TLW's Women's Lib Historyscope
By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™
© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.
Original Pub. Date: Dec. 15, 2012. Last Update: Aug. 8, 2018.
Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to women's liberation (feminism) history. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.
Gender is more basic than individuality, hence when aggravated men call women cunts, and women call men dicks. It's all basic biology. Men have dicks, but women are cunts. A man thinks of a woman as a cunt, while a woman thinks of herself as a womb. Too bad, we all came out of a cunt and a dick, or at least the great majority of us. But it's theoretically possible for women to have daughters sans sperm via parthenogenesis. But without men mixing the genes up via sperm, the human race couldn't adapt. Being chaste until marriage then being faithful for life is fine if you don't live past 30-40, else it sucks.
I'm just kidding. But seriously I've got the best online course on the history of the women's lib movement on the Net, right here. Let's get started.
Until the last couple of centuries, women were pretty much universally treated as cattle. Lucky for most American and many Western European women, they lived far away from any Muslim countries, and out of the control of the retro Roman Catholic Church, giving them their chance, especially after the rise of big cities. Even so, their freedom was theirs to win, it wasn't going to be handed to them. Of course, biology is destiny, so the advent of the birth control pill in the 1960s helped. A man has a penis, but a woman is a womb? :)
In 1479 B.C.E. after her 2-y.-o. stepson Thutmose III ascended the throne last year, Thutmose II's chief wife (daughter of Thutmose I and Ahmes) Hatshepsut (Hatchepsut) ("Foremost of noble ladies") (d. -1458) (Hot Sheep Shit?) becomes king #5 of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty, becoming Egypt's first female pharaoh, ruling 21 years 9 mo. while bowing to male supremacists by wearing a man's pants and beard; too bad, her next two successors attempt to obliterate her memory by erasing or destroying statues, monuments, etc.
About 560 B.C.E. the earliest Hebrew scrolls of the Bible are written, backdated as far as 1,500 B.C.E.?; "40 independent authors, representing 20 occupations, living in 10 countries during a 1,500-year span, working in three languages, with a cast of 2,930 characters in 1,551 places... This massive volume covers every conceivable subject, expressed in all literary forms - prose, poetry, romance, mystery, biography, science and history" (Terry Hall). Too bad, the Bible portrays the first woman Eve as being created from Adam's rib to give him a "helpmate" (Genesis 2:18-24), and St. Paul claims that just as Christ is the head of man, so man is the head of woman (1 Corinthians 11:3), hence in both Christian and Muslim countries women's libbers found themselves up against the wall of heresy and witchcraft charges until the rise of unbelief in the 19th cent. gave them breathing room. Lucky for Jewish women, the 1948 State of Israel was founded mainly by secular atheistic Jews.
In the 2nd cent. C.E. an Egyptian papyrus containing wisdom texts is written, revealing that the goddess Isis gave as much power and honor to women as to men, permitting them to own property, practice professions include medicine, and serve as witnesses, plaintiffs, and defendants in court.
Jesus rolls over in his empty tomb? In 1231 now that Bible reading has been prohibited (1229), and pesky Bible-thumpers continue to read it and point out that the Church's doctrines contradict it, 1231 Pope Gregory IX institutes the search-and-destroy Holy Office, AKA the Inquisition, in the hands of the Dominicans, for the apprehension, torture (begun 1252?) and trial of heretics, enacting a law for Rome that heretics condemned by an ecclesiastical court are to be delivered to the secular power to receive their "due punishment", i.e., death by fire, or life in a horrible inhumane prison; In his bulls of Apr. 13, 20, and 22, 1233, in order to combat the Albigenses in France, Pope Gregory IX founds the Monastic Inquisition, and appoints the Dominicans as the official Inquisitors for all dioceses of France; the smoke-choked Burning Times in France begins. In 1234 Franciscan monks publicly burn copies of the works of Jewish brain man Maimonides (1135-1204) in Montpellier, France, setting a precedent that makes books too hot to handle in Catholic lands; knowing that if you can get away with books, why not people, on June 13 Pope Gregory IX pub. the 5-vol. Liber Extra (Decretals of Gregory IX), a collection of 2K decretals which he has sent to the univs. of Bologna and Paris, repeating St. Augustine's belief that "every pagan, Jew, heretic, and schismatic will go to the eternal fire prepared for the Devil and his demons", containing the oldest surviving detailed Description of a Diabolical (Witches') Sabbath, describing the novice having to kiss an enormous toad, then a cold, pale, thin man, which causes him to forget the Catholic faith, then, after a feast, having to kiss a black cat, then the head devil (or devil's head), and finally participate in an orgy; Pope Boniface VIII adds a 6th book in 1298 - dominica, nica, what? This wonderful development in Catholic theology goes on to morph into the Spanish Inquisition in 1478, and the Portuguese Inquisition in 1531, burning its first Protestants in Spain in 1543; it is finally abolished (suspended until future notice?) after 666, er, 603 fun years in 1834. Gregory IX absolves those who violated the ban by the 1215 Fourth Lateran Council on teaching Aristotle, but renews it "provisionally, until the books of the philosopher had been examined and expurgated", appointing three Parisian masters to the job, which they give up on. One good thing: Gregory IX exempts the Jews from the jurisdiction of the Inquisition, except when they attack Christianity, attempt to Judaize Christians, or revert to Judaism after Christian conversion. In 1235 an unsolved murder in Baden, Germany results in a Jewish pogrom; Pope Gregory IX issues a bull denouncing mob violence against Jews.
The Black Death (the original Darth Vader) rockets through Europe's Internet with breathtaking speed? In Oct. 1347 a Genoese trading fleet arrives in Messina, Sicily carrying the Black Death (Bubonic Plague) (Yersinia pestis bacteria), carried by fleas from rats; it also arrives in Egypt, Syria, and Cyprus; by 1351 it kills 20M-30M in Europe (a third of Europe's pop., and up to 60% in some areas), and 75M worldwide by 1361; world. pop. decreases from 450M to 350M-375M by 1400; Europe takes 150 years to return to 1347 pop. levels; it ravages China, halving its pop. from 123M in 1200 to 65M in this cent.; lucky America is not affected, but not toughened up by it either?; rats didn't really spread it, because it spread too fast from person to person? On Sept. 26, 1348 Pope Clement VI issues the bull Quamvis Perfidiam, attempting to dispel the rumor that Jews caused the Black Death by poisoning wells, saying that they too are suffering from the plague, but he is ignored. In summer 1349 the Great Plague reappears in Paris, where it peaks, killing up to 800 a day, and spreads to Picardy, Flanders, and the Low Countries; also in the summer it reappears in London, and spreads to Ireland, killing 25% of the pop. within a year; by the middle of the year half of the pop. of Venice is killed; by the end of the year half of England's pop. is killed, and a truce with France is called; the plague spreads to Norway when an English ship full of corpses floats into Bergen, and reaches Elbing (Elblag), Poland on Aug. 24; the Church and its credibility being challenged head-on, the main solution offered is by the Flagellants, who appear in force all over Europe (especially Germany), torturing themselves publicly, and proclaiming that the Second Coming is 33.5 years away (I been a bad, bad boy, so tan my sinful hide?), while causing trouble for Jews, the rich, the Church, and finally themselves (besides all the wounds), causing Pope Clement VI to pub. a bull condemning them on Oct. 20; "Many persons, and even young children were soon bidding farewell to the world, some with prayers, others with praises on their lips."
The Great Plague begins clearing in 1350-1, leaving a depopulated Europe where the deck is reshuffled and the entire social order is thrown up for grabs. The intelligentisa begin to smell a rat in the divine pretensions of the Church, and launch the timeless look at the ancient pagan past called the Renaissance via their Greek scholar friends in Constantinople, no longer being satisfied with Arab translations but learning ancient Greek for themselves; meanwhile the working class see the class struggle clearly now, the rain is gone.
In the 15th cent. humanism gets off to a fast start, reviving classical learning and speculative inquiry, displacing Scholasticism as W Europe's main philosophy, and taking the monopoly of learning from churchmen, letting layman into the equation, which soon causes the very basis of Church dogma and tradition to come under the microscope; too bad, by the end of the cent. the pendulum swings, bringing Witch Mania, which causes thousands of mainly women to be executed until the late 18th cent.
In 1405 Konrad Kyeser von Eichstadt (1366-1405) pub. Bellifortis, about military technology (siege engines), incl. a description of a diving suit, and the first mention of a chastity belt - love is a battlefield? The same year Christine de Pizan (1363-1434) pub. Book of the City of Ladies, about women's important contributions to society; also The Treasure of the City of Ladies (Book of the Three Virtues), about how women can cultivate useful qualities to stop misogyny.
In 1510 German occult scholar Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa von Nettesheim (1486-1535) pub. Declamation On the Nobility and Excellence of the Feminine Sex, which uses occult cabalistic ideas to try to prove the superiority of women, esp. his patron Margaret of Austria; "So let me begin my subject at the beginning. Woman was created as much superior to man as the name she has received is superior to his. For Adam means earth, but Eve is translated as life. And as far as life is to be ranked above earth, so far is woman to be ranked above man."
In 1559 Cremona, Italy-born Renaissance painter Sophonisba (Sofonisba) Anguissola (Angussola) (Anguisciola) (1532-1625) becomes tutor to Spanish queen Elizabeth of Valois in Madrid, going on to become official court painter to Philip II, helping open the painting profession to women.
In 1600 Florence, Italy-born writer-poet Moderata Fonte (Modesta di Pozzo di Forzi) (1555-92) posth. pub. The Worth of Women: Wherein Is Clearly Revealed Their Nobility and Their Superiority to Men, which argues that women are superior to men in virtue and intelligence, but doesn't thrust, er, advocate total sexual equality.
In 1621 Lady Mary Wroth (1587-1653) pub. The Countess of Montgomery's Urania, the first prose romance by an English woman; the idea of a woman pub. a novel pisses-off men because they must remain silent to prove they're chaste?
In Oct. 1629 Japanese shogun Tokugawa Iyemitsu declares that it is immoral for women to dance in public, and orders Kabuki Theater to become all-male, with women's roles performed by men in drag; the Japanese go to great lengths to make them appear feminine; meanwhile on Dec. 22 the Purple Clothes Incident sees Japanese emperor (since 1611) Go-Mizunoo (b. 1596) screw up and bestow honorific you know whats to 10+ priests despite the shogun's edict banning them for two years in order to break their longstanding bond, causing the shogun to intervene, cancel the deal, and force him to abdicate in favor of his 5-y.-o. 2nd daughter Meisho (1624-96) (personal name Okiko) (daughter of Kazuko, daughter of shogun Tokugawa Hidetada) (the name Meisho is a combo of previous female emperors Gemmei (707-15) and Gensho (715-24)), who becomes the 7th woman to ascend the Chrysanthemum Throne (last Empress Shotoku, d. 770), becoming Japanese emperor #109 (until Nov. 14, 1643).
In 1666 English Quaker leader Margaret Askew (Fell) (Fox) (1614-1702) pub. Women's Speaking Justified, Proved, and Knowed of the Scriptures, arguing that woman is also created in God's image, and although weak is chosen for his purposes, hence to deny her role is to act on behalf of the Devil, fulfilling the enmity decreed by God between woman and the serpent (Gen. 3:18) - Margaret fell askew, but rebounded like a fox?
In 1660 Restoration Comedy (AKA comedy of manners) (ends 1710) in England is characterized by sexual explicitness, personally encouraged by horndog Charles II, who launches the career of Canterbury-born Aphra Behn (1640-89), who becomes the first prof. woman playwright, starting out working for the King's Co. and the Duke's Co., debuting her first play "The Forc'd Marriage" in 1670, followed by "The Amorous Prince" (1671); on Mar. 24, 1677 she debuts The Rover at the Duke's Theatre in Dorset Gardens, London. In 1688 Aphra Behn, who grew up a slave in Dutch Guiana (Suriname) before being brought to England in 1658 and married to an English merchant of Dutch extraction pub. Oroonoko; Or, The Royal Slave. A True History in London, the adventures of an African prince she met while a slave in Suriname; made into a play in 1695 by Thomas Southerne, causing sales of the novel to skyrocket - once you go black you never go back?
In 1700 Newcastle upon Tyne, England-born Mary Astell (1666-1731) ("the first English feminist") pub. pub. Some Reflections Upon Marriage (London), which contains the soundbyte: "If all men are born free, how is it that all women are born slaves?" in 1709 she pub. Bart'lemy Fair, or An Enquiry after Wit (London).
In 1701 English feminist poet-writer Mary Chudleigh (nee Lee), Lady Chudleigh (1656-1710) pub. The Ladies' Defense; Or, The Bride Woman's Counsellor Answer'd: A Poem in a Dialogue Between Sir John Bute, Sir William Loveall, Melissa, and a Parson in London, a response to the wedding sermon "The Bride-Woman's Counselor" by John Spring (1700), urging women to avoid marriage so that man can't keep them down, and develop themselves through education. In 1703 she pub. Poems on Several Occasions, about the joys of friendship between women based on shared morals and intellectual pursuits; dedicated to Queen Anne to protect her from male chauvinists? In 1710 she pub. Essays Upon Several Subjects, which urges women to not be concerned with wealth, status, interest, or ambition.
In 1709 Jersey-born Delarivier (Delariviere) (de la Riviere) "Delia" "Mary" Manley (1663-1724) pub. The New Atalantis, a satire of almost all the prominent Whigs, which gets her sued.
In 1725 English brain woman Eliza Haywood (Fowler) (1693-1756) ("Juno of Majestic Size") pub. Memoirs of a Certain Island Adjacent to Utopia. In 1727 she pub. The Court of Carmania. In 1744 she begins pub. The Female Spectator, the first women's periodical to be edited by a woman; predictably, all her stuff is icily received by the male establishment, Alexander Pope calling her a "shameless scribbler", and Jonathan Swift calling her a "stupid, infamous, scribbling woman". In 1751 she pub. The History of Miss Betty Thoughtless.
In 1750 Charlotte Ramsay Lennox (1720-1804) pub. The Life of Harriet Stuart. In 1752 she pub. The Female Quixote. In 1758 she pub. The History of Henrietta. In 1762 she pub. The History of Harriot and Sophia.
In Mar. 1771 true to English form, the matter of whether the effeminate but expert swordsman, former spy, feminist lit. collector, professed lifelong virgin (yet rumored to have fathered George IV) and diplomat Chevalier D'Eon (1728-1810) (born in Tonerre, France) is a male or a female dominates the news in London, and a betting pool opens with 3-2 odds that he/she is a male; it climbs to 10-1 for male, but by 1776 reverses to 7-4 for female; a total of Ł280K is eventually wagered. In 1775 Louis XVI sends playwright Pierre Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais (1732-99) (who gives his daughter harp lessons) on a secret mission to England to negotiate a settlement with Chevalier D'Eon over the embarrassing gender matter (and to get back secret documents he/she obtained as a spy that could be even more embarrassing); D'Eon agrees to return the documents in exchange for a pension and a royal statement that he/she is a woman; starting in 1777 he/she spends the rest of his/her life (till 1810) dressed as a woman (the first time in history a man does an Orlando or reverse Joan of Arc at midlife?); since he/she refuses to be examined, and leaves the bettors up in the air, he/she sinks into poverty, occasionally entering British fencing tournaments to earn some money, and gaining a rep as the best female (dress-wearing) sword fighter on earth (she brings up the rear of the women's movement?); while in England negotiating with Chevalier D'Eon, Beaumarchais meets Arthur Lee, the 3rd Am. commissioner to England (brother of William and Richard Henry Lee), who convinces him to lobby the French king to supply arms for the upcoming Am. Rev.
In 1792 English feminist writer Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1797-1851) pub. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, the first feminist treatise, arguing for their rights to an education et al.; "It is time to effect a revolution in female manners... and make them, as a part of the human species." In 1818 she pub. Frankenstein, a Gothic romance novel about a mad scientist who makes a corpse live again via electricity; she got the idea while in a trance based on the writings of alchemists about creating a homunculus in a test tube, "a pale student of the unhallowed arts [grave-robbing] kneeling beside the thing he had put together"; "I beheld the wrath of the miserable monster whom I had created"; "I curse (although I curse myself) the hands that formed you" - could it have really been based on her hubby Percy's anatomy?
In 1816 French physician Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec (1781-1826) (with help from wife Hyacinthe Laennec) invents the Stethoscope to protect the modesty of his female patients - he likes to wear it around his laennec? Imagine the way they did it before?
In 1821 after founding a girls' seminary in Waterford, N.Y. in 1819, Emma Hart Willard (1787-1870) founds Troy Female Seminary (later the Emma Willard School) in Troy, N.Y., becoming the first college-level school for women, where the male chauvinists are shocked by the teaching of algebra, trig, science, and even higher math to future barefoot-pregnant wives and mothers - Janet Jackson's "Rhythm Nation 1814" is only 176 years ahead?
On Mar. 3, 1826 ground is broken for the utopian Nashoba Community in Tenn., founded by Scottish-born activist Frances "Fanny" Wright (1795-1852), which reeducates slaves for freedom before colonizing them in Haiti; she also helps launch a women's movement - originally, the Haitian boat people went the other way?
In 1826 after pub. the paper Magnetic Properties of the Solar Spectrum to the Royal Society, Scottish female scientist Mary Somerville (1780-1872) is invited by Lord Broughan to popularize the work of famous male scientists, beginning with Laplace's "Mecanique Celeste" - much less stressing work for her fragile constitushy? Oxford U. later establishes the Mary Somerville Scholarship in math for women in her honor.
In 1830 the periodical Godey's Lady's Book is founded in Philadelphia, Penn. (until 1898), becoming the first U.S. women's mag., limited to fashion and etiquette.
This is the world we live in, let's make it a place worth living in, yah, or, Where's your crown? On Mar. 22, 1832 One-Man God Squad Goethe (b. 1749) dies, and due to an excess of educated German males resulting from decades of compulsory school attendance that causes a rush into "free professions", the cream of the poets and novelists of Germany, incl. Paris exiles Heinrich Heine (1797-1856) and Karl Ludwig Borne (Börne) (Borne) (1786-1837), Christian Ludolf Weinbarg (1802-72), Karl Ferdinand Gutzkow (1811-78)>, Heinrich Laube (1806-84), Theodor Mundt (1808-61), Karl Immermann (1796-1840), Karl Georg Buchner (Büchner) (1813-37), Georg Friedrich Rudolph Theodor Herwegh (1817-75), Ferdinand Freiligrath (1810-76), Willibald Alexis (Georg Wilhelm Heinrich Haring) (Häring) (1798-1871), Adolf Glassbrenner (1810-76), and August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben (Hoffmann von Fallersleben) (1798-1874) form the old-people-shouldn't-drive Young Germany Movement, which attacks the reactionary govt., the Church, and apolitical Romanticism, promoting democracy, socialism, rationalism, separation of church and state, emancipation of the Jews, and increased rights for women; too bad, after the wet dream year of 1848, they turn old in a flash and descend into Schopenhauer-quoting pessimism?
In 1832 Amalie Sieveking (1794-1859) founds the Women's Assoc. for the Care of the Poor and the Sick to send bourgeois women into the homes of lower-middle-class families to teach them virtue and cleanliness.
In 1834 Paris-born French novelist George Sand (Amandine or Amantine Lucile Aurore, Baroness Dupine-Dudevant) (1804-76) pub. Lelia, which shocks Victorian society by advocating the same standard of morality for both sexes; "To be lover, courtesan, and mother... these are three conditions of a woman's fate which no woman escapes, whether she sells herself in a market of prostitution or by a marriage contract"; "I remember the burning nights I passed against a man's flanks in close embrace with him... One day I felt so worn-out with loving that I stopped suddenly. When I saw how easily this bond was broken, I was astonished at having believed in its eternal quality."
On Sept. 8, 1836 the Transcendental (Hedge) Club is founded in Cambridge, Mass. by Unitarian minister Frederic(k) Henry Hedge (1805-90), meeting in the house of George Ripley (1802-80), and incl. members Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-82), Amos Bronson Alcott (1799-1888), Sarah Margaret Fuller (1810-50) (teacher at the Temple School in Boston, founded by Alcott in 1834 in a Masonic Temple, which ends up getting closed in 1839 after his eccentric methods and admission of a black student piss the parents off), Theodore Parker (1810-60) et al., all getting turned on by Thomas Carlyle and his fetish for German lit., and rebelling against Puritanism, prefering to dip into vague pantheism, mysticism, idealism, and eclectic orientalism in some kind of undefined effort to perfect themselves, creating funky laid-back new Transcendentalism, which believes in the goodness of man and Nature, and distrusts organized religion, promoting self-reliance.
On Jan. 25, 1837 The Times-Picayune (originally The Picayune) newspaper is founded in New Orleans, La. by George Wilkins Kendall (1809-67) et al.; the initial price is one Spanish picayune (half a bit); in 1876 Eliza Jane Nicholson (Holbrook) (nee Poitevent) (1843-96) AKA Pearl Rivers inherits the paper from her hubby, introducing Society Bee columns, children's pages, and the first women's advice column, written by Dorothy Dix, tripling circ. between 1880 and 1890; in 1914 it becomes "The Times Picayune" after merging with the "New Orleans Times Democrat"; it goes on to win the 2006 Pulitzer Prize for its coverage of Hurricane Katrina.
In 1837 Mount Holyoke College (originally Mount Holyoke Female Seminary until 1893) (first member of the Seven Sisters) is founded in South Hadley, Mass. by Mary Mason Lyon (1797-1849) for "adult female youth in the common walks of life", giving the daughters of farmers and artisans a high quality low cost ed., and supplying the U.S. with a steady stream of female teachers, which feminizes the profession, and creates the tantalizing phenomenon of unmarried professional women enjoying autonomy before, ahem, marriage - plus a little lezzie experimentation in the semen-nary?
In 1837 French philosopher Francois Charles Marie Fourier (1772-1837) coins the word "feminism" - who are you to make me choose between my job and my daughter?
In Feb. 1838 Bible-thumping Charleston, S.C.-born abolitionist Angelina Grimke (Grimké) (1805-79) addresses a legislative committee of the Mass. State Legislature, becoming the first woman in the U.S. to address one, speaking against slavery while defending herself against male supremacists who don't think that women should have a right to petition; she follows with Letters to Catharine Beecher in 1838, while her sister Sarah Moore Grimke (Grimké) (1792-1873) pub. Letters on the Province of Woman, Addressed to Mary S. Parker.
Anti-slavery action heats up in Britain and America, while in the latter it gets women into heat? In June 1840 the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London is held; Lucretia Mott and other women are denied seats, pissing them off and turning them onto women's rights work, causing the U.S. abolitionist movement to split between nonviolent (but wanting it now, not gradually) "moral suasion" William Lloyd Garrison and his Am. Anti-Slavery Society, which links abolition with women's rights, and Theodore Dwight Weld (1803-95) (husband of Emily Grimke), moral reform philanthropists Arthur Tappan (1786-1865) and his brother Lewis Tappan (1788-1873), and the "pragmatic" (gradualist) abolitionists, who form the Am. and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (AFASS) and enter politics through the anti-slavery Liberty Party (ancestor of the Free-Soil Party and Repub. Party), founded by James Gillespie Birney (1792-1857), their pres. candidate this year and 1844, who also founds the Nat. Anti-Slavery Society; Gerrit Smith (1797-1874) is the vice-pres. candidate; membership in the Am. Anti-Slavery Society (founded 1833) peaks at 200K (mostly women); by 1854 the AFASS carries on the bulk of antislavery agitation in conjunction with numerous state orgs. - ah, the heady feel of freeing one's fellow men, fudge the sneaky feeling of loosing a lower race of savages and undoing everything civilization has built?
In 1841 Catharine Esther Beecher (1800-78), sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe pub. the bestseller A Treatise on Domestic Economy: For the Use of Young Ladies at Home and at School, a guide to domestic self-mgt. for women, making the home their domain; she goes on to argue for a greater role for women in society, female education, and the incorporation of kindergarten into the education of children.
In 1841 English writers Emily Anne Eliza Shirreff (1814-97) and Maria Georgina Grey (1816-1906) pub. Passion and Principle, complaining of the crying deficiencies in education of English women.
It's all about freedom of expression? In 1842 22-y.-o. German Young Hegelian Friedrich Engels (1820-95) meets 24-y.-o. German Jewish know-it-all Karl Marx (1818-83) at the office of the Rheinische Zeitung, and Engels hooks up with Mary Burns (-1863) in Manchester, England, shacking up with her without doing that old-fashioned marriage thang, making enough money to support Marx, who next June 19 marries Johanna Bertha Julie Jenny Freiin von Westphalen (1814-81), and they go on to have seven children, only three of whom survive to adulthood. In 1845 German writer Wilhelm Weitling (1808-71) pub. Der Evangelium eines Armen Sunders (The Poor Sinner's Gospel), which traces Communism to 1st cent. Christianity, impressing Karl Marx. On Feb. 1, 1848 London Tribune reporter (managing ed. Richard Henry Dana Jr. - a coincidence? did he mention his California days?) Karl Marx (1818-83) and Friedrich Engels (1820-95) pub. The Manifesto of the Communist Party in London as a broadside for the coming revolutions, containing the immortal soundbyte: "When, in the course of development, class distinctions have disappeared, and all production has been concentrated in the hands of a vast association of the whole nation, the public power will lose its political character. Political power, properly so called, is merely the organized power of one class for oppressing another. If the proletariat during its contest with the bourgeoisie is compelled, by the force of circumstances, to organize itself as a class, if, by means of a revolution, it makes itself the ruling class, and, as such, sweeps away by force the old conditions of production, then it will, along with these conditions, have swept away the conditions for the existence of class antagonisms and of classes generally, and will thereby have abolished its own supremacy as a class"; when the little revvies all fizzle the document is repub. as The Communist Manifesto 20 years later, and those who think that socialism can be implemented bloodlessly are labelled as "utopian socialists"; of course the new Communist movement is militantly atheistic and anti-clerical.
In 1844 Cambridgeport, Mass.-born Transcendentalist feminist brain babe Sarah Margaret Fuller (1810-50) moves from Boston to New York City and becomes lit. critic for Horace Greeley's New York Tribune, the first full-time book reviewer in journalism history, rising to the newspaper's first female ed. in 1846, becoming known for the statement that she never met her intellectual equal, and once announcing "I accept the Universe", to which Thomas Carlyle replies "By Gad, she'd better"; another favorite quote of hers is "If you ask me what offices women may fill, I reply, 'Any'. I do not care what case you put. Let them be sea captains, if you will", causing Greeley to yell "Let them be sea captains if they will" to her all the time.
In 1844 English novelist Charlotte Elizabeth Tonna (1790-1846) pub. The Wrongs of Women.
On July 3, 1846 Boston, Mass.-born abolitionist Wendell Phillips (1811-84) pub. an article in The Liberator calling for female suffrage and property rights; in 1840 he leads an unsuccessful effort to have women delegates seated at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London, England; in 1849-50 he assists Lucy Stone in the first woman suffrage campaign in Mass; in 1851 he gives the speech "Freedom for Woman", which becomes a popular tract.
Millennium Fever Cushion gives even women courage to step out? On July 19-20, 1848 the Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention in N.Y., organized by wealthy married feminists Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) and Lucretia Mott (1793-1880 (a Quaker) meets at the Wesleyan Chapel, becoming the world's first women's rights convention, attended by over 100, incl. 32 male lechers, er, sympathizers, with the aim of enfranchisement of women; Stanton is the principal author of its Declaration of Sentiments and Resolves, patterned after the U.S. Declaration of Independence, with the soundbytes "All men and women were created equal" and "The right is ours, have it we must, get it we will"; the public reaction is to ridicule the "shrieking sisterhood" and accuse them of being drunken sluts or whores, with Horace Greeley and William Lloyd Garrison being among the few supporters; suffragist speakers are later attacked by gangs of street bullies; the convention is also attended by sisters Sarah Grimke (Grimké) (1792-1873), Angelina Grimke (Grimké) (1805-79), Quakers James Mott (1788-1868) (hubby of Lucretia), and Amelia Jenks Bloomer (1818-94); spinster teacher Susan Brownell Anthony (1820-1906) (back when that doesn't mean lezzie teacher?) doesn't attend, and doesn't meet Stanton until Mar. 1851 - there's a reason we call it merry maids?
In 1848 Chelsea, London-born Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell (1810-65) pub. Mary Barton, a Tale of Manchester Life, which disses English employers' treatment of employees during the "hungry forties"; pub. anon., it later gains her the friendship of Charles Dickens.
In 1849 English-born Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) becomes the first woman in the U.S. to receive a medical degree, a M.D. from the Medical Inst. of Geneva, N.Y.; her sister Emily Blackwell (1826-1910) gets her M.D. from Western Reserve U. in 1854, and together in 1856 they found the New York Infirmary for Women and Children, with an all-female physician staff - look what sister made for you-ou-ou?
In 1849 Amelia Jenks Bloomer (1818-94) wears loose ankle-length trousers below knee-length skirts (promoted by early women's libber Mrs. Elizabeth Smith Miller as more modest than the customary floor-length dresses with no underwear) on a lecture tour, earning press ridicule for her bloomers and starting a U.S. craze, immortalizing her name; when used as underpants they become known as (directoire) knickers.
On Oct. 23-24, 1850 the first Nat. Women's Rights Convention is held in Worcester, Mass., with 1K+ participants; more conventions are held through 1860 (except 1857).
Speaking of the relations between the sexes? In Mar. 1851 wealthy married 35-y.-o. mother of four (later seven) (1842-59) Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902), known as the philosopher of feminism first meets 31-y.-o. self-supporting marriage-hating teacher-activist Susan Brownell Anthony (1820-1906) on a street in Seneca Falls, N.Y., causing the latter to add women's rights to her causes of temperance and abolition.
In Dec. 1851 ex-slave Sojourner Truth (1797-1883) delivers her famous And Ar'n't I a Woman Speech at a women's rights convention in Akron, Ohio.
On Mar. 20, 1852 Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe (1811-96) pub. her compelling, tear-jerking, rabble-rousing, widely-translated anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin (pub. starting June 5, 1851 in 10 monthly installments in Nat. Era, then as a book on Mar. 20, 1852), selling 300K copies in its first year then going on to become the first million-selling novel, the #1-selling novel in the world in the 19th cent., and #2 after the Bible. In 1853 Martin Robinson Delany (1812-85) pub. Blake; or The Huts of America, the first novel by an African-Am. pub. in the U.S., a response to "Uncle Tom's Cabin" showing slaves as active not passive, and advocating black separatism; changes "No more hard work for poor old Ned/ He's gone whar de good darkeys go" in Stephen Foster's "Old Uncle Ned" to "Old master's gone to the slaveholders' rest/ He's gone where they all ought to go".
In 1852 Antoinette Brown Blackwell (1825-1921) is ordained as a minister in the Congregationalist church in South Butler, N.Y., becoming the first ordained female mainstream Protestant minister in the U.S.
In 1854 McSorley's Bar in New York City at 15 E. 7th St. is founded, becoming the #1 drinking establishment in the city, later attracting famous customers incl. Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Roosevelt, Boss Tweed, and Woody Guthrie, and described by poet e.e. cummings as "snug and evil", serving "the ale which never lets you grow old"; a pair of Houdini's handcuffs hang from the bar rail, along with wishbones hung above the bar by Doughboys going off to WWI who promised to remove them when they returned; after years of the motto "Good Ale, Raw Onions and No Ladies", women's libbers force it to admit women in 1970.
The Book That Shook the World? Big year for Bible skeptics, secularists, atheistic scientists, anybody against the ancien regime, as Jehovah, the Source of Life Breathed Into Mud is challenged by Evolution, Mud Coming to Life by Itself After It Bubbles Long Enough? The biggest V for the Devil since Eden? The new 95 Theses, but Darwin is smart enough not to publish it on Halloween? On Nov. 24, 1859 (Thur.) English naturalist Charles Robert Darwin (1809-82) pub. On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection, Or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life; the 1st ed. sells out in 1 day; the 1872 6th ed. shortens the title to "The Origin of Species"; the decider, which causes evolutionary "survival of the fittest" theory to triumph among the intelligentsia; English Anglican minister and Cambridge U. prof. of modern history Charles Kingsley (1819-75), who received an advance copy on Nov. 18 writes that he had "long since, from watching the crossing of domesticated animals and plants, learnt to disbelieve the dogma of the permanence of the species", which Darwin adds to the next ed. of his book in a modified form: "He had gradually learned to see that it is just as noble a conception of the Deity to believe that He created a few original forms capable of self-development into other and needful forms, as to believe that He required a fresh act of creation to supply the voids caused by the action of His laws"; Darwin pub. it after spending eight years dissecting barnacles in his basement, then inexplicably switches to the Galapagos finch?; catches on first in Germany among atheists?; Louis Agassiz of the U.S. opposes Darwin, preferring a theory of "Epochs of Creation", based on the absence of missing links between layers of well-formed fossil ecosystems; the phrase "I'll be a monkey's uncle" is coined by Darwin skeptics; "There is a grandeur in this view of life that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved"; what was that about "my theory would absolutely break down" if anything is found that can't be explained by "numerous, successive, slight modifications"?; in practice Darwinism becomes a religion which denies that there is intelligent design in Nature, and therefore tries to deconstruct any evidence of it they find as they go along, yet clings to the notion of common descent, almost as if there was some original, er, accident, and ends up turning into a narrow naturalistic dogma by the end of the 20th cent., taking over U.S. and other Western educational systems with a chilling priesthood? In 1860 after failing to fit it into his Theory of Evolution, Darwin writes the immortal soundbyte: "The sight of a feather in a peacock's tail makes me sick." On Feb. 1, 1871 he writes a Letter to Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, with the soundbyte: "It is often said that all the conditions for the first production of a living organism are now present, which could ever have been present. But if (and oh! what a big if!) we could conceive in some warm little pond, with all sorts of ammonia and phosphoric salts, light, heat, electricity, &c., present, that a protein compound was chemically formed ready to undergo still more complex changes, at the present day such matter would be instantly absorbed, which would not have been the case before living creatures were found." In 1871 he pub. The Descent of Man; "The Simidae then branched off into two great stems, the New World and the Old World monkeys; and from the latter at a remote period, Man, the wonder and glory of the universe, proceeded"; "We civilized men... do our utmost to check the process of elimination; we build asylums for the imbecile, the maimed, and the sick; we institute poor laws; and our medical men exert their utmost skill to save the life of everyone to the last moment... Thus the weak members of civilized societies propagate their kind. No one who has attended to the breeding of domestic animals will doubt that this must be highly injurious to the race of man. It is surprising how soon a want of care, or care wrongly directed, leads to the degeneration of a domestic race; but excepting in the case of man himself, hardly anyone is so ignorant as to allow his worst animals to breed"; "This is the book that contains the foundation in natural history for our view" (Marx to Engels); this book is later used by Eugenicists to justify euthanasia of misfits.
In 1861-5 the horrific U.S. Civil War sees the invention of the first modern weapon when N.C.-born agricultural equipment maker Richard Jordan Gatling (1818-1903) patents the 10-barrel hand-cranked hundreds-of-rounds-per-min. Gatling Gun (the first practical machine gun) just in time for use on some Johnny Rebs; it is first used by the Union Army in 1864, but luckily never sees extensive use.
Women get the dirty jobs in the war? On June 9, 1861 the U.S. Sanitary Commission is created by secy. of war Simon Cameron as an outgrowth of the Ladies Central Relief, founded Apr. 25 by Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) (first female M.D. in the U.S., 1849); the first dir. is New York Central Park designer Frederick Law Olmsted; meanwhile former schoolteacher Clarissa "Clara" Harlowe Barton (1821-1912), quits her job at the U.S. Patent Office to distribute food and supplies sent by families in Mass. to troops stationed in Washington, D.C., and after seeing that wounded soldiers from the First Battle of Bull Run brought to the Potomac docks are dying for want of prompt medical attention, she gains permission to pass through the battle lines and nurse them, battling the traditional ho image and going on to become known as "the Angel of the Battlefield", raising thousands of dollars to buy food and medicine for Union troops, and creating facilities for recovering their lost baggage; meanwhile Dorothea Dix (1802-87) (don't be a dix teaser?) is appointed Union Army supt. of 3K women war nurses, incl. novelist Louisa May Alcott; black women, incl. Harriet Tubman (Araminta Ross) (1822-1913) and Susie King Taylor (1848-1912) serve as war nurses in the Sea Islands; on the Confed. side "Capt." Sally Louisa Tompkins (1833-1916) of Richmond, Va. (only commissioned woman in the Confed. Army) gains fame for saving 1,260 out of 1,333 wounded men in a private hospital with only six other nurses; not that all woman want to smell rank body fluids; over 400 women disguise themselves as men to fight in the war, and dozens work as spies, while thousands travel with the army cooking, writing letters, and hooking; by the end of the war many Southern women get over their lifetime coddling and become self-reliant after being forced to manage their plantations without men, and go on to face life as widows, spinsters, and orphans (and lesbians?), who prefer to work outside the home - like Scarlett O'Hara?
In 1864 after one-third of sick cases in the military are found to be caused by venereal disease, the British Parliament passes the Contagious Disease Act, allowing plainclothes police to arrest hos and make them take mandatory medical exams and treatment up to 3 mo. in locked hospitals, increased to 1 year in 1869; since johns are exempt, English women's activist Millicent Fawcett (1847-1929) works to get them repealed, and when attempts are made to extend the act to N England in 1869, Fawcett and Josephine Butler lead a movement that repeals it in 1886, which ends up getting slowed down by women nurses who want to keep it to protect the wives of the johns, incl. Fawcett's physician sister Elizabeth Garrett Anderson.
In 1864 the U.S. Congress decides to use the Old Hall of the House to house art, and invites each state to contribute two statues of prominent citizens for the new Nat. Statuary Hall, which opens in 1870; in 1933 the overflow statues begin to be displayed throughout the U.S. Capitol, with 38 statues left in the hall; Am. suffragist Frances Willard (1839-98) becomes the first woman represented.
On Sept. 20, 1865 Vassar Female College in Poughkeepsie, N.Y. opens, becoming the first women's college in the U.S.; its initial 30 faculty incl. 22 women; Maria Mitchell (1818-89) becomes the first female prof. of astronomy.
In 1865 John Stuart Mill (1806-73) becomes a MP from Westminster (until 1868), and votes with the Radical Party to improve conditions for working people and for women's suffrage. In May 1866 the success of the North and its large working class in the U.S. Civil War against the aristocratic South giving him hope, PM Lord Russell introduces a Parliamentary Reform Bill, the first since the Chartists' demand in 1848, its aim being to give urban laborers suffrage; when there is no loud public support, the bill fails, and Russell resigns in June; in 1869 he and his feminist brain babe wife (1851-8) Harriet Taylor Mill (1807-58) pub. The Subjection of Women, arguing for equality between the sexes, pissing-off Victorian society; John Stuart Mill's advocacy of women's suffrage in debates on the bill helps kick off the English suffragist movement. In 1851 Harriet pub. The Enfranchisement of Women, the basis of the 1869 essay.
In 1868 Susan Brownell Anthony (1820-1906) founds The Revolution, a women's rights newspaper, demanding an 8-hour day and equal pay for equal work, with the motto "The true republic - men, their rights and nothing more; women, their rights and nothing less."
In May 1869 Susan Brownell Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton form the Nat. Woman Suffrage Assoc. (NWSA), seeking a federal constitutional amendment; in Nov. Lucy Stone, Henry Blackwell et al. form the less militant Am. Woman Suffrage Assoc. (AWSA), focusing on amending state constitutions; in Dec. Wyoming Territory passes the first women's suffrage law in the U.S., and women begin serving on juries next year - is that like the NFL and the AFL working to host a Super Bowl?
On Dec. 14, 1870 after becoming the first woman in the U.S. to earn a degree (M.A.) in chemistry at Vassar College, Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards (1842-1911) is admitted to MIT, becoming the first U.S. woman admitted to a U.S. school of science and technology, receiving a B.S. degree in 1873; after she is about to earn the first M.S. degree in MIT history, the board balks and doesn't grant one until 1886, to a man; she goes on to found the science of Home Economics and become a feminist.
In 1870 Ada Harriet Miser Kepley (1847-1925) of the U.S. becomes the first female law school graduate at Union College of Law in Chicago, Ill., going on to become a leader in the temperance and women's suffrage movements.
