Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union (1878-1953) Franklin Delano Roosevelt of the U.S. (1882-1945) Sir Winston Churchill of Britain (1874-1965) Benito Mussolini of Italy (1883-1945) Adolf Hitler of Germany (1889-1945) Japanese Gen. Hideki Tojo (1884-1948) U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964) French Marshal Henri-Philippe Petain (1856-1951) Charles de Gaulle of France (1890-1970)

TLW's World War II Historyscope

By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Original Pub. Date: Sept. 1, 2012. Last Update: Oct. 19, 2017.


Soviet Field Marshal Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov (1896-1974) German Gen. Friedrich Paulus (1890-1957) German Gen. Erwin Rommel (1891-1944) British Gen. Bernard Law 'Monty' Montgomery (1887-1976) Buchenwald Concentration Camp Auschwitz Concentration Camp U.S. Lt. Col. James Harold 'Jimmy' Doolittle (1896-1993) U.S. Gen. George S. Patton Jr. (1885-1945) U.S. Adm. William Frederick 'Bull' Halsey Jr. (1882-1959)

U.S. Gen. Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969) Raising of the U.S. Flag on Mt. Suribachi, Feb. 23, 1945 by Joe Rosenthal J. Robert Oppenheimer of the U.S. (1904-67) Atomic Bomb, Hiroshima, Japan, Aug. 6, 1945 Japanese Surrender on U.S.S. Missouri, Sept. 2, 1945 Oskar Schindler (1908-74) United Nations Flag, 1945- U.S. Gen. George C. Marshall (1880-1959) Harry S. Truman of the U.S. (1884-1972)

Alternate url for this page:
http://tinyurl.com/ww2historyscope


What Is A Historyscope?


Quick Jump Table

1930 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946

Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to World War II (WWII). Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.

Spoiler: 70+ million die for one man, or rather, one racial ideal, wasting huge wealth and changing the world socialpolitical scene forever, mostly toward the good, especially if you're an American, since the U.S. became the Big Kid on the Block, with half of the world's remaining wealth and pretensions to being the World's Policeman, while the Almighty U.S. Dollar became the world's currency. Too bad, the atomic bomb was created by the U.S. without thinking through the implications, and was soon stolen by their archenemy the Soviet Union, opening Pandora's Box with the constant threat of the extinction of the human race, making the study of human history more important than ever because it might suddenly come to an end and there will be no second chance. How how how? Where should one begin?

The Day of the Aryans? About 1900 B.C.E. the white-is-right Aryan Migration (Invasion) of Indo-Iranian Medes, Persians, Parthians, Bactrians, and Arachosians from S Russia through Afghanistan into the Iranian Plateau begins (ends -850), while more Aryan tribes invade N India, setting up a white supremacist religious civilization based on several kingdoms run by rajahs, and hierarchical social classes of priests, warriors, farmers, traders, and Dravidians (dark skinned non-Aryans). This ancient semi-mythical dreamy event was later latched onto by the Nazis after the ground was prepared by the 1786 announcement that German's root language is Sanskrit. The Aryan white supremacist doctrine is all moose hockey but millions were killed over it, give me three hankies.

Roman Emperor Hadrian (76-138) Bar Kokhba (Kochba) (-135) Cochin Jews

Skipping ahead, in 132-135 C.E. after years of groaning and moaning, Jerusalem once again became the capital of Judea during the last-ditch Bar Kokhba ("Son of a Star") Revolt of Simon (Shimon) Bar Kokhba (Kochba) (Cocheba) (-135) (Heb. "Son of a Star") (real name Bar/Ben Kosiba or Kozebah), which started when bearded bi Roman emperor (117-38) Hadrian (76-138) began the construction of a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus in Jerusalem on the site of the Jewish Temple, complete with a dangly statue of a naked uncircumcised man-god showing everything Jehovah detests, pissing the religious Jewish minority off bigtime and making them begin an all-out war to expel the hated Romans. Too bad, Hadrian was one of Rome's greatest emperors, the kind who never lost a battle, and he sent in 12 divisions from as far away as Britain with the mission of wiping the Jews out of Judea completely, led by troubleshooter gen. Sextus Julius Severus (gov. of Britain from 131-3), who kicked the Jews' butts bigtime, killing 580K (half the pop.), and destroying 985 towns and villages, plowing Jerusalem with oxen. After winning, whooping, and hollering Hadrian finished Romanizing Big J, renaming it in 137 to Aelia Capitolina in honor of himself and Jupiter, banning the pesky Jews from entering it, then covering Golgotha with dirt and building a temple to Venus in an attempt to squelch the pesky Christian religion. The same year the bishop of Rome (pope) declared that Christ's birthday be celebrated as a solemn fast which was later called Christ-mass or Christmas, although it wasn't ordered to be observed on Dec. 25 until 350 in order to take over the celebration of the Brumalis winter solstice celebration from the worshippers of Mithra and the celebration of Saturnalia (rebirth of the Sun) from the cootie-queen pagans. Hadrian renamed the entire Iudaea Province to Syria Palaestina, after the Phoenicians or Philistines, as originally coined by ancient Greek historian Herodotus, in an attempt to de-Judaize the country permanently, which is now used by Saudi-financed anti-Israel propagandists to actually deny that Jews ever lived there. Too bad he didn't know that Jews don't get mad they get even, so maybe he doomed the Roman Empire right there, inducing them to finally launch the wildass Arabs at it after inventing a new nutso killer religion for them, see my Islam Historyscope. Call it a coincidence that Hadrian, the Jews' most hated emperor, was the first to wear a beard, imagine their mixed feelings at Abe Lincoln later. Hadrian also issued an edict ordering the Jews permanently expelled from Israel (only permitted to enter Jerusalem once a year), completing the Jewish Diaspora (Heb. "Tefutzah" = scattered), the dispersion of the pesky oddball square-peg-in-a-round-hole Jews throughout the empire, creating the veritable Wandering Jew of fact and fiction. Not that it hurt the new Christian religion, rather, the way was now clear for the spreading of the name Jah-Zeus (Jehovah-Zeus) (Jesus) by the empire-wide Catholic (get all the pagans to join the Church no matter how the original faith has to be diluted) conspiracy, his real name was Yeshua, and being too Jewish it's now un-PC, drum roll please. The whole Jesus fable was invented at this point to get even with the Romans, with the destruction of the Jewish Temple in 70 C.E. used as a blind screen so that later historyscopers would scope in vain 60 years too early? As to Judaism, Rabbi Akiva ben Joseph (50-135) of Judea was executed by the Romans after teaching the Torah in public after the revolt. The Ebionites (Heb. "ebyon" = poor) sect of Jewish Christians who deny the divinity of Christ and consider St. Paul an apostate for declaring the supremacy of Christian teaching over the Mosaic Law headed W across the Jordan River into Peraea (modern-day Jordan), isolating themselves from the main body of Christians and adopting a conservative Pharisaic creed that evolved into a combo of Christianity, Gnosticism and Essenism, and split into groups who believe or reject the Virgin Birth. Too bad, they died out by the 5th cent. In 1960-1 Yigael Yadin (1917-84) excavated the Cave of Letters in the desert W of the Dead Sea, discovering a basket at the bottom of a privy containing 19 bronze items, which are now housed in the Shrine of the Book near Givat Ram in W Jerusalem, incl. patera (libation dish) with an engraving of the Greek-Roman goddess Thetis, mother of Achilles, causing speculation as to whether these are sacred objects from the Temple of Jehovah destroyed in 70. A purse containing the 35 Papers of Babatha, a woman who owned a date orchard in En-Geddi on the W shore of the Dead Sea was found, incl. dated orders by Bar Kokhba, showing him as a meany who threatened and ordered the arrest of fellow Jews. Comparison of C-14 dates caused Magen Broshi to propose Broshi's Law that the oldest extreme of the C-14 date range is the most accurate. Bones of starved women and children were later found, along with remnants of a Roman army outpost on top of the mountain. For the perfect burger with fries, Cochin (Malabar) in SW India became a haven for Jews until modern times.

Frederick I Barbarossa of Germany (1122-90) Philip II Augustus of France (1165-1223) Richard I Lionheart of England (1157-99) HRE Henry VI (1165-97)

You didn't have to shake it but you did, you did, you did, and I thank you? In 1190 the Third Crusade is led by the Big Three of Christendom, German HRE (since 1155) Frederick I Barbarossa (1122-90), English king (since 1189) Richard I Lionheart (Coeur de Lion) Plantagent (1157-99), and French king (since 1180) Philip II Augustus (1165-1223), while Pope (since 1187) Clement III (1130-91) tries in vain to get in charge to get the credit for this lay effort?; Austrian duke Leopold V the Virtuous (1157-94) also goes, accompanied by Alsace-born minnesinger Reinmar the Old of Hagenau (-1207); on Feb. 14 Frederick I (b. 1122) signs a peace with the Byzantines in Adrianople, allowing him to pass through undisturbed; in Mar. Richard I leaves on Crusade after raising mucho dinero, becoming known for squeezing his subjects while enjoying luxury and lavish feasts; too bad, after getting through Rum, on June 10 Frisky Freddy (b. 1122) is drowned in the 150-mi.-long Saleph (Goksu) (Göksu) River in the Taseli Peninsula in Cilician Armenia in SE Asia Minor in hip-deep water while bathing (heart attack from the shock of the cold water?) after the Holy Lance of Christ slips from his hands, causing his 15K-man (100K-man?) Crusader army (incl. 3K knights) to panic and disintegrate under Turkish attacks as the Muslims attribute his death to the will of Allah and get pumped up, with only 5K reaching Acre; after attempts to preserve Drop Dead Fred's body in vinegar to bury him in Jersualem fail, his bones are buried in Cathedral of Tyre, his flesh is buried in the Church of St. Peter in Antioch, and his heart and internal organs in Tarsus; his eldest son (by Beatrice of Burgundy) Henry VI (1165-97) succeeds him as German Hohenstaufen king #3 (until 1197), and his 3rd son Frederick VI of Hohenstaufen, Duke of Swabia (1167-91) becomes leader of the remnants of the Crusader army. Barbarossa is later alleged to only be sleeping in a cave in Mt. Kyffhauser in Thuringia or Mt. Untersberg in Bavaria, his red beard growing through the table before him and his eyes half-closed, waiting for the ravens flying around to disappear to signal his reawakening to return to save Germany. Germany gets its new Messiah, a Prince of War and World Domination (until ?).

Martin Luther (1483-1546), Oct. 31, 1517 The Protestant Reformation, 1517- Martin Luther (1483-1546) Martin Luther (1483-1546)

With Catholic indulgences, crime does pay? The papal quest for filthy lucre finally reaps public reaction, creating the Protestant schism? On Oct. 31, 1517 (Wed.) German Roman Catholic Augustinian friar Martin Luther (1483-1546), after becoming sick of the indulgences peddled by Dominican friar Johann Teufel, er, Johann Tetzel (1465-1519) et al., and convinced that 1517 marks the end of the Babylonian Captivity of the Congregation, nails his Ninety-Five (95) Theses (in Latin) to the door of the Wittenberg Palast (Palace) (Castle) Church (known for housing 5K+ holy relics, which he detests), arguing against indulgences and other Roman Catholic Church abuses, claiming that the pope is the Antichrist, "and his seat is that of Satan himself", "the papacy is a general chase, by command of the Roman pontiff, for the purpose of running down and destroying souls", and that "The treasures of indulgences are nets with which they now fish for the wealth of men", igniting the already-smoldering Protestant Reformation (he could have picked a more PC date than Halloween?); his offer of a public debate is declined, but his theses are soon translated from Latin to German and pub., causing the German middle and merchant classes, who are already chafing at Italian efforts at domination to rise to his support in reaction to the fugging Fuggers (successor to the Medicis) and other papal bankers who are draining Germany of gold for Rome with this holy racket (the Fuggers are behind the loans made by Albert of Brandenburg to the pope); the big revelation to Luther that gave him strength was from the Bible, incl. the Seven Trumpets in Rev. Ch. 8, and Rev. 13:5, where it says that the Antichrist will rule the world for 42 mo., which he turns into 1260 years instead of days, setting year 1 in 539 C.E., and claiming that Christ will therefore return in the year 1799, thus it's time to get started whipping things up? - the wildlife experience, more than a museum?

Machiavelli (1469-1527)

In 1532 Italian Florentine failed diplomat Niccolo (Niccolò) di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (1469-1527) posth. pub. The Prince (Il Principe), written in vernarcular Italian in 1513; causes the term Machiavellian to come into use as a perjorative, as well as Old Nick for the Devil; "He who neglects what is done for what ought to be done, sooner effects his ruin than his preservation"; "It is far safer to be feared than loved if you cannot be both"; forever after everybody wants to be a Machiavellian prince?

Johann Eck (1486-1543) Martin Luther (1483-1546)

In 1541 Roman Catholic anti-Lutheran theologian Johann Maier (Mayer) von Eck (1486-1543) pub. Against the Defenses of the Jews, a virulent anti-Semitic pamphlet claiming that any attempt by "Jew protector" Andreas Osiander to claim that the "blasphemous race" doesn't kill Christian kids and desecrate the eucharistic host is full of scheisse; "Could they but drown all Christians in one spoon, they would eagerly do it"; a Roman Catholic equals or bests Martin Luther in anti-Semitic rhetoric? In 1543 one-upper Martin Luther (1483-1546) pub. On the Jews and Their Lies, which calls for their Nazi-like persecution incl. pogroms 400 years before the little-miss-sunshine Nazis; "A base, whoring people, that is, no people of God, and their boast of lineage, circumcision, and law must be counted as filth"; "Full of the Devil's feces... which they wallow in like swine" (synagogues); "Incorrigible whore and an evil slut".

Frederick William I of Prussia (1688-1740) Frederick II the Great of Prussia (1712-86)

On Feb. 25, 1713 Hohenzollern Prussian king #1 (since 1701) Frederick I of Prussia (b. 1657) dies after having drained the country of resources, and his son Frederick William (Friedrich Wilhelm) I (1688-1740) becomes king #2 of Prussia and elector of Brandenburg (until May 31, 1740), soon showing himself a heaven-spelled-backwards royal tightwad who likes tall soldiers for his military parades as he builds up the size of the army from 38K to 83.5K, making Prussia the 3rd biggest military power after Russia and France, introducing pigtails to the army. On May 31, 1740 Hohenzollern Prussian king (since 1713) Frederick William I (b. 1688) dies, and his son Friedrich (Frederick) II (the Great) (1712-86) becomes king #3 of Prussia (until Aug. 17, 1786), becoming a student of Macchiavelli, creating a strong army, and trying to duplicate Versailles at Potsdam (Sans Souci Park, New Palace, Orangery, Marble Palace, etc.), attracting Voltaire, La Mettrie, Euler, and other intellectuals; a Francophile who prefers French to German, creating the Pour le Merite (Mérite) (Blue Max) as the highest German award for bravery; he is an avid flutist and composer, and one of the first art patrons to recognize the virtues of the pianoforte; a dead spider in his drink saves him from poisoning?; he makes his troops wear dark green uniforms of coarse cloth and put buttons on the top side of military sleeves to keep them from wiping their faces and soiling them; he orders soldiers to shave their faces and heads so that the enemy can't grab their hair and cut off their heads; the goose-step (Stechstritt) (Ger. "piercing step") is adopted.

