TLW's White Racescope™ (White Race Historyscope)
By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™
© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.
Original Pub. Date: Jan. 13, 2018. Last Update: Oct. 1, 2020.
Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to the history of White people, incl. the Caucasian race. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.
-1,900,000 5-ft.-tall Homo rudolfensis is discovered in 1971 in Lake Turkana by Richard Leakey et al. Homo ergaster (Gk. "working man") AKA African Homo erectus AKA Narikotome (Turkana) Boy is discovered by Richard Leakey and Alan Walker in 1984, the most complete prehistoric human skeleton yet found - did I evolve from Turkana Boy or anything like it? Homo erectus ("upright man") is discovered in Morocco in 1933, and again in 1960 in Olduvai Gorge by Louis Leakey, and again on July 22, 1971 in Tautavel in the E Pyrenees; it becomes extinct in Africa and much of Asia by -500K, but survives to -70K; in 1996 scientists announce that they believe that it survived until Neanderthal times (-50K to -35K) in Ngandong on the Solo River in Indonesia; in 2011 other scientists announce that it was gone by -550K to -143K; in 2020 archeologists in South Africa discover a fossil of homo erectus that is 2.04M-1.95M years old.
The original roman a clef, "The Naked Ape Wears Prada"? About 50,000 B.C.E. the ancestral "naked ape" (what color skin?) homo sapiens sapiens pop. begins to migrate from NE Africa (over the, ahem, Red Sea?), according to the Human Genome Project, evolving into five major races in five continents, with skin color genes varying dramatically then becoming fixed and stable, and finally a defining attribute, evolving into a big social rivalry, status and control thing after they come back into contact (which is just about at the beginning of recorded history), the lighter-skinned invariably wanting to avoid mating with the darker-skinned, preferring inbreeding, even virtual incest to whiten the descendants as much as possible, with social (white flight?), economic, and criminal forces all arrayed to weed out any darker-skinned misfits who stumble through the gauntlet and don't end up as slaves, creating an illusion of evolution by systematic inbreeding?; let's not even mention the kinky hair, thick lips, wide nose, funky armpit odor, receding forehead, small cranium, thin male hips (fast-twitch muscle) (slow-twitch white boys can't jump but can lift weights and play quarterback and linemen) and huge female hips (steatopygia) of the banana-eating monkeys, er, apes pretending to be humans and acting like men so they can go after "our white wimmen" (of course, it's okay for a white man to "whiten up" a black woman's pups?); meanwhile the stockier Neanderthals own the territory the we-got-our-own-problems humans are moving into, and die out in about 5K years (competition, new germs, climate?); they don't die because of poor diet - that's all, just one bitch slap a week? Art and advanced tools become widespread, as heavy brows are replaced with rounder heads, indicating lower testosterone levels and/or fewer hormone receptors. "It is somewhat disquieting to speculate on the fact that even 50,000 years ago, in the early Stone Age, the human family contained individuals with innate capacities for reasoning and self-expression approaching those of a Shakespeare, a Beethoven or an Einstein" - Frederick Seitz (1911-2008) (pres. of Rockefeller U. in 1968-78).
About 8,000 B.C.E. the first Blue-eyed human becomes the ancestor of all blue-eyed humans, according to Hans Elberg of the U. of Copenhagen.
About 7500 B.C.E. the Motola archeological site in S Sweden has a pop. with light skin gene variants SLC24A5 and SLC45A2, along with HERC2/OCA2, which causes blue eyes and contributes to light skin and blond hair; the hunter-gatherers of C and S Europe have darker skin until SLC45A2 gives them light skin about 5600 B.C.E.
About 6200 B.C.E. after melting glaciers pour cold fresh water into the North Atlantic, a 400-year Mini Ice Age (after the Younger Dryas) begins (ends -5800), causing a temperature drop of 8 deg F and a drop in atmospheric methane levels of 90%, cooling the climate of Europe, Greenland, and SW Asia and causing the Euxine Lake level to drop, changing it from saltwater to freshwater (as rivers from the Balkans, Alps, and Caucasus Mts. drain into it), and creating grassland, which thrives because of the low elevation; meanwhile drier summers reduce crop yields, causing Catal Huyuk in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) to be abandoned, along with farms along the Anatolian plateau, Palestine, the Negev highlands, and the mountain flanks of the Fertile Crescent, and the Black Sea becomes their common oasis, attracting diverse white peoples of different language groups (capable of bricklaying, carpentry, painting, sculpting, leather, pottery, basket and jewelry work, etc.), and causing word transfer, such as Russian vinograd, Italic vino, Germanic wein, Anatolian wijana, Kartvelian wino, proto-Semitic wajnu, and proto-Indo-European woi-no.
In 5700 B.C.E. the first genes for pale skin along with blonde hair and blue eyes appear in S Sweden.
In 5000 B.C.E. white skin color evolves among humans in N Europe.
In 4004 B.C.E. at nightfall (6:00 p.m.) before Oct. 23 (Sun.) (autumnal equinox) is the date of the Creation, according to Protestant Bible fundamentalists, based on the work of Irish Anglican Archbishop James Ussher (Usher) (1581-1656), who in "The Annals of the World" (1650) dates the birth of Christ in 4 B.C.E. (so Darwinian evolution is the Fall of the House of Ussher?); end of the Sixth Day (land animals and man created); Adam (d. -3074) (Heb. "red", as in dirt or maybe blood, the sacred mojo of Jehovah?) is created from the dust of the Earth (Gen. 2:7); Noah's birth is 1,056 years ahead (-2992); (the original think outside the bun wasn't a good idea?) the Garden of Eden, the birthplace of the human race, is the source of four rivers, the Euphrates (Prath), Gihon, Pishon (which encircles the entire land of Havilah), and Tigris (Hidekel), indicating either that it is in the snow-covered mountains or that there is no snow but that it receives a constant source of rainfall, making it a lush garden where food and medicine grow on trees and all humans have to do is tend them and live practically forever, as long as they don't disobey God (i.e. sin), which he tests them by telling them that one special tree is not to be eaten from, the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Bad (Evil), which is not necessarily special in itself but is just an easy-to-obey test, which doesn't stop them from doing it anyway, introducing Sin into the world, causing God to instantly judge them as worthy of death and have them expelled from Eden so they can be die eventually despite any and all technology they can come up with to feed, clothe, and shelter themselves in the cruel world, while being barred from directly talking with God anymore, leaving them to their new god, I hope you know my name, please allow me to introduce myself, Satan, Heaven's Top Model, originally the 2nd of God's sons (the Logos being the first), who was originally given the prestige job of "covering angel" for newly-created humans, the first material creatures created in God's image (hence all the complicated gray junk in our skulls), and are given God's blessing of living forever while multiplying and filling the Earth and subduing it through the seed of the original perfect sinless man Adam, who can talk directly with God if he wants to and doesn't need a Savior yet? Too bad, Satan gets tired of working in the department store and letting little humans sit on his knee, and grows envious of God, figures these inferior humans can be subverted to worship him instead, and goes to work with the Great Deception, appearing in the form of a naughty girl's toy and getting a little too friendly with "weaker vessel" Eve (the first cunnilingus?), after which "the Serpent beguiled me and I did eat" of the fruit of the forbidden Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and sin (disobey an order of God, who made sinning both so easy and so hard, depending on whether you love him); then, even worse, she leads her lawfully-married-under-God husband Adam to do it for fear of losing his helpmate (tailor-made just for him out of his rib) and ending up as a lonely people counting crows again? Too bad, this leaves God standing in the wind, as sin is the ultimate grief man can give their all-loving Creator, who, as an all-just judge, must reverse the Blessing and institute the Curse, kick them out of the Garden of Eden (where life is easy and food and medicine grow on trees, and animals are all tame and vegetarian), and bar them from the gates by an angel with a flaming sword (Gen. 3:24), after which the area turns into a sour grapes forbidden zone overgrown with vegetation? Adam and Eve had perfect DNA, and all of their descendants (born outside of Eden) suffer from degraded DNA? That means they were lily white? Once he's past that problem, the fallen angel Satan (opposer) (serpent) (Rev. 12:9), AKA Lucifer (Light-Bringer, appearing to be Light) (Isaiah 14:12-13) and Devil (liar, slanderer) (1 Peter 5:8) (the original Elvis?), who sinned first, before Eve and Adam, and who is himself doomed to die and knows it, decides he'd rather rule in hell than serve in heaven, and keeps his new groupies deceived that the world is still their oyster, death is natural, but that if they stick with him and do his walk they're going to become as gods and know right from wrong on their own outside of God's favor, therefore stayin' alive, stayin' alive forever, when actually they're his slaves, told what to think and do, and led down the er, garden path as they are under judgment of eternal death by their wronged Creator and Supreme Court? So what do they do? The wrong thing? Instead of repenting, telling Satan to stuff it and trying to get right with God, they continue to sin and let themselves be used, abused and losed by Sick Santa, spreading their sin to their children, and filling a fallen Earth with fallen people more and more openly worshiping Satan as their god after totally alienating themselves from the Real Thing Big J (Jehovah)? Never fear, God-And-Man-No-Religion-Modern-Love, the Sun's coming up, as Big J knows the End from the Beginning, and is already an infinite number of moves ahead of his opponent Jim the Bow Snake, and has already put a Redemption Plan (Gen. 3:15) in place to turn the Curse back into the Blessing, after man earns it, not by doing good works expecting to pay the fine and avoid the death sentence, but by being faithful to the Invisible God no matter what bull Satan can tempt him with, and paying the one and only ransom God will accept, namely, not all of Nature Talks To Me, but Jesus swinging in the breeze? But that's where you come in? As a day is as a thousand (or thousands) of our years with God (2 Peter 3:8, Psalms 90:4), it will end up taking 4K+ years to implement, as humans reproduce into the billions and all the variations on the board get played? Meanwhile, God makes the Earth livable, but with no free lunch, i.e., only at the expense of eternal toil, pain in childbirth, sickness and disease caused by the loss of perfection (Gen. 3:16-19)? You got X-ray eyes? Too bad, until the game is played out this is Satan's world now, and he keeps accusing God of being unable to maintain the loyalty of man without giving him everything for free, and even appears in his court (Job chap. 1) to make a motion to allow him to have a free hand to afflict him with curses to show God he's right that even a righteous man will blame and curse God instead of him? Yi yi yi, Little China Guy TLW isn't anywhere near being born yet, but when he is he finally figures out that his sources for GTT are untrustworthy, and worse, that that gut feeling that the truth is horrible, horrible keeps bugging him, because maybe it's all true, and nobody knows me, nobody knows my name not, and Bad S has really been from Day One eternally working to keep all of Adam's seed separated from and not right with God with a legion of deceptions, using the carrot and stick approach to trap them into worshiping idols and false gods (really Satan's demons behind phony masks, with whom it is a giant mistake to even attempt to communicate with), using any trick to win the million tax-free bucks in Survivor: Earth, incl. taking credit for luck and coincidence, posing as dead souls to trick their dupes into thinking they're communicating with the dead after they sell their living souls first, and low blows forever, doing what he did with Eve, perverting gift of fertility along with his command to be fruitful and multiply, don't worry, be happy, you're been given everything and it works, and warping it into addictive, self-destructive, super-sinful lust fulfillments, holding up a mirage of an Edenlike state of happiness, when the con is that Satan is a piker, and God decreed death as the ultimate wages for sin, and everybody from Adam and Eve down knows it whether they want to admit it or not, and being Chinese is no excuse? You're so pretty? Those are excellent words and your long tongue what? But Shake-It-Shake-It-What's-My-Line Wiley Coyote even tries to make that judgment into a lure to do it now while one can, for tomorrow you die and living too long is a drag, so party hearty and leave a good-looking corpse, and, like a chess game, the Devil works on each and every human mind 24/7 to bring him/her down from their original perfect relationship with the Creator, constantly trying to make them vulnerable, then finding their price, be it human sacrifice, sexual appetite, gluttony, astrology, magic and mediums, wealth and power, the Rolling Stones and Elvis, or above all, mass organized team-playing war (mass slaughter and rape, always pushing technology for more kill for the buck oh shut your mouth), ever seeking to make crime and sin a legal right and lifestyle; thus, history after Eden is a story of Good vs. Evil, White vs. Black, Christ vs. Antichrist, God vs. the Devil, and so it's to Beelzebub's advantage to twist history any way he can, and substitute his own, which makes two shiny pictures of himself, one in each of our eyes? But God is Good, and is always quite close at hand if you get Satan behind you, and being invisible and unable to communicate with sinful you directly because he's too holy (separate), he's already covered that base and directly inspired a tiny number of truly faithful down through the centuries with his Word, and insured that it has been transmitted and preserved, call it a miracle? So, listen to my heart beat, knowing what he has to cover up, the Genius Mister Sharky gets seriouser, says let's dance and fills up every program on the radio, twisting the Great Track of Time like a roller coaster, causing a strong deception that can fool even the wise and deceive even the very elect of God, because after all, ricochet, face the wall, Old Scratch and His Band are a higher form of life and keep concentrating despite our own chess players having to play tag team, ever coming and going, and therefore all of the Great Track of Time prior to the Fall, however scientific it appears, is actually sad Satanic fiction foisted on learned idiot-savants who are deceived into thinking they have a way to see backwards in time by looking at an endless coverup actively foisted on them by their former covering angel, who is actually covering his own tracks in maneuvering to become their total master and god, even though he knows that he and all his fellow fallen angels and human dupes will end up in the Galactic Computer's Bit Bucket when God calls the game and does a new Sysgen, with a lucky few saved for the New World, namely those supposed squares who took his word seriously and realized that all along it is checkmate in one move, God to Armageddon-1, if only we get humble, give up our seat and let him send in his you know what Son to play for us? Satan, I dedicate this Great Track of Time to you? Or is it all just a fairy tale and we came from da monkeys? Don't ask me I'm just doing my best to not have an opinion?
On Apr. 24, 1684 French physician-traveller Francois Bernier (1620-88) anon. pub. New Division of the Earth by the Different Species or Races of Man that Inhabit It (Nouvelle division de la terre par les différentes espèces ou races l'habitant) in the Journal des Savants, becoming the first work dividing humanity into races distinguished by skin color, with white Euros at the top (curiously lumped with people from India, the Middle East, SE Asia, and America, excusing the Egyptians and Indians because although they "are very black, or rather copper-colured, that colour is only an accident in them, and comes because they are constantly exposed to the sun"), followed by sub-Saharan Africans ("small, thin, dry, ugly, quick in running, passionately fond of carrion which they eat quite raw"), E Asians, and Sami (Lapps) ("a face that I don't know how to describe, except that it's long, truly awful, and seems reminiscent of a bear's face"), becoming the forerunner of scientific racism.
In 1691 English "Father of Chemistry" Robert Boyle (1627-91) dies after proposing monogenism, that all races came from Adam and Eve, who he believed were white, but could give birth to different colored races, later speculating that polygenesis might be caused by "seminal impressions".
In 1721 English botanist Richard Bradley (1688-1732) pub. A Philosophical Account of the Works of Nature, which covers the "mineral, vegetable, and animal parts of the Creation", plus an account of gardening in Britain, getting him appointed Cambridge U.'s first prof. of botany in 1724, going on to pioneer the biological theory of infectious disease while pub. works on greenhouses and the first cookbook in English with recipes using pineapple; in his coverage of humans, he claims that there are "five sorts of men" based on skin color, incl. white Euros with beards, white Native Americans sans beards, men with copper skin, small eyes, and black hair; blacks with straight hair, and blacks with curly hair; later used by Curly, er, Carl Linnaeus?
In 1727 Saint-Saire, Normandy-born historian Count Henri de Boulainvilliers (1658-1722) posth. pub. Histoire de l'ancien gouvernement de la France, dividing the French into the aristicratic French race descended from the Germanic Franks, and the peasant class Gallo-Roman race, which the aristocrats have the right to dominate by right of conquest, becoming the predecessor of scientific racism.
In 1727 French scientist ("Father of Natural History") George-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-88) discovers the Binomial Theorem. In 1749-89 he pub. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roy (36 vols.) (8 more vols. pub. posth.), which becomes an internat. hit, shocking Bible-thumpers with the claim that the Earth has been developing for at least 75K years via "organic particles", pointing out similarities but not the common ancestry of humans and apes while entertaining it as a hypothesis, preparing peoples' minds for the advent of Darwinism, Anthropology, etc.; too bad, he views the Caucasian race of Adam and Eve as the pinnacle, and all other races as a degenerated version caused by climate, etc. - if they only coulda seen U.S. Pres. George W. Bush?
In 1735 Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus (1707-78) pub. Systema Naturae, which describes his binomial nomenclature classification system for flora, extending it to fauna in the 10th ed. (1758). In 1751 he pub. Philosophia Botanica, the first textbook on systematic botany and botanical Latin. In 1753 he first distinguishes plants via species and genera, causing him to become known as "the Father of Taxonomy". In 1766-8 he pub. the 12th (last) ed. of Systema Naturae, containing a classiication of five "varieties" of the human species, possessing physiognomic characteristics "varying by culture and place", incl. Americanus (red, choleric), Europeanus (white, sanguine), Asiaticus (yellow, melancholic), Africanus (Afer) (black, phlegmatic), Monstrosus (mythologic humans) incl. Homo anthropomorpha (troglodyte, satyr, hydra, phoenix); in 1788-93 German botanist Johan Friedrich Gmelin (1748-1804) posth. pub. the 13th ed.
In 1755 Benjamin Franklin pub. Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc., which argues that Europe is too crowded, and that the British should expand into North Am. to increase their pop. and power, and that the Saxons are the best race to do it, because "the number of purely white people in the world is proportionably very small", hence the importation of Africans is undesirable because they will darken the white pop., which should remain "lovely", along with the red; "All Africa is black or tawny. Asia chiefly tawny. America (exclusive of the new Comers) wholly so. And in Europe, the Spaniards, Italians, French, Russians and Swedes, are generally of what we call a swarthy Complexion; as are the Germans also, the Saxons only excepted, who with the English, make the principal Body of White People on the Face of the Earth"; "Why increase the Sons of Africa, by Planting them in America, where we have so fair an Opportunity, by excluding all Blacks and Tawneys, of increasing the lovely White and Red?"; too bad, he adds "Why should the Palatine Boors [Dutch and Germans] be suffered to swarm into our Settlements?", causing the Penn. Dutch to turn against him, helping him lose the Oct. 1764 Penn. Provincial Assembly election.