In 1871 Smith College for women is founded in Northampton, Mass. in "city in a forest" Pioneer Valley, Mass. by a $375K bequest from Sophia Smith (1796-1870), opening for classes in 1875 with six faculty and 14 students, going on to become the largest member of the Seven Sisters (and a breeding ground for lesbianism?); her will stipulates: "Sensible of what the Christian Religion has done for my sex, and believing that all education should be for the glory of God, and the good of man, I direct that the Holy Scriptures be daily and systematically read and studied in said College, and without giving preference to any sect or denomination, all the education and all the discipline shall be pervaded by the Spirit of Evangelical Christian Religion"; alumni incl. Julia Child, Betty Friedan, Nancy Reagan, Gloria Steinem, Sylvia Plath, Piper Kerman, and Grace Metallious.
On May 10, 1872 flamboyant women's rights crusader (a teen medium) Victoria Claflin Woodhull (1838-1927) becomes the first woman to run for U.S. pres. as the candidate of the new Equal Rights Party at their convention in Apollo Hall in New York City on the Free Love (anti-marriage) platform from jail as she fights federal obscenity charges filed by Victorian Laffin' Wood-Dull Puritan prude (misogynist?) Anthony Comstock; she is acquitted after serving 6 mo. in jail; Frederick Douglass is nominated for vice-pres., but doesn't acknowledge it; she receives zero popular and electoral votes.
On Nov. 5, 1872 after Horace Greeley is subjected to a nasty campaign by cartoonist Thomas Nast, while Grant enjoys backing from Repub. regulars, incl. the Radicals, seven carpetbag states, business and banking interests, and the Credit Mobilier Scandal blows up, with charges of corruption made against Schuyler Colfax, Henry Wilson, and House Speaker James G. Blaine, after which Congressional investigating committees clear them and pillory Oakes Ames of the House and James W. Patterson of the Senate, recommending expulsion, and Ames and Union Pacific govt. overseer James W. Patterson are censured, and Patterson slides by, while a number of judges are impeached and/or resign, and Greeley stages an exhausting nat. tour during which his wife dies, the 1872 U.S. nat. election sees Greeley win 40% of the vote, carrying six Southern and border states and no Northern states, 2.8M popular votes and ? electoral votes for Greeley vs. 3.6M popular and 286 electoral votes for Grant; when Greeley dies on Nov. 29, his electoral votes are distributed among four other men; Susan B. Anthony is arrested, tried, and fined for voting in the election, a newspaper article about her trial containing the soundbyte: "It was conceded that the defendant was, on the 5th November 1872, a woman."
In Nov. 1874 135 women meet in the Second Presbyterian Church in Cleveland, Ohio and organize the Nat. Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), the first mass org. of U.S. women, which later moves to Evanston, Ill.
In 1874 the London Medical School for Women is founded by Sophia Jex Blake, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson, Thomas Henry Huxley, Emily Blackwell, and Elizabeth Blackwell, becoming the first in Britain for women.
On Apr. 7, 1875 Hindu scholar Swami Dayananda Saraswati (1824-83) founds the Arya Samaj ("Society of Nobles") in Bombay, India, a Hindu reform movement condemning idol worship, animal sacrifices and temple offerings, priestcraft, the caste system, untouchability, child marriages, and discrimination against women, causing Hinduism to come into vogue in the Western world - annihilate your samsara, you dharma bums, and attain Nirvana?
In 1875 philanthropist Lydia Moss Bradley (1916-1908) becomes the first female member of a U.S. nat. bank board, the First Nat. Bank of Peoria, Ill., also becoming the first U.S. woman to draft a prenuptial agreement to protect her assets, going on to found Bradley U. (originally Bradley Polytechnic Inst.) in Peoria, Ill. in 1897.
On Aug. 1, 1876 the savage Indians all nicely pacified after 100 years of U.S. rule, "Centennial State", "the Switzerland of America" Colorado (Colo.) is admitted as the 36th U.S. state; after being appointed gov. of Colo. Territory on Mar. 29, 1875, Eddyville, Ky.-born Repub. John Long Rutt (1826-1907) becomes Colo. gov. #1 (until Jan. 14, 1879), followed by Denver mayor #17 in 1883-5, and Colo. gov. #7 on Jan. 13, 1891-Jan. 10, 1893, going on to campaign for women's suffrage with his wife Eliza Pickrell Rout (nee Eliza Franklin Pickrell) (1839-1907), personally escorting Susan B. Anthony on a statewide speaking tour; in 1893 when Colo. grants women the vote, his wife Eliza becomes the first woman registered to vote in Colo.; meanwhile the Colo. state legislature offers a bounty for wolf pelts ($0.50 to $2.00), resulting in their extinction in 1943 as the last one is killed by a govt. trapper in Conejos County; in 1995-6 federal officials reintroduce 31 wolves from Canada into Yellowstone Nat. Park and 35 more into C Idaho, growing into a herd of 1K by 2006 when the bounty is finally legally removed.
In 1876 Am. china shop owner Melville Reuben Bissell (1843-89) of Grand Rapids, Mich. invents the Bissell Carpet Sweeper (called the Grand Rapids) to help his wife Anna Sutherland Bissell (1846-1934) get rid of the dusty straw her china comes packed in, after which she becomes a door-to-door salesperson, selling them for $1.50 each; when he dies she takes over the co., becoming the first U.S. female CEO, helping it go international and become #1 worldwide.
In 1876 Am. suffragists Matilda Electa Joslyn Gage (1826-98) et al. pub. the 1876 Declaration of Rights; Gage won her spurs attempting with nine other women to vote in 1871, arguing with polling officials, then defending Susan B. Anthony in 1873 at her trial for having voted illegally, making a great speech.
On Aug. 24 (21?), 1876 Wild Bill Hickock's lady friend Mattie Silks (1846-1929), who moved to Colo. in 1875 then set up a fancy (still legal) whorehouse on Holladay (later Market) St. in dirty Denver holds a party with her beau, local stud Cortez Thomson (-1900), a married former member of Quantrill's Raiders who likes to wear pink tights and star-spangled blue trunks and run footraces; too bad, rival madame (his old flame) Katie Fulton crashes the party on Colfax Ave. at the Platte River (later Commons Park), causing the only recorded female-female gunfight in the Old West; both women miss, but one of them wounds Thompson; after his wife dies in 1884 he marries Silks.
In 1877 English feminist Freethinker Annie Besant (1847-1933) and notorious crusading English atheist secularist Charles Bradlaugh (1833-91) are prosecuted for repub. the birth control-promoting book The Fruits of Philosophy (1831) by Mass. atheist physician Charles Knowlton (1800-50), making them famous and helping Bradlaugh become a MP for Northampton in 1880-91, the sales of the book zooming to 125K a year, reversing British pop. growth. In 1890 Besant meets Madame Blavatsky, and in 1907 becomes pres. of the Theosophical Society, going on to work for Indian independence, writing under the alias Ajax.
In 1878 a constitutional amendment giving women the right to vote in all elections is introduced in the U.S. Congress, and is regularly defeated through 1915.
On Feb. 15, 1879 Pres. Hayes signs a bill allowing female attys. to argue cases before the U.S. Supreme Court (with mirrored shoes on the judges' feet?); on Mar. 3 Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood (1830-1917) becomes the first woman to be admitted to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court.
In 1879 Alton, Ill.-born educator Arthur Gilman (1837-1909), his Ala.-born 2nd wife Stella Scott Gilman, and Elizabeth Cabot Cary Agassiz (1822-1907), Boston-born wife of the late Swiss-born naturalist Louis Agassiz co-found Radcliffe College for women in Cambridge, Mass. (originally Private Collegiate Instruction for Women AKA Harvard Annex), which uses Harvard profs. to lust, er, teach women; in 1882 it becomes the Society for the College Instruction of Women, and in 1894 Radcliffe College; in 1963 it begins granting joint Harvard-Radcliffe diplomas; in 1977 it signs a "non-merger merger" agreement with Harvard, and is merged completely in 1999, with Radcliffe Yard becoming the Radcliffe Inst. for Advanced Study.
On Apr. 11, 1881 Spelman College (originally Atlanta Baptist Female Seminary unil 1884) is founded in Atlanta, Ga. for African-Am. women, named in honor of Laura Celestia "Cettie" Spelman Rockefeller (1839-1915), wife (since 1864) of benefactor John D. Rockefeller, going on to become the #1 historically black college in the U.S.
In 1882 the Married Women's Property Act gives married women in Britain the same property rights as unmarried women.
In 1883 South African-born Olive Emilie Albertina Schreiner (1855-1920) (daughter of a Lutheran clergyman) pub. The Story of an African Farm in London under the alias Ralph Iron, shocking the Victorian readers with agnostic freethought, feminism, premarital sex, pregnancy out of wedlock, even transvestitism, becoming a bestseller.
In 1884 women are allowed to play in the All-England Lawn Tennis Championships in Wimbledon; Maud Watson (1864-1946) becomes the first women's singles champion, winning the Venus Rosewater plate - to serve men with?
In 1884 Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (1836-1911) and Sir Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan (1842-1900) debut their comic operetta #8 Princess Ida, which satires the women's movement.
In 1885 Bryn Mawr (Gael. "high hill") College in Penn. is founded for women, with Martha Carey Thomas (1857-1935) as dean, becoming pres. in 1894-1922.
In 1887 Switzerland passes a factory law enforcing an 11-hour day with Sundays off, prohibits child labor under age 14, and regulates work by women.
In 1887 Susanne Madora Salter (1860-1961) is elected mayor of Argonia, Kan., becoming the first female mayor in the U.S.
On May 15, 1888 Louisa Lawson (1848-1920) founds The Dawn under the alias Dora Falconer, becoming the first journal in Australia produced solely by women, advocating the right of women to vote and assume public office. education, etc.; it folds in 1905, and is refounded in 1918 as the official pub. of the Australian Federation of Women Voters (AFWV) (founded 1921), which sends the first woman Australian delegate to the League of Nations in 1922.
In 1888 after creating a popular hair tonic, Ont.,Canada-born Martha Matilda Harper (1857-1950) founds the first retail business franchise in the U.S. with Harper Hair Dressing Salons.
The Geraldo of the 19th century? On Nov. 14, 1889 good-looking New York World daredevil reporter Nellie Bly (1864-1922), who last year spent 10 days in the Blackwell's Island insane asylum in New York City pretending to be insane to expose them takes Jules Verne up on his novel thesis and sets out on a 24,899-mi. round-the-world trip from Hoboken, N.J., arriving back in New York next Jan. 25 in a record 72 days, 6 hours, 11 min. 14 sec.; she retires from journalism in 1894 after marrying millionaire manufacturer Robert Seaman (1822-1904), then returns to reporting after employee embezzlement ruins the co.
In 1889 after Columbia U. refuses to admit women but lets them audit classes, causing her to create a committee of 50 prominent New Yorkers to support it, Barnard College for women is founded in Morningside Heights, Manhattan, N.Y. (across from Columbia U.) by Annie Nathan Meyer (1867-1951), named after late pres. #10 of Columbia U. (1864-89) Frederick Augustus Porter Barnard (1809-89); in 1983 when Columbia U. goes coed, it doesn't.
In 1889 Aunt Jemima self-rising pancake flour makes its commercial debut, making Nancy Green (1834-1923) into the advertising world's first living trademark - you want to do what to it, Howard?
In 1892 Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911) pub. Iola Leroy, or Shadows Uplifted, becoming the 2nd novel by a black woman pub. in the U.S.
In Jan. 1893 French feminists Jeanne Elizabeth Schmahl (1846-1915), Juliette Adam (1836-1936) et al. found the Avant-Courriere (Forerunner) Assoc. to call for the right of women to be witnesses in court and for married women to dispose of the product of their labor, dissolving after the passing of the 1907 Married Woman's Earnings (Schmahl) Act.
Food is Love, or the Devil in the White City? The 20th Century begins ahead of schedule in the greatest World's Fair of All Time? On May 1, 1893 Pres. Cleveland presses a golden telegraph key in front of a crowd of 300K (largest in U.S. history) to start the giant Westinghouse electrical generators lighting 120K lightbulbs and open the $27M World's Columbian Expedition (Chicago World's Fair) (closes Nov. 1) in the "White City" of 150 neoclassic bldgs. in Jackson Park, 686 acres of reclaimed swamp along the shore of Lake Michigan 7 mi. S of downtown Chicago (built of plaster-cement-fiber staff on flammable wooden-steel frames, not marble, and painted using newfangled spray-painting equipment), designed by Daniel H. Burnham and John Wellborn Root (1850-91) (who dies trying to meet the crushing time constraints); Frank Lloyd Wright (b. 1867) quits college to work for Burnham, who first sends him to the Beaux Arts in Paris, and he comes back saying that the Columbian Exposition set U.S. architecture back 50 years; Francis Bellamy's new "Pledge of Allegiance" is recited by children at the fair's dedication; the Exposition orchestra, conducted by Theodore Thomas (1835-1905) features violinist Maud Powell (1867-1920), who proves that woman can work in them newfangled orchestra thingies; the Court of Honor features the magnificent Peristyle by Charles Atwood, Daniel French's 65-ft.-tall statue The Republic, as well as colossal heads of artists Michelangelo et al. by French-born Beaux Arts popularizer Olin Levi Warner (1844-96) in the Palace of Fine Arts, which houses 10K pieces of art so crowded together that nobody can view them all; the 1687 ft. x 787 ft. x 245 ft. tall (500K sq. ft.) (44 acre) Manufacturers and Liberal Arts Bldg. (opened in Oct. 1892 in front of a crowd of 100K), the largest bldg. in the world, has a crowd cap. of 300K and is lit with 10K electric lights, and the endless exhibits are worth at least $50M; the U.S. Liberty Bell is displayed in the Penn. exhibit in a replica of Independence Hall; the Japanese Village is the first exposure of Americans to cool Japanese culture, and is the only non-white exhibition not snickered at; the Cold Storage Bldg. features an indoor skating rink, and burns down on July 10 with the loss of 13 firemen and four workers, who climb to the top of the metal tower then burn alive or jump while the crowds watch; the polychrome pro-Modern Transportation Bldg. is designed by Louis Henri Sullivan; the Women's Bldg., designed by 21-y.-o. Am. architect Sophia Hayden Bennett (1868-1953) (first female in the U.S. with an architecture degree) features exclusively work by women (too bad, welcome to reality, Hayden is only paid $1K for her design, 10% of what men earn); the first-ever (264 ft., 1.2K ton) Ferris Wheel, built by George Washington Gale Ferris Jr. (1859-96) (36 salon cars, each holding 40-60 passengers, with five glass panels) is the highlight and the financial salvation of the fair, and is set up at the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair then scrapped; an all-electric kitchen is featured; the Captive Balloon costs $2 for a ride to 1,490 ft. plus a photo, and it crashes in high winds and goes out of biz; the Shedd Aquarium Bldg., the largest indoor aquarium in the world causes an awakening of the environmental movement; the Midway Plaisance of future U.S. congressman (Jewish) Sol Bloom "the Music Man" (1870-1949), designed by Frederick Law Olmsted is the big moneymaker, filled with booze, cigars and bawdy entertainment, incl. the Streets of Cairo ("Beautiful Orient") Bldg., complete with a replica of the Sphinx, featuring Little Egypt (Farida Mazar Spyropoulos) and the "Naughty Girls from Algeria", who dance the Hootchy-Kootchy (Hoochie-Koochie) (Kouta-Kouta), AKA the "danse du ventre" (belly dance) (named by Bloom), with the first perf. of Bloom's uncopyrighted Snake Charmer Tune ("Oh they don't wear pants on the sunny side of France"), which pisses off Head Prude Anthony Comstock into trying to shut it down, which only makes it more popular and causes the dance to spread around the U.S., complete with a better 1895 version of the song The Streets of Cairo, or The Poor Little Country Maid, by James Thornton (1861-1938), who uses his wife Bonnie to demonstrate it; the U. of Chicago is later built on the site of the Midway Plaisance, and the Chicago Bears football team becomes known as "the monsters of the Midway"; Boilerplate the Mechanical Marvel, a mechanical robot is another don't-miss; the fair introduces the word "cafeteria"; the Rumford Kitchen showcases food science, incl. luncheon menus with nutritional info.; chili con carne is introduced; Joseph Garis Cochrane displays her new automatic dishwater (patented 1886); carmel maker Milton S. Hershey sees chocolate-making machinery at the fair and buys it; Henry Perky's shredded wheat is popularized, along with Wrigley's new Juicy Fruit chewing gum; German-born Frederick William "Fritz" Rueckheim and his brother Louis Rueckheim introduce Cracker Jack (which comes in a "wax-sealed" packages, and begins including toys as prizes starting in 1912, then features Sailor Jack and his dog Bingo in 1918; Pabst Blue Ribbon Beer, made by Capt. Frederick Pabst (1836-1904) (since 1882, when he started tying silk ribbons to his Select Beer) wins a blue ribbon, and guess what, 30M ft. of silk blue ribbon shipped with the beer that made Milwaukee famous by the turn of the cent.?; Bavarian sausage vendor Anton Ludwig Feuchtwanger starts out providing white gloves to eat them with, then switches to rolls when they keep the gloves as souvenirs; Henry Heinz attracts people to his 2nd-floor out-of-the way booth by handing out Heinz pickle pins, going on to give away 50M of them; R.T. Davis Mill Co. hires Ky.-born former slave Nancy Green (1834-1923) to demonstrate Aunt Jemima pancake mix in front of their 24-ft.-high 12-ft.-diam. world's largest flour barrel, causing the co.'s sales to go through the roof; writer L. Frank Baum later models his Emerald City after the White City; "Devil in the White City" serial killer Dr. Henry Howard Holmes (Herman Webster Mudgett) (1861-96) ("the Torture Doctor") sobers it up with some World's Fair murders after he builds a 105-rom hotel nearby filled with torture chambers, and lures 27+ young women to their deaths, torturing and gassing them in a soundproof room, then butchering their bodies in the basement and selling the parts to medical schools; the fair closes on Nov. 1 after hosting 27M visitors from 73 nations, and makes a small profit; on the night of Oct. 28 disgruntled insane newspaper distributor Patrick Eugene Joseph Prendergast (1868-1894) (who thought that he was owed a govt. job for supporting his election campaign) murders Chicago mayor Carter Henry Harrison Sr. (b. 1825) in his home with a small revolver, causing many to skip the closing ceremonies for his Nov. 1 funeral; Prendergast is hanged next July 13 after his atty. Clarence Darrow unsuccessfully raises the insanity defense - he didn't get the job, did he?
On Sept. 19, 1893 women in New Zealand become the first in the world to gain the right to vote, and the country goes on to show its new zeal by a slew of social welfare legislation until the 21st cent. On Nov. 7 Colo. becomes the first U.S. state to grant women the vote. The U. of Glasgow (founded 1450) admits women, founding Queen Margaret and Muirhead Colleges for women.
On Nov. 7, 1893 after support by Populist gov. (since Jan. 10, 1893) Davis Hanson Waite (1825-1901), Colo. becomes the 2nd U.S. state after Wyo. to grant women the vote; too bad, after is voted out of office in 1894, Waite reverses his opinion of women's suffrage.
In 1895 Grant Allen (1848-99) pub. The Woman Who Did; promotes the "New Woman", startling Victorian England with the example of an independent woman who has a child out of wedlock, causing English novelist Annie Sophie Cory to write The Woman Who Didn't; also The British Barbarians, a time travel novel. He dies on Oct. 25, 1899 Haslemere, Surrey, leaving the unfinished novel Hilda Wade, dictating the final chapter to Sir Arthur Conan Doyle from his deathbed.
On Nov. 15, 1896 an article in the New York Journal observes that Bloomers are becoming fashionable for female bicycle riders in Paris, even when not biking; modern female underwear evolves from these, as women find their first way to be free of the family jeweler for awhile by biking.
In 1896 Alice Guy (Guy-Blache) (Guy-Blaché) (1873-1968) becomes the first film dir., working for the French production co. of Leon Gaumont (1864-1946) to film The Cabbage Fairy (La Fee aux Choux).
In 1896 Utah and Idaho become the 2nd and 3rd U.S. states to allow women the vote; Ill.-born Abigail Jane Scott Duniway (1834-1915) leads the effort in Idaho, followed by Wash. in 1910, and Ore. in 1912.
In 1896 Elizabeth Meriwether Gilmer (1861-1951) becomes ed. of the women's section of the New Orleans Picayune (until 1901), writing a love advice column under the title "Dorothy Dix Talks", later adopting the name.
In 1896 Johnson & Johnson begins manufacturing Lister's Towels, the first commercial sanitary napkin; too bad, advertising is thought improper, so U.S. women prefer to wear a reusable flannel diaper until 1925.
In 1899 the Constitution Acts Amended Act gives women the vote in Western Australia. In 1899 the British journal Society pub. an article about the fashion among women of wearing gold nipple rings to turn on men.
In 1899 wealthy Am. mountaineer and suffragist Fanny Bullock Workman (1859-1925) (one of the first prof. female mountaineers) begins ascents in the Himalayas, summitting 23,409 ft. (7,135m) Nun Kun Massif in 1906, and claiming an ascent of 22,736 ft. (6,930m) Pinnacle Peak.
On May 14-Oct. 28, 1900 the Second (2nd) (II) Summer Olympic Games, held in Paris, France as part of the World Fair feature 1K+ athletes competing in 19 sports, with women competing for the 1st time; too bad, they are marred by a scrap after the French refuse to hold the finals on Bastille Day (Sat.), followed by half a dozen Americans withdrawing because they won't run on Sunday; tennis player Charlotte Reinagle Cooper (1870-1966) wins the first-ever U.S. women's gold; Raymond Clarence "RaY" Ewry (1874-1937) overcomes child polio to win eight golds for the U.S.; John Walter Beardsley Tewksbury (1876-1968) wins five medals incl. two golds then goes on to become a dentist.
Machine? Machine? Whoo? On June 1, 1900 (May 14?) 6-ft. 180-lb. hatchet-wielding WCTU member Carrie (Carry) Amelia Nation (1846-1911) begins her public bar-smashing assault on saloons and "Devil Rum" in Kiowa, Kan., followed by the Carey Hotel in Wichita, Kan. on Dec. 27; she eventually edits the mag. The Hatchet, and in the Oct. 1907 issue warns that Coca-Cola is made with cocaine and caffeine, causing it to be reformulated to drop the cocaine.
In 1900 Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947) succeeds Susan B. Anthony as pres. of the Nat. Woman Suffrage Assoc.
In 1900 Mary Emma Woolley (1863-1947) becomes pres. of Mount Holyoke College for woolley women (until 1937).
On Dec. 10, 1901 (St. Lucia's Day) (4:30 p.m.) the first Nobel Prizes are awarded on the 5th anniv. of Alfred Nobel's death in the Stockholm Concert Hall after a rehearsal, at least you know can easily remember what year the nth awards go with; Red Cross founder Jean Henri Dunant (1828-1910) of Switzerland and Frederic Passy (1822-1912) of France win the first Nobel Peace Prize (done that, it's passe?); Rene Francois Armand Sully Prudhomme (1839-1907) of France wins for Lit.; 6 of the first 9 lit. winners wear beards (Giosue Carducci's is the mosty bristly and pointy); Wilhelm Konrad (Conrad) Roentgen (1845-1923) of Germany wins for Physics [X-rays]; Jacobus H. van't Hoff (1852-1911) of the Netherlands wins for Chemistry [stereochemistry], and Emil Adolph von Behring (1854-1917) of Germany wins for Medicine and Physiology [antitoxins]; the first Nobel Prize Medals (23-carat, 2.5 in. diam., .25 kg), designed by Swedish artist Erik Lindberg (1873-1966) are minted next year, with a bas-relief of Alfred Nobel on the obverse, and Isis and the genius of Science (lifting a veil from her face) on the reverse; women only get 34 of the first 800?
In 1901 Sweet Briar College in Va. for women is founded, becoming known for riding to hounds.
On June 12, 1902 the Commonwealth Franchise Act is passed in Australia, giving white women the right to vote in federal elections, making them #2 after New Zealand, and also giving them the right to run for Parliament, a first.
On Oct. 16, 1902 Am. freethinking feminist Ida C. Craddock (b. 1857) commits suicide in New York City after mean Anthony Comstock gets her convicted of obscenity for her pub. "The Wedding Night".
On Oct. 26, 1902 Elizabeth Cady Stanton (b. 1815) dies, leaving the immortal soundbytes: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal"; "The Bible and Church have been stumbling blocks in women's emancipation"; "I found nothing grand in the history of the Jews nor in the morals inculcated in the Pentateuch. Surely the writers had a very low idea of the nature of their god. They made him not only anthropomorphic, but of the very lowest type, jealous and revengeful, loving violence rather than mercy. I know of no other books that so fully teach the subjection and degradation of women."
On Mar. 2, 1903 the Martha Washington Hotel in New York City opens, becoming the first hotel exclusively for women - that's not a brothel or nunnery?
In June 1903 Otto Weininger (1880-1903) pub. Sex and Character (Geschlecht und Charakter), which claims that all people have elements of both masculinity and femininity, and there is a deeper psychical realm beyond sexuality and gender which can liberate mankind, er, humanity from original sin; homosexuals are "intermediate sexual forms"; when it doesn't make the big splash he thought it should, he commits suicide, after it which it begins to sell and gains true believers.
On Oct. 10, 1903 Emmeline Pankhurst (nee Goulden) (1858-1928) et al. found the Nat. Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) in Manchester, England, with the slogan "Deeds, not words", going on to stage demonstrations and lobby Parliament until they get what they want, their members becoming the first to be called suffragettes by Charles Hands of the Daily Mail.
On Nov. 22, 1903 new old Pope Pius X issues the bull, er, bull Tra le Sollecitudini (Amidst the Cares), banning castratos and requiring boys to sing soprano and contraltro parts in the Church, while banning women from singing with men, and reaffirming the Gregorian chant over Renaissance polyphony, also banning the piano and percussion instruments.
On Dec. 9, 1903 the Norwegian parliament votes unanimously for female suffrage - guess what they all got that night?
In 1903 Englewood, Ill.-born psychologist Helen Thompson Woolley (1874-1947) pub. The Mental Traits of Sex: An Experimental Investigation of the Normal Mind in Men and Women, the first dissertation on psychological sex differences, finding that men performed better on most tests of motor ability, while women tended to do better on some of the coordination tasks; men showed more creativity, while women showed more acute senses and better memory performance; she found no evidence that women are influenced by emotion more in life than men, and in general found more similarities than differences.
In 1905 Nora Stanton Blatch Barney (1883-1971) becomes the first woman in the U.S. to obtain a degree in civil engineering.
In 1905 failed lesbian actress-turned-interior-decorator Elsie de Wolfe (1865-1950) does Stanford White's Colony Club at 120 Madison Ave. (at 30th St.), which becomes the #1 women's social club, later becoming the home of the Am. Academy of Dramatic Arts.
On Mar. 13, 1906 Susan Brownell Anthony (b. 1830) dies in Rochester, N.Y., leaving the soundbytes: "I distrust those people who know so well what God wants them to do, because I notice it always coincides with their own desires"; "Suffrage is the pivotal right."
In 1906 Finland gives women the right to vote, becoming the first European country to do so; on Mar. 15, 1907 women take their first seats in the Finnish Diet, becoming the first time in Europe - after all, they do it in the sauna? In 1906 night-shift (time period, not nightclothes) work for women is internationally forbidden - they should be on their backs instead?
In 1906 39-y.-o. black St. Louis laundry worker and former La. cotton-picker Sara Breedlove Walker of Denver, Colo. changes her name to Madame (Madam) C.J. Walker (1867-1919) and barnstorms the U.S. selling and teaching her Walker System of Beauty and Hair Care for Black Women, moving to Indianapolis, Ind. in 1910 and eventually becoming the first black female millionaire in the U.S., and owner of the nation's biggest black business, later turned into the Madame Walker Urban Life Center at 617 Indiana Ave., Indianapolis; after her death her daughter A'Lelia Walker (1885-1931) continues the biz, running a salon in New York City that becomes a gathering place for the Harlem Renaissance.
In Apr. 1906 Maria Frances Russell (1850-1938), celibate Bible-thumping wife of Watch Tower Society (later Jehovah's Witnesses) pres. Charles Taze Russell (1852-1916) sues for legal separation, telling a jury that her husband was ball, er, unfaithful with secy. Rose Ball, but not convincing them; earlier he had charged her with organizing a "female conspiracy" against "the Lord's organization", and being smitten with "the same malady which has smitten others: ambition" - I've never been out of control before? In 1906 she pub. The Twain One, which uses the Bible to back up her unapproved views on the equality of women.
On Sept. 7, 1907 San Francisco, Calif.-born ticklish lesbian feminist Alice Babette Toklas (1877-1967) meets Allegheny, Penn.-born Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) in Paris on the first day she arrives, and they become lovers, moving in together and hosting a salon at 27 Rue de Fleurus for Am. expatriate writers incl. Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), Sherwood Anderson (1876-1941), Thornton Wilder (1897-1975), and Paul Bowles (1910-99), and avant-garde artists incl. Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), Henri Matisse (1869-1954), and Georges Braque (1882-1963) - B as in bi? On Mar. 7, 1967 Toklas dies in Paris in poverty after converting to Roman Catholicism and asking the priest if she will meet her lover Gertrude Stein in heaven - they do that lezzie thing up there too?
In 1907 Austrian Jewish physicist Lise Meitner (1878-1968) comes to Berlin, beginning research on thorium with Otto Hahn, with him getting all the credit while she does all the work, struggling through impassable glass ceilings to eventually become the first woman professor in Germany.
In 1907 Austria approves universal direct suffrage.
On Feb. 24, 1908 the U.S. Supreme (Fuller) Court rules unanimously in Muller v. Ore. to uphold sex discrimination in labor laws, claiming that some restrictions in working hours of women are justified by the state's interest in protecting their health.
On Mar. 8, 1908 Internat. Women's Day begins with women needle workers marching through Lower East Side in New York City to protest sweatshop working conditions and child labor, and demand the vote; in 1910 Clara Zetkin proposes at the Internat. Socialist Congress in Copenhagen that the day be observed annually; the U.N. finally recognizes it in 1975.
That's what I'm talking about baby? On Apr. 3, 1908 PM (since Dec. 1905) Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman (b. 1836) resigns from ill health two weeks before his Apr. 22 death, and on Apr. 5 fellow Liberal (chancellor of the exchequer) (whom "C.B." calls "the sledge-hammer" for his debating skills and memory) Herbert Henry Asquith (1852-1928) becomes PM of Britain (until Dec. 5, 1916); he soon shows what Liberal means in this day by snubbing 250K-300K people shouting "Votes for women!" at the Women's Sunday march in Hyde Park on June 21.
In 1908 novelist Mrs. Mary Augusta Humphry Ward (1851-1920) becomes the first pres. of the Anti-Suffrage League in Britain.
In 1908 James Madison U. in Harrisonburg, Va. is founded as State Normal and Industrial School for Women, admitting men in 1946 and going coed in 1966.
In 1908 the Women Writers' Suffrage League in England is founded by Cicely Mary Hamilton (Hammill) (1872-1952) and Bessie Hatton, growing to 400 members.
In 1909 women are admitted to German univs. In 1909 the hamerless slide-action repeating .22 Remington Model 12 rifle is first marketed (until 1936), becoming known as the "Little Remington", popular with boys and women.
In June 1910 the U.S. Congress passes the U.S. Mann Act, named after U.S. Rep. James Robert Mann (1846-1922), prohibiting the interstate transportation of women for immoral purposes (white slavery); meant to prosecute pimps, it is so vaguely written that just about anybody crossing a state line accompanying a female can be slammed into a federal prison to protect the country from them, and it is soon being used to prosecute women rather than men, unless they're black and are hooking up with white women; prostitution has never been banned in the U.S., and is done for the first time in Mass. in 1917, after which when women get the vote they get federal laws passed - should be called the No White Women for Black Man Act?
On Sept. 12, 1910 5'0" Alice Stebbins Wells (1873-1957) becomes the first Am.-born policewoman in the U.S. after she is sworn-into the all-male 350-member Los Angeles Police Dept.; she sews her own uniform, a floor-length dress and jacket, later issuing the soundbyte "It was a man's world".
In 1910 Wash. becomes the 4th U.S. state to give women the vote.
In 1910 Danish writer Karin Michaelis (1872-1950) pub. the novel The Dangerous Age: Letters and Fragments from a Woman's Diary, about female equality, which becomes a big hit in Denmark and Germany, selling 1M copies.
On Apr. 30, 1911 women gain the right to vote in Portugal. In 1911 Calif. becomes the 5th U.S. state to give women the vote. In 1911 Mo. becomes the first state to provide public aid to mothers of dependent children; 17 more states follow suit by 1913, although the stringent requirements lock most needy mothers out. In 1911 Ethel Mary Smyth (1858-1944) composes The March of the Women, which becomes the anthem of the women's suffrage movement.
In 1911 Italian philosopher Benedetto Croce (1866-1952) issues the soundbyte "Feminism is a movement that seems to me to be self-condemned in its very name. It is a feminine idea in the bad sense of the word. Men have their own problems too, but they didn't invent the term 'masculinism'" - they invented the term jerk-off?
In 1911 after getting fed-up with women's ignorance about sexuality and birth control when she sees "Sadie" die of a self-induced abortion, Corning, N.Y.-born nurse-activist Margaret Sanger (1879-1966) pub. the pamphlet "What Every Mother Should Know", followed in 1914 by the monthly mag. "The Woman Rebel", with the slogan "No Gods, No Master", and the pamphlet/book Family Limitation, the first book on "birth control" (which she coins), getting her prosecuted under the 1873 U.S. Comstock Act, causing her to flee to Britain, during which time her estranged husband (since 1913) is convicted of giving a copy of the book to old fart anti-vice U.S. postal inspector Anthony Comstock (1844-1915), getting 30 days in jail while she meets Havelock Ellis and learns about making sexual intercourse more pleasurable before visiting Holland and learning about diaphragms; on Oct. 16, 1916 she opens the first birth control clinic in the U.S. at 46 Amboy St. in Brownsville, Brooklyn, N.Y., getting her arrested along with her sister Ethel Byrne, who becomes the first woman in the U.S. to be force-fed in jail; in 1917 she begins pub. the monthly mag. Birth Control Review (until Jan. 1940); after appealing her Brownsville, conviction, in 1918 N.Y. Court of Appeals Judge Frederick Evan Crane (1869-1947) permits doctors to prescribe contraceptives and distribute contraceptive info. to women, helping her birth control movement go nat; on Nov. 1, 1921 founds the Am. Birth Control League (ABCL). In 1929 she founds the Nat. Committee on Federal Legislation for Birth Control, and begins a legal challenge to the Comstock Laws resulting in a 1936 U.S. Court of Appeals victory in U.S. v. One Package of Japanese Pessaries, overturning the prohibition of physicians from prescribing contraceptives and distributing contraceptive info., causing the Am. Medical Assoc. (AMA) in 1937 to adopt contraception as a regular medical service and begin teaching it in medical schools; in 1939 she founds the Birth Control Federation of Am., followed in 1946 by the Internat. Committee on Planned Parenthood, and in 1952 by the Internat. Planned Parenthood Federation in Bombay, India, which expands by 2015 to 189 countries after moving the HQ to London, England.
On Jan. 1, 1912 a new Mass. law shortening the work week from 56 to 54 hours for women and children causes employers in Lawrence, Mass. to lower the pay of cotton mill workers to make it come out even, robbing them of three loaves of bread per week; on Jan. 11 the Lawrence Bread and Roses (Strike for Three Loaves) Textile Strike in Mass. by immigrant female workers begins, spreading to 20K workers within a week, backed by the IWW Wobblies, and lasting 2 mo., with a V for the workers after govt. misconduct, incl. the murder of striker Anna LoPizzo, and the clubbing of children, causes Congress to intervene and force them to pay higher wages; the poem Bread and Roses by James Oppenheim (1882-1932) becomes its theme; too bad, next year the union collapses and most of the gains evaporate as the mean cos. chisel them away; in 1912 Mass. becomes the first U.S. state to enact minimum wage legislation, followed by eight more states next year; the catch is that the laws apply only to women and minors, because male-dominated labor unions fear the lessening of incentives to join.
In 1912 Ore., Kan., and Ariz. become the 6th-8th U.S. states to give women the vote.
In 1912 the Gibson Girl look, created by artist Charles Dana Gibson (1867-1944) is the first purely American style for U.S. women; the original Gibson Girl is his wife Irene Langhorne Gibson (1873-1956), sister of Nancy Witcher Langhorne AKA Lady Astor; shirtwaists are popular among U.S. women "because they can be made to fit any form, and because they are mannish" - and the word "blouse" comes from German for nude (if they wear nothing else)?
On May 10, 1913 10K women suffragists dressed in long white dresses, plus 500 men parade down Fifth Ave. in New York City before 500K onlookers (mainly men)carrying signs reminding them of their victories in various states - don't mess with us? In 1913 women gain the right to vote in Norway and Iceland. The first woman magistrate in England is sworn in. Alaska and Ill. become the 9th-10th U.S. states to give women the vote.
In 1913 Gabrielle Bonheur "Coco" Chanel (1883-1971) opens a boutique in Deauville, France, going to start a women's fashion rev. with tailored suits, chain-belted jerseys, quilted handbags, and the "little black dress".
The original O.J. Simpson Murder Trial? On Mar. 16, 1914 the Calmette-Caillaux Affair in France sees Madame Henriette Caillaux (1874-1943) (2nd wife of French PM Joseph Caillaux) shoot 6x and kill Gaston Calmette (b. 1858), ed. of Figaro (brother of scientist Leon Charles Albert Calmette) for pub. explicit love letters she had written to her hubby before marriage, which had been stolen by his first wife to get even; on July 28 after a sensational trial featuring a deposition from the pres. of France, she is acquitted after her atty. Pat Schroeder, er, Geraldine Ferraro, er, Hillary Clinton, er, Fernand Gustave Gaston Labori (1860-1917) (Alfred Dreyfus' defense atty.) convinces the jury that women shouldn't be able to control their passions, and her hubby goes on to lead a French peace party during the big war - she may be so fragile because she's so good a shot?
On Aug. 4, 1914 - Nov. 11, 1918 the horrific World War I causes 15M deaths and 39M military casualties, and destroys the Old Order of white formerly Christian Europe. The U.S. played the Savior role, and lost a piddling number of troops compared to everybody else, and even after the horrific 1918 Spanish Influenza (Flu) Pandemic, you might call it lucky that it began to become the New Kid on the Block.
In Oct. 1914 Alice Paul (1885-1977) and Lucy Burns (1879-1966) form the Congressional Union for Women Suffrage (later called the Nat. Women's Party), adopting the feminist label and proclaiming the desire of women to break from the "separate sphere" into "the human race", not being afraid to get into picketing and civil disobedience. In 1914 Mont. and Nev. become the 11th-12th U.S. states to give women the vote.
On Jan. 12, 1915 the U.S. House of Reps rejects a proposal to give women the right to vote - no more fluffy pancakes? On Apr. 18 the Internat. Women's Peace Congress at The Hague is attended by 1K+ delegates from 12 countries; the British govt. stops 25 British women from attending by suspending the ferry service from Britain to Holland. The May ed. of Harper's Bazaar features a female model with bare armpits; by 1917 U.S. women, aided by ads from Wilkinson Sword Co. are buying razor blades and shaving their pits. On June 1 1M+ French conscripts are diverted to munitions factories to alleviate the shortage; Britain begins employing female munitions workers, becoming the main female job during the war, leading to calls for women's rights. On Oct. 25 Liza Burton "Lyda" Conley (1869-1946), first Native Am. woman to appear before the U.S. Supreme Court is admitted to practice before it.
In 1915 Cedarville, Ill-born. Hull House founder Jane Addams (1860-1935) founds the Women's Internat. League for Peace and Freedom, and becomes chmn. of the Internat. Congress of Women, opposing U.S. involvement in WWI.
In 1915 Hartford, Conn.-born women's activist Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1860-1935) (great-niece of Harriet Beecher Stowe) pub. Herland.
In Apr. 1916 Britain employs 200K women munition workers. In 1916 the Ottoman Empire reforms marriage laws, permitting women to seek divorce if their husbands commit adultery or take an additional wife without the first wife's consent.
On Nov. 7, 1916 Jeannette Pickering Rankin (1880-1973) (R-Mont.) becomes the first woman elected to the U.S. House of Reps. (until 1919); she goes on to cast one of 50 votes againt U.S. entry into WWI, the sole vote against entry into WWII, and oppose the Vietnam War.