U.S. Flag Washington, D.C. and Masonic Symbolism George Washington (1732-99) Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) James Madison (1751-1836) John Adams (1735-1826) Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804) Benjamin Franklin (1706-90) Thomas Paine (1737-1809) John Locke (1632-1704) Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) David Hume (1711-76) Adam Smith (1723-90) Adam Weishaupt (1748-1830) Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744-1812) U.S. Pres. Andrew Jackson (1767-1845)

It took 1300 years after the fall of Rome for the West to finally get its act together with the American Revolution in 1775-83, a new beginning for humanity that reached back to the ancient Greeks and made use of all the wisdom since, becoming the greatest breakthrough in human liberty ever seen, making the U.S. Da (don't say Great White) Hope of Da Non-Allah-Submitting World ever since. No Mel, it wasn't a Jewish plot, or if so, they must have made up with the ancient pagan Greeks who liked to exercise naked with their uncircumcised dongs swinging like your Celt ancestors, how'd you get so rich? Some of the great Founding Fathers included George Washington (1732-99), Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), James Madison (1751-1836), John Adams (1735-1826), Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804), Benjamin Franklin (1706-90), and Thomas Paine (1737-1809). They all based their philosophy on English big brain John Locke (1632-1704), ("Father of Liberalism"), French big brain Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron Montesquieu (1689-1755), and Scottish big brains David Hume (1711-76) and Adam Smith (1723-90), but went way beyond them. Where did the U.S. Founding Fathers get their great ideas? Answer: they were historyscopers. Back then they didn't have the Internet like TLW, so access to historical materials was limited to the wealthy, and only those with great gobs of leisure time could absorb it all, so there these white English dudes were, hanging out in the libraries and studies in their mansions while their slaves supported them. No wonder they had an ambivalent attitude toward slavery, knowing that it was wrong but also not wanting to have to get a day job, but hedging their bets by laying the groundwork for racial equality on paper, while playing it safe and leaving the matter to posterity. Benjamin Franklin was an exception, a self-made man, so no surprise that he finally made peace with his conscience and denounced slavery just before he croaked of ripe old age. Tom Paine was a radical Freethinker who saw the French Revolution firsthand, and was always living off the income from his sensational writings, incl. The Age of Reason (1794-1807) (an American bestseller that argues for the existence of one God, but dissects the Bible as full of errors and contradictions, and slams the Bible god Jehovah as not the real God, but a tribal god of the Hebrews, little more than a bloodthirsty idol, not worthy of belief, too bad that Jefferson didn't loan him his Quran so he could tear it apart too), so of course he was the most vehement in denouncing slavery, knowing that they'd consider all his ideas kooky but cool enough to read in the loo. They were all ahead of their time, and the rest of the world is still catching up to their sound ideas, the world's main chance. Yes, there are still Deists around, and they do sometimes tear into the Quran, go Deists. So sorry, Pres. Obama,there wasn't a Muslim among them, but there were a lot of Freemasons among them, and they even laid out the U.S. capital city Washington, D.C. in a Masonic configuration. There were also Jews among them. In Germany on May 1, 1776 (May Day) the mysterious Bavarian Order of the Illuminati was founded by Johann Adam Weishaupt (1748-1830), allegedly secretly funded and masterminded by German Jewish banker Mayer Amschel Rothschild (1744-1812), the father of international banking (a Spinoza disciple), with a general plan of destroying the Christian order in Europe by infiltrating and turning nation against nation until it all turns to crap, then stirring the crap to create a New World Order (NWO), and which somehow was allegedly behind the American Revolution, the French Revolution, the Revolutions of 1848, the U.S. Civil War, the Russian Revolution, World Wars I and II, the League of Nations and U.N., and which is supposedly on its game to this day and will be there if/when there's an Armageddon, stay tuned to Armageddon Idol starring Simon Scowl. Alexander Hamilton was allegedly a secret Rothschild agent, which is why he pushed the creation of the First U.S. National Bank on Feb. 25, 1791, which became the mission of U.S. pres. #7 (1829-37) Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) to free the U.S. from, which he did, only to have it come back bigtime on Dec. 23, 1913 with the Federal Reserve, Illuminati shark music here.

Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803)

In 1763-4 Mohrungen, Prussia-born German philosopher and Lutheran pastor Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803), (student of Immanuel Kant), a Volksgeist nationalist known for the soundbyte: "Spew out the ugly slime of the Seine. Speak German, O You German!" pub. Essays on Being (2 vols.). In 1765 he pub. How Philosophy Can Become More Universal and Useful for the Benefit of the People. In 1769 he coins the term "Zeitgeist" (Spirit of the Age), spending his career struggling with the concept of Volksgeist (Spirit of the People) (coined by Hegel in 1801), the natural self-clumping of people into self-sufficient er, herds, with the soundbyte: “There is only one class in the state, the Volk (not the rabble), and the king belongs to this class as well as the peasant", walking the fence of racism while holding onto the Biblical Garden of Eden story and its implication that there are no such things as races like so-called anthropologist Johann Blumenbach was pushing, with the soundbyte: "Denn jedes Volk ist Volk", saying that all people have the same internal anatomy, with the soundbyte: "Neither the Pongo [chimpanzee] nor the Longimanus [gibbon] is your brother, but truly the American [Indian] and the Negro are." Too bad, he steps on his dick with the statement that a few hundred years earlier the inhabitants of Germany were Patagonians from South Am., and slides back into racism with the soundbyte: "Had Greece been people with Chinese, our Greece would never have existed", and worse: "Chinese they were, and will remain: a people endowed by nature with small eyes, a short nose, a flat forehead, little beard, large ears, and a protuberant belly... Nature seems to have refused them as well as many other nations in this corner of the world, great invention in Science, while on the other hand he has beautifully conferred on their little eyes a spirit of application, adroit diligence and nicety, a talent of imitating with art whatever their cupidity deems useful. Eternally moving, eternally occupied, they are forever going and coming, in quest of gain, or in fulfillment of their offices"; Herder calls Volksgeist "singular, marvelous, inexplicable, ineffible", likening it to a plant that grows, blooms, and withers, requiring its history to be studied, but snubbing ancient and modern history for the Middle Ages, expanding its scope to incl. language, culture, customs, religion, lit., law, and folklore, going on to pub. the hit "Voices of the People in Their Songs" (Stimmen der Volker in ihren Lidern) in 1773, a collection of folk songs; too bad, Volkgeist becomes a concept that everybody believes in although nobody can quite define it, opening the door wide to all-out racism? In 1774 he pub. This Too a Philosophy of History for the Formation of Humanity, which champions the individuality of cultures, believing that each Volk is adapted to a particular ecological niche; "If every one of these nations had remained in its place, the Earth might have been considered as a garden, where in one spot one human national plan, in another, another, bloomed in its proper figure and nature"; too bad, "As man are not firmly rooted plants, the calamities of famine, earthquakes, war and the like, must in time remove them from their place to some other more or less different", and almost every Volk "has migrated at least once, sooner or later, to a greater distance, or less." In 1784 he begins pub. Ideas for a Philosophy of History of Mankind (Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menschheit) (4 vols.) (1784-91), which explores the central ideas of nationalism, starting with the existence of a nation that has a unique claim to be considered a legitimate political basis for sovereignty, concluding that they must speak the same language; "Has a people anything dearer than the speech of its fathers? In its speech resides its whole thought-domain, its tradition, history, religion, and basis of life, all its heart and soul. To deprive a people of its speech is to deprive it of its one eternal good... As God tolerates all the different languages in the world, so also should a ruler not only tolerate but honor the various languages of his peoples... The best culture of a people cannot be expressed through a foreign language; it thrives on the soil of a nation most beautifully, and, I may say, it thrives only by means of the nation's inherited and inheritable dialect. With language is created the heart of a people; and is it not a high concern, amongst so many peoples—Hungarians, Slavs, Rumanians, etc to plant seeds of well-being for the far future and in the way that is dearest and most appropriate to them?" - get to Golden Pond before the lake dries up? He goes on to preach against systematicity in philosophy, establishing a countertradition later continued by Karl wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Ludwig Wittgenstein, also snubbing aphorism and aphorist arguments. Too bad, he considers the Jews a Volk that because of the Diaspora works only to subvert and destroy other Volk, with the soundbytes: "The Jewish people is and remains in Europe an Asiatic people alien to our part of the world, bound to that old law which it received in a distant climate, and which, according to its confession, it cannot do away with"; "How many of this alien people can be tolerated without injury to the true citizens?"; "A ministry in which a Jew is supreme, a household in which a Jew has the key of the wardrobe and the management of the finances, a department or commissariat in which Jews do the principal business, are Pontine marshes which cannot be drained." He dies on Dec. 18, 1803 in Weimar, leaving the unfinished Outlines of a Philosophy of the History of Man, which founds the philosophical school of historical thought, wth the soundbyte: "One must go into the age, into the religion, into the whole history, and feel one's way into everything" to become the "regenerated contemporary" of the past, treating history as a science and an "instrument of the most genuine patriotic spirit"; "Compare England with Germany: the English are Germans, and even in the latest times the Germans have led the way for the English in the greatest things."

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840)

As white Americans fight to create a new homeland for their "race" on stolen Amerindian land, a German scientist lays the theoretical basis for the original sin of white supremacy so that white will always be right theoretically no matter how the facts look? In 1776 German biologist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840) pub. De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa Liber (On the Natural Varieties of Humanity), which lays the foundation for the science of anthropology; taking it as given that only God can create them, he defines the four "races" of mankind as Caucasian, Mongolian, American Indian, and Ethiopian (African); in 1795 he adds Malayan; of course the punch line is that white is right and black is bad - and for the in-between colors, welcome to Progressive.com, Manwich, Manwich, we adore thee?

Sir William Jones (1746-94)

On Feb. 2, 1786 English hyperpolyglot linguist Sir William Jones (1746-94) delivers a famous speech in Calcutta to the Asiatic Society, claiming a common source for the Sanskrit, Persian, Greek, Latin, Celtic, and German languages, with the soundbyte: "The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from a common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists; there is a similar reason, though not quite so forcible, for supposing that both the Gothic and the Celtic, though blended with a very different idiom, had the same origin with the Sanskrit; and the old Persian might be added to the same family."

U.S. Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858) Russian Adm. Yevfimy Vasilyevich Putyatin (1803-83) Tanaka Hisashige (1799-1881) Toshiakira Kawaji of Japan Townsend Harris of the U.S. (1804-78)

Japanese trade isolation ends at the end of an American gun? On July 8, 1853 disobeying an order to go to Nagasaki, Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858) (brother of Oliver Hazard Perry) appears in Yedo (Tokyo) Bay in his flagship USS Mississippi with a steamship and two sail warships bearing a letter from U.S. Pres. Fillmore to Japan's emperor requesting protection for shipwrecked U.S. sailors (heretofore routinely executed), the right to provision U.S. ships, and trading privileges at Japanese ports; after presenting the letter at an elaborate ceremony on July 14, he retires to the Chinese coast to give them time to consider it - try to catch me riding dirty? On Aug. 12, 1853 the #2-we-try-harder Russian frigate Pallada (Pallas), commanded by adm. Yevfimy Vasilyevich Putyatin (1803-83) arrives in Nagasaki, wowing the Japanese with his steam engine, and helping them manufacture their own by the end of the year led by mechanical genius Tanaka Hisashige (1799-1881), son of a tortoise-shell craftsman (the Thomas Edison of Japan?) - jokes about Japanese copying of other cultures here? In Feb. 1854 Commodore Matthew C. Perry returns to Japan with seven menacing "black ships", making his 2nd landing in Japan on Mar. 8, and on Mar. 31 near Yokohama he forces the Tokugawa shogunate to sign the Treaty of Kanagawa, acceding to U.S. demands, and opening two ports for trade; he brings back the Japanese word "taikun" (great prince), which becomes the English word tycoon; his Western aggression leads to the birth of Japanese nationalism? On Feb. 7, 1855 the Treaty of Shimoda, negotiated by Russian adm. Yevfimy Putyatin and Toshiakira Kawaji (1801-68) of Japan begins their official commercial relationship. In 1855 Commodore Perry returns to the U.S., and New York City merchant and former board of ed. pres. (1846-7) Townsend Harris (1804-78) is appointed the first U.S. consul-gen. to Japan. In 1858 the Harris Treaty, negotiated by U.S. envoy Townsend Harris finally opens the U.S. to trade with Japan, effective July 4, 1859; Britain also obtains entry for British trade in five Japanese ports (incl. Yokohama), with the establishment of diplomatic and consular reps.

Karl May (1842-1912)

Blacks helping whites kill reds and browns, doo-dah, doo-dah? Beginning in the 1860s immigrant parties of whites who run into Indians in the Am. West are routinely killed, mutilated, raped, and butchered; in 1866 the Buffalo Soldiers (black troopers of the 9th and 10th cavalry regiments and the 24th and 25th infantry regiments) are formed to fight in the Final (Solution?) Indian Wars (1864-90); the name Buffalo is a mark of respect from the Indians; during the U.S. Civil War blacks offering themselves for military service in the E are turned into cooks, carpenters, and laborers at first, but by war's end almost 200K serve under the U.S. flag; in 1864-90 45K+ Indians are killed by the palefaces in "the final solution to the Indian problem" (Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman); Adolf Hitler later becomes a fan of Wild West Old Shatterhand novels by German writer Karl Friedrich May (1842-1912), using the genocide number done on the Indians as his model for Jews?

Charles Lennox Richardson of Britain (1834-62) after messing with Samurai honor Shimazu Hisamitsu (1817-87)

On Sept. 14, 1862 the Kanagawa (Namamugi) Incident sees top-knotted sword-wielding Japanese samurai murder English Shanghai merchant Charles Lennox Richardson (b. 1834) (a racist who whipped Chinese in China) for not dismounting for Satsuma bigwig Shimazu Hisamitsu (1817-87) as his retinue of 1K passes him on the Tokaido Road in Namamugi village, causing the Anglo-Satsuma War on Aug. 15-17, 1863.

French Warship Semiramis, July 2, 1863 Kondo Isami of Japan (1834-68) Kiyokawa Hachiro of Japan (1830-63)

In Mar. 1863 after the entrance of barbarians into Japan and their humiliating Unequal Treaties piss off the pop., causing them to commit acts of violence, backed by the Sonno Joi ("Revere the emperor and expel the barbarians") movement, emperor Komei issues an order to expel the barbarians; too bad, shogun Iyemochi, who is in bed with the Westerners to modernize his military won't enforce it, and when the pro-imperialists begin attacking the shogunate, he forms the Shinsengumi ("New Recruits"), an army of 234 ronin samurai led by Kondo Isami (1834-68), Kiyokawa Hachiro (1830-63) et al. for his protection as a police force; they get to wear cool outfits, becoming renowned for preventing Kyoto from burning down next year, although they have a dark side and are also known as the Wolves. On July 2, 1863 Japanese shogun Iyemochi negotiates aboard the French warship Semiramis over the Kanagawa Incident of last Sept., apologizing and paying the British authorities £10K; too bad, the offending Satusuma Province refuses to pay their £25K fine or cough up the two samurai who did the killing, causing the pissed-off Brits to seize three foreign-built Satsuma warships worth 10x as much, then burn them after being fired upon by artillery, going on to fire on the Kagashima coast, burning 500 houses (5%) and killing five Japanese, while losing 11 of their own, incl. Capt. Josling of the 35-gun flagship Euryalus and his 2nd-in-command Cmdr. Wilmot (beheaded by the same cannonball), until the Brits retreat under Japanese cannonfire, causing the Japanese to claim a V, although the £25K fine is later paid; future Father of the Japanese Imperial Navy Togo Heihachiro (1848-1934) mans one of the port cannons, later claiming that the humiliation of it all launched his career; ironically the incident increases British ties with Satsuma, who goes on to modernize militarily with their help, then back the emperor against the shogunate, which the Brits like because the shogun is too much in bed with the French.