A brilliant thinker's writings get twisted into blind herd loyalty for Herr Herder, er, Hitler? In 1763-4 Mohrungen, Prussia-born German philosopher and Lutheran pastor Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803), (student of Immanuel Kant who inspires Goethe to launch the Sturm and Drang Movement before rejecting it himself)), a Volksgeist nationalist known for the soundbyte: "Spew out the ugly slime of the Seine. Speak German, O You German!" pub. Essays on Being (2 vols.). In 1765 he pub. How Philosophy Can Become More Universal and Useful for the Benefit of the People. In 1769 he coins the term "Zeitgeist" (Spirit of the Age), spending his career struggling with the concept of Volksgeist (Spirit of the People) (coined by Hegel in 1801), the natural self-clumping of people into self-sufficient er, herds, with the soundbyte: “There is only one class in the state, the Volk (not the rabble), and the king belongs to this class as well as the peasant", walking the fence of racism while holding onto the Biblical Garden of Eden story and its implication that there are no such things as races like so-called anthropologist Johann Blumenbach was pushing, with the soundbyte: "Denn jedes Volk ist Volk", saying that all people have the same internal anatomy, with the soundbyte: "Neither the Pongo [chimpanzee] nor the Longimanus [gibbon] is your brother, but truly the American [Indian] and the Negro are." Too bad, he steps on his dick with the statement that a few hundred years earlier the inhabitants of Germany were Patagonians from South Am., and slides back into racism with the soundbyte: "Had Greece been people with Chinese, our Greece would never have existed", and worse: "Chinese they were, and will remain: a people endowed by nature with small eyes, a short nose, a flat forehead, little beard, large ears, and a protuberant belly... Nature seems to have refused them as well as many other nations in this corner of the world, great invention in Science, while on the other hand he has beautifully conferred on their little eyes a spirit of application, adroit diligence and nicety, a talent of imitating with art whatever their cupidity deems useful. Eternally moving, eternally occupied, they are forever going and coming, in quest of gain, or in fulfillment of their offices"; Herder calls Volksgeist "singular, marvelous, inexplicable, ineffible", likening it to a plant that grows, blooms, and withers, requiring its history to be studied, but snubbing ancient and modern history for the Middle Ages, expanding its scope to incl. language, culture, customs, religion, lit., law, and folklore, going on to pub. the hit "Voices of the People in Their Songs" (Stimmen der Volker in ihren Lidern) in 1773, a collection of folk songs; too bad, Volkgeist becomes a concept that everybody believes in although nobody can quite define it, opening the door wide to all-out racism? In 1774 he pub. This Too a Philosophy of History for the Formation of Humanity, which champions the individuality of cultures, believing that each Volk is adapted to a particular ecological niche; "If every one of these nations had remained in its place, the Earth might have been considered as a garden, where in one spot one human national plan, in another, another, bloomed in its proper figure and nature"; too bad, "As man are not firmly rooted plants, the calamities of famine, earthquakes, war and the like, must in time remove them from their place to some other more or less different", and almost every Volk "has migrated at least once, sooner or later, to a greater distance, or less." In 1784 he begins pub. Ideas for a Philosophy of History of Mankind (Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit) (4 vols.) (1784-91), which explores the central ideas of nationalism, starting with the existence of a nation that has a unique claim to be considered a legitimate political basis for sovereignty, concluding that they must speak the same language; "Has a people anything dearer than the speech of its fathers? In its speech resides its whole thought-domain, its tradition, history, religion, and basis of life, all its heart and soul. To deprive a people of its speech is to deprive it of its one eternal good... As God tolerates all the different languages in the world, so also should a ruler not only tolerate but honor the various languages of his peoples... The best culture of a people cannot be expressed through a foreign language; it thrives on the soil of a nation most beautifully, and, I may say, it thrives only by means of the nation's inherited and inheritable dialect. With language is created the heart of a people; and is it not a high concern, amongst so many peoples—Hungarians, Slavs, Rumanians, etc to plant seeds of well-being for the far future and in the way that is dearest and most appropriate to them?"; "Nature brings forth families; the most natural state is thus also one people with one national character. This maintains itself in it for millennia and can, if it matters to its native prince, be developed in the most natural way: for a people is like a plant of nature; like a family, only one with several branches. Nothing is so contrary to the purpose of government, as the unnatural aggrandizement of states, the wild mixing of types of men and nations under one scepter" - get to Golden Pond before the lake dries up? He likes to wax lyrical about the Volk and the Vaterland: "He is deserving of glory and gratitude who seeks to promote the unity of the territories of Germany through writings, manufacture, and institutions", and "But now! Again I cry, my German brethren! But now! The remains of all genuine folk-thought is rolling into the abyss of oblivion with a last and accelerated impetus. For the last century we have been ashamed of everything that concerns the fatherland." He goes on to preach against systematicity in philosophy, establishing a countertradition later continued by Karl wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Ludwig Wittgenstein, also snubbing aphorism and aphorist arguments. Too bad, he considers the Jews a Volk that because of the Diaspora works only to subvert and destroy other Volk, advocating the final solution of er, restoring their homeland in Israel to discharge the debt of cents. of abuse: with the soundbytes: "The Jewish people is and remains in Europe an Asiatic people alien to our part of the world, bound to that old law which it received in a distant climate, and which, according to its confession, it cannot do away with"; "How many of this alien people can be tolerated without injury to the true citizens?"; "A ministry in which a Jew is supreme, a household in which a Jew has the key of the wardrobe and the management of the finances, a department or commissariat in which Jews do the principal business, are Pontine marshes which cannot be drained." Too bad, his liberal side is usually forgotten by anti-Semites and racists: "National glory is a deceiving seducer. When it reaches a certain height, it clasps the head with an iron band. The enclosed sees nothing in the mist but his own picture; he is susceptible to no foreign impressions"; "Notwithstanding the varieties of the human form, there is but one and the same species of man throughout the whole earth"; he also supports the French Rev., democracy, and individuality of people and cultures, with the soundbyte: "A human soul is an individual in the realm of minds: it senses in accordance with an individual formation, and thinks in accordance with the strength of its mental organs... My long allegory has succeeded if it achieves the representation of the mind of a human being as an individual phenomenon, as a rarity which deserves to occupy our eyes." He dies on Dec. 18, 1803 in Weimar, leaving the unfinished Outlines of a Philosophy of the History of Man, which founds the philosophical school of historical thought, wth the soundbyte: "One must go into the age, into the religion, into the whole history, and feel one's way into everything" to become the "regenerated contemporary" of the past, treating history as a science and an "instrument of the most genuine patriotic spirit"; "Compare England with Germany: the English are Germans, and even in the latest times the Germans have led the way for the English in the greatest things."
On Aug. 1 and Aug. 8, 1770 Dutch anatomist-anthropologist Petrus (Pieter) Camper (1722-89) gives two lectures to the Amsterdam Academy (Teken-akademie), proposing the use of facial angles (prognathism) to differentiate the races, calculating the angle between lines drawn from nostril to ear and forehead to upper jawbone, with the supreme white-blonde ancient Greeks having an angle of 100-90 deg., Euros 80 deg., Orientals 70 deg., blacks 70 deg., and orangutans 42-58 deg., equating them to human beauty, making fans of Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Paul Broca and helping feed scientific racism.
In 1773 freed black slave Phyllis Wheatley (1753-84) pub. Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral after a trip to England, becoming the first book pub. by an African-Am., throwing a tire iron into the whites' "inherent Negro inferiority" window?; "Twas mercy brought me from my Pagan land,/ Taught my benighted soul to understand/ That there's a God, that there's a Saviour too;/ Once I redemption neither sought nor knew./ Some view our sable race with scornful eye,/ 'Their colour is a diabolic die.'/ Remember, Christians, Negros, black as Cain,/ May be refin'd and join th'angelic train"; in 1776 she pub. To His Excellency General Washington (42 lines) in the Penn. Mag., celebrating Washington's appointment as head of the Continental army; "Proceed, great chief, with virtue on thy side,/ Thy ev'ry action let the goddess guide./ A crown, a mansion, and a throne that shine,/ With gold unfading, WASHINGTON! be thine"; she also pub. To the Right Honorable William, Earl of Dartmouth, comparing the desire of the Am. colonies for independence with her own desire to be free; too bad, after returning to Am., she marries freed black John Peters, and her fame fades.
In 1774 Scottish Englightenment philosopher Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696-82) (patron of David Hume, Adam Smith, James Boswell et el.) pub. Sketches of the History of Man (3 vols.) (2nd ed. 1788), which advocates polygenism, claiming that the environment can't account for racial differences, therefore the races must have been created by God in separate regions.
As white Americans fight to create a new homeland for their "race" on stolen Amerindian land, a German scientist lays the theoretical basis for the original sin of white supremacy so that white will always be right theoretically no matter how the facts look? In 1776 German biologist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840) pub. De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa Liber (On the Natural Varieties of Humanity), which lays the foundation for the science of anthropology; taking it as given that only God can create them, he defines the four "races" of mankind as Caucasian, Mongolian, American Indian, and Ethiopian (African); in 1795 he adds Malayan; of course the punch line is that white is right and black is bad - and for the in-between colors, welcome to Progressive.com, Manwich, Manwich, we adore thee?
In 1781 Am. big brain Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) writes Notes on the State of Virginia, his only full-length book pub. during his lifetime, pub. anon. in Paris in 1785, becoming the most important Am. book pub. before 1800?; praises Va. for its natural resources economy, as well as its ideal society, which incl. constitutional govt. with checks and balances, individual liberty, and separation of church and state; espouses his view on the races, slavery, and miscegenation, claiming that whites must be supreme and cannot live together with blacks in a free society, calling for science to prove the obvious inferiority "in the endowments both of body and mind" of blacks, speculating that blackness might come from "the color of the blood"; "They seem to require less sleep. A black, after hard labor through the day, will be induced by the slightest amusements to sit up till midnight, or later, though knowing he must be out with the first dawn of the morning. They are at least as brave, and more adventuresome. But this may perhaps proceed from a want of forethought, which prevents their seeing a danger till it be present. When present, they do not go through it with more coolness or steadiness than the whites. They are more ardent after their female: but love seems with them to be more an eager desire, than a tender delicate mixture of sentiment and sensation. Their griefs are transient. Those numberless afflictions, which render it doubtful whether heaven has given life to us in mercy or in wrath, are less felt, and sooner forgotten with them. In general, their existence appears to participate more of sensation than reflection... Comparing them by their faculties of memory, reason, and imagination, it appears to me, that in memory they are equal to the whites; in reason much inferior, as I think one [black] could scarcely be found capable of tracing and comprehending the investigations of Euclid; and that in imagination they are dull, tasteless, and anomalous... I advance it therefore as a suspicion only, that the blacks, whether originally a distinct race, or made distinct by time and circumstances, are inferior to the whites in the endowments both of body and mind." On Aug. 30, 1791 after finding out about self-educated free black almanac maker Benjamin Banneker (1731-1806), who could do math and knew astronomy, Jefferson writes a letter him, expressing his delight in being proved wrong about their supposed incurable inferiority, with the soundbyte: "No body wishes more than I do to see such proofs as you exhibit, that nature has given to our black brethren, talents equal to those of the other colors of men, & that the appearance of a want of them is owing merely to the degraded condition of their existence both in Africa & America. I can add with truth that no body wishes more ardently to see a good system commenced for raising the condition both of their body & mind to what it ought to be, as fast as the imbecility of their present existence, and other circumstance which cannot be neglected, will admit."
White racism starts out as white colorism? In 1785 Warstade, Germany-born historian-philosopher Christoph Meiners (1747-1810), an advocate of polygenism pub. Outline of the History of Mankind (Grundriß der Geschichte der Menschheit ), dividing humanity according to beauty, from the "beautiful white race" to the "ugly black race", praising the Celts as the noblest race, and Slavs and Native Ams. as inferior races. In 1813 he posth. pub. Researches on the Variations in Human Nature (Untersuchungen über die Verschiedenheiten der Menschennaturen ) (4 vols.), claiming that blacks are oversexed and unable to control their sex drives, while white Euros have complete control, later making him a favorite of the Nazis.The Great American White-Is-Right Dream begins with the Father of the Country?
On Mar. 26, 1790 Pres. Washington signs the U.S. Naturalization Act of 1790, barring anyone not a "free white person" from becoming a U.S. citizen; when Puerto Rico's citizens are allowed to become U.S. citizens in 1917, the govt. looks the other way and classifies them all as white.
On Oct. 16, 1793 Scottish surgeon John Hunter (1728-93) (collaborator of Edward Jenner on the smallpox vaccine) dies in London after speculating that the Negro race was originally white but turned black becaue of the Sun, citing the formation of white blisters on black-skinned people as evidence.
In Apr. 1796 Montbellard-born French naturalist ("Founding Father of Vertebrate Paleontology") Georges (Jean Leopold Nicolas Frederic) (Jean Léopold Nicolas Frédéric), Baron Cuvier (1769-1832) gives the lecture Mémoires sur les espèces d'éléphants vivants et fossiles at the Nat. Inst. (pub. in 1800), comparing skeletons of Indian and African elephants, and mastodons ("the Ohio animal"), which he concludes are all different species, the latter extinct; in 1806 he coins the name "mastodon"; he also describes a large skeleton found in Paraguay, which he names the Megatherium, claiming it is an extinct variety of the tree-dwelling sloth, ending the debate about whether extinction has actually happened, and founding Comparative Anatomy and Paleontology. In 1798 he pub. Tableau élémentaire de l'histoire naturelle des animaux, becoming the first attempt at systematic classification of the animal kingdom, founding modern Zoology (Comparative Anatomy), stressing how the parts of an organism are correlated to the functioning whole. In 1812 he pub. Recherches sur les Ossements Fossiles de Quadrupedes (Researches on Quadruped Fossil Bones), issuing his "rash dictum" that it is unlikely that any large animal remained undiscovered. In 1813 he pub. Essay on the Theory of the Earth; 2nd ed. 1815; 3rd ed. pub. 1817; 4th ed. pub. 1822; 5th ed. pub. 1827; advances the theory of catastrophism in geology, claiming that new species were created after periodic catastrophic floods after establishing the fact of past extinction; names the Pterodactyl and descries the aquatic Mosasauros, becoming one of the first to suggest that the Earth was once dominated by reptiles. In 1817 Cuvier pub. Le Règne Animal (The Animal Kingdom) (4 vols.), his magnum opus, a summation of his life's work on comparative anatomy, containing apparent support for evolutionary change for the extinct mammoths et al., making a fan of Charles Darwin, although Cuvier rejects the idea of evolution in favor of cyclical destruction-creation events via deluges; also makes fans of Richard Owen and Louis Agassiz. Too bad, Cuvier decides to pontificate on the human races, dividing them into Caucasian (white), Mongolian (yellow), and Ethopian (black), with the soundbytes: "The white race, with oval face, straight hair and nose, to which the civilised people of Europe belong and which appear to us the most beautiful of all, is also superior to others by its genius, courage and activity" and "The Negro race... is marked by black complexion, crisped or woolly hair, compressed cranium and a flat nose. The projection of the lower parts of the face, and the thick lips, evidently approximate it to the monkey tribe: the hordes of which it consists have always remained in the most complete state of barbarism"; of course, he believed in the historical existence of the Biblical Adam and Eve, calling them Caucasian and, explaining the other races as the survivors of the Great Flood 5K years ago, who developed in isolation.
In 1799 Scottish explorer Mungo Park (1771-1806) pub. Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa: Performed under the Direction and Patronage of the African Association in the Years 1795, 1796, and 1797, announcing his big discovery of the Niger River, becoming a big hit and increasing interest in Africa, inspiring other explorers; "Whatever difference there is between the negro and European, in the conformation of the nose, and the colour of the skin, there is none in the genuine sympathies and characteristic feelings of our common nature"; "They [Mandinkas] were all very inquisitive, but they viewed me at first with looks of horror, and repeatedly asked if my countrymen were cannibals. They were very desirous to know what became of the slaves after they had crossed the salt water. I told them that they were employed in cultivating the land; but they would not believe me... A deeply-rooted idea that the whites purchase negroes for the purpose of devouring them, or of selling them to others that they may be devoured hereafter, naturally makes the slaves contemplate a journey towards the coast with great terror, insomuch that the slatees are forced to keep them constantly in irons, and watch them very closely, to prevent their escape."
Guess who came up with the White is Right theory and drove white women to bleach their anuses, a man named White? In 1799 Manchester, England-born surgeon (pioneer in obstetrics) Charles White (1728-1813), believer in the Neoplatonic Great Chain of Being theory that "All organisms are arrange in a static chain of being, rising through small gradations from plants to animals to humans" pub. An Account of the Regular Gradation in Man, and in Different Animals and Vegetables, and from the Former to the Latter, disputing Buffon's claim that only the same species can interbreed by citing the example of hybrids incl. foxes, wolves, and jackals, regarding whites and blacks as different species that had a different origin, with blacks being more primitive thus no doubt coming from monkeys (primates), their skin pigmentation indicating inferiority (primitiveness), adding that white women are inferior to white men because they have darker pigmentation in "the areola round the nipple, the pudenda, and the verge of the anus".
In 1800 German physician Franz Joseph (Josef) Gall (1758-1828) develops cranioscopy, the measurement of the skull, which is later renamed Phrenology by his student Johann Spurzheim (1776-1832), who also demonstrates the fibrous structure of the brain; too bad, phrenologists go too far and claim to know all about a person from the bumps on their noggin.