On Jan. 19, 1917 the Silent Sentinels, led by Alice Paul and the Nat. Woman's Party begin picketing the White House, holding out until the 19th Amendment is passed in June 1919; on Nov. 15 (night) the Night of Terror sees the Silent Sentinels incl. Lucy Burns brutalized by 40 guards.
Halfway to Hazard, or Poison with the Spin Doctors, or, Say yes, come on, say yes, or, I just can't wait to get next to you? The first of two Russian revolutions rustles Russia up? On Mar. 3, 1917 after 2M Russian soldiers are killed in the Great War, allowing Bolshevik propagandists to have a field day, the February Rev. (Old Style Julian calendar) begins as workers at the Putilov Munition Works in Petrograd go on strike, spawning daily bread riots which wave the red flag; on Mar. 7 60K Bolshevik troops under Mikhail Tukhachevsky attack the island Kronstadt naval base outside Petrograd; on Mar. 8 (Feb. 23 Old Style) (Sun.) (Internat. Women's Day) the Women's March in Petrograd demands "bread and peace", joining with 90K factory workers already on strike; on Mar. 10 a gen. strike by 500K begins, and on Mar. 12 Georgian-born Irakly Tsereteli (1882-1959) announces the new Petrograd Soviet of Workers', Soldiers', and Peasants' Deputies, which challenges both the tsar and the Duma; on Mar. 11 the Duma refuses to yield to the tsar's orders to dissolve, and by night fires break out in Petrograd while soldiers of the elite 17K-man Volinsky Regiment murder some of their officers; on Mar. 12 Tsar Nicholas II leaves his military HQ near the front at Mogilev 450 mi. away to return to Moscow; meanwhile on Mar. 12 (11 a.m.) demonstrators set fire to the law courts on Lityeiny Prospect, and attack and burn police stations, while the remainder of the Volynsky Regiment refuses to fire on them, instead lashing commanding officer Capt. A.F. Lashkevich to death and firing at soldiers loyal to the tsar, becoming the first Russian military unit to mutiny and join the revolutionaries, setting prisoners free. In May 1917 Maria Leontievna Bochkareva (1889-1920) forms the Russian Women's Battalion of Death, which sees front line action and captures 2K Austrian POWs before the male troops get jealous and force it to disband, after which she flees to exile in the U.S. in Apr. 1918; "Some remained in the trenches, fainting and hysterical; others ran or crawled back to the rear. Bochkareva retreated with her decimated battalion; she was wrathful, heartbroken, but she had learnt a great truth: women were unfit to be soldiers." (Florence Farmborough)
On Mar. 5, 1917 U.S. pres. #28 Woodrow Wilson is inaugurated for a 2nd term in the 38th U.S. Pres. Inauguration; Thomas R. Marshall continues as the 28th vice-pres.; the first time that women officially participate in the inaugural parade; Wilson utters the soundbyte "We stand fast on armed neutrality." On July 7 the British govt. establishes the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps to do grunt jobs to release soldiers for the front.
On Aug. 28, 1917 Susan B. Anthony Amendment suffragists, led by Nat. Women's Party founders Alice Paul and Lucy Burns "man" the first-ever picket line in front of the White House, and 10 are arrested; Pres. Wilson's henchmen treat them like cattle and send them to the brutal Occoquan Workhouse, where they go on a 19-day hunger strike and end up getting force-fed, gaining the title "Iron-Jawed Angels", the public outcry backfiring on Wilson and causing him to accept women's right to vote? In 1917 N.Y. becomes the 13th U.S. state to give women the vote. In 1917 bobbed hair for women becomes the rage in Britain and the U.S.
In 1918 as the U.S. enters WWI, U.S. women begin taking male jobs in offices and factories, causing them to wear pants and short hair, and adopt fashions with a military cut - there's no sex in violence? In 1918 Mich., S.D., and Okla. become the 14th-16th U.S. states to give women the vote.
In 1918 Australian opera singer Nellie Melba (Helen Porter Mitchell) (1861-1931) and English actress May Whitty (1865-1948) become the first women to be created dame cmdr. of the British empire (DBE).
In 1918 Florence Ziegfeld Jr.'s Extravaganza of 1918 makes a Broadway star out of 5-ft. Mae West (1893-1980), who wears 6" lifts in her shoes and makes a career out of portraying loose hetero women with wit and independence, becoming the first screen sex goddess, and breaking the mold by not dying young and being smart with money, going on to become a women's lib role model to the end of the cent.; later in life she takes morning enemas to keep her skin as smooth as silk and avoid plastic surgery.
On Apr. 7, 1919 160K Belgian women sign a petition demanding suffrage, and on May 9 a new electoral law gives universal suffrage to men and limited suffrage to women - now husbands listen to this, love your wives as your own body, he who loves his own body loves himself?
On June 4, 1919 the U.S. Senate passes the Susan B. Anthony Amendment, AKA the Women's Suffrage Bill, AKA the Nineteenth (XIX) (19th) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, giving women the right to vote (originally written by Susan B. Anthony and introduced to Congress in 1878), and it is sent to the states by the 66th Congress (ratified Aug. 26, 1920).
On Nov. 30, 1919 women cast votes for the first time in French legislative elections; after Clemenceau's ruling coalition splits into the Right Bloc National (Clemenceau, Alexandre Millerand, Raymond Poincare, Aristide Briand) and a Cartel des Gauches led by Edouard Herriot, the Right Bloc National wins; the Royalists, Socialists, and Communists are excluded from both blocs and suffer from continued splits and cooperation with conservatives.
In 1919 in France at the Folies Bergere women perform totally nude on stage for the first time in the modern Western world - oh, la la?
On Feb. 2, 1920 the Tartu (Dorpat) Peace Treaty between Estonia and the Soviet Union recognizes a free and independent Estonian Repub. in perpetuity with fixed borders; on June 15 Estonia adopts a constitution, with a unicameral assembly in the capital Tallinn (sounds like an inn for tall people?); women have the right to vote but lack other rights.
On Feb. 14, 1920 the League of Women Voters is founded in Chicago, Ill. during the last meeting of the Nat. Am. Woman Suffrage Assoc. by Carrie Chapman Catt; its first pres. is Radcliffe-educated Maud Wood Park (1871-1955), pioneer of the "front door lobby". On Aug. 18 Tenn. becomes the 36th state to ratify the Nineteenth (19th) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, giving women the vote; on Aug. 26 it is signed into law (08-26-20).
On Mar. 26, 1920 F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940) pub. This Side of Paradise, the title taken from Rupert Brooke's poem "Tiare Tahiti", a coming of age novel set at Princeton U. about wealthy attractive student Amory Blaine, who "inherited from his mother every trait, except the stray inexpressible few, that made him worth while"; Isabelle is inspired by his college girlfriend Ginevra King; Rosalind is inspired by his girlfriend Zelda Fitzgerald (1900-48) (a Southern Belle he met in an Ala. country club), who "does resemble you in more ways than four", using quotes from her diary in the novel, and when the novel is a hit they marry on Apr. 3, becoming New York City celebs; "Amor had decided definitely on Princeton, even though he would be the only boy to enter that year from St. Regis'. Yale had a romance and glamour from the tales of Minneapolis, and St. Regis' men who had been 'tapped for Skull and Bones', but Princeton drew him most, with its atmosphere of bright colors and its alluring reputation as the pleasantest country club in America"; he also pub. Flappers and Philosophers (short stories); "I had no idea of originating an American flapper when I first began to write. I simply took girls whom I knew very well and, because they interested me as unique human beings, I used them for my heroines." (Metropolitan Mag., Nov. 1923). In the 1920s with a klutz like Warren G. Harding or Calvin Coolidge and his wife Grace Anna Goodhue to turn them off to politics and home life, U.S. women incl. New Yorker columnist Lois Long come out of the boring parlors to enjoy cars, airplanes, radios, movies, and clubs, starting the Flapper style with bobbed hair and lipstick, short pants and dresses, driving cars, smoking cigs and having extramarital sex, esp. oral; female fashions in the U.S. and Britain feature straight dresses with no waistline, and skirts above the knees, along with cloche hats - those lipsticked lips holding a lit fag give men a woody and those cloche hats make them think about ringing their bell with a French kiss?
In 1920 the weekly Time and Tide mag., founded by Welsh suffragette Sybil Margaret Thomas, 1st Viscountess Rhondda (1857-1941) begins pub. in Britain (until 1977), starting out on the left and gradually moving to the right as she does.
In 1920 the First Internat. Conference of Communist Women is held in St. Petersburg, chaired by Lenin's French-born comrade Inessa Armand (b. 1874), a firm believer in sexual liberation; too bad, she dies of cholera on Sept. 24. In 1920 the huge French war losses causes concerns about depop., and a law is enacted prohibiting artificial conception and infanticide (AKA abortion), incl. their advocacy, although women are needed in the labor force now, causing firms in this decade to begin recruiting foreign labor, causing France to pass the U.S. as a destination for emigrants. In 1920 Oxford U. grants its first degrees to women.
On Nov. 23, 1921 Pres. Harding signs the U.S. Sheppard-Towner Act (Promotion of the Welfare and Hygiene of Maternity and Infancy Act), providing federal funding for maternity and child care, becoming Congress' first social security legislation, and the first major legislation for women after their full enfranchisement.
In 1921 the Lucy Stone League is founded by Am. feminist writer Ruth Hale (1887-1934) to fight for women to keep their maiden names after marriage, named after Lucy Stone (1818-93), the first woman in the U.S. to do it; the motto is: "My name is the symbol for my identity and must not be lost"; Am. novelist Fannie Hurst (1889-1968) and Am. artist Neysa McMein (1888-1949) are among the first members.
In 1921 Russian-born Jewish-Am. dressmaker Ida Rosenthal (1886-1973) opens the Maiden Form Dress Shop in New York City, inventing the brassiere, followed by maternity bras, and standardizing cup sizes; their sexy newspaper ads showing dames in underwear feature the slogan "I dreamed... in a Maidenform Bra" - the feminine codpiece?
On Feb. 27, 1922 the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously upholds the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, and women's votes are safe. On Nov. 21 Rebecca Ann Felton (1835-1930) becomes the first woman to sit in the U.S. Senate, serving 24 hours after the gov. of Ga. appoints her to fill the vacancy left by her hubby Thomas E. Watson - the original Granny Clampett?
In 1922 the elegant Classic Style takes over women's fashions in the U.S.
On Mar. 16, 1923 the Egyptian Women's Union is formed by upper-class Egyptian women led by Hoda (Huda) Shaarawi (1879-1947), calling for a ban on polygamy and a man's right to summary divorce, and demanding equality for women; Huda shocks the country by publicly unveiling at a railway station in Cairo after returning from a women's conference in Italy, even though it's only practiced by upper class women anyway; too bad, the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood causes many Egyptian women to wear veils again by the early 21st cent.
In 1923 the U.S. Supreme Court invalidates all state minimum wage laws, which had covered women and minors in 15 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia; it takes until 1933 for the federal govt. to try enacting such laws - a perfect setup for the Great Depression?
On Mar. 10, 1924 the U.S. Supreme Court in Radice v. New York upholds a New York state law forbidding late-night work for women - because they'll turn tricks? On Mar. 10 U.S. Navy secy. (since 1921)
The original She Bangs? On Apr. 11, 1924 elections in Denmark increase the Socialist seats from 39 to 55, and Socialist Thorvald Stauning (1873-1942) becomes PM (until 1926); Nina Henriette Wendeline Bang (1866-1928) becomes the first Danish woman elected to a nat. post (minister of education) (until 1926), and the first female minister in Europe?
On Nov. 4, 1924 the 1924 U.S. Pres. Election elects "Keep Cool with" Calvin Coolidge on a pro-business platform, becoming the 2nd Repub. vice-pres. to succeed to the presidency then get reelected (first Teddy Roosevelt in 1904); the Dems. win just 29% of the popular vote in a 3-way race with Coolidge and Sen. Robert "Fighting Bob" LaFolette of Wisc. of the Progressive Party (382 to 186 electoral votes); the 3rd time that a third party polls more than 10% of the vote in a U.S. Pres. Election (1892, 1912, 1968); Nellie Tayloe Ross (1876-1977) of Wyo. is elected America's first woman gov., serving the remaining term of her husband William B. Ross, who died in office; 15 days later Dem. Miriam Amanda Wallace "Ma" Ferguson (1875-1961), wife of impeached gov. (1915-17) James Edward "Pa" Ferguson (1871-1944) becomes the first woman gov. of Texas and the 2nd woman state gov. in the U.S. (until 1927) (reelected 1933-5). On Jan. 20, 1925 after her hubby James Edward "Pa" Ferguson is impeached and barred from office, and his Bell County, Tex.-born wife Miriam Amanda Wallace "Ma" Ferguson (1875-1961) runs in his place under the slogans "Two governors for the price of one" and "Me for Ma, and I Ain't Got a Durned Thing Against Pa", she becomes Dem. Tex. gov. #29 (until Jan. 18, 1927), doing it again as Tex. gov. #32 on Jan. 17, 1933-Jan. 15, 1935.
In 1924 Danish feminist writer Maria Kirstine Dorothea "Thit" Jensen (1876-1957) founds the Org. for Sexual Awareness (Foreiningen for Seksuel Oplysning) to give women the choice of having an abortion, with their own doctor.
In 1926 the Black Bottom Dance Craze begins in the U.S.; mimicks a cow stuck in the mud? In 1926 speaking of black bottom, women's hemlines reach knee-length - if I'm a man I can't stand it? In 1926 Sarah Lawrence College for women in Bronxville, Westchester County, N.Y. is founded by real estate mogul William Van Duzer Lawrence (1842-1927) (who made his fortune marketing the Pain Killer patent medicine), opening in 1928 and going on to institute an experimental educational program with no compulsory courses and no exams, and become known for its collection of works on Emily Dickinson and for requiring students to work for eight hours a week in "productive leisure" incl. modeling, cosmetics, gardening, shorthand, or typing.
In 1927 the Bolivian Women's Labor Federation is founded.
In 1927 the name Seven Sisters is first used for seven top liberal arts women's colleges in the NE U.S., incl. Barnard College (New York City, 1889), Bryn Mawr College (Bryn Mawr, Penn., 1885), Mount Holyoke College (South Hadley, Mass., 1837), Radcliffe College (Cambridge, Mass., 1879), Smith College (Northampton, Mass., 1871), Vassar College (Poughkeepsie, N.Y., 1861), and Wellesley College (Wellesley, Mass., 1870); all but Radcliffe are also called "Hidden Ivies"; Radcliffe merges with Harvard in 1963-99, and Vassar goes co-ed in 1969.
In 1927 Dorothy Arzner's Fashions for Women debuts, becoming the dir. debut of Dorothy Arzner (1897-1979), an open lesbian who dresses in men's suits and ties, and goes on to dir. Clara Bowe's first talkie "The Wild Party, creating the boom mike for it, launching the careers of Katharine Hepburn, Rosalind Russell, Sylvia Sidney, and Lucille Ball, then becoming the first woman admitted to the Directors Guild of Am. in 1936.
In 1928 the Equal Franchise Act gives British women ages 21+ the right to vote (used to be 30).
On Oct. 11, 1928 English writer "Who's Afraid of" Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) pub. Orlando: A Biography, about a man born in the reign of Elizabeth I who decides to never grow old and changes into a woman, based on the life of lezzie lovers Vita Sackville-West (1892-1962) (as Orlando) and Violet Trefusis (1894-1972) (as Slavic princess Sasha); gets around censorship by having a woman sprout a you know what before going to bed with another woman?; after Vita left Violet in 1923, Violet hooked up with Singer sewing machine heiress and musical patron Winnaretta Singer (1865-1943) until 1933; it's really about William Shakespeare, who makes a cameo appearance, to be read along with the passage about his sister Judith in "A Room of One's Own" (1929)? In 1929 Woolf pub. the essays A Room of One's Own, containing pleas for women's economic independence; "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction." On Mar. 28, 1941 in Lewes, England she jumps in a body of water with a rock in her pocket after writing that "I am certain now that I am going mad again."
On Nov. 18, 1929 during a period of hyperinflation, the Aba Women's Riots (Igbo Women's War) in British Nigeria starts when 10K Igbo women from the Bende District travel to Oloko to protest the taxing of property of women, destroying 10 native courts by the time troops quell the riots in Dec. after killing 59 women; the British cave and begin appointing women to sit on native courts, inspiring more women's revolts in W Africa through the 1950s.
On May 15, 1930 RN Ellen Church (1904-65) and seven other "sky girl" nurses take off on their maiden Boeing flight from San Francisco to Chicago, becoming the first modern stewardesses, er, flight attendants - coffee, tea or what?
In Nov. 1930 white activist Jesse Daniel Ames (1883-1972) of Tex. founds the Assoc. of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching (until 1942), telling white men that they don't need to have their "virtue" protected by brutal murder, and that it isn't chivalrous of them, getting 40K women to sign a pledge against lynching, causing a public outcry leading to a decrease in lynchings.
In the 1930s African-Am. lesbian blues singer Gladys Bentley (1907-60) headlines the Ubangi Club in Harlem, N.Y., wearing a tuxedo and top hat while flirting with the women in the audience.
In 1931 Clairol Co. is founded by a chemist and his wife to sell a hair coloring product they found during travels in France; after launching Miss Clairol Hair Color Bath, with the slogan "Does she... or doesn't she?", hair coloring catches on with U.S. women.
On May 20, 1932 Kan.-born Amelia Earhart (1897-1937) takes off from Harbor Grace, Newfoundland for Ireland in a Pratt & Whitney Wasp-powered Lockheed Vega to become the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic, and arrives in approx. 15 hours on May 21, becoming the first woman to receive the Distinguished Flying Cross - no ticker tape parade?
The Babelympics? On July 30-Aug. 14, 1932 the Olympic Flame is inaugurated in the X (10th) Summer Olympic Games in Los Angeles, Calif., held smack dab in the middle of the Great Depression, causing less than half of the 1928 participatants to attend, even being stood up by Pres. Herbert Hoover, becoming the first Olympic Games not attended by the sitting head of the govt. of the host country, which doesn't stop them from making $1M profit; 1,332 athletes from 37 nations participate in 116 events in 14 sports; the first Olympic Village is built in the Baldwin Hills (men only); the first use of a victory podium; Jim Thorpe is a press reporter at the Games; Paavo Nurmi is banned for being a pro; the U.S. wins bronze in field hockey because there are only two other nations competing (India gold, Japan silver); Thomas Edward "Eddie" Tolan (1908-67) ("the Midnight Express") of the U.S. wins gold in the 100m and 200m, becoming the first African-Am. world's fastest human; Stanislawa Walasiewicz (1911-80) of Poland wins gold in the women's 100m, and after her death it's discovered that she's intersex; Baron Takeichi Nishi (1902-45) of Japan wins a gold in the equestrian show jumping individual event on Uranus; "unnatural" (not delicate or feminine) Tex.-born Mildred "Babe" Didrikson (1911-56) ("the female Babe Ruth") sets four world records in one afternoon during the Olympic trials, then sets world records in the javelin throw (143' 4") and 80m hurdles (11.7 sec.) for two golds, then wins a silver in the high jump (nobody's perfect?); she earns All-Am. honors in basketball 1930-2, appears in vaudeville, then takes up golf; actress-swimmer Eleanor Holm (1913-2004) wins gold in the 100m backstroke, setting a world record in that plus the 200m backstroke, then despite having not lost a race in seven years and being the first female swimmer chosen for three U.S. Olympic teams, she is unceremoniously thrown off the team in 1936 by Avery Brundage after being caught drinking, shooting craps, and singing in cabarets past the 9 p.m. curfew on the boat trip to Germany, although if a man did it no action would have been taken?; the publicity makes her a star with the press, and she meets Adolf Hitler and Hermann Goering, who gives her a silver swastika, which she has later copied in gold with a diamond Star of David inside it after she marries Jewish hubby Billy Rose in 1939; they divorce in 1954.
In 1932 Brazilian women win the right to vote.
On June 16, 1933 the U.S. Nat. Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) is passed, calling for industry groups to draw up codes of fair competition to be approved by FDR, and setting minimum wage scales for men and women despite a 1923 Supreme Court ruling; the first dir. is former U.S. Brig. Gen. ("Old Iron Pants") Hugh Samuel Johnson (1882-1942) (author of the 1917 U.S. Selective Draft Act), who enforces the new codes so enthusiastically using Mussolini's Fascism as a model that it creates a backlash, causing him to resign in 1934 and become a commentator for the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain; guess what, in 1935 the Supreme Court declares minimum wages unconstitutional again.
In 1933 Egypt passes its first labor laws protecting children, teens, and women.
In 1934 Am. investor Floyd Odlum takes over Bonwit Teller Dept. Store in New York City, and appoints his wife Hortense McQuarrie Odlum (1881-1970) as pres. (until 1940), becoming the first female dept. store head.
On June 26, 1935 Nazi laws are passed permitting forced abortions on women to prevent the transmission of hereditary diseases.
In 1935 Mary McLeod Bethune (1875-1955), a friend of Eleanor Roosevelt founds the Nat. Council of Negro Women (NCNW) in the U.S., uniting the Nat. Assoc. of Colored Women (of which she was pres. in 1924-8) with other major black women's orgs.; in 1936 she joins the advisory committee of the New Deal's Nat. Youth Admin. (until 1943), and becomes dir. of its Negro Affairs Div. in 1939, becoming the first black woman to head a U.S. federal agency; she organizes the Federal Council of Negro Affairs, which holds govt.-sponsored Nat. Negro Conferences in 1937 and 1939.
On Apr. 20, 1936 the League of Nations holds the 2nd meeting of its 91st session in Geneva, while hosting a conference in Bandoeng, Dutch East Indies to abolish traffic in women in the Middle and Far East (ends May 2).
On May 25, 1935 Jesse Owens (1913-80) of Ohio State U. sets six world records in track in 45 min. in Ann Arbor, Mich.: 100 yd. dash (10.2 sec.), long jump (26 ft. 8.25 in.), 220 yard (200m) dash, 220 yd. (200m) low hurdles. The greatest chance to stop WWII with the fellowship of sports is in the hands of a black, two Jews, and a mental cripple at the Big 1936 Aryan Olympics? On Aug. 1-16, 1936 Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) hosts the XI (11th) Summer Olympic Games in Berlin, after the first-ever torch relay from Olympia, Greece, devised by Nazi filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl, who films the dramatic lighting of the flame in Olympic Stadium, the final torchbearer being graceful certified blonde-blue Aryan runner Fritz Schilgen (1906-2005), who does not compete (2nd time the Olympic flame is used); 3,963 athletes (incl. 331 women) from 49 nations participate in 129 events in 19 sports; the first televised Olympics, beamed to TV sets in Berlin and Potsdam, and later used by aliens from outer space as a signal that earthlings are ready for Carl Sagan's Contact?; basketball and handball debut as outdoor sports (handball doesn't appear again until 1972); French and Canadian athletes give an Olympic salute at the opening ceremony which looks dangerously close to the Nazi salute?; the U.S. almost boycotts the Olympics until a backroom power play, with Ernest Lee Jahnke being expelled from the IOC, and pro-Nazi USOC pres. (since 1929) Avery Brundage (1887-1975) put in his place, maneuvering the USOC into a close vote to send a team, which most Jewish athletes boycott, while blacks welcome the propaganda chance (showing the cracks in the U.S. Jewish-black alliance, or is it something about every Jew and Aryan being shorter down there and the black bucks hoping to get lucky with the German girls, er, forget it?) (Brundage utters the soundbyte this year: "I am fed up to the ears with women as track and field competitors... her charms sink to something less than zero. As swimmers and divers, girls are as beautiful and adroit as they are ineffective and unpleasing on the track") (after the Olympics, his construction co. gets a contract to build the German embassy in the U.S., and after he dies he is revealed to have been the a-hole who got American Injun Jim Thorpe's medals taken away for playing semi-pro ball); Hitler orders the Berlin police to arrest all gypsies before the games and keep them in a special camp, but exempts foreign visitors from Nazi anti-gay laws?; signs warning shoppers about Jewish-owned shops are taken down, but Hitler initially has signs mounted over toilets reading "Dogs and Jews not allowed", then backs down and removes them after Belgian IOC pres. (since 1925) Count Henri de Baillet-Latour (1876-1942) (who went on record as saying that women shouldn't take part in the Olympics) faces him down; only pure Aryan athletes are permitted by Hitler to compete for Germany; most athletes (incl. from the U.S., incl. Jesse Owens) wear track shoes made by ardent Nazi brothers Adolf "Adi" Dassler (1900-78) and Rudolf Dassler (1898-1974) of Herzogenaurach, Bavaria (12 mi. from Nuremberg); too bad, after the war, Adi rats Rudolf out as a member of the SS, causing them to split, after which in 1948 Rudolf founds Puma nearby across the Aurach River, and Adi renames his co. Adidas (run like a Nazi?); (the solution to world peace was on their feet all the time?); the well-heeled lily-white Aryan German athletes, while winning the most medals as a group and proving Aryan superiority to the Aryans are upstaged in the non-German world by black U.S. athlete (former Ohio State U. star) (son of a sharecropper and grandson of slaves) Jesse Owens (1913-80), "the Ebony Express", who becomes the 1st U.S. and 2nd athlete ever to win three individual Olympic golds, in the 100m (10.3 sec.) (Aug. 3), long jump (26 ft. 5-5/16 in.) (Aug. 4), and 200m (20.7 sec.) (Aug. 5); after Avery Brundage kisses Nazi butt by pulling Jews Martin "Marty" Glickman (1917-2001) and Sam Stoller (the only two Jews on the U.S. Olympic team) out of the 4x100m relay, they put in Owens and yet-another-black-athlete Ralph Harold Metcalfe (1910-78) (world's fastest human from 1932-4, who placed 2nd to Owens in the 200m), and on Aug. 9 the U.S. team wins by 15 yards, setting a record of 39.8 sec., which lasts 20 years (until 1956); Hitler allegedly snubs "black nigger ape" Owens, but actually doesn't, as he decided to skip all medal presentations after the first day, when he did snub two U.S. blacks, high jumpers Cornelius Cooper "Corny" Johnson (1913-46), (who won the first U.S. gold) and David Donald "Dave" Albritton (1913-94); not that Owens is in love with the racist U.S. so much either, saying "Hitler didn't snub me, it was FDR who snubbed me. The President didn't even send me a telegram"; black athlete Archibald Franklin "Archie" Archie Williams (1915-93) wins another gold for the U.S. in the 400m; blonde model Aryan German long jumper Carl Ludwig "Luz" Long (1913-43) does an un-PC thing by giving Owens advice that keeps him from elimination in the preliminary, then when Owens wins the gold, running out to congratulate him, clutching his right hand with his left and hoisting their arms into the air while facing toward Hitler, becoming Owen's defining moment of the Olympics, saying "It took a lot of courage to befriend me in front of Hitler... You can melt down all the medals and cups I have and they wouldn't be a plating on the 24 carat friendship that I felt for Luz Long at that moment"; Owens was not given segregated facilities in Germany like back in the good ole USA, and was idolized by German fans?; (if Luz Long coulda taken over Germany and Jesse Owens the U.S. right then, send me the screenplay?); too bad, fellow black athlete ("world's fastest human") Eulace Peacock (1914-96), who beat Owens 5x in a row in the 100m the year before is injured and doesn't compete (just what the Yanks need, to field a strutting black peacock in front of Herr Hitler?); on Aug. 8 the Washington U. crew team, representing the U.S. comes behind to pass Germany and edge Italy by 0.6 sec. to win the rowing gold in front of Hitler; the first basketball gold goes to the U.S., who beats Canada 19-8 in a mud court in the rain, where dribbling is impossible, and spectators have to stand; honorary-Aryan India wins the gold in field hockey, continuing their streak (1928-56); Konrad Frey (1909-74) and Alfred Schwarzmann (1912-2000) of Germany each win three golds in gymnastics, and Frey wins six medals and Schwarzmann wins five medals total, beating Owens' four (which are all gold); Estonia competes for the 1st time (next 1992), and godlike Aryan-looking Kristjan Palusalu (1908-87) (who is later treated like merde during WWII by the Soviets, who force him to fight Finland, after which he defects to their side) wins two golds in men's heavyweight wrestling; Germany wins individual and team gold in all three equestrian events; Italy wins the gold in soccer, which is touted as a big V by Benito Mussolini; Japan wins a gold and bronze in the marathon using Korean runners under Japanese names; Danish journalist Inga Arvad (Petersen) (1913-73) accompanies Hitler at the Olympics and interviews him 2x, then has a bedroom affair with JFK in 1941-2, which the FBI tapes, holding it against him for life; in 1945 she marries Am. cowboy star Tim McCoy (1891-1978).
On Apr. 12, 1937 the Hughes Supreme Court flip-flops on New Deal legislation, upholding the radical U.S. Wagner Act in National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp, and the U.S. Social Security Act in Steward Machine Co. v. Davis; it also rules in favor of a minimum wage law for women; between this year and 1941 all four of the remaining conservative justices retire, as well as liberals Benjamin Cardozo (dies 1938) and Louis Brandeis (1939), permitting FDR to stack the court permanently with six new liberal justices.
In 1937 the all-teenie swing-jazz band Internat. Sweethearts of Rhythm is formed at Piney Woods Country Life School in Miss., going on to relocate to Arlington, Va. and recruit adult Asian, Black, Caucasian, Indian, Latina, and Puerto Rican members, becoming the first integrated all-women's band in the U.S., going on to play at the Apollo Theatre in Harlem, N.Y., the Regal Theatre in Chicago, Ill., the Cotton Club in Cincinnati, Ohio et al. before touring U.S. troops in Europe in 1945, becoming the first black women to travel with the USO.
On Sept. 6, 1938 Oberlin College in Ohio becomes the first U.S. institution of higher learning to admit women to its college programs on an equal basis with men - oberachievers welcome?
On May 15, 1939 the Ravensbruck Camp for women is established 50 mi. N of Berlin; German gynecologists use their big chance to experiment with abortion and forced sterilization - seeding the wombs personally? On Dec. 16 the U.S. Nat. Women's Party urges immediate congressional action on equal rights - by the end of the month? In 1939 women in El Salvador are given the vote - vote for male dictator A or B?
In 1939 Anna Lee Aldred (1921-2006) of Colo. receives a jockey's license from Agua Caliente Racetrack in Calif., becoming the first licensed female jockey in the U.S.; she retires in 1945 after becoming too big for the sport (5'5", 118 lbs.), then becomes a trick rider for Western rodeos, retiring at age 80 after breaking her hip.
On Sept. 1, 1939 - Sept. 2, 1945 the horrific $3.5T World War II resulted in 24M military and 49M civilian deaths, and featured the low point of the Jewish Holocaust (Shoah) by the German Nazis, I guess it was the Jews' fault for not ransoming themselves to go to Israel before they could round them up for the camps. The whole experience turned Jews from lovers into fighters, ramping up the Zionist movement with full world sympathy and support by new world superpower U.S., which had its own guilt trip because on Nov. 24, 1942 Budapest-born Am. Zionist leader Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise (1874-1949) announced in a press conference in Washington, D.C. that he was authorized by the U.S. State Dept. to confirm that the Nazis had murdered 2M Jews as part of a plan to exterminate all Jews in Europe; too bad, the nat. newspapers didn't consider it front page news, and the U.S. govt. did nada. After the war ended and Americans toured the concentration camps in horror, Polish-born Jewish scholar Raphael Lemkin (1900-59), who single-handedly led an unsuccessful campaign to get the League of Nations to give internat. protections against genocide starting in 1933 finally got what he wanted after his own people got it, namely the Dec. 9, 1948 U.N. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Gen. Assembly Resolution 260), which didn't come in force until Jan. 12, 1951, and which the U.S. still didn't ratify until 1988. By the end of WWII the U.S. was the World's Policeman, with half the world's wealth, and a Baby Boom accompanied by an economic boom created a huge mass-market for novels and everything else.
In 1939 Vogue mag. prints an article containing the soundbyte: "We deplore the crop of young women who take war as an excuse for letting their hair down and parading around in slacks. Slack, we think, is the word."
On Feb. 21, 1940 in Britain women 60 and older are granted old age pensions.
In 1941 the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WACs) is organized by Oveta Culp Hobby (1905-95), wife of Houston Post pub. William Pettus Hobby; in 1942 she is appointed its dir., and in 1943 is made a col. in charge of the new U.S. Women's Army Corps (until 1945); she is awarded the Distinguished Service Medal in 1944.
In 1941 Am. historian Margaret Leech Pulitzer (1893-1974) pub. Reveille in Washington, 1860-1865, becoming the first woman to win a Pulitzer Prize for history; about Abraham Lincoln and his wife Mary Todd Lincoln, Confed. spy Rose Greenhow, and how the U.S. Civil War changed Washington, D.C.; it helps that she was married to Joseph Pulitzer's late son Ralph?; "Rich with the wastage of armies, the perennial fields were green. On the Capital dome, Armed Freedom rested on her sheathed sword." (last line) In 1959 she pub. In the Days of McKinley, which wins her a second Pulitzer Prize in history; concentrates on his last five years, attempting to revive his reputation.
On July 7, 1942 Heinrich Himmler holds a conference in Berlin with German gynecologist Karl Clauberg et al., agreeing to start secret sterilization experiments on Jewsh women in Auschwitz without their knowledge; on July 10 the first 100 women are treated.
On Oct. 23, 1943 the Revolt of the Jewish Women at Auschwitz sees 1,750 Polish Jews with South Am. passports tricked into boarding trains sending them to Auschwitz, after which the women are ordered to undress outside the gas chamber so they can be frisked for bling, until SS Sgt. Maj. Josef Schillinger gets fresh, causing the woman to throw her shoe at his face, seize his revolver, and shoot him in the stomach, then wound SS Sgt. ? Emmerich, causing the other women to kick SS ass, until camp commandant Rudolf Hoess leads more SS men personally to shoot them all.
On Oct. 19, 1944 the U.S. Navy announces that black women will be allowed into Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service (WAVES).
On Oct. 21, 1945 women in France are allowed to vote for the first time - too late to vote the old men out who who who who? In 1945 women gain the vote in Guatemala. In 1945 after efforts by feminist leader Fusae Ichikawa (1893-1981) et al., women gain the vote in Japan.
There's two chickens in every pot and a car in every garage? In 1946 horny white heterosexual U.S. soldiers return from the war to horny waiting white hetero American women (some just dabbled in lesbianism during the war years?), with 100K marriages a mo., and soon the U.S. Baby Boom (ends 1964) begins as the middle class and its consumer society rise to prominence in a booming economy caused by wartime spending; 700K new homes are started this year; unemployed GIs are called 52-20s since they are entitled to $20 a week for 52 weeks?
Hot hot hot? On July 1, 1946 the U.S. Navy explodes a 20-kiloton atomic bomb (A-bomb) near Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, where the USS Salt Lake City and other vessels are anchored to resemble a fleet, becoming the first peacetime A-bomb test; German warship Prinze Eugen is used as a target, and survives the blast; on July 5 the Bikini bathing suit, created by lecher, er, automotive engineer Louis Reard (1920-2007) makes its hot debut at an outdoor fashion show at the Molitor Pool in Paris on model (nude dancer) Micheline Bernardini (the male reaction is akin to an A-bomb explosion); weeks earlier Jacques Heim (1899-1967) introduced a less exhibitionist 2-piece version called the Atome (smallest particle of matter known), and both send skywriters into the skies of the French Riviera to advertise; U.S. women adopt it by next year, but it is pretty much banned until 1960?
In Feb. 1947 the U.N. Commission on the Status of Women meets in Lake Success, N.Y.
On Apr. 20, 1947 Christian X (b. 1870) dies, and his eldest son Frederick (Fredrik) IX (1899-1972) (a rear-adm.) becomes king of Denmark (until Jan. 14, 1972), going on to preside over Denmark's transformation from a neutral agricultural society to a welfare state that actively joins alliances, with women achieving equality; being without a male heir, his brother Prince Knud becomes heir apparent, but after women get to work a referendum on Mar. 27, 1953 sets his eldest child Margrete II up as his successor.
In 1947 the voluptuous hourglass-silhouette New Look of French designer Christian Dior (1905-57) takes over women's fashion, with long billowing skirts serving as a relief after years of clothes rationing, allowing him to brand his name across a wide range of products - when I left the party I left her under the table?
On Sept. 13, 1948 Maine Repub. Margaret Chase Smith (1897-1995) (who took her hubby Clyde's House seat in 1940 after he died) is elected to the U.S. Senate (until 1973), becoming the first woman elected to both houses of Congress (House in 1940-8, Senate in 1949-72), proving a staunch opponent of Sen. Joseph McCarthy.
On Mar. 10, 1949 Axis Sally (Mildred E. Gillars) (1900-88) is convicted in Washington, D.C. of treason after pleading innocent last Sept. 24; she serves 12 years, is paroled and becomes a music teacher in Ohio.
On May 8, 1949 the West German parliamentary council approves the new Grundgesetz (Constitution) of the Federal Repub. of Germany (FRG) (45M pop., vs. 18M for East Germany), based on the Weimar Constitution, providing freedom of assoc., private property, equal rights for men and women, and banning forced labor; it comes into force on May 23, with capital at Bonn; only Bavaria fails to ratify it.
In 1949 French writer (Jean-Paul Sartre's babe) Simone de Beauvoir (1908-86) pub. The Second Sex, which claims that men put a false aura of mystery around women then put them on the bottom rung of the hierarchy, and that females are not born but become a woman (existence precedes essence), getting past the male myth of them being "the Other"; it appears in English trans. next year, coining the term "women's liberation" - wanna simone de beauvoir, jean paul? In 1968 Mary Daly (1928-2010) pub. The Church and the Second Sex, a rebuttal of Simone de Beauvoir's "The Second Sex" by a radical feminist Roman Catholic prof. at Boston College from 1967-99, where she gets into trouble for trying to exclude males from her classes.
On Mar. 7, 1950 the FBI creates its Ten Most Wanted Fugitives List after a reporter requests the names of the "toughest guys" wanted by the agency; murderer Thomas Holden is the first to make the list (he is captured next year); bank robber Willie Sutton is #11; 55 years later only seven women have appeared on the list, and the all-male cast features a $25M reward for Osama bin Laden.
Speaking of Mexicans breeding like rabbits, on Oct. 15, 1951 the progestin Norethindrone (norethisterone), an artifical substitute for progesterone that is key to the creation of an oral contraceptive pill was synthesized by Austrian-born chemist Carl Djerassi (1923-) of the U.S., Luis Ernesto Miramontes (1925-2004) of Mexico, and George (Gyorgy) Rosenkranz (1916-) of Hungary at Syntex in Mexico City, and on May 9, 1960 the U.S. Food and Drug Admin. (FDA) approved the contraceptive Enovid (Enavid), AKA the birth control pill, developed by Carl Djerassi of G.D. Searle & Co. of Chicago for American birth control (really negative eugenics, to keep the poor and therefore inferior from outbreeding the good guys?) advocate Margaret Higgins Sanger (1879-1966) and funded by heiress Katharine Dexter McCormick (1875-1967), saying that it has proved 100% effective in a 4-year test by 1.5K women. The cost was only $10-$11 per mo. for 20 pills, and for the first time in history women were liberated to have sex without fear of pregnancy, causing a run on pharmacies by non-Catholics and Catholics alike, despite the prohibition of birth control pills for Roman Catholics by Vatican II in 1962-5. By 1961 500K women were using it, and 10M by 1973. In 1966 the U.S. FDA releases a Report on the Pill, finding "no adequate scientific data at this time proving these compounds unsafe for human use"; too bad, most U.S. women are still leery of using oral contraceptives because of side effects, while France and other Catholic countries still prefer onanism, i.e., coitus inerruptus, although when Onan did it in the Bible, God killed him (Gen. 38:8-10)?
The Science of Biology gets its Trinity of Watson-Crick-and-I-forget? On Feb. 28, 1953 Chicago-born U.S. biologist James Dewey Watson (1928-) and British Cambridge U. model-making molecular biologist Francis Harry Compton Crick (1916-2004) announce their discovery of "the secret of life", the neat transvestite double-helix structure of DNA, then pub. a 1-page article in the Apr. 25 issue of Nature, drooling "This structure has novel features that are of considerable biological interest", later sharing the 1962 Nobel Med. Prize for it with Kiwi physicist Maurice H.F. Wilkins (1916-2004), who verifies the structure with X-ray diffraction; meanwhile Wilkins' colleague Rosalind Elsie Franklin (1920-58) of Kings College, who also pub. an article in the Apr. 25 issue on her X-ray diffraction studies, and whose work allowed the discovery is left out of the prize - no wonder girls hate math?
