #2) (Mar. 31); incl. Beauty and the Beast. No Doubt, No Doubt (album) (debut) (Mar. 17); from Anaheim, Calif., incl. Gwen Renee Stefani (1969-) (vocals), Tony Ashwin Kanal (1970-) (bass), Thomas Martin "Tom" Dumont (1968-), Eric Stefani (keyboards), and Adrian Samuel Young (1969-) (drums); incl. Trapped in a Box. Bob Dylan (1941-), Good As I Been to You (album #28) (Nov. 3). Eric B. & Rakim, Don't Sweat the Technique (album #4) (last album) (June 23, 1992) (#22 in the U.S.); incl. Don't Sweat the Technique, Casualties of War, Juice (Know the Ledge). Melissa Etheridge (1961-), Never Enough (album #3) (May 17); incl. Ain't It Heavy, Dance Without Sleeping, 2001. EMF, Stigma (album #2); incl. It's You. Enya (1961-), The Celts (album #4) (Nov. 6). Exodus, Lessons in Violence (album); last with Rob McKillop; Force of Habit (album #5) (Aug. 17); last with John Tempesta; incl. Bitch (by Mick Jagger and Keith Richards). Extreme, III Sides to Every Story (album #3) (Sept. 22); incl. Rest in Peace. Fear Factory, Soul of a New Machine (album) (debut) (Aug. 25); original name Ulceration; from Los Angeles, Calif., incl. Dino Cazares (1966-) (guitar), Raymond Herrera (1972-) (drums), Burton C. Bell (1969-) (vocals). Alejandro Fernandez (1971-), Alejandro Fernandez (album) (debut). Earth, Wind, and Fire, The Eternal Dance (album) (Sept. 8). Kenny G (1956-), Breathless (album #6); sells 15M copies, a record for an instrumental album. Everything But the Girl, Acoustic (album #7) (June 2); incl. Love is Strange. Ice-T (1958-), Cop Killer; the controversy causes Warner Bros. Records to dump him next Jan. 27. Indigo Girls, Rites of Passage (album #4) (May 12); incl. Galileo (#10 in the U.S.). Roy Harper (1941-), Death or Glory? (album #17). P.J. Harvey (1969-), Dry (album) (debut) (June 30); incl. Sheela-Na-Gig, Dress. Sophie Ballantine Hawkins (1967-), Tongues and Tails (album) (debut) (Apr. 21) (#51 in the U.S., #46 in the U.K.); title is from Shakespeare's "The Taming of the Shrew" (2.1.214); incl. Damn I Wish I Was Your Lover. Ofra Haza (1957-2000), Kirya (album); incl. Kirya. Jeff Healey (1966-2008), Feel This (album). Helmet, Meantime (album #2) (June 23) (#68 in the U.S.) (first with Interscope Records); incl. Unsung, Give It, In the Meantime. House of Pain, Jump Around. Whitney Houston (1963-2012), The Bodyguard Soundtrack (album) (Nov. 17); sells 44M copies, incl. 1M in the 1st week (first time in history); incl. I Will Always Love You. Alan Hovhaness (1911-2000), Symphony No. 66 ("Hymn to Glacier Peak"), Op. 428. Public Image Ltd., That What Is Not (album #8) (last album) (Feb. 24). INXS, Welcome to Wherever You Are (album #8) (Aug. 3); incl. Not Enough Time, Baby Don't Cry. Alan Jackson (1958-), A Lot About Livin' (And a Little 'Bout Love) (album); incl. Chattahoochee, She's Got the Rhythm (And I Got the Blues). Luscious Jackson, In Search of Manny (album) (debut); named after the basketball player; from Manhattan, N.Y., incl. Jill Cunniff (vocals, bass), Gabby Glaser (vocals, guitar), Vivian Trimble (keyboards), and Kate Schellenbach (drum); incl. Daughters of the Kaos. Mick Jagger (1943-), Wandering Spirit (album #3) (Feb. 8). Jamiroquai, Emergency on Planet Earth (album) (debut) (May 17); Jason "Jay" Kay (Cheetham) (1969-) (vocals), Stuart Zender (bass), Nick Van Gelder (drums), Wallis Buchanan (didgeridoo); jam + Iroquois; their logo is "Buffalo Man"; incl. When You Gonna Learn, Too Young to Die, Hooked Up, Blow Your Mind. Flotsam and Jetsam, Cuatro (album #4) (Oct. 13); incl. Wading Through the Darkness. Elton John (1947-), The One (album #23) (June 22); first since his 1991 rehab.; incl. The One; Rare Masters (album) (Oct. 20). Journey, Time 3 (Cubed) (triple album) (Dec. 1). Bon Jovi, Keep the Faith (album); incl. Keep the Faith, Bed of Roses, In These Arms, Dry County, I'll Sleep When I'm Dead. R. Kelly (1967-) and Public Announcement, Born into the '90s (Jan. 14) (album) (debut); Robert Sylvester Kelly (1967-); incl. Honey Love, Slow Dance (Hey Mr. DJ), Dedicated. Chaka Khan (1953-), The Woman I Am (album #8) (Apr. 14); incl. Love You All My Lifetime (#68 in the U.S., #49 in the U.K.). KLF, America: What Time Is Love?. Kriss Kross, Jump. L7, Bricks Are Heavy (album #3) (Apr. 14) (#160 in the U.S.); their breakthrough album, making them the "Poster Girls of Grunge"; incl. Pretend We're Dead; too bad, Donita Sparks stinks the band up by throwing her used tampon at the crowd at the 1992 Reading Festival, then exposes herself on the late-night show "The Word"; in 2000 they top this by offering a 1-night stand with Dee Plakas as a raffle prize. Barenaked Ladies, Gordon (album) (debut) (July 28) (#1 in Canada); from Scarborough, Ont., Canada, incl. Lloyd Edward Elwyn "Ed" Robertson (1970-), Steven Jay Page (1970-), James Raymond "Jim" Creeggan (1970-), Andrew Burnett "Andy" Creeggan (1971-), Kevin Neil Hearn (1969-) (keyboards), and Tyler Joseph Stewart (1967-) (drums); incl. Enid, Brian Wilson, Be My Yoko Ono, What A Good Boy, If I Had $1000000. Laibach, Kapital (album #8). k.d. lang (1961-), Ingenue (album #2) (Aug.); incl. Constant Craving. Annie Lennox (1954-), Diva (album) (solo debut) (Apr. 6); sells 4M copies; incl. Why, Walking on Broken Glass, Precious, Keep Young and Beautiful. Def Leppard, Adrenalize (album #5) (Mar. 31) (#1 in the U.S. and U.K.) (10M copies); first after death of Steve Clark; first album whose title doesn't end with "ia"; Let's Get Rocked, Make Love Like a Man, Have You Ever Needed Someone So Bad, Stand Up (Kick Love into Motion), Heaven Is, Tonight, Rock On. Flaming Lips, Hit to Death in the Future Head (album #5) (Aug. 5); spawns the British band the Futureheads; incl. Wastin Pigs, Talkin' Bout the Smiling Deathporn Immortality Blues (Everyone Wants to Live Forever). Rage Against the Machine, Rage Against the Machine (album) (debut) (Nov. 11); from Los Angeles, Calif., incl. Zacarias Manuel "Zack" de la Rocha (1970-), Thomas Baptiste "Tom" Morello (1964-), Timothy Robert "Tim" Commerford (1968-) (bass), Brad Wilk (1968-) (drums); incl. Killing in the Name, Bullet in the Head, Bombtrack, Freedom. Madonna (1958-), Erotica (album #5) (Oct. 20) (#2 in the U.S. and U.K.); (5M copies); incl. Erotica, Deeper and Deeper, Bad Girl, Fever, Rain, Bye Bye Baby. Iron Maiden, Fear of the Dark (album #9) (May 11); last with lead vocalist Bruce Dickinson; incl. Be Quick or Be Dead, From Here to Eternity, Wasting Love, Fear of the Dark. Yngwie Malmsteen (1963-), Fire and Ice (album #6) (Jan. 7) (#121 in the U.S.); incl. Perpetual, and Dragonfly. Mana, Donde Jugaran Los Ninos? (Where Will the Children Play?) (album) (Oct. 27) 3M copies) (best-selling Spanish language rock album until ?); incl. Vivir Sin Aire, Oye Mi Amor, and Como Te Deseo. 10,000 Maniacs, Our Time in Eden (album #5) (Sept. 29). Marky Mark and the Funky Bunch, You Gotta Believe (album #2) (last album) (Sept. 15); incl. You Gotta Believe. Bob Marley (1945-81), Songs of Freedom (4-disc set) (Oct. 6) (posth.). Martina McBride (1966-), The Time Has Come (May 12) (album) (debut) (#49 country) (#15 in the U.S.); incl. The Time Has Come (#23 country). Reba McEntire (1955-), It's Your Call (album #19) (Dec. 14); incl. The Heart Won't Lie (with Vince Gill). Tim McGraw (1967-), Tim McGraw (album) (debut); incl. Welcome to the Club, Memory Lane, Two Steppin' Mind. The Dead Milkmen, Soul Rotation (album #6) (Apr. 14); first on Hollywood Records; incl. Silly Dreams. Sir Mix-a-Lot (1963-), Mack Daddy (album #3) (Feb. 4); incl. Baby Got Back (#1 in the U.S.) ("I like big butts and I cannot lie"). Faith No More, Angel Dust (album #4) (June 8) (#10 in the U.S., #2 in the U.K.) (3M copies); incl. Easy (#58 in the U.S., #3 in the U.K.), Midlife Crisis (#10 in the U.K.), A Small Victory (#29 in the U.K.), Everything's Ruined (#28 in the U.K.). Alanis Morissette (1974-), Now Is the Time (album); incl. An Emotion Away, No Apologies, (Change Is) Never a Waste of Time. Morrissey (1959-), Your Arsenal (album). Motorhead, March or (ör) Die (album #10) (Aug. 14); '92 Tour EP (album). Michael Martin Murphey (1945-), Cowboy Songs III - Rhymes of the Renegades (album #18) (Oct. 12). Allanah Myles (1958-), Rockinghorse (album #2). Vomito Negro, Compiled (album #10); Wake Up (album #11). Gary Numan (1958-), Machine and Soul (album #11) (Sept.). Sinead O'Connor (1966-), Am I Not Your Girl? (album #3) (Sept. 22); sells 1.5M copies; incl. Success Has Made a Failure of Our Home. The Offspring, Ignition (album #2) (Oct. 16); incl. Kick Him When He's Down. Midnight Oil, Scream in Blue (album) (May 5). Robert Palmer (1949-2003), Ridin' High (album #12) (#32 in the U.K.); incl. Witchcraft. Pantera, Vulgar Display of Power (album #6) (Feb. 25) (#44 in the U.S.); title from the 1973 film "The Exorcist"; incl. Walk (#35 in the U.K.), Fucking Hostile, Mouth for War, This Love. Paris (Oscar Jackson Jr.) (1967-), Sleeping with the Enemy (album #2); features an insert showing him hiding behind a tree with a Tec 9 as the U.S. pres. waves to the crowd, causing Tommy Boy Records to drop him, after which he founds Scarface Records; incl. Bush Killa, Coffee, Donuts & Death ("a cop-killing tirade"). Wilson Phillips, Shadows and Light (album #2) (June 2) (#4 in the U.S.); disappointing sales cause them to disband until 2004; incl. You Won't See Me Cry (#20 in the U.S.). Stone Temple Pilots, Core (album) (debut) (Sept. 29) (#3 in the U.S.); from San Diego, Calif., incl. Scott Weiland (Scott Richard Kline) (1967-) (vocals), Robert DeLeo (1966-) (bass), Dean DeLeo (guitar), and Eric Kretz (1966-) (drums); incl. Plush, Sex Type Thing, Creep. The Police, Greatest Hits (album) (Sept.). Insane Clown Posse, Carnival of Carnage (Oct. 18) (album) (debut); from Detroit, Mich., incl. Joseph Frank "Joe" Bruce (1972-) AKA Violent J, and Joseph William "Joey" Utsler (1974-) AKA Shaggy 2 Dope; their fans are called Juggalos, after the song The Juggla, and are initiated by dousing with 2 liters of Faygo; Beverly Kills 50187 (album); incl. Beverly Kills. Manic Street Preachers, Generation Terrorists; (album) (debut) (Feb. 10); released after proclaiming that it will be the "greatest rock album" and sell 16M copies "from Bangkok to Senegar"; incl. Stay Beautiful, Love's Sweet Exile/Repeat, You Love Us, Slash 'n' Burn, Motorcycle Emptiness, Little Baby Nothing. Judas Priest, Victim of Changes (album #13); incl. Seventhsign. Prince (1958-2016), Love Symbol (17th album) (AKA Prince and the New Power Generation); incl. "My Name is Prince", "Sexy M.F.", "7". Skinny Puppy, Last Rights (album #7) (June 30; last for Nettwerk; incl. Killing Game, Inquisition, Download, Riverz End. Faster Pussycat, Whipped (album #3) (Aug. 4); incl. Nonstop to Nowhere. Boo Radleys, Everything's Alright Forever (album #2) (Aug.). Ramones, Mondo Bizarro (album #12) (Sept. 1); first with bassist C.J. Ramone replacing Dee Dee Ramone; incl. Take It As it Comes, Poison Heart; rereleased on Aug. 10, 2004 with bonus track Spider-Man. Eddi Reader (1959-), Mirmama (album) (debut). Lou Reed (1942-), Magic and Loss (album #16) (Jan. 14); incl. What's Good (The Thesis), Power and Glory (The Situation). R.E.M., Automatic for the People (album #8) (Oct. 5); incl. Drive, The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite, Everybody Hurts (listened to by Kurt Cobain before his suicide?), Nightswimming, Man on the Moon, Find the River. Keith Richards (1943-), Main Offender (album #2) (Oct. 19). Lionel Richie (1949-), Back to Front (album #4) (May 5). Skid Row, B-Side Ourselves (EP) (Sept. 22) (#58 in the U.S.). Roxette, Tourism (album #4) (Aug. 28); incl. How Do You Do, Queenof Rain, Fingertips 93. Paulina Rubio (1971-), La Chica Dorada (The Golden Girl) (album) (solo debut) (Oct. 20); incl. La China Dorada. Black Sabbath, Dehumanizer (album #16) (June 22); incl. Computer God, TV Crimes. Sade (1959-), Love Deluxe (album #4) (Nov. 11); incl. No Ordinary Love. Riders of the Purple Sage, Midnight Moonlight (album #13) (May 12); The Relix Bay Rock Shop, No. 1 (album). Buffy Sainte-Marie (1941-), Coincidence and Likely Stories (album); incl. The Big Ones Get Away, Fallen Angels. Joe Satriani (1956-), The Extremist (album #4) (July 21); incl. Summer Song, War. Pete Seeger (1919-2014), American Industrial Ballads (album). Selena (1971-95), Entre a Mi Mundo (album #10) (May 8) (1.2M copies); incl. Como La Flor (becomes her trademark song), La Carcacha; Baila Esta Cumbia (album) (Nov. 25). Michelle Shocked (1962-), Arkansas traveller (album). Information Society, Peace & Love Inc. (album #5) (Oct. 26); incl. Peace & Love Inc.. Spiderbait, Shashavaglava (Croatian "dickhead") (album) (debut); from Finley, N.S.W., Australia; incl. Kram (Mark Maher) (drums/vocals), Damien "Whitt" Whitty (guitar), and Janet English (bass/vocals); incl. Old Man Sam, Scenester. Big Star, Live (album) (Feb. 21); recorded in 1974. Ringo Starr (1940-), Time Takes Time (album #10); first album since 1983; incl. Weight of the World (#74 in the U.K.); praised by critics but still flops; next album in 1998. Status Quo, Live Alive Quo (album). Al Stewart (1945-), Famous Last Words (album #14) (Sept. 21). George Strait (1952-), Pure Country Soundtrack (album) (Sept. 15) (#1 country) (6M copies). Stratovarius, Twilight Time (album #2); incl. Break the Ice. Sublime, 40oz. to Freedom (album) (debut) (June) (2M copies in the U.S.); from Long Beach, Calif., incl. Bradley James "Brad" Nowell (1968-96) (vocals), Eric John Wilson (1970-) (bass), and Floyd I. "Bud" Gaugh IV (1967-) (drums); incl. Badfish, Smoke Two Joints, We're Only Gonna Die from Our Own Arrogance, 5446 That's My Number, Scarlet Begonias. The Sugarcubes, Stick Around For Joy (album #3) (last album) (Feb. 18) (#95 in the U.S., #16 in the U.K.); incl. Hit (#17 in the U.K.). Suicidal Tendencies, F.N.G. (album) (June 29); The Art of Rebellion (album #5) (June 30) (#52 in the U.S.); incl. Nobody Hears, Asleep at the Wheel, I'll Hate You Better. Swans, Love of Life (album #13). Testament, The Ritual (album #5) (May 12) (#55 in the U.S.); last with