In 1828 Scottish lawyer George Combe (1788-1858), pub. the internat. bestseller (300K copies) The Constitution of Man Considered in Relation to External Objects, promoting phrenology as scientific and claiming that an understanding of phrenology leads to an understanding of human nature and a practical science of morality, getting him denounced as a materialist and atheist, which only makes him more popular?; of course he has the hair around his widow's peak fluffed-up to make his cranium appear more prominent?; "Mental qualities are determined by the size, form and constitution of the brain; and these are transmitted by hereditary descent."
In 1839-49 Philly-born natural scientist-physician Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) along with Scottish phrenologist George Combe (1788-1858) pub. Crania Americana: or, A Comparative View of the Skulls of Various Aboriginal Nations of North and South America: To which is Prefixed an Essay on the Varieties of the Human Species (3 vols.), which claims after making his own measurements that Caucasians have the biggest brains of all races, and Negroes the smallest, proving racial superiority and inferiority, respectively; claims that the ancient Egyptians were Caucasian based on brain sizes despite frequent Negroid facial features; backs the creation story in Genesis, but claims that God created the different races via a series of multiple racial creations AKA polygenism, and that they are therefore fixed, making him "the Father of Am. Physical Anthropology", giving scientific racism its foundation and making big fans of Southern Ams. who want to keep the races separated with whitey as the massuh; too bad, Charles Darwin's 1859 "The Origin of Species" upends the debate. After Morton dies, the Charleston Medical Journal pub. the soundbyte: "We of the South should consider him as our benefactor for aiding most materially in giving to the negro his true position as the inferior race."
In Nov. 1846 Swiss biologist-geologist Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (1807-73) crosses over to the U.S. to take up a position as prof. of zoology and geology at Harvard U., going on to publicize the doctrine of polygenism, which claims that each species was created by God in "special provinces" and endowed with unequal attributes, denying any role for migration and adaptation, and that the conditions in which particular creatures live "are the conditions necessary to their maintenance, and what among organized beings is essential to their temporal existence must be at least one of the conditions under which they were created", rejecting monogenism as leading to impersonal atheistic materialism and regarding the Bible book of Genesis as recounting the origin of the white race only, helping found scientific racism and making him popular for at least a cent.
In 1846 after traveling to Egypt to study tropical diseases, German physician-anthropologist Franz Ignaz Pruner (1808-82) (AKA Pruner Bey) pub. a book in which he claims that Negro blood has a negative influence on the Egyptian moral character; in 1861 he pub. a monograph in which he claims that the main feature of Negro skeletons is prognathism, which he uses to connect them with apes, also finding their brains to be similar, and adding that Negroes have a shortened big toe, which he claims is another apelike feature - if it walks like a duck?
In 1851 Danzig-born German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), famous for his 1818 work "The World as Will and Representation" pub. Parerga und Paralipomena: Short Philosophical Essays (2 vols.), which contains the soundbyte that the cold Euro climate is responsible for white peoples' higher intelligence and culture: "The highest civilization and culture, apart from the ancient Hindus and Egyptians, are found exclusively among the white races; and even with many dark peoples, the ruling caste, or race, is fairer in colour than the rest, and has, therefore, evidently immigrated, for example, the Brahmins, the Inca, and the rulers of the South Sea Islands. All this is due to the fact that necessity is the mother of invention, because those tribes that emigrated early to the north, and there gradually became white, had to develop all their intellectual powers, and invent and perfect all the arts in their struggle with need, want, and misery, which, in their many forms, were brought about by the climate. This they had to do in order to make up for the parsimony of nature, and out of it all came their high civilization."
In 1853-5 French historian Count Joseph Arthur de Gobineau (1816-82) pub. An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (Essai sur l'inégalité des races humaines), explaining how the Aryan Master Race (his, of course) created all culture, and how miscegenation (racemixing) ruined India, Egypt, Persia, Spain, and even has crept into France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, everywhere, becoming the seminal doctrine of 19th cent. scientific racism, making a monkey, er, disciple of Richard Wagner - let's face it, Lexington Steele is unstoppable?
In 1854 S.C.-born anthropologist-surgeon Josiah Clark Nott (1804-73), English-born Am. Egyptologist George Robbins Giddon (1809-57) et al. pub. Types of Mankind, praising and supporting Samuel George Morton's work, adding the kink that negroes are not necessarily inferior to whites, just inferior at what whites do best, while superior at what they do best, with the soundbyte: "The negro achieves his greatest perfection, physical and moral, and also greatest longevity, in a state of slavery"; Giddons also claims that the Hebrew word "Adam" means "ruddy faced", which only applies to Caucasians.
In 1855-9 French anthropologist-explorer Paul Belloni Du Chaillu (1831-1903) makes an expedition to West Africa for the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philly, in which he confirms the ancient reports of Hanno the Navigator of Carthage of the existence of gorillas; in 1861 he pub. Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa, which becomes the #1 bestseller of 1861 (300K copies). In 1863-5 he makes an expedition to C Africa, discovering a race of 4'8" avg. black forest pygmies (Gr. "pygme" = distance from elbow to knuckles), (mentioned by Homer, Aristotle, and Herodotus as dwelling in Africa, fighting with cranes and attacking Hercules, who captured some of them in his lion skin and took them to King Eurystheus of Tiryns) in the Ituri Forest; in 1867 he pub. A Journey to Ashango Land.
In 1858 French anthropologist-anatomist Pierre Paul Broca (1824-80) proposes to the Societe de Biologie that physical differences between human races could be explained by different species having different origins, with the fact that they can interbreed and produce fertile offspring not proving they are of the same species but rather hybrids; when Pierre Rayer, pres. of the society proposes that he drop further discussion of the topic because Charles Darwin's work is about to come out, he agrees but founds the Societe d'Anthropologie ( Société d’Anthropologie ) de Paris in 1859 to supersede the Paris Ethnological Society (founded 1839) and take over its debates on the "appropriate relations between the black and white races". In 1859 Broca pub. On the Phenomenon of Hybridity in the Genus Homo, dividing humans into the independent racial groups Australian, Caucasian (white), Mongolian, Malayan, Ethopian (black), and American, each regarded as its own species and connected to a geographic location, taking that as disproving the monogenetic argument of common ancestry for all Homo sapiens, with physical characters not being changed by new environments, pointing to the modern Jews as having the same appearance as those portrayed in Egyptian paintings from 2,500 B.C.E., with the soundbyte: "There was even, no necessity to insist upon the difficulty, or greater geographical impossibility of the dispersion of so many races proceeding from a common origin, nor to remark that before the remote and the almost recent migrations of Europeans, each natural group of human races occupied upon our planet a region characterized by a special fauna; that no American animal was found either in Australia nor in the ancient continent, and where men of a new type were discovered, there were only found animals belonging to species, then to general, and sometimes to zoological orders, without analogues in other regions of the globe"; he adds that Darwin's monogenism attitude justifies the extinction of native pop. by colonization, with the soundbyte: "The difference of origin by no means implicates the subordination of races. It, on the contrary, implicates the idea that each race of men has originated in a determined region, as it were, as the crown of the fauna of that region; and if it were permitted to guess at the intention of nature, we might be led to suppose that she has assigned a distinct inheritance to each race, because, despite of all that has been said of the cosmopolitism of man, the inviolability of the domain of certain races is determined by their climate"; in 1866 he finally accepts monogenism. but refuses to accept evolution as the entire explanation of the origins of different species, claiming that there has to be a parallel process in operation.
In 1858 secessionist slave holder Supreme Court of Ga. reporter (1849-57) Thomas Reade Rootes Cobb (1823-62) pub. the treatise An Inquiry into the Law of Negro Slavery in the United States of America, containing the soundbyte: "This inquiry into the physical, mental, and moral development of the negro race seems to point them clearly, as peculiarly fitted for a laborious class. The physical frame is capable of great and long-continued exertion. Their mental capacity renders them incapable of successful self-development, and yet adapts them for the direction of the wiser race. Their moral character renders them happy, peaceful, contented and cheerful in a status that would break the spirit and destroy the energies of the Caucasian or the native American."
The Book That Shook the World? Big year for Bible skeptics, secularists, atheistic scientists, anybody against the ancien regime, as Jehovah, the Source of Life Breathed Into Mud is challenged by Godless Evolution, Mud Coming to Life by Itself After It Bubbles Long Enough? The biggest V for the Devil since Eden? The new 95 Theses, but Darwin is smart enough not to publish it on Halloween? On Nov. 24, 1859 (Thur.) English naturalist Charles Robert Darwin (1809-82) pub. On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection, Or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life; the 1st ed. sells out in 1 day; the 1872 6th ed. shortens the title to "The Origin of Species"; the decider, which causes evolutionary "survival of the fittest" theory to triumph among the intelligentsia; English Anglican minister and Cambridge U. prof. of modern history Charles Kingsley (1819-75), who received an advance copy on Nov. 18 writes that he had "long since, from watching the crossing of domesticated animals and plants, learnt to disbelieve the dogma of the permanence of the species", which Darwin adds to the next ed. of his book in a modified form: "He had gradually learned to see that it is just as noble a conception of the Deity to believe that He created a few original forms capable of self-development into other and needful forms, as to believe that He required a fresh act of creation to supply the voids caused by the action of His laws"; Darwin pub. it after spending eight years dissecting barnacles in his basement, then inexplicably switching to the Galapagos finch?; catches on first in Germany among atheists?; "If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down"; Louis Agassiz of the U.S. opposes Darwin, preferring a theory of "Epochs of Creation", based on the absence of missing links between layers of well-formed fossil ecosystems; the phrase "I'll be a monkey's uncle" is coined by Darwin skeptics; "There is a grandeur in this view of life that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved"; what was that about "my theory would absolutely break down" if anything is found that can't be explained by "numerous, successive, slight modifications"?; in practice Darwinism becomes a religion which denies that there is intelligent design in Nature, and therefore tries to deconstruct any evidence of it they find as they go along, yet clings to the notion of common descent, almost as if there was some original, er, accident, and ends up turning into a narrow naturalistic dogma by the end of the 20th cent., taking over U.S. and other Western educational systems with a chilling priesthood? In 1860 after failing to fit it into his Theory of Evolution, Darwin writes the immortal soundbyte: "The sight of a feather in a peacock's tail makes me sick."
On Apr. 12, 1861-May 9, 1865 the horrific U.S. Civil War sees the invention of the first modern weapon when N.C.-born agricultural equipment maker Richard Jordan Gatling (1818-1903) patents the 10-barrel hand-cranked hundreds-of-rounds-per-min. Gatling Gun (the first practical machine gun) just in time for use on some Johnny Rebs; it is first used by the Union Army in 1864, but luckily never sees extensive use; the war leaves 606K-1M mainly whites dead incl. 50K free civilians and 80K+ slaves.
In 1864 Hesse-born German naturalist August Christoph Carl Vogt (1817-95) pub. Lectures on Man: His Place in Creation and in the History of the Earth, clinging to polygenist ideas, claiming that the white race and Negroes are separate species, with the difference being greater than two species of ape.
In 1866 Potsdam, Prussia-born German zoologist Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (1834-1919) ("Darwin's Bulldog on the Continent") ("the Huxley of Germany"), who had a special chair in zoology created for him at the U. of Jena last year bites bigtime on Darwin's theory of evolution, and coins the word "phylogeny" for the origin and evolution of a race of animals or plants, in distinction from "ontogeny" for a single organism, and reveals the new mantra "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny", AKA the Gastrea Theory AKA Recapitulation Theory; in 1868 he pub. an article on the phylum of (elevated to a kingdom in 1925) Monera, a pious fraud designed to push Darwinian evolution over on the German scientific community (post block ergo propter block?); in 1868 Haeckel pub. The History of Creation (Natürliche Schöpfungsgeschicht), attempting to retrace the evolution of humans, claiming that original speechless proto-humans (Urmenschen) developed separate languages that helped them transition from animal to man as separate species and races, meaning that Semitic and Indo-European languges incl. Jewish, Greco-Roman, Germanic, and Berber languages are the most developed, with the soundbyte: "Human languages probably had a multiple or polyphyletic origin. Human language as such probably developed only after the species of speechless Urmenschen or Affenmenschen (German: ape-men) had split into several species or kinds. With each of these human species, language developed on its own and independently of the others. At least this is the view of Schleicher, one of the foremost authorities on this subject... If one views the origin of the branches of language as the special and principal act of becoming human, and the species of humankind as distinguished according to their language stem, then one can say that the different species of men arose independently of one another"; no surprise, the Caucasian or white race (his) is the highest and most civilized race, and the Negro the lowest and most savage, with the soundbyte: "The Caucasian, or Mediterranean man (Homo Mediterraneus), has from time immemorial been placed at the head of all the races of men, as the most highly developed and perfect. It is generally called the Caucasian race, but as, among all the varieties of the species, the Caucasian branch is the least important, we prefer the much more suitable appellation proposed by Friedrich Müller, namely, that of Mediterranese. For the most important varieties of this species, which are moreover the most eminent actors in what is called 'Universal History', first rose to a flourishing condition on the shores of the Mediterranean... This species alone (with the exception of the Mongolian) has had an actual history; it alone has attained to that degree of civilisation which seems to raise men above the rest of nature"; he adds that Negroes have stronger and more freely movable toes than other races, which links them to the "four-handed apes"; he goes on to theorize that humans arose in India, rather than Africa like Darwin claimed, and that the missing link came from the lost continent of Lemuria, which connected Africa with Asia; "[Haeckel's] evolutionary racism; his call to the German people for racial purity and unflinching devotion to a 'just' state; his belief that harsh, inexorable laws of evolution ruled human civilization and nature alike, conferring upon favored races the right to dominate others ... all contributed to the rise of Nazism" (Stephen Jay Gould).
On June 16, 1868 the Atlanta Constitution newspaper is founded in Atlanta, Ga. (until ?), killing off the Daily Intelligencer in 1871; in 1876 Eatonton, Ga.-born Joel Chandler Harris (1845-1908) begins running his Uncle Remus stories in it, featuring Br'er Rabbit and the Tar-Baby; in 1982 it combines with the Atlanta Journal (founded Feb. 24, 1883) to become the Atlanta Journal-Constitution. In 1880 Harris pub. Uncle Remus: His Songs and Sayings. In 1883 he pub. Nights with Uncle Remus. In 1892 he pub. Uncle Remus and His Friends. In 1906 he pub. Uncle Remus and Br'er Rabbit. On July 3, 1908 Harris (b. 1845) dies in Atlanta, Ga.; his ocher-colored Queen Anne home Wren's Nest in Atlanta, Ga. is left to the Joel Chandler Harris Assoc., with its bylaws stipulating that it must be run by "100 white ladies", who turn it into a museum in 1913, which bars blacks from entry; in 1967 black Rev. Clyde Williams sues, a federal judge orders it integrated in 1968, and the bylaws are changed in 1973.
On Feb. 24, 1871 Charles Darwin pub. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, which applies his theory of evolution to humans; "The Simidae then branched off into two great stems, the New World and the Old World monkeys; and from the latter at a remote period, Man, the wonder and glory of the universe, proceeded"; "We civilized men... do our utmost to check the process of elimination; we build asylums for the imbecile, the maimed, and the sick; we institute poor laws; and our medical men exert their utmost skill to save the life of everyone to the last moment... Thus the weak members of civilized societies propagate their kind. No one who has attended to the breeding of domestic animals will doubt that this must be highly injurious to the race of man. It is surprising how soon a want of care, or care wrongly directed, leads to the degeneration of a domestic race; but excepting in the case of man himself, hardly anyone is so ignorant as to allow his worst animals to breed"; attempts to scientifically establish white racial supremacy, with the soundbytes: "Western nations of Europe immeasurably surpass their former savage progenitors and stand at the summit of civilization"; "American aborigines, Negroes, and Europeans differ as much from each other in mind as any three races that can be named"; "At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilised races of man will almost certainly exterminate, and replace, the savage races throughout the world. At the same time the anthropomorphous apes, as Professor Schaaffhausen has remarked, will no doubt be exterminated. The break between man and his nearest allies will then be wider, for it will intervene between man in a more civilised state, as we may hope, even than the Caucasian, and some ape as low as a baboon, instead of as now between the negro or Australian and the gorilla"; "Looking to future generations, there is no cause to fear that the social instincts will grow weaker, and we may expect that virtuous habits will grow stronger, becoming perhaps fixed by inheritance... [so that] virtue will be triumphant"; "It is the most closely allied forms... which, from having nearly the same structure, constitution, and habits, generally come into the severest competition with each other; consequently, each new variety of species, during the progress of its formation, will generally press hardest on its nearest kindred, and tend to exterminate them"; "This is the book that contains the foundation in natural history for our view" (Marx to Engels); this book is later used by Eugenicists to justify euthanasia of misfits, using soundbytes incl. "We civilized men... do our utmost to check the process of elimination; we build asylums for the imbecile, the maimed, and the sick; we institute poor laws; and our medical men exert their utmost skill to save the life of everyone to the last moment... Thus the weak members of civilized societies propagate their kind. No one who has attended to the breeding of domestic animals will doubt that this must be highly injurious to the race of man. It is surprising how soon a want of care, or care wrongly directed, leads to the degeneration of a domestic race; but excepting in the case of man himself, hardly anyone is so ignorant as to allow his worst animals to breed.... All do good service who aid toward this end."
In 1877 Birmingham, England-born polymath Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) (Charles Darwin's half-cousin) invents Statistical Regression; he also invents eugenics, fingerprinting, the weather map, and the silent dog whistle - sounds like's he's ready to tag and bag them inferior darkies from Darkest Africa? In 1907 Galton and English feminist trendsetter Sybil Neville-Rolfe (nee Sybil Katherine Burney) (1885-1955) found the Eugenics Education Society (which becomes the Eugenics Society in 1924, and the Galton Inst. in 1989) to reduce the birth rate of low IQ and low class useless eaters; Sexy Sybil goes on to host the 1st Internat. Eugenics Congress in South Kensington, London in 1912, lobby to pass the British Mental Deficiency Act of 1913, and found the Nat. Council for Combating Venereal Disease (NCCVD) in 1914 (changing to British Social Hygiene Concil in 1926) and the Nat. Council for the Unmarried Mother and Her Child in 1918 (later renamed Ginberbread).