On Aug. 18, 1953 sexologist Alfred Charles Kinsey (1894-1956) of the U. of Ind. pub. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, a companion vol. to his 1948 study on males, predicting the sexual rev. and women's lib movement based on interviews with 5K women; results: almost half had sexual relations before marriage (one third with two or more men), a quarter are unfaithful afterward, and a quarter of the unmarried women have had lesbian relationships; 22% of the married women admit to at least one abortion, and 62% admit to masturbating (92% for males); the 1950 U.S. Nat. Research Council committee to study Kinsey, which incl. Am. statistician John Wilder Tukey (1915-2000) (1958 coiner of the word "software", a coincidence?) (who antagonized Kinsey by singing Gilbert and Sullivan tunes aloud while working) issues its Report on the Jerk Kinsey, which finds his sampling method seriously flawed, since the subjects he selects are always white, middle-class, and college-educated; after Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy attacks the Rockefeller Foundation for funding him, they withdraw funding next year, after which Kinsey's grants dry up.
In Dec. 1953 after raising $8K from 45 investors, incl. $1K from his mother, sexually-starved hetero sexist Chicago failed cartoonist Hugh Hefner (1926-), inspired by the Betty Grable pinups begins pub. Playboy mag. (50 cents) with a Nude Calendar Pinup of Marilyn Monroe (photographed in 1949); the original name for the mag. was "Stag Party"; "What did you have on during the photo session?" - "The radio"; initial run: 70K copies; intial investment: $10K; he got the idea while working on a kids mag.?; he goes on to evolve his hedonistic women-as-sex-objects-with-no-consequences "Playboy Philosophy", and adds interviews with and contributions by prominent writers John Steinbeck, Ray Bradbury, Kurt Vonnegut Jr., Saul Bellow, et al. in an attempt to help readers justify purchases because "they only want to read the articles"; cause or effect, necklines plunge and big mammaries become in among female U.S. entertainers?
In 1953 women in Mexico and Sudan are granted the vote.
In 1954 Italian fashion designer Pierre Cardin (1922-) introduces the Bubble Dress. In 1954 Christian Dior (1905-57) introduces the Flat Look for women - spare me your medical mumbo-jumbo? In 1954 the La Perla line of skimpy women's lingerie, designed by Ada Masotti in Bologna, Italy is introduced, and catches on. In 1954 Chicago ad agency Leo Burnett Worldwide creates the Marlboro Man for heretofore womens-only Marlboro filtered cigarettes after seeing a 1949 Life mag. photo of Clarence Hailey Long (1910-), foreman at the 320K-acre JA Ranch in Tex., and next year the image is introduced nationally, causing sales to leap 3,241% to $5B, becoming #1 in the world by 1972 even after cigarette commercials are banned in the U.S. in 1971.
In 1954 after Am. salesman Gerry Thomas (1922-2005) and Am. bacteriologist Betty Cronin invent TV Dinners to utilize 500K lbs. of unsold Thanksgiving turkeys, copying a food tray used in an airliner and increasing it to three compartments, then figuring out how to make the ingredients cook in unision, their employer C.A. Swanson & Sons of Omaha, Neb., run by Gilbert Swanson and Charles Swanson introduce the first Swanson's TV Dinner, consisting of turkey, cornbread, gravy, buttered peas, and whipped buttered sweet potatoes, all for 98 cents (later as low as 69 cents); 10M are sold the first year; the watery sweet potatoes are soon replaced with regular potatoes; fried chicken with a brownie, and Salisbury steak soon follow; the traditional family dinner is doomed, and homemaker women start getting ideas about going to work?
In 1954 Ernest L. Wydner (1922-99) pub. a paper supporting the theory that male circumcision prevents cervical cancer in women - what causes cancer?
On June 7, 1955 the TV quiz show $64,000 Question, emceed by Hal March (1920-70) and sponsored by Revlon debuts on CBS-TV (ends June 1958); questions are written by prof. Bergen Baldwin Evans (1904-78); a new Cadillac is the consolation prize to those missing the big money question; New York City-born psychologist Dr. Joyce Brothers (1927-) wins in the category of boxing, Barbara Feldon (1933-) for Shakespeare; too bad, the TV quiz show scandal causes it to be cancelled, after which March is out of work for a decade, then dies of lung cancer; Brothers is permitted to be the first-ever woman boxing color commentator for CBS-TV during the match between Sugar Ray Robinson and Carmen Basilio, and in Aug. 1958 becomes the first TV psychologist.
On Oct. 16, 1955 Jewish writer Ann Landers (Esther Pauline Friedman "Eppie" Lederer) (1918-2002) debuts her advice column in the Chicago Sun-Times, telling "Non-Eligible Bachelor", "You're a big boy now... don't let spite ruin your life"; she goes on to pub. the column until her death, becoming known for advocating equal rights for gays while calling it "unnatural" and a "dysfunction", denouncing atheist leader Madalyn Murray O'Hair, and in 1995 saying about Pope John Paul II, "He has a sweet sense of humor. Of course, he's a Polack. They're very anti-women"; when she announces her divorce on July 1, 1975, she gets 30K sympathy letters; meanwhile next year her twin sister Pauline Phillips (Pauline Esther "Popo" Friedman) (1918-) founds the competing advice column Dear Abbey in the San Francisco Chronicle, causing them to refuse to speak to each other until 1964.
In 1955 the Daughters of Bilitis, the first lesbian org. opens in San Francisco, Calif.; homosexual relations between women are illegal in all U.S. states, but they face that problem and lick it in the closet?
"Somewhere in the universe a gear in the machinery had shifted" (Eldridge Cleaver) as Rosa Parks and Martin Luther King Jr. arise to take on whitey in the Deep South, using whitey's network TV to get worldwide pressure on local conditions? On Dec. 1, 1955 (Thur.) (less than 100 days after the Emmett Tills affair) black seamstress (member of the NAACP since 1943) Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (1913-2005), who lives in the Cleveland Courts housing project parks her rosy butt and refuses to move to da back o' da bus in Montgomery, Ala. when it fills up and the bus driver James F. Blake (1912-2002) orders her to stand and let a white man sit; she is arrested at the next stop, charged with the misdemeanor of disobeying a bus driver's instructions, found guilty, and fined $14; her friends and neighbors distribute pamphlets calling for a 1-day boycott of all city transportation, which is a huge success as the 25K blacks in the city account for 75% of the bus passengers; black leaders step in and demand that blacks be treated equal with whites, and black bus drivers be hired; when they refuse, the Montgomery Bus Boycott, led by unknown 26-y.-o. Harvard-educated Dexter Avenue Baptist Church pastor Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-68) begins on Dec. 5, and lasts 381 days, almost bankrupting the city bus co. (ends Dec. 1956); Montgomery Mayor W.A. Gayle and the city commission ceremoniously join the local White Citizens' Council, and Gayle declares "We have pussyfooted around long enough... There seems to be a belief on the part of the Negroes that they have the white people hemmed in a corner and they are not going to give an inch until they can force the white people of the community to submit to their demands"; white families begin giving their cooks and handymen rides or pay their taxi fares, causing Gayle to accuse them of "fighting to destroy our social fabric just as much as the Negro radicals who are leading them"; in 1992 Parks says she didn't do it just because "my feet were hurting and I didn't know why I refused to stand up when they told me... the real reason of my not standing up was I felt that I had a right to be treated as any other passenger. We had endured that kind of treatment for too long". On Feb. 20, 1956 Rosa Parks along with 100 Montgomery, Ala. blacks are indicted for violating a local anti-boycott statute and booked at the police station, resulting in a famous booking photo which people mistake for the Dec. 1, 1955 bus arrest. Alabama's stupidity causes segregation to be dealt a major blow? On Nov. 13, 1956 the U.S. Supreme Court rules that segregation of buses and all public transportation is illegal, bringing the Montgomery Bus Boycott to a victorious end on Dec. 21 when the city of Montgomery actually obeys the law; Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-68), who had been arrested again in Nov. for running a business enterprise without a franchise (organizing a 200-vehicle carpool) is freed, saying, "We have been going to the back of the bus for so long that there is danger that we will instinctively go straight back there again and perpetuate segregation"; "I would be terribly disappointed if any of you go back to the buses bragging, 'We, the Negroes, won a victory over the white people'. If you do, our struggle will be lost all over the South. Go back with humility and meekness"; he then rides the bus himself, paying 15 cents, up 5 cents from the year before, and takes a front seat, at the end commenting, "It was a great ride"; on Dec. 21 a UPI photographer takes a staged picture of Rosa Parks and UPI reporter Nicholas C. Chriss (1928-90) sitting at the front of the bus in downtown Montgomery; the photo is later used as a poster, and people mistakenly believe the reporter is an Alabama segregationist because of the way he looks away from her, and mistakenly believe it was taken during the original incident, which was on an overcrowded bus; MLK Jr. and others take similar staged photos.
On Feb. 19, 1956 elections in Greece (first in which women vote) give PM (since last Oct. 6) Constantine Karamanlis (1907-98) of the Nat. Radical Union a narrow V, and he continues as PM (until June 17, 1963).
In 1957 the U.S. baby boom is at its height; beds rock throughout the country, and 4.3M babies are born this year, and the altar is still the big goal for single women.
In 1957 Ketti Frings (1909-81) debuts Look Homeward, Angel at the Ethel Barrymore Theater in New York City for 564 perf., adapted from the Thomas Wolfe novel, becoming the first woman to win the Pulitzer for Drama (next Beth Henley); named Woman of the Year for 1958 by the Los Angeles Times.
In 1957 Dorothy Irene Height (1912-2010) becomes pres. of the Nat. Council of Negro Women (until 1997), organizing "Wednesdays in Mississippi" to bring together black and white women from the South and North.
In 1957 Tacoma, Wash.-born child psychologist Eleanor Emmens Maccoby (1916-) et al. pub. Patterns of Child Rearing. In 1974 she and Chicago, Ill.-born psychologist Carol Nagy Jacklin (1939-2011) pub. The Psychology of Sex Differences, which becomes a big hit with academia and the gen. public. In 1998 she pub. The Two Sexes: Growing Up Apart, Coming Together.
In July 1958 Lady Stella Reading (1894-1971), founder of the Women's Voluntary Service in WWII becomes the first woman to sit in the British House of Lords, as Baroness Swanborough.
On June 1, 1959 Tunisia proclaims a new 1959 Tunisian Constitution, switching from a parliamentary to a pres. system of govt., with pro-Western Kemal Ataturk pres. (since July 25, 1957) Habib Bourgiba (1903-2000) becoming pres. #1 on July 25 (until Nov. 7, 1987); he goes on to promote education and women's rights, prohibiting polygamy, giving women access to divorce, and raising the age of consent for girls to 17, but prohibits women's rights groups and institutionalizes the role of the father as the head of the family; he also engages in an anti-Semitic program incl. abolishing the Tunisian Jewish community council and destroying Jewish areas and bldgs. for "urban renewal".
On Dec. 30, 1959 Iraq enacts the Personal Status Code, improving the status of women (from zero to one-tenth?); Iraqi feminist Naziha Jawdet Ashgah al-Dulaimi (1923-2007) is appointed minister of municipalities in Iraq, becoming the first Arab deficient human, er, woman to hold a gov. ministerial position; from now on most Arab countries attempt to have a token woman in their cabinet, usually in a HEW-type job? In 1959 the Afghan govt. issues a decree making veiling optional for women, and pretty much bans it among female state employees and female relatives of high govt. officials; meanwhile E Afghanistan is rocked by tribal revolts.
In 1959 Anita Jane Bryant (1940-) wins the Miss Oklahoma title, but is only runner-up in the Miss America contest, which is won by Mary Ann Mobley (1939-) of Miss. (first time for Miss.).
In 1959 as an alternative to FORTRAN, Grace Murray Hopper (1906-92) of the U.S. Navy inflicts, er, invents the gawd-awful COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) computer language for business programming; the first official specs are pub. in Apr. 1960; on Sept. 9, 1947 she discovered a moth stuck in relay #70 panel F in the Mark II Computer at Harvard U., and invented the terms "computer bug" and "debugging"?; the moth ends up in the Smithsonian Inst. Nat. Museum of Am. History; she ends up getting promoted to er, rear adm.
In 1960 over 34% of U.S. women over age 14 are in the workforce (25% in 1940), along with 31% of all married women; 10% of working women are farm hands or servants (50% in 1900).
In the 1960s Second-Wave Feminism begins in the U.S., tackling a broad range of issues incl. sexuality, the family, the workplace, and legal and de facto inequalities, petering out by the mid-1980s after spreading to Europe, Asia, Turkey, and Israel.
On Mar. 6, 1960 Swiss women gain the right to vote in municipal elections.
On July 20, 1960 Mrs. Sirimavo Bandaranaike (1916-2000), widow of slain Sri Lanka Freedom Party leader Solomon Bandaranaike is elected PM of Ceylon (until 1965), taking office on July 21 and becoming the first elected female PM ever.
On Aug. 17, 1960 Gabon gains independence from France, with capital at Libreville, and next Feb. 12 PM (since 1957) Gabriel Leon Mba (M'ba) (1902-67) (pr. UM-bah) becomes pres. #1 of Gabon (until Nov. 28, 1967); women are granted the right to vote.
On Oct. 3, 1960 after blaming high inflation on incumbent (since 1956) Juscelino Kubitschek, Sao Paolo gov. (since 1955) Janio da Silva Quadros (1917-92) is elected pres. #25 of Brazil by a landslide, taking office next Jan. 31 (until Aug. 25, 1961), going on to establish relations with the Soviet Union and Cuba, outlaw gambling, and ban women from wearing bikinis; too bad, his Commie alignment turns off the Nat. Dem. Union, which leaves him powerless, and he doesn't last long.
In 1960 three women are admitted to the ministry of the Swedish Lutheran Church.
In 1960 the working class erotic Playboy Bunny Outfit makes its appearance at Playboy Clubs, featuring bunny ears, collar, cuffs, corset and cottontail, becoming the first service uniform to receive a patent (U.S. patent #762,884); Playboy Bunnies incl. Gloria Steinem (undercover to do research), Lauren Hutton, Sherilyn Fenn, and Debbie Harry.
In 1960 narcissistic Harvard-educated Am. writer Norman Kingsley Mailer (1923-2007), known for drunken fistfights stabs his 2nd wife (since 1954) Adele Morales at a party with a penknife, endearing him to women's libbers not; in 1997 she pub. the memoir The Last Party; meanwhile Norm takes a 3rd stab at marriage (1962-3), British heiress-journalist Lady Jeanne Campbell (1929-2007), granddaughter of newspaper mogul Max Aitken, Lord Beaverbrook (1879-1964), then takes a stab at marriage with model-actress Beverly Bentley (1963), then Carol Stevens (1980) (lasts one day), finally model-writer Barbara Davis (AKA Norris Church) (1980).
In Sept. 1961 Tony Richardson's A Taste of Honey, based on the play by Shelagh Delaney stars what-a-name Rita Tushingham (1942-), as white working class girl Jo, whose slutty alcoholic mother Helen (Dora Bryan) kicks her out, after which she falls in instant love with black sailor Peter Smith (Robert Stephens), gets pregnant, and turns to white homo Geoffrey (Murray Melvin) (who moves in with her, but of course doesn't want her tushy, not because, er, forget it?) for help in becoming a woman; makes a star out of Tushingham, who becomes the icon for white women who like black men - milk, honey, and chocolate on my hammy tushy?
On Nov. 20, 1961 the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules unanimously in Hoyt v. Florida, to uphold a Fla. law exempting women from jury duty unless they volunteer, rejecting the arguments of the attys. of Gwendolyn Holt that an all-male jury is unfair in her trial on charges of killing her hubby with a baseball bat; meanwhile Ala., Miss., and S.C. prohibit women from jury duty, and 18 states allow them to be excused on the basis of gender; the ruling is reversed 8-1 on Jan. 21, 1975 in Taylor v. Louisiana.
In 1961 Pres. Kennedy establishes the President's Commission on the Status of Women, with Eleanor Roosevelt as chmn.; in Oct. 1963 it pub. a report documenting discrimination against women in the workplace, and suggests reforms incl. paid maternity leave and affordable child care.
In 1961 Women Strike for Peace (WSP) is founded to protest U.S. and Soviet atmospheric nuclear tests, with the motto "End the Arms Race, Not the Human Race".
In 1961 Elizabeth Gurley Flynn (1890-1964) succeeds Eugene Dennis as chmn. of the U.S. Communist Party, becoming its first woman chmn.
In 1961 Jack Lippes invents the inert plastic Intrauterine Device (IUD) for birth control, becoming up to 99.9% effective and lasting up to 10 years.
On Sept. 8, 1962 Algeria adopts the new 1962 Algerian Constitution, proclaiming a socialist state devoted to anti-imperialism, with the FLN having a political monopoly as "the revolutionary force of the nation"; women are granted the right to vote.
On Oct. 6, 1962 Terence Young's Dr. No, based on the 1958 novel by Ian Lancaster Fleming (1908-64) is the first James Bond 007 film by EON Productions, owned by partners (until 1974) Albert Romolo "Cubby" Broccoli (1909-96) and Harry Saltzman (1915-94), who met after Broccoli dropped plans to produce "Oscar Wilde" because of potential U.S. censorship for homosexuality; a low-budget film, it features a low-budget but super-cool trademark Looking Down a Gunbarrel Intro., with the ultra-cool James Bond Theme, written by Monty Norman (1928-) (based on his song "Good Sign Bad Sign" for his musical "A House for Mr. Biswas") and arranged by English film composer John Barry (John Barry Prendergast) (1933-2011), and stars Scottish actor Sean Connery (1930-) (after Cary Grant turns it down, believing himself too old) as very straight British Agent 007 James Bond (in his first of six 007 films), whose one-of-a-kind combo of looks, manner, and heft conditions millions of history ignoramuses to accept a brogue-spitting Scot as the everhard English superhero, who insists that his martinis be made with vodka (not gin), shaken (not stirred) (causing the popularity of vodka to begin rising in the U.S.), and who can save the world on command with judo and hi-tech gadgetry, incl. his tricked-up Aston Martin DB5, and who uses women like a cad for guilt-free sex (you provide the birth control pills) with the most sexy suave manner ever seen; the first bikini-clad "Bond girl" Ursula Andress (1936-) (as Honey Rider) rises to stardom with him; Dr. Julius No is played by Joseph Weisman (1906-77); 007's CIA contact Felix Leiter is played by Jack Lord (1920-98), later of "Hawaii Five-O" fame; Bernard Lee (1908-81) plays MI6 head man M; the first choice for 007 was Irish actor Richard Todd (1919-), who had a scheduling conflict; one of the great what-ifs in history is the failure to cast Marilyn Monroe, who dies on Aug. 5 when caught hanging around too long in L.A.?; the only other EON Productions film besides James Bond is Bob Hope's "Call Me Bwana" (1963); after this the 007 productions grow in budget and try to outdo each other with dangerous stunts; in 1966 Broccoli is in Japan scouting locations for another 007 flick when he cancels his ticket to BOAC Flight 911 to see a ninja show, and it crashes from clear air turbulence - the first 9/11 would have to relate to 007, wouldn't it?
On Jan. 8, 1963 the Hawkshsaw, er Shah (since Sept. 16, 1944) Mohammed Shah Pahlavi II (1919-80) of Iran launches the White Rev. (ends 1978), submitting six measures to a nat. referendum, incl. land reform to abolish feudalism, profit-sharing for industrial workers, nationalization of forests and pastureland, and a literacy corps, receiving a 99% yes vote; on Feb. 27 Iran grants the vote to women; this is too much for the true blue Islamic throwbacks, and on June 5 (15 Khordad) Shiite religious leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (1902-89) of Qom is arrested after an anti-shah speech on June 3, triggering three days of violent riots and a state of siege proclaimed by the govt., killing 400, later known as the Movement (Uprising) of 15 Khordad; Khomeini is kept under house arrest for 8 mo., released, then rearrested in Nov. 1964 after he gives another anti-shah speech on Oct. 26, 1964 for granting diplomatic immunity to U.S. military personnel in Iran, then held another 6 mo., and brought before PM Hassan Ali Mansur (1923-), who tries to reason with him and ends up slapping his face, causing Khomeini's followers to assassinate him two weeks later on Jan. 27, 1965, after which the shah makes his big mistake, exiling him to Turkey rather than executing him; meanwhile Savak dir. (since 1961) Gen. Hassan Pakravan (1911-79), who held weekly luncheons with Khomeini and saved his life by talking the shah into letting him be made an ayatollah is sacked for failing to prevent the assassination, and Gen. Nematollah Nassiri (1911-79) (who personally delivered the arrest warrant to PM Mohammed Mossadegh in 1953) becomes the new dir. (until 1978) - the long and winding road will bring me back to your door?
In Jan. 1963 after separating from her poet hubby Ted Hughes, Boston, Mass.-born poet Sylvia Plath (1932-63) pub. The Bell Jar under the alias Victoria Lucas; an ever-depressed novelist writes a semi-autobio. work about her breakdown and suicide attempt, becoming the first Am. feminist novel?; "It was a queer, sultry summer, the summer they electrocuted the Rosenbergs, and I didn't know what I was doing in New York" (first sentence); the 50th anniv. ed. features a controversial sexist cover.
On May 8, 1963 women protest in Washington, D.C. against nuclear testing. On June 10 the U.S. Equal Pay Act is passed, making it illegal to pay a woman less than a man for the same job; the wage gap (# of cents less a woman earns for every dollar a man earns) this year is 42 cents, and by 2004 it decreases to 26 cents (half-cent a year); too bad, it is 32 cents for black women and 43 cents for Hispanic women in 2004.
On June 16-19, 1963 Soviet cosmonaut (amateur parachutist) Lt. Valentina Tereshkova (1937-) becomes the first woman in space aboard Vostok VI, orbiting 48x in 78 hours, more than double U.S. astronaut Gordon Cooper's total (22); weeks later Khrushchev attends her wedding; she is also the first non-test pilot to orbit.
On Aug. 28, 1963 the Great March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, organized by Bayard Rustin (1912-87) sees Martin Luther King Jr. deliver his I Have a Dream Speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial to 200K while NBC-TV preempts daytime programming to provide live coverage; MLK Jr. calls the U.S. Constitution and Declaration of Independence "a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir"; white actors Marlon Brando, James Garner, and Burt Lancaster attend, along with black actors Sidney Poitier and Harry Belafonte; longtime civil rights leader ("Godmother of the Civil Rights Movement") Dorothy Irene Height (1912-2010) stands on the platform with King during the speech, later saying she is disappointed that he didn't mention women's rights; folk trio Peter, Paul and Mary sing If I Had a Hammer, and Mary has an "apotheosis"; good friend Sammy Davis Jr. stands in front of the podium.
In 1963 Betty Friedan (1921-2006) pub. The Feminine Mystique, about "the problem that has no name" (the illusion that women find personal fulfillment as mothers and wives?), which can be solved by women leaving the home and going into the workforce; "Pulled the trigger on history" (Alvin Toffler); it goes into paperback next year and sells 3M copies in 18 languages, sparking a social rev. - after all, look at Marilyn Monroe? In 1981 she pub. The Second Stage, which becomes the bible of the postfeminist era, about the feminist mystique of the superwoman with a career, marriage, and children; disses radical feminists for their anti-male anti-family orientation.
In 1963 Austrian-born Gerda Lerner (1920-2013) t eaches the world's first women's history course at the New School for Social Research in New York City; after obtaining her Ph.D. from Columbia U., she founds the women's studies program at Sarah Lawrence College in Bronxville, N.Y., which in 1974 becomes the first to offer a graduate degree in women's history.
On June 19, 1964 the 1964 U.S. Civil Rights Act is approved by the U.S. Senate by 73-27, protecting constitutional rights for blacks in public facilities and public education and prohibiting discrimination in federally-funded programs by citing the commerce clause of the U.S. Constitution; on July 2 Pres. Johnson (an arch-enemy of the Ku Klux Klan) eagerly signs it; Title VII bars discrimination in employment on the basis of "race, color, religion, sex or national origin", and establishes the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to take complaints, investigate, and impose penalties; U.S. rep. (D-Mich.) (1955-74) Martha Wright Griffiths (1912-2003) led the effort to keep the word "sex" in the bill.
On June 7, 1965 the U.S. Supreme (Warren) Court rules 7-2 in Griswold v. Connecticut that the 1879 Conn. Comstock law prohibiting the sale of contraceptives to married couples is unconstitutional because of a right to privacy; "Specific guarantees in the Bill of Rights have penumbras, formed by emanations from those guarantees that help give them life and substance (William O. Douglas); "The right of freedom of speech and press includes not only the right to utter or to print, but the right to distribute, the right to receive, the right to read... and freedom of inquiry, freedom of thought, and freedom to teach"; JFK apointee Byron White votes with the majority, but doesn't go along with the existence of a Constitutional right of privacy, which is later used to legalize unmarried sex in Eisenstadt v. Baird (1972), abortion in Roe v. Wade (1973), and gay sex in Lawrence v. Texas (2003); Hugo Black also dissents after failing to agree on a right of privacy in the Constitution, with the soundbyte: "It belittles that [4th] Amendment to talk about it as though it protects nothing but 'privacy'... 'Privacy' is a broad, abstract, and ambiguous concept... The constitutional right of privacy is not found in the Constitution."
On Jan. 4-10, 1966 Indian PM Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistani pres. Ayub Khan meet in Moscow under the auspices of Soviet PM Alexei Kosygin, and on Jan. 10 sign the Tashkent Agreement over Kashmir in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, agreeing to withdraw troops to the Aug. 1965 lines and restore diplomatic relations, and promising a peaceful discussion of the problems without specifics; too bad, India fails to renounce guerrilla warfare; on Jan. 11 Shastri dies of a heart attack in Tashkent, and on Jan. 19 Mrs. Indira Gandhi (1917-84), daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru is elected PM and head of the Congress Party (first female) (until 1977) - go girl, you should write a book?
On June 30, 1966 at the instigation of federal worker Catherine S. East (1916-96), feminist rabble-rouser Betty Friedan (1921-2006), black female episcopal priest Anna Pauline "Pauli" Murray (1910-85) and 26 other mainly women found the Nat. Org. for Women (NOW) in Washington, D.C. to end sexual discrimination by lobbying, litigation, and demonstrations, growing to 500K members and 500+ chapters by the end of the cent.; next year it holds its first nat. conference in Washington, D.C., adopting a bill of rights calling for a constitutional amendment giving women equal rights et al. - is that East or Yeast?
On Aug. 10, 1966 450 women of the Internat. Ladies Garment Workers' Union walk out of the Levi Strauss jeans factory in Blue Ridge, Ga., causing Levi to hire scabs, after which the union organizes a boycott of their jeans, holding a "burn-in" in Atlanta on Aug. 12, 1967, which spreads nationwide; too bad, the strike ends on Sept. 13 after 56 weeks when the union contract expires and the scabs decertify the union, becoming a V for Levi; their worldwide sales this year are $152M, double three years ago.
On Oct. 3, 1966 Tunisia severs diplomatic relations with the UAR (Egypt); meanwhile pro-Western pres. #1 (since July 25, 1957) Habib Bourguiba (1903-2000), the Kemal Ataturk of North Africa, who has already raised the min. marriage age for women from 16 to 17 and for men from 18 to 20, and outlawed polygamy, legalizes abortion and establishes family planning clinics, influencing religious leaders to reinterpret the Quran to make it okay; by the end of the cent. the birthrate plunges from 7.2 to 2.1 per thousand, and its economy outstrips its Egyptian, er, overpopulated neighbors; meanwhile, lovely atheist Romania outlaws abortion after finding that there are 4x as many abortions as live births (which doesn't stop women from doing it anyway?), and Tex.-born black Manhattan, N.Y. borough pres. Percy Ellis Sutton (1920-2009) (former atty. of Malcolm X) calls on state legislators to repeal N.Y.'s 19th cent. anti-abortion law.
In 1966 the Committee for the Defense of the Vietnamese Woman's Human Dignity and Rights is founded in Saigon by women educators to protest the military "comfort women" brothels set up by the U.S. at Pleiku, Lai Khei, and other camps, with the soundbyte "The miserable conditions of war have forced our people to sell everything - their wives, children, relatives and friends - for the American dollar."
In 1966 the U.S. FDA releases a Report on the Pill, finding "no adequate scientific data at this time proving these compounds unsafe for human use"; too bad, most U.S. women are still leery of using oral contraceptives because of side effects, while France and other Catholic countries still prefer onanism, i.e., coitus inerruptus, although when Onan did it in the Bible, God killed him (Gen. 38:8-10)?
In 1966 Billie Jean King (1943-) of the U.S. wins the women's singles title, first of three in a row.
In 1966 actress-turned-writer Jacqueline Susann (1918-74) pub. Valley of the Dolls, a bestseller about a set of glamorous women laced with sex and profanity incl. an explicit description of breast cancer.
On Feb. 15, 1967 2.5K women organized by Women Strike for Peace (WSP) (founded 1961) storm defense secy. Robert Strange McNamara's office at the Pentagon demanding to see "the generals who send our sons to die".
On Mar. 8, 1967 a meeting of the Algerian Rev. Council sees Algerian women walk out after being told they already have enough rights and don't need to fight any further; the avg. marriage age rises from 18 this year to 31 in 2008.
On Apr. 19, 1967 Katherine Switzer (1947-) (#261) of Syracuse, N.Y. becomes the first female to enter the Boston Marathon after listing her name as "K. Switzer" on the entry form, pissing-off race official John Duncan "Jock" Semple (1904-88), who tries to forcibly boot her out of the race at the 4 mi. mark but is blocked by her male companion Thomas Miller, after which she goes on to finish in 4 hours 20 min. despite being disqualified by Semple; she goes on to win the 1974 New York City Marathon and improve her time in the Boston Marthon to 2 hours 51 min. in 1975 after women are admitted in 1972, overturning an AAU ruling that women competing in the same events with men lose their rights to compete everywhere.
On Nov. 7, 1967 the U.N. Gen. Assembly adopts the Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, declaring discrimination against women "fundamentally unjust and constitutes an offence against human dignity", calling for abolition of discriminatory laws and customs, becoming a precursor to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
On Dec. 17, 1967 Australian PM (since 1966) Harold Edward Holt (b. 1908) goes swimming in heavy seas at Cheviot Beach, Victoria off Portsea and is never seen again; Sir John "Black Jack" McEwen (1900-80) serves as interim PM #18 for 22 days (until Jan. 10, 1968); meanwhile aborigine women are finally given their rights incl. the vote, and Dorothy Ada Goble (1910-90) becomes the first woman MP elected in Australia since 1947.
In 1967 John Hopkins U. gynecologist Hugh J. Davis (1927-) invents the round bug with one large eye and legs on each side Dalkon Shield intrauterine device (IUD), selling the rights on June 12, 1970 to A.H. Robins Inc. (founded 1896) (who acquired Chap-Stick in 1963), who begin marketing it in Jan. 1971, selling 4M-5M by the time they withdraw it in June 1974 under FDA pressure, its tendency to "wick" causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) along with an outbreak of miscarriages, birth defects, and maternal deaths, leading to numerous lawsuits and millions of dollars in damage awards, bankrupting Robins, who sell out to Am. Home Products Corp. in 1989, the bad publicity killing copper IUDs also, although they were never proved dangerous; actually it was only the large size version of the Dalkon Shield for women who had given birth that had problems, and if the shark lawyers hadn't gone for the green, it coulda survived? - don't mess with Mother Nature jokes here? In 1967 Mammography is introduced for detecting breast cancer.
In 1967 Donald Bain (1935-), later known for the "Murder, She Wrote" series anon. pub. Coffee, Tea, or Me?; "The uninhibited memoirs of two airline stewardesses"; the alleged memoirs of lusty young stewardesses Trudy Baker and Rachel Jones, whom he cooks up while working in public relations for Am. Airlines, after which the airline hires two stewardesses to poses as the authors for book tours and TV appearances; spawns the sequels "The Coffee Tea or me Girls' Round-the-World Diary" (1970), "The Coffee Tea or Me Girls Lay It on the Line" (1972), and "The Coffee Tea or Me Girls Get Away From It All" (1974).
In 1967 English zoologist Desmond Morris (1928-) pub. The Naked Ape, which claims that the female orgasm evolved to increase pair-bonding, and that human women have big bazooms to look like an ass to the male during the missionary position.
In 1967 Sue Kaufman (1926-77) pub. Diary of a Mad Housewife, in which Manhattan housewife Bettina Balser experiences feminist stirrings; too bad, it's not feminist enough for some feminists, causing her to utter the soundbyte that she's tired of "having my work held up against a yardstick, measuring whether I am or am not writing about women's issues."
On Jan. 18, 1968 black entertainer Eartha Kitt (1927-2008) links the high U.S. crime rate to the escalation of the Vietnam War at a White House luncheon given by Lady Bird Johnson for about 50 white and black women to discuss urban crime, with the soundbyte "You send the best of this country off to be shot and maimed, and they rebel in the street."
On Sept. 7, 1968 the Miss America 1969 (42nd) Pageant at Boardwalk Hall in Atlantic City, N.J. features the No More Miss America Protest, attended by 400 feminists and more civil right activists, bringing mucho publicity, incl. an erroneous reference to bra-burning, turning it into a symbol of feminism; the Miss America winner is lily white blonde-blue Miss Ill. Judith Anne Ford (1949-); the same day New York Radical Women, founded by former child TV actress (Dagmar Hansen in "Mama") Robin Morgan (1941-) (founding member of the Yippies), Shulamith "Shulie" Firestone (1945-) et al. begin protesting the Miss America Beauty Pageant in Atlantic City, N.J., succeeding in getting the term "bra-burning feminist" added to the lexicon, even though all they did was throw them into a "freedom trash can"?; on Sept. 8 19-y.-o. 5'4" Sandra (Saundra) Williams (1949-) from Philadelphia becomes the first Black Miss America in a pageant held at the Ritz Carlton Hotel at the same time and city as the other one; "With my title, I can show black women that they, too, are beautiful"; meanwhile Socialist feminists Morgan et al. found W.I.T.C.H. (Women's Internat. Terrorist Conspiracy from Hell), which holds public "hexes" or "zaps" to diss sexism, starting in Dec. with HUAC and the Chicago Eight, which she claims makes the anti-war movement look like a pet project for males only; she soon splits from the male left completely, pub. the famous 1970 essay Goodbye to All That, then editing the 1970 anthology Sisterhood is Powerful, which becomes the radical feminist Bible; too bad, by next year the feminists also split with each other into a Socialist ("politico") faction around Morgan, and a radical faction around Firestone - Robin Hood and Her Merry Man-Haters?
On Oct. 30, 1968 Anthony Harvey's The Lion in Winter, based on James Goldman's play debuts, with a score by John Barry, starring Peter O'Toole as Henry II (1133-89) and Katharine Hepburn as his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204) duking it out in a castle in Christmas, 1183; Anthony Hopkins (his film debut) plays their son Richard I Lionheart, and Nigel Terry plays their other son John; Timothy Dalton (his film debut) plays scheming 18-y.-o. French king Philip II Augustus (1165-1223); Hopkins is thrown from a horse and breaks his arm, halting production for three weeks; Hepburn dazzles women with women's libber lines incl. "I rode bare-breasted halfway to Damascus. I damn near died of wind burn, but the troops were dazzled", and "I'd hang you from the nipples, but you'd shock the children."
A great year to be a fashion designer? In 1968 Ralph Lauren is founded by New York City fashion designer Ralph Lauren (1939-), producing the "old money" and "old West" Polo brand; Calvin Klein (1942-) of New York City displays his first collection, preferring functional simplicity; Anne Klein & Co. is founded by Anne Klein (1923-74) and her 2nd hubby Matthew "Chip" Rubenstein, making a girdle to be worn under miniskirts; spring fashions bring the midi (midcalf) skirt; late in the year the maxi (just above the ankle) becomes in, and by the end of the year women finally can wear their skirts at any length desired; the film "Bonnie and Clyde" causes a nostalgia for 1930s looks; the "rich hippie look" apes young people going to thrift shops scavaging for colorful items with lavish furs, jewels, Pocahontas dresses, Indian headbands, Navajo scarfs, guru, gaucho, and harem pants, guru meditation shirts, and plenty of vests - now you really have to look twice to tell the gender?
In 1968 Arthur Ashe becomes the first African-Am. to win the U.S. Open men's singles tennis title at Forest Hills, N.Y.; Margaret Court Smith wins the women's singles title; Ashe also wins his first U.S. Open men's singles, while Sarah Virginia "Ginny" Wade (1945-) of Britain wins the women's singles title; perhaps taking advantage of slim Virginia Wade winning the U.S. Open, Philip Morris introduces Virginia Slims brand cigarettes for women in 1968, with the slogan "You've come a long way, baby", and the message that smoking keeps your weight down and tennis is a spectator sport?; meanwhile the avg. smoker puffs down 205 packs a year (571.1B cigs total). Meanwhile in Apr. 1968 British researchers report that oral contraceptives can cause blood clots in susceptible women.
In 1968 Paulo Freire (1921-97) pub. Pedagogy of the Oppressed, a Marxist analysis of education in Brazil; Eng. trans. 1970; bestseller (700K copies); claims that traditional pedagogy is the "banking model", treating students as piggy banks to fill with knowledge, destroying their creativity; "No pedagogy which is truly liberating can remain distant from the oppressed by treating them as unfortunates and by presenting for their emulation models from among the oppressors. The oppressed must be their own example in the struggle for their redemption"; "Education makes sense because women and men learn that through learning they can make and remake themselves, because women and men are able to take responsibility for themselves as beings capable of knowing - of knowing that they know and knowing that they don't."
In 1968 Jacquetta Hawkes (1910-96) pub. Dawn of the Gods: Minoan and Mycenean Origins of Freece, which suggests that the ancient Minoans might have been ruled by women - time wounds all heels?
In 1968 Kate Millett (1934-) pub. Sexual Politics, which is dedicated to her hubby, Japanese sculptor Fumio Yoshimura, although she goes both ways; it disses Norman Mailer (1923-2007), Henry Miller (1891-1980), and D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930), along with all patriarchy in Western society, and calls for a sexual rev. to "bring the institution of patriarchy to an end", with the soundbyte "Our society, like all other historical societies, is a patriarchy. The fact is evident at once if one recalls that the military, industry, technology, universities, science, political office, and finance — in short, every avenue of power within the society, including the coercive force of the police, is entirely in male hands"; big hit with women's libbers, Time mag. calling her "the Mao Tse-tung of Women's Liberation", causing her to make $30K in royalties, which she uses to found the Women's Ant, er, Art Colony Farm in Poughkeepsie, N.Y.; too bad, her book is later dissed for its authoritarian attitude and factual errors, with Camille Anna Paglia (1947-) dissing her "repressive, Stalinist style in feminist criticism... Her condescending, destructive, bitterly anti-male method of approaching art was adopted as dogma by the women's studies programs as they sprang up everywhere in the 1970s and became insular fiefdoms intolerant of dissent." In 1971 Norman Mailer (1923-2007) pub. The Prisoner of Sex in the Mar. issue of Harper's mag. as his anti-women's lib reply to Kate Millett's 1968 "Sexual Politics", calling her "the Battling Annie of some new prudery" and a "literary Molotov", and tasking feminism for the "dull assumption that the sexual force for a man was the luck of his birth, rather than his finest moral product", and accusing it of being "artfully designed to advance the fortunes of the oncoming technology of the state"; "Well, it could be said for Kate that she was nothing if not a pug-nosed wit, and that was good, since in literary matters she had not much else"; becomes the highest-selling issue in the mag.'s history, which doesn't stop them from firing editor Willie Morris for the offensive language he allowed through; too bad, Millett is outed as a lesbian, causing the women's movement to turn on her, and the gay movement to diss her for not coming out sonner, causing her to utter the soundbyte "Never queer enough for the fanatic... confused with straight people." In 1974 she pub. Flying, about her conflicted sexual life of swinging both ways after a Catholic upbringing, causing her to slowly go bonkers and want out of the feminist movement; how feminism and lesbianism compare with Maoism.
In 1968 Sherwood Washburn (1911-2000) and Chet Lancaster pub. Man the Hunter, claiming that hunting caused the evolution of large brains and social communications skills; "In a very real sense our intellect, interests, emotions, and basic social life - all are evolutionary products of the success of the hunting adaptation"; sounds good, but too bad, they forget about human women, causing a backlash by female anthropologists, who pick the book apart, causing it to become a cause celebre, and the book to become an embarrassment?