Louie Clemente and Alex Skolnick; incl. Electric Crown. Therion, Beyond Sanctorum (album #5) (Jan.). Toto, Kingdom of Desire (album #8); incl. 2 Hearts. Babes in Toyland, The Peel Sessions (album) (Apr. 1); Fontanelle (album #2) (Apr. 11); released on Reprise Records; first with bassist Maureen Herman; incl. Handsome and Gretel, Bruise Violet (disses Kat Bjelland's former bandmate Courtney Love of Hole). Jethro Tull, A Little Light Music (album) (Sept. 14). Bonnie Tyler (1951-), Angel Heart (album #9). U.S.U.R.A., Open Your Mind (album) (debut); from Italy, incl. Giacomo Maiolini (his mommy's name is Ursula), Walter Cremonini, and Alessandro Gilardi; incl. Open Your Mind (incl. a sample from the 1990 film "Total Recall"). Vangelis (1943-), 1492: Conquest of Paradise (album). Suzanne Vega (1959-), 99.9 Degrees Fahrenheit (album #4) (Sept. 8) (#86 in the U.S.); incl. Blood Makes Noise (#1 in the U.S.). The Verve, The Verve (album) (debut) (Dec. 1); from Wigan, Greater Manchester, England, incl. Richard Ashcroft (1971-) (vocals), Nicholas Jonathon "Nick" McCabe (1971-) (guitar), Simon Robin David Jones (1972-) (bass), Peter Anthony Salisbury (1971-) (drums), and Simon Tong (1972-) (guitar); incl. All in the Mind; She's a Superstar; Gravity Grave. En Vogue, Funky Divas (album) (Mar. 24); sells 3M copies; incl. My Lovin' (You're Never Gonna Get It), Giving Him Something He Can Feel, Free Your Mind; "Prejudice. Wrong a song about it. Like to hear it? Here it goes." The Wallflowers, The Wallflowers (album) (debut) (Aug. 25); originally The Apples; from Los Angeles, Calif., incl. Jakob Luke Dylan (1969-) (son of Bob Dylan) (vocals), Tobi Miller (guitar), Barrie Maguire (bass), Peter Yanowitz (drums), and Rami Jaffee (1969-) (keyboards); incl. Shy of the Moon. Joe Walsh (1947-), Songs for a Dying Planet (album #10) (May). Jennifer Warnes (1947-), The Hunter (album #7) (June 9); incl. The Whole of the Moon. Warrant, Dog Eat Dog (album #3) (Aug. 25) (#25 in the U.S.) (500K copies); last with the five original members; the end of the Glam Rock Era?; incl. Machine Gun, Hole in My Wall, April 2031, Bitter Pill (w/Moron Fish & Tackle Choir - janitors et al. from the recording studio). Kevin Welch (1955-), Western Beat (album #2). Great White, Psycho City (album #6) (Sept. 14); incl. Psycho City. XTC, Nonsuch (album #11) (Apr. 27); incl. The Disappointed (#33 in the U.K.), The Ballad of Peter Pumpkinhead (#71 in the U.K.). Yanni (1954-), Dare to Dream (album); his breakthrough album; incl. Aria (based on "The Flower Duet"). Trisha Yearwood (1964-), Hearts in Armor (album). Neil Young (1945-), Harvest Moon (album) (Oct. 27). Frank Zappa (1940-93), Beat the Boots II (album) (June 16); You Can't Do That On Stage Anymore, Vol. 5/6 (album) (July 10); Playground Psychotics (double album) (Oct. 27). White Zombie, La Sexorcisto: Devil Music, Vol. 1 (album #3) (Mar. 17); major label debut and breakthrough album; incl. Thunder Kiss '65, Black Sunshine. Movies: The best year for the movies of the decade? TLW went to the movies so often he joined the free popcorn club? Ron Clements' Aladdin (Nov. 25) is an animated Disney flick about Aladdin (voice of Scott Weinger) and Princess Jasmine (Linda Larkin); Robin Williams voices the Genie for $75K; #1 movie of 1992 ($217M). David Fincher's Alien 3 (May 22) sees Ripley's pod crash on the penal colony Fiorina "Fury" 161, where the horny all-male double-Y inmates can barely stand it; features an Alien hiding in a dog, which she kills, only to find another inside herself, which she finishes off by committing suicide in a giant furnace; brings in $159.8M on a $50M budget. Sam Raimi's Army of Darkness (Oct. 9) is a tongue-in-cheek action movie starring Bruce Campbell as discount store employee Ash, who is accidentally transported to 1300 C.E., and has to battle an army of the dead and find the Necronomicon to return home; "1 man, 1 million dead, the odds are just about even." Paul Verhoeven's Basic Instinct (Mar. 20), written by Joe Eszterhas is the breakthrough role for Meadville, Penn.-born former model Sharon Yvonne Stone (1958-) for her beaver-glimpsing leg-crossing scene during a police interrogation, in the role of Calif. crime-novelist and serial killer Catherine Davis Tramell, who likes to tie up her johns incl. Det. Nick Curran (Michael Douglas), knife them, then tell about it in her bestselling novels, then beg to be taken in sansa panties to show she's got nothing to hide; #9 movie of 1992 ($118M). Tim Burton's Batman Returns (June 19) ("The Bat, the Cat, the Penguin") stars Michael Keaton as Batman, Danny DeVito as the Penguin, Michelle Pfeiffer (cool lips) as Catwoman/Selina Kyle, and Christopher Walken as maniacal tycoon (big stretch?) Max Shreck; #3 movie of 1992 ($163M). Neil Jordan's The Crying Game (Sept. 18) (Channel Four Fims), based on the 1931 short story "Guests of the Nation" by Frank O'Connor, and whose title is based on a top-5 British hit of 1964 (played in 3 versions, incl. one by Boy George) stars Stephen Rea as IRA gunman Fergus, who kidnaps black British soldier Jody (Forest Whitaker) and befriends him, then lets him go after being ordered to kill him, only to see him get run over by his own troops, then sets out to find his girlfriend Dil, played by U.S.-born Jaye Davidson (Alfred Amey) (1968-), whom he falls in love with until she wipes off her mouth, takes off her clothes, and shows him her dick, never mind the white-black thang?; one of the seminal movie experiences of the dickade?; does $62.5M box office U.S. and £2M U.K. on a £2.3M budget. Mick Jackson's The Bodyguard (Nov. 25) stars Kevin Costner as an ex-Secret Service agent who guards the body of singer Whitney Houston and ends up you know what (while in actuality going out with Angie Everhart, Courteney Cox, Joan Lunden et al.); the film's soundtrack, which incl. "I Will Always Love You" (written by Dolly Parton) becomes the #1 selling of all time (until ?); #7 movie of 1992 ($122M); "Never let her out of your sight. Never let your guard down. Never fall in love." Ron Howard's Far and Away (May 22) stars Tom Cruise as Joseph Donnelly, a W Irish bare-knuckle boxer who flees to the U.S. after threatening his landlord, and Nicole Kidman as Shannon Christie, the landlord's daughter who follows him to Boston and the 1893 Okla. Land Rush after sneaking a peak under his bowl; music by John Williams; "What they needed was a country big enough for their dreams"; also stars Colm Meaney. Paul Mones' Fathers & Sons stars Jeff Goldblm as beach-runner bookworm Max who meets a psychic on a pier who helps him communicate with his son. Rob Reiner's A Few Good Men (Dec. 11), based on the play by Aaron Sorkin is about U.S. Marines Lance Cpl. Harold W. Dawson (Wolfgang Bodison) and Pfc. Louden Downey (James Marshall) at Gitmo and their infamous "Code Red" discipline, which results in the death of Pfc. William T. Santiago (Michael DeLorenzo) and a chain-of-command coverup, ending in a great courtroom cross-examination of Marine Corps Col. Nathan R. Jessup (Jack Nicholson) by smart young Lt. Daniel Kaffee (Tom Cruise), who maneuvers the arrogant prick into blowing his own coverup, while Tom's boss (it would have to be female even though it's only JAG?) Lt. Cdr. Joanne Galloway (Demi Moore) holds his hand but never his johnson; Kevin Bacon plays straight arrow govt. prosecutor Capt. Jack Ross; Kiefer Sutherland plays Jessup's boy Lt. Jonathan Kendrick; Kevin Pollak plays Moore's aide Lt. Sam Weinberg; J.T. Walsh plays Jessup's regretful 2nd Lt. Col. Matthew Andrew Markinson, as everybody in the cast smells Oscars, even here cum da Judge Julius Alexander Randolph, played by J.A. Preston; #5 movie of 1992 ($141M); first of five consecutive $100M box office hits for Cruise (a first); "You can't handle the truth"; "I'm gonna rip the eyes out of your head and puke in your dead skull. You've fucked with the wrong Marine" - the movie adds the missing trial to the JFK coverup? Stuart Gordon's Fortress (Dec.), shot in Australia stars Christopher Lambert as John Henry Brennick, and Loryn Locklin as his wife Karen B. Brennick, who are sent to a maximum security prison for violating the govt.'s 1-child policy in 2017; followed by "Fortress 2: Re-Entry" (1999). Geoff Murphy's Freejack (Jan. 17), based on the 1959 Robert Sheckley novel "Immortality, Inc." stars Emilio Estevez as race car driver Alex Furlong, who is about to die in a 1991 crash when his body is bonejacked (snatched) to 2009 Bronx to be taken over by rich Ian McCandless (Anthony Hopkins); also stars Mick Jagger and Rene Russo; does $17M box office on a $30M budget. Rowdy Herrington's Gladiator (Mar. 6) (Columbia Pictures) stars James Marshall as inner New York City h.s. student Tommy Riley, whose drunkard father owes $1,250 to some loan sharks, and agrees to fight a bout for sleazy promoter Pappy Jack (Robert Loggia) to pay it off, and gets involved with bigger promoter Jimmy Horn (Brian Dennehy); Cuba Gooding Jr. plays boxer Lincoln Haines; Ossie Davis plays cornerman Noah; Cara Buono plays Tommy's babe Dawn; too bad, it only does $9.2M box office on a $20M budget. Curtis Hanson's The Hand that Rocks the Cradle (Jan. 10) stars Rebecca DeMornay as Peyton Flanders, the Jekyll-Hyde nanny from Hell, and Annabella Sciorra as the naive pregnant Claire Bartel; "Trust is her weapon, innocence is her opportunity, and revenge is her only desire". Stephen Fears' (Accidental) Hero (Oct. 2) (Columbia Pictures) stars Dustin Hoffman as pickpocket Bernard "Bernie" LaPlante (Dustin Hoffman), who anonymously rescues survivors of crashed Flight 104 to steal their valuables, and gets homeless Vietnam vet John Bubber (Andy Garcia) to take credit to elude the heat, and he ends up being awarded $1M by TV station; Geena Davis plays TV reporter Gale Gayley, who falls for Bubber; Joan Cusack plays Bernie's wife Evelyn; does $19.5M box office on a $42M budget; Chris Columbus' Home Alone 2: Lost in New York (Nov. 20) stars Macaulay Culkin as Kevin McCallister, taking on Harry Lime (Joe Pesci); #2 movie of 1992 ($174M). Ismail Merchant's and James Ivory's Howards End (Mar. 13), based on the 1910 E.M. Forster novel stars Emma Thompson and Helena Bonham Carter as freethinking English Schlegel sisters Margaret and Helen, who hook up with the wealthy conservative Wilcoxes (Vanessa Redgrave as Ruth and Anthony Hopkins as Henry) and low class Howard Bast (Samuel West), and suffer through the bast, er, Mr. Wilcox's attempts to thwart the bequest of Howard's End estate to Margaret; does $26M box office on an $8M budget. Michael Mann's The Last of the Mohicans (Sept. 25), based on the 1826 James Fenimore Cooper novel stars Daniel Day-Lewis as Hawkeye, Russell Means as his sidekick Chingachgook (father of the last of the Mohicans Uncas), Madeleine Stowe as Hawkeye's babe Cora Munro, Maurice Roeves as her daddy Col. Edmund Munro, and Wes Studi as studly bad Indian Magua, who leads his lusty Indians in bushwhacking a British army column in a keeper cinematic moment. Brett Leonard's The Lawnmower Man (Mar. 6), loosely based on a Stephen King short story stars Jeff Fahey as gardner Jobe Smith, who is experimented on by Dr. Lawrence Angelo (Pierce Brosnan) of Virtual Space Industries to raise his IQ, making him a supergenius with telepathic abilities who decides to take over the world by becoming "pure energy" and taking over the lab's mainframe computer; King successfully sues the producers to disassociate his name from the film. Penny Marshall's A League of Their Own (July 1) (Columbia) stars Tom Hanks as WWII women's league baseball mgr. Jimmy Dugan, who has to handle crying cu, er, women players Geena Davis (Dottie Hinson) (after Debra Winger refuses to appear with Madonna and drops out), Lori Petty (Kit Keller), Madonna (Mae Mordabito), Doris Murphy (Rosie O'Donnell) et al.; #10 movie of 1992 ($107M U.S. and $132.4M worldwide box office on a $40M budget); "There's no crying in baseball" (Hanks). Richard Donner's Lethal Weapon 3 (May 15) stars Mel Gibson and Danny Glover again as Martin Riggs and Roger Murtagh, Rene Russo as policewoman Lorna Cole, and Joe Pesci as Leo Getz; #4 movie of 1992 ($142M). Alfonso Arau's Like Water for Chocolate (Apr. 16), based on the 1989 novel by Laura Esquivel stars Lumi Cavazos as Tita, Marco Leonardi as Pedro Muzquiz, and Regina Torne as Mama Elena; the highest grossing Spanish language film in the U.S. (until ?). Spike Lee's Malcolm X (Nov. 18) stars Denzel Washington. Keith Gordon's A Midnight Clear (Apr. 24), based on the 1982 William Wharton novel about a WWII U.S. intel platoon that has to deal with a surrendering German platoon stars Ethan Hawke, Gary Sinise, Kevin Dillon, Peter Berg, and Arye Gross. Juzo Itami's Minbo no Onna (The Gentle Art of Japanese Extortion) (May 16) exposes the yakuza as bullies and thugs, causing five members of the Goto-gumi yakuza gang to beat him up, triggering a govt. crackdown. Jonathan Lynn's My Cousin Vinny (Mar. 13) (20th Cent. Fox), written by Dale Launer stars Ralph Maccio as Billy Gambino, and Mitchell Whitfield as Stan Rothenstein, two New Yorkers who are mistaken for murderers while on vacation in crackerland Ala., and end up in front of snooty judge Chamberlain Haller (Fred Gwynne in his last film appearance), causing Billy's atty. cousin Vinny Gambini (Joe Pesci) and his auto repair babe Mona Lisa Vito (Marisa Tomei) to come to the rescue; Lane Smith plays cracker DA Jim Trotter III; does $64M box office on a $11M budget; the breakthrough role for Brooklyn, N.Y.