Francois Léonce Verny of France (1837-1908)

In 1866 the Japanese shogunate builds Japan's first modern naval arsenal in Yokosuka, supervised by French engineer Francois Leonce (Léonce) Verny (1837-1908).

Shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu of Japan (1837-1913) Princess Chikako of Japan (1846-77)

On July 20, 1866 rice-chomping Japanese shogun (since 1858) Tokugawa Iyemochi (b. 1847) dies of heart failure due to beriberi (vitamin B1 deficiency), ending his short marriage with emperor Komei's half-sister (daughter of emperor Ninko) princess Kazunomiya Chikako (1846-77) to unite the court and bafuku (shogunate), and on Aug. 29 Tokugawa Yoshinobu Hitotsubashi (1837-1913) (AKA Keiki) becomes the 15th and last Tokugawa shogun of Japan (until Nov. 19, 1867), and in Aug. he sends another expedition to Choshu Province in SW Honshu Island (capital Yamaguchi) to destroy the rebellious feudal fief, armed with French weapons; too bad, the other great feudal lords get pissed-off at his assumption of authority, and his expedition is routed.

Japanese Emperor Meiji (1852-1912) Japanese Empress Haruko (1849-1914) Saigo Takamori of Japan (1827-77) Saigo Takamori of Japan (1827-77) after Westernization

On Jan. 30, 1867 emperor (since 1846) Komei (b. 1831) dies, and his 2nd son (only surviving child of six) Prince Mutsuhito becomes Japanese Yamato emperor #122 Meiji (pr. may-EE-jee) the Great (1852-1912) (until July 20, 1912); his wife Empress Shoken (Haruko) (Masako Ichijo) (1849-1914) follows his lead and wears Western dress. On Aug. 28 the Midway Islands are formally declared a U.S. possession. On Nov. 8, 1867 after Choshu Province forms a secret alliance with the British-armed Satsuma Province, and one day before Emperor Meiji issues a secret order to them to "slaughter the traitor", Hitotsubashi shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the last Japanese shogun resigns and surrenders to the emperor, and is put under house arrest, then retires to Shizuoka for life, becoming a photographer; the emperor regains his position as actual head of the govt., ending 675 years of shogun rule (since 1292) and its Western humiliations; the new Meiji rulers are modernizers, bringing liberal and economic reforms; too bad, the Tokugawa clan continue in power, pissing-off their rivals in Choshu and Satsuma. On Jan. 3, 1868 the Choshu and Satsuma army seizes the imperial palace in Kyoto, and on Jan. 4 15-y.-o. Japanese Yamato emperor Meiji announces the Meiji Restoration (Ouseifukko), re-establishing the emperor's authority over the shoguns, with the imperial capital at Kyoto, and head Satsuma samurai Saigo Takamori (1842-77) ("The Last Samurai") pressures him into abolishing the shogunate and ordering all Tokugawa land confiscated, starting the Boshin War (ends May 1869); on Jan. 27-30 the Battle of Toba-Fushimi sees the 15K Tokugawa shogunate forces defeated by the smaller but more modern imperial army near Tobu and Fushima; ex-shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu (Keiki) escapes to Edo, then surrenders in May; in Oct. Edo is renamed Tokyo, and the seat of govt. moved there from Kyoto next Mar.; an all-out attempt to catch up to the industrialized West is now launched while the heads are flying in the samurai-style Boshin War, where the last samurai swords get plenty of action; Saigo Takamori resists Westernization but finally goes for it, and the Age of the Samurai is kaput - like going far out for Buffalo wings? In 1869 Japanese Yamato emperor Meiji accepts the surrender of the four most powerful clans (Choshu, Hizen, Satsuma, Tosa), and appoints the clan chiefs as his provincial govs. after reducing their revenues; the Meiji govt. in Japan consolidates the daimyo (feudal) and kuge (Kyoto) classes into the single aristocratic Kazoku (Jap. "flowery lineage") class. In 1869 Am. Baptist minister Jonathan Scobie allegedly invents the Rickshaw (Jap. "human-powered vehicle") in Yokohama, Japan to transport his invalid wife through the city streets.

Yasukuni Shrine, 1869

In June 1869 the Yasukuni (Jap. "pacifying the nation") Shinto Shrine in Tokyo is built to house the kami (spirits) of those who die for the emperor, causing the emperor worship cult to go off the charts, its honor scrolls containing the names of 2,466,532 nutcases who kicked the bucket for him by 1951, incl. 14 war criminals (Hideki Tojo, et al.) when the San Francisco Peace Treaty makes them stop adding more; in 1972 Emperor Hirohito pays for a concrete enclosure for the archive.

Heinrich Gotthard von Treitschke (1834-96)

In 1878 German historian Heinrich Gotthard von Treitschke (1834-96) founds the German white racist anti-Semite movement; in 1879-95 he pub. History of Germany in the XIX Century.

Edward Bellamy (1850-98)

In 1888 U.S. Baptist minister's son Edward Bellamy (1850-98) (cousin of Francis Bellamy) pub. Looking Backwards, 2000-1887, based on Laurence Gronlund's 1884 "Exposition of Modern Socialism", an internat. bestseller about Julian West, who time travels and discovers that the U.S. will become a Military Socialist utopia by you know when, launching the Nationalist movement, which inspires several utopian communities; uses the swastika symbol, later adopted by the Nazis, along with the straight arm salute used for the Pledge of Allegiance by his cousin Francis Bellamy.

Francis Julius Bellamy (1855-1931)

In Aug. 1892 U.S. Baptist minister's son Francis Julius Bellamy (1855-1931) (a Freemason and Christian Socialist) (cousin of Edward Bellamy) writes the Pledge of Allegiance for the 400th anniv. of Columbus' discovery of White Grab-Bag-Land and to promote the schoolhouse flag movement; it is first pub. on Sept. 8 in The Youth's Companion (circ. 500K); the original version is "I pledge allegiance to my Flag and to the Republic for which it stands, one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all"; he resists the urge to incl. the French Rev. catchword "equality", saying "No, that would be too fanciful, too many thousands of years off in realization"; too bad, he incl. the "Bellamy salute", requiring the arm to be held straight out towards the flag (later adopted by the Nazis), becoming the first U.S. National Socialism?

French Capt. Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935)

In 1894 the Dreyfus Affair stinks France up after French Alsatian Jewish military officer Capt. Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) is framed for treason (selling secret military info. to the Germans) and convicted "in camera" by royalist anti-republican officers, then stripped of rank and his sword broken, and made into an example of traitors in the republican govt. in an attempt to discredit it. It takes until 1906 for him to be released from priz.

Alfred Ploetz (1860-1940)

In 1895 German physician-biologist Alfred Ploetz (1860-1940) (born in Swinemunde, which should be World of Swine?) pub. Basics of Racial Hygiene: The Efficiency of Our Race and the Protection of the Weak (Grundlinien einer Rassenhygiene), which proposes Nordic race-based eugenics; in Apr. 1933 he announces that the Nazis under Herr Hitler will finally bring about racial hygiene in the gorgeous Valley of the Sun, and interior minister Wilhelm Frick appoints him to an expert advisory committee, after which he joins the Nazi Party in 1937, flip-flopping on the Jews and finally getting his mind right about the superiority of the Aryan race before dying just in time to avoid seeing it all come unglued - love at 425 degrees?

Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927)

Did I mention that anti-Semitism was festering bigtime in Europe throughout the 19th century, especially in Germany? In 1899 British-born Germanophile Houston Stewart Chamberlain (1855-1927) pub. The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (Die Grundlagen des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts), which became a big hit with the pan-Germanic "Aryan" movement, claiming that the "noble" Aryan race (Germans, Celts, Slavs, Greeks, Latins) (all descended from the Proto-Indo-Europeans) have always ruled Euro civilization, and of course the Nordic or Teutonic peoples are at the top of the Aryan heap, with the soundbyte "Physically and mentally the Aryans are pre-eminent among all peoples; for that reason they are by right... the lords of the world. Do we not see the homo syriacus develop just as well and as happily in the position of slave as of master? Do the Chinese not show us another example of the same nature?" According to him, the Germanic takedown of the Roman Empire was good because the Romans were infected with pesky hooked-nose "homo judaeica" (Jews), who were "infusing Near Eastern poison into the European body politic". "All historically great races and nations have been produced by mixing, but wherever the difference of type is too great to be bridged over, then we have mongrels." Sounds good, until he claimed that since Jesus is God, he must have really not been Jewish, but Aryan. After selling 100K copies by the start of WWII, Kaiser Wilhelm II awarded him a medal in 1916 and gave him German citizenship, after which Hitler lapped it up and guess what happened. Funny that Hitler's British appeaser was named you know what. Meanwhile the infamous Protocols of the Elders of Zion were forged by the tsarist regime in Russia in 1903 to blame its troubles on the tiny minority of Jews, and spread throughout the world, taking root in Europe, the U.S., and the Islamic world after the first Arabic trans. appeared in 1951. It's probably still a bestseller today on the Internet, although it's a total work of fiction, as if real Jews would write it all down in Russian not Hebrew and leave it where their worst enemies could get it, then not later claim copyright when they saw all the millions being printed, when not dodging horrible pogroms that is. The nice part about it is that every time the Jews overcome some obstacle to have a good future, the Protocols are dragged out and cited to prove it was all part of their insidious age-old plan to take over the world sans numbers or army, just pure brains, despite being an inferior race, while if something bad happens to the Jews, the Protocols are dragged out and cited to prove that the good guys are beating them, call it a new self-fulfilling edition of St. Mazel Tov's Revelation. Okay, since Charlemagne the Jews were into banking and interest, after they were forced into it by Christendom as fit only for lowlife scum like them, not for good Christians, who reserved real jobs in govt. and military service for themselves. Prominent old Jewish banking families include the Rothschild ("red shield") Family, the Warburg Family, and the Oppenheim Family, who between them are alleged to help Jews control the world through the internat. banking system, which after WWII they have made so convoluted and interdependent that they can starve any country that gets pesky at will, except Muslim ones of course, they are into Islamic banking that has a different set of rules.

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900

On Aug. 25, 1900 opium-addicted German philosopher Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (b. 1844) dies of syphilis (brain cancer?) in Weimar, Saxony after having given up religion and theology school in 1865 with the soundbyte "Hence the ways of men part: if you wish to strive for peace of soul and pleasure, then believe; if you wish to be a devotee of truth, then inquire", and reached the pinnacle of philosophy with his ideas of the Death of God, the Antichrist, the Superman (Ubermensch) and the Will to Power, and Eternal Recurrence, followed in 1889 by a complete mental collapse and dementia; his thinking mirrors the collapse of Christian faith in Europe in the latter 19th cent., setting it up for some big power play, but too bad jerk-off, er, men are not supermen and war is Hell?

Japanese Gen. Count Kuroki Tamemoto (1844-1923) Japanese Field Marshal Prince Iwao Oyama (1842-1916) Russian Gen. Alexei Kuropatkin (1848-1925) Russian Gen. Mikhail Ivanovich Zasulich (1843-1910) Russian Gen. Count Feodor Keller (1850-1904) Russian Adm. Zinovy Petrovich Rozhestvensky (1848-1909)

The first time since the Mongols that an Asian military force totally defeats a European power? On Feb. 8, 1904 (10:30 p.m.) "World War Zero", AKA the Russo-Japanese War (ends Sept. 5, 1905) over control of Manchuria and Korea begins with a surprise Japanese attack on the Russian naval squadron at Port Arthur (Lushun), followed by a formal declaration of war by Japan on Feb. 10 (the U.S. doesn't learn a lesson from this?); the Japanese, led by Field Marshal (since 1898) Prince Iwao Oyama (1842-1916) immediately occupy Seoul, and force Korea to annul all concessions made to Russia. On Apr. 13 the Japanese score a V in the naval Battle of Port Arthur, and invade Manchuria by land. On Apr. 22 Russian Far East cmdr. gen. Alexei Nikolayevich Kuropatkin (1848-1925) (imperial war minister since 1898) sends 25K troops under Lt. Gen. Mikhail Ivanovich Zasulitch (1843-1910) to block the main road from Korea to Manchuria so that refinforcements from the 1-track Trans-Siberia Railway can be given the needed 6 mo. to build up; too bad, on Apr. 30-May 1 the Battle of the Yalu River near Wiju (Uiju), North Korea on the Chinese border, the first major land battle of the Russo-Japanese War is a V for 42K Japanese of the First Army under Gen. Count Kuroki Tamemoto (1844-1923), after which the Russkies retreat N toward Fenghuangcheng. On July 10 the Battle of Motien Pass in Manchuria is a V for the Japanese under Gen. Count Kuroki Tamemoto (1844-1923) over 25K Russians under Gen. Count Fyoror (Feodor) (Fedor) Keller (b. 1850), allowing the pass to be occupied July 13, blocking the main road between the coast and Liaoyang; Keller dies in a counterattack on July 31. On Aug. 1 the Japanese begin the Siege of Port Arthur (ends Jan. 2, 1905); in Aug. Korea is forced to accept Japanese diplomatic and financial advisers; on Aug. 24-Sept. 4 the Russians are defeated by the Japanese First Army under gen. Count Kuroki Tamemoto at the Battle of Liaoyang, followed on Oct. 5-17 by the Battle of Sha-ho (Shaho) on the Sha River N of Liaoyang; trenches are first used in this war? On Oct. 21/22 the Dogger Bank Episode (Incident) (North Sea Incident) (Russian Outrage) (Incident of Hull) begins when the Russian fleet under Adm. Zinovy Petrovich Rozhestvensky (Rodjestvensky) (1848-1909) sails through the North Sea en route to the Far East, and fires on British trawlers, claiming they are Japanese destroyers; after the intervention of France, the dispute is settled by an internat. commission on Feb. 25, 1905.