In 1968 Tammy Wynette (1942-98) releases album #3 Take Me to Your World/ I Don't Wanna Play House, which incl. Stand By Your Man, written in 15 min. with Billy Sherrill, becoming a big hit with country fans, but pissing-off feminists bigtime, making her more popular?; meanwhile she marries 3rd hubby George Jones next year, and stands by him until 1975.
In 1969 the U.S. economy employs a record number of workers, with the lowest unemployment in 15 years, a prime interest rate of 7%, a strong dollar, and a Dow Jones Industrial Avg. rising above 1K for the first time; meanwhile Italy's "economic miracle" postwar recovery grinds to a stop as the trade union movement finally wins major pay raises without productivity increases; 43% of U.S. women over age 16 and 41% of all married women are in the labor force, up from 34% and 31% in 1960. This year 7.5K women file sex discrimination charges with the U.S. EEOC under Title VII, causing the U.S. Justice dept. to file its first-ever sex discrimination suit against Libby-Owens and its AFL-CIO union United Glass and Ceramic Workers of North Am., which is settled in the women's favor next year.
On Feb. 26, 1969 Israeli PM (since 1963) Levi Eshkol (b. 1895) dies from a heart attack in Jerusalem, and deputy PM Yigal Allon (1918-80) heads an interim govt.; on Mar. 17 ex-Milwaukee, Wisc. schoolteacher, labor minister, and foreign minister (1956-66) Golda Meir (1898-1978) of the Labor Party becomes the world's 2nd female PM and 1st female PM of Israel when she is appointed on an interim basis as Israeli PM #4 (until 1974); too bad, the ultra-orthodox Agudat Israel Party, which does not allow its men to "look at strange women" stirs up trouble, and her party only controls 63 of 120 Knesset seats, limiting her freedom to negotiate with the Arabs; on Oct. 28 her party loses five seats to the ultra-nationalistic Gahal Party, forcing her to form a coalition govt., which wins a 90-10 vote of confidence in mid-Dec.
On Mar. 9, 1969 women at Barnard College in N.Y. stage a "sleep-in", moving into dorm rooms vacated by male Columbia students in a bid to integrate the dorms, claiming it's more natural - than the lez thang?
On June 18-22, 1969 after reaching a membership of 100K, the Nat. Convention of the Students for a Dem. Society (SDS) in Chicago, Ill. collapses, and the Weatherman faction seizes control of the SDS nat. office, changing their name to Weather Underground Org. (WUO), from the Bob Dylan song Subterranean Homesick Blues ("You don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows"), going on to bomb eight govt. and corp. office bldgs. in New York City this year to protest the Vietnam War., incl. Grace Pear on July 27, Marine Midland Bldg. on Aug. 20 (19 inuries), Federal Place Office Bldg. (Sept. 19), Army Induction Center on Whitehall St. (Oct. 7), Standard Oil offices in the RCA Bldg. (Nov. 11), Chase Manhattan Bank (Nov. 11), Gen. Motors Bldg. (Nov. 11), New York City Criminal Courts Bldg. (Nov. 12); on Nov. 12 leader Samuel Joseph "Sam" Melville (Grossman) (1934-71), his Swarthmore College-educated babe (who never joined the Weather Underground?) Jane Lauren Alpert (1947-), and two others (George Demmerle, Dave Hughley) are arrested; Melville dies in the 1971 Attica Prison riots, and Alpert skips bail in May 1970, turning herself in on Nov. 17, 1974 and receiving 27 mo. in prison after deciding to become a feminist instead, uttering the soundbyte: ' "For now, I only want to set the scene of my renewed acquaintance with the Weather Underground by saying that when it occurred, I was decisively through with the left and had, at least mentally, rededicated myself to the cause of a revolution made by and for women."
In Sept. 1969 the Second Report on Oral Contraceptives is released by the FDA Advisory Committee on Obstetrics and Gynecology, concluding that side effects will produce fatalities in only about 255 of 8.5M U.S. women now on the Pill, and that benefits outweigh risks - because I never give in unless I'm falling in love?
In Sept. 1969 Robert "Bob" Guccione (1930-) begins U.S. pub. of Penthouse mag. (founded in London in Mar. 1965), which outdoes Playboy in eschewing the use of an airbrush to eliminate pubic hair from nude photos, causing newsstand sales to overtake Playboy in 1975 - it's right on my leg, I'm still like a rat in a cage?
In Nov. 1969 the Nat. Council of Churches holds its annual convention, and a caucus presents an angry statement accusing it of maintaining "anachronistic attitudes toward women" after Cincinnati-born activist Betty Bone Schiess (1923-), who wants to be a minister receives support from the Diocese of Central New York, and its leaders present a resolution which says "All that is required to do so is the addition of the feminine pronoun to the canon on ordination."
In 1969 the Nat. Women's Hall of Fame in Seneca Falls, N.Y. is founded. In 1969 ex-Playboy Bunny Gloria Steinem becomes an activist in the women's movement - to get even with whom? In 1969 in France at the Folies Bergere in Paris (founded 1869) women perform totally nude on stage for the first time in the modern Western world - hi, I'm Orville Redenbacher, try mine buttered? In 1969 women are finally allowed to wear pants suits on the U.S. House floor; on July 28, 2016 Hillary Clinton wears a neutral white pants suit to give her Dem. pres. nomination acceptance speech.
In 1969 Am. playwright Lillian Hellman (1905-84) pub. the autobio. An Unfinished Woman, which contains the soundbyte: "By the time I grew up, the fight for the emancipation of woman, their rights under the law, in the office, in bed, was stale stuff"; embraced by the women's movement until some begin questioning her veracity?
In 1969 the Assoc. for Women in Psychology (AWP) is founded, with Joann Evansgardner (1925-2010) as pres. #1; in 1970 members Phyllis Chesler (1940-) and Nancy M. Henley hijack an APA meeting to demand $1M in reparations for the damage that psychology has perpetrated against women.
In 1970 the Nineteenth (19th) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 203,302,031 in a land area of 3,540,023 (57.4 per sq. mi.) (the 4th time that the U.S. land area is less than in a prior census); white pop. is 87.6%, and the Census now categorizes people as "White, Negro or Black, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, American Indian, Hawaiian, Korean and other"; the ratio of men to women is 94.8%, lowest ever. In 1970 Japanese women make 53.9% as much as men, French women 86.7%, Australian women 80.1%, Danish women 77%, West German women 69.9%, Swiss women 63.3%, British women 60.7%; in the U.S. women make a median of $5,323 per year, vs. $8,966 for men (59.4% as much as men, vs. 63.9% in 1955), and represent 7% of the doctors and 3% of the lawyers; Good Housekeeping's "Ten Most Admired Women" are identified only by their husbands' names; meanwhile in Feb. radical lesbian Eata, er, Rita Mae Brown (1944-) ( lover of Martina Navratilova and Fannie Flagg) resigns from NOW after Betty Friedan makes remarks in 1969 that the org. wants to distance itself from lesbianism, which she calls the "lavender menace", and forms the you-guessed-it Lavender Menace to protest at the Second Congress to Unite Women in New York City on May 1, where they present the er, position paper The Woman-Identified Woman, claiming that they'd like to eat, er, "The primacy of women relating to women, of women creating a new consciousness of and with each other.. is at the heart of women's liberation, and the basis for the cultural revolution", and that support for lezzies is "absolutely essential to the success and fulfillment of the women's liberation movement."
On Mar. 3, 1970 the Ladies Home Journal Protest sees 100 NOW women stage a sit-in in the ed. offices to protest its portrayal of women, causing them to pub. a special supplement in Aug.
The YMCA/YWCA gets jets? On Apr. 13-18, 1970 2.5K delegates attend the 25th 25th YWCA Triennial Nat. Convention in Houston, Tex., voting to make the elimination of racism its top goal, and passing resolutions calling for the abolition of nukes, a clean environment, a change in society's expectations for women, and the involvement of youth in leadership and decision-making; on May 22 the YMCA Nat. Council holds its annual meeting in Pittsburgh, Penn., and elects its first black pres., Donald Milford Payne (1934-) of Newark, N.J. (in 1989 he becomes the first black N.J. congressman); the Canadian and U.S. YMCA had earlier agreed to begin administering internat. programs separately after 80 years of joint sponsorship.
On Apr. 23, 1970 women receive the right to vote in adorable Andorra (pop. 47K), the only dual principality in Europe, whose princedom has been shared since 1278 by the pres. of France and the bishop of Urgell, and which enjoys the longest life expectancy on Earth.
On June 11, 1970 women receive degrees along with men at Harvard U. for the 1st time; Helen Homans Gilbert (1913-89) bcomes the first woman overseer of Harvard U., followed by pres. of the board of overseers in 1975-6.
On July 1, 1970 the N.Y. Abortion Law, the most liberal in the U.S. goes into effect, setting a limit of 24 weeks after gestation for physician-assisted abortions, allegedly to stop coat-hanger abortions; 1.2K women line up to commit infanticide, er, get one; meanwhile in Jan. Santa Ana, Calif. judge Paul G. Mast rules that a woman has a constitutional right to not bear children, and dismisses abortion charges against physician R.C. Robb.
On Aug. 10, 1970 after NOW files suit in district court, and New York City mayor John Lindsay signs a bill prohibiting sexual discrimination in public places, feminists liberate 116-y.-o. males-only McSorley's Bar (founded 1854) at the Biltmore Hotel, and leather shop owner Barbara Schaum (1929-) becomes its first woman patron - hold the onions?
Here they come, walking down the street, not a skirt or bra among them, only shirts, pants and feet? They may be a little late, but the 1970s is gonna feel their wrath? On Aug. 26, 1970 (5:00 p.m.) the Women's Strike for Equality on the 50th anniv. of the 19th Amendment is held in New York City, with tens of thousands of women led by Am. feminists Gloria Steinem (1934-), Betty Friedan (1921-2006), Bella Savitsky Abzug (1920-98), and Katherine Murray "Kate" Millett (1934-) (sans open lezzies, although Millett is still a closet one and that's OK) marching down Fifth Ave.; Friedan utters the soundbyte "Man is not the enemy; man is a fellow victim"; meanwhile in July mainly-Jewish Dems. Friedan, Steinem, Abzug, Shirley Anita St. Hill Chisholm (1924-2005) (Baptist), Letty Cottin Pogrebin (1939-) et al. form the Nat. Women's Political Caucus, with the motto "A woman's place is in the House" (of Reps.), working for reproductive freedom, affordable child care, and passage of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA); co-founder Fannie Lou Hamer (1917-77) (a black activist from Miss.) utters the soundbyte: "I got a black husband, six feet three, 240 pounds, with a 14 shoe, that I don't want to be liberated from. We are here to work side by side with this black man in trying to bring liberation to all people."
On Sept. 12-17, 1970 the World Congress on the Future of the Church in Brussels, Belgium is attended by 700 "far out" theologians, and ends up recommending democratization and decentralization of the Roman Catholic Church, plus a greater role for women; meanwhile on Sept. 27 Pope Paul VI declares St. Teresa of Avila (1515-82) the first woman doctor of the Church, followed on Oct. 4 by St. Catherine of Siena (1347-80), then on Oct. 12 sends a message to a convention of Catholic physicians, declaring legal abortion the equivalent of infanticide, and calling for "absolute respect for man from the first moment of his conception to his last breath of life" - what role? What democracy? Humanae vitae was just 2 years ago, remember?
In 1970 Margaret Court Smith (1942-), "the Arm" of Australia wins the grand slam of tennis; meanwhile on Sept. 23 the first Virginia Slims Tennis Tournament is held in Houston, Tex., sponsored by Philip Morris, with $7.5K in prize money, becoming the first women's prof. tennis tournament and leading to the formation of the cough-cough Women's Tennis Assoc. in 1973; the tournaments are picketed by anti-smoking groups carrying signs reading "Emphysema Slims"; the first Virginia Slims Internat. Tennis Tournament is held in Moscow on Aug. 10, 1989.
In 1970 Bowdoin College in Maine begins admitting women. In 1970 Essence for black women begins pub. in New York City, with a circ. of 50K, growing to 1M by 1994. In 1970 the Feminist Press is founded by Florence Howe (1929-) to reprint books by feminist writers. In 1970 for the first time U.S. women balk at the dictates of the fashion industry, refusing to buy the new midiskirt; meanwhile Dupont's patent on polyester expires, allowing competitors to produce it, and polyester wins 41% of the U.S. fabric market vs. 40% for cotton; in 1960 manmade fabrics only had 28% of the market, and now have 56%.
In 1970 Germaine Greer (1939-) pub. The Female Eunuch, an internat. bestseller about the long history of oppression of women; "I'm sick of pretending that some fatuous male's self-important pronouncements are the objects of my undivided attention."
In 1970 William Howell Masters (1915-2001) and Virginia Eshelman Johnson (1925-) pub. Human Sexual Inadequacy, sequel to "Human Sexual Response" (1966), disputing the concept of vaginal orgasm, claiming it's all in the clitoris, and that orgasms from lesbian, er, dildoes, er, masturbation are more intense than from heterosexual intercourse, plus, unlike male organs, women can have multiple orgasms in rapid succession - I just won the Big O lotto?
In 1970 Robin Morgan (1941-) pub. Goodbye to All That, in which a radical Am. feminist completely splits with leftist males; "Let's run it down. White males are most responsible for the destruction of human life and environment on the planet today. Yet who is controlling the supposed revolution to change all that? White males (yes, yes, even with their pasty fingers back in black and brown pies again). It just could make one a bit uneasy. It seems obvious that a legitimate revolution must be led by, made by those who have been most oppressed: black, brown, and white women - with men relating to that as best they can. A genuine Left doesn't consider anyone's suffering irrelevant, or titillating; nor does it function as a microcosm of capitalist economy, with men competing for power and status at the top, and women doing all the work at the bottom (and functioning as objectified prizes or 'coin' as well). Goodbye to all that"; in 2008 she updates it to back the pres. bid of Hillary Clinton. In 1970 she is the editor of Sisterhood is Powerful: An Anthology of Writing from the Women's Liberation Movement, which becomes the radical feminist Bible; the cover features a clenched fist inside the universal symbol for female - the female Robin Hoods?
In 1970 Brooklyn, N.Y.-born U. of Iowa feminist intellectual historian Linda Kaufman Kerber (1940-) pub. her first book Federalists in Dissent: Imagery and Ideology in Jeffersonian America, followed by Women's America: Refocusing the Past (w/Jane Sherron De Hart) (1995), U.S. History as Women's History: New Feminist Essays (w/Alice Kessler-Harris and Kathryn Kish Sklar) (1995), Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (1997), viewing the Am. Rev. through the eyes of women, showing how they were limited to "Republican Motherhood" by nurturing husbands and sons for the republic, after which they had to fight for their remaining rights for cents., Toward an Intellectual History of Women: Essays by Linda K. Kerber (1997), and No Constitutional Right to be Ladies: Women and the Obligations of Citizenship (1998).
In the 1970s Communist Paradise East Germany begins pumping their female Olympic athletes with anabolic steroids with or without their knowledge in a misguided attempt to divert attention from their lousy economy and misery caused by lack of personal freedom, taking advantage of the backwardness of testing technology to avoid getting caught; too bad, the steroids ruin the women's reproductive organs and cause liver, heart and other damage, making them into physical wrecks after their sports years; female shot putter Heidi Krieger (1966-) becomes so masculinized that she undergoes sex change therapy in 1997, changing her name to Andreas; the Stasi covers it up until the fall of the Berlin Wall, when extensive files covering 10K athletes are discovered; in 2000 former East German sports program dir. Manfred Ewald (1926-2006) and medical dir. Manfred Hoeppner are convicted of accessory to intentional bodily harm of athletes; only Hoeppner apologizes.
In the 1970s scientists first begin extensive studies of bonobos in Africa, discovering that females dominate society and are totally promiscuous, using sex to control male aggression - women's libbers flip their wigs?
On Jan. 1, 1971 (midnight) after one last spending orgy on the Rose Bowl and other college football games, advertising of cigarettes on U.S. TV and radio ceases as the U.S. Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act (passed last Nov.) goes into effect; Philip Morris spends $12M for commercials from 11:30-11:59 p.m.; the last ad, aired on the Tonight show at 11:59 p.m. is for Virginia Slims, and stars Veronica Hamel; the ad money is rechanneled into print media and billboards.
On Jan. 11, 1971 Holy Cross College of Worcester, Mass. (founded 1843) becomes the last of 28 U.S. Jesuit colleges to announce the admission of women students (beginning in Sept. 1972). On Jan. 25 the U.S. Supreme Court rules unanimously in Phillips v. Martin Marietta that the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits "not only overt discrimination but also practices that are fair in form, but discriminatory in operation", outlawing separate hiring policies for men and women. On Feb. 28 the male electorate of the principality of Liechtenstein refuses to give voting rights to women; meanwhile most Swiss cantons cave in; Liechtenstein finally caves in 1984 after rejecting it again in 1973 - lick my stein jokes here? On Mar. 6 4K demonstrate in London for women's rights.
On Mar. 8, 1971 Pres. Nixon vents his bigotry against women, blacks, Jews, Mexicans, and Italians on tape recordings that are not made public until 1998; "The only two non-Jews in the Communist conspiracy were Chambers and Hiss. Every other one was a Jew and it raised hell with us." On May 13 Pres. "Tricky Dicky" Nixon makes taped private comments exposing his private prejudices and vices, starting with his new IRS commissioner, saying "I want to be sure he is a ruthless son of a bitch, that he will do what he's told, that every income tax return I want to see I see, that he will go after our enemies and not go after our friends", followed by homos, saying "You see, homosexuality, dope, immorality in general, these are the enemies of strong societies. That's why the Communists and the left-wingers are pushing the stuff. They're trying to destroy us", and "The Bohemian Grove, which I attend from time to time, it is the most faggy goddamned thing you could ever imagine, with that San Francisco crowd. I can't shake hands with anybody from San Francisco", followed by by blacks, saying "We're going to [put] more of these little Negro bastards on the welfare rolls at $2,400 a family. Let people like Pat Moynihan... believe in all that crap, but I don't believe in it. Work, work, throw 'em off the rolls. That's the key... I have the greatest affection for them, but I know they're not going to make it for 500 years. They aren't. You know it, too. The Mexicans are a different cup of tea. They have a heritage. At the present time they steal, they're dishonest, but they do have some concept of family life. They don't live like a bunch of dogs, which the Negroes do live like."
On June 13, 1971 steep increases in arrests of women for major crimes causes the 400-bed Women's Detention Center in New York City to close due to overcrowding. On Aug. 26 (50th anniv. of the 19th Amendment) 50K feminists stage the 2nd Strike (March) for Equality on Fifth Ave. in New York City, featuring the signs "Crush Phallic Imperialism", "Pills for Men", and "Don't Iron While the Strike is Hot"; New York City mayor John Lindsay proclaims Women's Equality Day, greets the city's first woman police capt., and meets with feminist leaders, agreeing to a "substantial increase" in the number of women in top city jobs; too bad, the lezzies later take over the event. On Nov. 28 the Anglican Church ordains its first two women priests, ? and ?. In Dec. the U.S. Labor Dept. issues Revised Order 4, becoming known as "the women's employment Magna Carta", mandating that that all businesses with federal contracts over $50K submit affirmative action plans for hiring minorities and women, exempting only the construction industry.
In July 1971 Australian aborigine Evonne Fay Goolagong (1951-) defeats fellow Australian Margaret Smith Court in the finals to win the Wimbledon singles tennis title; she also won the French Open singles title in June, and wins the U.S. Open in 1973-6, and the Wimbledon again in 1980; Billie Jean King wins the women's U.S. Open, becoming the first woman in any sport to make $100K in a single season.
On Oct. 12, 1971 the U.S. House of Reps. by 354-23 passes the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), originally drafted by Alice Stokes Paul (1885-1977) in 1923 and sponsored by Martha Wright Griffiths (nee Wright) (1912-2003) (D-Mich.); "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex"; after Hawaii becomes the first state to ratify it, it is ratified in ?.
On Nov. 28, 1971 the Anglican Church ordains its first two women priests, Jane Hwang and Joyce Bennett, ordained by Gilbert Baker, bishop of Hong Kong and Macao; on July 29, 1974 the Philadelphia Eleven are ordained in Penn.; in 1976 the Gen. Convention officially authorizes ordination of women.
In 1971 Am. surgeon George Crile Jr. (1908-92) finds no difference in the 5-year 70% survival rate of breast cancer patients with radical vs. simple masectomies, pissing-off other surgeons who like the more expensive option, and starting a rev. in women, who go for lumpectomy first, then simple masectomy, then radical masectomy only if absolutely necessary; meanwhile breast cancer rates increase by 30% by the end of the cent., then decrease 10% between 2000-2004.
In 1971 the U.S. airline accident rate is the lowest in 23 years, and the 3rd year in a row in which there is a reduction; pressured by the Assoc. of Flight Attendants (AFA), U.S. courts rule that United Airline's no-marriage rule for stewardesses is illegal, as is the no-male rule.
In 1971 the first battered women's shelter is opened in the U.K. by Erin Prizzley; another opens in Pasadena, Calif. In 1971 the Am. College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists give official approval to nurse-midwives. In 1971 Bay Area Women Against Rape in Berkeley, Calif. is founded to fight discriminatory treatment of rape victims by police, courts and hospitals, causing a nat. movement to er, spread.
In 1971 Jewish feminists Gloria Steinem, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, and Patricia Carbine found Ms. Mag., a preview issue being pub. as a sample insert in New York (not New Yorker) mag., which sells out 300K copies in eight days, and contains the soundbyte "Ms. is being adopted as a standard form of address by women who want to be recognized as individuals, rather than being identified by their relationship with a man. After all, if Mr. is enough to identify male, then Ms. should be enough to identify female!... It's symbolic and important. There's a lot in a name"; the first regular issue, featuring Wonder Woman is pub. in July 1972, reaching a circ. of 350K within a year, going on to pub. a list of women who had abortions in 1972, causing the Manifesto of 343 Sluts (Bitches) to be pub. on Apr. 5, 1973 in France, signed by guess how many women celebs who all claim to have had an abortion, incl. Simone de Beauvoir (actually she hadn't?), Catherine Deneuve, and Delphine Seyrig, pointing out that 1M women a year in France have one.
In 1971 Midge Decter (1927-), wife of conservative writer Norman Podhoretz (1930-) pub. The Liberated Woman and Other Americans, followed in 1973 by The New Chastity and Other Arguments Against Women's Liberation.
In 1971 white Baptist Rev. Jerry Lamon Falwell Sr. (1933-2007), who since 1950 has built up the Thomas Road Baptist Church in Lynchburg, Va. to nat. prominence, along with his "Old Time Gospel Hour", aired on 300 U.S. and 64 foreign TV stations, known for the 1958 soundbyte "When God has drawn a line of distinction, we should not attempt to cross that line - the true Negro does not want integration" founds Lynchburg Baptist College in Va. with 154 students and four full-time faculty, later renaming it Liberty U. and growing it to a 3,250-acre campus with 7.7K students, dreaming of making it the Notre Dame U. and Brigham Young U. for mainly white fundamentalist Christians who want to become active in leftist, er, conservative politics. In 1979 he founds the Moral Majority along with Heritage Inst. dir. Paul M. Weyrich (who coins the term) to give conservative Christian evangelicals a voice in politics, encouraging voter registration and becoming instrumental in the election of pres. Ronald Reagan and the blocking of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) and gay and abortion rights legislation, becoming one of the top 25 most influential Americans by 1983, lashing out against his foes, incl. liberals, abortionists, ACLU, feminists, gay rights activists, and the faithless; he disbands it in the late 1980s to concentrate on his Christian school, Liberty U. - you either wish him well or wish he'd fall down a well? In 1985 he pub. Listen, America!, a widely-distributed pamphlet with the soundbyte "We must stand against the Equal Rights Amendment, the feminist revolution, and the homosexual revolution" - I'm Kilroy, Kilroy, Kilroy?
In 1971 German feminist Alice Schwarzer (1942-) ("Germany's Gloria Steinem") pub. Frauen Gegen den 218 (Women Against Paragraph 218), the German anti-abortion statute, resulting in legalization in 1974. In 1975 she pub. Der Kleine Unterschied und Seine Grossen Folgen (The Little Difference and Its Huge Consequences); "The penis – in its flaccid condition, experts assure us, it's eight to nine centimetres; rigid it is six to eight centimetres more. And being a man is contained in this little tip?"; makes her into an internat. star. In Jan. 1977 she begin pub. the journal EMMA. In 1987 she launches the PorNo Campaign against pornography. She goes on to fight Islamism, female genital mutilation (FGM), and headscarves for women.
In 1971 Diane Wakoski (1937-) pub. The Motorcycle Betrayal Poems, which attacks a world where women are always #2 behind men, like how they sit on motorcyles.
In Jan.-Feb. 1972 feminist artist Judy Chicago (1939-) debuts Womanhouse, giving a bunch of women rooms in a 17-room mansion in Hollywood, Calif. In 1974-9 she follows it with The Dinner Party, 39 place settings around a massive triangular table honoring 1,038 women, becoming an icon of 1970s feminist art.
On Mar. 22, 1972 the U.S. Congress sends the proposed U.S. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the states for ratification, with the wording "Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex"; too bad, despite (or because of?) women's libber marches and protests, it falls short of the two-thirds approval (38 states) needed by the 1982 deadline, after which it is reintroduced in every Congress until ?. On Mar. 22, 1972 in Baird v. Eisenstadt the U.S. Supreme Court by 6-1 permits unmarried persons to purchase contraceptives and get info. on birth control as part of their right to privacy, telling the state of Mass. that its law making it a felony is full of it, finishing the process started by Griswold v. Conn. in 1965, so that sex outside marriage is okay with Uncle Sam - everything's just popping? In Mar. the U.S. Equal Opportunity Commission (EOC) receives enforcement powers, and takes on Am. Telephone & Telegraph (ATT), calling it "without doubt the largest oppressor of women workers in the United States", forcing it to give $38M in back pay to women and black workers. On Apr. 28 five Oxford colleges begin admitting women after 750 years; Radcliffe, the first all-women college at Oxford was founded in 1879; some Oxford colleges began admitting women in the 1920s; meanwhile this year Westminster School and other English public schools begin admitting girls.
In May 1972 Australian singer Helen Reddy (1941-) releases her big hit I Am Woman, which sells 1M+ copies and becomes a women's liberation anthem.
On June 3, 1972 Sally Jane Priesand (1946-) becomes the first woman U.S. rabbi after she is ordained by Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio; she becomes the rabbi of Monmouth Reform Temple in Tinton Falls, N.J. until her June 2006 retirement.
Ever-ready to make Americans forget their troubles, Hollyweird kicks in with a nostalgia fairy-tale show for grownups? On Sept. 12, 1972 Norman Lear's "All in the Family" spinoff Maude debuts on CBS-TV for 141 episodes (until Apr. 22, 1978), starring Beatrice "Bea" Arthur (1922-2009) as Jewish women's libber Maude Findlay, who lives with her 4th hubby in Tuckahoe, Westchester County, N.Y.
In Oct. 1972 Sandra Hochman (1936-) debuts Year of the Woman, the first documentary about the women's movement, filmed at the 1972 Dem. Nat. Convention in Miami in July, incl. the Women's Political Caucus; features siblings Warren Beatty and Shirley MacLaine, incl. an interview where Hochman pisses Beatty off; after being shown for five nights in New York City in Oct., it ends up locked in a vault (until ?), and Hochman's filmmaking career goes kaput even though she looks like Barbra Streisand, has the body of Brigitte Bardot, and was on the 1968 lists of the top 100 most beautiful and most intelligent women in the U.S.?
On Dec. 15, 1972 the Commonwealth of Australia orders equal pay for women.
In 1972 Darmouth College admits its first women. In 1972 Japanese pharmacist Misako Enoki (1939-) founds the 4K-member Pink Panthers (Chupiren) to fight for women's rights, incl. birth control and abortion; the 4K members wear white military uniforms with pink helmets; too bad, their screaming and getup evoke ridicule, and after the New Japan Women's Party wins only 0.4% in the 1977 parliamentary elections, Enoki disbands them; meanwhile a poll of Israeli women by Hebrew U. shows 75% rejecting women's lib, preferring a traditional wife-mother role, and only 8% favoring married women holding a job outside the home; PM Golda Meir utters the soundbyte "Women's lib is just a lot of foolishness. It's the men who are discriminated against. They can't bear children. And no one's likely to do anything about it"; meanwhile the Nat. Action Committee on the Status of Women in Canada is founded by TV journalist Laura Villela Sabia (1916-96), who gets 30+ women's lobbying groups to force the govt. to create a royal commission.
On June 11, 1972 Gerard "Jerry" Damiano's Deep Throat, filmed in Miami, Fla. debuts, starring Linda Lovelace (Susan Boreman) (1949-2002) as a woman with an unusual birth defect, the kind that allows her to swallow a banana whole and have it tickle her clitoris, and Harry Reems (1947-) as everready Dr. Young, bringing porno into the mainstream and capturing the imagination of millions, who watch her break the taboo and casually seduce several men and suck their big dicks ("like a sword-swallower") and always swallow rather than spit as if it is delicious food, plus not ask for money like a mere ho, but probably ask to pay them; the Bronx, N.Y. debut features celebs Warren Beatty, Sammy Davis Jr., and Truman Capote; too bad when reality sinks in that it's a dirty, dangerous job she later contracts several diseases, undergoes a life-saving liver transplant on Mar. 5-6, 1987, and becomes an anti-porn crusader (too bad that movie sex, unlike violence, can't be easily faked?); made for $25K in mob money, it grosses $600M+, insuring an unstoppable porno explosion into the Internet Age (until ?); the Nixon White House tries to get the filmmakers, the actors, and the theaters showing it prosecuted, and in 1973 a N.Y. court judge rules it "indisputably and irredemably obscene", which only makes it more popular? On Dec. 17, 1972 the Mitchell Brothers' Behind the Green Door debuts, starring white former Ivory soap-box mother and Cybill Shepherd lookalike ("99 and and 44/100% pure") Marilyn Chambers (1952-) as a woman who is kidnapped and taken to an orgy, where she shocks audiences by getting it on with well-endowed black buck Johnny Keyes (1948-) for 45 min., after which she faints; dir. by Jim Mitchell (1944-2007) and Artie Mitchell (1945-91); a porno breakthrough, costing $60K and grossing over $30M; "The only art in this business is my brother Art" (Jim); in 1991 Jim shoots and kills Artie while allegedly trying to persuade him to stop drinking, and serves three years in priz.
In 1972 nurse-trained Defiance, Ohio-born Alene Bertha Duerk (1920-2018) becomes the first female adm. in the U.S. Navy.
In 1972 16-y.-o. Debbie Heald (1956-) comes from behind to er, blow away the Russians and set a women's world indoor mile record at 4 min. 38.5 sec. On Apr. 17, 1972 after the women stage a 10 min. sit-down strike at the start to protest women's inequality in marathon running, causing the Boston Marathon to finally allow them to compete, Nina Kuscsik (1939-) of Long Island City, N.Y. wins the first women's competition in the 76th Boston Marathon in 3 hours 8 min. 58 sec; she first competed unofficially in 1969 - my muscles ached all over? In 1972 the Assoc. of Tennis Profs. (ATP) is founded for male prof. tennis players; next year the Women's Tennis Assoc. (WTA) is founded for women.
In 1972 New York City-born Phyllis Chesler (1940-) pub. Women and Madness, which contains the soundbyte: "Double standards of mental health and illness exist... women are often punitively labeled as a function of gender, race, class, or sexual preference"; she also pub. Wonder Woman; in later years she turns anti-Islamist, almost a lone voice. In 1972 Barbara Ehrenreich (1941-) and Deirdre English (1948-) pub. Witches, Midwives and Nurses: A History of Women Healers, which explains why 93% of U.S. physicians are male while women make up 70% of all health care workers, because wealthy men have persecuted wise women healers through the ages? In 1973 the follow it with Complaints and Disorders: The Sexual Politics of Sickness.
In 1972 Bronx, N.Y.-born lesbian Joanna Russ (1937-2011) pub. What Can a Heroine Do? Or Why Women Can't Write. In 1975 she pub. The Female Man, about four women in parallel worlds, which becomes an underground feminist sci-fi classic. In 1983 she pub. How to Suppress Women's Writing.
In 1972 Egyptian feminist physician Nawal El Saadawi (1931-) pub. Women and Sex, campaigning against female circumcision and other Muslim subjection of women, getting her fired from the Ministry of Health.
In 1972 Alix Kates Shulman (1932-) pub. Memoirs of an Ex-Prom Queen, a bestseller about white middle-class girl Sasha Davis in the 1940s-60s Midwest; "A devastating expose of the all-American girl plight"; the first important novel from the U.S. women's movement?
In 1973-76 lung cancer in U.S. women increases 30%. In 1973 the U.S. military is integrated, and women-only branches abolished; women in the U.S. military increase from 1.6% this year to 4.5% of active duty personnel by 1975 (35K of 780K), and 14% by 1998.
On Jan. 2, 1973 Am. schoolteacher Roseann Quinn (b. 1944), who likes to bring strange men home from bars is murdered in New York City by bar acquaintance John Wayne Wilson, who after his arrest hangs himself in Bellevue Hospital on May 5, 123 days after the murder, the whole incident spawning the hit 1975 Judith Rossner novel "Looking for Mr. Goodbar".
The U.S. Supreme Court rows and wades into the government-backed slaughter of infants (until ?) On Jan. 22, 1973 (Mon.) (after reading what version of the U.S. Constitution?) the U.S. Supreme Court rules 7-2 in Roe v. Wade that women don't have an absolute right "to terminate her pregnancy at whatever time, in whatever way, and for whatever reason she alone chooses", but that she does have the right to surgical infanticide (abortion) during the first 3 mo. (trimester) of pregnancy, after which for the next 3 mo. the state may "regulate the abortion procedure in ways that are reasonably related to maternal health", after which during the last 10 weeks the state may prohibit abortion, splitting the nation into two camps, politicizing abortion, and giving the Repub. Party a mission from God to overturn it (until ?); justices William Rehnquist and Byron White (a JFK appointee who also dissented in the Miranda case) are the dissenters, with Rehnquist writing the minority opinion, and White calling the decision "an exercise in raw judicial power" that will result in "interposing a constitutional barrier to state efforts to protect human life"; Harry A. Blackmun writes a long majority opinion containing a history of abortion that has nothing to do with the Constitution, and ending up citing a "right of privacy" sans an explicit mention in it; Cardinal Krol of Philly calls it an "unspeakable tragedy for this nation", while Planned Parenthood Federation of Am. pres. Alan F. Gutmacher calls it "a wise and courageous stroke for the right to privacy and for the protection of a woman's physical and emotional health"; Jane Roe later turns out to be La.-born Norma Leah McCorvey (1947-2017) who grew up in Tex., was sent at age 15 to board with a distant relative who raped her, got a job as a roller-skating carhop in a cowgirl outfit and married a patron who later beat her, discovered she was bi, and got pregnant and gave three babies up for adoption before the decision came down, then later becomes an anti-abortion activist after admitting that at least the pregnancy in question wasn't caused by rape, and that her attys. Sarah Ragle Weddington (1945-) of Tex. and Linda Nellene Coffee (1942-) used her to start the case against notorious Dallas DA Henry Wade; every year after this a March for Life is held on Jan. 22 in Washington, D.C. to protest the decision, politicizing all future U.S. Supreme Court nominations (until ?); meanwhile French police arrest a physician for performing an abortion, causing 10K to march in protest and legislation to legalize abortion to be introduced in the French parliament, which is passed next year; meanwhile 14M new IUDs are inserted in women in China, up from 6M in 1973, but that doesn't stop pop. growth.
On May 14, 1973 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 8-1 in Frontiero v. Richardson that the U.S. military cannot discriminate on the basis of gender when giving benefits to the family of service members, and that USAF Lt. Sharron Frontiero can claim her husband Joseph as a dependent even though he isn't dependent on her for more than half his support, because they allow it when the situation is reversed, saying that gender discrimination is "inherently suspect" and that laws classifying on the basis of gender should be presumed unconstitutional and subjected to "strict scrutiny", and allowed only if the court finds it "narrowly tailored" to serve a "compelling" govt. interest.
On July 19, 1973 the U.S. Open becomes the first pro tennis match to give equal prize money to men and women; Billy Jean King wins the Wimbledon women's singles title; the Women's Tennis Assoc. (WTA) is founded in the U.S., becoming the main body for women's prof. tennis. On Sept. 20, 1973 the publicity stunt Battle of the Sexes on is hosted by Howard Cossell, featuring the exchanging of gifts (a 6-ft. lollipop and a live pig), after which female tennis star Billie Jean King (1943-) (sister of San Francisco Giants pitcher Randy Moffitt) defeats aging male 55-y.-o. Wimbledon and Forest Hills winner Robert "Bobby" Riggs (1918-95) in straight sets, 6-4, 6-3, 6-3 in the Houston Astrodome in Tex., becoming the female King of the Courts, and making a big splash for women's libbers - proving what?
On Sept. 26, 1973 the U.S. Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program, an amendment to the U.S. School Lunch Act is signed by Pres. Nixon to improve nutrition for the most vulnerable pop. group. In 1973 Jordan grants women the vote. In 1973 Virago Press is founded in England to pub. feminist works, incl. "Herstory".
In 1973 Mary Daly (1928-2010) pub. Beyond God the Father: Toward a Philosophy of Women's Liberation, which tries to take the maleness from God. On Dec. 31, 1977 she pub. Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism, which blames patriarchy (which she calls a religion) for female oppression, points to most gynecologists being male, and coins almost 200 new words for a feminist theology to help women who hate the necrophilic male world (the Foreground) escape to the biophilic world of women (the Background); claims that 9M women were killed between the 14th and 18th cents. in Europe, vs. 60K-100K like historians claim; criticized by Audre Lorde for ignoring women of color. In 1984 she pub. Pure Lust: Elemental Feminist Philosophy, describing a new language to explain the feminine process of exorcism and ecstasy; "Names the high humor, hope, and cosmic accord/harmony of those women who choose to... bound out of the State of Bondage." In 1987 she pub. Webster's First New Intergalactic Wickedary of the English Language, chants for women to free themselves from patriarchal oppressions, along with advice to embrace the labels of hag, witch, and lunatic.
In 1973 Cambridge U. grad Arianna Huffington (1950-) pub. The Female Woman, claiming that the women's lib movement denies or ignores women's desires for intimacy, children, and a family.
In 1973 Erica Jong (1942-) pub. her first novel Fear of Flying, about Isadora Zelda White Stollerman Wing, who cheats on her hubby bigtime while on a trip to Vienna; sells 20M copies; the first mass-market work of fiction to openly address female sexuality?; coins the term "zipless fuck", where "zippers fell away like rose petals... For the true ultimate zipless A-1 fuck, it was necessary that you never got to know the man very well" - Erica = America without a m?
In 1973 Marge Piercy (1936-) pub. Small Changes, about forms of female subjugation, written to "produce in fiction the equivalent of a full experience in a consciousness-raising group for many women who would never go through that experience". In 1980 she pub. The Moon Is Always Female, which becomes a feminist classic.
In 1973 Baltimore, Md.-born Jewish lesbian feminist Adrienne Cecile Rich (1929-2012) pub. the angry feminist poems Diving into the Wreck: Poems, 1971-1972; she shares her Nat. Book Award feminist-style with sister nominees Alice Walker and Audre Lorde; "I am she: I am he/ whose drowned face sleeps with open eyes/ whose breasts still bear the stress/ whose silver, copper, vermeil cargo lies/ Obscurely inside barrels half-wedged and left to rot/ we are the half-destroyed instruments that once held to a course/ the water-eaten log/ the fouled compass." In 1978 she pub. Dreams of a Common Language, a collection of poetry by and for women, the first after she comes out as a lesbian in 1976.
In 1973 German minimalist fashion designer Heidemarie Jiline "Jil" Sander (1943-) begins designing women's wear with high-end materials that catch on with business execs, causing her to become known as the "Master of Minimalism".
In 1973 Ernst Ingmar Bergman (1918-2007) debuts his film Scenes from a Marriage, starring Liv Ullmann as Marianne, and Erland Josephson as Johan, a married couple who divorce but can't stay apart; a 295-min. TV movie cut to 155 min. for cinematic release; turns Ullmann into a feminist icon.