-born Marisa Tomei (1964-); "There have been many courtroom dramas that have glorified the Great American Legal System. This isn't one of them." Gary Sinise's Of Mice and Men (Oct. 2) (MGM), based on the 1937 John Steinbeck novel stars Sinise as George Milton, and John Malkovich as Lennie Small; does $5.47M box office. Sally Potter's Orlando (Sept.) (Sony Pictures), based on the 1928 Virginia Woolf gender-bender novel and filmed in Khiva, Uzbekistan and its 18th cent. Djuma Mosque stars Tilda Swinton as gender-switching longevity champ Orlando, Quentin Crisp as Elizabeth I, and Billy Zane as Marmaduke Bonthrop Shelmerdine, with music by gay composer Jimmy Somerville, who appears in a cameo as an angel; does $5.3M box office on a $4M budget. Gillies MacKinnon's The Playboys (Apr. 22) (Samuel Goldwyn Co.) stars Robin Wright as unwed Irish mother Tara in 1957, who is courted by Albert Finney as Sgt. Hegarty, and Aidan Quinn as Tom, part of a travelng troupe of actors called you know what; does $4.9M box office. Katt Shea's Poison Ivy (May 8) stars Drew Barrymore as sexy Ivy, who befriends introverted h.s. student Sylvie Cooper (Sara Gilbert), and schemes her way into her wealthy family, starting with seducing daddy Darryl (Tom Skerritt), who eats her in front of sickly mommy Georgie (Cheryl Ladd) - and love conquers all? Jocelyn Moorhouse's Proof (Mar. 20) stars Hugo Weaving as blind photographer Martin, who gets in a love triangle with his housekeeper Celia (Genevieve Picot) and his friend Andy (Russell Crowe), taking photos as proof of the reality of life; Moorhouse's dir. debut. Christopher Cain's Pure Country (Oct. 23) (Warner Bros.) stars George Strait as country star Wyatt "Dusty" Chandler, who decides to skip out on his mgr. Lula Rogers (Lesley Ann Warren) and go country, meeting babe Harley Tucker (Isabel Glasser), granddaughter of Ernest Tucker (Rory Calhoun); does $15M box office. John Dahl's Red Rock West (?), shot in Montana and Willcox, Ariz. stars Nicolas Cage as drifter Michael, who gets hired by bar owner Wayne (J.T. Walsh) to be a hit man for his wife Suzanna (Lara Flynn Boyle), who tries to hire him to kill Wayne; only thing, he's not really a hit man, just an actor in an improbable script?; goes straight to video, then ends up an art house hit in 1994 because of the super perf. of Walsh? Quentin Tarantino's Reservoir Dogs (Oct. 23) (based on the letters in "Au Revoir, Les Enfants"), a super-violent cops-and-robbers flick about Misters Pink (Steve Buscemi), White (Harvey Keitel), Orange (Tim Roth), Blonde (Michael Madsen), Blue (Edward Bunker) ("What's special, take you in the back and suck your dick?"), and Brown (Tarantino), who face a traitor in their midst (Roth); the dir. debut of former video store clerk Quentin Jerome Tarantino (1963-); after Timothy Carey is turned down, but gets the screenplay dedicated to him, tough guy actor Lawrence Tierney plays mob boss Joe Cabot, who gives them their names; Chris Penn plays nice guy Eddie Cabot, who believes waitresses should be automatically tipped; the scene where police officer Marvin Nash, played by William Kirk Baltz (1959-) is tortured and burned alive with gasoline by Mr. Blonde to the 1972 Stealers Wheel hit tune Stuck in the Middle with You is a keeper; does $22M box office on a $1.2M budget. Robert Redford's A River Runs Through It (Oct. 9) (Columbia Pictures), written by Richard Friedenberg based on the 1976 novel by Norman Maclean (1902-90) set near Missoula, Mont. stars Brad Pitt and Craig Sheffer as brothers Paul and Norman Maclean, Tom Skerritt as their Presbyeterian father Rev. John Maclean, Brenda Blethyn as Clara Maclean, and Emily Lloyd as Jessie Burns, becoming a hit with fly fishing lovers, and the breakthrough role for Brad Pitt; does $43.4M box office; ] "Like many fly fishermen in western Montana where the summer days are almost Arctic in length, I often do not start fishing until the cool of the evening. Then in the Arctic half-light of the canyon, all existence fades to a being with my soul and memories and the sounds of the Big Blackfoot River and a four-count rhythm and the hope that a fish will rise. Eventually, all things merge into one, and a river runs through it. The river was cut by the world's great flood and runs over rocks from the basement of time. On some of those rocks are timeless raindrops. Under the rocks are the words, and some of the words are theirs. I am haunted by waters"; "Chicken in the car, car won't go. That's how you spell Chicago"; "My candle burns at both ends; it will not last the night. But ah my foes, and oh my friends, it gives a lovely light." Martin Brest's Scent of a Woman (Dec. 23) (Universal), a remake of the 1975 Italian film "Profumo di Donna", based on the Giovanni Arpino novel stars Al Pacino as blind alcoholic retired army Lt. Col. Frank Slade, who has to be watched over by prep school student Charlie Simms (Chris O'Donnell), and ends up dancing the tango with much younger Donna (Gabrielle Anwar) and daring death to catch him while his nose is full of the you know what of a you know what; does $134M box office on a $31M budget. David Seltzer's Shining Through (Jan. 31), based on the 1988 novel by Susan Isaacs stars Michael Douglas and Melanie Griffith as two Yanks who go to Nazi Germany on a spy mission. Emile Ardolino's Sister Act (May 29) stars Whoopi Goldberg as singer Deloris Van Cartier, who witnesses a mob crime and is hidden by the police in a convent as Sister Mary Clarence; Maggie Smith plays Mother Superior; #6 movie of 1992 ($140M); "No booze, no sex, no drugs, no way". Gianni Amelio's The Stolen Children is about a shy carabiniere and his two adopted children, an 11-y.-o. girl forced into prostitution by her mother, and her sullen 9-y.-o. brother journeying from Milan to Sicily and undergoing transformations. John Bailey's The Search for Signs of Intelligent Life in the Universe (Jan.) expands Lily Tomlin's 1-woman show with a cast of 12 male and female chars. Daniel Bergman's Sunday's Children (Sondagsbarn), a TV movie made by Ingmar Bergman's son tells about his dad's horrible childhood, incl. being locked in a closet and having to wear a skirt after peeing his pants; his nickname is Pu. Tom Kalin's Swoon (Jan.) (his dir. debut) is about the 1924 kidnap-murder of 14-y.-o. Bobby Franks by brainy gay Jews Nathan Leopold Jr. (Craig Chester) and Richard Loeb (Daniel Schlachet), launching "the New Queer Cinema" (B. Ruby Rich). David Twohy's Timescape (Grand Tour: Disaster in Time) (May 9) based on the novel "Vintage Season" by Henry Kuttner and C.L. Moore stars Jeff Daniels as widower Ben Wilson, and Ariana Richards as his daughter Hillary, who are visited by the Tourists from another time; dir. debut for Twohy; features a cameo Barry Levinson's Toys (Dec. 18), featuring sumptuous sets by Ferdinando Scarfiotti and outdoor scenes in SW Wash. and NC Idaho stars Robin Williams as Leslie Zevo, who is passed over by his father Kenneth Zevo (Donald O'Connor) for ownership of the Zevo Toys factory in Moscow, Idaho for his brother Lt. Gen. Leland Zevo (Michael Gambon); also stars Joan Cusack as Alsatia Zevo; does $23.3M box office on a $43M budget. by Robert Colbert of "The Time Tunnel". Clint Eastwood's Unforgiven (Aug. 7) (Warner Bros.), written by David Webb Peoples stars Eastwood as aging outlaw William Munny, who takes on one more job along with partner Ned Logan (Morgan Freeman) to avenge a disfigured ho in Big Whiskey, Wyo., and comes up against cruel sheriff Little Bill Daggett (Gene Hackman); Richard Harris plays gunfighter Richard Harris, and Saul Rubinek plays pulp fiction writer W.W. Beauchamp; grosses $159M on a $14.4M budget. Roland Emmerich's Universal Soldier (July 10) stars Jean-Claude Van Damme as U.S. Pvt. Luc Devereaux, and Dolph Lundgren as Sgt. Andrew Scott, who get in a squabble in 1969 Vietnam and kill each other, then are reanimated as universal soldiers GR44 and GR13 in 1992. Penelope Spheeris' Wayne's World (Feb. 14), based on their Saturday Night Live comedy sketch is the film debut of Canadian-born Michael John "Mike" Myers (1963-) and Dana Thomas Carvey (1955-) as Wayne Campbell and Garth Algar, hosts of a public access TV show in Aurora, Ill., who try to go commercial and grovel before Alice Cooper; features a sing-along to Queen's "Bohemian Rhapsody" in their Mirthobile (baby blue 1976 AMC Pacer with flames and non-matching wheels); popularizes the use of the phrases "Party on!", "Schwing" (the sound of popping a boner when seeing a hot chick), and "...Not!"; #8 movie of 1992 ($122M); Stephen Surjik's Wayne's World 2 (Dec. 10, 1993) sees them go to an Aerosmith concert, have a dream about Jim Morrison and a "weird naked Indian" (Larry Sellers) commanding them to stage Waynestock, and rock with the Village People while Wayne's babe Cassandra (Tia Carrere) flirts with producer Bobby Cahn (Christopher Walken), causing Wayne to go after Honey Hornee (Kim Basinger). Ron Shelton's White Men Can't Jump (Mar. 27) (20th Cent. Fox), written by Ron Shelton stars Woody Harrelson as white basketball hustler Billy Hoyle, who teams up with black hustler Sidney Deane (Wesley Snipes) to scam suckers who think that you know what; Rosie Perez plays Hoyle's Jeopardy-loving babe Gloria Clemente; does $90.7M box office. David Markey's The Year Punk Broke is a documentary about Sonic Youth and Nirvana on tour in 1991. Art: Glenda Green (1945-), The Lamb and the Lion; New Age portrait of a Kevin Costner surfer boy Christ, a big hit. Damien Hirst (1965-), Pharmacy. Sally Mann (1951-), Immediate Family (photos). Brice Marden (1938-), Vine (1992-3). Roberto Matta (1911-2002), Champ du Vide; Cosmo-now; Le Desnomeur Renomme; Farfallacqua. James Rosenquist (1933-), Time Dust (7' x 35'). George Segal (1924-2000), Street Crossing (sculpture); installed in the College Ave. Promenade at Montclair State U. in N.J. 'Street Crossing' by George Segal (1924-2000), 1992 Spencer Tunick (1967-), Live Nudes in New York; begins his career of staging groups of nudes for installation art. Plays: Howard Brenton (1942-), Berlin Bertie (Royal Court Theatre, London); the fall of the Berlin Wall unites two sisters on Easter weekend Apr. 13-15, 1990. Per Olov Enquist (1934-), Kartritama. William Finn (1952-) and James Lapine (1949-), Falsettos (musical) (John Golden Theatre, New York) (Apr. 29) (487 perf.); dir. by Lapine; stars Michael Rupert as Marvin, Stephen Bogardus as Whizzer, Brbara Walsh as Trina, Chip Zien as mendel, Jonathan Kaplan as Jason, Heather MacRae as Charlotte, and Carolee Carmello as Cordella; starts out in 1979 New York City with Four Jews in a Room Bitching, incl. Marvin, his son Jason, his pshrink Mendel, who left his wife Trina for male lover Whizzer; also features Everyone Hates His Parents. Dario Fo (1926-), Johan Padan and the Discovery of the Americas. Maria Irene Fornes (1930-), Oscar and Bertha; Terra Incognita; music by Roberto Sierra. Athol Fugard (1932-), Playland. Herb Gardner (1934-2003), Conversations with My Father (Royale Theatre, New York) (Mar. 22) (402 perf.); dir. by Daniel Sullivan; Russian immigrant bartender Eddie Ross (Judd Hirsch) in Manhattan and his son Charlie (Tony Shalhoub) in 1936-76 suffer through assimilation. Beth Henley (1952-), Control Freaks. John Kander (1927-), Fred Ebb (1928-2004), Manuel Puig, Kiss of the Spider Woman (musical) (Shaftesbury Theatre, West End, London) (Oct. 20) (390 perf.) (Broadhurst Theatre, New York) (May 3, 1993) (904 perf.); dir. by Harold Prince; stars Brent Carver, Anthony Crivello, and Chita Rivera. Adrienne Kennedy (1931-), The Film Club; The Alexander Plays; incl. "She Talks to Beethoven", "The Ohio State Murders". Thomas Kilroy (1934-), The Madam MacAdam Travelling Theatre. Arthur Kopit (1937-), Phantom. Tony Kushner (1956-), Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes, Pt. 2: Perestroika (Jan.) (Royal Nat. Theatre, London); gays and AIDS in the Reagan era. David Mamet (1947-), Oleanna; a female college student ruins a prof.'s career simply because she can? Robert Schenkkan (1953-), The Kentucky Cycle (Los Angeles) (Jan. 6) (Pulitzer Prize). John Updike (1932-2009), Memories of the Ford Administration. Paula Vogel (1951-), The Baltimore Waltz. Wendy Wasserstein (1950-2006), The Sisters Rosensweig; a woman banker celebrates her 54th birthday with her two sisters. John Weidman (1946-) and Susan Stroman (1954-), Contact (musical) Mitzi E. Newhouse Theater, New York) (Sept. 9) (Vivian Beaumont Theater, New York) (Mar. 30, 2000) (1,010 perf.); dancers incl. Boyd Gaines, Jack Hayes, Deborah Yates; after it wins the 2000 Tony Award for Best Musical despite no original music or living singing, the Best Special Theatrical Event award is introduced in 2001. Michael Weller (1942-), Help. Poetry: Nanni Balestrini (1935-), Il Pubblico del Labirinto. Robert Bly (1926-), What Have I Ever Lost by Dying? Collected Prose Poems; his experiment that began in 1975. William Bronk (1918-99), Some Words. Norman Dubie (1945-), The Clouds of Magellan. Mari Evans (1923-), A Dark and Splendid Mass. Tess Gallagher (1943-), Moon Cross Bridge; about the death of hubby Raymond Carver (1938-88); I Stop Writing the Poem. William Gibson (1948-), Agrippa (A Book of the Dead); pub. on a 3.5 in. floppy disk that erases itself after a single use. Thom Gunn (1929-2004), The Man With Night Sweats. Donald Hall Jr. (1928-), Here at Eagle Pond. Seamus Heaney (1939-2013), The Golden Bough. Maxine Kumin (1925-), Looking for Luck. Irving Layton (1912-2006), Dance With Desire: Selected Love Poems. Denise Levertov (1923-97), Evening Train. William Matthews (1942-97), Selected Poems and Translations, 1969-1991. Frank McGuinness (1953-), Someone Who'll Watch Over Me. Mary Oliver (1935-), New and Selected Poems (Pulitzer Prize). Simon J. Ortiz (1941-), Woven Stone. Grace Paley (1922-2007), New and Collected Poems. Peter Dale Scott (1929-), Listening to the Cradle: A Poem on Impulse. Ntozake Shange (Paulette Williams) (1948-), Three Pieces. Charles Simic (1938-), Hotel Insomnia. Dave Smith (1942-), Night Pleasures: New and Selected Poems. Patricia Smith (1955-), Big Towns, Big Talk. Gerald Stern (1925-), Bread without Sugar. Donald Michael Thomas (1935-), The Puberty Tree. Wislawa Szymborska (1923-2012), Non-Required Reading. James Tate, Selected Poems (Pulitzer Prize). Dudley Weeks, So Far to Go When We Get There. C.K. Williams (1936-), A Dream of Mind; I Am the Bitter Name. James Arlington Wright (1927-80), Above the River: The Complete Poems (posth.). Novels: Peter Ackroyd (1949-), English Music. Jorge Amado (1912-2001), Navegacao de Cabotagem. Rudolfo Anaya (1937-), Albuquerque. Reinaldo Arenas (1943-90), Antes que Anochezca (Before Night Falls). Isaac Asimov (1920-92) and Robert Silverberg (1935-), The Positronic Man; filmed in 1999 as "Bicentennial Man". Margaret Atwood (1939-), Good Bones. Louis Auchincloss (1917-), False Gods (short stories). Paul Benjamin Auster (1947-), Leviathan; novelist Peter Aaron searches to write the story of Benjamin Sachs, who died in a bomb explosion. Clive Barker (1952-), The Thief of Always. Julian Barnes (1946-), The Porcupine; based on the life of Bulgarian Communist leader (1954-89) Todor Zhivkov (191-98). Greg Bear (1951-), Anvil of Stars; sequel to "Eon" (1987); the remnant left on Mars go after the Killers. Samuel Beckett (1906-89), Dream of Fair to Middling Women (posth.); written in 1932. Thomas Berger (1924-), Meeting Evil. Maeve Binchy (1940-), The Copper Beech. Robert Bloch (1917-94), The Jekyll Legacy. Heinrich Boll (1917-85), Der Engel Schwieg (The Silent Angel) (first novel) (posth.). Ben Bova and A.J. Austin, The Save the Sun; first in the To Save the Sun series (1992-4). Anita Brookner (1928-), Fraud. James Lee Burke (1936-), A Stained White Radiance. Herbert Burkholz (1933-2006), Brain Damage. Robert Olen Butler (1945-), A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain (short stories) (Pulitzer Prize). Pat Cadigan (1953-), My Brother's Keeper (short stories) (July); Fools (Nov.). Hortense Calisher (as Jack Fenno), The Small Bang. Mary Higgins Clark (1927-), All Around the Town. Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio (1940-), Wandering Star (Étoile Errante); set during WWII, about French Jew Esther, who emigrates to Jerusalem, and Arab orphan Nejma, who is prevented from emigrating to Akka. Paul Coelho (1947-), Maktub; By the River Piedra/ Sat Down and Wept. Richard Condon (1915-96), Prizzi's Money. Robin Cook (1940-), Blindsight. Catherine Cookson (1906-98), The House of Women; The Maltese Angel. Robert Cormier (1925-2000), Tunes for Bears to Dance To. Patricia Cornwell (1956-), All That Remains; 3rd Kay Scarpetta novel. Douglas Courland, Shampoo Planet; "The word history triggers Harmony into telling us his theory as to why so many people are going to the gym these days." Jim Crace (1946-), Arcadia. Harry Crews (1935-), Scar Lover; his masterpiece? Michael Crichton (1942-2008), Rising Sun; why Americans distrust the Japanese. Clive Cussler (1931-), Sahara; Dirk Pitt #11. Diane Mott Davidson (1949-), Catering to Nobody; introduces Goldy Schulz, a small town caterer who solves murder mysteries. Len Deighton (1929-), City of Gold. Rita Dove (1952-), Through the Ivory Gate (first novel). Stanley Elkin (1930-95), Van Gogh's Room at Arles. Harlan Ellison (1934-), The Man Who Rowed Christopher Columbus Ashore. James Ellroy (1948-), White Jazz. Paul Emil Erdman (1932-2007), The Swiss Account. Oriana Fallaci (1929-2006), Inshallah; Italian troops in 1983 Beirut. Robert Lull Forward (1932-2002), Timemaster. Jonathan Franzen (1959-), Strong Motion; the dysfunctional Holland family on the U.S. E coast. Esther Freud (1963-), Hideous Kinky; autobio. novel by daughter of British painter Lucian Freud about her hippy childhood in Morocco with elder sister Bella; filmed in 1998. Barry Gifford (1946-), 59 Degrees and Raining: The Story of Perdita Durango; Sailor and Lula #3 of 3; A Good Man to Know: A Semi-Documentary Fictional Memoir. Francisco Goldman (1954-), The Long Night of White Chickens (first novel); modern life in messed-up Guatemala. Joe Gores (1931-), 32 Cadillacs; Mostly Murder. Winston Graham (1908-2003), Stephanie. John Grisham (1955-), The Pelican Brief; govt. coverup in La.; filmed in 1993 by Alan J. Pakula. Gustav Hasford (1947-93), A Gypsy Good Time. Alice Hoffman (1952-), Turtle Moon. Janette Turner Hospital (1942-), The Last Magician. George V. Higgins (1939-99), Defending Billy Ryan; Jerry Kennedy #3. Jack Higgins (1929-), Eye of the Storm (Midnight Man); first of a series about Irish gunman Sean Dillon, who is hired by an Iraqi millionaire to kill British PM John Major. Peter Hoeg (1957-), Miss Smilla's Sense of (Feeling for) Snow; filmed in 1997. William Humphrey (1924-97), September Song (short stories). Denis Johnson (1949-), Jesus' Son (short stories); filmed in 1999. Ismail Kadare (1936-), The Pyramid. Cynthia Kadohata (1956-), In the Heart of the Valley of Love; Los Angeles in 2052. Thomas Keneally (1935-), Women of the Inner Sea. Michael Kennedy, Very Old Bones. John Kessel (1950-), Meeting in Infinity: Allegories & Extrapolations (short stories). Dean Koontz (1945-), Hideaway. Judith Krantz (1928-), Scruples Two. Pascal Laine (1942-), Dialogues du Desir. Wally Lamb (1950-), She's Come Undone (first novel). Elmore Leonard (1925-2013), Rum Punch. Hugh Leonard (1926-2009), Parnell and the Englishwoman (first and only novel). Larry Levis (1946-96), Black Freckles (first and only novel). Elinor Lipman (1950-), The Way Men Act. Herbert Lom (1917-), Dr. Guilloton: The Eccentric Exploits of an Early Scientist. Norman Maclean (1902-90), Young Men and Fire. Armistead Maupin Jr., Maybe the Moon; a female hetero Jewish dwarf char. based on Tamara De Treaux. William Keepers Maxwell Jr. (1908-2000), Billie Dyer and Other Stories (short stories). Cormac McCarthy (1933-), All the Pretty Horses (May); first of the Border Trilogy ("The Crossing", "Cities of the Plain"); bestseller; 16-y.-o. cowboy John Grady Cole moves from Tex. to Mexico with best friend Lacey Rawlins, meet Jimmy Blevins, and Alejandra, whom Cole hooks up with. Alice McDermott (1953-), At Weddings and Wakes. Thomas McGuane (1939-), Nothing but Blue Skies. Jay McInerney (1955-), Brightness Falls. Terry McMillan (1951-), Waiting to Exhale. Larry McMurtry (1936-), The Evening Star; sequel to "Terms of Endearment" (1975), about Aurora Greenway dealing with old age; Falling from Grace. D'Arcy McNickle (1904-77), The Hawk Is Hungry, and Other Stories. James A. Michener (1907-97), America. Stanley Middleton (1919-2009), A Place to Stand. Toni Morrison (1931-), Jazz. Sir John Mortimer (1923-2009), Rumpole on Trial; Dunster; The Oxford Book of Villains. Herta Muller (1953-), Der Fucs War Damals Schon der Jager. Katherine Neville (1945-), A Calculated Risk. John Treadwell Nichols (1940-), An Elegy for September; autobio. novel. Ruth Nichols (1948-), What Dangers Deep. Francois Nourissier (1927-), Le Gardien des Ruines. Joyce Carol Oates (1938-), Black Water. Patrick O'Brian (1914-2000), Clarissa Oakes (The Truelove); Aubrey-Maturin #15. Edna O'Brien (1930-), Time and Tide. Zoe B. Oldenbourg (1916-2002), Alienor: Piece en Quatre Tableaux. Michael Ondaatje (1943-), The English Patient; sequel to "In the Skin of a Lion" (197). Mary Pope Osborne (1949-), Dinosaurs Before Dark (Valley of the Dinosaurs) (July 28); first in the 28-vol. Magic Tree House series (ends 2003), which sells 100M copies. Sara Paretsky (1947-), Guardian Angel (Feb.); V.I. Warshawski #7. Robert Brown Parker (1932-2010), Double Deuce; Spenser #19. Jodi Picoult (1966-), Songs of the Humpback Whale. Reynolds Price (1933-), Blue Calhoun. Richard Price (1949-), Clockers; the drug war in Dempsey, N.J.; filmed in 1995 by Spike Lee. Francine Prose (1947-), Primitive People. E. Annie Proulx (1935-), Postcards (first novel); rural postwar New England. James Purdy (1914-2009), Out with the Stars; Dream Palace: Selected Stories, 1956-87. Daniel Quinn (1935-), Ishmael; New Age environmental novel; a telepathic gorilla places an ad reading "Teacher seeks pupil, must have an earnest desire to save the world"; followed by "The Story of B" (1996), "My Ishmael" (1997). Vance Randolph (1892-1980), Roll Me in Your Arms (short stories) (posth.); Blow the Candle Out (short stories) (posth.). Anne Rice (1941-), The Tale of the Body Thief; 4th in the Vampire Chronicles. Nora Roberts (1950-), Divine Evil; artist Clare Kimball and sheriff Cameron Rafferty in Emmitsboro, Md. Kim Stanley Robinson (1952-), Red Mars (Sept.); #2 in the Mars Trilogy. James Salter (1925-), Still Such. Lawrence Sanders (1920-98), McNally's Secret; McNally's Luck. Melissa Scott (1960-), Dreamships; virtual reality navigation of spaceships. Sidney Sheldon (1917-2007), The Stars Shine Down. Anne Rivers Siddons (1936-), Colony. Dan Simmons (1948-), Summer Sketches (short stories); The Hollow Man; based on Dante's Inferno. Lee Smith (1944-), The Devil's Dream. Martin Cruz Smith (1942-), Red Square; Arkady Renko #3. Terry Southern (1924-95), Texas Summer. LaVyrle Spencer (1943-), Forgiving (Feb. 1); Sarah Merritt and her sister Addie. Danielle Steel (1947-), Vanished. George Steiner (1929-), Proofs and Three Parables. Neal Town Stephenson (1959-), Snow Crash, about the Metaverse, a drug slash computer virus, and Hiro Protagonist, "Last of the Freelance Hackers and the Greatest Swordfighter in the World". Robert Stone (1937-), Outerbridge Reach. Whitley Strieber (1945-), Unholy Fire. David Storey (1933-), Storey's Lives: 1951-1991 (short stories). Graham Swift (1949-), Ever After. Amy Tan (1952-), The Moon Lady (first children's novel). Donald Michael Thomas (1935-), Flying in to Love. Colm Toibin (1955-), The Heather Blazing. Rose Tremain (1943-), Sacred Country. Thomas Tryon (1926-91), The Adventures of Opal and Cupid (posth.). Harry Turtledove (1949-), The Guns of the South: A Novel of the Civil War; pseduo-sci-fi plot has 20th cent. white supremacists travel back to give the Confederates AK-47s and help them win the war, only to see Gen. Robert E. Lee turn on them and become a bleeding heart liberal who frees the slaves? Barry Unsworth (1930-2012), Sacred Hunger; the mid-18th cent. African slave trade. Gore Vidal (1925-2012), Live from Golgotha: the Gospel according to Gore Vidal; a mysterious hacker from the future tries to erase Christianity. Vernor Vinge (1944-), A Fire Upon the Deep; the galaxy is divided into zones of thought where the higher levels of technology are farthest from the center; of course, the Unthinking Depths at the center is the realm of human intelligence, and Earth is in the Slow Zone. Robert James Waller (1939-), The Bridges of Madison County; "On the morning of August 8, 1965, Robert Kincaid locked the door to his small two-room apartment on the third floor of a rambling house." (first line) Joseph Wambaugh (1937-), Fugitive Nights. Fay Weldon (1931-), Growing Rich; Life Force. Paul West (1930-), Love's Mansion. John Edgar Wideman (1941-), The Homewood Books. Robert Anton Wilson (1932-2007), Reality Is What You Can Get Away With: An Illustrated Screenplay. Larry Woiwode (1941-), Indian Affairs; sequel to 1969's "What Am I Going to Do, I Think?" Catherine Woolf (Catherine Tramell) (1958-), Love Hurts; a devious diabolical-minded woman murders an Am. rock star in bed with an ice pick :) Births: Am. 4'10" Olympic gymnast Shawn Machel Johnson on Jan. 19 in West Des Moines, Iowa. Am. "William Evans in 3:10 to Yuma", "D'Artagnan in The Three Musketeers" actor (Jewish) Logan Wade Lerman on Jan. 19 in Beverly Hills, Calif. Am. "Lauren Cassidy in Judging Amy" actress Karle Warren on Feb. 8 in Salinas, Calif. Am. "Jacob Black in Twilight: Eclipse" actor Taylor Lautner on Feb. 11 in Grand Rapids, Mich. English "Finding Neverland" actor Alfred Thomas "Freddie" Highmore on Feb. 14 in London; son of Edward Highmore (1961-). German novelist Helene Hegemann on Feb. 19 in Freiburg im Breisgau. Am. "Lilly Truscott in Hannah Montana" actress-singer Emily Jordan Osment on Mar. 10 in Los Angeles, Calif.; sister of Haley Joel Osment (1988-). English "Effy Stonem in Skins", "Teresa in The Maze Runner" actress Kaya Rose Scodelario (Humphrey) on Mar. 13 in Haywards Heath; Brazilian mother. Am. 5'8" football RB (black) (Atlanta Falcons #24, 2014-) Devonta Freeman on Mar. 15 in Baxley, Ga.; educated at Florida State U. Am. 6'6 basketball player (black) (New York Knicks #5, 2013-) Timothy Duane "Tim" Hardaway Jr. on Mar. 16 in ?; educated at ?; son of Tim Hardaway Sr. (1966-); educated at the U. of Mich. English "Finn in Star Wars: The Force Awakens" actor (black) John Boyega on Mar. 17 in Peckham, London; Nigerian immigrant parents; educated at the U. of Greenwich. Czech 6'1" tennis player Karolina Pliskova on Mar. 21 in Louny; identical twin sister Kristyna. Am. 6'3" basketball player (black) (Cleveland Cavalers #2, 2011-) Kyrie Andrew Irving on Mar. 23 in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; emigrates to the U.S. at age 2; educated at Duke U. Am. "Brittany Loud in Flightplan" "Young Jean Grey in X-Men: The Last Stand" actress Haley Ramm on Mar. 26 in Collin, Tex. English "Rey in Star Wars: The Force Awakens" actress Daisy Jazz Isobel Ridley on Apr. 10 in Westminster, London; educated at the U. of London. Am. child bodybuilder ("Little Hercules") Richard Sandrak on Apr. 15 in Ukraine; emigrates to the U.S. at age 2. Am. 6'7" baseball outfielder (Christian) (New York Yankees #99, 2016-) Aaron James Judge on Apr. 26 in Linden, Calif. Am. 6'5" football QB (Jacksonville Jaguars #5, 2014-) Robby Blake Bortles on Apr. 28 in Altamonte Springs, Fla.; educated at U. of Central Fla. Am. "Walt Lloyd in Lost" actor Malcolm David Kelley on May 12 in Bellflower, Calif. Am. "The Cat in the Hat" actor Spencer Breslin on May 18 in New York City; brother of Abigail Breslin (1996-). English "Lay Me Down", "Money on My Mind" singer-songwriter (gay) Samuel Frederick "Sam" Smith on May 19 in London. Am. 6'1" football WR (black) (Houston Texans #10, 2013-) DeAndre "Nuk" Hopkins on June 6 in Central, S.C.; educated at Clemson U. Am. "Juni Cortez in Spy Kids" actor (Jewish) Daryl Christopher Sabara on June 14 in Torrance, Calif. Dominican baseball outfielder (St. Louis Cardinals, 2014-) Oscar Francisco Taveras (d. 2014) on June 19 in Puerto Plata. South African 6'0" Olympic sprinter (black) Wayde van Niekerk on July 15 in Cape Town. Am. "Chanel #3 in Scream Queens" actress Billie Catherine Lourd on July 17 in Los Angels, Calif.; daughter of