And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil? In 1884 although European penetration of Africa has been limited until 1880, the Belgians and the British start a race for colonialization, resulting in the 14-nation Berlin (Congo) (West African) Conference this year and next, marking the climax of white European land-grabbing in Africa, and resulting in the Treaty of Berlin next year; no single European power is permitted to claim the whole continent, and all claims have to be based on military occupation; Germany and France compete against Britain, with Kaiser Wilhelm I uttering the soundbyte that Germany is being "squeezed in the heart of Europe by colonizing neighbors", wanting to get some in Africa to compensate; by 1900 European states claim 90% of Africa - they can claim, but can they tame?
In 1891 after joining the Indian Civil Service in 1873 and getting posted in Bengal, Buckinghamshire, England-born ethnographer Sir Herbert Hope Risley (1851-1911) pub. the paper The Study of Ethnology in India, founding "the racial theory of Indian civilization" (Thomas Trautmann), with the soundbyte: "By century's end had become a settled fact, that the constitutive event for Indian civilisation, the Big Bang through which it came into being, was the clash between invading, fair-skinned, civilized Sanskrit-speaking Aryans and dark-skinned, barbarous aborigines", claiming that the Rig Veda is an ancient record of it, making a fan of philologist Max Muller; in 1891 he pub. The Tribes and Castes of Bengal (4 vols.), filled with anthropometric data from his survey of Bengal, becoming a classic of scientific racism, dividing Indians into superior light-skinned Aryan and inferior dark-skinned Dravidian races using the ratio of the width of a nose to its height, and claiming that it applied throughout the Indian caste system, with the soundbytes: "The social position of a caste varies inversely as its nasal index", and "Community of race, and not, as has frequently been argued, community of function, is the real determining principle, the true causa causans, of the caste system", getting his ideas incorporated in the 1901 and 1911 Indian censuses.
On May 31, 1894 Harvard U. grads Prescott Farnsworth Hall (1868-1921), Charles Warren (1868-1954), Robert DeCourcy Ward (1867-1931) et al. found the Immigration Restriction League in Boston, Mass. to exclude immigrants from S and E Europe (Ireland, Italy, and Germany) for inferior "racial qualities" that are threatening their way of life incl. high wage scale; after introducing a bill to Congress on Apr. 8, 1918 to place numerical limits on immigration, it disbands after Hall's 1921 death.
In Feb. 1899 Bombay, British India-born English poet Joseph Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) pub. the poem The White Man's Burden: The United States and the Philippine Islands in McClure's Mag., urging the U.S. to assume colonial control of the Philippines after winning the Spanish-Am. War (1898) and the Philippine-Am. War (1899-1902), but warning the Yanks what they are up against, creating a big reaction, either hero worship or backlash; "Take up the White Man's burden/ Send forth the best ye breed... Your new-caught, sullen peoples,/ Half-devil and half-child" - what a way to start the 20th century?
In Oct. 1899 Edinburgh, Scotland-born Helen Bannerman (Helen Brodie Cowan Watson) (1862-1946) pub. her first book The Story of Little Black Sambo, about Tamil children in SE India, where she lives with her husband; Sambo, son of Black Jumbo and Black Mumbo outwits hungry tigers by giving them his new red coat, blue trousers, purple shoes, and umbrella and letting them chase each other around a tree until they turn into ghee, then recovers his things and runs home, eating 169 pancakes for supper made by Black Mumbo from the ghee; the book becomes a hit with children and is widely pirated; too bad, the word "sambo" becomes a racial slur, and in 1932 Langston Hughes calls it a typical "pickaninny" storybook that harms black children, causing the book to be increasingly banned until extensive revisions rescue it; she follows with "The Story of Little Black Mingo" (1901), "The Story of Little Black Quibba" (1902), "Little Black Quasha" (1908), "The Story of Little Black Bobtail" (1909), and "Sambo and the Twins" (1936); in 1965 her daughter Day (1896-) pub. "Little White Squibba", a rewrite with a white girl as heroine.
Did I mention that anti-Semitism was festering bigtime in Europe throughout the 19th century, especially in Germany? In 1899 British-born Germanophile Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927) pub. The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (Die Grundlagen des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts), which became a big hit with the pan-Germanic "Aryan" movement, claiming that the "noble" Aryan race (Germans, Celts, Slavs, Greeks, Latins) (all descended from the Proto-Indo-Europeans) have always ruled Euro civilization, and of course the Nordic or Teutonic peoples are at the top of the Aryan heap, with the soundbyte "Physically and mentally the Aryans are pre-eminent among all peoples; for that reason they are by right... the lords of the world. Do we not see the homo syriacus develop just as well and as happily in the position of slave as of master? Do the Chinese not show us another example of the same nature?" According to him, the Germanic takedown of the Roman Empire was good because the Romans were infected with pesky hooked-nose "homo judaeica" (Jews), who were "infusing Near Eastern poison into the European body politic". "All historically great races and nations have been produced by mixing, but wherever the difference of type is too great to be bridged over, then we have mongrels." Sounds good, until he claimed that since Jesus is God, he must have really not been Jewish, but Aryan. After selling 100K copies by the start of WWII, Kaiser Wilhelm II awarded him a medal in 1916 and gave him German citizenship, after which Hitler lapped it up and guess what happened. Funny that Hitler's British appeaser was named you know what. Meanwhile the infamous Protocols of the Elders of Zion were forged by the tsarist regime in Russia in 1903 to blame its troubles on the tiny minority of Jews, and spread throughout the world, taking root in Europe, the U.S., and the Islamic world after the first Arabic trans. appeared in 1951. It's probably still a bestseller today on the Internet, although it's a total work of fiction, as if real Jews would write it all down in Russian not Hebrew and leave it where their worst enemies could get it, then not later claim copyright when they saw all the millions being printed, when not dodging horrible pogroms that is. The nice part about it is that every time the Jews overcome some obstacle to have a good future, the Protocols are dragged out and cited to prove it was all part of their insidious age-old plan to take over the world sans numbers or army, just pure brains, despite being an inferior race, while if something bad happens to the Jews, the Protocols are dragged out and cited to prove that the good guys are beating them, call it a new self-fulfilling edition of St. Mazel Tov's Revelation. Okay, since Charlemagne the Jews were into banking and interest, after they were forced into it by Christendom as fit only for lowlife scum like them, not for good Christians, who reserved real jobs in govt. and military service for themselves. Prominent old Jewish banking families include the Rothschild ("red shield") Family, the Warburg Family, and the Oppenheim Family, who between them are alleged to help Jews control the world through the internat. banking system, which after WWII they have made so convoluted and interdependent that they can starve any country that gets pesky at will, except Muslim ones of course, they are into Islamic banking that has a different set of rules.
In 1899 French anthropologist ("Father of Anthroposociology") Count Georges Vacher de Lapouge (1854-1936) pub. The Aryan: His Social Role ( L'Aryen: son Rôle Social), reducing racism to dolichocephalic (Aryan) races vs. brachycephalic races, with the sliding scale: Homo europaeus (fair-haired Nordic), Homo alpinus (Auvergnat or Turkic peoples), and Homo mediterraneus (Neapoletan or Andaluz peoples), calling the Jews the only competitors of the Aryans, becoming a hit with the Nazis. In 1909 he pub. Race and Social Background: Essays in Anthroposociology (Race et Milieu Social: Essais d'Anthroposociologie).
In 1899 Medford, Mass.-born economist-anthropologist William Zebina Ripley (1867-1941) pub. The Races of Man: A Sociological Study, using anthropometric cephalic index data correlated with geographic data to divide Europeans into three races, incl. Teutonic (dolichocephalic, tall, blonde, light hair, eyes, and skin), Mediterranean (dolichocephalic, short, dark hair, eyes, and skin), and Alpine (brachycephalic, stocky, intermediate hair, eyes, and skin), becoming a hit with anthropologists; too bad, he considers the Spanish an African racial type, with the soundbyte: "Africa begins beyond the Pyrenees".
Early in the 20th cent. Australian aborigines are viewed as subhuman animals, and requests come in to kill some and boil their skulls and send them back to Europe for scientific study and exhibits?
In 1900 Russian-French anthropologist Joseph Denier, er, Joseph Deniker (1852-1918) pub. The Races of Man: An Outline of Anthropology and Ethnography (Races et peuples de la terre), one-upping William Z. Ripley by claiming that the peoples of Europe fall into six primary ethnic groups (not races) incl. Nordic (Germanic), Littoral (Atlanto-Mediterranean), Oriental (Eastern) (Slavic), Adriatic (Dinaric), Ibero-Insular, and Occidental (Cevneole) (Lapponoid), plus four secondary ethnic groups incl. Sub-Nordic, North-Occidental, Vistulian, and Sub-Adriatic; "In 1860, Isid. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire admitted four principal races or 'types,' and thirteen secondary ones. In 1870, Huxley proposed five principal races or types, and fourteen secondary ones or 'modifications.' Finally, in 1878, Topinard enumerated sixteen races, and increased this number in 1885 to nineteen. In mixed classifications, based on both somatic and ethnic characters, a very much greater number of sub-divisions is found, but the reason of that is that 'ethnic groups' are included. "Putting these aside, we see in the most complete mixed classifications only four or five principal races, and twelve to eighteen secondary races. Thus Haeckel and Fr. Mueller admit four principal races (called 'tribes' by Haeckel, 'sub-divisions' by Mueller), and twelve secondary races (called 'species' and sub-divided into thirty-four 'races' by Haeckel, called 'races' and sub-divided into numerous 'peoples' by Fr. Mueller). On the other hand, De Quatrefages sub-divides his five 'trunks' into eighteen 'branches,' each containing several ethnic groups, which he distinguishes under the names of 'minor branches' and 'families.' Some years ago I proposed a classification of the human races, based solely on physical characters. Taking into account all the new data of anthropological science, I endeavoured, as do the botanists, to f orm natural groups by combining the different characters (colour of the skin, nature of the hair, stature, form of the head, of the nose, etc.), and I thus managed to separate mankind into thirteen races. Continuing the analysis further, I was able to give a detailed description of the thirty sub-divisions of these races, which I called types, and which it would have been better to call secondary races, or briefly 'races.' A mass of new material,[Pg 285] and my own researches, have compelled me since then to modify this classification - too bad, the more they try to grab the goldfish in the bowl, the more they slip through their fingers, no wonder the whole concept gets laughed off?
On June 22, 1905 The German (Internat.) Society for Racial Hygiene is founded in Berlin by physician Alfred Ploetz to return the Nordic race "to a healthy and blooming, strong and beautiful life" through sterlization and selective breeding, becoming the first white supremacist eugenics society; gains support of the German govt., spawning numerous orgs. in other countries, incl. England (1907) and Nordicland Sweden (1909); honorary members incl. Ernst Haeckel.
Just upload your catchphrases at Moron.com? In 1905 the Binet-Simon IQ Test is developed by French psychologists Alfred Binet (1857-1911) and Theodore Simon (1872-1961); too bad, to take it you have to speak French, but never fear, in 1908 East Vassalboro, Maine-born God's-gift psychologist Henry Herbert Goddard (1866-1957), dir. (1906-8) of the Vineland Training School for Feeble-Minded Girls and Boys in Vineland, N.J. trans. it into English and distributes 22K copies, introducing the term "mormon", er, "moron" and promoting not only intelligence testing to weed them out, but proposing IQ labels on May 18, 1910 (moron is actually the top of the food chain, with IQ of 51-70, i.e., mental age of 8-12, followed by imbecile at 26-50 and oh no, dumber-than-a-donut idiot at 0-25), then helping write the first U.S. law requiring special segregated education for them in public schools along with the blind and deaf; in 1912 he pub. The Kallikak Family: A Study in the Heredity of Feeble-Mindedness; now listen while I tell you a story about a man named Martin, whose Appalachian descendants get into inbreeding and become "a race of defective degenerates", causing him to call for eugenics programs incl. compulsory sterilization and segregation for the feeble-minded; in 1913 he tests IQs of 172 Euro immigrants on Ellis Island, finding that he correctly matches 80% of feeble-minded immigrants with those classed that way before they left; in 1914 he becomes the first U.S. non-moron psychologist to lend his high IQ to testify in court that being a moron should limit criminal responsibility of defendants; he also utters the unmoronly soundbyte: "Democracy means that the people rule by selecting the wisest, most intelligent and most human to tell them what to do to be happy" - what, me worry, here comes another "There are two kinds of people" messiah - not, since now morons ain't even human (you need a toupee with some brains in it, nyuk nyuk?)
In 1911 German-born Jewish-Am. anthopologist Franz Uri Boas (1858-1942) pub. The Mind of Primitive Man, shocking the racism out of U.S. anthropologists; rev. ed. pub. in 1938; "There is no fundamental difference in the ways of thinking of primitive and civilized man. A close connection between race and personality has never been established. The concept of racial type as commonly used even in scientific literature is misleading and requires a logical as well as biological definition." In 1912 Boas reports striking differences in cranial form between U.S.-born children and their Euro-born parents, showing that environment has a large effect on skull shape, shocking the fat-headed racist scientific world.
In 1911 after getting fed-up with women's ignorance about sexuality and birth control when she sees "Sadie" die of a self-induced abortion, Corning, N.Y.-born nurse-activist Margaret Higgins Sanger (nee Margaret Louise Higgins) (1879-1966) pub. the pamphlet "What Every Mother Should Know", followed in 1914 by the monthly mag. "The Woman Rebel", with the slogan "No Gods, No Master", and the pamphlet/book Family Limitation, the first book on "birth control" (which she coins), getting her prosecuted under the 1873 U.S. Comstock Act, causing her to flee to Britain, during which time her estranged husband (since 1913) is convicted of giving a copy of the book to old fart anti-vice U.S. postal inspector Anthony Comstock (1844-1915), getting 30 days in jail while she meets Havelock Ellis and learns about making sexual intercourse more pleasurable before visiting Holland and learning about diaphragms; on Oct. 16, 1916 she opens the first birth control clinic in the U.S. at 46 Amboy St. in Brownsville, Brooklyn, N.Y., getting her arrested along with her sister Ethel Byrne, who becomes the first woman in the U.S. to be force-fed in jail; in 1917 she begins pub. the monthly mag. Birth Control Review (until Jan. 1940); after appealing her Brownsville, conviction, in 1918 N.Y. Court of Appeals Judge Frederick Evan Crane (1869-1947) permits doctors to prescribe contraceptives and distribute contraceptive info. to women, helping her birth control movement go nat; on Nov. 1, 1921 founds the Am. Birth Control League (ABCL). In 1929 she founds the Nat. Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control, and begins a legal challenge to the Comstock Laws resulting in a 1936 U.S. Court of Appeals victory in U.S. v. One Package of Japanese Pessaries, overturning the prohibition of physicians from prescribing contraceptives and distributing contraceptive info., causing the Am. Medical Assoc. (AMA) in 1937 to adopt contraception as a regular medical service and begin teaching it in medical schools; in 1939 she founds the Birth Control Federation of Am., followed in 1946 by the Internat. Committee on Planned Parenthood, and in 1952 by the Internat. Planned Parenthood Federation in Bombay, India, which expands by 2015 to 189 countries after moving the HQ to London, England. Too bad, Sanger is not only a eugenicist who backs sterilization laws, she backs the Negro Project of exterminating the Negroes in the U.S., writing a letter to Clarence Gable on Dec. 10, 1939, with the soundbyte: "We do not want word to go out that we want to exterminate the Negro population, and the minister is the man who can straighten out that idea if it ever occurs to any of their more rebellious members" (Margaret Sanger commenting on the 'Negro Project' ); no coincidence that most of their abortion clinics end up in black areas?
On Aug. 4, 1914 - Nov. 11, 1918 the horrific World War I causes 15M deaths and 39M military casualties. and destroys the Old Order of white formerly Christian Europe, giving blacks the realization that whites aren't so superior after all after they killed each other like cockroaches for seemingly nothing? On Feb. 26-28, 1915 the Germans first use a Flamethrower (Flame Projector) in the village of Douaumont, France near Verdun, becoming the first of 653 flamethrower attacks in the war. On Apr. 1, 1915 French aviator Roland Garros (1888-1918) becomes the first pilot to shoot down an aircraft using a deflector gear, which allows shooting through the propeller; after more Vs against German aircraft on Apr. 15 and Apr. 18, he is shot down and the Germans capture his plane, after which Dutch designer Anthony (Anton Herman Gerard) Fokker (1890-1939) clones then improves the deflector gear into the synchronization (interrupter) gear, mounting them on the new Fokker E.I. in Aug., beginning the Fokker Scourge (Scare) as they shoot down nearly every enemy aircraft they encounter and generate the first German aces, incl. Max Immelmann (1890-1916); next year the French counter with the Nieuport 11 Bebe (Bébé), in which the gun is mounted on the top wing clear of the prop, and the British with the Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2b and Airco DH.2 (Feb. 1916), which mount the engine backwards with the prop in back, causing them to be called "pushers", ending the Fokker Scourge by spring 1917. In 1915 arsenic-based vomiting-sneeze gas Adamsite (DM) (diphenylaminechlorarsine) is synthesized by German chemist Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1957); in 1918 Am chemist Roger Adams (1889-1971) duplicates it, and both sides stockpile it, but it is allegedly never used on the battlefield. On Mar. 22, 1916 the British have their first success with their new Depth Charge off the SW coast of Ireland, destroying a German U-boat. Are you used to Hell yet, try this? On Sept. 15, 1916 Winston Churchill's pet project the Tank (Russian Water Closet) (Char-Schneider) is first used by the Brits in the Somme.
On Aug. 11, 1914 Estonian-born liberal Protestant theologian-historian Prof. Adolf von Harnack (1851-1930) (head of the royal library) gives a speech in Berlin's town hall warning of the threat to Western civilization from "the civilization of the Horde that is gathered and kept together by despots, the Mongolian Muscovite civilization. This civilization could not endure the light of the eighteenth century, still less the light of the nineteenth century, and now in the twentieth century it breaks loose and threatens us. This unorganized Asiatic mass, like the desert with its sands, wants to gather up our fields of grain."