In 1973 Columbus, Ohio-born U. of Mich. (later UCLA and SUNY) feminist historian Kathryn Kish Sklar (1939-) pub. her first book Catharine Beecher: A Study in American Domesticity (1973), followed by Women and Power in American History: From 1870 to 1880: A Reader (w/Thomas Dublin) (2 vols.) (1991) (2nd ed. 2002), Florence Kelley and the Nation's Work: The Rise of Women's Political Culture, 1830-1900 (1995), U.S. History as Women's History: New Feminist Essays (w/Linda K. Kerber and Alice Kessler-Harris) (1995), Social Justice Feminists in the United States and Germany: A Dialogue in Documents, 1885-1933 (w/Anja Schuler and Susan Strasser) (1998), Women's Rights Emerges within the Anti-Slavery Movement, 1830-1870: A Brief History with Documents (2000), Women's Rights and Transatlantic Anti-Slavery in the Era of Emancipation (2007), The Selected Letters of Florence Kelley, 1869-1931 (w/Beverly Wilson Palmer) (2009), and Competing Kingdoms: Women, Mission, Nation, and the Protestant American Empire, 1776-1960 (w/Barbara Reeves-Ellington and Connie A. Shemo) (2010).
On Mar. 4, 1974 50 women's groups from three states picket the New York Times to protest its refusal to bow to their demands to use the designations "Ms.", "spokesperson", "chairperson" et al., and to give more coverage to women's news; they don't bow to their demands until the 1980s, bringing up the rear among major newspapers. On Mar. 8 Internat. Women's Day (named after a 1908 demonstration by needle workers in New York City, and made historic by the 1917 St. Petersburg demonstration of women demanding "bread and peace" which helped bring Tsar Nicholas II down) sees women demonstrate in Saigon et al.; Australia recognizes it this year, followed by the U.N. next year. On Mar. 26 the Chipko Anti-Deforestation Movement in India begins as 28 women led by Gaura Devi form circles around trees, hugging them to stop them from being felled in Reni village, Henwalghati, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand.
On May 4, 1974 York archbishop Frederick Donald Coggan (1909-2000) is named by Queen Elizabeth II to succeed retiring Michael Ramsey as archbishop of Canterbury (until 1980), becoming the first to support the ordination of women. On May 4 an all-woman Japanese team becomes the first women to climb 8km Mt. Manaslu in Nepal. On May 15 after FDA pressure caused by the deaths of seven women, A.H. Robins Co. agrees to remove its Dalkon Shield intrauterine birth control device from the market, although it continues to sell it outside the U.S. for 10 mo. more; it later stops 6K suits in U.S. courts by using bankruptcy laws.
On May 19, 1974 German-born center-right Gaullist pro-U.S. former finance minister Valery (Valéry) Giscard d'Estaing (b. 1926) is elected pres. of France, narrowly defeating Socialist Francois Mitterand in a hotly contested close election; on May 27 he is sworn in (until May 21, 1981), going on to support nuclear power and pass liberal laws on abortion and divorce and appoint a a new secy. of state for the conditions of women, reduce the voting age from 21 to 18, decentralize the broadcasting system, and ban telephone tapping, but take a big hit from the 1973 energy crisis; on May 27 he names Gaullist Jacques Rene Chirac (1932-) to succeed Pierre Messmer as PM #6 of the French 5th Repub. (until Aug. 26, 1976); new Jewish French health minister (1974-9) Simone Veil (nee Jacob) (1927-) begins the fight for birth control and abortion, getting a law making access to contraception easier passed on Dec. 4, followed by a liberalized abortion law next Jan. 17; in July French feminist writer (1953 founder of L'Express) Francoise Giroud (1916-2003) becomes the first secy. of state for the condition of women in France (women's affairs) (until 1976), working to prevent sex discrimination and secure better benefits; in 1976-7 she becomes culture minister; on July 1, 2018 France enthrones abortion champion (health minister in 1975) Simone Veil in the Pantheon, with pres. Emmanuel Macron declaring "France loves Simone Veil".
On July 15, 1974 U.S. WXLT-TV Channel 40 9:30 a.m. "Suncoast Digest" depressed spinster almost-30 virgin journalist Christine Chubbuck (b. 1944) shoots herself in the head during a broadcast after uttering the soundbyte "In keeping with Channel 40's policy of bring you the latest in blood and guts, and in living color we bring you another first: an attempted suicide"; she dies 14 hours later; a TV first?
On July 29, 1974 the Philadelphia Eleven, 11 women led by Betty Bone Schiess (1923-) are ordained to the priesthood of the Episcopal Church of the Advocate in Philadelphia, Penn., quoting the Bible text "In Christ there is neither male nor female" (Galatians 3:28); on Aug. 14-15 the governing clerical body, quoting 1 Timothy 2:12 ("But I suffer not a woman to teach nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence") rules it invalid - slipping into stockings, slipping into shoes, dipping into the pocket of her what?
The President that Ford Motor Company built? On Aug. 9, 1974 (Fri.) (noon) Neb.-born U. of Mich. All-American football center and Yale Law School grad. ("The right sort of sports fan" - McGeorge Bundy, pres. of the Ford Motor Co. Foundation) Gerald Rudolph "Jerry" Ford Jr. (1913-2002) (not "Gerry") becomes the 38th U.S. pres. (until 1977) in the 56th U.S. Pres. Inauguration, becoming the first unelected "25th Amendment President", AKA the "Accidental President" (895-day term of office), and the first person to serve as pres. and vice-pres. without winning election to either office (first in a position to make deals to get himself the job with pure backroom politics?); 4th lefty U.S. pres. (last Truman, next Reagan); 5th pres. who was never elected to the office (John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester Arthur); 25th atty. to become pres. (next ?); Ford's Inauguration Address takes pains to say that it is not an inauguration address, and incl. the soundbyte "Our long national nightmare is over. Our Constitution works. Our great republic is a government of laws and not of men... I am acutely aware that you have not elected me by your ballots, and so I ask you to confirm me as your president with your prayers"; wanting to be known for his Washington-like integrity rather than his brains, he adds "I'm not a Lincoln I'm a Ford"; he has the U.S. Marine Corps Band play the U. of Mich. fight song instead of Hail to the Chief, and doesn't "change" after being pres.; he orders a truck with Nixon's White House papers stopped, and Congress passes an act authorize their seizure on behalf of the U.S. people, and ordering pub. of parts not containing state secrets or purely personal matters; First Lady is drinks-like-a-fish free-talking former beauty queen Betty Bloomer Warren Ford (1918-2011) (Secret Service codename: Pinafore), who becomes the first Women's Libber First Lady, in favor of birth control, abortion, and equal rights for women; they have a pet golden retriever named Liberty (1974-), who becomes First Dog after being given to them in the fall; daughter Susan Elizabeth Ford (1957-) holds her high school senior prom in the White House; a Vail, Colo. lover since 1968, Ford turns Vail into the Western White House, with Secret Service agents screened for ability to ski.
In 1974 Muhammad Yunus (1940-) of Bangladesh begins making small loans, mostly to impoverished Muslim women, founding Grameen ("Village") Bank in 1983, and pioneering the concept of microcredit as a way out of poverty; he wins the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize.
In 1974 term "sexual harassment" begins to be used by Jennie Tiffany Farley et al. at Cornell U., and catches on; Mich. becomes the first U.S. state to shift emphasis on rape cases from the victim to the rapist, becoming a model.
In 1974 topless swimsuit designer Rudi Gernreich (1922-) introduces the thong bikini - every woman wants to wear one, but few can pull it off?
In 1974 Shere Hite (1942-) pub. Sexual Honesty, By Women, For Women, explaining how 70% of women don't have orgasms through in-out intercourse with di, er, men, but do have them through masturbation. In 1976 she pub. The Hite Report: A Nationwide Study of Female Sexuality, a bestseller a la Masters and Johnson and Kinsey based on surveys of 1,844 women. In 1987 she pub. The Hite Report on Love, Passion and Emotional Violence (Women in Love: A Cultural Revolution in Progress).
In 1974 Miami, Fla. Christian housewife Marabel Morgan (1937-) pub. The Total Woman, the #1 bestseller for 1974, claiming that submitting to male desires is the key to a happy married life. In July 1985 she pub. The Electric Woman: The Hope for Tired Mothers and Others.
The 1975 Time Man of the Year is American Women. On Jan. 1 begins the U.N. Internat. Women's Year, which declares 1976-85 as the U.N. Decade for Women; on Jan. 10 Uganda sends Bernadette Olowo to Rome as the first female envoy to the Vatican; on Jan. 15 it is launched in Britain by Princess Alexandra; on Mar. 8 the U.N. begins celebrating Internat. Women's Day; on June 19-July 2 the U.N. World Conference on Women is held in Mexico City to celebrate it; on Dec. 15 U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 3520 passes, adopting the World Plan of Action and other resolutions from the conference. On Jan. 15 the People's Repub. of Angola, which has been a colony since 1576 is granted independence by Portugal (last Portuguese African colony), and on Nov. 11 it begins nationalizing banking, transport, heavy industries, and the media, and granting the vote to women.
On Jan. 21, 1975 the U.S. (Burger) Supreme Court rules 8-1 in Taylor v. Louisiana that all-male juries are unconstitutional, overturning Hoyt v. Florida (1961) with the soundbyte: "If it ever was the case that women were unqualified to sit on juries, or were so situated that none of them should be required to perform jury service, that time is long past"; William Rehnquist is the lone dissenter.
In spring 1975 the Nat. Abortion Campaign is formed in Britain to defend the 1967 Abortion Act, and the women's movement scores big Vs with the Sex Discrimination Act on Nov. 12, which establishes an Equal Opportunities Commission, and the Employment Protection Act, giving women paid maternity leave et al.; the Equal Pay Act of 1970 comes into force on Dec. 29; too bad, employers are given five years to comply, and use the time to reclassify jobs to keep women's pay down, and of course the gap between whites and ethnic minorities is not covered; the Equal Pay Act is amended in 1984, but by the end of the cent. women still are paid 17% less then men. On June 3 the U.S. Dept. of HEW releases regulations to equalize opportunities for women in schools and colleges. On Sept. 16 administrators for Rhodes Scholarships announce the decision to begin offering fellowships to women.
On Dec. 2, 1975 the World Council of Churches in Nairobi, Kenya elects two women pastors. In 1975 abortions are legalized in France. In 1975 Italy revises its laws, putting its 15 regional govts. in control of most nat. and local public admin., causing new parties concentrated on specific regions to form; meanwhile the state insurance fund is extended, guaranteeing laid-off workers 80% of their pay for up to a year, and family legislation is revised to abolish dowries, allow wives to retain maiden names, and give married women the right to live where they choose; the min. age for marriage is reduced to 18 for both sexes, and illegitimate children are granted equal status with legitimate ones. In 1975 the U.S. Coast Guard Academy in New London, Conn. (founded 1876) admits its first women students. In 1975 the 408-y.-o. Rugby School public (private to Americans) school in England goes coed. In 1975 the First Women's Bank opens in New York City, becoming the first U.S. bank operated by women.
On Dec. 16, 1975 the Norman Lear series One Day at a Time debuts on CBS-TV (until Sept. 2, 1984), created by husband-wife team Whitney Blake (1926-2002) (mother of Meredith Baxter) and Allan Manings as a 2nd-gen. feminist show, starring Bonnie Gail Franklin (1944-) as divorced mother Ann Romano, Laura Mackenzie Phillips (1959-) and Valerie Anne Bertinelli (1960-) as her teenie daughters Julie and Barbara Cooper, and Daniel Patrick "Pat" Harrington Jr. (1929-) as their bldg. supt. Schneider.
In 1975 Susan Brownmiller (1935-) pub. Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape, which defines rape as an expression of power and control rather than a sex act; "My purpose in this book has been to give rape its history. Now we must deny its future"; claims that all men are rapists and all sex is rape? - easy to say when you never get any?
On May 4, 1975 Ed Bullins (1935-) debuts his play The Taking of Miss Janie at the Mitzi E. Newhouse Theater in New York for 42 perf., starring Hilary Jean Beane as a black revolutionary, and Diane Oama Dixon as his white liberal Patty Hearst, whom he rapes, pissing-off feminists, which only makes it more popular?
On June 19-July 2, 1975 the World Conference of the Internat. Women's Year is held in Mexico City, Mexico; on July 2 the Declaration of Mexico on the Equality of Women and Their Contribution to Development and Peace is adopted by the U.N. Gen. Assembly.
In 1975 feminist Creek poet Joy Harjo (1951-) pub. her debut The Last Song, seeking "another way of seeing language and another way of using it that wasn't white European male".
In 1975 UCB linguist Robin Lakoff (1942-) pub. Language and Woman's Place; women's speech is different from men in quantifiable ways, such as avoiding Trump, er, locker room talk?
In 1975 Moroccan feminist Fatema Mernissi (1940-) pub. Beyond the Veil, speaking out and becoming a celeb.
In 1975 Judith Rossner (1935-2005) pub. Looking for Mr. Goodbar, inspired by the murder of Roseann Quinn (1944-73), who was killed by a man she took home from a singles bar, exposing the dark side of the 1970s sexual lib movement.
In 1976 Oslo, Norway-born Am. sociologist Elise M. Boulding (1920-2010) (wife of economist Kenneth Boulding) pub. The Underside of History: A View of Women Through Time (2 vols.), about women's "underlife" vs. men's "overlife".
On Jan. 19, 1976 Belgian-born Am. fashion designer Elisabeth "Liz" Claiborne (1929-2007) founds Liz Claiborne Inc., becoming a hit selling functional fashionable mix-and-match sportswear clothes for working women; in 1986 it becomes the first Fortune 500 co. founded by a woman; she and her hubby Arthur Ortenberg retire in June 1989 with $100M in stock, leaving 3.4K employees.
On Mar. 4-8, 1976 the Internat. Tribunal on Crimes Against Women at the Palais des Congres, Brussels, Belgium convenes to rag on, er, discuss and publicize crimes against women, incl. lesbians and hos, with 2K delegates from 40 countries, who hold the first candlelight Take Back (Reclaim) the Night March - the candles represent penises? On Apr. 16 India raises the min. age for marriage to 18 years for women and 21 for men. On June 28 the first 119 women enter the U.S. Air Force Academy in Colo. Springs, followed by the U.S. Military Academy at West Point on July 7; by 1977 30 women drop out or are dismissed from West Point, causing them to change their criteria for testing, recruiting and training; the AFA becomes the rape capital of Colo.? If you're preggers you can't hyde it from the feds? On July 1 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 6-3 in Planned Parenthood of Central Mo. v. Danforth that a Mo. law requiring a husband's consent for a first-trimester abortion is unconstitutional; on Nov. 8 it rules that a law blocking use of Medicaid funds for abortions is unconstitutional; on Sept. 30 the U.S. Hyde Amendment, sponsored by U.S. Rep. (R-Ill.) (1975-2007) Henry John Hyde (1924-2007) is passed by the U.S. House by a 207-167 vote, barring the use of federal funds to pay for abortions, becoming the first V for abortion opponents since the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision; starting next year language is added to make exceptions for rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother; in 1975 250K-300K U.S. women received Medicaid-funded abortions, which drops to 2.1K in fiscal 1978 and 3.9K in fiscal 1979; on June 30, 1980 the U.S. Supreme Court upholds the Hyde Amendment 5-4; as of 2007 only 17 of 50 states provide state funding for abortions; too bad, the amendment must be reapproved yearly, making it a political football. On July 6 the first class of women is inducted at the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Md. On Sept. 16 the Episcopal Church in Minneapolis, Minn. approves the ordination of women priests and bishops; St. Mary's Church in Denver, Colo. becomes the first parish in the U.S. in modern times to break away over a social issue, reorganizing as an Anglican Catholic parish.
On Sept. 22, 1976 Charlie's Angels debuts on ABC-TV for 110 episodes (until June 24, 1981), starring John Forsythe (John Lincoln Freund) (1918-2010) (who is never seen) as millionaire Charles "Charlie" Townsend, boss of the angels, police academy detectives incl. Lucy Kate Jackson (1949-) as Sabrina Duncan, Farrah Fawcett (Fawcett-Majors) (1947-2009) as Jill Munroe (until 1977), and Jaclyn Ellen Smith (1947-) as Kelly Garrett; the series portrays women as independent and able to kick men's butts without adopting manly muscles or looks; later Cheryl Ladd plays Sabrina's younger sister Kris Munroe, Shelley Hack plays Tiffany Welles, and Tanya Roberts plays Julie Rogers; meanwhile the Farrah Fawcett 1-Piece Red Bathing Suit Poster by Pro Arts Inc., which shows the outline of her nipples and seems to stare directly into her crotch without actually showing anything becomes a giant hit, selling 5M-12M copies.
On Nov. 2, 1976 after an apathetic campaign played to an apathetic public, Dems. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter (1924-) and running mate Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (1928-) win the 1976 U.S. Pres. Election over Nixon-pardoning Repub. incumbent Gerald R. Ford and running mate Robert Joseph "Bob" Dole (1923-); Carter becomes the first pres. elected from the Deep South since the U.S. Civil War; of the 53.5% of the electorate who vote for pres., Carter receives 40.8M popular votes (50.1%) and 297 electoral votes to Ford's 39.1M popular votes (48.0%) and 240 electoral votes, becoming the only pres. elections the Repubs. lose between 1968 and 1992; the Dems. continue to control both houses of Congress; a change of 12,791 votes in Ohio and Miss. would have given Faultily Forgiving Ford the election; after narrowly defeating Bella Abzug (who gave up her seat to run) for the nomination, and being elected Dem. U.S. Senator for N.Y. (until 2000), Daniel Patrick Moynihan resigns his ambassador job, and Scranton Commission guy William Warren Scranton (1917-) becomes U.S. ambassador #13 to the U.N. (until 1977); pres.-elect Carter wastes no time, and appoints black feminist Eleanor Holmes Norton (1937-) as head of the U.S. Equal Opportunity Commission (first woman) (until 1981).
On Nov. 22, 1976 the women's comic strip Cathy debuts (until Oct. 3, 2010), by Dayton, Ohio-born Cathy Lee Guisewite (1950-), about Cathy, who struggles through the "four basic guilt groups" of life, incl. food, love, family, and work, reaching 1.4K newspapers.
In 1976 Britain passes the Domestic Violence and Matrimonial Proceedings Act, allowing women to obtain injunctions against violent hubbies. In 1976 Asian Women in Solidarity is founded by Japanese feminist Asahi Shimbun journalist Yayori Matsui (1934-2003) to stop the Asian sex tourist trade.
In 1976 Beverly LaHaye (1929-), wife of Christian evangelist Timothy F. "Tim" LaHaye (1926-) pub. The Spirit-Controlled Woman, about using the Bible to seek spirituality; "All married women are capable of orgasmic ecstasy. No Christian woman should settle for less"; "The woman who is truly Spirit-filled will want to be totally submissive to her husband... This is a truly liberated woman. Submission is God's design for women." In 1976 they pub. The Act of Marriage: The Beauty of Sexual Love, about Christian marital sex, selling 2.5M copies. In Jan. 1979 she founds Concerned Women for Am. (CWA) in San Diego, Calif. to combat NOW and the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), growing to 500K members in all 50 states.
In 1977 lung cancer deaths for U.S. women pass colorectal cancer deaths (14.9 vs. 14.3 per 100K) (1.5 per 100K in 1930). On Jan. 27 the Vatican reaffirms the Roman Catholic Church's ban on female priests - you have to be a prick to stick it in their mouths?
On Apr. 16, 1977 the ban on women attending West Point Military Academy is lifted - as long as they don't mind a little dorm rape? On June 30 Phyllis Schlafly (1924-) pub. Power of the Positive Woman, leading a campaign to stop the ERA that blocks it in several states.
On July 3-5, 1977 using the 1974 murder of his critic Ahmad Rza Kasuri's father as a pretext, Pakistani army chief of staff (since Mar. 1, 1976) gen. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (1924-88) (a non-practicing Shiite Muslim) overthrows the first elected PM (since 1973) Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, imposes martial law, and becomes military ruler of Pakistan (until Aug. 17, 1988), soon getting the Hudood Ordinances passed as part of his Islamization program, modifying the British-era Pakistan Penal Code to introduce medieval Islamic punishments for theft, robbery, false witness (qazf), extramarital sex (zina), and alcohol consumption, along with new punishments of whipping, amputation, and stoning to death, degrading the status of women below men - hand it over, here we go? On Sept. 16, 1978 after the military coup and martial law declaration of last July 5 settles things down, Pakistani pres. (since 1973) Fazel Elahi Chaudhry is officially replaced by Gen. Mohamed Zia ul-Haq (1924-88), who becomes Pakistani pres. #6 (until Aug. 17, 1988).
On July 12, 1977 Pres. Carter defends U.S. Supreme Court decisions limiting govt. payments for abortions for poor women, saying "There are many things in life that are not fair."
On July 16, 1977 Janelle Penny Commissiong (1953-) of Trinidad-Tobago becomes the first black woman to win the Miss Universe title.
On Nov. 18-21, 1977 after state conventions in Feb.-July that are attended by 130K, the Nat. Women's Conference in Houston, Tex. is attended by 2K delegates and 20K observers of all genders and political affiliations, becoming the first federally-sponsored ($5M) conference on women's issues, and first nat. women's rights convention since Seneca Falls, N.Y. in 1848; attendees incl. Nancy Reagan. In Nov. the U.S. Public Health Service claims that the Liquid Protein Diet (LPD) has caused the deaths of at least 16 women ages 25-44, causing women on LPDs to drop from 217 to 29 per 100K pop. by next Mar.; more switch to total fasting, 663 vs. 306 per 100K pop. In 1977 the Canadian Human Rights Act is passed, requiring that men and women be paid the same amount for doing the same work. In 1977 the U.S. Navy disband the WAVES and integrates its women. In 1977 Portugal allows children's surnames to come from the mother as well as the traditional father. Terry Martin Hekker (1932-) gains fame speaking out against women's liberation and for the traditional married wife role; in 2005 her hubby dumps her for a younger woman, causing her to change her tune and bemoan her failure to pursue higher education while writing "Disregard First Book". In 1977 the Coal Employment Project is founded to help women get jobs in the coal mines of Appalachia.
The real danger of giving women power starts with p? In 1977 Homewood, Ill. teenie Cathleen Webb (nee Crowell) (1961-2008) accuses Gary E. Dotson (1957-) of rape, and in May 1979 he is convicted and sentenced to 25-50 years for rape and 25-50 for kidnapping; on May 12, 1985 after becoming a born-again Christian she retracts her story, admitting she based it on the 1974 bestselling romance novel "Sweet Savage Love", causing women's libbers to freak, and he is not released until DNA evidence proves his innocence in 1988, becoming the 2nd and first celebrated DNA exoneration case; in 1985 Webb pub. the book "Forgive Me".
In 1977 closet gay Episcopal bishop of New York (1972-89) Paul Moore Jr. (1919-2003) ordains open militant lesbian priest Ellen Marie Barrett (1946-), who tells Time mag. that her lesbian love affair gives her the strength to serve God, causing a firestorm of controversy; Moore transforms the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in New York City into a New Age stronghold?
In 1977 Maria Irene Fornes (María Irene Fornés) (1930-) debuts Fefu and Her Friends, where the audience is divided into groups representing different locations in and around a New England country house and listen to an all-female cast deliver feminist monologues.
In 1977 Japanese fashion designer Hanae Mori (1926-) opens a haute couture design house in Paris, becoming an icon of the liberated woman and growing to $500M sales by the 1990s.
In 1977 U.S. tennis player and ophthalmologist Dr. Renee Richards (1934-) (born Richard Raskind) (who had a sex change operation in 1975, moved to Calif., and won a women's tournament in La Jolla, only to be exposed by a reporter) wins her case in the New York Supreme Court, which declares that "this person is now female".
On May 11, 1977 Ann Douglas (1942-) pub. The Feminization of American Culture, claiming that an alliance between women and the clergy in the 19th cent. created the sentimental society and modern mass culture.
In 1977 Wendy Wasserstein (1950-2006) debuts her first play Uncommon Women and Others, about five women grads from Mount Holyoke College who have a reunion. On Dec. 15, 1983 she debuts Isn't It Romantic at the Playwrights Horizon Theater in New York City for 233 perf., about aspiring Jewish writer Janie Blumberg and her blonde gentile childhood friend Harriet Cornwall, and Harriet's divorced business exec mother Lillian, who answers her question about "what the women's magazines call having it all" with "Harriet, that's just your generation's fantasy"; stars Lisa Banes, Betty Comden, and Chip Zien. In 1989 she debuts The Heidi Chronicles, about the career of feminist art historian Heidi Holland, winning the Pulitzer Prize. In 1992 she debuts The Sisters Rosensweig, about a woman banker celebrating her 54th birthday with her two sisters.
In 1978 in the U.S. 80% of the women in the workforce hold low-level clerical, sales, services or factory jobs; 50% of husband-wife families have two or more wage earners; 140K women and 4.173M men earn $25K or more; in Mar. the U.S. Dept. of Labor issues new regs to increase employment of women in blue-collar construction.
On Jan. 7, 1978 an article in the Iranian daily newspaper Ettela'at instigated by mole Gen. Fardoust criticizes exiled Shiite leader Ayatollah Khomeini, pissing-off Iran's 180K Muslim clergy, and on Jan. 8 riots rock Iran's holiest city of Qum on the 15th anniv. of the shah's land reform and women's emancipation decrees, causing the army and police to open fire, killing 162; on May 15 U. of Tehran students riot in Tabriz, causing the army to be called in; the CIA is caught by surprise because the shah had forbidden it to have contact with opposition groups; on June 9 the shah has the chief of the secret Savak police arrested on charges of corruption and torture of prisoners; too bad, Pres. Carter begins to listen to his advisors who want him to dump the shah for the ayatollah - you want it, you got it?
On May 12, 1978 the U.S. Commerce Dept. announces that hurricanes will no longer be named exclusively after women - taming of the shrew jokes here? On July 2 British women celebrate the 50th anniv. of women's suffrage while rag, er, complaining about inequities, incl. 65% of the pay of men, and a law making a hubby responsible for filing his wife's income tax return. On Sept. 26 federal judge (since 1966) (first African-Am. female) Constance Baker Motley (1921-2005) rules in favor of Sports Illustrated reporter Melissa Ludtke Lincoln over the locker rooms at Yankee Stadium, women are given the same right to interview male players in the locker room as men; the U.S. Air Force Academy continues to ban them until 1990, when Denver Post reporter Natalie Meisler forces the issue, and they set up an interview room where the players' bodies are covered - yummy yummy yummy I got love in my tummy? On Oct. 6 the New York Times settles a class-action sex discrimination suit during an 88-day newspaper strike that shuts down all three New York City dailies, agreeing to pay 550 women $350K ($454.54 each avg.) in back pay and start an affirmative action program. On Oct. 10 Pres. Carter signs a bill authorizing the quarter-sized joke Susan B. Anthony Dollar; the Philadelphia Mint stamps the first one on Dec. 13, and they go into circulation next July 2; minting is discontinued in 1981, then started for one more year in 1999 - this dooms the ERA more than anything? On Nov. 4 the first Take Back the Night march in the red light district of San Francisco, Calif. is organized by Women Against Violence in Pornography and Media in protest of porno and rape. On Dec. 23 Nancy Landon Kassebaum (1932-), daughter of Repub. Kan. gov. Alf Landon becomes U.S. Repub. Sen. for Kan. (until Jan. 3, 1997), becoming the first woman to serve in the Senate who wasn't a U.S. Rep. first or replaced a spouse. In 1978 the U.S. Pregnancy Discrimination Act bans employment discrimination against pregnant women - whether or not they are planning on an abortion or are unmarried?
On Dec. 31, 1978 lesbian ex-nun Janice G. Raymond (1943-) pub. The Transsexual Empire: The Making of the She-Male, which questions the whole idea of "transssexualism", where men try to conform to an outdated feminine stereotype, which her advisor Mary Daly calls a "male problem" and "Frankensteinian", and which she disses as a tactic to infiltrate the women's movement and perpetuate the myths of male mothering and making of women according to man's image, calling for lesbians to kick them out and practice separatism; "All transsexuals rape women's bodies by reducing the real female form to an artifact, appropriating this body for themselves... Transsexuals merely cut off the most obvious means of invading women, so that they seem non-invasive."
On Jan. 8, 1979 amid a gen. strike of oil workers and mass calls for his death, the U.S. advises shah (since Sept. 16, 1941) Mohammed Reza Pahlavi II (1919-80) to get his butt out of Iran or lose it, and he skedaddles with his family on Jan. 16 after 38 years in power, but doesn't abdicate, claiming that when he returns he will only reign not govern, receiving asylum from Anwar Sadat in Egypt, then hiking to Morocco, the Bahamas, and Cuernavaca, Mexico, finally entering the U.S. on Oct. 22 at the urging of Henry Kissinger and David Rockefeller to be treated for cancer in New York City, incl. removal of his gall bladder; on Jan. 17 Islam history ignoramus Pres. Carter pledges support for the new civilian govt. in Tehran, and urges the shah's opponents to give it a chance; behind the scenes, Peanut Pres. Carter sends a rep. to meet Ayatollah Khomeini in Paris, who returns with glowing reports about a "saint", causing Carter to undermine the new regime to put him in power, making a deal with him to remove the shah and prevent an Iranian army coup in return for ending Soviet influence and disruption of Iranian oil to the West - and he ran a lemonade stand as a kid? On Jan. 30 the civilian govt. of Iran announces that it has decided to allow Muslim Shiite ultra-fundamentalist Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (1902-89) to return from 15 years of exile in Paris, and on Feb. 1 (9:33 a.m. local time) (which becomes an annual celebration) he lands in Tehran to cheering crowds who believe him to be the Islamic hidden imam or Shiite messiah, while Commies believe he's one of them because of his cryptic statements incl. "In a truly Islamic society, there will be no landless peasants", and his claims to back the mostazafin (oppressed masses), plus the popularity of "Red Shiite" Ali Shariati (1933-77), and the U.S. govt. believes that he won't become Iran's Archbishop Makarios but will hole-up in the Shiite holy city of Qum while letting Iran have a parliamentary democracy; on Feb. 3 he creates the Council of the Islamic Rev.; on Feb. 7 his supporters take over govt. bldgs. while the final session of the nat. assembly is held; on Feb. 10 the army mutinies and joins the rev.; on Feb. 11 the Islamic Uprising of Khurdad 15 sees Khomeini's supporters route the elite Imperial Guard and cause PM (since Jan. 4) Shahpur Bakhtiar to resign, and Khomeini seizes power, ending autocratic rule after 2.5K years and erecting a theocracy with Sharia Law, with thousands killed throughout the year in rioting and mass executions, and troops sent by Khomeini to crush Kurdish guerrillas seeking autonomy; the Communists applaud the takeover at first, but by 1983 all the real rev. gains of workers and peasants are destroyed by the new regime, which also outlaws the pesky Bahai (Baha'i) Muslim sect; Khomeini sets up the Rev. Guards (Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Rev.) and the Basij-e Mostaz'afin ("Mobilization of the Oppressed") paramilitary militia; meanwhile the rev. drives U.S. gasoline prices from 63 to 86 cents per gal. On Mar. 10 15K women march on the Palace of Justice in Tehran, Iran to protest Ayatollah Khomeini's reversal of women's equality gained under the shah's regime back to 1907, incl. mandatory wearing of the chandor heavy veil in public and removal of women from govt. jobs. On Mar. 18 Iranian authorities detain Am. feminist Kate Millett (1934-) (author of the 1970 bestseller "Sexual Politics") a day before deporting her and a companion for what they call "provocations", i.e., working for women's rights. On Nov. 4, 1978 enraged at the U.S. granting asylum to the Shah, and fearing a repeat of the U.S.-backed Aug. 19, 1953 coup that overthrew Mohammed Mossadegh, a crowd of 3K Iranian Basij paramilitary militia pretending to be students seize the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, taking 90 hostages, incl. 53 Americans, beginning the Iran Hostage Crisis, holding 53 Americans hostage for 444 days until Jan. 20, 1981, demanding that the U.S. send the shah back for trial; in Nov. Iranian deputy PM Ebrahim Yazdi (1931-) resigns over the hostage crisis, going on in 1995-2011 to become leader of the Freedom Movement of Iran (founded 1961); 13 women and blacks are released on Nov. 22; Richard Queen is released on July 1980 after becoming ill, leaving 52 hostages; on Dec. 16 the shah leaves for Panama via Tex.; after he dies on July 27, 1980, it takes a regime change in the U.S. to get the hostages released - and arms for hostages? On Nov. 5 Ayatollah Khomeini declares the U.S. the "Great Satan", and Israel the "Little Satan", and on Nov. 6 Satan, er, he takes power in Iran.
On Mar. 28, 1979 after the "winter of discontent" (6 weeks of widespread labor strikes, helped by the London Sun), British PM (since 1976) James Callaghan of the Labour Party loses a vote of confidence by 1 vote (first time since 1924), and resigns on Mar. 29; on May 3 the 1979 British Gen. Election sees Conservative (Tory) Party leader Margaret Hilda Thatcher (nee Robert) (1925-) elected, becoming Britain's and Europe's first female PM (until 1990) (8th PM under Elizabeth II), and her party wins 339 of 646 seats, a 43-seat majority, largest by any party since 1966; she initiates radical conservative policies which become known as Thatcherism, curtailing the welfare state, privatizing nationalized industries, curbing trade unions, and practicing strict monetarism, bringing the inflation rate down to 5% in her first term, while unemployment rises to 14%.
On Apr. 26, 1979 First Lady Rosalynn Carter addresses women in New York City, urging those in state legislatures to work for male support for the ERA, and to "put the heat on your senators" to nominate women federal judges. On Dec. 18 the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women is adopted by the U.N. Gen. Assembly, coming into force on Sept. 3, 1981; all developed nations except the U.S. ratify it until ?
In 1979 the Air Line Stewards and Stewardesses Assoc. (ALSSA) files a sexual discrimination lawsuit under Title VII of the 1964 U.S. Civil Rights Act for grounding pregnant female attendants while allowing male attendants with pregnant wives to continue to fly; on Oct. 18, 1976 the U.S. district court rules that "TWA's no motherhood policy... provides a clear example of sex discrimination"; too bad, it bars 90% of the claimants for late filing.
In 1979 U.S.-educated Social Dem. Party leader Petra Karin Kelly (1947-92) quits over its policies regarding women, health, and nukes, and founds the anti-nuclear environmental grassroots dem. social justice German Green Party.
In 1979 Sandra M. Gilbert (1936-) and Susan Gubar (1944-) pub. The Madwoman in the Attic, claiming that 19th cent. women writers incl. Jane Austen (1775-1817), Mary Shelley (1797-1851), the Bronte sisters, George Eliot (1819-80), and Emily Dickinson (1830-86) coped with male domination by making their female chars. either angels or monsters.
In 1979 Beth Henley (1952-) debuts Crimes of the Heart, about three sisters in a small Miss. town, becoming the first woman to win a Pulitzer for Drama since 1958 (Ketti Frings), and first to win before opening on Broadway; two more women win the Pulitzer for Drama in the 1980s (Marsha Norman, Wendy Wasserstein).
In 1979 Catharine A. MacKinnon (1946-) pub. Sexual Harassment of Working Women: A Case of Sex Discrimination, which claims it violates existing U.S. civil rights statutes. In 1981 she and Andrea Dworkin (1946-) pub. Pornography and Civil Rights: A New Day for Women's Equality, which defines porno as sexual subordination of women in images and writings. In 1988 they pub. Pornography and Civil Rights, which calls for anti-porno legislation.
In 1979 St. Paul, Minn.-born Starhawk (Miriam Simos) (1951-) pub. the bestseller The Spiral Dance: A Rebirth of the Ancient Religion of the Great Goddess, popularizing neopaganism, Wicca, witchcraft, the Goddess Movement, spiritual feminism, and ecofeminism. In 1982 she pub. Dreaming the Dark: Magic, Sex, and Politics.
In 1980 19% of U.S. families headed by women live in poverty (vs. 38% in 1970 and 50% in 1960). In 1980 the percentage of women in the workforce in Western countries rises to 52% from 45% in 1960; Japan sees a slide to 54.9% from 60.1% in 1960 as less women are employed in agriculture. In 1980 U.S. cigarette sales: 614.5B; low-tar brands account for 49%, up from 16% in 1976; smoking since 1970 has dropped 28% among men 20+-y.-o., 20% among teenage boys, 13% among adult women, but risen 51% among teenage girls since 1968.
On Mar. 6, 1980 Brussels-born bi French "Memoirs of Hadrian" (1951) novelist and animal rights activist Marguerite Yourcenar (1903-87) becomes the first woman elected to the Academie Francaise since its 1635 founding; she is #17 to occupy Seat 3.
On Apr. 1-11, 1980 the 1980 New York City Transit Strike (first since 1966) over wages for contracted workers sees 34K mass transit workers in New York City go on strike, stopping 6.4K subway cars and 4.5K buses, forcing 5.4M to find other ways to get to work until a 17% raise is agreed to (9% in the 1st year, 8% in the 2nd year); women begin wearing sneakers to work to walk over the Brooklyn Bridge, and it becomes a habit. On July 8 after Iran grants women the vote, they demonstrate at the office of the pres. against the Islamic dress code requiring veiling.
On May 4, 1980 Chicago, Ill.-born Jean Marie Auel (1936-) pub. The Clan of the Cave Bear, about blonde-blue Cro-Magnon Wurm Glaciation babe Ayla, who gets adopted by Neanderthals and isn't satisfied to be a male slave like their women are, breaking all the taboos and setting the stage for the appearance of women's libber human women and a ton of women fans; claims that Neanderthals have a collective racial memory that incl. medical knowledge; #1 of 6 in the Earth's Children series, incl. The Valley of the Horses (1982), The Mammoth Hunters (1985), The Plains of Passage (1990), The Shelters of Stone (2002), The Land of Painted Caves (2011).
In Sept. 1980 German-born Jewish-Am. sex therapist "Dr. Ruth" Westheimer (1928-) debuts her radio show "Sexually Speaking" in New York City (until 1988), taking callers and dispensing frank advice, launching her career.
On Oct. 20, 1980 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 6-3 in Jarrett v. Jarrettt that a woman doesn't forfeit custody of her children by fornicating with a live-in boyfriend, like 1.1M others in the U.S., 25% of their households having children; a survey of 106K women by Cosmopolitan mag. finds that 41% of married women have had extramarital affairs, up from 8% in 1948 - it seems you have us outnumbered, but I'm holding your gun?
On Dec. 19, 1980 Colin Higgins' 9 to 5 (Nine to Five) debuts, starring Dolly Parton, Lily Tomlin, and Jane Fonda as secys. whose sexist boss Dabney Coleman lets them humorously enact the women's libber dream of ganging up and 'getting' him; features Dolly's hit song 9 to 5 (#1 in the U.S.), which she allegedly writes on the set by typing on her fingernails.
In 1980 San Francisco, Calif.-born Berkeley, Calif.-raised Calvinist-turned-atheist feminist poet Sharon Olds (nee Sharon Stuart Cobb) (1942-) pub. her first poetry book Satan Says, which incl. the sections "Daughter", "Woman", "Mother", "Journeys". She follows with The Dead and the Living (1983) (Nat. Book Critics Circle Award), which incl. "My Father's Breasts" ("the black charge of the heart within... the smell of cracked pepper and turned earth"), "Grandmother Love Poem" ("under the salt and pepper, she'd show me her true color... in the smoky light she would show me the pure black"), "Connoisseuse of Slugs" ("draw aside the ivy, breathe odor of the wall"), "The Sign of Saturn", The One Girl at the Boys' Party. She follows with The Gold Cell (Feb. 12, 1987), The Matter of This World (1987), The Sign of Saturn (1991), The Father (1992), The Welspring (1996), Blood, Tin, Straw (1999), The Unswept Room (2002), Strike Sparks: Selected Poems 1980-2002 (2004), One Secret Thing (2008), Stag's Leap (Sept. 4, 2012) (Pulitzer Prize), about her 1997 divorce, and Odes (2016). In 2005 First Lady Laura Bush invites her to the Nat. Book Festival in Washington, D.C., and she declines and pub. an open letter in the Oct. 10 issue of The Nation, with the soundbyte: "So many Americans who had felt pride in our country now feel anguish and shame for the current regime of blood, wounds and fire. I thought of the clean linens at your table, the shining knives and the flames of the candles, and I could not stomach it".