Carrie Fisher (1956-) and Bryan Lourd (1960-); educated at NYU. Am. "Alex Russo in Wizards of Waverly Place" actress-singer (Roman Catholic) Selena Marie Gomez on July 22 (Selena Gomez and the Scene) in Grand Prairie, Tex.; Mexican-Am. father, half-Italian descent mother. Am. baeball pitcher (Miami Marlins, 2013-16) Jose D. Fernandez (d. 2016) on July 31 in Santa Clara, Cuba. Am. actors Dylan Thomas Sprouse and Cole Mitchell Sprouse on Aug. 4 in Arezzo, Tuscany, Italy. Am. auto racer John Edward "Jeb" Burton IV on Aug. 6 in Halifax, Va.; son of Ward Burton (1961-); nephew of Jeff Burton (1967-). Am. "Mitchie Torres in Camp Rock" actress-singer Demetria Devonne "Demi" Lovato on Aug. 20 in Dallas, Tex. Am. "Walter White Jr. in Breaking Bad" actor R.J. Mitte on Aug. 21 in Lafayette, La. Am. musician-actor Nicholas Jerry "Nick" Jonas (Jonas Brothers) on Sept. 16 in Dallas, Tex.; brother of Kevin Jonas (1987-) and Joe Jonas (1989-). Romanian 5'6" tennis player Simona Halep on Sept 27 in Constanta. Am. "Jess Aarons in Bridge to Terabithia", "Robert in Red Dawn" actor Joshua Ryan "Josh" Hutcherson on Oct. 12 in Union, Ky. Am. "Chris in Everybody Hates Chris" actor (black) Tyler James Williams on Oct. 9 in Westchester County, N.Y.; debuts on "Sesame Street" at age 4 (1996-2002); father is a pig, er, policeman. Am. "Greg Wuliger in Everybody Hates Chris" actor Vincent Michael Martella on Oct. 15 in Rochester, N.Y. Am. "Drew in Everybody Hates Chris" actor (black) Tequan Richmond on Oct. 30 in Milwaukee, Wisc. Am. 5'11" football WR (black) (New York Giants #13, 2014-) Odell Beckham Jr. on Nov. 5 in New Orleans, La.; educated at LSU. Am. 6'2" quarterback (black) (Minnesota Vikings #5, 2014-) Theodore Edmond "Teddy" Bridgewater II on Nov. 10 in Miami, Fla.; educated at Louisville U. Am. "Hannah Montana" actress-singer Destiny Hope "Miley Ray" Cyrus on Nov. 23 in Franklin (near Nashville), Tenn.; daughter of Billy Ray Cyrus (1961-); sister of Trace Cyrus (1989-) and Noah Cyrus (2000-); Miley is short for Smiley. Am. "Us Against Them" rapper Jacob Harris "Jake" Miller on Nov. 28 in Weston, Fla. Deaths: Am. Eskimo Pie inventor Christian Kent Nelson (b. 1893) on Mar. 8 in Laguna Hills, Calif. Am. comedy film/TV producer Hal Roach (b. 1892) on Nov. 2 in Bel Air, Calif. (pneumonia); dies 2 mo. before his 101st birthday. German-born Am. choreographer Hanya Holm (b. 1893) on Nov. 2 in New York City. Am. Nembutal/Pentothal chemist Ernest Henry Volwiler (b. 1893) on Oct. 3 in Lake Forest, Ill. Am. ambassador Fletcher Warren (b. 1896) on Jan. 8. French Cordon Bleu owner (1945-84) Madame Elisabeth Brassart (b. 1897). Am. billionaire shipping magnate Daniel Keith Ludwig (b. 1897) on Aug. 27. Australian actress Dame Judith Anderson (b. 1898) on Jan. 3. French actress Arletty (b. 1898) on July 24; went nearly blind in 1963 from an accident; in 1995 the French govt. issues a 100 franc Arletty coin. Am. "Hazel" actress Shirley Booth (b. 1898) on Oct. 16 in North Chatham, Mass. Austrian-born British economist Friedrich August von Hayek (b. 1899) on Mar. 23 in Freiburg, Germany; 1974 Nobel Econ. Prize; greatest socioeconomic scholar of the 20th cent.? Am. college basketball coach Tony Hinkle (b. 1899) on Sept. 22. Austrian-born Jewish-to-Muslim convert writer Muhammad Asad (b. 1900) on Feb. 23 in Granada, Spain. Dutch Oort Cloud astronomer Jan Hendrik Oort (b. 1900) on Nov. 5 in Leiden. Am. actress Stella Adler (b. 1901) on Dec. 21 in Los Angeles, Calif. (heart failure); teacher of Marlon Brando. German-born Hollywood actress legend Marlene Dietrich (b. 1901) in Paris on May 6: "I'm a realist and so I think regretting is a useless occupation. You help no one with it. But you can't live without illusions even if you must fight for them, such as 'love conquers all'. It isn't true, but I would like it to be"; "I have a child and I made a few people happy - that is all." French nuclear physicist Francis Perrin (b. 1901) on July 4. German philosopher-activist Gunther Anders (b. 1902) on Dec. 17 in Vienna. Am. writer-activist Kay Boyle (b. 1902) on Dec. 27 in Mill Valley, Calif. Am. actress Natalie Joyce (b. 1902) on Nov. 9 in San Diego, Calif. Am. geneticist Barbara McClintock (b. 1902) on Sept. 2 in Huntington, N.Y.; 1983 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. fashion designer Mollie Parnis (b. 1902) on July 18 in New York City. Am. "King of Country Music" Roy Acuff (b. 1903) on Nov. 23 in Nashville, Tenn. (heart failure). Canadian hockey hall-of-fame player Ace Bailey (b. 1903) on Apr. 7 in Toronto, Ont. Am. Looney Tunes animator Rudy Ising (b. 1903) on July 18 in Newport Beach, Calif. Am. "Lamb in His Bosom" novelist Caroline Miller (b. 1903) on July 12. Ukrainian-born Am. violinist Nathan Milstein (b. 1903) on Dec. 21 in London. English children's writer Mary Norton (b. 1903) on Aug. 29. English artist John Piper (b. 1903) on June 28 in Fawley Bottom, Buckinghamshire: "Abstraction is the way to the heart - it is not the heart itself"; "Abstraction is a luxury that has been left to the present day to exploit." Am. "wunnerful, wunnerful" bandleader Lawrence Welk (b. 1903) on May 17 in Santa Monica, Calif.: "Keep a song in your heart." Am. actor Howard Ralston (b. 1904) on June 1 in Los Angeles, Calif. Russian actor Feodor Chaliapin Jr. (b. 1905) on Sept. 17 in Rome, Italy. French WWII Col. Pierre Billotte (b. 1906) on June 29. French mathematician Jean Dieudonne (b. 1906) on Nov. 29. U.S. Navy rear Adm. (computer pioneer) Grace Murray Hopper (b. 1906) on Jan. 1: known for illustrating what a nanosecond is by handing out 11-in. (30 cm) wires, and what a picosecond is by handing out packets of pepper; "It's easier to ask forgiveness than it is to get permission"; "A ship in a harbor is safe, but that is not what a ship is built for." Am. NASA chief #2 (1961-8) James Edwin Webb (b. 1906) on Mar. 27 in Washington, D.C. Italian scientist Daniel Bovet (b. 1907); 1957 Nobel Med. Prize. Am. "Gentle Ben" author Walt Morey (b. 1907) on Jan. 12 in Wilsonville, Ore. Am. biographer William Andrew Swanberg (b. 1907) on Sept. 17 in Southbury, Conn. Austrian "Victor Laszlo in Casablanca" actor Paul Henreid (b. 1908) on Mar. 29 in Santa Monica, Calif. Am. sports announcer Red Barber (b. 1908) on Oct. 22 in Tallahassee, Fla. French birdcall-loving composer Olivier Messiaen (b. 1908) on Apr. 27 in Paris. Am. blues-jazz pianist Sammy Price (b. 1908) on Apr. 14. Irish surrealist painter Francis Bacon (b. 1909) on Apr. 28 in Madrid. Am. Western actor-singer Cottonseed Clark (b. 1909) on Jan. 14 in Thousand Oaks, Calif. Puerto Rican actor-dir. Jose Ferrer (b. 1909) on Jan. 26 in Coral Gables, Fla. Am. NASCAR founder Bill France Sr. (b. 1909) on June 7 in Ormond Beach, Fla. U.S. Rep. (R-N.J.) (1975-83) Millicent Fenwick (b. 1910) on Sept. 16 in Bernardsville, N.J. (heart failure); model for Lacy Davenport in Garry Trudeau's comic stirp "Doonesbury"? Romanian-born English bridge champ Rixi Markus (b. 1910) on Apr. 4. Am. composer William Howard Schuman (b. 1910) on Feb. 15. Am. tape dancer Charles "Honi" Coles (b. 1911) on Nov. 12 in New York City. Am. actor Gene O'Donnell (b. 1911) on Nov. 22 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, Calif. Soviet diplomat Vladimir Semyonov (b. 1911) on Dec. 18 in Moscow. Danish WWII spy Wulf Schmidt (b. 1911) on Oct. 19. Am. "Elmer Gantry", "In Cold Blood" dir. Richard Brooks (b. 1912) on Mar. 11 in Los Angeles, Calif. (heart failure). Am. experimental composer John Cage (b. 1912) on Aug. 12 in New York City: "If my work is accepted, I must move on to the point where it is not." Am. "Come September" playwright-screenwriter Robert Wallace Russell (b. 1912) on Feb. 11 in New York City. Am. TV journalist Eric Sevareid (b. 1912) on July 9 in Washington, D.C. (cancer): "Edward R. Murrow created me"; "The biggest big business in America is... the manufacture, refinement and distribution of anxiety." Am. philosopher William Christopher Barrett (b. 1913). Israeli PM (1977-83) Menachem Begin (b. 1913) on Mar. 9. Am. Miss America MC (1955-79) Bert Parks (b. 1914) on Feb. 2 in La Jolla, Calif. (lung cancer). Italian fashion designer Emilio Pucci (b. 1914) on Nov. 29 in Florence. Am. Superman artist Joe Shuster (b. 1914) on July 30 in Los Angeles, Calif.; dies blind and broke. Am. actor John Dehner (b. 1915) on Feb. 4, Santa Barbara, Calif. Am. blues songwriter Willie Dixon (b. 1915) on Jan. 29 in Burbank, Calif. (heart failure). Am. TV producer Mark Goodson (b. 1915) on Dec. 18 in New York City. Am. artist Jon Schueler (b. 1916) on Aug. 5. Am. quantum physicist David Bohm (b. 1917) on Oct. 27 in Hendon, London (heart attack). British pilot Capt. Leonard Cheshire (b. 1917) on July 31 in Cavendish, Suffolk. Am. TV game show producer Dan Enright (b. 1917) on May 22 in Stanford, Calif. (cancer). English comic actor Frankie Howerd (b. 1917) on Apr. 18 in Fulham, London. Am. Vernon Howard (b. 1918) on Aug. 23. Am. Western Swing musician Hank Penny (b. 1918) on Apr. 17 in Calif. (heart failure). Am. billionaire Wal-Mart founder Sam Walton (b. 1918) on Apr. 5 in Little Rock, Ark. Green archeologist Manolis Andronikos (b. 1919) on Mar. 30 in Thessaloniki. Am. actor Steve Brodie (b. 1919) on Jan. 9 in West Hills, Calif. Am. judge George Harrold Carswell (b. 1919) on July 13 in Tallahassee, Fla. (lung cancer). Am. singer Paula Kelly (b. 1919) on Apr. 2. Russian-born Am. "I, Robot" novelist-writer Isaac Asimov (b. 1920) on Apr. 6 in New York City (AIDS); authored 400+ books, becoming the only author to have a book in every major Dewey Decimal category: "Violence is the first refuge of the incompetent"; "I do not fear computers, I fear the lack of them"; "If I were not an atheist, I would believe in a God who would choose to save people on the basis of the totality of their lives and not the pattern of their words." Am. actor Neville Brand (b. 1920) on Apr. 16 in Sacramento, Calif. (emphysema). Am. "Det. Harry McSween in Dallas" actor James E. Brown (b. 1920) on Apr. 11 in Woodland Hills, Calif. (lung cancer). Japanese comic strip artist Machiko Hasegawa (b. 1920) on May 27 in Taku, Saga Prefecture. English ATP biochemist Peter Dennis Mitchell (b. 1920) on Apr. 10; 1978 Nobel Chem. Prize. English children's novelist Rosemary Sutcliff (b. 1920) on July 23 in Chichester, West Sussex. Am. Disneyland developer C.V. Wood (b. 1920) on Mar. 14. Am. "Rifleman" actor Chuck Connors (b. 1921) on Nov. 10 in Los Angeles (lung cancer). Am. New Orleans district atty. (1961-73) Jim Garrison (b. 1921) on Oct. 21 Am. "Roots" novelist Alex Haley (b. 1921); buried in Henny, Tenn. Swedish actor Carl-Gustaf Lindstedt (b. 1921) on Jan. 16 in Stockholm. Argentine tango composer Astor Piazzolla (b. 1921) on July 4 in Buenos Aires. English "Dr. Marcus Brody in Indiana Jones" actor Denholm Elliott (b. 1922) on Oct. 6 in Ibiza, Spain (AIDS). Am. "Born Under a Bad Sign" blues guitarist Albert King (b. 1923) on Dec. 21 in Memphis, Tenn. (heart attack). English comedian Benny Hill (b. 1924) on Apr. 18 in Teddington. Hungarian-Am. computer scientist (BASIC inventor) John George Kemeny (b. 1926) on Dec. 26 in Hanover, N.H. French "La Cage Aux Folles" playwright Jean Poiret (b. 1926) on Mar. 14 in Paris (heart attack). British architect Sir James Stirling (b. 1926) on June 25 in London. Am. "Revolutionary Road" novelist Richard Yates (b. 1926) on Nov. 7 in Birmingham, Ala. (emphysema). Irish-Am. actor James FitzSimons (b. 1927) on Dec. 3 in Glendale, Calif.; brother of Maureen O'Hara (1920-). Am. "Bart Maverick" actor Jack Kelly (b. 1927) on Nov. 7 in Huntington Beach, Calif. Am. computer scientist-psychologist Allen Newell (b. 1927) on July 19. English "kitchen sink" painter John Randall Bratby (b. 1928) on July 20 in Hastings, Sussex. Am. "The Platters" singer Tony Williams (b. 1928) on Aug. 14 in New York City (emphysema). Am. "A Fan's Notes" novelist Frederick Exley (b. 1929). Scottish ballet dancer-choreographer Sir Kenneth MacMillan (b. 1929) on Oct. 29 in London (heart attack). Am. "Darrin Stephens #1 on Bewitched" Dick York (b. 1928) on Feb. 2 in Grand Rapids, Mich. (emphysema). Am. philosopher Allan Bloom (b. 1930) on Oct. 7 in Chicago, Ill. (AIDS). Am. "Psycho" actor Anthony Perkins (b. 1932) on Sept. 12 in Hollywood, Calif. (AIDS); his widow Berry Berenson (b. 1948) dies on 9/11 on AA Flight 11. French chef Jacques Pic (b. 1932) on Sept. 19 in Valence. Am. poet-writer Audre Lorde (b. 1934) on Nov. 17 in St. Croix, Virgin Islands (breast cancer). Am. "King of the Road" singer Roger Miller (b. 1936) on Oct. 25 (lung cancer). Soviet world chess champ #9 (1960-1) Mikaihl Tal (b. 1936) on June 28. Am. "Jason and the Argonauts" actor Todd Armstrong (b. 1937) on Nov. 17 in Butte, Calif. Afghan historian Mohammad Yousuf Azraq (b. 1937) on Jan. 27 in Kabul. Am. songwriter Bobby Russell (b. 1940) on Nov. 19 in Nicholasville, Ky. (heart failure). English novelist Angela Carter (b. 1940) on Feb. 16 (cancer). Am. composer Stephen Albert (b. 1941) on Dec. 27 in Cape Cod, Mass. (automobile accident). Am. "My Guy" singer Mary Wells (b. 1943) on July 26 in Los Angeles, Calif. (laryngeal cancer). Am. "Home Cooking" novelist Laurie Colwin (b. 1944) on Oct. 24 (heart failure). German Green Party founder Petra Karin Kelly (b. 1947) on Oct. 1 in Bonn; murdered in her sleep by her lover Gert Bastian (b. 1923), who then commits suicide. Am. "Last Dance" singer-songwriter Paul Jabara (b. 1948) on Sept. 29 in Los Angeles, Calif. (AIDS). English singer Paul Ryan (b. 1948) on Nov. 29 (cancer). Am. comic Sam Kinison (b. 1953) on Apr. 10 in Needles, Calif. (car accident); he was sober but the other driver was drunk? Am. "The Holographic Universe" writer Michael Talbot (b. 1953) on May 27 (leukemia); calls his affliction "an unfashionable disease" since he's gay and doesn't have AIDS. Am. rock drummer Jeff Porcaro (b. 1954) on Aug. 5 in Los Angeles, Calif.; dies of a heart attack from inhaling insecticide in his garden. Am. gay artist David Wojnarowicz (b. 1954) on July 22 in New York City (AIDS).