Japanese Field Marshal Prince Iwao Oyama (1842-1916) Japanese Adm. Togo Heihachiro (1848-1934) Jutaro Komura of Japan (1855-1911)

The Czarist regime in Russia starts to topple when the Japanese kick their butts and it kicks its own citizens' butts? On Jan. 2, 1905 (9:00 p.m.) a letter from Russian gen. Stoessel formally surrendering Port Arthur (sieged since Aug. 1, 1904) by Japanese gen. Nogi, and on Jan. 22 (Jan. 9 Old Style) (Sun.) a rev. breaks out in Russia for the first time in St. Petersburg, becoming known as Bloody (Red) Sunday after thousands of peaceful demonstrating Russian workers led by Russian Orthodox priest Father Georgi Apollonovich Gapon (1870-1906) are fired on by imperial army troops as they approach the Winter Palace, killing 70 and wounding 240, starting a bloody spiral that can only end with the tsar's head on a platter?; on Mar. 3 the tsar announces a consultative assembly, an edict of religious toleration, permission to use the Polish language in Polish schools, relief for Jews, and part-cancellation of redemption payments. On Feb. 20 the Japanese, led by Field Marshal Iwao Oyama (1842-1916) begin advancing toward the regional capital of Mukden (Shenyang), defeating the Russians on Mar. 10 in the Battle of Mukden (Shenyang) (first modern battle in history, with 400K Japanese against 350K Russians, and 200K+ casualties); on May 27-29 the Russian Baltic Fleet is destroyed by the Japanese fleet under "Father of the Japanese Imperial Navy" Adm. Togo Heihachiro (1848-1934) in the Battle of Tsushima Straits, discrediting the tsar's govt.; on July 24 Tsar Nicholas II and Kaiser Wilhelm II sign the secret Treaty of Bjorko (Björkö) for mutual aid. They were made for each other, blini and sake? On Sept. 5 defeated Russia signs the Treaty of Portsmouth at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Portsmouth, N.H. (first U.S. city to host the formal conclusion of a foreign war until ?), mediated by Pres. Teddy Roosevelt (who wins the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for it), ending the Russo-Japanese War (begun Feb. 8, 1904), and becoming the first Asian V over a Western power in modern history, giving control of Manchuria to China, and control of Korea to Japan, bringing peace between Japan and Russia for four decades; Japanese foreign minister Jutaro Komura (1855-1911) is chief Japanese rep.; the Anglo-Japanese alliance is renewed for 10 years; Japanese Field Marshal Iwao Oyama becomes a bigger hero than ever, and is given the rank of prince in 1907.

Roland Garros of France (1888-1918) Anthony Fokker (1890-1939) Max Immelmann (1890-1916) Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1958) Roger Adams (1889-1971)

On Aug. 4, 1914 - Nov. 11, 1918 the horrific World War I causes 15M deaths and 39M military casualties. and destroys the Old Order of white formerly Christian Europe. On Feb. 26-28, 1915 the Germans first use a Flamethrower (Flame Projector) in the village of Douaumont, France near Verdun, becoming the first of 653 flamethrower attacks in the war. On Apr. 1, 1915 French aviator Roland Garros (1888-1918) becomes the first pilot to shoot down an aircraft using a deflector gear, which allows shooting through the propeller; after more Vs against German aircraft on Apr. 15 and Apr. 18, he is shot down and the Germans capture his plane, after which Dutch designer Anthony (Anton Herman Gerard) Fokker (1890-1939) clones then improves the deflector gear into the synchronization (interrupter) gear, mounting them on the new Fokker E.I. in Aug., beginning the Fokker Scourge (Scare) as they shoot down nearly every enemy aircraft they encounter and generate the first German aces, incl. Max Immelmann (1890-1916); next year the French counter with the Nieuport 11 Bebe (Bébé), in which the gun is mounted on the top wing clear of the prop, and the British with the Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2b and Airco DH.2 (Feb. 1916), which mount the engine backwards with the prop in back, causing them to be called "pushers", ending the Fokker Scourge by spring 1917. In 1915 arsenic-based vomiting-sneeze gas Adamsite (DM) (diphenylaminechlorarsine) is synthesized by German chemist Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1957); in 1918 Am chemist Roger Adams (1889-1971) duplicates it, and both sides stockpile it, but it is allegedly never used on the battlefield. On Mar. 22, 1916 the British have their first success with their new Depth Charge off the SW coast of Ireland, destroying a German U-boat. Are you used to Hell yet, try this? On Sept. 15, 1916 Winston Churchill's pet project the Tank (Russian Water Closet) (Char-Schneider) is first used by the Brits in the Somme.

Nikolai Yegorovich Zhukovsky (1847-1921)

On Dec. 1, 1918 the Central Aerohydrodynamic Inst. (TsAGI) is founded in Moscow by Russian aviation pioneer Nikolai Yegorovich Zhukovsky (Joukovsky) (1847-1921), going on to produce the Yuriev-Cheremukhin TsAGI-1-EA, the first successful single lifting rotor helicopter in 1931-2.

Oswald Spengler (1880-1936)

Speaking of thesis + antithesis = synthesis. In 1918-22 Blankenburg, Brunswick-born German philosopher Oswald Arnold Gottfried Spengler (1880-1936) pub. Decline of the West (The Downfall of the Occident) (Dr Untergang des Abendlandes), a universal history that claims that civilizations are like living organisms, passing through identical stages at fixed periods, and that the future is Asiatic domination. In 1931 he pub. Man and Technics (Technology): A Contribution to a Philosophy of Life; how hi-tech and industrialism threaten Western culture because the "colored races" might get it and use the advanced weapons against whitey; "Optimism is cowardice." In 1934 he pub. the bestseller The Hour of Decision, which criticizes both the Nazis and liberalism and disses Aryanism and anti-Semitism, calls the Germans too narrow to lead the fight for all Western white peoples, and predicts a world war which threatens Western civilization, causing the Nazis to ban it; he already pissed them off by calling Hitler a "heroic tenor" (Heldentenor) who isn't a real hero (Held), but just plays one on stage.

Ulrich Graf von Brockdorff-Rantzau of Germany (1869-1928) Gottfried Feder (1883-1941) German Gen. Hans von Seeckt (1866-1936)

On Jan. 25, 1919 the WWI Peace Conference in Versailles sets up a commission on reparations, and adopts the League of Nations (nicknamed the League of Victors) German Reparations Plan, with the soundbyte: "Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies", which pisses-off German nationalists, and is used with effect by Adolf Hitler, leading to WWII; senior German delegate (foreign minister) (Hitler lookalike) Count Ulrich Graf von Brockdorff-Rantzau (1869-1928) utters the soundbyte: "We are required to admit that we alone are war guilty. Such an admission on my lips would be a lie"; after the London Daily Mail calls this an "insult", and says: "After this no one will treat the Huns as civilised or repentant", Brockdorff-Rantzau utters the soundbyte: "The hundreds of thousands of noncombatants who have perished since November 11 by reason of the blockade were killed with cold deliberation, after our adversaries had conquered and victory been assured them. Think of that when you speak of guilt and punishment"; damages are not to be assessed for two years to cool passions and allow for postwar inflation to die down, but they have to pay it all by May 1, 1961, and £1B by May 1, 1921; meanwhile von Brockdorff-Rantzau becomes German ambassador to Moscow until his 1928 death - getting Stalin used to dealing with a German mug wearing a toothbrush mustache? On Sept. 12 after being recruited by the army to talk returning German POWs at Lechfeld Camp into rejecting Communism and defeatism, decorated WWI vet Adolf Hitler is sent by his military superiors in the List Regiment to investigate the fledgling German Workers' Party (NDSAP) in the back room of the Sterneckerbrau Beer Hall in Munich, and after he listens to a lecture by Nazi economist Gottfried Feder (1883-1941), and butts in and rebuts somebody who suggested that Bavaria should break away from Prussia and unite with Austria, Anton Drexler hands him his pamphlet My Political Awakening: From the Diary of a German Socialist Worker, after which joins the party, with Feder as his mentor in economics, teaching him all about Jewish-financed internat. capitalism; on Sept. 16 he writes a letter to Adolf Gernlich on the "Jewish problem", blaming German's troubles on a "Jewish Marxist world conspiracy", opening up Pandora's Box for a new source of nat. hate to fuel WWII; on Jan. 1, 1920 he officially becomes the party's 55th member, and 7th member of the executive committee; in 1919 Feder pub. Manifesto on Breaking the Shackles of Interest, which blames Germany's economic ruin on financiers, advocating for the abolition of interest while retaining the capitalist system. On Oct. 11 Johannes Friedrich "Hans" von Seeckt (1866-1936) becomes German army chief of staff (until 1926), laying the foundations for the rebuilding of the Germany army.

Country Leader From To
United States of America Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) Mar. 4, 1913 Mar. 4, 1921 Thomas Woodrow Wilson of the U.S. (1856-1924)
United Kingdom David Lloyd George (1863-1945) Dec. 7, 1916 Oct. 22, 1922 David Lloyd George of Britain (1863-1945)
United Kingdom George V (1865-1936) May 6, 1910 Jan. 20, 1936 George V of England (1865-1936)
Soviet Union Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) Nov. 8, 1917 Jan. 21, 1924 Vladimir Lenin of the Soviet Union (1870-1924)
China Xu Shichang (1855-1939) Oct. 10, 1918 June 2, 1922 Xu Shichang of China (1855-1939)
Canada Sir Robert Laird Borden (1854-1937) Oct. 10, 1911 July 10, 1920 Sir Robert Laird Borden of Canada (1854-1937)
France Raymond Poincaré (1860-1934) Feb. 18, 1913 Feb. 18, 1920 Raymond Poincaré (1860-1934)
Germany Friedrich Ebert (1871-1925) Feb. 11, 1919 Feb. 28, 1925 Friedrich Ebert of Germany (1871-1925)
Italy Victor Emmanuel III (1869-1947) July 29, 1900 May 9, 1946 Victor Emmanuel III of Italy (1869-1947)
Spain Alfonso XIII (1886-1941) May 17, 1886 Apr. 14, 1931 Alfonso XIII of Spain (1886-1931)
Japan Emperor Taisho (1879-1926) July 30, 1912 Dec. 25, 1926 Emperor Taisho of Japan (1879-1926)
Mexico Venustiano Carranza (1859-1920) Mar. 11, 1917 May 21, 1920 Venustiano Carranza of Mexico (1859-1920)
Turkey Sultan Mehmed VI (1861-1926) July 3, 1918 Nov. 1, 1922 Sultan Mehmed VI (1861-1926)
Papacy Benedict XV (1854-1922) Sept. 3, 1914 Jan. 22, 1922 Benedict XV (1854-1922)

Gottfried Feder of Germany (1883-1941) Hermann Mueller of Germany (1876-1931) Dr. Wolfgang Kapp of Germany (1858-1922) Ritter Gustav von Kahr of Germany (1862-1934) Adolf Hitler of Germany (1889-45) Ernst Roehm of Germany (1887-1934) Louis Renault (1843-1918)

On Feb. 24, 1920 the German Romantics' Last Gasp, AKA the Twenty-Five Points of the German Workers' Party, by his mentor Gottfried Feder (1883-1941) are given their first public reading by Adolf Hitler to a crowd of 2K at the Hofbrauhaus in Munich, becoming the first important public meeting held by the future Nazi Party. On Mar. 13, 1920 after Hermann Mueller (1876-1931) becomes chancellor of Germany, obscure East Prussian civil servant Dr. Wolfgang Kapp (1858-1922), backed by the Freikorps and Gen. Ludendorff proclaims himself hancellor of the German Reich in Berlin in a short-lived monarchist coup; after hearing the news, Ritter Gustav von Kahr (1862-1934) assumes dictatorial powers in Munich the next day after presenting an ultimatum to the Social Dem. govt. of Johannes Hoffman during the night; both dictators are really puppets of the army; the Kapp dictatorship collapses on Mar. 18, and Kapp flees to exile in Sweden - the most famous nonentity in German history? On Apr. 17, 1920 (until Nov. 19) up-and-coming Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), hoping to lead a new Munich putsch in imitation of Dr. Kapp gives speeches at 16 public beer hall meetings in Munich, with attendance ranging from 1.2K to 3.5K (avg. 1.8K). In early summer 1920 Adolf Hitler introduces the Swastika (Sans. "auspicious object") of the Nat. Socialist German Workers' Party, causing English writer Joseph Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) to remove it from several of his books that used it along with an elephant carrying a lotus blossom; as Hitler puts it, "It was like a blazing torch... In the red we see the social idea of the movement, in the white the national idea, in the swastika the mission to struggle for the victory of Aryan man and at the same time the victory of the idea of creative work, which is eternally anti-Semitic and always will be." On Aug. 8, 1920 Adolf Hitler changes the name of his party to the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP); meanwhile the Sturm Abteilung (SA) (Ger. "Storm Battalion") (later Brownshirts) is founded by very gay Ernst Julius Gunther Roehm (Röhm) (b. 1887-1934), bringing street thug tactics with them.

Soviet Marshal Mikhail Nikolaevich Tukhachevsky (1893-1937) Josef Pilsudski of Poland (1867-1935)

On Aug. 1, 1920 the Bolsheviks take Brest-Litovsk, and advance on Lemberg; on Aug. 13-25 just when they seem assured of victory, the Battle of Warsaw (Miracle at the Vistula) sees the Bolsheviks under gen. Mikhail Nikolaevich Tukhachevski (1893-1937) defeated by the Poles under gen. (Joseph) Jozef Klemens Pilsudski (1867-1935), with 10K Bolsheviks killed, 10K wounded, and 66K taken POW vs. 4.5K Poles killed, 22K wounded and 10K missing, turning the Polish-Soviet war around and saving Poland from being gobbled up again, and making Pilsudski into the George Washington of Poland.

Hanns Johst (1890-1978)

In 1920 Saxony-born Hanns Johst (1890-1978) debuts his play Der König (The King); a heroic revolutionary is betrayed by reactionaries and the bourgeoisie, taking his own life rather than abandon his principles; makes a fan of Adolf Hitler, who sees the play 17x, meets him in 1923, and tells him that he suspects that his own life will end the same way, later making him poet laureate of the Third Reich. On Apr. 20, 1933 (Hitler's birthday) Johst debuts his play Schlageter, a pro-Nazi drama about Nazi martyr Albert Leo Schlageter; "When I heard the word culture, I release the safety catch on my Browning" (Act 1, Scene 1).

In Feb. 1921 shipping firm Mitsubishi Co. (founded 1870) in Nagoya, Japan invites British Sopwith Camel designer Herbert Smith (1889-1977) to help them establish an aircraft manufacturing div., going on to develop the 1MT, B1M, 1MF, and 2MR.

Johann Schober of Austria (1874-1932)

On July 2, 1921 Pres. Harding signs the joint congressional Knox-Porter Resolution declaring an end to the war with Germany and Austria-Hungary; Johann Schober (1874-1932), an Austrian police minister who was made pres. just before the fall of the Hapsburg monarchy in 1918 is chosen to head a coalition govt. supported by the Christian Social and Pan-German parties, also acting as foreign minister in Dec. to conclude the Treaty of Lany (Lány) with Czech., which pisses-off the Pan-Germans, who want to unite with Germany, leading to his downfall.

On July 11, 1921 after issuing an ultimatum, Adolf Hitler is given dictatorial powers in the fledgling 3-member German Nazi Party (NSDAP); Hitler is elected pres. of the party on July 29. On Sept. 4 Adolf Hitler physically attacks Bayernbund (NSDAP rival) leader Otto Ballerstedt (1887-1934), is arrested and spends 1 mo. in jail. On Oct. 26 after attempts to negotiate loans with foreign banks fall through, and the German govt. requests a delay in payment of reparations, the German cabinet resigns, and chancellor Joseph Wirth forms a 2nd cabinet that is supported by all but the right and the Communists.