In 1980 millionaire shaterproof plastic eyeglasses inventor Robert Klark Graham (1906-97) founds the Repository for Germinal Choice, a sperm bank in an underground backyard bunker to produce geniuses and reverse the "dysgenic crisis" of "retrograde humans", "fend off the idiotic herds", and "stop global Communism", inviting Nobel Prize winners to donate sperm which he then offers to brilliant women, eventually producing 215 children, but not via the sperm of transistor inventor William Shockley and two others, since none of it "took", and they all quit by late 1980, causing the bank to begin accepting sperm from every Tom, Dick, er, Harry, er, John who walks in; bad publicity causes the bank to close in 1999.
In 1981 the female literacy rate in India is only 24.88%, compared to 46.74% for males, with 84% of boys ages 6-14 enrolled in school vs. 54% of girls.
On Jan. 20, 1981 Tampico, Ill.-born Rock River bodyguard (saved 77 people), Eureka College (Disciples of Christ) grad., radio announcer, male model and Hollywood B-movie actor Ronald "Dutch" Wilson Reagan (1911-2004) ("the Great Communicator") becomes the Biblical Number 40th (until 1989) U.S. pres. (oldest person elected pres. so far) (first divorced pres.) in the 58th U.S. Pres. Inauguration (Secret Service codename: Rawhide); the 5th lefty U.S. pres. (last Ford, next G.H.W. Bush); 2nd to skip using his middle name in the oath (1st Jimmy Carter); George Herbert Walker Bush (1924-) becomes the 43rd U.S. vice-pres. (Secret Service codename: Tumbler); First Lady is Anne Francis "Nancy" Robbins Davis Reagan (1923-) (Secret Service codename: Rainbow); his First Inaugural Address (held for the first time on the terrace of the West Front of the Capitol) contains the soundbyte "Government is not the solution to our problem, government is the problem"; minutes after he is sworn-in, Iran releases the U.S. hostages, and they are flown to Algiers after 444 days in captivity, in return for which the U.S. unblocks some Iranian funds and Iran agrees to repay U.S. bank loans; inheriting 10% inflation and 20% interest rates and setting out to undo LBJ's Great Society, Reagan hires long-haired Baby Boomer number-cruncher "budget guru" David Alan Stockman (1946-) as dir. of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) (until Aug. 1985) to go over thick computer printouts in an attempt to understand what items to cut; on Feb. 18 Reagan announces a simultaneous across-the-board 30% tax cut to curtail the welfare state combined with a massive military buildup to please the flag-wavers, relying on future economic growth to pay for it while braving giant deficits, which critics call Reaganomics (called Voodoo Economics by George H.W. Bush while vice-pres.), and arch-foe House Speaker Tip O'Neill says is only for people making over $50K a year; in Feb. Reagan presents the U.S. Economic Tax Recovery Act to Congress, with the first-ever trillion-dollar budget submitted to Congress, which balloons the deficit from $1T to over $4T in 12 years; he begins the dismantling of the power of labor unions and the deindustrialization of the U.S.?; he sets a goal of packing the Supreme Court with new justices to overturn the nasty Roe v. Wade ruling, ending up with three (O'Connor, Kennedy, Scalia), with his successor Bush Sr. appointing two more (Souter, who replaces liberal icon William Brennan, and Thomas, who replaces liberal icon Thurgood Marshall); Reagan appoints Donald Thomas Regan (1918-2003) as White House secy., Caspar Willard "Cap" Weinberger (1917-2006) as defense secy. (soon becoming known as "Cap the Knife" for his cost-cutting ways), Notre Dame-educated fellow Irishman Raymond James Donovan (1930-) as labor secy. #17 (until Mar. 15, 1985), and (after influence by Colo. conservative beer magnate Joseph Coors) Wyo.-born (schmucky-looking?) James Gaius Watt (1938-), 1979 founder of the anti-environmentalist Mountain States Legal Foundation ("dedicated to individual liberty, the right to own and use property...") as interior secy. #43 (until Nov. 8, 1983); on Feb. 5 he testifies before Congress, uttering the soundbyte "We will mine more, drill more, cut more timber"; he also becomes known for the soundbytes "I don't know how many future generations we can count on until the Lord returns", "We don't have to protect the environment - the Second Coming is at hand", and "My responsibility is to follow the Scriptures which call upon us to occupy the land until Jesus returns"; after more strings pulled by Coors, Reagan further angers environmentalists by appointing Wyo.-born Anne McGill Gorsuch (later Burford) (1942-2004) (former deputy district atty. in Denver, Colo. and rep. from Colo.) as dir. #4 of the EPA (first female) (until Mar. 9, 1983), who goes on to slash the budget by $200M and cut staff by 23%; he makes one good pick, staunch anti-Communist Jean Jordan Kirkpatrick (1926-2006) as U.S. ambassador #16 to the U.N. (first woman) (until 1985), known for her Kirkpatrick Doctrine of U.S. support for any anti-Commie govt., incl. authoritarian regimes; Jewish-Am. thinker ("the Godfather of Neoconservatism") Irving Kristol (1920-2009) (who defines neoconservatives as "liberals mugged by reality") works to support Reagan's domestic agenda incl. supply-side economics, raising big bucks to create an apparatus of conservative think tanks that later boost the Bushes into the White House, brokering a tactical alliance between Jewish neocons and Christian evangelicals, even anti-Semitic ones as long as they are against the pesky Muslims; Jimmy Carter leaves office broke and bitter, his peanut warehouse in Plains, Ga. $1M in debt, and breaks tradition by criticizing his successor Reagan, but soon begins pursuing high-minded projects, working with Millard Dean Fuller (1935-2009), 1976 founder of Habitat for Humanity Internat., and founding the Carter Center in 1982, setting out to become a super Peter Pan statesman?
On Mar. 23, 1981 the U.S. Supreme Court rules ?-? in ? v. ? that states can require, with some exceptions, parental notification when teenage girls seek abortions; statutory rape can be made a crime for men but not women. On Apr. 4 Maria Lea Pedini-Angelini (1954-) becomes capt.-regent of San Marino (until Oct. 1), the tiny country's first female head of state, after which it becomes a regular thing, giving women's libbers a string of smiley faces on their calendars. In May after tainted water and overdiluted formula are found to leave infants sick and malnourished, 119 nations vote for a voluntary Internat. Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes developed by WHO to restrict marketing of infant formula to women in favor of breastfeeding; the U.S. is the only dissenting vote; on Mar. 16, 1982 Nestle Corp. of Switzerland issues guidelines to comply, and promises to curtail distribution to hospitals, causing the 1977 boycott to be suspended in 1984; in 1988 after hospitals are flooded with free supplies, the boycott is reinstated (until ?). On June 14 an equal rights amendment for women is passed in Switzerland, enshrining it in the constitution; too bad, on June 14, 1991 hundreds of thousands of women stage protests about the lack of improvement in their situation, causing a new equality law to be passed in 1996.
On June 18, 1981 U.S. Supreme Court Justice (since 1958) Potter Stewart announces his retirement; on Sept. 22 after Reagan appoints her on Aug. 19, Sandra Day O'Connor (1930-) becomes the first woman U.S. Supreme Court justice (#103) (until Jan. 31, 2006); pro-abortion and pro-ERA, she sat on the Ariz. state appeals court only 18 mo., and graduated #3 from Stanford U. Law School (#1 was William Rehnquist).
On Sept. 3, 1981 the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (adopted by the U.N. Gen. Assembly in 1979) comes into force; all developed nations except the U.S. ratify it until ? On Sept. 5 Egyptian feminist physician-writer Nawal El Saadawi (1931-) ("the Simone de Beauvoir of the Arab World") is arrested along with 1,535 others for "stirring up sectarian strife" against Anwar el-Sadat, then released after his Oct. 6 assassination; her fight against female genital mutilation (FGM) incl. the soundbyte "Society looks at the woman as a tool of love and deprives her of the one organ which will make her be good at it." On Oct. 22 Spanish police arrest three members of the ETA Basque separatist org., incl. feminists Jimina Alonso Matthias and Carmen Santos, causing a protest by 100+ feminists. On Nov. 12 the Church of England Gen. synod votes to admit women to holy orders - raging with remorse?
In 1981 Anne Wexler (1921-2009) becomes the first woman to found her own U.S. lobbying firm; in 1970 as mgr. of the Senate campaign of future hubby Joe Duffey, she enlisted Bill and Hillary Clinton as volunteers, giving them their first job in politics, after which she becomes an informal advisor to the Clinton admin.
On Jan. 21, 1982 (they call him Chick?) Charles Everett Koop (1916-) becomes U.S. surgeon gen. #13 (until Oct. 1, 1989), raising the public profile of his position; in Mar. he pub. a Report on Cigarettes, calling cigarette smoking the #1 preventable cause of death, with lung cancer killing 111K Ams. a year, up from 18K in 1950, and costing the U.S. in $13B a year plus $25B loss in wages and production; by the middle of the decade lung cancer will kill more women each year than breast cancer; in 1984 Koop claims that nicotine is as addictive as heroin or cocaine, and calls on Americans to "create a smoke-free society in the U.S. by the year 2000"; he goes on to release seven more health reports on tobacco use, incl. the first report on health consequences of involuntary tobacco smoke exposure; too bad, he goes after gay anal sex as a primary vector of transmission of HIV, upsetting gays one way and the religious the other way by his frankness.
That 1965 Astronaut Barbie really worked? On Apr. 19, 1982 Sally Kristen Ride (1951-) and Guion S. "Guy" Bluford Jr. (1942-) become the first woman and first black to be tapped by NASA for U.S. space missions - ride sally ride, and go on and bluff for the government? On Aug. 30, 1983 U.S. Air Force Col. Guion S. "Guy" Bluford Jr. (1942-) becomes the first African-Am. astronaut to travel in space, blasting off aboard Space Shuttle Challenger Mission STS-8, also carrying Richard H. Truly, Daniel Brandenstein, William Thornton, and Dale Gardner; after launching an Indian weather satellite, it returns on Sept. 5 - a long way from Port Chicago? Ride, Sally, Ride? On June 18, 1983 (Sat.) Sally Kristen Ride (1951-) becomes the first U.S. woman in space on the 5-person Space Shuttle Challenger, also carrying Robert L. Crippen, Frederick H. Hauck, John M. Fabian, and Norman E. Thagard; after using the Remote Manipulating Structure (Arm) to deploy and retrieve a satellite for the first time, it returns to Edwards AFB, Calif. on June 24.
On July 1, 1982 the U.S. Supreme (Burger) Court rules 7-2 in Miss. U. for Women v. Hogan that a single-sex admissions policy for a state-supported univ. violates the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment, and that a nursing school can't exclude males from admission because it "tends to perpetuate the stereotyped view of nursing as an exclusively women's job".
On Dec. 12, 1982 30K women hold a peace protest in Greenham Common in England, forming a human chain around the 9 mi. (14.5km) perimeter fence.
In 1982 the Punjab Women Lawyers Assoc., founded by atty. ("Little Heroine") Asma Jahangir (1952-2018 protests in Islamabad, Pakistan against dictator pres. Gen. Zia ul-Haq's Islamization laws, uttering the soundbytes: "Family laws [which are religious laws] give women few rights" and "They have to be reformed because Pakistan cannot live in isolation. We cannot remain shackled while other women progress". on Feb. 12, 1983 it protests on The Mall in Lahore against the Hudood Ordinances that make women victims of rape have to prove their innocence in court or face punishment, and the Proposed Law of Evidence that reduces the value of a woman's testimony to half that of a man's, and are brutally suppressed by the police; later in 1983 the Women's Action Forum (WAF), formed in Sept. 1981 by Jahangir et al. demonstrates in Lahore over 13-y.-o. blind girl Safia Bibi, who was raped by her employers and sentenced to three years in prison for fornication (zina), getting the appeals court to overturn the verdict.
In 1982 Am. feminist psychologist Carol Gilligan (1936-) pub. In A Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development, which disputes research by her colleague Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-87) that girls reach an avg. lower level of moral development than boys, and advocates "the ethics of care" over "the ethics of justice"; "The little book that started a revolution." (Harvard U. Press)
In 1982 Sugar City, Idaho-born Harvard U. feminist Mormon (oxymoron?) historian Laurel Thatcher Ulrich (1938-)pub. her first book Good Wives: Image and Reality in the Lives of Women in Northern New England, 1650-1750, followed by A Midwife's Tale: The Life of Martha Ballard Based on Her Diary, 1785-1812 (1990) (Pulitzer Prize), All God's Critters Got a Place in the Choir (w/Emma Lou Thayne) (1995), The Age of Homespun: Objects and Stories in the Creation of an American Myth (2001), and Yards and Gates: Gender in Harvard and Radcliffe History (2004). In 2007 she pub. Well-Behaved Women Seldom Make History, about how her slogan in the obscure 1976 scholarly article Vertuous Women Found: New England Ministerial Literature, 1668-1735 went viral.
On Jan. 25, 1983 Pope John Paul II signs the new Code of Canon Law, incorporating Vatican II changes, expanding women's rights in the Church, and promoting ecumenism - oxymorons?
On Apr. 20, 1983 the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame is created; it takes until 1995 for enough donations to come in to open it officially at 1100 Rock and Roll Blvd. in Cleveland, Ohio on the shores of Lake Erie (home of Alan Freed), designed by I.M. Pei. On Jan. 23, 1986 it inducts its first group of inductees incl. Chuck Berry (1926-), James Brown (1933-2006), Ray Charles (1930-2004), Sam Cooke (1931-64), Fats Domino (1928-), the Everly Brothers, Buddy Holly (1936-59), Jerry Lee Lewis (1935-), Little Richard (1932-), and Elvis Presley (1935-77). On Jan. 3, 1987 "Queen of Soul" Aretha Franklin (1942-) becomes the first woman inducted. The basic requirement is 25 years lapsed since the release of the first record. Too bad, it ends up snubbing Red State favorites incl. Bon Jovi, Steve Miller Band, Kansas, Styx, Stevie Ray Vaughn, and Ted Nugent.
On June 15, 1983 the U.S. Civil Rights Commission criticizes the Reagan admin. for failing to appoint more women and minorities to high-level federal govt. positions, causing Pres. Reagan to fire all four members, incl. 1980 Carter appointee Mary Frances Berry (1938-), who successfully sues to be reinstated; meanwhile on Nov. 30 Reagan signs a law reconstituting the commission as an independent agency jointly administered by the pres. and Congress, whose eight members don't need Senate confirmation and may only be removed for neglect of duty or malfeasance. On July 10 the Nat. Women's Political Caucus holds a meeting in San Antonio, Tex. with 400 delegates wearing buttons saying "Jane Wyman was right" (to divorce Ronald Reagan), and "I'm a Republican woman and I want my party back".
She's a beautiful girl, no matter if she's black or white or black on white? On Sept. 17, 1983 after singing "Happy Days Are Here Again", Vanessa Lynn Williams (1963-) becomes the first African-Am. Miss America; too bad, she has to resign on July 23, 1984 after nude lezzie fun photos of her with a white woman are pub. 6 mo. later in the Sept. 1984 issue of Penthouse mag. (which sells 5.3M copies, the #2 selling issue of a mag. in history, #1 being the Nov. 1972 issue of Playboy at 7.1M); runner-up Suzette Charles (DeGaetano) (1963-) becomes the 2nd African-Am. Miss America, serving a record 7 weeks - a hundred years from now sexual athletics will be a required event? On Nov. 16 after her NOW rival Shelly Mandel gets her arrested for an old case, a jury in Gretna, La. acquits feminist activist Viginia "Ginny" Foat (1941-) of helping her abusive bartender ex-husband John "Jack" Sidote" murder Argentine businessman tourist Moses Chaiyo in Nev. way back in 1965; after her run for NOW vice-pres. is ruined, she struggles to regain her position and comes out as a lesbian, but never comes all the way back up?
On Dec. 9, 1983 Barbra Streisand (1942-) debuts her film Yentl, based on the Isaac Bashevis Singer story, starring Streisand as a Yiddish girl dressing as a boy to study the Talmud while falling for Mandy Patinkin and trying to avoid a wedding surprise with Amy Irving; wins an Oscar for original song score Papa Can You Hear Me?; Streisand becomes the first woman to win a Golden Globe for directing.
In 1983 Joyce Johnson (1935-) pub. the autobio. Minor Characters: A Young Woman's Coming-of-Age in the Beat Orbit of Jack Kerouac, a view of the Beatniks by Jack Kerouac's 2-year love bunny; "Feminists deplore the way Kerouac depicts totally irresponsible sexual relationships with women... they find nothing that speaks to female readers."
On Jan. 10, 1984 Greece passes a law mandating equal pay for equal work by women and men - beats lame pickup lines and shut your pie-hole? On Feb. 3 John Buster et al. of Harbor-UCLA Medical Center announce the first woman-to-woman embryo transfer resulting in a live birth. On Mar. 12 after the British Nat. Coal Board, headed by profit-motivated Sir Ian Kinloch MacGregor (1912-98) shut down a colliery in Yorkshire, calling its male miners less productive than women miners in the U.S., and announced plans to close up to 20 mines, Nat. Union of Mineworkers head (1981-2000) Arthur Scargill (1938-) calls him "the American butcher of British industry", and approves the U.K. Miners' Strike of 1984-5 of 55K miners, which spreads to other unions, reaching 3M-4M by the end of the year; by the time the coal industry is privatized in 1994, the 170 collieries operating this year are down to 15, and only eight by 2007. On May 14 Liberal Jeanne Mathilde Sauve (Sauvé) (1922-93) is appointed the 23rd gov.-gen. of Canada (until Jan. 28, 1990), becoming the first woman to hold this position. On May 14 Carmen Pereira (1937-) becomes acting pres. of Guinea-Bissau (until May 16), becoming a V for women's libbers. On June 9 the Algerian Family Code is enacted as an attempt at compromise between medieval Sharia law and modern women's rights, setting the legal age for marriage of a woman to 18, and requiring her consent plus a dowry, although she can't marry a non-Muslim; the father may block the marriage, and a man may have up to four wives. On July 1 after Prince Hans-Adam II (b. 1945) assumes the responsibilities but not the title of the principality of Liechtenstein (pop. 26K) from his father Franz Joseph II, a referendum of male voters finally grants women the right to vote after rejecting it in 1973 and 1973, becoming a big V for the horny, er, prince. On July 3 the U.S. Supreme Court rules in Roberts v. U.S. Jaycees that states can force the Jaycees to admit women.
On June 1, 1984 Audre Lorde (1934-92) pub. Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches "Perhaps... I am the face of one of your fears. Because I am a woman, because I am Black, because I am a lesbian, because I am myself - a Black woman warrior poet doing my work - come to ask you, are you doing yours?"
On July 12, 1984 Dem. pres. candidate Walter F. Mondale announces that he has chosen N.Y. U.S. Rep. Geraldine Anne Ferraro (1935-2011) to be his running mate; "It has such a nice ring to it" (Ferraro) - veep, running mate, or her name?
On July 25, 1984 Soviet cosmonaut Svetlana Yevgeneyevna Savitskaya (1948-) becomes the first woman to walk in space as she carries out more than three hours of experiments outside the orbiting space station Salyut 7, which she shares with two men, causing rumors of space conception experiments; on Oct. 11 Space Shuttle Challenger astronaut and manly woman Kathryn Dwyer "Kathy" Sullivan (1951-) becomes the first U.S. woman to walk in space.
On July 28-Aug. 12, 1984 the XXIII (23rd) Summer Olympics are held in Los Angeles, Calif. after the Soviets pull out on May 7-8, and 13 other Communist nations follow suit (Romania attends); 6,797 athletes from 140 nations compete in 221 events in 23 sports; the first privately-funded games (profit $200M), featuring a new IOC trust fund set up in 1985 at the urging of Edwin Moses to subsidize athletes; the official mascot is Sam the Olympic Eagle; the opening ceremonies feature 80 grand pianos; the 9,320 mi. all-by-foot torch relay from New York City to LA involves 3,616 different runners, incl. 200 from sponsor AT&T; John Williams composes Olympic Fanfare and Theme for it; synchronized swimming, rhythmic gymnastics, and wind surfing debut; tennis (last seen in the 1924 Summer Olympics) is a demo sport, and baseball holds its 6th exhibition; the opening ceremony features Bill Suitor arriving in a Bell Aerosystems Jet Pack (Tyler Rocketbelt); the U.S. wins a lopsided share (83) of gold medals, West Germany is 2nd with 59, and Romania is 3rd with 20; Frederick Carlton "Carl" Lewis (1961-) equals Jesse Owens in 1936 by winning four golds (100m, 200m, 4x100m relay, long jump); Greg Louganis (1960-) of the U.S. wins gold in springboard and platform diving; the marathon is watched by 1M in person; Joan Benoit Samuelson (1957-) of the U.S. wins the first-ever Olympic women's marathon; Evelyn Ashford (1957-) of the U.S. wins the 100m gold with a world record 10.76 sec. (first under 11 sec.), while Gabi Andersen-Schiess of Switzerland upstages her with a stumbling last lap; Zola Budd (1966-) of South Africa (representing the U.K. to get around the apartheid problem) bumps U.S. runner Mary Decker Slaney (1958-) off the track in the 3 km for a pity party moment, allowing Marcica Puica to win; Nawal El Moutawakel (1962-) of Morocco becomes the first female medal winner from an Islamic nation (400m hurdles); Mary Lou Retton (1968-) of the U.S. becomes the first gymnast outside Eastern Europe to win the gymnastics all-round competition after only 1 of 11 women who won golds in the 1983 World Championships compete; Kiwi archer Neroli Susan Fairhall (1944-2006) becomes the first paraplegic athlete in the Olympics, placing 35th; the first privately-financed Olympics (organized by Peter Ueberroth); the debut of the Fuji Blimp.
On Oct. 20, 1984 Elisabeth Kopp (1936-) becomes the first woman elected to the Swiss Federal Council (until Jan. 12, 1989). On Nov. 2 Margie Velma Barfield (nee Bullard) (b. 1932), convicted of the fatal poisoning of her boyfriend is executed by lethal injection in Raleigh, N.C., becoming the first woman executed in the U.S. since 1962, and the first woman executed by lethal injection.
In 1984 EMILY's (Early Money Is Like Yeast) List is established to finance pro-choice Dem. women running for U.S. nat. political office, causing more women to get elected.
On Feb. 14, 1985 the Worldwide Conservative Rabbinical Assembly approves women in the Jewish clergy. On Sept. 5 Chilean women demonstrate in Santiago against the regime of Gen. Augusto Pinochet, and are turned back by troops with water cannon, causing them to shout how they have "clean hands" compared to them; on Sept. 5-7 riots in Chile kill 10.
On Dec. 14, 1985 Wilma Mankiller (1946-) (full-blooded Cherokee father, Dutch-Irish mother) becomes the first woman to lead a major Am. Indian tribe as she takes office as principal chief of the Cherokee Nation of Okla., the 2nd-largest tribe in the U.S. (first is the Navajo Nation), with a pop. of 120K and capital in Tahlequah in NE Okla.
On Dec. 18, 1985 Steven Spielberg's The Color Purple debuts, based on the 1982 Alice Walker novel, starring Danny Glover and Adolph Caesar; Oprah Winfrey's Oscar-nominated big screen debut; the first time that three black Am. women are nominated for the same film (Whoopi Goldberg, Margaret Avery); score by Quincy Jones.
In 1985 the U.S.-based Guerrilla Girls feminist art collective begins holding protest-like exhibitions in public places and big name galleries and museums to protest racial, ethnic, gender inequality and other injustices.
In 1985 Donna Haraway (1944-) pub. A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century, containing the soundbytes: "We are all chimeras, theorized and fabricated hybrids of machine and organism; in short, we are cyborgs"; "There is nothing about being female that naturally binds women together into a unified category. There is not even such a state as 'being' female, itself a highly complex category constructed in contested sexual scientific discourses and other social practices."
In 1988 Kiwi economist Marilyn Joy Waring (1952-) pub. If Women Counted (Counting for Nothing): A New Feminist Economics, which criticizes the use of GDP as the only measure of progress, and claims that failing to value women and nature are resulting in bad globalization decisions, founding Feminist Economics.
In Apr. 1986 Kaare Willoch's Conservative-led Norwegian coalition govt. resigns, and on May 9 former PM (1981) Gro Harlem Brundtland (1939-) returns to power as Norwegian PM (until Oct. 16, 1989); she immediately appoints eight women to her 18-member cabinet; she becomes PM again on Nov. 3, 1990-Oct. 25, 1996.
In 1986 Hungarian-born Zsuzsanna "Susan" Polgar (1969-) becomes the first woman to qualify for the men's World Chess Championship after winning 15 qualifying rounds; too bad, the rules won't let her play, although the Chess Federation changes the rules next year; in 1991 she becomes the first woman to win a grandmaster title in competition against men, and in 1996 after immigrating to the U.S. in 1994 she becomes the first chess player to win the triple crown (World Blitz, Rapid, and Classical World Championships). The sister of chess players Sofia Polgar (1974-) and Judit Polgar (1976-), she emigrates to the U.S. in 1994; no, this is not a case of women being equal to men, since daddy Laszlo Polgar claims credit for training them all at chess from infancy to prove that geniuses are made, not born; leave it to Fido, but in Nov. 1986 FIDE gives every female player 100 bonus points except her in order to knock her from the #1 female spot that she won in 1984 at age 15.
On Feb. 4, 1987 Afghan women's rights activist Meena (b. 1956) is assassinated in Quetta, Pakistan by Afghan KGB (KHAD) agents. On Feb. 9 the New York Stock Exchange finally installs a ladies restroom in the Exchange Luncheon Club. On Mar. 25 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 6-3 in Johnson v. Santa Clara County that employers may sometimes favor women and members of minority groups over men and whites in hiring and promotions in order to eliminate "manifest imbalance" in "traditionally seregated job categories". On July 1 Hungary passes new marriage and divorce laws, raising the marriagable age of women from 16 to 18, raising the waiting period from 1 to 3 mo., and insuring equal rights and responsibilities of divorced parents. On July 18 Molly Yard (1912-2005) is elected pres. of the Nat. Org. for Women (NOW) (until 1991), succeeding Eleanor Smeal, fighting against the Bork nomination and the Persian Gulf War, which she claims is being fought for "clan-run monarchies". On July 30 Pres. Reagan directs surgeon gen. C. Everett Koop to prepare a Report on Abortion's Effect on Women, which he balks at, telling his staff on Jan. 10, 1989 to drop it, but they release the report under his name anyway, claiming that induced abortion is safe.
On Sept. 28, 1987 Harvard-educated U.S. Rep. (D-Colo.) (1973-97) Patricia Nell Scott "Pat" Schroeder (1940-) stinks herself up by tearfully announcing in Denver that she will not run for the 1988 Dem. pres. nomination in a weepy squinty speech, causing critics of women's lib to jump on the change, er, chance to say that women are too emotional to handle the top rag, er, job. In 1987 Anglican deacon Sylvia Mutch becomes the first woman to conduct a marriage in the Church of England in York, England.
In 1987 Jared Mason Diamond (1937-) pub. The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race; "...recent discoveries suggest that the adoption of agriculture, supposedly our most decisive step toward a better life, was in many ways a catastrophe from which we have never recovered. With agriculture came the gross social and sexual inequality, the disease and despotism, that curse our existence."
Shut yo' mouth or you're outta here, this is the land of the free, as long as you like being unemployed? On Jan. 16, 1988 CBS-TV sports commentator Jimmy "the Greek" Snyder (1919-96), famous for predicting the outcome of 18 of 21 Super Bowls is summarily fired one day after telling a TV reporter in Washington, D.C. that "During the slave period, the slave owner would breed his big black with his big woman so that he would have a big black kid"; this event signals the arrival of the Regime of Political Correctness in the U.S., where the leftist mainly Jewish-controlled media attempt to stifle all free speech by creating an atmosphere where anybody expressing an opinion not in line with their super-liberal agenda of acceptance for integration, racemixing, homosexuality, feminism, affirmative action, and secularization (de-Christianization) of the govt. is open season for any govt. entity, univ., or corporation to fire at will, with the action accepted without question and applauded openly by the media as not to be questioned - actually the horrible boat trip from Africa aboard slave ships already weeded out the weak and left the main pop. ready for prime time?
On Mar. 6, 1988 the board of trustees at Gallaudet U. in Washington, D.C. (a liberal arts college for the deaf) selects a hearing woman to be school pres., causing outraged students to shut down the campus, and forcing the selection of deaf pres. Dr. Irving King Jordan (1943-) on Mar. 13 instead; he retires on Dec. 31, 2006 - they too can hate people for being different? On June 3 Penny Marshall's Big debuts, starring Tom Hanks as a 13-y.-o. boy in a man's body, and is the first film dir. by a woman to gross $100M at the box Office; Hanks got the role after Steven Guttenberg turned it down - this took till the end of the 1980s? On June 20 the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously upholds a New York City law making it illegal for private clubs to generally exclude women and minorities. On Aug. 15 Pope Paul II delivers the apostolic letter Mulieris Dignitatem (on the dignity of women), apologizing in the name of the Church to women for blaming only Eve for Original Sin. In 1988 the Nat. Museum of Women in the Arts in Washington, D.C. opens.
On Sept. 24, 1988 members of the E Mass. Episcopal diocese elect Barbara C. Harris (1930-) as the first female Anglican bishop in history; she is consecrated in a ceremony in Boston next Feb. 11.
On Dec. 21, 1988 Mike Nichols' Working Girl, written by Kevin Wade debuts, a New York business world Cinderella story starring Melanie Griffith as Tess McGill, whose scheming faux high-class boss Katharine Parker (Sigourney Weaver) breaks a leg skiing, allowing her a free pass to impersonate her and move on up while stealing her boyfriend Jack Trainer (Harrison Ford) and dumping tattooed tomcat boyfriend Mick Dugan (Alec Baldwin); Joan Cusack (as Cyn) plays the sidelines office cheerleader; Philip Bosco plays savior boss Oren Trask, who gives "boney ass" Parker the boot, and a promotion to Tess for the happiest ending for women in the working world ever, albeit the real message is that men are still the big boss; "I have a head for business and a bod for sin, is there anything wrong with that?"; "I can't believe it, she's out, she made it out, she got out!"
In 1988 Lydia Bradley (1962-) of New Zealand becomes the first woman to summit Mt. Everest without supplemental oxygen.
On Mar. 21, 1989 Madonna (1958-) releases album #4 Like a Prayer (#1 in the U.S. and U.K.) (sells 14M copies); it incl. Like A Prayer, Express Yourself, Cherish, Oh Father, Keep It Together; the video for "Like A Prayer" incl. stigmata, burning crosses, and a love scene with a saint, pissing-off the Vatican, causing Pepsi to cancel her sponsorship contract but let her keep her $5M fee, which she rationalizes as okay since it was about dissing white male patriarchal Christianity - it's either her way or the highway, she's an American and does her own thing, making her one of the greatest world symbols of emancipated women?
On July 21, 1989 Rob Reiner's When Harry Met Sally debuts, written by Nora Ephron, starring Billy Crystal as Harry Burns, and Meg Ryan as Sally Albright, New York City friends who take 12 years to turn into lovers and 3 more mo. to get married; theme song is "It Had to Be You" by Isham Jones (1924); New York Giants fan Harry reads the last page of a novel first; a big hit with white Baby Boomer women for its scene where Ryan fakes an orgasm in a restaurant; "I'll have what she's having" (Rob Reiner's mom); "Men and women can never be friends because the sex part gets in the way" (Harry).
On Dec. 6, 1989 the Ecole Polytechnique (Montreal) Massacre sees 28 women singled out and shot (14 fatally) at the U. of Montreal School of Engineering by 25-y.-o. atheist (closet Muslim?) Marc Lepine (Lépine) (Gamil Rodrigue Liass Gharbi) (b. 1964) (son of an Algerian Muslim immigrant father and Canadian Catholic mother), who claims that he is "fighting feminism", then takes his own life - the world is a stage, the stage is a world of entertainment?
On Dec. 15, 1989 a popular uprising against Romanian dictator (since 1965) Nicolae Ceausescu (1918-89), "the Leader", "the Genius of the Carpathians" begins as demonstrators gather in Timisoara to prevent the eviction from his church flat of dissident Calvinist bishop Laszlo Tokes (1952-); on Dec. 21 Ceausescu delivers his final public speech, which is booed; he flees from power in a heli, is captured by the army, and executed along with his wife Elena on Dec. 25 by firing squad after an open letter accuses them of crimes; on Dec. 22 Ion Iliescu (1930-) becomes pres. #2 of Romania (until Nov. 29, 1996); during Ceau-boy's iron-fisted rule, he encouraged women to have at least five children; after his death, Romania has the highest abortion rate in the world (98 out of 100 live births).
In 1989 Victoria Murden and Shirley Metz become the first women to reach the South Pole overland; nine other non-sacred cow males shall remain nameless?
On Feb. 25, 1990 Nicaraguans give an upset V to opponents of the ruling Sandinistas as pro-U.S. Violeta Barrios Torres de Chamorro (1929-) (widow of Pedro Joaquin Chamorro, who was assassinated by Somoza's men in 1978) is elected pres., ousting Communist pres. Daniel Ortega; the Sandinistas are ordered to disarm on Feb. 26; on Mar. 12 U.S. vice-pres. Dan Quayle meets in Santiago, Chile with Ortega, who promises to peacefully relinquish power to her; on Mar. 13 Pres. Bush lifts trade sanctions against Nicaragua in a show of support, and on Apr. 25 she is sworn in as pres. of Nicaragua (until Jan. 10, 1997), ending 11 years of leftist Sandinista rule, promising to abolish the draft and seek U.S. economic aid; she becomes the 1st elected govt. head in Latin Am. and 2nd woman pres. in North Am. On Mar. 9 Puerto Rico-born Dr. Antonia Coello Novello (1944-) is sworn in as U.S. surgeon gen., succeeding C. Everett Koop and becoming the first woman and first Hispanic to hold the job, also the first lefty. On Mar. 13 supreme court chief justice Ertha Pascal-Trouillot (1943-) becomes the provisional pres. of Haiti (until Feb. 7, 1991), the first woman pres. of Haiti. On Mar. 30 Idaho Gov. Cecil Andrus vetoes a highly restrictive state abortion measure, saying the bill gives a woman and her family no flexibility in cases of rape and incest. On Apr. 5 Sabine Bergmann-Pohl (1946-) becomes the last head of state of East Germany (until Oct. 2), and the first woman. On May 17 a gen. synod of the Church of Ireland votes in favor of the ordination of women as priests and bishops - check out how annoying blemishes around your chin disappear? On May 18 in the face of heated student protests, the trustees of all-female Mills College in Oakland, Calif. (founded in 1852 in Benicia, Calif.) vote to rescind their earlier decision to admit men; in 2004 they begin welcoming transgender students who self-identify as women. On July 11 New York City police arrest Jerome "Dartman" Wright (1957-) for stabbing 53 light-skinned women in business suits or skirts with darts in the buttocks during the summer.
Saddam's big miscalculation? On Aug. 2, 1990 Black Thursday sees Iraqi troops invade Kuwait and set up a well-oiled puppet govt.; on Aug. 2 by a 14-0 vote the U.N. Security Council condemns Iraq, and in Resolution 660 demands the unconditional withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait; PLO chief Yasser Arafat's support of Sodamn Insane results in the PLO's isolation; on Aug. 3 thousands of Iraqi soldiers push to within a few mi. of the border with Saudi Arabia, heightening world concerns about the invasion spreading; on Aug. 6 the U.N. imposes sanctions on Iraq, barring it from selling oil except in exchange for food and medicine; on Aug. 6-7 Operation Desert Shield begins as Pres. Bush at the request of King Fahd sends U.S. troops to Saudi Arabia to guard it, and are joined on Aug. 11 by Egyptian and Moroccan troops from the Arab League; on Aug. 8 Iraq annexes Kuwait as its 19th province, with Saddam Hussein's cousin Ali Hassan Al-Majid as military gov.; Italian politician Cicciolina (1951-) offers to have sex with Saddam Hussein if he will release all foreign hostages; the Saudis permit U.S. troops to use a base in their country, angering Muslim conservatives, who see infidels polluting their soil, while Kuwaitis are more practical, but politely request Army chaplains to remove religious insignia from their uniforms and get antsy about the sight of women driving cars and carrying guns?; after seeing women soldiers among the U.S. forces, 47 women from the Saudi intelligentsia go for a joy ride to protest Saudi Arabia being the world's only country that keeps women from driving, getting arrested and crushed by the regime; meanwhile Am. Christian evangelist Franklin Graham (1952-) is told by Saudi officials that Christian Bibles and religious material is illegal to send to Saudi Arabia in the mail, along with alcohol and porno - the U.S. is faced with the dilemma that destroying minority Sunni control of Iraq will make it easy for Shiite Iran to absorb it, opening a royal road to Israel through Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, which is why they don't attack and cut off Baghdad when the Iraqi troops are out in Kuwait, but just try to drive them back? Too bad that Bush Jr. isn't up to speed when he gets in the White House?
On Nov. 6, 1990 U.S. Dem. increase their congressional voting strength in midterm elections; quick-quipping Texas-twanging Dem. Ann (Dorothy Ann Willis) Richards (1933-2006), elected as state treasurer in 1982 after treatment for alcoholism in 1980 becomes gov. of Texas (until 1994) (2nd female Texas gov., the first being Ma Ferguson in 1925), and is sworn in on Jan. 15 next year in Austin, going on to fulfill campaign vows to create a "New Texas" and "open government to everyone" by appointing women and minorities. On Nov. 9 back in yee-haw Saudi Arabia, mufti Sheikh 'Abd Al-'Aziz ibn Baz (1912-99) issues a fatwa against women drivers, causing the Saudi interior ministry to follow suit on Nov. 15. On Nov. 27 the canton Appenzell Rhodes-Interieur is required to count women's votes by a decision of the Swiss Federal Tribunal, becoming the last Swiss state to finally give women the right to vote.
In 1991 51% of women use birth control, compared to 10% in 1950; On Jan. 9 teachers' unions in Greece order a strike after a teacher is murdered by right-wingers, causing riots in Athens, hospitalizing over 100; on Feb. 27 moderate Aleka (Alexandra) Papariga (1945-) is elected gen. secy. of the Greek Communist Party, becoming the first woman to hold the post - not literally? On Mar. 20 Khaleda Zia (1945-), widow of assassinated pres. Ziaur Rahman (1936-81) becomes PM #9 of Bangladesh (until Mar. 30, 1996) (first woman PM). On Mar. 20 the U.S. Supreme Court rules unanimously in the Johnson Controls case that employers can't use "fetal protection" policies (from lead etc.) as excuses for banning women from hazardous jobs. On Mar. 23 Libyan-trained Foday Saybana Sankoh (1937-2003) leads Rev. United Front (RUF) rebels into Sierra Leone and begins the 11-year Sierra Leone Civil War (ends Jan. 18, 2002), which kills 75K and displaces 2M; it becomes known for atrocities, incl. mass rapes, sex slaves, and large numbers of women soldiers. On Apr. 2 Rita Margaret Johnston (1935-) becomes the first woman PM (#29) of Canada (until Nov. 5) after British Columbia's Social Credit Party selects her to replace William N. Vander Zalm, who was ousted for violating conflict of interest guidelines; she is voted out of office in Oct. On Apr. 20 Kaci Kullmann Five (1951-) is elected leader of the Norwegian Conservative Party; women now lead three of the four major parties, and hold one-third of seats in the Storting and one-half of the cabinet positions - should call it the Storking? In June the number of inmates in U.S. prisons reaches a record 804,524, 46,230 of which are women; 2-6% are infected with AIDS, compares to 0.1% of the general pop.
The token black on the court changes faces, but the difference is between the legs not the ears? On June 28, 1991 liberal black U.S. Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall (since 1967) retires, and on July 1 conservative black U.S. Court of Appeals judge for the District of Columbia (since 1990) (chmn. of the EEOC in 1982-90) Clarence Thomas (1948-) is nominated by Pres. George H.W. Bush, winning Senate confirmation by 52-48 on Oct. 15 after a bumpy confirmation process, championed by U.S. Sen. (R-Mo.) John Claggett "Jack" Danforth (1936-); on Nov. 1 he becomes the 107th U.S. Supreme Court justice, and the 2nd African-Am.; his confirmation is plagued by criticism by civil rights groups for his opposition to affirmative action programs and school desegregation busing, and is almost derailed by a leaked FBI report on allegations of sexual harassment made by U. of Okla. (Norman) law prof. Anita Faye Hill (1956-), who had worked for him at the Dept. of Ed. and the EEOC, and publicly woo-woos about his sexual advances on her, incl. his bragging about the size of his brains?; in early Oct. the Senate Judiciary Committee, chaired by Sen. Joseph Robinette "Joe" Biden Jr. (1942-) (D-Del.) explores the charges, which Thomas calls a "high-tech lynching", but they decide are not conclusive; after joining the court, Thomas converts to Roman Catholicism; "He told me that if I ever told anybody, it would ruin his career" (Hill).