1993 - The Balladur Hair Year of Bill and Hillary, Waco, WTC One, Bobbitt, and Babbitt? Non-penile crime in the U.S. falls to a 20-year low, but religious fanaticism comes through with two statistics-busters in a two-day period?

Mogadishu, 1993 David Koresh (1959-93) Waco Siege, Apr. 19, 1993 William Jefferson Clinton of the U.S. (1946-) Hillary Rodham Clinton of the U.S. (1947-) Al Gore (1948-) and Tipper Gore (1947-) of the U.S. Chelsea Clinton of the U.S. (1980-) Socks (1991-) and Buddy (1997-2002) Warren Minor Christopher of the U.S. (1925-) Bruce Babbitt of the U.S. (1938-) Leslie 'Les' Aspin Jr. of the U.S. (1938-95) Robert Bernard Reich of the U.S. (1946-) Robert Edward Rubin of the U.S. (1938-) Mike Espy of the U.S. (1953-) Federico Peña of the U.S. (1947-) Leon Panetta of the U.S. (1938-) Vernon Jordan of the U.S. (1935-) Ronald Harmon Brown of the U.S. (1941-96) Anthony Lake of the U.S. (1939-) Donna Edna Shalala of the U.S. (1941-) Carol Browner of the U.S. (1955-) Dennis B. Ross of the U.S. (1948-) Tom Foley of the U.S. (1929-2013) Joseph Stiglitz of the U.S. (1943-) Lawrence Summers of the U.S. (1954-) Zoe Baird of the U.S. (1952-) Bernard W. Nussbaum of the U.S. (1937-) Haim Saban (1944-) Jiang Zemin of China (1924-) Edouard Balladur of France (1929-) Kim Campbell of Canada (1947-) Jean Chrétien of Canada (1934-) Ezer Weizman of Israel (1924-2005) Gulbuddin Hekmatyar of Afghanistan (1947-) Radoje Kontic of Yugoslavia (1937-) Zoran Lilic of Yugoslavia (1953-) Nikola Sainovic of Serbia (1948-) Redha Malek of Algeria (1931-) Kay Bailey Hutchinson of the U.S. (1943-) Ruth Bader Ginsburg of the U.S. (1933-) Joycelyn Elders of the U.S. (1933-) Morihiro Hosokawa of Japan (1938-) Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada of Bolivia (1930-) Fernando Henrique Cardoso of Brazil (1931-) Ramiro de Leon Carpio of Guatemala (1942-2002) Süleyman Demirel of Turkey (1924-2015) Isayas Afewerki of Eritrea (1946-) King Muwenda Mutebi II of Buganda (1955-) Melchior Ndadaye of Burundi (1953-93) Cyprien Ntaryamira of Burundi (1955-994) Nikica Valentic of Croatia (1950-) Alija Izetbegovic of Bosnia-Herzegovina (1925-2003) U.S. Adm. Philip Gardner Howe III (1962-) U.S. Gen. William F. 'Bill' Garrison (1944-) Michael J. Durant of the U.S. (1961-) Abdi Hassan Awale Qeybdiid of Somalia (1948-) Jose Maria Sison of the Philippines (1939-) Henri Konan Bédié of Ivory Coast (1934-) Floyd I. Clarke of the U.S. Louis J. Freeh of the U.S. (1950-) Vince Foster of the U.S. (1945-93) Maggie Williams of the U.S. (1954-) Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman (1938-2017) Gen. Sani Abacha of Nigeria (1943-98) Cardinal Joseph Bernardin (1928-96) Ruth Dreifuss of Switzerland (1940-) Gian Luigi Ferri (1937-93) Mike Tyson (1966-) Desiree Washington (1973-) Jean Kennedy Smith of the U.S. (1928-) Jeremy R. Azrael (1935-2009) Uri Avneri (1923-) Erin Brokovich (1960-) Abdul Majeed al-Zindani of Yemen (1942-) Rudolf Gantenbrink Baby Jessica (1991-) West Memphis Three Lorena Bobbitt (1970-) John Bobbitt (1967-) Joel David Rifkin (1959-) Jenny Cockell (1953-) Daniel Andre Green (1974-) Martin Duberman (1930-) Sebastian Faulks (1953-) Ernest J. Gaines (1933-) Steven Pressman (1955-) Michael Tucker Heidi Fleiss (1965-) Kathleen Willey Mir Aimal Kasi (1964-2002) Muslim American Society Dr. Ahmed Elkadi (-2009) Wright Mahdi Bray (1950-) Phillip Allen Sharp (1944-) Andrew C. McCarthy III of the U.S. Lani Guinier (1950-) Martha Stewart (1941-) Ian Murdock (1973-) Paul Bernardo (1964-) and Karla Homolka (1970-) Nathan Dunlap (1974-) Colin Ferguson (1958-) Dale Jarrett (1956-) Troy Aikman (1966-) Andres Galarraga (1961-) Ken Griffey Jr. (1969-) Charles Barkley (1963-) John Paxson (1960-) Micheal Williams (1966-) Monica Seles (1973-) Mike Holmgren (1948-) Gary Bettman (1952-) David Volek (1966-) Mike Aulby (1960-) Patrick Roy (1965-) Anaheim Ducks Logo Anaheim Arena, 1993 Florida Panthers Logo Wayne Huizenga (1937-) Broward County Civic Arena, 1998 Toby Keith (1961-) Frederik Willem de Klerk (1936-) Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) Toni Morrison (1931-) Robert Leroy Bartley (1937-2003) Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. (1941-) Russell Alan Hulse (1950-) Michael Robert Kremer (1964-) Kary Banks Mullis (1944-) Sir Richard John Roberts (1943-) Michael Smith (1932-2000) Philip Allen Sharp (1944-) Charles Stross (1964-) Robert William Fogel (1926-) Douglass Cecil North (1920-) George Arthur Akerlof (1940-) Paul M. Romer (1955-) Lidia Bastianich (1947-) Joe Bastianich (1968-) John Brian Taylor (1946-) T. Coraghessan Boyle (1948-) Jack Canfield (1944-) Hans Carlsson Eric van Damme (1956-) Andrei Codrescu (1946-) Jeffrey Eugenides (1960-) Mark Victor Hansen (1948-) Deborah Laake (1953-2000) Jean-Jacques Laffont (1947-2004) Jean Tirole (1953-) David Levering Lewis (1936-) David Malouf (1934-) Susan Powter (1958-) James Redfield (1950-) Matthew Rabin (1963-) Carol Shields (1935-2003) Will Shortz (1952-) Ahdaf Soueif (1950-) Rodney Stich (1923-) Lester Thurow (1938-) Irvine Welsh (1958-) 'And the Band Played On', 1993 'NYPD Blue', 1993-2005 Babylon 5, 1994-8 'Coneheads', 1993 'Star Trek: Deep Space Nine', 1993-9 'The X-Files', starring David Duchovny (1960-) and Gillian Anderson (1968-), 1993-2002 Chris Carter (1956-) Mark Snow (1946-) 'Beavis and Butt-Head', 1993-7 Mike Judge (1962-) 'Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman', 1993-8 'Frasier', 1993-2004 'Iron Chef', 1993-9 'The Nanny', 1993-9 Bill Maher (1956-) 'Whoop-Dee-Doo!', 1993 'Cyborg 2', 1993 'Cool Runnings', 1993 'Dazed and Confused', 1993 'Demolition Man', 1993 'Fire in the Sky', 1993 'The Firm', 1993 'The Fugitive', 1993 'Gettysburg', 1993 'Groundhog Day', 1993 'Jurassic Park', 1993 'Kalifornia', 1993 'Mrs. Doubtfire', 1993 'Much Ado About Nothing', 1993 'The Pelican Brief', 1993 'Philadelphia', 1993 'The Remains of the Day', 1993 'Schindlers List', 1993 'Six Degrees of Separation', 1993 'The Thing Called Love', 1993 John Leguizamo (1964-) Dominic Sena (1949-) Danny Cannon (1968-) David Arnold (1962-) U.S. Holocaust Museum, 1993 Mojo Magazine, 1993- Korn (KoRn) Big Head Todd and the Monsters Better Than Ezra Sheryl Crow (1962-) Tina Turner (1939-) Melissa Etheridge (1961-) Toni Braxton (1968-) Diana Krall (1964-) Vanilla Ice (1967-) Candlebox Haddaway (1965-) Maverick Records 4 Non Blondes Cake Snoop Dogg (1971-) Wu-Tang Clan Björk (1965-) Collective Soul The Cranberries Suede Juno Reactor 311 Sean Combs (1969-) Bone Thugs-n-Harmony Bad Boy Records Harry Connick Jr. (1967-) Oystein 'Euronymous' Aarseth (1968-93) Amit Saigal (1965-2012) 'A Perfect World' by Peter Halley, 1993 David Salle (1952-) 'Picture Builder' by David Salle (1952-), 1993 The Alamodome, 1993 Beanie Babies, 1993 Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, 1993-5 Lagunitas Brewing Co. Left Hand Brewing Co. Snow Beer Logo

1993 Doomsday Clock: 17 min. to midnight. Chinese Year: Rooster (Jan. 23) (lunar year 4691). Time Mag. Man of the Year: The Peacemakers (Yasser Arafat, F.W. de Klerk, Nelson Mandela, Yitzhak Rabin. After passing Japan in 1989, this year the U.S. finally passes Germany as the world's leading exporter of manufacturing goods ($350B), showing a 1.5% gain in nat. productivity (12% since 1973); the other leading exporting nations (France, Italy, U.K.) all have 39% or greater productivity gains since 1973. WHO declares tuberculosis (TB) a global health emergency; by 2005 new cases level off, decreasing from 13.6 per million in 2004 to 13.5, killing 1.6M in 2005 (4.4K a day). After an upsurge in cases associated with HIV and AIDS, and the growth of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains, the World Health Org. (WHO) declares a global emergency over tuberculosis (TB). On Jan. 1 Michigan defeats Washington by 38-31 in the 1993 Rose Bowl. On Jan. 1 the Velvet Divorce sees Czech. split into into its two nat. components, the Czech Repub. (capital Prague) and Slovak Repub. (capital Bratislava - only nat. capital bordering two independent countries). On Jan. 1 the terrorist group Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) ("Islamic Congregation") is founded by Abu Bakar Bashir and Abdullah Sungkar while in hiding in Malaysia from the Suharto govt., returning in 1998 and establishing connections with al-Qaida via founder Abdullah Sungkar; in Mar. 2015 their humanitarian wing Hilal Ahmar Society Indonesia (HASI) is added to the U.N. list of sanctioned al-Qaida entities. On Jan. 1 Beth Sullivan's Western drama series Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman debuts on CBS-TV for 150 episodes (May 16, 1998), starring London, England-born Jane Seymour (Joyce Penelope Wilhelmina Frankenberg) (1951-) as Dr. Michaela "Mike" Quinn, who leaves Boston, Mass. and settles in Colorado Springs, Colo. in 1867, hooking up with handsome hunky rugged outdoorsman Byron Sully, played by Joseph "Joe" Lando (1961-). On Jan. 2 peace talks begin in Geneva between Bosnian pres. Alija Izetbegovic, the Bosnian Serbs, and the Bosnian Croats. On Jan. 3 the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) II is signed by U.S. Pres. George H.W. Bush and Russian Pres. Boris Yeltsin, banning the use of MIRVs (Multiple Independently Targetable Reentry Vehicles) on ICBMs; the U.S. Senate ratifies it on Jan. 26, 1996 by a 87-4 vote, followed by Russia on Apr. 14, 2000, who withdraw on June 14, 2001 after the U.S. withdraws from the ABM Treaty. On Jan. 3 Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (DS9) debuts for 176 episodes (until June 2, 1999), set in the 2370s on a space station, starring Avery Franklin Brooks (1948-) as commanding officer Benjamin Sisko, Nana Visitor (Tucker) (1957-) as Bajoran First Officer Maj. Kira Nerys, Rene Murat Auberjonois (1940-) as Changeling Constable Odo, Sudan-born Alexander Siddig (Siddig El Fadil) (1965-) as Chief Medical Officer Lt. Julian Bashir, Theresa Lee "Terry" Farrell (1963-) as Trill Chief Science Officer Jadzia Dax, Michael Dorn (1952-) as Klingon First Officer Lt. Cmdr. Worf, and Colm J. Meaney (1953-) as chief of operations Miles O'Brien. On Jan. 7 Macedonia submits its application for U.N. membership; in Feb. Greece steps in and objects to the use of the name Macedonia, claiming it as theirs from historical use, and that it shouldn't be adopted by Slavs, who might have designs on N Greece; internat. arbitration results. On Jan. 8 (his 58th birthday) the U.S. Post Office issues an Elvis Presley stamp (29 cents), and prints 50M copies, becoming the first rocker so honored. On Jan. 9 police find the bodies of seven people shot to death in a fast food restaurant in Chicago suburb Palatine, Ill. in the restaurant's coolers; no suspects are charged by the end of the year. On Jan. 10 Momir Bulatovic wins a runoff election to be reelected pres. of Montenegro (until Jan. 15, 1998). On Jan. 13 the U.N. opens the Chemical Weapons Convention for signing in Paris; it doesn't take effect until Apr. 29, 1997, when it gives nations 10 years to destroy their stockpiles. On Jan. 14 the Trilateral Statement eliminates Ukraine's nukes left over from the Soviet era. The brains of LBJ, the gonads of Elvis? On Jan. 20 Ark.-born Georgetown U. grad, Oxford Rhodes scholar (first to become pres.) and Yale Law School grad., former Ark. gov., saxophone player ("first black U.S. pres.") (first pres. whose middle name honors a predecessor) (Ronald Wilson Reagan, whose middle name was his mother's surname, was born the year before Woodrow Wilson's election) (2nd pres. who took a stepfather's surname) (first was Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr.); 3rd youngest president (Theodore Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy) (4th post-WWII pres. with Southern ancestry) (Truman, Lyndon Johnson, and Carter) ("first pres. to wear a tangerine lalalala speedo"?) (can't type) William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (1946-) (Secret Service codename: Eagle/Elvis after his favorite singer) becomes the 42nd U.S. pres. (until 2001) in the 61st U.S. Pres. Inaguration; the 7th lefty U.S. pres. (last G.H.W. Bush); 2nd pres. with a changed name (William Jefferson Blythe III) (first Ford) (next ?); Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Jr. (1948-) (Secret Service codename: Sawhorse/Sundance) becomes the 45th U.S. vice-pres.; the 2nd time that the U.S. has six living presidents (Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush, Clinton); the youngest combined age of pres. and vice-pres. (90) (until ?); Clinton's first inauguration is in keeping with his status as America's first Baby Boomer pres., and features Maya Angelou reciting her poem On the Pulse of the Morning, and Fleetwood Mac performing "Don't Stop" (Bill's favorite thing for a woman to say?), scaring conservatives half to death and crystallizing desperate all-out desires to 'get' him?; Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (1947-) (Secret Service codename: Evergreen) becomes the first First Lady to have her own office in the White House, where it is rumored that she is the real president, has hairy balls, etc. (the first FLOTUS to become POTUS?); First Dog is Labrador retriever Buddy (1997-2002) (named after Bill's dog trainer great-uncle Henry Oren "Buddy" Grisham, who died 3 mo. before it was born in Sept.), and First Cat is Socks (1989-2009) (who was "voted out of office" when Buddy arrived, because he can't stand him); First Daughter Chelsea Victoria Clinton (1980-) (Secret Service codename: Energy) is kept out of the public spotlight; Pres. Clinton appoints Warren Minor Christopher (1925-) as U.S. secy. of state #63 (until Jan. 17, 1997) (not the actor William Christopher who played Father Mulcahy in M*A*S*H, he was born in 1932), Robert Edward Rubin (1938-) as U.S. treasury secy. (until 1999), Leslie "Les" Aspin Jr. (1938-95) as U.S. defense secy. #18 (until Feb. 3, 1994), Robert Bernard Reich (1946-) as U.S. labor secy. #22 (until 1997), Tex.