On Feb. 8, 1915 D.W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation (The Klansman), based on the 1905 novel "The Clansman" by Shelby, N.C.-born white supremacist Thomas Frederick Dixon Jr. (1864-1946) debuts in Los Angeles, Calif., becoming the first movie sequel (to "The Avenging Conscience", 1914) and the highest-grossing film of the silent film era, grossing $10M on a $110K budget; first film produced with its own score, by composer Joseph Carl Breil; by technically brilliant but incurably white supremacist Ky.-born dir. D.W. Griffith (1875-1948) and cinematographer G.W. Bitzer (1872-1944); stars Griffith's Ala.-born favorite Henry Brazeale Walthall (1878-1936) as Confed. veteran Col. Ben Cameron (known as "the little colonel" because of his shrimpy height), who rounds-up the KKK, making him a major star; also stars Lillian Gish (who steals the role from Blanche Sweet) as Elsie Stoneman, causing Sweet to leave for Paramount; also stars London-born former opera singer-dir. George William "Donald" Crisp (1882-1974) (Griffith's asst. since 1912) as Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, who goes on to serve in WWI and WWII and become a Hollywood dir. and power broker as chmn. of the Bank of Am. in the 1930s and 1940s, approving loans while getting rich from real estate, allowing him to become a top char. actor without worrying about money, appearing in 400 films; the film incenses Am. banana-eating, er, blacks, but amoral Russian-born capitalistic Jew Louis Burt Mayer (1884-1957) turns $50K into $500K by investing in it; William Beaudine (1892-1970) is asst. dir.; future dir. Raoul Walsh (1887-1980) plays John Wilkes Booth; Griffith's fellow Kentuckian Nellie Conley (Madame Sul-Te-Wan) (1873-1959) plays several minor roles in the film, becoming Hollywood's first important black performer; too bad, Griffith fires her for "inciting blacks to protest the film's showing in the Los Angeles area", but she successfully sues to be rehired; slender handsome Winfield, Kan.-born Eugene William Pallette (1889-1954) plays a Union soldier, going on to act in several silent films then balloon up to 300 lbs., signing with Hal Roach Studios in 1927 and becoming even more popular; Pres. Wilson, known for resegregating the military and firing all black postal workers calls the film "Like writing history with lightning, and it's all true", stoking a revival of the Ku Klux Klan that Dixon disassociates himself from because he is pro-Jewish and pro-Roman Catholic; Dixon uses his profits to buy an orange grove in Hollywood that he uses to found its first movie studio.
In Apr. 1916 George Oscar Ferguson, Jr. (1886-) pub. the article The Psychology of the Negro: An Experimental Study in Archives of Psychology, which contains the soundbyte: "While the intellectual performance of the general colored population is approximately 75 per cent as efficient as that of whites, this figure is not true for different classes of negroes. It is probably correct to say that pure negroes, negroes, three-fourths pure, mulattoes and quadrons have, roughtly, 60, 70, 80 and 90 per cent, respectively of white intellectual efficiency. If it were possible to distinguish these four classes of negroes so accurately as to avoid overlapping, it is probable that the differences revealed by tests would be greather rather than less than those indicated by the figures."
In 1916 New York City-born zoologist-conservationist (amateur anthropologist) Madison Grant (1865-1937) pub. the never-bestseller The Passing of the Great Race: Or, The Racial Basis of European History, claiming that the Nordic race is the master race, evolved in a Scandinavian climate that "must have been such as to impose a rigid elimination of defectives through the agency of hard winters and the necessity of industry and foresight in providing the year's food, clothing, and shelter during the short summer. Such demands on energy, if long continued, would produce a strong, virile, and self-contained race which would inevitably overwhelm in battle nations whose weaker elements had not been purged by the conditions of an equally severe environment", adding: that Nordics are "Homo europaeus, the white man par excellence. It is everywhere characterized by certain unique specializations, namely, wavy brown or blond hair and blue, gray or light brown eyes, fair skin, high, narrow and straight nose, which are associated with great stature, and a long skull, as well as with abundant head and body hair", and "The Nordics are, all over the world, a race of soldiers, sailors, adventurers, and explorers, but above all, of rulers, organizers, and aristocrats in sharp contrast to the essentially peasant character of the Alpines. Chivalry and knighthood, and their still surviving but greatly impaired counterparts, are peculiarly Nordic traits, and feudalism, class distinctions, and race pride among Europeans are traceable for the most part to the north"; meanwhile "The mental characteristics of the Mediterranean race are well known, and this race, while inferior in bodily stamina to both the Nordic and the Alpine, is probably the superior of both, certainly of the Alpines, in intellectual attainments. In the field of art its superiority to both the other European races is unquestioned"; "This is the race that gave the world the great civilizations of Egypt, of Crete, of Phoenicia including Carthage, of Etruria and of Mycenean Greece. It gave us, when mixed and invigorated with Nordic elements, the most splendid of all civilizations, that of ancient Hellas, and the most enduring of political organizations, the Roman State. To what extent the Mediterranean race entered into the blood and civilization of Rome, it is now difficult to say, but the traditions of the Eternal City, its love of organization, of law and military efficiency, as well as the Roman ideals of family life, loyalty, and truth, point clearly to a Nordic rather than to a Mediterranean origin"; he goes on to lament how immigration to the U.S. has been changing from Nordic to inferior types from S and E Europe, advocating their segregation into ghettos preparatory to eliminating their genes from the gene pool via sterlization, with the soundbyte: "A rigid system of selection through the elimination of those who are weak or unfit - in other words social failures - would solve the whole question in one hundred years, as well as enable us to get rid of the undesirables who crowd our jails, hospitals, and insane asylums. The individual himself can be nourished, educated and protected by the community during his lifetime, but the state through sterilization must see to it that his line stops with him, or else future generations will be cursed with an ever increasing load of misguided sentimentalism. This is a practical, merciful, and inevitable solution of the whole problem, and can be applied to an ever widening circle of social discards, beginning always with the criminal, the diseased, and the insane, and extending gradually to types which may be called weaklings rather than defectives, and perhaps ultimately to worthless race types"; despite modest sales caused by anti-German propaganda during WWI and failure to push it as a popular rather than scientific book, it becomes "the most influential tract of American scientific racism" (Stephen Jay Gould); makes a fan of Adolf Hitler, who calls it "my Bible", turning Americans away from it when the Nazi Party adopts it in the 1930s; first book to promote the White genocide (extinction) (replacement) conspiracy theory, that there is a big plot to downbreed the superior Nordic race via miscegenation, mass immigration, abortion, etc., no doubt run by the pesky Jews.
Speaking of thesis + antithesis = synthesis. In 1918-22 Blankenburg, Brunswick-born German philosopher Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (1880-1936) pub. Decline of the West (The Downfall of the Occident) (Der Untergang des Abendlandes), a universal history that claims that civilizations are like living organisms, passing through identical stages at fixed periods, and that the future is Asiatic domination. In 1931 he pub. Man and Technics (Technology): A Contribution to a Philosophy of Life; how hi-tech and industrialism threaten Western culture because the "colored races" might get it and use the advanced weapons against whitey; "Optimism is cowardice." In 1933 he pub. the bestseller The Hour of Decision (Jahre de Entscheidung), calling for "Prussianism" to save civilization from the "Coloured Peril" that threatens a world war against Western civilization, criticizing both the Nazis and liberalism and dissing Aryanism and anti-Semitism, calling the Germans too narrow to lead the fight for all Western white people, causing the Nazis to ban it; he already pissed them off by calling Hitler a "heroic tenor" (Heldentenor) who isn't a real hero (Held), but just plays one on stage.
In 1920 Brookline, Mass.-born Theodore Lothrop Stoddard (1883-1950) pub. the bestseller The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy, pushing Nordic racial theories, predicting the rise of Japan and its war with the U.S., WWII, the overthrow of colonial empires in Africa and Asia, mass immigration of non-whites to white countries, and the rise of extremist Islam; mentioned in F. Scott Fitzgerald's 1925 novel "The Great Gatsby". In 1922 he pub. The Revolt Against Civilization: The Menace of the Under Man, which introduces the term Untermensch (subhuman) and is enthusiastically adopted by the Nazis; "Usually highly prolific, often endowed with extaordinary physical vigor, and able to migrate easily, owing to modern facilities of transportation, the more backward people of the earth tend increasingly to seek the centres of civilization, attracted thither by the higher wages and easier conditions which there prevail. The influx of such lower elements into civilized societies is an unmitigated disaster. It upsets living standards, socially sterilizes the higher native stocks, and if (as usually happens in the long run) interbreeding occurs, the racial foundations of civilization are undermined, and the mongrelized population, unable to bear the burden, sinks to a lower plane." In 1927 he pub. Re-Forging America: The Story of Our Nationhood; "We want above all things to preserve America. But 'America,' as we have already seen, is not a mere geographical expression; it is a nation, whose foundations were laid over three hundred years ago by Anglo-Saxon Nordics, and whose nationhood is due almost exclusively to people of North European stock—not only the old colonists and their descendants but also many millions of North Europeans who have entered the country since colonial times and who have for the most part been thoroughly assimilated. Despite the recent influx of alien elements, therefore, the American people is still predominantly a blend of closely related North European strains, and the fabric of American life is fundamentally their creation"; "It is perfectly true that our present immigration policy does (and should) favor North Europeans over people from other parts of Europe, while it discriminates still more rigidly against the entry of non-white races. But the basic reason for this is not a theory of race superiority, but that most fundamental and most legitimate of all human instincts, self-preservation — rightly termed 'the first law of nature.'"; "The cardinal point in our immigration policy should, therefore, be to allow no further diminution of the North European element in America's racial make-up."
In 1922 Freiburg, Germany-born racial theorist Hans Friedrich Karl Gunther (Günther) (1891-1968) pub. Racial Science of the German People (Rassenkunde des deutschen Volkes), a bestseller (500K copies) defining a German racial superiority pyramid with Nordics at the top, followed by Mediterranean, Alpine, East Baltic, and Dinaric, while calling Jews "a thing of ferment and disturbance, a wedge driven by Asia into the European structure", making a fan of Adolf Hitler, who adopts his advice to avoid race-mixing and practice eugenics. In 1929 he pub. Short Ethnology of the German People, becoming a bestseller in Germany, about how "non-European" Jews are the "fermenters of disintegration" of Nordic culture, making him the leading ideologist of Nazi racial doctrine AKA the Race Pope.
In 1922 the State Inst. for Racial Biology is founded in Uppsala, Sweden, headed by Herman Lundborg, becoming the first govt.-sponsored racial biology research institute, with the goal of using eugenics and racial hygiene to fight criminality and psychiatric problems incl. alcoholism, going on to pub. the h.s. textbook "Swedish Racial Studies"; in 1936 after going too anti-Semitic, Lundborg is replaced by Gunnar Dahlberg; in 1959 it is integrated into Uppsala U.
Speaking of rats? On May 26, 1924 after eugenics experts Henry Herbert Goddard (1866-1957) et al. influence them, the U.S. govt. enacts the Ugly Betty U.S. Immigration (Johnson-Reed) (Asian Exclusion) (Nat. Origins) Act of 1924, closing U.S. borders and restricting the annual immigration of any nationality to 2% of the number that were U.S. residents in 1890 (meaning no Eastern Hemisphere people) while prohibiting the immigration of "aliens ineligible for citizenship" and "undesirable" racial groups, incl. the Japanese, with Pres. Coolidge issuing the soundbyte "America must remain American"; on July 1 the Japanese observe Humiliation Day with anti-U.S. demonstrations in Tokyo - we brought Pearl Harbor on right here, thanks to Henry Herbert Goddard?
In 1924 the Racial Integrity Act is passed in Va., prohibiting interracial marriage; overturned in 1967; too bad, the act classifies most Indian aborigines in Va. as black.
In 1926 Offenburg, Germany-born psychologist-anthropologist Ludwig Ferdinand Clauss (Clauß) (1892-1974) pub. Race and Soul (Rasse und Seele), proposing the idea that each race has a psychological "race soul" consisting of collective personality characteristics belonging to their physical race and developing over time to link with their culture; of course, the pure Nordic German race has to be "re-Nordified" by purifying them of foreign racial psychological influences to harmonize their psychic and physical racial souls, making him a hit with the Nazis; too bad. he rejects the use of the terms "superior" and "inferior" with races, with the soundbyte: "Maybe God knows the hierarchy of races, but we do not"; he follows with "The Nordic Soul" (1932) and "Race and Character" (1936); too bad, after he is discovered to be employing a Jewish research asst., the Nazi Party expels him in 1943; "One does not recognize the race of a human being based on the possession of specific characteristics, but rather in the style in which these characteristics are expressed"; "From the beginning, the psychology of race clearly teaches us that each race finds ultimate value in itself... In the final analysis it is the only factor that determines racial-spiritual values. Every race bears within itself its own value system and standard of excellence; and no race can be evaluated by the standards of any other race"; "The concept of race as formulated by the natural sciences is no longer sufficient today for grasping the field in its entirety; it proves itself insufficient as soon as we attempt to apply it in the domains of the human sciences. The treatment of the 'racial issue' in the public life suffers greatly from this evil: People recognize vaguely and instinctually that 'race' must also have some meaning in the sphere of intellectual production, but to attain a clearer view they have no other instrument at hand than the concept of race as defined by physical anthropology and biology - that is, as defined by the natural sciences. This concept is just as useless in the realm of the human sciences ... as is a telescope, a microscope, or any other instrument employed in natural-scientific research"; "The individual human being is not simply determined by racial type; rather, he or she is also shaped by other types. He or she is, for example, also a typical farmer, at typical man or typical woman, a typical female artist, et cetera. But all of these types, such as social role, are ultimately permeated by the typology of race"; "It is not possible to discern who is Nordic by examining their hair, but only by studying the attitude of their soul. Anyone who can step outside himself, freely look himself in the face and accomplish something with himself as though this self were an object - such an individual is Nordic in this one decisive trait. Based on this attitude he can shape and conquer himself. Re-Nordification does not begin with people trying to change things in others, rather it begins as the solitary achievement of the individual shaping himself. Only by following the path of solititude can one arrive at Nordic community. Re-Nordification means that every individual must reenact upon himself the act of Nordic conquest through which the German Volk first emerged on German soil"; "One can be a dissipated or criminal person in a Nordic way - we can say without qualms: one can also be a real swine in a Nordic way."
The U.S. likes the Bell Curve a little too much, or, I'm Mister Opportunity, and I'm not getting knocked up? On May 2, 1927 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 8-1 in Buck v. Bell to allow forced sterilization of the mentally retarded for the purpose of eugenics, starting with Carrie Elizabeth Buck (1906-83) of Lynchburg, Va. (same town as Rev. Jerry Falwell, born 1933, what happened?); Pierce Butler is the lone dissenter, and declines to write an opinion; Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. writes for the majority: "It is better for all the world, if instead of for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind", concluding with the soundbyte: "The Constitution guarantees due process of law to all", er, "Among the inalienable rights are the right to life", er, "Three generations of imbeciles are enough", and an appeal to equal protection "was the usual last resort of constitutional arguments"; the U.S. eugenics movement has a green light, and sterlizations increase 10x; later reporters visit Buck and find her and her daughter to be of normal intelligence; the court finally reverses itself in 1942 - is that like three strikes and you're out only called on account of purple rain?
On Dec. 2, 1929 the first skull of Peking (Beijing) Man (Sinanthropus pekinensis) is discovered by Canadian anthropologist Davidson Black (1884-1934) at the Zhoukoudian (Choukoutien) Cave System 30 mi. from Beijing (discovered in 1921). German anthropologist Franz Weidenreich (1873-1948) studies it and notes numerous anatomical features in common with modern Chinese, leading to his Polycentric Evolution Model of Human Origins, that human pops. evolved independently in the Old World from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens while allowing for some gene flow, contrasting with Charles Darwin's Out of Africa Theory of Human Origins, that Homo sapiens arose as a species 270K years ago in Africa, and migrated to other continents in several waves that died out before the last wave about 70K-50K years ago via the Southern Route along the Asian coast and Australia.
On July 4, 1930 traveling salesman (a New Zealander of half-Indian descent, who claims to be born in Mecca?) Wallace Dodd Fard (1893-?) forms the Lost-Found Nation of Islam in the Wilderness of North America in Detroit, Mich., with the goal of resurrecting the spiritual, mental, social, and economic condition of Am. blacks, claiming that they were history ignoramuses about their true African history, which was Muslim, and that they are the lost ancient tribe of Shabazz that goes back 66T years, and that a renegade black scientist named Yakub on the island of Patmos created the pesky white race 6K years ago as a test for the black master race, who are a divine race created by Allah; he mysteriously disappears during the summer, and Elijah Muhammad (1897-1975) becomes the new leader on Nov. 22, moving to Chicago, Ill. in 1932 and establishing Temple Number Two as the Nation of Islam HQ - shine yo' shoes, bazz?
In 1931 Cambridge, Mass.-born physical anthropologist Earnest Albert Hooton (1887-1954) pub. Up from the Ape, exploring the physical differences of the negro from other races, incl. ratio of arm length to leg length in the fetus, distinguishing True Negro, African Negro, Oceanic Negro et al.; he later writes: "The negro race is phylogenetically a closer approach to primitive man than the white race", using physical anthropology to establish racial stereotypes incl. the athleticism and criminality of blacks, using mathematically rigorous race typology criteria.
On Sept. 15, 1935 a Nazi Party convention is held in Nuremberg, in which Hitler asks the puppet Reichstag to pass the Nuremburg Laws, depriving Jews of all remaining citizenship, and forbidding marriage between Germans and Jews; in Aug. 2010 the original documents end up in the U.S. Nat. Archives.