Walther Rathenau of Germany (1867-1922) Wilhelm Cuno of Germany (1876-1933)

On Feb. 1, 1922 Jewish industrialist Walther Rathenau (b. 1867), known for opposing Zionism and Socialism in favor of assimilation of Jews into German society is named German foreign minister, then on June 24 is assassinated by German ultra-nationalists after insisting on honoring the Treaty of Versailles, causing the fledgling Nazi Party o point to him as proof of the Jewish Communist conspiracy and declare his assassins nat. heroes on June 24, 1933; Albert Einstein comments that the assassination caused him to be "greatly disturbed"; on Nov. 22 after Joseph Wirth resigns, Wilhelm Cuno (1876-1933) becomes German chancellor (until Aug. 12, 1923), going on to run the printing presses to pay German debts, leading to hyperinflation, which peaks next summer; Friedrich Ebert Sr. is reelected pres. of Germany. On May 13, 1922 the Hitler Youth (Hitler-Jugend) are formed by the Nazi Party.

Emile Berliner (1851-1929)

On July 16, 1922 German-born Jewish-Am. gramophone inventor Emile Berliner (1851-1929) and his son Henry Adler Berliner (1895-1970) demonstrate a working helicopter to the U.S. Army on July 16, consisting of a Nieuport 23 fighter aircraft fuselage with two horizontal rotors mounted on a truss, becoming the first working helicopter; in 1923 he adds triple wings as a backup; too bad, it never reaches an elevation higher than 15 ft.

Andrei Tupolev (1888-1972) Ant-20 Maxim Gorky

On Oct. 22, 1922 the secret Tupolev Co. (originally Tuoplev Design Bureau OKB-156) is founded in Fili, Moscow, Russia by Hugo Junkers to get around the Versailles Treaty, concentrating on R&D into all-metal aircraft; in 1925 he turns it over to Russian aerospace engineer Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev (1888-1972), going oon to manufacture the ANT-4 twin-engine bomber (1925), the ANT-6 4-engine bomber (1932), and the 8-engine Tupolev ANT-20 Maxim Gorky (first flight May 19, 1934), which becomes the largest airplane of the 1930s and is used for propaganda. Too bad, on May 18,1935 an ANT-20 crashes during a 4-plane demo over Moscow, killing 45.

Benito Mussolini of Italy (1883-1945) Alessandro Pavolini of Italy (1903-45)

On Oct. 22-29, 1922 after Mussolini hears that PM Luigi Facta gave Gabriele d'Annunzio the go-ahead to organize a large anti-Fascist demonstration on Nov. 22, the March on Rome sees ? of 700K Fascist Party members march on Rome; on Oct. 24 before 60K at the Fascist Congress in Naples, Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) calls for the resignation of Luigi Facta and formation of a Fascist cabinet; after Facta refuses, on Oct. 28 Mussolini's Blackshirts (known for bludgeoning enemies then force-feeding them castor oil to humiliate them) march on Rome to make him an offer he can't refuse; on Oct. 29 Mussolini is summoned from Milan, and on Mar. 30 is appointed PM #40 of Italy by King Victor Emmanuel III, being sworn-in on Oct. 31 (until July 25, 1943) and forming a cabinet of Fascists and Nationalists; on Nov. 25 the king and parliament grant him dictatorial powers until Dec. 31, 1923, and he assumes the title of Julius, er, Il Duce, appointing prefects and subprefects for a new govt. modelled on the kaput ancient Roman Empire, while still mouthing support for the constitution; chamber of deputies pres. Vittorio Orlando supports the Fascist govt. (until 1925); Alessandro Pavolini (1903-45) becomes Fascist Party secy.

German Gen. Otto von Lossow (1868-1938)

In 1923 hyperinflation rages in Germany; by fall the German mark plummets to one-trillionth of its pre-war value (4M to one U.S. dollar); on Oct. 15 the Rentenmark, based on mortgages on land is introduced, finally bringing inflation under control. In Jan. 1923 Adolf Hitler convinces the Bavarian authorities to permit him to hold a rally in the Marsfeld in Munich, and 1K storm troopers and 4K party members attend; in Mar. he links up with Capt. Ernst Rohem's Reich War Flag, and almost stages a putsch in May, but backs down when Gen. Otto von Lossow (1868-1938), military cmdr. of Bavaria (Wehrkreis VII) flops - what a lossow?

Julius Streicher (1885-1946)

On Apr. 20, 1923 (Hitler's birthday) Der Stuermer (Stürmer) (The Attacker) begins pub. in Germany, ed. by loyal Hitler follower Julius Streicher (1885-1946) (until 1945), who utters the soundbyte "We will be slaves of the Jew, therefore he must go."

On June 17, 1923 after being defeated near Okhotsk on June 6 and near Ayan on June 16, Gen. Anatoly Pepelyayev surrenders the last 230 White Russian soldiers and 103 officers in Ayano-Maysky District on the Pacific Coast, ending the Russian Civil War (begun 1918), securing the vast Soviet territory for Communism with a total of 13M civilian casualties (incl. 1M refugees leaving Russian permanently), 1.2M Bolshevik, and 300K White Russian casualties - Dirty Linen now is free to create the myth of the Soviet Paradise?

Richard Wagner (1813-83)

On Sept. 25, 1923 Hitler addresses a meeting of the heads of all the right-wing groups in Munich, and convinces them to place themselves under his overall command - I saw that on the Twilight Zone? On Sept. 30, 1923 Adolf Hitler visits the Bavarian town of Beyreuth, and Villa Wahnfried, home of German composer Richard Wagner (1813-83), and meets his 86-y.-o. widow Cosima, along with his son Siegfried, his English-born wife Winifred, his son-in-law, arch German nationalist Houston Stewart Chamberlain (son of an English adm. from Portsmouth), and finds them all to be admiring fans, helping him believe he is the new German Messiah and not just "eine kleine Johannisnatur" (John the Baptist type).

1923 Munich Beer Hall Putsch Ludwig Maximilian Erwin von Scheubner-Richter of Germany (1884-1923)

An early effort of the Three Stooges? On Nov. 8-9, 1923 Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) and the National Socialists attempt a coup in Munich known as the Munich Beer Hall Putsch; at 8:30 p.m. Hitler's 60 stormtroopers burst into a 3K-member crowd at the Burgerbraukeller during a speech by Gustav Ritter von Kahr, where Hitler is waiting wearing a trench coat with a revolver in his pocket; he jumps on a table, fires two shots into the ceiling, and shouts "Silence!"; he and Hermann Goering stride up to the platform, and Hitler announces "The National Revolution has begun!", and later "The new German government is Hitler, Ludendorff, Poehner! Hoch!"; everybody leaves the hall, and the putsch begins; on Nov. 9 3K men march from the beer hall to the Odeonsplatz city center, armed with rifles without firing pins, led by Hitler and Ludendorff, with Julius Streicher marching in the front row; after getting in a firefight with the Green Police, co-leader Ludwig Maximilian "Max" Erwin von Scheubner-Richter (b. 1884) is shot in the lungs, dying instantly and falling on Hitler, dislocating his right shoulder; Hitler runs for it and goes into hiding, and is arrested on Nov. 11; 16 NSDAP members and four policemen are killed; on Nov. 23 the NSDAP is banned; the SS later murders von Kahr for "treason".

On Feb. 26-Apr. 1, 1924 Hitler, Ludendorff et al. are put on trial for the Munich Putsch of 1923; Hitler's defense speech legitimizes his actions by pointing to Kemal Ataturk in 1920 and Mussolini in 1922; on Apr. 1, 1924 Adolf Hitler begins serving his 5-year sentence at the Fortress of Landsberg am Lech for his role in the Beer Hall Putsch (cell #7); he is released on Dec. 20.

On Mar. 3, 1924 after experimenting with making sultan (since Nov. 19, 1922) Abdul Mejid II a caliph only, with pressure from Kemal Ataturk, who utters the soundbyte "The religion of Islam will be elevated if it will cease to be a political instrument", the horrible blood-soaked Muslim Caliphate (line of rulers tracing back to Muhammad in 632 C.E. who claim to head Sunni Islam) is abolished in Turkey in hopes that Islam might peacefully co-exist with the West; Abdul Mejid II flees to Paris and becomes a painter; the Ottoman Dynasty (founded 1299) ends; Ataturk tries to make Turkey a modern European state (first non-Communist 1-party state?), turning Adolf Hitler and his Nazis into adoring fans; Turks are ordered to give up the Arabic alphabet and traditional costume; too bad, this only pisses-off hardcore violent fundamentalist Muslims, who begin to regroup, taking decades to build up momentum; in his Oct. 7, 2001 video Osama bin Laden calls it a "humiliation and disgrace" - ever since, no Muslim is quite sure if they have the right to call for a jihad like he already did?

Charles Gates Dawes of the U.S. (1865-1951)

On June 6, 1924 after the London Conference approves it, the German Reichstag accepts the Dawes Plan, drafted by Charles Gates Dawes (1865-1951), the U.S. plan to help Germany pay the 20B mark war reparations debt and take it out of the sphere of political controversy by ending the Allied occupation of the Ruhr and providing for staggered payments.

Cesare Mori of Italy (1871-1942)

In June 1924 after a May visit to Sicily sees Mafia boss Francesco Cuccia snub him, pissing him off, Benito Mussolini and his Italian Fascists begin a campaign against the Sicilian Mafia, which had dominated Sicilian politics for the past half cent., appointing "Iron Prefect" Cesare Mori (1871-1942) as prefect of Palermo next Oct. 25 (until June 1929), resulting in mass arrests and trials (11K by 1929); too bad, it causes a mass exodus to the U.S. - now the Fascists are doomed?

Julius Schreck of Germany (1898-1936)

In Jan. 2, 1925 Adolf Hitler's friends Rudolf Hess et al. are released from prison; Hitler reorganizes the 27K-member Nazi Party; the SS (Schutzstaffel) (protection squadron/defense corps) is formed under Hitler lookalike Julius Schreck (1898-1936); Ernst Roehm gets into a conflict with Hitler and travels to Bolivia, remaining until 1930; they take to wearing stylized Armanen sig runes.

On Jan. 3, 1925 in the face of Communist and Liberal demonstrations, Fascist leader Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) dismisses the Italian parliament and assumes dictatorial powers again, reorganizing the cabinet on Jan. 5 (and again on Aug. 30); on May 19 Freemasonry is outlawed; the Legge Fascistissime represses opponents and exiles many to the Lipari Islands.

Hans Luther of Germany (1885-1962)

On Jan. 15, 1925 Hans Luther (1885-1962) becomes chancellor #18 of Germany (until May 12, 1926).

On Feb. 27, 1925 Adolf Hitler revives the Nat. Socialist German Worker's Party (NSDAP) (Nazi Party) (founded 1920) at the Burgerbraukeller in Munich, where 2K lucky pluckers hear him speak; on Feb. 26 he pub. the first issue of the revived Volkischer (Völkischer) Beobachter (founded 1920); immediately after the speech the Bavarian authorities revoke his right to speak, driving him to writing and publishing (until May 1927).

Paul von Hindenburg of Germany (1847-1934) Wilhelm Marx of Germany (1863-1946) Ernst Thälmann of Germany (1886-1944)

On Apr. 26, 1925 German gen. elections see the Communists decisively repudiated; 77-y.-o. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934) receives 14,655,766 votes, becoming pres. of the Weimar Repub. (until 1934); Central Party leader Wilhelm Marx (1863-1946) receives 13,751,615 votes; Communist Party leader Ernst Thalmann (Thälmann) (1886-1944) receives 1,931,151; sounds-like-cough-drops Gen. Ludendorff receives only 1% of the vote.

Adolf Hitler of Germany (1889-45) Rudolf Hess of Germany (1894-1987) Gen. Karl Ernst Haushofer (1869-1946)

But if the Jews are inferior, how can they be so dangerous, pass the gefilte fish? On July 1, 1925 Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) pub. his prison memoir Mein Kampf, Vol. 1 (My Fight) (My Struggle) (My Jihad) (My Crap?) in an ed. of 10K copies by Franz Eher of Munich, at 12 marks a copy; 9,473 copies are sold by the end of the year, but sales drop sharply next year; his secy. Rudolf Walter Richard Hess (1894-1987) assisted in its writing; Hess is a student of Gen. Karl Ernst Haushofer (1869-1946), founder of Geopolitik and originator of the idea of Lebensraum; it preaches the John T. Scopes Darwinian inequality of the races, with the color-coded-for-superiority blonde-blue German Aryans at the top, and calls for action against the internat. ratlike hooked-nosed Jewish conspiracy that forever seeks to keep the superior more handsome blonde Aryans from total victory from pole to shining pole, and the elimination of Jewish-inspired liberty, equality, and democracy by restoring German power after WWI; claims that he doesn't want to take on Britain because its world empire makes them interbreed with inferior races, but wishes to share world rule with them (as the new Charlemagne?); his channeling of Muhammad's Quran?; "History will ultimately absolve me"; "All this was inspired by the principle – which is quite true within itself – that in the big lie there is always a certain force of credibility; because the broad masses of a nation are always more easily corrupted in the deeper strata of their emotional nature than consciously or voluntarily; and thus in the primitive simplicity of their minds they more readily fall victims to the big lie than the small lie, since they themselves often tell small lies in little matters but would be ashamed to resort to large-scale falsehoods. It would never come into their heads to fabricate colossal untruths, and they would not believe that others could have the impudence to distort the truth so infamously. Even though the facts which prove this to be so may be brought clearly to their minds, they will still doubt and waver and will continue to think that there may be some other explanation. For the grossly impudent lie always leaves traces behind it, even after it has been nailed down, a fact which is known to all expert liars in this world and to all who conspire together in the art of lying" - he saved a lot of people, but the good die young? On Dec. 10, 1926 Hitler pub. Mein Kampf, Vol. 2 - I guess you're right?

Violet Gibson (1876-1956)

On Apr. 3, 1926 Mussolini recognizes a number of labor syndicates, makes strikes and lockouts illegal, and establishes compulsory labor arbitration; the Opera Nazionale Balilla (ONB) Fascist youth org. is founded. I'm getting closer to my world? On Apr. 7 Il Duce Mussolini is wounded in his prominent Roman nose (not his ballillas?) by Violet Albina Gibson (1876-1956), a deranged Irish noblewoman, daughter of Irish chancellor Edward Gibson, 1st Baron Ashbourne (1837-1913), who shoots him in the street like a dog, the bullet Suzie-Q-ing through both nostrils; she is released at his macho request and deported to an insane asylum near Nottingham, England for 30 years; two more attempts on his life are made on Sept. 11 and Oct. 31. On Dec. 10, 1926 Hitler pub. Mein Kampf, Vol. 2.

Joseph Goebbels of Germany (1894-1945)

In 1926 Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945) is named Nazi Gauleiter of Berlin. In July 1927 Der Angriff (The Attack), a newspaper edited by Nazi Dr. Joseph Goebbels debuts after he is banned from public speaking; it competes with Gregor Strasser's Nazi newspaper Arbeitsblatt (Worksheet), and Goebbels starts and wins a war to shut him down with thug tactics. In 1928 Goebbels pub. the bestseller Why Do We Oppose the Jews?.

In May 1927 Adolf Hitler's gag order is revoked by the Bavarian authorities - his mouth should have been outlawed as a deadly weapon?