-born former Denver, Colo. mayor (who was ousted after he failed to provide enough snowplows for a major snowstorm, making him the man for a national appointment?) Federico Fabian Pena (Peña) (1947-) (Hispanic) as U.S. transportation secy. #12 (until Feb. 14, 1997), Ronald "Ron" Harmon Brown (1941-96) (Dem. Nat. Committee chmn. since 1989) as U.S. commerce secy. #30 (until Apr. 3, 1996) (first black), and Alphonso Michael "Mike" Espy (1953-) as U.S. agriculture secy. #25 (until Dec. 31, 1994) (first black in the job); former Ariz. gov. (1978-87) Bruce Edward Babbitt (1938-) becomes U.S. interior secy. #47 (until Jan. 20, 2001); Lebanese-Am. Donna Edna Shalala (1941-) becomes HHS secy. #18 (until Jan. 20, 2001) (first Arab-Am., and longest-serving until ?); Oxford-educated William Anthony Kirsopp "Tony" Lake (1939-) becomes nat. security advisor #18 (until 1997); Leon Edward Panetta (1938-) becomes White House chief of staff (until Apr. 14, 1997); black atty. Vernon Eulion Jordan Jr. (1935-) is one of Pres. Clinton's key advisors; Lani Guinier (1950-), Clinton's first nominee (Apr.) to lead the U.S. Justice Dept.'s Civil Rights Div. is dropped in June after her writings backing racial quotas cause her to be called one of "Clinton's quota queens" by the Wall Street Journal; in 1998 she becomes the first African-Am. to receive tenure at Harvard Law School; economist Joseph Stiglitz (1943-) joins the Clinton admin. along with Lawrence Henry Summers (1954-), working up to chmn. of the Council of Economic Advisers in 1995-7, and proposing the "Third Way" of a limited but essential role of govt. in the marketplace, ending with financial deregulation incl. of derivatives; after joining the World Bank in 1997, he flops and ends up as a critic of the Bush-Obama bank bailouts; too bad, Clinton wastes his first weeks in office alienating the military by suggesting they allow gays, and by nominating non-starter Zoe (Zoë) Eliot Baird (1952-) for atty. gen., who is found to have not paid taxes on illegal, er, domestic help, which is called Nannygate; former Watergate atty. (who worked with Hillary Clinton in 1974) Bernard W. Nussbaum (1937-) becomes pres. counsel; Egyptian-born pro-Israel Israeli-Am. billionaire ("Power Rangers" media mogul) Haim Saban (1944-) serves on the President's Export Council, sleeping in the White House several times during Clinton's two terms, later pumping money into the William J. Clinton Foundation in Little Rock, Ark., reaching $8M-$10M by 2013, then publicly supporting Hillary Clinton in her 2008 U.S. pres. bid; right before Hillary Clinton announces her candidacy for U.S. pres. in 2015, he gives an interview to Israel's Channel 1, answering a question about her position on the pending nuke deal with Iran by claiming to "know where she stands but I can't talk about it"; Bill Clinton becomes known for freewheeling brainstorming sessions with people of all ranks incl. low-ranking people who probably shouldn't be wasting his time. Clinton becomes known for freewheeling brainstorming sessions with people of all ranks incl. low-ranking people who probably shouldn't be wasting his time. On Jan. 21 Amnesty Internat. reports that Muslim women have been raped and abused during the Bosnian conflict by the military. On Jan. 22 Croatian forces penetrate U.N. peacekeeping lines and attempt to recover Croatian forces from the Serbs. On Jan. 23 Carol Martha Browner (1955-) becomes dir. #8 of the EPA (until Jan. 19, 2001), going on to reorganize it, create a partnership program with industry, and tighten air quality standards. Innsbruck becomes Outtsbruck? On Jan. 23 200K demonstrate against xenophobia and racism in Vienna in Austria's largest rally since 1945; meanwhile a Nov. 1992 initiative against foreigners launched by the right-wing Freedom Party of Austria (FPO) gains 417K signatures in Feb., well over the 100K needed to launch a parliamentary debate, and on July 1 the Austrian Residence Act is passed, limiting immigration to 30K a year, incl. asylum seekers. On Jan. 24 Russia launches Soyuz TM-16, carrying Gennadi Mikhailovich Manakov (1950-) and Alexander Fyodorovich Poleshchuk (1953-); Soyuz TM-16 returns on June 22 carrying Manakov, Poleshchuk, and Haignere; on July 1 Soyuz TM-17 blasts off, carrying Vasili Vasiliyevich Tsibliyev (1954-), Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Serebrov (1944-), and Jean-Pierre Haignere (Haigneré) (1948-) of France; it returns next Jan. 14 with Tsibliyev and Serebrov. On Jan. 25 two CIA employees are murdered and three more wounded at in their cars as they are waiting at a stoplight near the CIA HQ in Langley, Va. by Pakistani Muslim Mir Aimal Kasi (1964-2002); he is captured in Pakistan in 1997, and executed in 2002. On Jan. 26 Warner Bros.' Babylon 5, created by Michael Straczynski debuts for 110 episodes (until Nov. 25, 1998), about the five dominant species of Humans, Minbari, Narn, Centauri, and Vorlons, set in 2258 on the 5 mi. x 0.5 mi. O'Neill Cylinder-shaped Babylon 5 space station located in Epsilon Eridani at the 5th Lagrangian Point between Epsilon III and its moon. On Jan. 28 Pres. Clinton holds a meeting with Federal Reserve chmn. Alan Greenspan, who warns him that he has to break his campaign promises to increase spending for social programs to revive the economy because of the growing deficit, forcing him to cut the budget to head off higher interest rates. On Jan. 29 Abdumannob Pulatov, head of the Uzbekistan Human Rights Assoc. (brother of Abdurakhim Pulatov) is released from prison; meanwhile the govt. continues suppression of the Birlik (Unity) opposition party. On Jan. 31 Super Bowl XXVII (27) is held in Pasadena, Calif.; the Dallas Cowboys (NFC) defeat the Buffalo Bills (AFC) 52-17, converting nine turnovers into 35 points; Bills WR Don Lee Beebe (1964-) collars showboating defensive lineman Leon Lett Jr. (1968-) from behind at the end of a long fumble return and knocks the ball out of his hands for a touchback; Cowboys QB (#8) Troy Aikman (1966-) is MVP; 3rd consecutive SB loss for the Bills. In Jan. the rioting in India over the destruction of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya last Dec. 6 spreads to Bombay, becoming the worst rioting in India since the partition. In Jan. Wired mag. begins pub, with the theme "Move bits, not atoms". On Feb. 3 the Hungarian govt. announces privatization of nat. utilities. On Feb. 5 the U.S. Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) is signed by Pres. Clinton, requiring certain employers to provide employees with job-protected and unpaid leave for qualified medical and family reasons esp. pregnancy. On Feb. 7 the first elections to the upper house of Croatia gives the ruling HDZ party 31 seats. On Feb. 9 Montenegrin PM (since Dec. 29, 1992) Radoje Kontic (1937-) becomes PM of Yugoslavia, and names a new coalition govt. on Mar. 2. On Feb. 9 the Brazilian satellite Pegasus 3 is launched to study the Amazon basin. On Feb. 10 vice-PM Nikola Sainovic (1948-) becomes PM of Serbia (until 1994) - when do we begin the sainovic ethnic cleansing? On Feb. 10 French pres. Francois Mitterrand becomes the first Western leader to travel to Vietnam since 1975. On Feb. 10 the U.S. agrees to become involved in peace efforts in Bosnia-Herzegovina. On Feb. 10 pop star Michael Jackson appears on the Oprah Winfrey Show, denying that he bleaches his skin, and blaming it on the disease vitiligo, claiming "very little, very little" plastic surgery, "I mean you can count on my two fingers" On Feb. 11 Lufthansa Flight 592 (Airbus 310) en route from Frankfurt to Cairo and Addis Ababa is hijacked by Ethopian gunman Nebiu Demeke, after which it refuels in Hannover then flies JFK Airport in New York City, where he surrenders; nobody is hurt. On Feb. 17 Scarborough, Ont., Canada-born "Scarborough Rapist", "Schoolgirl Killer" Paul Kenneth Bernardo (1964-) (AKA Paul Jason Teale) and his wife (since 1991) Karla Leanna Homolka (Teale) (1970-) (AKA Leanne Bordelais), the "Ken and Barbie Killers" are arrested for a string of rapes since May 4, 1987, and 3-4 murders in 1990-2; in 1995 Bernardo is convicted of two murders of teenage girls and given a life sentence with possibility of parole in 25 years; after claiming that he forced her to help him, Homolka is given a sentence of 12 years, and released on July 4, 2005. On Feb. 25 Kim Young-sam (1927-) becomes the first non-military candidate in three decades to be sworn-in as pres. of South Korea (until Feb. 25, 1998); on Mar. 7 he grants amnesty to thousands of prisoners. The Big Two for One Plus Ninety-Two, or, WTC One? On Feb. 26 Muslim terrorists attempt to blow up the twin-tower World Trade Center in New York City with a nitric acid-urea bomb in a Ryder van in the parking garage, killing six, injuring 1,042, and costing $591M in damage and lost business; a 3-story-deep hole is ripped in the structure, collapsing the ceiling of a nearby subway line; an officer worker uses his new Timex Indiglo night lite to guide fellow employees down 40 flights of dark stairs, causing a sales boom; the bombing is later linked to al-Qaida (Al-Qaeda) and Osama bin Laden; on Mar. 4 Palestinian illegal immigrant Mohammed A. Salameh (1967-) is arrested in Jersey City, N.J., and by Aug. seven suspects have been arrested; the trial of four of them begins on Oct. 4; Egyptian-born "Blind Sheikh" Omar Abdel-Rahman (1938-2017) is convicted with nine others of seditious conspiracy; on July 26, 2005 a jury rules that the New York Port Authority is negligent for not properly maintaining the parking garage, which is a "substantial factor" in allowing the bombing to occur. It's so whacko it won't go away, but thank Gawd I'm a country boy? On Feb. 28 the 51-day 1993 Waco Siege begins when a gun battle erupts at the Branch Davidian Compound in Mount Carmel Center in Elk (9 mi. ENE of Waco), Tex. when ATF agents try (in SWAT gear) to serve trumped-up warrants in a master plan to shut them down and arrest 33-y.-o. high school dropout, failed rock guitarist and Jesus Christ messiah wannabe leader David Koresh (Vernon Howell) (1959-) of the Branch Davidians (a disavowed sect of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church), but catch hot lead instead, causing four agents and six Davidians to be killed, and one ATF agent in particular to be caught looking bad trapped on a roof while the cultists use him for target practice, causing a standoff led by the FBI; on Apr. 19 armored vehicles tear large holes in the compound and spray tear gas for several hours, and at about noon a fire breaks out throughout the compound, which burns down in 30 min., killing all 77 members of the cult, incl. many children; after fingers are pointed both ways, the govt. investigates and clears itself in Oct., claiming that fanatical cult members started the fire in an effort to bring on Armageddon; on Sept. 30 a U.S. Dept. of Justice Report on Waco criticizes the ATF for mishandling the initial raid; white supremacists have a new legend to justify hatred of the U.S. govt.; U.S. atty. gen. Janet Reno takes responsibility for the decision to attack the compound, and in 1999 it is revealed that despite FBI denials, pyrotechnic gas grenades had been used in the siege; an investigation in 2000 by former Mo. Repub. Sen. John Danforth clears the Justice Dept. of wrongdoing, and a Waco civil jury decides for the govt. in a wrongful death lawsuit brought by the survivors. In early Mar. the East Coast of the U.S. is smothered in a superstorm affecting 26 states and killing 270. On Mar. 3 Bosniak Muslim Alija Izetbegovic (1925-2003) becomes pres. #1 of Bosnia and Herzegovina (until Mar. 14, 1996). On Mar. 8 the un-PC cartoon series Beavis and Butt-Head by Equadorian-born Mike Craig Judge (1962-) debuts on MTV for 222 episodes (until Dec. 29, 2011), starring 9th grade delinquients Beavis and Butt-Head, who attend Highland H.S. in Tex. (N.M.?), and classify everything as either "cool" or "this sucks - change it", while loving to critique MTV music videos. On Mar. 10 Socialist Ruth Dreifuss (1940-) is elected to the Swiss Federal Council (Bundesrat), becoming the 2nd woman and first Jew, described as "a rare triumph over Swiss male chauvinism" - like a four by four for those snowy winter mornings? On Mar. 12 North Korea announces that it is withdrawing from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty; on June 12 it changes its mind after internat. pressure. On Mar. 12 three main trade unions strike in Croatia over low wages and high prices and demand that the govt. resign; on Apr. 3 a new govt. is sworn in, with Nikica Valentic (1950-) as PM (until 1995), who promises privatization, freedom of the press, and return of Bosnian war refugees. On Mar. 15 accords are signed in Addis Ababa promising to end the violence in Somalia, and U.S. troops begin pulling out; the U.N. takes over from the U.S. on May 4, with only 1.2K U.S. combat soldiers remaining. On Mar. 16 the first annual Letland March by the Latvian Nat. Fascist Legion Waffen SS "Letland" is held in downtown Riga in front of the U.S., German, and French embassies to celebrate their first V against the Red Army in Russia in 1944. On Mar. 17 Jean Kennedy Smith (1928-) (sister of JFK, RFK and Ted Kennedy, who went with JFK to Ireland in 1963) is nominated by Pres. Clinton as U.S. ambassador to Ireland, serving from June until 1998, going on to persuade the Clinton admin. to grant a visa to Sinn Fein pres. Gerry Adams, facilitating the peace process. On Mar. 17 an Amtrak train rams into a truck at a railway crossing near Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., killing six and injuring dozens. On Mar. 21 and 28 in France legislative elections are held for the nat. assembly in two rounds, which cut the ruling Socialist Party's share of the vote by half, and they lose all but 54 of 252 seats, while the right-wing Gaullist Rassemblement pour la Republique (Rally for the Repub.) (RPR) gains 126 seats for a total of 247, and the center-right Union for French Dem. (Union pour la Democratie Francaise) (UDF) goes from 131 to 213; on Mar. 29 Pres. Mitterrand names Turkish-born Edouard Balladur (1929-) as PM (until 1997). On Mar. 22 mass demonstrations are held in Algiers. On Mar. 22 a "secret door" is discovered in the Great Pyramid of Giza by Rudolf Gantenbrink. On Mar. 26 Serbian trade unions strike in Belgrade after authorities begin issuing ration books and coupons for staples. On Mar. 27 Jiang Zemin (1924-) is elected pres. of the People's Repub. of China by the Nat. People's Congress. On Mar. 29 the 65th Academy Awards in Los Angeles are hosted by Billy Crystal (3rd time), who rides in on a giant Oscar pulled by Jack Palance; the best picture Oscar for 1992 goes to the myth-destroying Warner Bros. Western Unforgiven (3rd Western to win after "Dances With Wolves" in 1990 and "Cimarron" in 1930), along with best dir. to Clint Eastwood, and best supporting actor to Gene Hackman; best actor goes to Al Pacino for Scent of a Woman (his first Oscar), best actress to Emma Thompson for Howard's End, and best supporting actress to Marisa Tomei for My Cousin Vinny (rumors circulate that she got it by mistake and it was supposed to go to Vanessa Redgrave); Elizabeth Taylor receives the Am. Film Inst. Lifetime Achievement Award; Elton John throws his first Oscar party. On Mar. 31 actor Brandon Lee (b. 1965) is accidentally killed by a prop gun during the filming of The Crow in Wilmington, N.C. In Mar. the Clinton admin. orders the Army to enact regulations forbidding military personnel from carrying firearms on bases, making them susceptible to the 2009 Ft. Hood Massacre. On Apr. 2 Marlboro Friday ("The day the Marlboro Man fell of his horse" - Fortune) sees Philip Morris announce a 20% price cut on their Marlboro brand cigarettes to fight generics, causing its stock to drop 25% and take other name brand cos. incl. Coca-Cola and RJR Nabisco with it, causing rumors of the "death of brands", which prove false as high-budget ad campaigns make brand names stronger than ever. On Apr. 5 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules 8-1 in U.S. v. Tex. that state legislatures must operate under the assumption that statutes will be interpreted against the backdrop of common law, with the soundbyte: "Longstanding is the principle that statutes invading the common law are to be read with a presumption favoring retention of existing law except when a statutory purpose to the contrary is evident. This presumption is not limited to state common law or federal maritime law." On Apr. 6 a China Eastern Airlines MD11 accidentally deploys the leading edge slats while cruising near the Aleutian Islands, killing two of 248 passengers during violent maneuvers. On Apr. 14 the Hungarian parliament bans the wearing or display of Nazi and Communist symbols. On Apr. 24 the IRA detonates a truck bomb on Wormwood St. in London, England. On Apr. 25-26 the Bosnian Serb Assembly rejects the Vance-Owen Peace Plan for Bosnia, which had been endorsed by Bosnian Croats and Muslims. On May 3 the U.N. proclaims the first World Press Freedom Day on the anniv. of the 1991 Declaration of Windhoek. On May 4-June 27 the New York State Theater holds its Balanchine Celebration at the Lincoln Center in New York City in honor of the 10th anniv. of the death of City Ballet founder and choreographer George Balanchine (1904-83); an attempt by artistic dir. Peter Martins to perform 73 of his works in concentrated form leads to defections from his own ranks as City Ballet members criticize him in a May New Yorker article; on July 30 Martins causes a scandal by firing Balanchine's favorite ballerina Suzanne Farrell for joining the defectors. On May 5 the West Memphis Three case begins when three 3-y.