On Mar. 11, 1937 the non-profit Pioneer Fund is founded in the U.S. "to advance the scientific study of heredity and human differences", i.e., white supremacist scientific racism and eugenics, going on to fund the journal Mankind Quarterly (founded in 1960) and the 1994 book "The Bell Curve"; wealthy founder and de facto dir. #1 (until 1972) is Wickliffe Preston Draper (1891-1972), who visited Nazi Germany in 1935 and met with their eugenicists, inspiring the Nuremberg Laws; he goes on to oppose the U.S. civil rights movement and Brown v. Board of Education, making large donations to stop them; pres. #1 (until 1941) is Oskaloosa, Iowa-born eugenicist Harry Hamilton Laughlin (1880-1943), who does research to develop techniques to identify "passing for white" people in the Am. South, writing the soundbyte to the Nazis that they share "a common understanding of... the practical application" of eugenic principles to "racial endowments and... racial health."
On Sept. 1, 1939 - Sept. 2, 1945 the horrific $3.5T World War II results in 24M military and 49M civilian deaths, and features the low point of the Jewish Holocaust (Shoah) by the German Nazis - I guess it was the Jews' fault for not ransoming themselves to go to Israel before they could round them up for the camps? The British Empire is virtually kaput, allowing the non-white pops. to gain their independence, although usually as members of the British Commonwealth; British white males go into a perpetual state of shock? The whole experience turns Jews from lovers into fighters, ramping up the Zionist movement with full world sympathy and support by new world superpower U.S., which has its own guilt trip because on Nov. 24, 1942 Budapest-born Am. Zionist leader Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise (1874-1949) announces in a press conference in Washington, D.C. that he was authorized by the U.S. State Dept. to confirm that the Nazis had murdered 2M Jews as part of a plan to exterminate all Jews in Europe; too bad, the nat. newspapers don't consider it front page news, and the U.S. govt. does nada. After the war ends and Americans tour the concentration camps in horror, Polish-born Jewish scholar Raphael Lemkin (1900-59), who single-handedly led an unsuccessful campaign to get the League of Nations to give internat. protections against genocide starting in 1933 finally gets what he wanted after his own people got it, namely the Dec. 9, 1948 U.N. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Gen. Assembly Resolution 260), which doesn't come in force until Jan. 12, 1951, and which the U.S. still doesn't ratify until 1988.
On Dec. 13-15, 1939 (Wed.-Fri.) the Hollywood blockbuster film Gone With the Wind has its world premiere in Atlanta, Ga., with Dec. 15 proclaimed a state holiday by Dem. Ga. gov. #56 (1937-41) Eurith Dickinson "Ed" Rivers (1895-1967), with 1M coming to see the Dec. 15 premiere at Lowe's Grand Theatre after 300K line the streets for 7 mi. to watch the procession of stars from the airport; Leslie Howard and Victor Fleming don't attend; Hattie McDaniel and the other black actors refuse to attend to protest Jim Crow laws; on Dec. 15, 1939 Victor Fleming's epic tear-jerking 231-min. Gone With the Wind (MGM) (Selznick Internat. Pictures) debuts, based on the Margaret Mitchell novel is acclaimed as the greatest movie of all time; writer Sidney Coe Howard is assisted by novelist F. Scott Fitzgerald and producer David O. Selznick; set designer William Cameron Menzies and cinematographer Ernest Haller make it one of the most beautiful films ever produced; the MGM back lot sets of "King Kong" and "The Garden of Allah" are burned down to simulate the burning of Atlanta; English actress Vivien Leigh (1913-67) plays sassy Southern belle Scarlett O'Hara ("Fiddle-dee-dee! War, war, war! This war talk's spoiling all the fun at every party this spring. I get so bored I could scream. Besides, there isn't going to be any war. If either of you boys say war just once again, I'll go in the house and slam the door," Clark Gable (1901-60) plays the devilish ho-loving courtier Rhett Butler, Leslie Howard (1893-1943) plays Scarlett's unrequited love Ashley Wilkes, who marries his house-garden-and kitchen cousin Melanie (Gr. "black"), played by Olivia de Havilland (1916-2016), while the South goes to war and ends up you know what; even the black actors shine, despite their demeaning roles, with Hattie McDaniel (1895-1952) playing Scarlett's loving motherly Mamie ("Miss Scarlett, you forgot your shawl"), and Thelma "Butterfly" McQueen (1911-95) playing the superstitious ignorant Sissy ("I don't know nothing about birthin' babies"); David O. Selznick is fined $5K for obscenity when Gable changes "Frankly my dear, I don't care" to "Frankly my dear, I don't give a damn"; Thomas Mitchell (1892-1962) plays Scarlett's Irish dad, who goes bonkers on his plantation Tara after it becomes you know what; future Superman George Reeves (1914-59) gets a part as a courtin' fool; 5-y.-o. Eleanore Cammack "Cammie" King Conlon (1934-2010) plays the daughter Bonnie Blue Butler, and retires after playing the voice of the young deer Faline in "Bambi" (1942); the novel causes the name Melanie to catch on, but not Scarlett?; Greta Garbo later brags about seducing Hattie McDaniel?; Vienna-born composer Maximilian Raoul "Max" Steiner (1888-1971) composes the score, going on to compose 300+ scores incl. "Casablanca" (1942) and "Life with Father" (1947), becoming known as "the Father of Film Music"; too bad, in June 2020 HBO Max temporarily pulls the film from circulation, citing its racial stereotypes esp. the portrayal of contented slaves.
I thought that coon was a smear word for a Negro? In 1939 Wakefield, Mass.-born physical anthropologist Carleton Stevens Coon (1904-81) of Harvard U. pub. The Races of Europe, the White Race and the New World; Ch. 1 is titled "Introduction to the Historical Study of the White Race"; the last chapter is titled "The White Race and the New World"; claims that the "Caucasoid" race type (whites) is a combo of Upper Paleothic Homo sapiens and Neanderthals with purely Homo sapiens Mediterranean types, while the European racial type is a sub-race of the Caucasoid race, and "The Nordic race in the strict sense is merely a pigment phase of the Mediterranean", being a mixture of Corded and Danubian Mediterraneans. In 1962 after moving to the U. of Penn. in 1948 Coon pub. The Origin of Races, which summarizes all the scientific data, combining it with conclusions that are eagerly latched onto by white supremacists, turning it controversial; proposes the Candelbra Hypothesis, that races evolved separately from the Homo erectus to Homo sapiens sapiens stage, with some gene flow, and that some races reached the final stage before others, resulting in a higher degree of civilization; "Throughout 6,000 years of recorded history the pure-blooded African has invented nothing. Not a written language, weaved cloth, a calender, a plow, a road, a bridge, a railway, a ship, a system of measurement, or even the wheel. His shelter has never progressed beyond the common mud hut, the construction of which a muskrat is capable"; "Wherever Homo arose, and Africa is at present the most likely continent, he soon dispersed, in a very primitive form, throughout the warm regions of the Old World... If Africa was the cradle of mankind, it was only an indifferent kindergarten. Europe and Asia were our principal schools"; "The earliest Homo sapiens known, as represented by several examples from Europe and Africa, was an ancestral long-headed white man of short stature and moderately great brain size"; "The negro group probably evolved parallel to the white strain."
On Nov. 12, 1946 Walt Disney's Song of the South (RKO Radio Pictures) (dir. by Harve Foster and Wilfred Jackson) debuts, based on the Joel Chandler Harris Uncle Remus stories, becoming Disney's first film with some live action, starring James Baskett (1904-48) as Uncle Remus, who is awarded an honorary Oscar; also stars child actor Bobby Driscoll (1937-68) as Johnny; the first African-Am. best actor Oscar winner is Sidney Poitier in 1963; incl. the (racially degrading?) hit song Zip-a-Dee-Doo-Dah; too bad, it later draws the ire of the PC police.
On July 18, 1950 UNESCO releases The Race Question, written by English-born Jewish-Am. anthropologist Montague Francis Ashley-Montagu (Israel Ehrenberg) (1905-99), black Am. sociologist Edward Franklin Frazier (1894-1962) et al., questioning the validity of race as a biological concept and suggesting the substitution of "ethnic group"; revised eds. pub. in 1951, 1967, and 1978; English #1 geneticist-statistician-eugenicist (founder of modern statistical science) Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962) is a notable dissenter, insisting that there are statistical racial differences, with the soundbyte: "Scientific knowledge provides a firm basis for believing that the groups of mankind differ in their innate capacity for intellectual and emotional development."
The Science of Biology gets its Trinity of Watson-Crick-and-I-forget? Scientific racism gets undermined beyond repair? On Feb. 28, 1953 Chicago-born U.S. biologist James Dewey Watson (1928-) and British Cambridge U. model-making molecular biologist Francis Harry Compton Crick (1916-2004) announce their discovery of "the secret of life", the neat transvestite double-helix structure of DNA, then pub. a 1-page article in the Apr. 25 issue of Nature, drooling "This structure has novel features that are of considerable biological interest", later sharing the 1962 Nobel Med. Prize for it with Kiwi physicist Maurice H.F. Wilkins (1916-2004), who verifies the structure with X-ray diffraction; meanwhile Wilkins' colleague Rosalind Elsie Franklin (1920-58) of Kings College, who also pub. an article in the Apr. 25 issue on her X-ray diffraction studies, and whose work allowed the discovery is left out of the prize - no wonder girls hate math? Too bad, Watson goes on to claim that melanin boosts sex drive, giving dark-skinned people stronger libidos, and that differences in avg. measured IQ between blacks and whites are due to genetics not environment, causing the PC police to target him, getting him suspended from his admin. responsibilities at Cold Spring Harbor Lab where he worked for almost 40 years, forcing him to apologize and retire, which doesn't stop him from repeating his assertion in a 2018 TV documentary, causing him to lose his honorary titles.
Let's skip the genealogies and go straight to the war? The greatest moment in Supreme Court history since the Dredd Scott decision of 1857, and the beginning of the Second Reconstruction of the Am. South (first in 1867)? On May 17, 1954 the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules unanimously in Bolling v. Sharpe to desegregate the public schools of Washington, D.C.; meanwhile on May 17 after hearing arguments by NAACP counsel Thurgood Marshall (1908-93), the U.S. Supreme (Earl Warren) Court (which incl. three Southerners) rules unanimously 9-0 in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka that "separate but equal" public schools are inherently unequal and therefore unconstitutional, citing the 14th Amendment to reverse the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision, and ending "the long habit of deception and evasion" (Ralph Ellison); assoc. justice Robert Jackson leaves the hospital (heart attack) to be present; chief justice Earl Warren (in office for 6 mo.) begins at 12:52 p.m. and meanders until 1:20 without indicating the decision made (no advance copies given to the press), then says: "To separate [black kids] from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way never to be done... We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal"; the term "integration" is never used; the Court then says it will withhold compliance instructions until its fall term, when all sides are to prepare arguments on whether the federal district courts or a special master (sorry, crackers?) should be in charge; 17 states and the District of Columbia require school segregation by law, and four other states permit it, affecting 12M school children; Ga. and S.C. go especially bonkers; 1924 Dem. vice-pres. candidate John William Davis (1873-1955), known for arguing the most (140) cases before the U.S. Supreme Court loses his last one trying to defend S.C.'s public school segregation laws; a Gallup poll following the decision finds that over half the country approves; Pres. Eisenhower repents his decision to appoint Warren to the court, saying it's "the biggest damnfool mistake I ever made", and adds "The fellow who tries to tell me that you can do these things by force is just plain nuts", but obeys the court and immediately desegregates all District of Columbia schools on Sept. 7, and goes further, ending segregation on all Navy bases; in Jan. 1953 he had already appointed Bostonian Lois H. Lippman (-1999) as the first black member of the White House secretarial staff, along with E. Frederic Morrow (1906-94) as his admin. asst., becoming the first black to hold an executive position at the White House; the whole thing was started in 1950 by black Topeka, Kan. schoolteacher Lucinda Wilson "Cindy" Todd (1903-96), who was angry because her daughter Nancy Jane Todd (b. 1941) couldn't play in a school concert, and by Oliver L. Brown, who wanted his 9-y.-o. daughter Linda Brown (b. 1943) to attend white Sumner Elementary School in Topeka; the nine justices are Warren, Douglas, Black, Frankfurter, Jackson, Clark, Minton, Burton, and Reed; by 1964 less than 10% of Southern black students attend white schools; Cleveland, Miss. starts a court battle that lasts until May 16, 2016.
"Somewhere in the universe a gear in the machinery had shifted" (Eldridge Cleaver) as Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr. arise to take on whitey in the Deep South, using whitey's network TV to get worldwide pressure on local conditions? On Dec. 1, 1955 (Thur.) (less than 100 days after the Emmett Tills affair) black seamstress (member of the NAACP since 1943) Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (1913-2005), who lives in the Cleveland Courts housing project parks her rosy butt and refuses to move to da back o' da bus in Montgomery, Ala. when it fills up and the bus driver James F. Blake (1912-2002) orders her to stand and let a white man sit; she is arrested at the next stop, charged with the misdemeanor of disobeying a bus driver's instructions, found guilty, and fined $14; NAACP pres. Edgar Nixon and employer Clifford Durr bail her out; her friends and neighbors distribute pamphlets calling for a 1-day boycott of all city transportation, which is a huge success as the 25K blacks in the city account for 75% of the bus passengers; black leaders step in and demand that blacks be treated equal with whites, and black bus drivers be hired; when they refuse, the Montgomery Bus Boycott, led by unknown 26-y.-o. Harvard-educated Dexter Avenue Baptist Church pastor Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-68) begins on Dec. 5, and lasts 381 days, almost bankrupting the city bus co. (ends Dec. 1956); Montgomery Mayor W.A. Gayle and the city commission ceremoniously join the local White Citizens' Council, and Gayle declares "We have pussyfooted around long enough... There seems to be a belief on the part of the Negroes that they have the white people hemmed in a corner and they are not going to give an inch until they can force the white people of the community to submit to their demands"; white families begin giving their cooks and handymen rides or pay their taxi fares, causing Gayle to accuse them of "fighting to destroy our social fabric just as much as the Negro radicals who are leading them"; in 1992 Parks says she didn't do it just because "my feet were hurting and I didn't know why I refused to stand up when they told me... the real reason of my not standing up was I felt that I had a right to be treated as any other passenger. We had endured that kind of treatment for too long". On Feb. 20, 1956 Rosa Parks along with 100 Montgomery, Ala. blacks are indicted for violating a local anti-boycott statute and booked at the police station, resulting in a famous booking photo which people mistake for the Dec. 1, 1955 bus arrest. On June 13, 1956 the U.S. District Court in Ala. rules in Browder v. Gayle that public bus segregation is unconstitutional. Alabama's stupidity causes segregation to be dealt a major blow? On Nov. 13, 1956 the U.S. Supreme Court upholds the Ala. District Court, ruling that segregation of buses and all public transportation is illegal, bringing the Montgomery Bus Boycott to a victorious end on Dec. 21 when the city of Montgomery actually obeys the law; Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-68), who had been arrested again in Nov. for running a business enterprise without a franchise (organizing a 200-vehicle carpool) is freed, saying, "We have been going to the back of the bus for so long that there is danger that we will instinctively go straight back there again and perpetuate segregation"; "I would be terribly disappointed if any of you go back to the buses bragging, 'We, the Negroes, won a victory over the white people'. If you do, our struggle will be lost all over the South. Go back with humility and meekness"; he then rides the bus himself, paying 15 cents, up 5 cents from the year before, and takes a front seat, at the end commenting, "It was a great ride"; on Dec. 21 a UPI photographer takes a staged picture of Rosa Parks and UPI reporter Nicholas C. Chriss (1928-90) sitting at the front of the bus in downtown Montgomery; the photo is later used as a poster, and people mistakenly believe the reporter is an Alabama segregationist because of the way he looks away from her, and mistakenly believe it was taken during the original incident, which was on an overcrowded bus; MLK Jr. and others take similar staged photos.
Virginia is for lovers, call 1-800-law-help? In June 1958 Central Point (near Richmond), Va. white man Richard Perry Loving (1933-75) and black-Amerindian Va. woman Mildred Delores "Bean" Jeter (1939-2008), who met seven years earlier and fell in love, resulting in her becoming pregnant, drive 80 mi. to Washington, D.C. and get married, only to be arrested in bed and charged with illegal cohabitation under the 1924 Va. Racial Integrity Act, convicted, then given a 1-year 1959 jail sentence, which they avoid by agreeing to leave the state for 25 years, but get around the stupid redneck wording of the agreement ("both accused leave Caroline County and the State of Virginia at once, and do not return together or at the same time to said county and state for a period of 25 years") by riding back in separate cars (should have said don't return separately or together, or reside together at the same time in said county or state, but the racially superior whiteys popped a head gasket?); they then write to U.S. atty.-gen. Robert F. Kennedy, who refers them to the ACLU, and anti-miscegenation (mixed-race marriage) laws are put on their hit list, with Jewish atty. Bernard S. Cohen filing a motion to vacate the sentence, only to see the courts show themselves up as frauds run by puppetmasters by failing to even respond, which just makes him madder, and after the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964 is passed, he gets it taken up by the U.S. Supreme Court as a test case, and they strike down anti-miscegenation laws as unconstitutional on June 12, 1967 (6/6+6/7), causing it to be known as Loving Day; too bad, a drunk driver hits their car in 1975, killing Richard and costing Mildred her right eye. 6/6+6/67 and 6/7+6/7 are Thoroughly Good Black-White Love Days at the U.S. Zoo? Open season for black bucks to go after white wimmen? On June 12, 1967 ("Loving Day") the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Case rules unanimously in Loving v. Virginia; to strike down the 1924 Va. Racial Integrity Act, along with all 16 state laws against "miscegenation" (interracial marriage) (mistaken generation?), legalizing the June 1958 marriage of Mildred Delores "Bean" Loving (nee Jeter) (1939-2008) (black-Am. Indian) and Richard Perry Loving (1933-75) (white) in Washington, D.C.; no surprise, after a decade of civil rights action and ongoing black race riots it causes little public criticism by whites, although S.C. doesn't officially repeal its anti-miscegenation law until 1999; meanwhile on Mar. 17 African-Am. aspiring novelist Alice Walker (1944-) marries Jewish civil rights atty. Melvyn Roseman "Mel" Leventhal, and relocates with him from New York City to Jackson, Miss. to stick it in their faces as the state's first legally married interracial couple; on Nov. 17 1969 (17 mo. after MLK Jr. is shot) they have biracial daughter Rebecca Leventhal Walker (1969-); they divorce in 1976, after which Alice becomes estranged with her daughter, becomes lovers with singer Tracy Chapman, and becomes a supporter of the Palestinian cause.