Herbert von Dirksen of Germany (1882-1955) 'Vienna State Opera House', by Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), 1928

On Apr. 13, 1928 to appease the wealthy backers of his Nazi party, Adolf Hitler issues an "Erklarung" (clarification) to the NSDAP program, backing the principle of private property, except when it comes to Jews, whose property is to be confiscated with (say again?) compensation. In May 1928 the gen. elections in Germany give the National Socialists 810K votes (2.6%), down from 1,918,300 in 1924 in the spring of 1924, and 907,300 in the winter; Hitler's party gets 12 seats in the Reichstag out of 491, compared to 54 for the Communists; Hitler's Stormabteilungen (SA) stormtroopers adopt Brown Shirts in imitation of Mussolini's black shirts - just closer to true shit? In 1928 German consul in Danzig (since 1923) Herbert von Dirksen (1882-1955), whose mother once befriended Hitler becomes German ambassador to the Soviet Union (until Oct. 1933). In 1928 Hitler paints Vienna State Opera House.

Frank Billings Kellogg of the U.S. (1856-1937) Aristide Briand of France (1862-1932) William Edgar Borah of the U.S. (1865-1940)

8-27-28 - The breakfast cereal pact starts crunchy but soon gets soggy when the sick old man loses his teeth? On Aug. 27, 1928 the Kellogg-Briand Pact (Pact of Paris) (Gen. Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy), proposed by French foreign minister Aristide Briand (1862-1932) and U.S. secy. of state #45 (1925-9) Frank Billings Kellogg (1856-1937) is signed in Paris by the U.S., Germany (Gustav Stresemann) and 13 other countries, eventually gaining adherence by 62 countries, renouncing aggressive (not defensive) war, ending gunboat diplomacy, pledging to "condemn recourse to war for the solution of international controversies, and renounce it as an instrument of national policy", but providing no means for enforcement (except er, war?); it started as a proposal by Briand to renounce war only between the U.S. and France, until Kellogg and progressive pro-Soviet Repub. U.S. Sen. (1907-40) (R-Idaho) William Edgar Borah (1865-1940) ("the Lion of Idaho") get hold of it; the Soviet Union agrees to it on Sept. 6; its main use becomes a justification for the post-WWII Nuremberg war crimes trials.

Heinrich Himmler of Germany (1900-45) Walter Kreiser (1898-1958) Carl von Ossietzky (1889-1938) Owen D. Young of the U.S. (1874-1962) Bertil Ohlin (1899-1979) John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) Marcel Dassault (1892-1986) Marcel Dassault (1892-1986) Dassault Logo

On Jan. 6, 1929 Adolf Hitler appoints former chicken farmer Heinrich Himmler (1900-45) to replace Erhard Heiden as head of the SS (Reichsfuhrer SS); Himmler founds the Ahnenerbe Nazi think tank to carry out scientific research on the origins of the "Aryan race", incl. explorations and excavations throughout the world - he knows how to coop them up and make them lay? On Feb. 11 the Lateran Treaty is signed by Italy (ratified June 7), recognizing the 108.7-acre autonomous state of Vatican City, situated within the city of Rome as an independent state with the pope's temporal authority restored, while the papacy accepts the loss of the 17K sq. mi. papal states in return for 750M lire in cash and 1B lire in govt. bonds; on July 25 Pope Pius XI gives up his status of voluntary prisoner and leaves the Vatican for the 1st time; the activities of the Catholic youth org. Azione Cattolica remains a problem; the Vatican uses the cash to set up a disguised offshore co. that invests the money in an internat. portfolio that is worth £500 by 2013. On Mar. 12 the Abteilung M (M Battalion) Affair sees Die Weltbühne (The World Stage) pub. an expose of the training of a special air unit of the Reichswehr aided by Lufthansa which was secretly training in Germany and in Soviet Russia in violation of the Versailles Treaty, causing the German govt. to indict Walter Kreiser (1898-1958) and Carl (Karl) von Ossietzky (1889-1938) in 1931 for treason and espionage; Kreiser flees to France, Switzerland, and Brazil; Ossietzky ends up in a concentration camp and wins the 1938 Nobel Peace Prize. On June 7 the Young Plan of U.S. diplomat Owen D. Young (1874-1962) is signed, reducing German reparations and annual payments; it is finalized on Aug. 31 at an internat. conference at The Hague, causing Nazi finances to improve as German industrialists and bankers become freer to borrow money from the U.S. and bribe politicians with it; on Aug. 6-13 the conference leads to the evacuation of the Rhineland by French troops. Hey 98.6 it's good to have you back again, oh I love my baby? In Aug. 1929 at the annual Nazi Party gathering in Nuremberg, Adolf Hitler waxes lyrical on the desirability of infanticide, claiming that eliminating 70%-80% of newborns will result in a net increase in nat. strength. On Sept. 5, 1929 although Adolf Hitler's Mein Kampf sells only 3K copies in 1928, earning him 8.3K Reichmarks in royalties, and he claims only another 3.5K for making speeches, bringing his official income on tax documents for 1928 to 11.8K, or about half the cost of an automobile, yet thanks to moneys extorted by Herman Goering from rich Ruhr industrialists, Hitler suddenly changes his public posture, flaunting his wealth as he moves from small cluttered rooms in the Thierschstrasse in Munich to a palatial apt. at 16 Prinzregentenplatz, acquiring a new chauffeured Mercedes-Benz, 2-3 servants, 2 secys., and the country house Haus Wachenfeld near Berchtesgaden - thank the Young Plan? In 1929 Swedish economist Bertil Gotthard Ohlin (1899-1979) debates British economist John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946), with Keynes claiming that Germany's heavy war reparations payments will cause another great war, and Ohlin claiming they can afford it and will pay without a fight - ohlin money is good? Dassault Aviation in France is founded by Paris-born French Jew Marcel Dassault (Bloch) (1892-1986), who invented a new type of aircraft propeller used by the French army in WWI; in 1936 the Communist Front Populaire nationalizes it; too bad, after the Nazi takeover of France, he is deported to Buchenwald Camp, but survives the war and builds the co. to the #1 military aircraft manufacturer in France, changing his name to Dassault after "char d'assault" (battle tank), and converting to Roman Catholicism in 1950.

Hans Friedrich Karl Günther (1891-1968)

In 1929 Freiburg-born racial theorist Hans Friedrich Karl Gunther (1891-1968) pub. Short Ethnology of the German People, becoming a bestseller in Germany, about how "non-European" Jews are the "fermenters of disintegration" of Nordic culture, making him the leading ideologist of Nazi racial doctrine AKA the Race Pope.

Country Leader From To
United States of America Herbert Hoover (1874-1964) Mar. 4, 1929 Mar. 4, 1933 Herbert Hoover of the U.S. (1874-1964)
United Kingdom Ramsay MacDonald (1866-1937) June 5, 1929 June 7, 1935 Ramsay MacDonald of Canada (1866-1937)
United Kingdom George V (1865-1936) May 6, 1910 Jan. 20, 1936 George V of England (1865-1936)
Soviet Union Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) Apr. 3, 1922 Mar. 5, 1953 Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union (1878-1953)
France Gaston Doumergue (1863-1937) June 13, 1924 June 13, 1931 Pierre Gaston Doumergue of France (1863-1937)
Germany Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934) May 12, 1925 August 2, 1934 Paul von Hindenburg of Germany (1847-1934)
Italy Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) Oct. 31, 1922 July 25, 1943 Benito Mussolini of Italy (1883-1945)
Spain Alfonso XIII (1886-1941) May 17, 1886 Apr. 14, 1931 Alfonso XIII of Spain (1886-1941)
China Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975) Oct. 10, 1928 Dec. 15, 1931 Chiang Kai-shek of China (1887-1975)
Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King (1874-1950) Sept. 25, 1926 Aug. 6, 1930 William Lyon Mackenzie King of Canada (1874-1950)
Japan Emperor Hirohito (1901-89) Dec. 25, 1926 Jan. 7, 1989 Emperor Hirohito of Japan (1901-89)
Mexico Emilio Portes Gil (1890-1978) Dec. 1, 1928 Feb. 4, 1930 Emilio Portes Gil of Mexico (1890-1978)
Papacy Pope Pius XI (1857-1939) Feb. 6, 1922 Feb. 10, 1939 Pope Pius XI (1857-1939)

Nazi Emblem Adolf Hitler of Germany (1889-1945) Adolf Hitler of Germany (1889-1945) Adolf Hitler of Germany (1889-1945) Herbert Hoover of the U.S. (1874-1964) Benito Mussolini of Italy (1883-1945) Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia (1892-1975) Heinrich Brüning of Germany (1885-1970) Kurt von Schleicher of Germany (1882-1934) Getulio Vargas of Brazil (1883-1954) Carol II of Romania (1893-1953) Maxim Litvinov of the Soviet Union (1876-1951) Ismail Sidqi of Egypt (1875-1950) Charles Evans Hughes of the U.S. (1862-1948) Owen Josephus Roberts of the U.S. (1875-1955) Aung San of Burma (1915-47) Gen. Dámaso Berenguer y Fusté of Spain (1873-1953) Pascual Ortiz Rubio of Mexico (1877-1963) Rafael Leonidas Trujillo y Molina of the Dominican Republic (1891-1961) Prince Ernst Rudiger Starhemberg of Austria (1899-1956) Jose Felix Uriburu of Argentina (1868-1932) Jose Maria Reina Andrade of Guatemala (1860-1947) Rodolfo Graziani of Italy (1882-1955) Italian Marshal Italo Balbo (1896-1940) Matsutaro Shoriki of Japan (1885-1969) U.S. Gen. Joseph 'Vinegar' Stilwell (1883-1946) John Paton Davies Jr. of the U.S. (1908-99) Augustus Noble Hand of the U.S. (1869-1954) Horst Wessel of Germany (1907-30) Rabbi Moshe Segal (1904-85), Oct. 1, 1930 Aleksei Arbuzov (1908-86) Max Schmeling (1905-2005) Henry Robinson Luce (1898-1967) Clare Boothe Luce (1903-87) Louis de Rochemont (1899-1978) John Howard Northrop (1891-1987) Isidor Isaac Rabi (1898-1988) Hans Zinsser (1878-1940) Walter Julius Reppe (1892-1969) Fritz Zernike (1888-1966)

1930 Chinese Year: Horse. Time Mag. Man of the Year: Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869-1948). World pop.: 2B (a gain of 1B in 130 years); China 410M, India 338M, U.S.S.R. 168M, Germany 64M, Britain 46M; the Japanese pop. increase peaks at 15.3 per thousand (1M per year), declining to 14.4 in 1935, causing Japan's pop. to reach 69.2M in 1935, double that of 1872 (34.8) - time for a little warry war war war? The Fifteenth (15th) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 122,775,046 (16.1% increase) in a land area of 2,977,128 sq. mi. (41.2 per sq. mi); whites reach 89.8% of the total pop., the highest ever; pop. of Washington, D.C.: 485K. This year over 1.3K U.S. banks fail, and unemployment tops 4M; 34M (28% of the pop.) are without any income. German unemployment rises to 3M this year, 5.668 in 1931, and 6.28 in 1932, with Adolf Hitler waiting in the wings. On Feb. 23 Nazi strongarm squad leader and pimp Horst Wessel (b. 1907), son of a Protestant military chaplain dies five weeks after being shot (Jan. 14) in his Berlin apt. by Commie pimp Albrecht Hoehler (Höhler) (-1933) in revenge for stealing his ho Erna Jaenecke; before he dies, Joseph Goebbels turns him into a Nazi martyr, claiming the Communists killed him; the Horst Wessel Lied (Song), originally "Die Fahne Hock" (Raise the Flag High) (lyrics by Wessel) becomes the Nazi anthem; even better, the what-are-you-waiting-for "Heil Hitler" salute comes into gen. use among party members this year, replacing "God be with you" as a greeting. On Mar. 31 Ras Gugsa Wells is KIA, and on Apr. 2 empress (since 1916) Zewditu I (b. 1876) dies; on Nov. 2 Ras ("Prince") Tafari ("Respected") Makonnen is crowned emperor Haile Selassie ("Might of the Holy Trinity") I (1892-1975) of Ethiopia, claiming to be a direct descendant of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba; in Jamaica, marijuana-smoking Rastafarians are wowed by his claims plus his status as the only black African monarch of a fully independent state, and declare him their messiah, the Second Coming of Christ the King on Earth; by 1997 there are 1M followers worldwide. In Mar. moderate Socialist Hermann Mueller's govt. is forced from office, and Heinrich Bruning (Brüning) (1885-1970) becomes German chancellor (until 1932), forming a right-wing coalition govt. backed by Gen. Kurt von Schleicher (1882-1934) (close friend of Hindenburg's son Oskar), and finding it necessary to resort to emergency decrees to rule; there is no more parliamentary govt. in Germany until the downfall of Hitler. On Apr. 6 the Order of Lenin is established in the Soviet Union for services to the regime. On Apr. 13 Switzerland appeals to the Permanent Court of Internat. Justice after the French govt. sets up customs stations; on June 7, 1932 the court decides in favor of Switzerland, ordering the customs stations shut down by Jan. 1, 1934 and free zones established. On Apr. 19 the comic strip Joe Palooka, by Hammond Edward "Ham" Fisher (1900-55) debuts, about a "big, good-natured prize fighter who didn't like to fight, a defender of little guys, a gentle knight", with excitable Irish mgr. Knobby Walsh, becoming the most successful sports comic strip; a blonde with a cowlick, he changes his face to fit each reigning world heavyweight boxing champ until black fighter Joe Louis, deciding to keep him white, esp. since he goes out with white babe Ann Howe, whom he marries on June 24, 1949. On Apr. 22 the London Naval Treaty on naval disarmament is signed by Britain, the U.S., Japan, France, and Italy; the Japanese ratify it in Oct. after a heated debate in which the ultranationalistic Seiyukai attack PM Osachi Hamaguchi, who is assassinated on Nov. 14 in Tokyo. On May 6 a Sino-Japanese Tariff Agreement is signed in Nanjing in which Japan recognizes Chinese tariff autonomy in return for commercial safeguards and recognition of Japanese loans to former Chinese govt. On May 17 the Bank for Internat. Settlements is founded to facilitate German reparations for WWI, becoming the world's oldest internat. financial org. and growing into a bank for central banks that's part of the sinister internat. banker OWG conspiracy? On May 22 the French high commissioner imposes a new 1930 Syrian Constitution (until 1950), giving it a unicameral parliament and pres. chosen by parliament but not responsible to it. On June 6 despite bitter opposition by the Liberal Party, Romanian Prince Carol returns from exile to Bucharest with the support of PM Julius Maniu, and on June 8 the parliament allows him to crown his young son as king Carol (Charles) II (1893-1953) (until 1940). On June 30 the French evacuation of the Rhineland ends. We're giving everyday people a smoot at hauling to Hooverville? In the summer the League of Nations appoints a committee to settle the problem of the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem; the Muslims are ruled to have ownership, but the Jews are ruled to have rights to worship and kissee kissee kissee. On July 3 the U.S. Congress creates the U.S. Veterans Admin.. On July 16 Pres. Hindenburg authorizes by decree a budget bill that the Reichstag rejected, causing him to dissolve it. On July 21 Maxim Maximovich Litvinov (1876-1951) (a Jew from Bialystok, Poland, real name Meir Wallach Finkelstein) becomes foreign minister of the Soviet Union (until May 3 1939), going on to get the U.S. to recognize it in 1933, and becoming friends with Harpo Marx - so he can pull strings? In July Russian economist Nikolai Kondratiev (1892-1938), is arrested and railroaded as a "kulak professor" to an 8-year prison term at Suzdal (near Moscow), where he is allowed to correspond and write books; on Sept. 17, 1938 he is given a second trial, sentenced to ten more years with no communication with the outside world, then summarily shot by firing squad - thanks for the memory of candle light and wine? On Sept. 14 the world economic crisis helps the Nazi Party do well in the 1930 German elections, taking votes from the center parties and placing #2 with 18.3% of the vote (6,409,600 votes), up 8x from 1929; the Nazis now hold 107 seats in the Reichstag, up from 12 in 1929; the Socialists retain 143 seats, and the Communists get 4.5M votes and 77 seats; Adolf Hitler is kept from his seat in the Reichstag because of his Austrian nationality. On Oct. 1 (Yom Kippur) Hassidic rabbi Moshe Segal (1904-85) blows the shofar (ram's horn) at the Kosel (Kotel) HaMaaravi (Western Wall) in Jerusalem in violation of British law (allegedly to avoid offending Arab Muslims), and is arrested, which doesn't stop others from doing it every year until the end of British occupation in 1947 - we're baack? On Oct. 21 the Passfield White Paper on Palestine suggests that Jewish immigration be halted, causing a Zionist outcry, resulting in a letter from British PM Ramsay MacDonald on Feb. 13, 1931 to Chaim Weizmann easing the restrictions. On Nov. 14 Japanese PM Hamaguchi is shot by an assassin in Tokyo. On Dec. 8 after world headlines proclaim that Stalin has been assassinated, Time mag. scoops them by pub. an interview by their journalist Eugene Lyons (1898-1985) with him, where he begins by asking him, "Stalin, may I quote you to the effect that you have not been assassinated?"; he becomes only the 6th foreigner to get an interview with Stalin since he took power in 1927, incl. Walter Duranty, George Bernard Shaw, Emil Ludwig, Henri Barbusse, and H.G. Wells. On Dec. 12 the last Allied troops leave the Saar. Roman Catholic Fascist Heimwehr (Home Guard) units are established in Austria under prince Ernst Rudiger (Rüdiger) Camillo Starhemberg (1899-1956), descendant of the 1683 Siege of Vienna hero with the same name (1638-1701). Chinese Nationalists embark on an attempt to get rid of Mao's Red Army. Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquess of Neghelli (1882-1955) becomes cmdr. of Italian forces in Libya until 1934, gov. of Italian Somaliland in 1935, viceroy of Ethiopia in 1936, and honorary gov. of Italian East Africa in 1938. Heinrich Himmler persuades Adolf Hitler to let him run the Schutzstaffel (SS) ("protection squadron") (originally Saalschutz or hall protection) as a separate org., launching a recruitment campaign that builds its ranks from less than 300 to 10K next year; only "racially elite" young Nordic males are accepted; "Like a nursery gardener trying to reproduce a good old strain which has been adulterated and debased, we started from the principles of plant selection and then proceeded quite unashamedly to weed out the men whom we did not think we could use for the build-up of the SS"; Himmler sets up a Reich SS Leadership School at Wewelsburg Castle. In this decade Charles Lindbergh funds the rocket researches of Robert Goddard. In this decade the Cambridge Five (Four), a ring of English spies who all graduated from Cambridge U. is recruited by the Soviets, incl. "Spy of the Cent." Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby (1912-88) (code name Stanley) (recuited by Arnold Deutsch), Donald Duart Maclean (1913-83) (code name Homer), Guy Francis De Moncy Burgess (1911-63) (code name Hicks, Little Girl) (alcoholic open gay), Anthony Frederick Blunt (1907-83) (code name Johnson) (closet gay), and possibly John Cairncross (1913-95) and/or Michael Whitney Straight (1916-2004). Adolf von Harnack dies, and German physicist Max Planck becomes head of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in Germany (the core of Germany's scientific research brain trust).