On Nov. 21, 1991 (after threatening to veto it until Repub. Mo. Sen. John C. Danforth drafts a compromise bill) Pres. Bush signs the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1991, which overturns a series of Supreme Court rulings and extends to women, the handicapped, and religious minorities the power to collect monetary awards and limited punitive damages. In 1991 Nadine Strossen (1951-) becomes the first woman pres. of the Am. Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), succeeding Norman Dorsen (b. 1931). In 1991 women are elected mayor for the first time in Salt Lake City, Utah (Deedee Corradini), Ft. Worth, Tex. (Kay Granger), and Las Vegas, Nev. (Jan Laverty Jones). In 1991 the Islamic Sharia-based Sudan Criminal Code of 1991 is passed, which incl. Article 149 on rape, requiring a woman to obtain four male witnesses to an alleged rape else face being charged with adultery and punished by 100 lashes if unmarried or death by stoning if married.
In 1991 Queens, N.Y.-born journalist Susan Charlotte Faludi (1959-) pub. Backlash: The Undeclared War Against American Women, claiming that the 1980s backlash against feminism was full of hypocritical women.
In 1991 San Francisco, Calif.-born Naomi R. Wolf (1962-) pub. The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty Are Used Against Women, claiming that the "iron-maiden" ideal of unattainable beauty is used by the male power structure to keep women down.
Applause, applause, possibilities? 1992 is the Year of the Woman in U.S. politics, which starts out with three women in the U.S. Senate, Jocelyn Birch Burdick (1922-) (D-N.D.), Nancy Landon Kassebaum (1932-) (R-Kan.) (daughter of Alf Landon), and Barbara Ann Mikulski (1936-) (D-Md.) then after the Clarence Thomas-Anita Hill hearings proves men are, er, shakes things up, ends with four, Barbara Levy Boxer (1940-) (D-Calif.) (Jewish) (whom U.S. pres. George W. Bush cleverly calls "Ali"), Carol Elizabeth Moseley Braun (1947-) (D-Ill.) (first African-Am. woman), Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (1933-) (D-Calif.) (Jewish), and Patricia Lynn "Patty" Murray (1950-) (D-Wash.), followed next year by Kathryn Ann "Kay" Bailey Hutchinson (1943-) (R-Tex.).
On Jan. 22, 1992 Space Shuttle Discovery mission STS-42 blasts off, carrying seven astronauts incl. physician Roberta Lynn Bondar (1945-), who becomes the first Canadian woman in space. On Jan. 26, 1992 spaced-out Hillary Clinton gives an Interview with Steve Kroft of 60 Minutes, in which she discusses her hubby Bill's alleged affair with Ark. state employee Gennifer Flowers, and utters the soundbyte "I'm not sitting here like some little woman, standing by my man like Tammy Wynette", setting off a firestorm of controversy, after which Tammy Wynette (1942-98) demands and receives an apology, even though she is a Clinton supporter and later performs at a fundraiser for him; too bad, despite Bill denying any relationship with her, she airs tapes of telephone conversations he had with her, surprising his own staff with his mendaciousness.
On July 25-Aug. 9, 1992 the XXV (25th) Summer Olympics are held in Barcelona, Spain, birthplace of IOC pres. (1980-2001) Juan Antonio Samaranch (1920-); first Olympics since 1972 that are not boycotted; 9,356 (6,652 men, 2,704 women) from 169 nations participate in 286 events in 32 sports; King Juan Carlos I opens the games, during which Paralympic archer Antonio Rebollo shoots an arrow into the Olympic flame cauldron; Germany sends its first unified team since the 1964 summer games; the debut of Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Yugoslavia is barred); South Africa competes for the first time since 1960, and South African runner Elana Meyer (1966-) (white) and Ethopian runner Derartu Tulu (1972-) (black) run against each other in the 10K race, and after Tulu wins (first Ethiopian woman to win a medal), they run a victory lap hand-in-hand; Evelyn Ashford (1957-) of the U.S. wins her 4th gold, in the 4x100m relay; 14-y.-o. Kyoko Iwasaki (1978-) wins a gold in breastroke, becoming the youngest gold medal winner in Olympic swimming; Vitaly Venediktovich Scherbo (1972-) of Belarus wins six golds in artistic gymnastics, tying Eric Heiden's record; baseball debuts, with Cuba winning the gold medal; roller hockey becomes a demonstration sport; Yael Arad (1967-) becomes the first Israeli to win a medal, a silver in judo, followed by Shay-Oren Smadja (1970-), who wins a bronze in judo; the U.S. Basketball Dream Team incl. NBA stars Michael Jordan, Magic Johnson, Larry Bird et al., and wins gold, beating eight opponents by an avg. of 44 points, causing basketball to explode in popularity worldwide, rivalling soccer.
On Oct. 7, 1992 after 5'7" goaltender Manon Rheaume (Rhéaume) (1972-) becomes the first woman to play in an NHL game during the preseason, the Tampa Bay Lightning (Bolts) play their first game in Expo Hall at the Fla. State Fairgrounds in Tampa, Fla., defeating the Chicago Blackhawks 7-3 incl. four goals by 6'1" wing Christopher T. "Chris" Kontos (1963-).
On Nov. 3, 1992 Dem. Carol Elizabeth Moseley Braun (1947-) becomes the first black woman elected to the U.S. Senate (until 1999), and the only black in the U.S. Senate other than Edward Brooke (since 1967); Cynthia Ann McKinney (1955-) (Dem.) becomes the first black woman elected to the U.S. Congress from "Gone with the Wind" Jawjaw (Ga.), where she becomes known for flashy fashions incl. braids and gold tennies. In 1992 Hanna Suchocka (1946-) becomes the first female PM in Polish history (until ?) - Hanna does what? In 1992 the U.S. Navy Tailhook Scandal is gleefully manipulated by women's lib forces to emasculate the tradition-bound old boys' network in the U.S. military? In 1992 the New Universal Catechism of the Roman Catholic Church is completed after nine drafts, changing the term "mortal sin" to "grave sin", adding terrorism and offenses against the environment to the sin list, and calling for a psychological analysis for sexual sins. In 1992 Azizah al-Hibri becomes the first woman Muslim law prof. in the U.S. at the U. of Richmond, Va.
On July 1, 1992 Penny Marshall's A League of Their Own debuts, starring stars Tom Hanks as WWII women's league baseball mgr. Jimmy Dugan, who has to handle crying cu, er, women players Geena Davis (Dottie Hinson), Lori Petty (Kit Keller), Madonna (Mae Mordabito), Doris Murphy (Rosie O'Donnell) et al.; #10 movie of 1992 ($107M); "There's no crying in baseball" (Hanks).
In 1992 Elaine Brown (1943-) pub. her autobio. A Taste of Power, about her time as chm. of the Black Panther Party (1974-7); "A woman in the Black Power movement was considered, at best, irrelevant. A woman asserting herself was a pariah. If a black woman assumed a role of leadership, she was said to be eroding black manhood, to be hindering the progress of the black race. She was an enemy of the black people... I knew I had to muster something mighty to manage the Black Panther Party."
In 1992 Akron, Ohio-born poet Rita Frances Dove (1952-) pub. her first novel Through the Ivory Gate. In 1993-5 she becomes the first African-Am. and youngest U.S. poet laureate.
In 1992 conservative Am. commentator Rush Limbaugh (1951-) pub. The Way Things Ought to Be, with the soundbyte: "Women obsessed with abortion & intolerance are 'feminazis'".
The brains of LBJ, the gonads of Elvis? On Jan. 20, 1993 Ark.-born Georgetown U. grad, Oxford Rhodes scholar (first to become pres.) and Yale Law School grad., former Ark. gov., saxophone player ("first black U.S. pres.") ("first pres. to wear a tangerine lalalala speedo"?) (can't type) William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (1946-) (Secret Service codename: Eagle/Elvis after his favorite singer) becomes the 42nd U.S. pres. (until 2001) in the 61st U.S. pres. inaguration; the 7th lefty U.S. pres. (last G.H.W. Bush); Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Jr. (1948-) (Secret Service codename: Sawhorse/Sundance) becomes the 45th U.S. vice-pres.; the 2nd time that the U.S. has six living presidents (Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush, Clinton); the youngest combined age of pres. and vice-pres. (90) (until ?); the inauguration is in keeping with his status as America's first Baby Boomer pres., and features Maya Angelou reciting her poem On the Pulse of the Morning, and Fleetwood Mac performing "Don't Stop" (Bill's favorite thing for a woman to say?), scaring conservatives half to death and crystallizing desperate all-out desires to 'get' him?; Hillary Rodham Clinton (1947-) (Secret Service codename: Evergreen) becomes the first First Lady to have her own office in the White House, where it is rumored that she is the real president, has hairy balls, etc. - the first FLOTUS to become POTUS? Lani Guinier (1950-), Clinton's first nominee (Apr.) to lead the U.S. Justice Dept.'s Civil Rights Div. is dropped in June after her writings backing racial quotas cause her to be called one of "Clinton's quota queens" by the Wall Street Journal; in 1998 she becomes the first African-Am. to receive tenure at Harvard Law School. On Sept. 8 Minnie Joycelyn Elders (nee Jones) (1933-) becomes U.S. surgeon-gen. #15 (until Dec. 31) (first African-Am.); she stirs controversy by suggesting that masturbation be promoted to deter young people from sex.
On Mar. 10, 1993 Socialist Ruth Dreifuss (1940-) is elected to the Swiss Federal Council (Bundesrat), becoming the 2nd woman and first Jew, described as "a rare triumph over Swiss male chauvinism" - like a four by four for those snowy winter mornings?
On June 14, 1993 Pres. Clinton chooses 5'0" opera loving federal judge (appointed by Pres. Carter) Ruth Bader Ginsburg (1933-) to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court; a liberal who had been gen. counsel of the ACLU and the first dir. of the ACLU's Women's Rights Project, she is so artful at dodging direct questions during her Senate confirmation hearings that it becomes known as the Ginsburg Rule; on Aug. 3 she is confirmed as the 108th U.S. Supreme Court justice by a 96-3 vote, and on Aug. 10 is sworn in, becoming the 2nd female justice on the court.
On June 25, 1993 after the long recession and discontent over the free-trade agreement causes Canadian PM Brian Mulroney (since 1980) to resign, Progressive Conservative Party defense minister Avril Phaedra Douglas "Kim" Campbell (1947-) becomes the first woman PM (#19) of Canada (until Nov. 4); in Oct. the Liberal Party wins big, and on Nov. 4 Joseph Jacques Jean Chretien (Chrétien) (1934-) becomes Canadian PM #20 (until Dec. 12, 2003).
In June 1993 Repub. Tex. state treasurer (since 1990) Kay Bailey Hutchinson (1943-) defeats Bob Krueger with 67% to become the first woman U.S. Sen. from Tex.; she is immediately raided and charged with using state property to help with her campaign, indicted by a grand jury in Sept., and found not guilty; she is reelected in 1994, 2000 and 2005, becoming the #4 ranking Repub. in the Senate.
On Dec. 20, 1993 U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 48/104 is adopted, promulgating the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women, recognizing "the urgent need for the universal application to women of the rights and principles with regard to equality, security, liberty, integrity and dignity of all human beings", after which in 1999 the U.N. Gen. Assembly designates Nov. 25 as the Internat. Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women.
Lipstick jungle on ice? On Jan. 6, 1994 Cinderella-like Olympic figure skater Nancy Kerrigan (1969-) of Stoneham, Mass. is attacked and her knee whacked by a collapsible metal baton; the attack is later traced to the husband and three associates of her skating rival, trailer park-raised (trailer trash? who said trailer trash?) Tonya Harding (1970-) of Portland, Ore., but she plays the plausible deniability game and is allowed to compete in the XVII (17th) Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway on Feb. 12-27 (mascots are the folk-character kids Haakon and Kristin), which are made into a media circus by their scrap; even though Kerrigan skates nearly perfectly just 50 days after her clubbing (winning a silver on Feb. 25), and Harding falls apart, coming in 8th and leaving a photo opp of her moping face, independent Ukraine receives its first Olympic gold medal for dark horse Orphan Annie almost-too-young figure skater Oksana Baiul (1977-); the Winter Olympics are moved to a 2-year offset from the Summer Olympics starting this year for marketing purposes; crystal-clear Norwegian opera soprano Sissel Kyrkjebo (1969-) performs during the opening and closing ceremonies; 29-y.-o. Bonnie Kathleen Blair (1964-) of the U.S. wins two gold medals for the 500m and 1000m speed-skating events, giving her five career golds, the most ever by a U.S. woman in Winter or Summer Olympics; Daniel Erwin "Dan" Jansen (1965-) of the U.S. wins a gold in the 1000m speed-skating event; Johann Olav Koss (1968-) of Norway wins three speed skating golds (1500m, 5K, 10K), and sets three world records; after Cathy Ann Turner (1962-) of Hilton, N.Y. wins the 500m short-track speed skating gold for her 2nd consecutive Olympics, silver medalist Zhang Yanmei of China accuses her of grabbing her leg during the race, then stalks off the ceremonial stand, takes her medal off, and flings her flower bouquet to the ground; Norway leads in total medal standings with 10 golds and 26 total, Germany is 2nd with 9 golds and 24 total, and Russia is 3rd with 11 golds and 23 total; the U.S. is 5th with 6 gold and 13 total. On Jan. 12-19, 1994 four men are arrested by federal authorities in connection with the Nancy Kerrigan attack, incl. Tonya Harding's former husband Jeff Gillooly on Jan. 19 in Portland, Ore.; on Feb. 1 Gillooly pleads guilty to planning the assault, and in July is sentenced to two years.
On Sept. 13, 1994 Pres. Clinton signs the U.S. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), drafted by Del. Dem. Sen. Joseph Biden, which provides $1.6B for a Nazi-like police surge into homes with powers to arrest alleged perps of domestic violence even when the alleged victim doesn't want to press charges, and tightens federal penalties, causing men to begin realizing they're no longer masters of their castles but at the mercy of juries who get to vote on their civil rights on a case-by-case basis, although it does net the real offenders some of the time; "the greatest breakthrough in civil rights for women in nearly two decades" (NOW).
On July 10, 1995 Pope John Paul II issues an informal Letter to Women (dated June 29), condemning bias against women, and apologizing for the Church's endless history of sex discrimination - I'm sorry that your female ancestors were all f-d? On Aug. 30 5K women from private orgs. assemble in Huairou, China outside Beijing to attend a non-govt. forum on women's issues. On Sept. 5 Hillary Clinton addresses a special session of the U.N. Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, lecturing China on human rights abuses with her hair let down sexily and wearing a pink suit, with the soundbyte: "Women's rights are human rights, and human rights are women's rights"; three days earlier her hubby Bill addressed ceremonies at Pearl Harbor commemorating the 50th anniversary of V-J Day.
On Sept. 4, 1995 the New Zealand-based TV series Xena: Warrior Princess debuts for 134 episodes (until May 21, 2001), starring manly woman Lucy Lawless (1968-) (with more black hair dye on her head than Elvis?) enthralls millions of women's libbers with its vision of a self-sufficient woman who can kick 10 mens' butts at the same time, has a lesbian-curious girlfriend, and has never heard of Islam or purdah - as long as you pretend not to notice the hidden wires?
On June 23, 1996 Sheikh Hasina Wazed (1947-) (a woman), pres. of the Awami League becomes PM of Bangladesh (until July 15, 2001).
On June 26, 1996 the U.S. Supreme (Rehnquist) Court rules 7-1 in U.S. v. Va. to strike down the male-only admission policy of the Va. Military Inst. (VMI); Clarence Thomas recuses himself, and Justice Antonin Scalia is the only dissenter. On June 28 The Citadel military school in S.C. votes to admit women after 153 years; on May 8, 1999 Nancy Mace (1978-) becomes the first to graduate, magna cum, er, laude - the world will end and we won't have to use her? On Sept. 21 Pres. Clinton signs the U.S. Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), defining marriage as between one man and one woman, and allowing a state to refuse to recognize a same-sex marriage legalized in another state; it passed the House by 85-14 and the Senate by 342-67 after fears that Obamaland Hawaii is about to legalize same-sex marriage.
On Sept. 25-26, 1996 Kabul, Afghanistan is captured by the ultra-medieval throwback Pakistan-backed Taliban after a 2-day siege that kills hundreds; the warlords flee, incl. PM Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, who later aids al-Qaida in fighting the U.S.-backed regime of Hamid Karzai, getting designated an internat. terrorist by the U.S. State Dept. on Feb. 19, 2003, and Ahmad Shah Massoud (1953-2011), whose Sunni Sufi views don't jive with the Taliban, making him join the resistance; meanwhile many of Hekmatyar's Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin warlords switch to the Taliban; on Sept. 26 Taliban founder Mohammad Rabbani (1956-2001) (no relation) becomes the new Afghan PM (until 2001); on Sept. 27 the Taliban force Pres. Burhanuddin Rabbani out of power, and begin reenacting medieval Islamic Sharia law incl. stoning, hand severing, and the suppression of women, who are ordered out of schools and workplaces and told to stay home; former Soviet-backed pres. Muhammad Najibullah is hanged in the soccer stadium along with his brother; men are told not to shave or trim their beards; meanwhile Afghanistan comes to the brink of starvation. In 1996 mentally-ill woman Zaibun Nisa (1950-) is arrested in Pakistan for allegedly desecrating a Quran, and is not released until 2010. In 1996 Brenda C. Barnes pleases women's libbers by breaking the glass ceiling to become pres. and CEO of PepsiCo North Am.; too bad, she quits next year to raise a family, pissing them off; in July 2004 she makes a comeback as pres. and CEO of Sara Lee Corp.
On Dec. 5, 1996 Pres. Clinton nominates chief U.S. delegate to the U.N., Czech-born Madeleine Korbel Albright (1937-) as U.S. secy. of state for his 2nd term (1st woman to head the State Dept.) (until 2001).
In 1996 Eve Ensler (1953-) debuts The Vagina Monologues; "I Was Twelve, My Mother Slapped Me", "My Angry Vagina", "My Vagina Was My Village", "The Little Coochie Snorcher That Could", "The Woman Who Lived to Make Vaginas Happy", "Because He Liked to Look At It", "I Was There in the Room".
In 1996 after the Booker Prize is criticized for being over-awarded to males, the Orange Prize for Fiction is established in the U.K.; in 2007-8 it becomes the Orange Broadband Prize for Fiction; in Oct. 2012 it becomes the Women's Prize for Fiction; in 2014 it becomes the Baileys Women's Prize for Fiction.
On Feb. 15, 1997 thousands of Turkish women march in Ankara to protest the reimposition of Sharia on them by the new (since June 28) Islamicist govt. of PM Necmettin Erbakan (1926-) and his Welfare Party, causing the Ataturk-loving military to oust him on June 18, and replace him by secular former PM (1991, 1996) Ahmet Mesut Yilmaz (1947-), 1982 co-founder of the Motherland Party (until Jan. 11, 1999); in Oct. 1998 he threatens to "poke out the eyes" of Syria over their support of the separatist Kurdistan Workers' Party; the Islamists regroup and rename their party the Justice and Development Party (AKP), claiming to be pro-West and pro-free market and clamoring for EU membership, denying that it is a "political party with a religious axis", and reaching 34% of the vote by 2002.
On Aug. 11, 1997 (Mon.) The View debuts on ABC-TV (until ?), created by Barbara Walters as a morning show where women yak at each other for an hour while an audience of mainly women watch, with co-hosts Meredith Vieira, Star Jones, and Debbie Matenopoulos; on Sept. 5, 2006 the lineup changes to Elisabeth Hasselbeck (1977), and Joy Behar (1943). On Oct. 25 the Million Woman March in Philadelphia, Penn. draws 300K-1.5M African-Am. women. In 1997 the U.S. $1 Coin Act is passed, authorizing new dollar coins to replace the dud Susan B. Anthony dollars (which are confused with quarters), with the replacements to have a gold color and a smooth outside edge like a nickel; the U.S. Mint picks Lewis and Clark expedition guide Sacagawea (Sacajawea) (Sakakawea) (1790-1812) ("bird woman", "boat launcher/puller"), calling her "A woman of exemplary physical courage and stamina"; too bad, after it's released in 2000 it also proves a dud.
Sex scandal in the White House involving the head of the country brings the best Democrat president since ? to the midnight hour? On Jan. 23, 1998 revelations about a cum, er, semen-stained navy-blue dress of 20-something White House intern Monica Samille Lewinsky (1973-) surface in the news; U.S. Pres. Clinton, already facing sexual harassment charges by Paula Corbin Jones (1966-), is accused of having sexual relations (beejay) with Lewinsky; on Jan. 26 Clinton tells the Am. people the boner that "I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Mrs. Lewinsky"; on Jan. 27 Hillary Clinton blames it all on a "vast right-wing conspiracy"; on Aug. 17 Clinton becomes the first U.S. pres. required to testify before a grand jury; the same day he goes on TV and admits that he had "an inappropriate relationship" with Harmonica, er, Lewinsky, hinting that oral sex is not considered sexual relations in his high power lawyerly vocabularly. The mean Puritanical Republicans loose the dogs of war? On Sept. 11 independent counsel Kenneth Star delivers the 445-page Starr Report to the U.S. House of Reps. after a 4-year $40M investigation (witch hunt?) into the Clintons; it charges Pres. Clinton with 11 impeachable offenses, all involving perjury or obstruction of justice - lying to them about personal things that they shouldn't have had the power to ask in the first place? On Oct. 5 after a House vote led by Jesuit-trained Ill. Rep. Henry Hyde (1924-2007), who utters the soundbyte "What we are telling you today are not the ravings of some vast right-wing conspiracy, but a reaffirmation of a set of values that are tarnished and dim these days, but it is given to us to restore them so our Founding Fathers would be proud", the Clinton Impeachment Inquiry begins; Calif. Rep. Gary Condit and other moderate-conservative Blue Dog Dems. vote for the inquiry; on Nov. 13 Paula Jones drops her case against Clinton for $850K; her atty. is up-and-coming Gloria Allred (1941-). The head of our country is impeached for getting out of hand with aide Monica Lewinsky? On Dec. 1 the House Judiciary Committee widens the scope of its inquiry to incl. the election campaign; on Dec. 11 it votes 21-16 to approve articles of impeachment; on Dec. 17 the House decides to postpone its impeachment vote until the Gulf Crisis is resolved; on Dec. 19 House Resolution 611 (introduced by Henry Hyde on Dec. 15) is passed, making Clinton the 1st elected U.S. pres. and 2nd U.S. pres. to be impeached (Andrew Johnson in 1868); he is impeached on two of four proposed articles by narrow partisan majorities, 228-206 for perjury to a grand jury, and 221-212 for obstruction of justice; a 2nd count of perjury in the Paula Jones case fails by 205-229, and an abuse of power count fails by 148-285; four Repubs. oppose all four articles, five Dems. vote for at least one. On Jan. 7, 1999 after House Judiciary Committee member (1995-2003) (R-S.C.) Lindsey Olin Graham (1955-) brings the House's case to it, the U.S. Senate begins the Clinton Impeachment Trial (2nd U.S. pres. to be tried before the Senate, after Andrew Johnson), presided over by chief justice William Rehnquist; on Feb. 12 after a motion sponsored by Olympia Jean Snowe (1947-) (R-Maine) and Susan Margaret Collins (1952-) (R-Maine) to allow the Senate to vote separately on the charges and the remedy (on the grounds that picayune perjury charges aren't grounds for removal from office), he is acquitted even though his perjury charge is 55-45 for (10 Repubs. against, 0 Dems. for); the obstruction charge is a 50-50 vote (5 Repubs. against, 0 Dems. for) - he cums close but no cigar?
On Feb. 3, 1998 Texas, under Gov. George W. Bush becomes the first U.S. state to execute a woman since the U.S. Civil War, born-again (good idea?) Christian Karla Faye Tucker (b. 1959), who has been on death row for 15 years, becoming the 2nd woman executed in the U.S. since resumption of capital punishment in 1977 - you know the rest, chicken fingers? On Feb. 5 the U.S. subsidiary of Swedish drug co. Astra AB agrees to pay $9.85M to settle sexual harassment claims by 79 women and one man who worked for the firm in Westborough, Mass.
On Feb. 7-22, 1998 the XVIII Winter (18th) Olympic Games in Nagano, Japan feature 72 nations, getting the lowest TV ratings in 30 years since Grenoble (X); the opening ceremonies are attended by the Japanese Yamato emperor and empress; Germany wins 29 medals (2 gold), Norway 25 (10 gold), Russia 18 (9 gold), Canada 15 (6 gold) and Japan 10 medals (5 gold); the new "clap skate" (blade not attached to skater's heel) helps spur a slew of new speedskating records; snowboarding (invented in the 1960s) becomes an Olympic sport; Tara Lipinski (1982-) of the U.S. upsets Michelle Kwan (1980-) of the U.S. in women's figure skating, becoming the youngest figure skater to win gold; on Feb. 17 the U.S. women's hockey team wins the gold in the first women's ice hockey competition in Olympic history, finishing 6-0.
On June 11, 1998 Mitsubishi Motor Corp.'s Normal, Ill. div. agrees to pay $34M to more than 300 female employees to settle sexual harassment claims. On Dec. 28, 1998 the Lois Jenson Case, the first class action lawsuit on sexual harassment in the workplace is won over the actions of the Eveleth Taconite Co.
On May 12, 1999 Rapid City, S.D.-born Colo. State U. Rams star Rebecca "Becky" "Big Shot" Hammon (1977-) signs with the WNBA New York Liberty (#25), taking over in 2004 from Teresa Witherspoon as the starting point guard and becoming a co-captain with Vickie Johnson and Crystal Robinson; in 2008 she becomes a naturalized Russian citizen, playing for the Russian team in the 2008 and 2012 Olympics; on Aug. 5, 2014 she becomes the first full-time female asst. coach in the NBA and first in a major prof. sport in North Am. when she signs with the San Antonio Spurs.
On July 10, 1999 the U.S. wins the 1999 Women's World Cup of Soccer in extra time with a penalty shootout won by Brandi Denise Chastain (1968-), lifting the sport's popularity out of the mud in the U.S. for the first time; the failed penalty shot of Chinese player Liu Ying (1947-) and save by Brianna Colette Scurry (1971-) of the U.S. costs China the cup.
On Sept. 1, 1999 Mireya Elisa Moscoso Rodriguez (1946-) of the Arnulfista Party becomes pres. of Canal Land Panama (until Sept. 1, 2004), becoming the 2nd woman elected pres. of a Latin Am. country after Violeta Chamorro of Nicaragua (1990-7); too bad, she leaves office with a 59.1% unpopularity rating, making her the worst head of state in Panama in 15 years? On Dec. 5, 1999 Helen Elizabeth Clark (1950-) becomes PM #37 of ever-progressive New Xena, er, New Zealand (until ?), going on to be listed by Forbes mag. as one of the 20th most powerful women in the world in 2006.
In 1999 Serena Williams (1981-) wins the U.S. Open, becoming the first black woman since 1958 to win a Grand Slam tennis title.
In 1999 Karen Houppert pub. The Curse: Confronting the Last Unmentionable Taboo: Menstruation; "While 70 percent of American women use tampons, only 100 million of the world's 1.7 billion menstruating women do. In Asia and Latin America, two of the most populous parts of the world, only 3 percent of all women use tampons."
On Oct. 31, 2000 the U.N. Security Council unanimously approves Resolution 1325, calling for the adoption of a gender perspective incl. the special needs of women and girls during repatriation, resettlement, rehabilitation, reintegration, and post-conflict reconstruction, becoming their first resolution requiring parties in a conflict to respect women's rights.
In 2000 Marblehead, Mass.-born Susan Estrich (1952-) pub. Sex & Power, claiming that women's lib has levelled off without achieving true equality, but they now have enough power to finish the job but won't do it. In 2000 Queens, N.Y.-born Susan C. Faludi (1959-) pub. Stiffed: The Betrayal of the American Man, claiming that most U.S. men now have little power, hence are unhappy and violence-prone, but shouldn't blame it on feminists, illegal aliens, or affirmative action.
In 2004 Austrian feminist novelist-playwright Elfriede Jelinek (1946-) won the 2004 Nobel Lib. Prize; too bad, she states that she considers Austrian writer Peter Handke to be more worthy and that she got the award just for being female, and sends a video message instead of attending, claiming agoraphobia.
In 2008 Sheryl Kara Sandberg (1969-) becomes CEO of Facebook (until ?), going on to lecture women to push "higher-harder-faster" to achieve upper mobility.
Also in 2008 the FEMEN feminist protest group is founded in Ukraine to hold topless protests against sexism.
On Feb. 1, 2009 Social Dem. Johanna Sigurdardottir (1942-), known for the slogan "My time will come" becomes PM of Iceland (until May 23, 2013), becoming the first female and first gay/lez. On Apr. 3 the Iowa Supreme Court legalizes same-sex marriage, licking the marital problem of Trish Varnum (1975-) and Kate Varnum (1966-).
On Dec. 4, 2009 Episcopalians in Los Angles, Calif. elect openly lesbian bishop Mary Douglas Glasspool (1954-), who becomes the first since Gene Robinson of N.H. in 2004.
On Dec. 10, 2009 Los Angeles, Calif.-born political economist Elinor "Lin" Ostrom (1933-2012) becomes the first woman to receive the Nobel Econ. Prize for her work that demonstrated how common property could successfully be managed by the groups using it.
On July 2, 2010 the U.N. creates U.N. Women, a billion dollar agency for radical feminism devoted to gender equality.
On May 22, 2012 Cmdr. Sarah West (1972-) becomes the first female officer to take command of a major British warship, the Royal Navy frigate HMS Portland.
On Jan. 3 Ladda Tammy Duckworth (1968-) becomes Dem. U.S. Rep. for Ill. (until ?), the first Thailand-born and first disabled woman U.S. rep. On Jan. 3 Okla.-born Elizabeth Ann Warren (nee Herring) (1949-) becomes Dem. U.S. Sen. from Mass. (until ?), the first woman. On Jan. 23, 2013 U.S. defense secy. Leon Panetta lifts the ban on women serving in combat, overturning a 1994 prohibition; cmdrs. have until 2016 to "seek special exceptions".
On May 2, 2013 Stephanie Schriock, pres. of Emily's List says that the U.S. is ready for a woman in the White House; meanwhile a poll shows that Hillary Clinton is the favorite to win the Dem. nomination in 2016.
On May 18, 2013 lawmakers in Afghanistan block legislation protecting women's rights, citing Islamic Sharia. On May 21 Saudi Arabia finally allows women to sit in soccer stadiums in special segregated areas; there are still no public physical education or sporting facilities for women.
On June 14, 2013 the Norwegian parliament votes to conscript women into the armed forces, becoming the first Euro and first NATO country with compulsory military service for both genders.
On Oct. 29, 2013 the U.S. Marine Corps announces that four women (in a batch of ?) have passed the infantry test for the first time ever. In Oct. Norfolk, Va.-born Nadia Crow becomes the first African-Am. TV news anchor in Utah, at KTVX-4 in Salt Lake City.
On Dec. 10, 2013 Gen. Motors appoints Mary Teresa Barra (nee Makela) (1961-) as CEO (until ?), becoming the first-ever female head of a major U.S. automaker.
On Jan. 2, 2014 Israel appoints its first female battalion cmdr., Maj. Oshrat Bachar. On July 1 Michelle Janine Howard (1960-) becomes the U.S. Navy's first female 4-star adm. On July 14 the Church of England Gen. Synod votes to allow women to become consecrated bishops. On Sept. 16 the U.S. Army Rangers announce that the first female volunteers will be considered next spring.
On Feb. 4, 2015 U.S. Supreme Court justice Ruther Bader Ginsburg utters the soundbyte at Georgetown U. that there will be enough women on the court when "there are nine". On Apr. 2 the last two women are cut from the USMC Combat Endurance Test, causing their historic experiment to end in failure for women's libbers. On Apr. 8 the NFL hires its first female official (zebra), Pascagoula, Miss.-born Sarah Bailey Thomas (1973-) (#153). On Apr. 10 USMC sgt. Katie Higgins becomes the first-ever female Blue Angels pilot.
On Apr. 23, 2015 after being nominated by Pres. Obama in Nov., the U.S. Senate votes 56-43 to confirm Loretta Elizabeth Lynch (1959-) as U.S. atty. gen., becoming the first black woman; she is sworn in on Apr. 27 - she would have to be named Lynch? On June 1 5'9" Camarillo, Calif. former Olympic softball star Jessica Ofelia Mendoza (1980-) becomes the first female broadcaster in the booth for ESPN's College World Series; on Aug. 24 she becomes the first female analyst for a ML baseball game (St. Louis Cardinals vs. Arizona Diamondbacks); on Oct. 6 she becomes the first female analyst in MLB postseason history, experiencing mucho misogynist feedback. On Aug. 18 the U.S. Army Ranger School announces that the first two women have graduated, 1st Lt. Kristen Griest and Capt. Shaye Haver; they passed only because the Obama admin. forced them to lower their standards? On Oct. 6 Calif. Dem. Gov. Jerry Brown signs the Calif. Fair Pay Act, allowing women to sue claiming that they are being paid less than male employees for "substanially similar work" (not just equal work), and placing the burden of proof on the employer; it goes into effect on Jan. 1.
On Jan. 1, 2016 U.S. defense secy. Ashton Carter's Dec. deadline for all service chiefs to submit plans to incl. women in all combat positions incl. elite special forces units arrives, and U.S. Navy secy. Ray Mabus sends a memo to the commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps, scolding him for delays in integrating women, forbidding the use of the word "man" in a job title, requiring at least two women officers per ground combat battalion, causiing U.S. Rep. Seth Moulton (D-Mass.) (former USMC officer) to call it "ridiculous. This is too critical to rush"; this don't stop Carter from approving final plans on Mar. 11. On Jan. 1 Iranbecomes a member of the executive board of the U.N. Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (U.N. Women) along with the U.N. Children's Fund (UNICEF), the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, and the Commission on Narcotic Drugs. On Jan. 5 Brig. Gen. Diana Holland becomes the 76th commandant of West Point Military Academy, and the first woman. On Jan. 16 Tsai Ing-wen (1956-) of the Beijing-skeptical LGBT-friendly Dem. Progressive Party (DPP) wins pres. elections in Taiwan with 56% of the vote, becoming their first female pres. (until ?). In Jan. Pope Francis appoints Barbara Jatta as the first female dir. of the Vatican Museums (until ?).
On Mar. 18, 2016 U.S. defense secy. Ash Carter announces that Pres. Obama plans to nominate USAF Gen. Lori Robinson (1958-) (cmdr. of the U.S. Pacific Command) to lead the U.S. Northern Command, becoming the first female combatant commander in U.S. history.
On Apr. 7, 2016 former police officer Tammy Grace Barnett (1990-) becomes the first woman to enlist in the U.S. Army at the entrance processing station in Shreveport, La. On Apr. 12 Pres. Obama dedicates the Belmont-Paul Women's Equality Nat. Monument in Washington, D.C., using the opportunity to plug the pres. candidacy of Hillary Clinton, with the soundbyte: "I want them to come here and be astonished that there was ever a time when women could not vote. I want them to be astonished that there was ever a time when women earned less than men for doing the same work. I want them to be astonished... that there was ever a time when a woman had never sat in the Oval Office", adding: "I don't know how long it will take to get there, but I know we're getting closer to that day." On Apr. 15 the U.S. Army announces that it will commission 22 women as infantry and armor officers for ground combat, becoming the first ever.
On May 4, 2016 Iranian supreme assashola Ali Khamenei announces that before a woman convicted of a capital offense is gang-raped and beaten to death, she gets to choose the number of rapists, 15-30.
On July 25-28, 2016 the 2016 Dem. Nat. Convention at the Wells Fargo Center in Philadelphia, Penn. starts out with Bernie Sanders supporters echoing the Repub. Convention with shouts of "Lock her up!", followed on July 25 by Debbie Wasserman Schultz being booed off the stage at a breakfast for the Fla. delegation; on July 25 (eve.) after his supporters disrupt the convention with stubborn determination to nominate him despite all, Bernie Sanders gives a speech, totally selling out to Queen Hillary, telling them to support her, and warning them against supporting Trump, saying that the choice is "not even close"; Michelle Obama gives a speech dissing Trump, with the soundbyte: "Don't let anyone ever tell you that this country isn't great, that somehow we need to make it great again, because this right now is the greatest country on Earth"; Elizabeth Warren gives a speech that tears into Trump, while Bernie supporters heckle and boo her, shouting "We trusted you"; Sanders supporters later complain that their signs were ripped out of their hands and they were threatened with losing their credentials; there are no red-white-blue U.S. flags visible at the convention, but there are Soviet flags?; on July 26 (eve.) after Bernie Sanders officially names her, Hillary is officially nominated as his uncontrollable supporters walk out and storm the media tent, becoming the first woman nominated as U.S. pres. by a major political party, bringing out the female sexists bigtime as she utters the soundbyte "We just put the biggest crack in that glass ceiling yet"; ex-U.S. pres. Bill Clinton gives a glowing speech pushing his wife as a "change-maker".
On Aug. 2, 2016 the Vatican announces announces that Pope Francis has set up a commission to study the possibility of allowing women to become deacons; becoming priests that can celebrate Mass is not on the table.
On Mar. 8, 2017 A Day Without a Woman sees protests by anti-Trump women across the U.S. On July 8 Pres. Trump announces that the U.S. is pledging $50M to a World Bank program dedicated to women's entrepreneurship in developing countries. On Aug. 1 Jordan abolishes Article 308, which protected rapists from punishment if they marry their victims. On Aug. 22 India's supreme court invalidates Sharia-based triple-talaq (instant) divorce, becoming a V for women's libbers. criminalizing wilful failure to address transgender patients by their preferred pronouns by health care workers. On Oct. 10 after articles in The New York Times and The New Yorker report about more than a dozen women accusing him of sexual harassment or assault, English fashion Georgina Chapman, wife since 2007 of film producer (Miramax founder) Harvey Weinstein (1952-) announces that she's leaving him, after which he is fired from his own production co. the Weinstein Co. and expelled from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciencies; by Oct. 31 the list grows to 80+ women incl. Ashley Judd, Jennifer Lawrence, Alyssa Milano, Gwyneth Paltrow, and Uma Thurman, causing the #MeToo social media campaign to be launched, leading to an open season on all powerful males in the U.S. incl. Kevin Spacey and Dustin Hoffman, with visions of downing Pres. Trump dancing in their heads. On Oct. 11 the Boy Scouts of Am. (founded 1910) announce that they will begin admitting girls into the Cub Scouts next year, allowing them to aspire to the Eagle Scout Rank.
On Jan. 1, 2018 a new law in Iceland makes it illegal to pay women less than women. On May 17 after an email scandal involving male officials, the Miss America Org. and Miss America Foundation announce an all-women top leadership team; Regina (Blakely) Hopper becomes pres. and CEO of the Miss Am. Org., and Marjorie-Vincent Tripp becomes the first chair of the Miss Am. Foundation, becoming the first time women lead both orgs. On May 20 (eve.) the 2018 Billboard Music Awards on NBC-TV, hosted by Kelly Clarkson see Ed Sheeran and Kendrick Lamar receive six awards each; they and Bruno Mars got 15 nominations each; Janet Jackson and Rhythm Nation rock the house with "Nasty", "If", and "Throb", and gives a speech for her Icon Award (first black woman), with the soundbyte: "I'm deeply humbled and grateful for this award. I believe that for all the challenges, for all our challenges, we live at a glorious moment in history. It's a moment when, at long last, women have made it clear that we will no longer be controlled, manipulated, or abused. I stand with those women, and with those men equally outraged by discrimination, who support us in heart and mind." In May ?, the first female to join the British infantry quits after two weeks because it was too hard; in 2016 Conservative PM David Cameron lifted the ban on women in British combat units.