In summer 1958 Bloomington, Ill.-born corncob pipe-smoking Brown U. philosophy dropout and WWII U.S. Navy fighter pilot ("the American Fuehrer") George Lincoln Rockwell (1918-67) (coiner of the term "White Power") founds the Am. Nazi Party (originally the World Union of Free Enterprise Nat. Socialists until 1960) in Arlington, Va., advocating total racial segregation and blaming the Jews for attempting to push racemixing on the white people of the world, praising Adolf Hitler as "the White savior of the twentieth century" and "the greatest mind in two thousand years", ironically agreeing with the Nation of Islam in its views of the need for racial separation; their first public act is to picket the White House across the Potomac River from their HQ to protest Jewish control of the Eisenhower admin., with signs reading "Save Ike from the Kikes"; he goes on to pub. the autobio. "This Time the World". In Apr. 1966 African-Am. "Roots" novelist Alex Haley interviews Rockwell in Playboy mag.; Rockwell: "There are always exceptions - but everybody knows that they prove the rule. Evolution shows that in the long run, if the superior mixes with the inferior, the product is halfway between, and inferior to what you started with in the original superior group - in other words, mongrelized."; Haley: "The words superior and inferior have no meaning to geneticists, Commander - and neither does mongrelization. Every authority in the field has attested that the world's racial groups are genetically indistinguishable from one another. All men, in other words including hybrids - are created equal"; Rockwell: " You're bringing tears to my eyes. Don't you know that all this equality garbage was started by a Jew anthropologist named Franz Boas from Columbia University? Boas was followed by another Jew from Columbia named Gene Weltfish. And our present Jew expert preaching equality is another Jew named Ashley Montagu. Any anthropologist who dares to preach the facts known by any farmer in the barnyard that breeds differ in quality are simply not allowed to survive in the universities or in publishing, because he can't earn a living. You never hear from that side"; Rockwell goes on to cite the 1916 study on negro psychology by George Oscar Ferguson that claimed to find a higher "intellectual efficiency" in proportion to the percentage of white blood in mixed-races, uttering the soundbyte: "No, we have machines to do their work now. I would simply revoke their citizenship and then offer them the alternatives of either returning to Africa with our generous help and assistance in establishing a modern industrial nation, or being relocated on reservations like the Indians were when they became a problem to the survival of the white people. This will apply to you, too, by the way. Nothing personal, you understand; I like you, personally; but I can't make any exceptions." Too bad, on Aug. 25, 1967 Rockwell is shot and killed by disgruntled party member John Patler.
1960 World pop.: 3B (double 1900 pop.), incl. 284M in Africa, 1.7B in Asia, 604M in Europe, 218M in Latin Am., 204M in North Am., and 16M in Oceania; Black is as black does, or, Play that funky music white boy? The U.N. declares this the Year of Africa: 17 African states (out of 51, with over 1K different cultures and 800 languages) gain their full or token independence from white European govts. (16 join the U.N.): Cameroon (Jan. 1), Togo (Apr. 27), Mali (June 20), Senegal (June 20), Malagasy Repub. (Madagascar) (June 26), Belgian Congo (Kinshasa) (June 30), Ghana (Gold Coast) (July 1), Somalia (July 1), Ghana (July 1), Dahomey (Aug. 1), Niger (Aug. 3), Upper Volta (Aug. 5), Ivory Coast (Aug. 7) (two brands of bar soap?), Chad (Aug. 11), Central African Repub. (CAR) (Aug. 13), Congo Repub. (Brazzaville) (Aug. 15), Gabon (Aug. 17), Nigeria (Oct. 1), Mauritania (Nov. 28).
In 1960 the journal Mankind Quarterly is founded by the Internat. Assoc. for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics in Edinburgh, Scotland and funded by Am. white supremacists incl. the Pioneer Fund, with the goal of fighting the 1950 UNESCO declaration against scientific racism.
On Dec. 25, 1962 Robert Mulligan's To Kill a Mockingbird (Universal Pictures) debuts, by screenwriter Horton Foote based on the 1960 Harper Lee novel, taking on Southern racial prejudice in 1930s Ala. with a perfect performance by Gregory Peck as lawyer Atticus Finch, along with a boosting performance by Robert Selden Duvall (1931-) (a descendant of Confed. Gen. Robert E. Lee, who is roommates with Dustin Hoffman and Gene Hackman) as man-child Boo Radley; 10-y.-o. Mary Badham (1952-) (sister of film dir. John Badham, who retires from films in 1966) plays Peck's daughter Scout, whose innocence is almost destroyed; Phillip Alford (1948-) plays Scout's brother Jem; Brock Peters (1927-2005) plays coveralls-wearing black chifferobe mover Tom Robinson, who is framed for rape by white trash girl Mayella Violet Ewell, played by Collin Wilcox (Wilcox-Paxton) (1935-2009), whose white trash daddy Robert E. Lee "Bob" Ewell, played by James Anderson (1921-69) (AKA Kyle James), immortalizes Southern white racists; toothy John Megna (1952-95), brother of Connie Stevens plays Charles Baker "Dill" Harris, based on Harper Lee's childhood friend Truman Capote; odd-looking James Richard Hale (1892-1981) plays mean old man Nathan Radley; does $13.1M box office on a $2M budget; softens up the Baby Boom generation to support the U.S. civil rights movement?
In May 1963 white British-born high-IQ Am. Nobel Physics Prize winner William Bradford "Bill" Shockley (1910-89) gives a Shocking Speech on Race vs. IQ at Gustavus Adolphus College in Minn. suggesting that the people least competent to survive in the world are reproducing the fastest; a year later he claims in an interview with U.S. News and World Report that U.S. blacks as a group score 15 points lower on IQ tests than U.S. whites, and suggests that the cause is hereditary intellectual inferiority, stirring up a firestorm of controversy - and that therefore black genes are like a computer virus and if you want a better Internet, belong to White America Online with all the Bells and Whistles and Virus Protection, or is there an inverse relationship between IQ and penis size, and evolution is somehow stepping on its own dick? In 1966 English psychologist Sir Cyril Burt (1883-1971) pub. his research on 53 pairs of monozygotic twins, indicating that IQ levels are determined mainly by inheritance; too bad, he burns his records before he dies, allowing his critics (who are rocked to their socks by the implications, esp. with loose cannon William Shockley on deck) to claim that he falsified his data, while not wanting any more research done of course, until other studies reproduce his results, after which they only become more entrenched?
On Aug. 28, 1963 the Great March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in Washington, D.C. organized by Bayard Rustin (1912-87) sees Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-68) deliver his I Have a Dream Speech from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial to 200K while NBC-TV preempts daytime programming to provide live coverage; MLK Jr. calls the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence "a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir"; "I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin, but by the content of their character"; ends with "Free at last!"; white actors Marlon Brando, James Garner, and Burt Lancaster attend, along with black actors Sidney Poitier and Harry Belafonte; longtime civil rights leader ("Godmother of the Civil Rights Movement") Dorothy Irene Height (1912-2010) stands on the platform with King during the speech, later saying she is disappointed that he didn't mention women's rights; folk trio Peter, Paul and Mary sing If I Had a Hammer, and Mary has an "apotheosis"; good friend Sammy Davis Jr. stands in front of the podium.
On Oct. 3, 1965 after testimony by Harvard U. immigration historian Oscar Handlin (1915-2011) helps persuade Congress, and it passes the U.S. House by 326-69 and the U.S. Senate by 76-18, LBJ signs the U.S. Hart-Celler Immigration Act of 1965 (effective June 30, 1968) on Liberty Island, backed by Ted Kennedy against mainly white Southern opposition, abolishing the discriminatory 1924 quota system by removing "national origin" language, and making family unification the overarching policy, with the soundbyte: "This system violates the basic principle of American democracy, the principle that values and rewards each man on the basis of his merit as a man. It has been un-American in the highest sense, because it has been untrue to the faith that brought thousands to these shores even before we were a country"; permitting up to 300K immigrants a year, incl. 170K from the Eastern Hemisphere and only 120K from the Western Hemisphere (no more than 20K per country), the act becomes effective on July 1, 1968, and soon causes Asian Hindu and Muslim immigration to increase, resulting in a marked reduction of the percentage of whites and Christians in the U.S. pop.; it later becomes a key factor in the 2009 election of Pres. Barack Obama; it was sponsored by U.S. Rep. (D-N.Y.) (1923-73) Emanuel Celler (1888-1981) (who worked to get it passed since 1924), and co-sponsored by U.S. Sen. (D-Mich.) (1959-76) Philip Aloysius Hart (1912-76) ("the Conscience of the Senate"); on the Senate floor, after Ted Kennedy utters the soundbyte: "First, our cities will not be flooded with a million immigrants annually. Under the proposed bill, the present level of immigration remains substantially the same... Secondly, the ethnic mix of this country will not be upset... Contrary to the charges in some quarters, [the bill] will not inundate America with immigrants from any one country or area, or the most populated and deprived nations of Africa and Asia... In the final analysis, the ethnic pattern of immigration under the proposed measure is not expected to change as sharply as the critics seem to think... The bill will not flood our cities with immigrants, it will not upset the ethnic mix of our society, it will not relax the standards of admission, it will not cause American workers to lose their jobs" - he croaks just about the time the jig is up on his predictions?
In Feb. 1969 San Diego, Calif.-born psychologist Arthur Robert Jensen (1923-2012) pub. the article How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement? in the Harvard Educational Review, claiming that 80% of the variance of IQ in a pop. is the result of genetic factors, and only 20% to environmental influences, causing a firestorm of controversy along with death threats, causing him to pub. another article in 1981 with the soundbyte: "Nowhere have I 'claimed' an 'innate deficiency' of intelligence in blacks. My position on this question is clearly spelled out in my most recent book: 'The plain fact is that at present there exists no scientifically satisfactory explanation for the differences between the IQ distributions in the black and white populations. The only genuine consensus among well-informed scientists on this topic is that the cause of the difference remains an open question.'" In 1998 Jensen pub. The g Factor: The Science of Mental Ability, which claims there is a general factor of human mental ability forming a triangle of abilities, which should replace intelligence and IQ, likening it to a computer's CPU; his contention that gen. cognitive ability is an inherited trait, and that conceptual learning (synthesizing ability) occurs with greater frequency in whites than non-whites brings out the PC police; "The relationship of the g factor to a number of biological variables and its relationship to the size of the white-black differences on various cognitive tests (i.e., Spearman's hypothesis) suggests that the average white-black difference in g has a biological component. Human races are viewed not as discrete, or Platonic, categories, but rather as breeding populations that, as a result of natural selection, have come to differ statistically in the relative frequencies of many polymorphic genes. The genetic distances between various populations form a continuous variable that can be measured in terms of differences in gene frequencies. Racial populations differ in many genetic characteristics, some of which, such as brain size, have behavioral and psychometric correlates, particularly g. "
In 1973 Mary-Claire King (1946-) of UCB demonstrates that human and chimpanzee DNA are 99% identical; later it is determined that 99.9% of human DNA is identical across all the world's pop.; in 2008 it is found that the DNA in identical twins is not 100% identical - science needs a woman's touch?
In winter 1974 Bristol-born English U. of Exeter and Ulster U. psychologist Richard Lynn (1930-) launches his career with a review titled A New Morality from Science: Beyondism in Irish Journal of Psychology, recommending that "incompetent societies have to be allowed to go to the wall" and "the foreign aid which we give to the under-developed world is a mistake, akin to keeping incompetent species like the dinosaurs which are not fit for the competitive struggle for existence", going to pub. studies claiming to find racial and gender differences in intelligence, bringing out the PC police. In 1997 he pub. Dysgenics: Genetic deterioration in modern populations, claiming guess what. In 2001 he pub. The Science of Human Diversity: A History of the Pioneer Fund. In 2001 he pub. Eugenics: A Reassessment, finding the prior work sound despite its rejection since WWII. On Mar. 1, 2002 he pub. the paper Skin Color and Intelligence in African Americans in Population and Environment, which claims that "the level of intelligence in African Americans is significantly determined by the proportion of Caucasian genes", and that "The hypothesis that discrimination by Whites is wholly or partly responsible for the low IQs obtained by Blacks and for the lower IQs obtained by dark skinned as compared with light skinned Blacks, is ... implausible." On Nov. 10, 2006 he and Finnish sociologist Tatu Vanhanen (1929-2015) pub. IQ and Global Inequality. In 2006 Lynn pub. Race Differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis (2nd ed. in 2015), a survey of 500+ articles, giving the avg. IQ scores of East Asians as 105, Europeans 99, the Inuit (91), Southeast Asians and native Ams. (87), Pacific Islanders (85), Middle Easterners (84), East and West AFricans (67), Australian Aborigines (62), and Bushmen and Pygmies (54), attributing poor nutrition to the lower range. In 2008 Lynn pub. The Global Bell Curve: Race, IQ and Inequality Worldwide, claiming to prove that U.S. IQ differences as detailed in the 1994 book "The Bell Curve" apply globally. On Feb. 28, 2002 Lynn and Vanhanen pub. IQ and the Wealth of Nations, claiming a correlation between IQ and per capita GDP. In 2012 Lynn and Vanhanan pub. Intelligence: A Unifying Construct for the Social Sciences. In Feb. 2014 Lynn and London-born anthropologist Edward Croft Dutton (1980-) pub. the study Why is intelligence negatively associated with religiousness? in the Interdisciplinary Journal on Research and Religion, claiming that physical scientists are more intelligent than social scientists, with the soundbytes: “There is sound evidence of a negative correlation between intelligence and religiosity and between intelligence and political extremism. Therefore the most probable reason behind elite social scientists being more religious than are elite physical scientists is that social scientists are less intelligent", "Intelligence is also a factor in interdisciplinary differences in political extremism, [with] physicists, who have high IQs, being among the least extreme and lower-IQ scholars being among the most extreme", and: "[Physical] scientists are overwhelmingly atheist. This is predicted by their high IQ, which allows you to rise above emotion and see through the fallacious, emotional arguments." On Jan. 2016 and German political scientist David Becker and Scottish IQ researcher Michael Anthony Woodley of Menie, Younger (1984-) of the Tech. U. of Chemnitz, Germany pub. the article It’s getting bigger all the time: Estimating the Flynn effect from secular brain mass increases in Britain and Germany in the journal Learning and Individual Differences, citing data from brains in the U.K. and Germany over the last 80 years to show that the Flynn effect of increasing generational IQ is accompanied by increased brain size, attributing 6%-13% to its contribution. On May 3, 2018 Lynn and Dutton pub. Race Differences in Psychopathic Personality: An Evolutionary Analysis, with the ad blurb: "This paper proposes that there are racial and ethnic differences in psychopathic personality conceptualised as a continuously distributed trait, such that high values of the trait are present in blacks and Native Americans, intermediate values in Hispanics, lower values in whites and the lowest values in East Asians. Part one of the paper sets out the evidence for this thesis. Part two applies the thesis to the unresolved problem in The Bell Curve that racial and ethnic differences in a number of social phenomena such as crime, welfare dependency, rates of marriage, etc. cannot be fully explained by differences in intelligence and proposes that some of the residual disparities are attributable to differences in psychopathic personality." In Apr. 2019 Lynn and Becker pub. The Intelligence of Nations, culminating their research efforts.
On Nov. 18, 1978 (Sat.) after arriving to investigate complaints of mistreatment of relatives, and being told by 20 members that they want to leave, then accompanying him to Port Kaituma Airport, anti-cult crusading U.S. Rep. (D-Calif.) (since Jan. 3, 1973) Leo Joseph Ryan Jr. (b. 1925) and four others are killed in Jonestown, Guyana by Larry Layton and three other members of Rev. Jim Jones' Peoples Temple of the Disciples of Christ of San Francisco, Calif. (founded 1955), making Ryan the first U.S. congressman killed in the line of duty (until ?); the killings are followed by the Jonestown Massacre, a night of mass murder-suicide by 918 cult members incl. 270+ children, becoming the worst religious mayhem since John of Leiden's cult in 1535, and the biggest mass killing of Am. civilians until ?; Jones kills himself, and only 32 members escape, incl. their controversial atty. Mark Lane (1947-); 75% of church members are black, a majority of them women who bought his promise of a black paradise sans racial prejudice, segregation, and economic inequality; Jones is often portrayed as a fundamentalist Christian but actually preached atheism and communism, and was the darling of San Francisco, openly praised by Jane Fonda, Angela Davis, Huey Newton, Harvey Milk et al.; the publicity hurts sales of Kool-Aid, even though a cheaper unsweetened brand called Flavor Aid (first marketed in 1929) might have been used instead of or as well; the Cult Awareness Network (CAN) is founded to deprogram its members; too bad, in 1996 the Church of Scientology buys it in bankruptcy court - making its name an oxymoron?
In 1982 British psychologist Richard Lynn (1930-) pub. an article in Nature noting that IQ scores have been systematically going up since 1950; in 1998 U.S.-born Kiwi political scientist James Robert "Jim" Flynn (1934-) pub. a paper on the same subject, getting the credit, and it becomes known as the Flynn Effect; between 1950-2000 IQ scores rise about 15 points.
In 1984 Am. anthropologist Milford Howell Wolpoff (1942-), Australian anthropologist Alan Gordon Thorne (1939-2012), and Chinese anthropologist Xinzhi Wu (1938-) propose the Multiregional Hypothesis of Human Origins, that modern humans arose via evolutionary processes within the species Homo erectus, which are the earliest fossil specimens of the species Homo sapiens, after which later migrations from Africa didn't replace indigenous human pops. but only incidentally hybridized them, with the slogan "Continuity with incidental hybridization"; in 2003 it is modified to resemble the Assimilation Model.