Niceto Alcalá Zamora of Spain (1877-1949) Manuel Azaña Diaz of Spain (1880-1940) Pierre Laval of France (1883-1945) Paul Doumer of France (1857-1932) Joseph Aloysius Lyons of Australia (1879-1939) Inukai Tsuyoshi of Japan (1855-1932) Gen. Jorge Ubico Castaneda of Guatemala (1878-1946) Arturo Araujo of El Salvador (1878-1967) Augustin Farabundo Marti of El Salvador (1893-1932) Gen. Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez of El Salvador (1882-1966) Daniel Salamanca Urey of Bolivia (1869-1935) Pehr Evind Svinhufvud of Finland (1869-1944) Nicolae Iorga of Romania (1871-1940) James John Davis of the U.S. (1873-1947) Robert Low Bacon of the U.S. (1884-1938) Japanese Lt. Col. Kingoro Hashimoto (1890-1957) Reijiro Wakatsuki of Japan (1866-1949) Gen. Araki Sadao of Japan (1877-1966) Wilhelm Karl Keppler of Germany (1882-1960) Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley (1896-1980) British Fascist Emblem Sir Herbert Louis Samuel of Britain (1870-1963) Alfred Hugenberg of Germany (1865-1951) Emil Kirdorf of Germany (1847-1938) Fritz Thyssen of Germany (1873-1971) Baron Kurt von Schroeder of Germany (1889-1966) Geli Raubal (1908-31) Adolf Hitler and Geli Raubal Samuel Simon Leibowitz (1893-1978) and the Scottsboro Boys

1931 Chinese Year: Sheep. Time Mag. Man of the Year: Pierre Laval (1883-1945). Speaking of sheep, by this year the Japanese own 40% of the Chinese textile industry, and 80% of all Japanese foreign investment is in China (Manchuria and Shanghai), amounting to one third of all foreign investments there. A collapse of Austria's Credit-Anstalt causes a financial crisis in C Europe, and the Heimwehr attempts a failed coup. The U.S. wheat harvest reaches 250M bushels after two decades of overplanting on the Am. prairie; by the end of the year 13M of 16M cultivated acres in Okla. are seriously eroded. On Jan. 26 French pres. (since 1924) Gaston Doumergue resigns, and Aristide Brand is passed over for pres. after he estranges the right with his efforts at internat. conciliation, and on Jan. 27 Paul Doumer (1857-1932) (former gov.-gen. of French Indochina) becomes pres. (until May 7, 1932), with Pierre Laval (1883-1945) as PM #101 (until Feb. 20, 1932); meanwhile the French economy's 1926-30 boom ends as the Great Depression hits, causing high tariffs and quotas to be passed, and the creation of domestic cartels; the downswing lasts until 1935, with the recovery slower than most other countries. Spain becomes a happy family for awhile? On Feb. 8 Spanish king (since 1886/1902) Alfonso XIII (1886-1941) announces a restoration of the constitution, and sets elections for Mar.; on Feb. 14 Gen. Damaso Berenguer resigns; on Apr. 12 municipal elections result in an overwhelming V for the Repubs.; Repub. leader Niceto Alcala (Alcalá) Zamora y Torres (1877-1949) calls for the king's abdication; on Apr. 14 Alfonso XIII leaves Spain without abdicating, saying he wants to wait for the expression of popular sentiment; on Apr. 14 the Second Spanish Repub. is proclaimed in Eibar, Barcelona, and San Sebastien with Zamora as provisional pres.-PM; on June 28 elections give the Repub.-Socialist coalition a huge majority in the new unicameral Cortes; on Nov. 12 the assembly declares the king guilty of high treason and forbids his return to Spain, confiscating his royal property; in Oct. Zamora resigns in protest against extreme anticlerical legislation; on Dec. 9 the 1931 Spanish Constitution is adopted, completely separating church and state and nationalizing church property (confiscating $500M worth by next year), as well as giving the govt. power to nationalize public utilities, socialize estates, and expropriate private property; Zamora is elected pres. #1 (until 1936), and Manuel Azana (Azaña) Diaz (1880-1940) becomes PM #1 (until 1933); too bad that free spending causes deflation and economic depression? On Feb. 14 Gen. Jorge Ubico Castaneda (1878-1946) becomes dictator of Guatemala (until July 4, 1944), licking the banana of the United Fruit Co. while keeping the coffee economy flowing with slave Indian labor. On Feb. 16 anti-Communist Pehr "Old Man Pete" Evind Svinhufvud ("swine-head") (1869-1944) (of Swedish ancestry) is elected pres. of Finland (until 1937), taking office on Mar. 1 and going on to squelch the fascist Lapua movement. On Mar. 1 popular engineer Arturo Araujo (Araújo) (1878-1967), backed by Augustin Farabundo Marti (1893-1932), founder of El Salvador's Communist Party is elected pres. of El Salvador, bucking the 30-40 wealthy families who control the country, but on Dec. 2 a military coup led by kooky vice-pres. Gen. Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez (1882-1966) ousts him, and Martinez becomes pres. (until 1944), going on to get laws passed keeping Africans out of the country, and demonstrating his belief in occultism by having colored lights hung around San Salvador to cure smallpox, and his belief in reincarnation with the soundbyte "It is a greater crime to kill an ant than a man, because the man is reincarnated, while an ant dies forever" - let me shake your hand? On Mar. 3 Pres. Hoover officially designates The Star-Spangled Banner (written in 1814 by Francis Scott Key to music from "Anacreon in Heaven") as the official nat. anthem of the U.S.; the last stanza contains the soundbyte "And this be our motto: 'In God is our Trust'"; too bad "the land of the free and the home of the brave" then attempts to institute "etiquette" rules, such as standing at respectful attention, removing hats, placing right hand over heart, etc., which threaten to make America the land of the robots? On Mar. 5 Daniel Salamanca Urey (1869-1935), who started out a Liberal, helped found the Repub. Party, split with them during the Bautista Saavedra era after WWI and founded the Genine Repubs., then forms a coalition with Liberals is elected pres. #38 of Bolivia (until 1934), with learn-everywhere-leapster Liberal Jose Luis Tejada Sorzano (1882-1938) as vice-pres.; Salamanca immediately institutes an austerity program, outlaws unions, and clamps down on dissent, reviving the pissing war with Paraguay as a diversion. On Mar. 19 Nevada Gov. Fred B. Balzar signs a measure legalizing casino gambling. On Mar. 26 the Pleasant Hills School Bus Tragedy happens in E Colo. near the Kan. border when a school bus with 20 children is trapped for 33 hours in ditch in a blizzard, and three children freeze to death, plus two more after rescue; meanwhile bus driver Carl Miller tries to go for help and freezes to death 3 mi. away in a field. Oh What Fun It is To Ride in a One-Horse Open Sleigh? White American poontang is protected by the White Racial Honor Police? In Mar. the Scottsboro Boys, nine black youths ages 13-20 are arrested in a freight train in Scottsboro, Ala., and charged with raping two young white women who had shared the same boxcar, after which the white supremacist system railroads the banana-seating ape nigger bucks to death sentences even though the sacred cow white women are found to be hos, doctors testify that no rape occurred, and one of them later recants; after the Communist Party's Internat. Labor Defense takes charge defending them and brings in non-Communist Romanian-born Jewish-Am. atty. Samuel Simon Leibowitz (1893-1978), he faces death threats and has to be guarded by the Nat. Guard at the trial, and is stunned by a guilty verdict in 1933, calling it "the act of spitting on the tomb of Abraham Lincoln", vowing to defend them "until Hell freezes over", getting the U.S. Supreme Court to overturn their convictions twice, which dooms them more back in racist Ala., and all they get is new trials, at which they are reconvicted, one of them three more times in a row; in 1948 Haywood Patterson escapes, three more are paroled in 1943, 1946 and 1950, and the rest get reduced but long sentences; on Oct. 25, 1976, last known survivor Clarence Norris is pardoned - lock up them black white wommen lovers until their juices dry up? In Mar. the Cherry Blossom Society (Sakurakai) of ultra-rightist army officers, led by Lt. Col. Kingoro Hashimoto (1890-1957) (the cherry blossom is an emblem of self-sacrifice) tries an unsuccessful coup in Tokyo. On Apr. 15 the Castellammarese War (begun 1929) by ends with the murder of crime boss (capo di capi) Giuseppe "Joe the Boss" Masseria (b. 1887) in a Coney Island restaurant, after which two weeks later Sicilian-born Salvatore "Sal" "Mustache Pete" Maranzano (b. 1868) convenes a meeting of several hundred Mafiosi in Upstate N.Y. and promotes himself to boss of bosses (capo di tutti capi), with a grandiose plan for a Mafia Commission and an organization of the New York Mafia into Five Families; he then meets with Al Capone and other non-New York mob bosses in Wappingers Falls, N.Y.; too bad, his insistence on modelling his org. after the ancient Roman Empire and comparing himself to Caesar backfires, and on Sept. 10 after being found out planning the murder of Lucky Luciano et al. he is murdered in his Manhattan office by Luciano's gangsters dressed as police detectives; on Oct. 17 Chicago mob boss Alphonse "Al" "Scarface" Capone (1899-1947) (who appeared on the cover of the Mar. 24, 1930 issue of Time mag.) is convicted, and on Oct. 24 sentenced to a then-unprecedented 11 years in prison for federal income tax evasion on an estimated annual income of $20M, being housed in Alcatraz from Aug. 1934 to Nov. 1939, leaving Charles "Lucky" Luciano (1897-1962) and Joseph (Giuseppe) "Joe Bananas" Bonanno (1905-2002) in charge, who reorganize the Five Families and abolish the position of boss of bosses; meanwhle "Untouchable" Eliot Ness (1903-57) gets a promotion - keep your hands off my dingaling? On Apr. 19 King Carol II appoints super-prolific (1.25K vols., 25K articles in many Euro languages) anti-Semitic historian-playwright-poet Nicolae Iorga (Jorga) (1871-1940) as PM of Romania (until 1937), heading a coalition cabinet while attempting to make himself dictator of an increasingly anti-Semitic fascist govt. In Apr. Minseito leader Reijiro Wakatsuki (1866-1949) becomes PM of Japan, but his govt. falls, and on Dec. 13 a new one is formed by Inukai Tsuyoshi (1855-1932), with Gen. Araki Sadao (1877-1966) as war minister, which lasts until May 15, 1932. On May 14 the Adalen Shootings (Riots) sees Swedish troops fire on peaceful paper mill labor protesters in Adalen, Sweden, killing five. On May 15 Pope Pius XI issues the encyclical Quadragesimo Anno, a 40-year update (supplement) to the 1891 encyclical "Rerum Novarum", calling for fairer distribution of wealth while condemning godless Communism and Socialism. In July Denmark and Norway dispute the sovereignty of East Greenland. On Aug. 18 after a long dispute over Manchuria, the Japanese invade China's NE provinces, and on Sept. 18 seize Mukden (Shenyang) and other key sites in S Manchuria - WWII really begins here? In Aug. French PM Pierre Laval visits Washington, D.C. and negotiates a moratorium on the French war debt to the U.S. with Pres. Hoover. On Sept. 3 King Alexander I of Yugoslavia proclaims termination of his 1929 dictatorship and proclaims a new 1931 Yugslavian Constitution granting limited parliamentary govt. where he's still the big cheese, causing the many cat-fighting opposition groups to boycott the parliamentary elections - if there's anything that you want, if there's anything I can do? On Sept. 6 Scandinavian PMs meet to discuss economic problems. On Sept. 13 "Banjo Eyes" Eddie Cantor (1892-1964) joins the Sun. evening Chase and Sanborn Hour on NBC-Radio, replacing Maurice Chevalier, making him a nat. star, and his Romanian-born gag writer David Freedman (1898-1936) into "the captain of comedy"; too bad, he is ahead of his time in denouncing Nazism, causing some sponsors to drop him until WWII proves him right. On Sept. 18 Adolf Hitler's 23-y.-o. sweet young thing half-niece Angelika Maria "Geli" Raubal (b. 1908), who lived with him and whom he was in love with kills herself in her bedroom at midnight with one of his Walther 6.35 revolvers wrapped in a damp face towel; he goes nonlinear, refusing to be held responsible, believing her suicide was an act of noble heroism, and using it as an excuse to turn off his morality completely, indifferent to mass murder, above good and evil? - freed by Catwoman to be Bad Batman at last? By Sept. the U.S. and France own 75% of the world's gold; on Sept. 21 the British Commonwealth (except Canada), followed by several other countries go off the gold standard (Japan in Dec.); the British pound sterling falls from $4.86 to $3.49. On Oct. 27 the British gen. election gives the nat. govt. 554 seats (incl. 470 Conservative, 13 Nat. Labour, 68 Liberal and Liberal Nat.) and the opposition only 56 (52 Labour, 4 Lloyd George Liberals), and Ramsay MacDonald forms his 2nd nat. govt. (until 1931), selling out the Labour Party to form a coalition with the Conservatives, making Neville Chamberlain chancellor of the exchequer while Stanley Baldwin holds real power as lord pres.; Labour Party founder MacDonald ends up being reviled by labor ever since, with Clement Attlee calling it "the greatest betrayal in the political history of the country". On Dec. 11 the Statute of Westminster is passed, giving formal recognition to the autonomy of the dominions of the British Empire as worked out in the 1926 Imperial Conference, and chartering the British Commonwealth of Nations, consisting of the U.K., Australia, Canada, Irish Free State (until 1949), Newfoundland (until 1949), New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa (until 1961); India and Pakistan join in 1947 (Pakistan quits in 1972), followed by Ceylon (1948), Ghana (1957), Nigeria (1960), Cyprus (1961), Sierra Leone (1961), Jamaica (1962), Trinidad and Tobago (1962), Uganda (1962), Western Samoa (1962), Kenya (1963), Malaysia (1963), Malawi (1964), Malta (1964), Tanzania (1964), Zambia (1964), Gambia (1965), Singapore (1965), Barbados (1966), Botswana (1966), Guyana (1966), Lesotho (1966), Mauritius (1968), Nauru (1968), Swaziland (1968), Tonga (1970), and Fiji (1970); laws of the U.K. do not apply to any dominion unless it so requests - and we will cater any event? In Dec. Adolf Hitler appoints Nazi Party financier Wilhelm Karl Keppler (1882-1960) as Nazi Party economics adviser, followed in July 1933 by Reich Commissioner for Economic Affairs; next year he founds the Keppler Circle (Circle of Friends of the Economy) (Freundeskreis der Wirtschaft, which goes on to donate 1M marks to Heinrich Himmler by 1944. In Dec. unemployment in Germany reaches the 5M mark. After giving Hitler funds in 1929 to campaign against the Versailles Treaty, German millionaire (dir. of Krupp's) Alfred Hugenberg (1865-1951) begins financially backing the 800K-man Nazi Party, and other fatcats incl. Emil Kirdorf (1847-1938), Friedrich "Fritz" Thyssen (1873-1971), and Baron Kurt von Schroder (1889-1966) follow his example; in 1934 after he puts his German Nat. Party's 3M votes at his disposal, giving him a majority in the Reichstag, becoming minister of economics and agriculture in return, Hitler casts Hugenberg aside. Emperor Selassie grants a constitution which creates a parliament with an appointed senate and an elected chamber of deputies, but leaves him with basic control. German radical pacifist Carl von Ossietzky (1889-1938) is convicted of high treason for pub. details of Germany's violations of the Treaty of Verailles by rebuilding the Luftwaffe and training pilots in the Soviet Union, and ends up in Esterwegen Concentration Camp; when he is awarded the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize, the Nazis refuse to let him travel to Sweden to receive it, after which he soon dies of TB. The 5K-member Irgun Tsva'i-Leumi (Heb. "Nat. Military Org.") (AKA Etzel) is founded by radical elements of the Zionist Haganah paramilitary org. (until Sept. 1948) to use violence and terrorism to promote Jewish immigration to Palestine and retaliate against Arabs. Hitler lookalike-not Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley, 6th Baronet (1896-1930), former WWI flier and MP leaves the British Labour Party to form the British Union of Fascists (AKA Blackshirts), speaking to mass meetings by 1934 while waving a lame lightning bolt emblem that looks like it belongs on a kid's toy?; Prince David Windsor (later Edward VIII) is friends with him, and secretly supports their aims, causing British Conservative leader Stanley Baldwin et al. to go nonlinear and plot to oust him? The bankruptcy of the German Danatbank leads to a closure of all German banks; U.S. Pres. Hoover proposes a one-year moratorium on German reparations and war debts. British MP (since 1929) Sir Herbert Louis Samuel (1870-1963) becomes the first Jew to lead a major British political party, the Liberal Party (until 1935). Italian #1 writer Ignazio Silone (1900-78), who left the Italian Communist Party in 1930 to join the Socialist Party is forced into exile, living in Germany, Switzerland and elsewhere in Europe until 1944. The Soviets stage a 2nd Internat. Congress for the History of Science, led by Nikolai Bukharin and Boris Hessen, which gives a Marxist twist to the work of Isaac Newton et al., wowing British crystallographer John Desmond Bernal (1901-71) et al., who become enthuastic Soviet Union backers and bring it back home to the West. Sally Bowles sings in the Kit Kat Club in Berlin, as later portrayed by Liza Minnelli in the 1972 film "Caberet".