-o. white boys, Steve Branch, Christopher Byers, and Michael Moore are reported missing from Robin Hood Hills in West Memphis, Ark., after which they are found beaten, stripped naked and hogtied in a drainage canal, after which an African-Am. male called "Mr. Bojangles" is reported seen "dazed and covered with mud and blood" by workers at the Bojangles Restaurant; three white teenagers are later convicted, incl. Damien Echols (death sentence), Jessie Misskelley Jr. (life sentence plus 40 years), and Jason Baldwin (life sentence), but suspicions that they are innocent continue until ? On May 7 Moldova announces a massive privatization program and introduces a new nat. currency called the leu based on the Romanian currency. On May 11 a federal jury rules that City U. of New York (CUNY) officials had violated the First Amendment rights of black studies dept. chmn. Leonard Jeffries (1937-) when they removed him in 1992 because of the content of a 1991 speech in which he claimed that Jews and Italians had been conspiring to denigrate blacks in motion pictures; on May 18 they slap CUNY with a $400K damage award to Jeffries, and on Aug. 4 a judge orders him reinstated. On May 13 former Israeli Air Force cmdr. Ezer Weizman (1924-2005) (nephew of pres. #1 Chaim Weizmann) becomes pres. #7 of Israel (until July 13, 2000). On Apr. 17 pres. (since 1989) Halil Turgut Ozal (b. 1927) dies suddenly, and on May 16 longtime PM (1965-71, 1975-7, 1977-8, 1979-80, 1991-3) Sami Suleyman (Süleyman) Gundogdu Demirel (1924-2015) becomes pres. #9 of Turkey (until May 16, 2000). On May 17 a federal appeals court rules that the Boy Scouts of Am. is a private org. that can ban atheists for refusing to take the Scout oath to do their "duty to God". On May 19 Bosnian lovers Bosko Brkic (Serb) and Admira Ismic (Muslim) are killed trying to escape from the Muslim side of Sarajevo over the Vrbanja Bridge; they are allowed to remain in a dying embrace for days; subject of the 2011 Angelina Jolie film "The Land of Blood and Honey". On May 20 Pres. Clinton signs the U.S. Nat. Voter Registration Act of 1993 AKA the Motor Voter Law, effective Jan. 1, 1995, requiring state govts. to offer voter registration opportunities to any eligible person who applies for or renews a state driver's license or applies for public assistance, requiring use of a federal voter registration form, and restricting conditions for removing registered voters from voter rolls. On May 21 the first Nat. Public Radio program is simultaneously broadcast on the Internet. On May 24 Cardinal Juan Jesus Posadas Ocampo (b. 1926) is assassinated by gunmen in his car at the Guadalajara, Mexico airport; investigators conclude that the gunmen worked for jailed drug lord Benjamin Arellano Felix and that they confused the cardinal for a rival drug trafficker; on Dec. 9, 2005 former police cmdr. Humberto Rodriguez Banuelos is sentenced by a Guadalajara court to 40 years for his role in the shooting. On May 25 Pres. Jorge Serrano Elias of Guatemala becomes a dictator ruling by decree, dismissing the congress and supreme court; on June 1 he is ousted by the military, and on June 6 human rights minister Ramiro de Leon Carpio (1942-2002) is elected pres. (until 1996), firing the defense minister and reassigning several top military officers on June 7 to defang the military. On May 27 five people are killed in a bombing at the Uffizi Museum of Art in Florence, Italy, which ruins or damages some three dozen paintings. In May U.S. rock star Melissa Etheridge (1961-), just prior to the release of her hit album Yes, I Am announces that yes, she am a lesbian. In May Travelgate sees seven employees of the White House Travel Office fired for alleged improprieties during previous administrations, but soon appearing to be done to put friends in their jobs; the firings are traced to First Lady Hillary Clinton; nobody is convicted of anything. In May-Sept. the Great Midwest Flood of 1993 in the U.S. kills 50, causes $15B in damage, and sets flood records. On June 1 Slobodan Milosevic removes Yugoslavian pres. (since 1992) Dobrica Cosic for exceeding constitutional powers, and on June 25 Zoran Lilic (1953-) is elected pres. (until 1997) despite pro-Cosic demonstrations in Belgrade. On June 1 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules 6-3 in Smith v. U.S. that giving a gun in exchange for drugs constitutes use of a firearm during and in relation to drug trafficking; on Dec. 10, 2007 the U.S. Supreme (Roberts) Court rules 9-0 in Watson v. U.S. that receiving a gun in exchange for drugs doesn't - that changes how P.E. classes work? On June 2 the first dem. elections in Burundi give the V to Burundi Dem. Front candidate Melchior Ndadaye (1953-93), who becomes the first Hutu pres. of Burundi; too bad, he is killed a few mo. later in a coup, and is replaced on Feb. 5 by Hutu Cyprien Ntaryamira (1955-94), who becomes Burundi pres. #5 until Apr. 6, 1994, when he is is assassinated at Kigali Airport while landing along with Rwandan pres. Juvenal Habyarimana, setting off the Rwandan Genocide. On June 4 the U.N. Security Council adopts a resolution allowing the use of force to enforce ceasefires in protected areas of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Black Hawk Down? On June 5 Somalian warlord Mohammed Farrah Aidid kills 24 Pakistani peacekeepers, causing U.N. secy.-gen. Boutros Boutros-Ghali to call him "a menace to public safety"; U.S. Adm. Philip Gardner Howe III (1962-) puts out a $25K reward for info. leading to his apprehension, and the peacekeepers go to war with Aidid, launching Operation Gothic Serpent on Aug. 22 (ends Oct. 13) to kick Aidid's butt. On June 6 neoliberal MIR Party candidate Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada (1930-) defeats Gen. Hugo Banzer Suarez to become pres. of Bolivia (until 1997), continuing the privatization policies. On June 7 U.S. Dem. House Speaker (1989-95) Thomas Stephen "Tom" Foley (1929-2013) joins with the League of Women Voters in a suit challenging a Washington state law imposing term limits on elected federal officials (along with 14 other states by late 1993); in 1995 Foley becomes the first House speaker since 1862 to be defeated in a reelection campaign. On June 11 Pres. Clinton goes to Seoul, attempting to pressure North Korea to end its nuclear program - good luck with that? On June 11 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules unanimusly in Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah that states can't pass laws prohibiting the "unnecessary killing of an animal in a public or private ritual or ceremony not for the primary purpose of food consumption" because the govt. must show a compelling interest to pass a law that targets a religion's ritual (as opposed to a law that happens to burden the ritual but is not directed at it), and failing to show such an interest, the prohibition of animal sacrifice is a violation of the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment. On June 14 Pres. Clinton chooses 5'0" New York City-born opera loving Jewish federal judge (appointed by Pres. Carter) Ruth Bader Ginsburg (1933-) to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court; a liberal who had been gen. counsel of the ACLU and the first dir. of the ACLU's Women's Rights Project, she is so artful at dodging direct questions during her Senate confirmation hearings that it becomes known as the Ginsburg Rule; on Aug. 3 she is confirmed as U.S. Supreme Court justice #107 by a 96-3 vote, and is sworn in on Aug. 10 (until ?), becoming the 2nd female justice on the court. On June 15 a provisional agreement is reached in Geneva on a 3-way division of Bosnia-Herzegovina into Serb, Croat and Muslim sections; too bad, the fighting flares up again around Sarajevo in July, spreading throughout the country by Nov. On June 17 mujahideen leader Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (1947-) becomes PM of Afghanistan (until June 28, 1994, and again on June 6, 1996-Aug. 11, 1997), immediately announcing a program to pacify the country, which is split into three regions: Tajik and Uzbek in the N, controlled by Gen. Abdul Dostam; the Pashtun S and E, incl. Kabul; and the W, controlled by Iran; he begins shelling Kabul, killing 25K civilians and destroying 96% of the bldgs. by 1996, while the city plunges into ethnic conflict and mutual genocide. The real meaning of tipper gore? On June 23 (6/23/93) (Wed.) Lorena Bobbitt (1970-) slices off half (2.3, er, 2.5 in.) of the 6 in., er, penis of her sleeping ex-Marine hubby John Bobbitt (1967-) with a 9.3, er, 8-in. kitchen knife, then throws it out of her car window into a field in Va., causing a great breakthrough in U.S. printing history as the word "penis" is printed so many times that it finally gains acceptance in print; it is successfully reattached after a 10-hour operation, and he has successful sex again 3 mo. after the surgery, the whole affair making him a celeb incl. a stint as a porn star; after his history of spousal abuse is er, exposed and trumpeted by the women's libbers, she is found not guilty by reason of insanity; too bad, the incident spawns many copycats - look at that, why did nobody tell me to get rid of that thing? On June 28 police stop the pickup truck driven by 34-y.-o. Joel David Rifkin (1959-) of East Meadow, N.Y. for driving without license plates, and discover the decaying body of a woman in the back; under questioning he admits to killing 16 more women in the New York City metro area dating back two years, most of them drug addicts and/or hos; by the end of the year they recover 14 bodies and charge him with seven murders. On June 28 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules 7-2 in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc. that the Fry Standard (gen. acceptance by the scientific community) for admitting expert testimony in federal courts is not incorporated in the 1975 Federal Rules of Evidence, and is to be replaced by the Daubert Standard, based on a flexible reliability standard. On June 28 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules 5-4 in Shaw v. Reno that redistricting based on race must be held to a standard of strict scrutiny under the Equal Protection Clause to make sure it complies with the 1965 U.S. Voting Rights Act; dissenters incl. Justices Byron White, Harry Blackmun, John Paul Stevens, and David Souter; the 2000 U.S. Census becomes the first to apply the ruling. In June the FBI announces a Muslim plot to bomb New York City landmarks incl. the U.N. bldg., and to assassinate public officials incl. U.N. secy.-gen. Boutros Boutros-Ghali and Egyptian pres. Hosni Mubarak. In June the long recession and discontent over the free-trade agreement causes Canadian PM (since 1980) Brian Mulroney to resign, and Progressive Conservative Party defense minister Kim Campbell (1947-) becomes the first woman PM (#24) of Canada; in Oct. the Liberal Party wins big, and on Nov. 4 Joseph Jacques Jean Chretien (Chrétien) (1934) becomes Canadian PM #25 (20) (until Dec. 12, 2003). In June Repub. Tex. state treasurer (since 1990) Kay Bailey Hutchinson (1943-) defeats Bob Krueger with 67% to become the first woman U.S. Sen. from Tex.; she is immediately raided and charged with using state property to help with her campaign, indicted by a grand jury in Sept., and found not guilty; she is reelected in 1994, 2000 and 2005, becoming the #4 ranking Repub. in the Senate. In June Pres. Clinton appoints former Reagan appointee Dennis B. Ross (1948-) as U.S. Middle East envoy; he goes on to serve under four more presidents (until Nov. 10, 2011). In June Lech Walesa (1943-) dissolves the Polish parliament; new elections are held, and the Socialists win. In summer Denver, Colo.'s Summer of Violence leads to increased public awareness and harsher penalties for crimes by juveniles; in 2003 Denver has 220 gangs with 14K total members. On July 1 55-y.-o. failed entrepreneur Gian Luigi Ferri (b. 1937) fires TEC-9 and Norinco NP44 semi-automatic pistols in the 101 Calif. St. offices of San Francisco law firm Pettit and Martin (with whom he had been involved in a lawsuit), killing eight and wounding six before killing himself; none of the 30 law firm employees on his hit list are injured; the shooting sparks several legislative actions leading to the 1994 U.S. Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act - should have played more arcade games? On July 12 U.S. Cobra helis attack a house in S Mogadishu where Aidid clan members are meeting, and four Western journalists are beaten to death by an angry mob; on Aug. 26 U.S. Rangers arrive, led by Lt. Gen. William F. "Bill" Garrison (1944-); too bad, in Sept. U.S. defense secy. Les Aspin denies requests for armored reinforcements, setting Garrison into a trap and turning him into a convenient patsy? - time for the Dinosaur Play? On July 18 the U.S. announces plans to post diplomats in Vietnam to assist U.S. families residing there. On July 19 Floyd I. Clarke (1942-) becomes acting dir. of the FBI; on Sept. 1 he is replaced by Louis Joseph Freeh (1950-), who becomes FBI dir. #5 (until June 25, 2001). On July 20 Bill Clinton's lifelong buddy Vince Walker Foster Jr. (b. 1945), deputy White House counsel during Clinton's first term is found dead in Ft. Marcy Park off the George Washington Parkway in Va. outside Washington, D.C., becoming the highest-ranking U.S. federal official to die under questionable circumstances since JFK; despite the lack of blood, and the gun found in his right hand even though he's left-handed, it is officially ruled a suicide, with the FBI concluding that Hillary's lambasting and public humiliation of him triggered it, although right-wingers spin conspiracy theories of coverups involving Pres. Clinton and Hillary; on July 20 (night) Hillary's chief of staff (1993-7) Margaret Ann "Maggie" Williams (1954-) (first African-Am. woman to hold the position) allegedly sneaks in and steals personal files from Foster's office, and later becomes Hillary's senior adviser in her 2008 pres. campaign - I will follow my leader into the very jaws of death itself? On July 22 a new nationality law directed toward curbing immigration goes into effect in France. On July 23 a cache of 12 tons of arms hidden in humanitarian aid containers is discovered in an airport in Slovenia, and the govt. is blamed for engineering it. On July 23 basketball star Michael Jordan's father James Raymond Jordan Sr. (b. 1936) is murdered in a roadside robbery as he sleeps in his car near Fayetteville, N.C., stealing his $40K Lexus (a gift from his son) and two NBA championship rings; his body is not discovered until Aug. 3 in a creek near McColl, S.C.; too bad, the dopes make calls from their victim's cell phone and are caught, and on Sept. 7 a grand jury indicts Larry Martin Demery (1977-) of Rowland, N.C. and Daniel Andre Green (1974-) of Lumberton, N.C. for the murder, and they both get life in priz. On July 23 a China Northwest BAe146 overruns the runway in Yinchuan, China, killing 54 of 108 passengers and one of five crew. On July 25 Politically Incorrect with Bill Maher debuts on Comedy Central (until 1997, then ABC until July 5, 2002), starring William "Bill" Maher Jr. (1956-). On July 30 the U.S. Supreme Court refuses to block an order requiring Jan and Robert DeBoer of Ann Arbor, Mich. to return 2-y.-o. Baby Jessica (1991-) to her biological parents Cara and Daniel Schmidt of Blairstown, Iowa; three days after her Feb. 1991 birth her mother Cara had named the wrong man as her father and got him to consent to an adoption, only to have the true father come forward two days later and try to get the child back. On July 31 king (since 1951) Baudouin I (b. 1930) of Belgium dies childless, and on Aug. 9 his brother Albert II (1934-) succeeds him as king #6 of Belgium (until ?). In July-Aug. Washington, D.C. tests the Invincible Defen