In 1987 scientists at the U. of Calif. conclude from DNA studies that all modern humans trace their ancestry to one African female who lived 100K-200K years ago, whom they name Mitochrondrial Eve - she was what color?
Shut yo' mouth (STFU) or you're outta here, this is the land of the free, as long as you like being unemployed? On Jan. 16, 1988 Steuvenville, Ohio-born CBS-TV "The NFL Today" sports commentator Jimmy "the Greek" Snyder (1918-96), famous for predicting the outcome of 18 of 21 Super Bowls is summarily fired one day after telling a TV reporter in Washington, D.C. that "During the slave period, the slave owner would breed his big black with his big woman so that he would have a big black kid"; this event signals the arrival of the Regime of Political Correctness in the U.S., where the leftist mainly Jewish-controlled media attempt to stifle all free speech by creating an atmosphere where anybody expressing an opinion not in line with their super-liberal agenda of acceptance for integration, racemixing, homosexuality, feminism, affirmative action, and secularization (de-Christianization) of the govt. is open season for any govt. entity, univ., or corporation to silence and fire at will, with the action accepted without question and applauded openly by the media as not to be questioned - actually the horrible boat trip from Africa aboard slave ships already weeded out the weak and left the main pop. ready for prime time?
On Mar. 3, 1991 (shortly after midnight) after a 117 mph car chase, black motorist Rodney Glen King (1965-2017) is arrested by Los Angeles, Calif. police, who severely beat him when he's down while bystander George Holliday videotapes it all from a distance, shocking the U.S. with the appearance of Third World police brutality in the Land of the Free. On Apr. 2 black Los Angeles Mayor Tom Bradley calls for the resignation of white police chief (1978-92) Daryl (Darrel Francis) Gates (1926-2010) (known for telling the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee that casual drug users are guilty of "treason" and "ought to be taken out and shot") 1 mo. after the Mar. 3 Rodney King incident, saying "I simply will not stand by as our city is being torn apart"; one hour earlier the ACLU announces it has 20K signatures calling for it; councilmen Zev Yaroslavsky and Michael Woo had already called for it; trouble is, Bradley doesn't have the power to fire him, and the Police Commission must do it; Gates replies that he will resign if the two blue ribbon citizen's panels in L.A. find him derelict in his duty, and calls the mayor's actions "kind of sneaky". On Apr. 29, 1992 the 1992 Los Angeles Riots begin after a jury acquits four police officers (three white, one Hispanic) accused of the Mar. 3, 1991 beating of suspect Rodney King (1965-2017), with mobs shouting "black justice" and "no justice, no peace"; at 6:46 p.m. white 18-wheel construction truck driver Reginald Oliver Denny (1953-) (carrying 27 tons of sand) is attacked by the "L.A. Bad Four", a gang of pissed-off black rioters, starting with Antoine Eugene "Twan" Miller (1972-2004), opening the door of his truck at Florence Ave. and Normandie, after which the others pull him out, then Henry Keith "Kiki" Watson (1965-) (who apologizes on the Phil Donahue show in 1993), holds his head down with his foot, then an unknown man throws a 5-lb. piece of medical equipment at him then hits him in the head 3x with a claw hammer, then Damian Monroe "Football" Williams (1973-) hits him in the head with a concrete slab, knocking him unconscious, then does a victory dance over his body and flips-off news helis, while Marika Tur and Bob Tur film the whole sequence from their heli, and later spend years suing everybody who play their video without paying them; finally Anthony Brown spits on him and leaves with Williams, and bystanders throw beer bottles at him and attempt to set his truck on fire, while Gary Williams (1958-) rifles Denny's pocket and steals his wallet, and Lance Parker (1966-) tries to shoot the gas tank of Denny's truck but misses; enter the "L.A. Good Four" (all black), Bobby Green (truck driver), Titus Murphy and Terri Barnett (boyfriend-girlfriend), and Lei Yuille (dietician), who come to Denny's aid, and Green drives Denny to the hospital in Denny's truck, where he is found to have 91 skull fractures and a dislocated left eye, and suffers a seizure and comes close to death, ending up with a permanent crater in his head; on Aug. 6 after it took a riot to get U.S. prosecutors to do their job on sacred cow cops, a federal jury indicts the four officers for violating Rodney King's civil rights, and this time two of them, Laurence Powell and Stacey Koon are kapow convicted next Apr. and sentenced to 30 mo., while Theodore Brisene and Timothy Wind breeze away; meanwhile non-cops Gary Williams and Football Williams get 3 and 10 years.
In 1994 New York City-born psychologist Richard Julius Herrnstein (1930-94) and Newton, Iowa-born political scientist Charles Alan Murray (1943-) pub. the bestseller The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life, which pisses-off the PC police with the statement: "It seems highly likely to us that both genes and the environment have something to do with racial differences" (ch. 13), after which 52 scientists sign Mainstream Science on Intelligence, an editorial by San Francisco, Calif.-born psychologist Linda Susanne Gottfredson (1947-) pub. on Dec. 13 in the Wall Street Journal backing the book up and dissing affirmative action, hiring quotas, and race-norming on aptitude tests; duh, ch. 13 starts out: "The debate about whether and how much genes and environment have to do with ethnic differences remains unresolved."
In 1995 English-born Canadian psychologist John Philippe Rushton (1943-2012) pub. Race, Evolution, and Behavior: A Life History Perspective (3rd ed. in 2000), claiming a global continuum of racial differences based on 60 variables, with Mongoloids at one end, Negroids at the other end, and Caucasoids in the middle, but closer to the Mongoloids, going on to hypothesize that the Negroids evolved 200K years ago, the Caucasoids 110K years ago, and the Mongoloids 41K years ago, with the soundbyte: "One theoretical possibility is that evolution is progressive and that some populations are more advanced than others", relating this to crime and AIDS rates, and the soundbytes: "Whites and East Asians have wider hips than Blacks... because they give birth to larger brained babies", and "Hormones that give Blacks an edge at sports makes them restless in school and prone to crime", pissing-off the PC police; "Unless one is a religious fundamentalist and believes that man was created in the image and likeness of God, it is foolish to believe that human beings are exempt from biological classification and the laws of evolution that apply to other life forms."
In Jan. 1996 British psychologist Christopher Richard "Chris" Brand (1943-2017) pub. The g Factor: General Intelligence and Its Implications, claiming that intelligence is heritable, immediately bringing the PC police (Anti-Nazi League) on it, causing the publisher John Wiley & Sons to withdraw it on Apr. 17 without explanation, although everybody knew why; "It is a very different book from the Bell Curve... Brand's book traverses every step of the chain of logic needed to see IQ as critical for social and educational policy: that there is something measurable called general intelligence ('g'), that differences in 'g' are strongly influenced by genetic factors (although Brand allows for environmental factors, he estimates that about 45 per cent of the variation in intelligence is due to 'narrow' genetic factors), and that 'g' is an accurate predictor of success in life. Along that chain there are far too many shaky steps for his thesis to be acceptable to many scientists, whether it is in the way IQ heritability is measured or the very debatable link between IQ and success." (New Scientist)
On Feb. 16, 1999 Hollyweird "Moses" actor Charlton Heston (John Charles Carter) (1923-2008) gives the speech Winning the Culture War, complaining about the leftist attack on "the God fearing, law-abiding, Caucasian, middle-class Protestant – or even worse, evangelical Christian, Midwestern or Southern – or even worse, rural, apparently straight – or even worse, admitted heterosexuals, gun owning – or even worse, NRA-card-carrying, average working stiff – or even worse, male working stiff – because, not only don’t you count, you are a down-right obstacle to social progress. Your voice deserves a lower decibel level, your opinion is less enlightened, your media access is insignificant; and frankly, mister, you need to wake up, wise up, and learn a little something from your new America", concluding: "Political correctness is tyranny with manners."
In Mar. 1999 after the Behavior Genetics Assoc. gets pissed-off in 1995 by his resignation address as pres. (since 1994) calling for an investigation into genetic factors behind the high incidence of black crime in the U.S., and he authors the foreword for white nat. politician David Duke's autobio. "My Awakening", calling him "a Moses-like prophet" and slamming the NAACP as a front org. for Jewish white race-haters, Mont.-born Fla. State U. psychologist and behavioral geneticist Glayde D. Whitney (1939-2002) gives an interview to Chris Colin, uttering the soundbyte: "Races are different for many genetic systems that influence everything from behavior and psychology to physiology, medicine and sports... Screaming nasty words does not change the reality", pissing-off the PC police and causing faculty and students of FSU to call for his resignation, and the Fla. Senate to pass Resolution 2742 "condemning the racism and bigotry"; despite the pressure, his univ. protects his academic freedom and doesn't fire him.
On June 26, 2000 (Mon.) at the White House Francis Sellers Collins (1950-), dir. of the Human Genome Project, and John Craig Venter (1946-), pres. of Celera Genomics Corp announce their separate First Drafts of the Human Genome, the epoch-making first sequencing (deciphering) of 95%-97% of the human genome, expected to revolutionize medicine, just in time for the 50th anniv. of the pub. of the double helix work by James D. Watson and Francis Crick, taking only 13 of 15 expected years, declaring that the human genome has 3.1B "letters" (chemical bases); Pres. Clinton calls it "the most wondrous map ever produced", comparing the HGP to the Manhattan and Apollo projects; the program has come in underbudget, and involved 1.6K scientists, and adding the religious soundbyte: "Today, we are learning the language in which God created life. We are gaining ever more awe for the complexity, the beauty and the wonder of God's most divine and sacred gift" after being put up to it be Collins, a theist; Collins and Venter continue their war to be the first to finish the sequencing; by the end of the decade a genome can be sequenced in a week; meanwhile insurance cos. and govt. agencies line up to find ways to get and use genetic makeups, while every Tom, Dick and Harry with a computer rushes to patent genes after roping them off like in the Okla. Land Rush?
In 2002 the Human Genome Project pub. its first major analysis of blood samples from 52 world pops. converted into 1K cell lines, showing that the subjects' genomes fall into five major clusters corresponding to their continent of origin and therefore their race, and that all coalesce to a single root ancestral pop. that began to migrate from NE Africa 50K years ago.
We're all brothers and sisters so why can't we just get along? In 2002 geneticist Alan R. Templeton of Washington U. in St. Louis pub. the article Out of Africa again and again, claiming that there were at least two major expansions after the original range extension of Homo erectus out of Africa 1.7M years ago, and that after cranial capacities increased 500K years ago, African and Eurasian pops. were linked by recurrent gene flow combined with occasional major movements out of Africa and Asia that enhanced gene interchange via interbreeding, or in other words, white supremacists are full of it because "The current spatial and frequency heterogeneity of an 'archaic' type by a 'modern' type... is consistent with a trait-based evolution of humans that is allowed under expansion with interbreeding", with the killer conclusion: "The predicted large genetic impact of African populations explains ... that about 90% of the haplotype trees in the nuclear genome appear to be rooted in Africa. These results also falsify a total replacement hypothesis, which predicts that all haplotype trees with coalescent times greater than 100,000 years must be rooted in Africa. All of the haplotype trees considered have expected coalescent times greater than 100,000 years, so 100% of such old trees should have African roots under complete replacement, and not the observed 90%"; "Humans expanded again and again out of Africa, but these expansions resulted in interbreeding, not replacement, and thereby strengthened the genetic ties between human populations throughout the world."
For America not to be White is Right anymore, free speech must go? On Nov. 17, 2006 (Fri.) white "Kramer on Seinfeld" comedian Michael Richards (1949-) is recorded on a cell phone video camera making a racist N-word outburst at the Laugh Factory in West Hollywood (owned by Mexican-Am. comedian Paul Rodriguez) after two black patrons heckle him, causing a nat. PC police media action against him, almost ending his career; on Nov. 20 he appears on David Letterman, saying "I'm not a racist; that's what's so insane about this", only to see the audience laugh at his fumbling use of the term "Afro-American"; on Nov. 22 he appears on the Jay Leno Show to apologize after Jewish comedian Jerry Seinfeld cancels an appearance to plug his show's DVDs, but it only adds fuel to the fire for not being contrite enough; on Nov. 27 he appears on Rev. Jesse Jackson's syndicated radio show "Keep Hope Alive" apologizing again, and criticism simmers down more when he apologizes to the two hecklers, who sue him; meanwhile a barrage of U.S. network TV shows cover all the issues of what whites should (must?) and should (must?) not call blacks, and on Dec. 2 comedian Andy Dick uses the N-word in a joke about Richards, causing a ton of criticism that makes him issue another apology for "my insensitivity"; in 20?? the U.S. Congress makes racist speech a capital crime, followed by the OWG Assembly making it a world capital crime in ??, causing the execution of ??M by ?? - only blacks can call each other the N-word, and only blacks can tell whites that their remark was racially insensitive and they're a racist and sue them, and don't call me black call me Afro-American, but don't make me call you Euro-American, cracker?
In May 2007 Watson & Crick survivor James Dewey Watson (1928-) becomes the first person to receive his own personal genome map; too bad, on Oct. 14 an article in the Sunday Times Mag. contains some comments that piss-off the PC police, saying that he is "inherently gloomy about the prospect of Africa", because "All our social policies are based on the fact that their intelligence is the same as ours, whereas all the testing says not really", and "There is no firm reason to anticipate that the intellectual capacities of peoples geographically separated in their evolution should prove to have evolved identically. Our wanting to reserve equal powers of reason as some universal heritage of humanity will not be enough to make it so", causing him to be fired from Cold Spring Harbor Lab on Oct. 18, and after tries to retract and apologize don't work, he resigns on Oct. 25, after which the Sunday Times pub. a cheap shot article claiming that 16% of his DNA is of African origin, using a flawed version of his genome map.
In the 2010s the Woke Movement begins in the U.S., appropriating an African-Am. word and ramping it up to becoming super-sensitive to race issues bordering on Negrophilia, capturing corporate boardrooms and leading by 2019 to virtually every Madison Ave. TV ad featuring at least 50% black actors even though they're only 12%-13% of the U.S. pop., preferably black-white racemixed couples with children, while leaving Hispanics, Asians and other entitlement groups in the lurch?
On Aug. 12, 2011 scientists at the U. of Manchester announce the first scientific evidence that there is a genetic contribution to human intelligence.
On July 13, 2013 a 6-person jury acquits white (German-Peruvian with some black descent) neighborhood watch volunteer George Michael Zimmerman (1983-) in the Feb. 26, 2012 shooting death of 17-y.-o. African-Am. Trayvon Benjamin Martin (1995-2012) in Sanford, Fla., causing nationwide riots and protests and causing the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement to be founded on Twitter with the hashtag #BlackLivesMatter.
On Dec. 21, 2015 Michael Johnson et al. at Imperial College London pub. an article in Nature Neuroscience announcing the discovery of brain gene clusters M1 and M3, which are linked to human intelligence.
On Jan. 9, 2018 the Tex. State U. Star student newspaper pub. an op-ed titled Your DNA is an abomination by Trump-hating Hispanic senior Rudy Martinez, causing a firestorm of controversy with soundbytes incl. "White death will mean liberation for all", [Whiteness is] "a construct used to perpetuate a system of racist power", "White is over! If you want it", "Whiteness will be over because we want it to be. And when it dies, there will be millions of cultural zombies aimlessly wandering across a vastly changed landscape", and "Until then, remember this: I hate you because you shouldn't exist. You are both the dominant apparatus on the planet and the void in which all other cultures, upon meeting you, die." On Jan. 26 House minority leader Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif.) addresses the Conference on Mayors, letting the cat out of the bag with the soundbyte that the real goal of Pres. Trump's proposed immigration plan is "to make America white again"; new non-white immigrants however, "make America more American".
On Aug. 6, 2019 David J. Johnson, Trevor Tress, Nicole Burkel, Carley Taylor, and Joseph Cesario pub. the study Officer characteristics and racial disparities in fatal officer-involve shootings , concluding that police shootings in the U.S. are not racist; on June 2, 2020 conservative legal scholar Heather MacDonald praises it in the Wall Street Journal, bringing in the PC police and causing the authors to retract the article.
On May 25, 2020 after being arrested for passing a counterfeit $20 bill, 46-y.-o. black man (longtime drug user and petty criminal) George Floyd (b. 1973) is executed on the streets of Minneapolis, Minn. by slow strangulation by four police white officers while brave bystanders film it, screaming "I can't breathe" in vain before going silent as Dereck Chauvin stands with his knee on his neck for 8 min. 46 sec., sparking worldwide outrage and street protests, resulting in all four being fired and charged with 2nd deg. murder, and giving power to the left to lobby for massive changes in U.S. society to eliminate systemic racism; on June 4 despite being a criminal, George Floyd is elevated into a new black saint with a globally-televised memorial that features Al Sharpton comparing Floyd's plight to all black Americans, who forever live with whitey's knee on their necks.
In June 2020 the Nat. Museum of African Am. History and Culture put up a Web age that defines "whiteness" in America to incl. individualism, hard work, objectivity, the nuclear family, progress, respect for authority, delayed gratification, and science - they must believe their race is obsolete?
On July 11, 2020 the city of Seattle, Wash. summons its white employees to a meeting titled "Interrupting Internalized Racial Superiority and Whiteness", telling them that their skin color is a crime?; meanwhile a Black Lives Matter member tells a white woman to get on her knees to apologize for the color of her skin?
On Sept. 4, 2020 White House OMB dir. Russell Vought announces that Pres. Trump ordered him to ensure that federal agencies don't teach anti-white critical race theory incl. the theory of white privilege, "or any other training or propaganda effort that teaches or suggests either (1) that the United States is an inherently racist or evil country or (2) that any race or ethnicity is inherently racist or evil"; on Sept. 6 Pres. Trump tweets the soundbyte that the U.S. Dept. of Education is looking at the 1619 Project, and that public schools teaching it "will not be funded", pissing-off leftists incl. Ida Bae Wells, who tweets the soundbyte: "Do these concerns about cancel culture and McCarthyism and censorship only apply to the left or do they apply to the POTUS threatening to investigate schools for teaching American journalism? Silence is deafening here" - the silence of deplatformed conservatives is even more deafening?