Joseph Stalin (1879-1953), Ukrainian Diet Guru Franklin Delano Roosevelt of the U.S. (1882-1945) Henry Lewis Stimson of the U.S. (1867-1950) Franz von Papen of Germany (1879-1969) Otto Braun of Germany (1872-1955) Carl Schmitt of Germany (1888-1985) Albert Lebrun of France (1871-1950) Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia (1876-1953) Engelbert Dollfuss of Austria (1892-1934) Gen. Jose Sanjurjo Sacanell of Spain (1872-1936) Viscount Saito Makoto of Japan (1856-1936) Gen. Antonio de Oliveira Salazar of Portugal (1889-1970) Gyula Gömbös de Jakfa of Hungary (1886-1936) Abelardo Lujan Rodriguez of Mexico (1889-1976) Panayotis Tsaldaris of Greece (1868-1936) Pridi Banomyong of Thailand (1900-83) Sir John Allsebrook Simon of Britain (1873-1954) Ivan Maisky of the Soviet Union (1884-1975) John Thomas Lang of Australia (1876-1975) U.S. Adm. Harry Ervin Yarnell (1875-1959) Boeing P-26 Peashooter, 1932 Vultee V1-A, 1936

1932 Chinese Year: Monkey. Time Mag. Man of the Year: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) (1934, 1941). Speaking of monkeys, the British declare the Indian Congress illegal and arrest Time Mag. Man of the Year Gandhi. Unemployment: World: 30M, U.S.: 13.7M, Britain: 2.8M; one out of every four families in the U.S. are on relief; 12M (24%) of the U.S. workforce is unemployed; 5.7K U.S. banks fail this year. The Europeans agree to reduce Germany's reparation payments by 90% if U.S. will do the same for their war debts. No rain falls on the Great Plains this year, turning it into a great dust bowl; in Jan. a dust cloud 10K ft. high begins outside Amarillo, Tex., then blows into the city, causing the pop. to complain that if the sodbusters can't keep their dirt in place, someone should pave it over or park used cars on it; the storms become permanent for the next decade. Early this year the Ukrainian Famine (Holodomor) in Ukraine, breadbasket of the Soviet Union begins (until 1933), caused by the deliberate policies of hard-as-steel Stalin known as the Second Five-Year Plan, really a plan to exterminate the pesky independent kulak class of independent farmers by stealing their food and having them eat the seed and breeding stock before dying; on Mar. 29, 1933 Welsh journalist Gareth Jones (1905-35) becomes the first to break the story to the West, causing longtime English Moscow correspondent Walter Duranty (1884-1957) to pub. an article two days later in the New York Times titled "Russians hungry but not starving", after which Jones pub. a rebuttal, causing the Soviet Union to ban him and later get him killed in Mongolia; meanwhile Stalin ass-kisser Duranty is awarded a Pulitzer Prize in 1932 for his New York Times reports denying the famine, causing many to later call to have it revoked. On Jan. 7 U.S. secy. of state (1929-33) Henry Lewis Stimson (1867-1950) notifies the signatories to the 9-power treaty of Feb. 4, 1922 that the U.S. will not recognize gains achieved through force contrary to the Pact of Paris of Aug. 27, 1928; the U.S. Congress officially passes the Stimson Doctrine - another V for Skull & Bones? On Jan. 21 a 10K-ft.-tall black dust cloud grazes Amarillo, Tex. on the way to Okla., looking like "a range of mountains on the move" with "an edge like steel wool". On Jan. 22 Communist uprisings among the aboriginal Pilpil Indians set to begin in W El Salvador are found out and suppressed by Gen. Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez, killing 4K "Communists", followed by La Matanza (The Massacre), in which 30K are killed by the govt. for suspected Communist leanings, incl. their leader Augustin Farabundo Marti (b. 1893); to avoid total extermination, the Pilpil Indians, who were there before the Spanish arrived in 1524 suddenly go Hispanic, adopting the Spanish language and Western dress, and intermarrying with other groups, until by the end of the cent. pure Indians comprise less than 1% of the pop. - how do you like your coffee with your bitter bitter pilpil? On Jan. 23 New York Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt announces his candidacy for the Dem. pres. nomination. On Jan. 28 the Shanghai War begins after five Japanese monks sing Japanese patriotic songs in a Chinese factory in Shanghai, causing a riot during which one of them is lynched, causing the Japanese to send 1.2K marines and attack the Chinese nationalists under Gen. Cai Tingkai (1892-1968); after the Japanese bring in 55K reinforcements the Chinese surrender after 34 days (Mar. 2); 18K civilians are killed and 240K lose their homes. On Feb. 7 the Oslo Convention joins the Scandinavian states (Denmark, Norway, Sweden) with Belgium and the Netherlands in a modest scheme of economic cooperation (ends July 1, 1938). On Feb. 7 (Sun.) (dawn) a fake attack on Pearl Harbor on Oahu, Hawaii called Fleet Problem 13 is staged by U.S. Rear Adm. Harry Ervin Yarnell (1875-1959), using storm as a cover at dawn and launching 152 planes from the NE (same as the Japanese did on Dec. 7, 1941), using flour sacks as bombs, ending in a complete V for the attackers; despite this, the umpires report that "... it is doubtful if air attacks can be launched against Oahu in the face of strong defensive aviation without subjecting the attacking carriers to the danger of material damage and consequent great losses in the attack air force." On Feb. 18 a Japanese military puppet regime declares the independence of Manchukuo (Manzhouguo) (Great Manchu Empire) (until 1945), under puppet (the last Chinese emperor) Henry Puyi, causing China to call for help to the League of Nations; Manchus are actually a minority, the majority being Han. On Feb. 20 former PM (1929-30) Andre Tardieu becomes PM of France again (until June 3). On Feb. 27-Mar. 7 the fascist Lapua org. in Finland stages the failed Mantsala Uprising, attempting to crush the Communists; Gen. Kurt Wallenius is arrested, and on Nov. 21 he is convicted along with over 50 Lapua leaders, and the org. disbanded - if it were only that easy in Germany, Italy and Spain? On Mar. 7 French Socialist statesman Aristide Briand (b. 1862) dies unexpectedly, and on May 6 French pres. Paul Doumer (b. 1857) is shot by Russian emigre Paul Timofeevich Gorguloff (b. 1895), and dies on May 7 at 4:37 a.m.; on Sept. 14 Gorguloff is beheaded by guillotine in Paris, his last words being "Russia, my mother country"; on Apr. 15 Albert Francois Lebrun (1871-1950) of the Dem. Alliance is elected pres. #15 of France (until July 10, 1940), and is sworn-in on May 10; in May elections give the left parties a majority; on June 3 Edouard Herriot becomes PM for the second time, but resigns in Dec. after the chamber refuses to pay the scheduled debt installment to the U.S.; five ministries follow in the next 13 mo., all trying to balance the budget, control inflation, and keep France on the gold standard; meanwhile a system of family allowances is created to aid poor families and bolster the low birth rate (denatalite) (dénatalité). On Mar. 13 Paul von Hindenburg fails to win a clear majority in the election for the German presidency, getting 18,651,497 votes to 11.3M for Hitler and 4,983,341 for Thalmann (Communist); on Apr. 10 another election is held, and von Hindenburg is reelected pres. with a clear majority of 24M votes out of 36M cast - it's time for Hitler to sell his soul to the Devil? On Apr. 3 the SA and SS are banned in Germany. On Apr. 13 the Nazi propaganda film Der Fuehrer (Volk and Fuehrer) is released, created by Fox Movietone, giving many Germans their first dose of Hitler and helping the Nazis add 19% to their vote total in the July 31 parliamentary election, giving them 38%; on Aug. 30 the Fox Movietone film Hitler's Struggle for Germany (Hitlers Kampf um Deutschland) is released. On Apr. 30 Adolf Hitler signs a secret pact with Satan, giving him absolute rule over Germany and most of Europe in return for surrendering his soul in 13 years; Allied Forces find the contract in an old trunk in 1945. :) In Apr. elections in Prussia give a D to the Social Dems., last bastion of the Weimar Repub., but since the Nazis and Communists won't form a coalition govt., it remains in office as a caretaker govt. On May 15 Japanese PM Inukai Tsuyoshi is assassinated in a military coup which is quickly crushed; a nonpartisan cabinet is formed under Adm. Viscount Saito Makoto (1856-1936), who on May 26 becomes PM #30 (until July 8, 1934), with Gen. Araki Sadao as war minister and Takahashi Korekiyo as finance minister, becoming the end of party govt. in prewar Japan. On May 20 5'0" Engelbert Humperdinck, er, Adollfuss Hitler, er, Engelbert Dollfuss (1892-1934) of the conservative Christian Social Party becomes chancellor #14 of Austria (until July 25, 1934), establishing a system of Austrofascism and looking to get support from Italy to balance Germany, calling Nazism too similar to Stalinism and nowhere near as cool as Italian Fascism, making him a problem to the Nazis, who plan to get him out of the way with a fifth column. On May 31 Paul von Hindenburg appoints Catholic Center Party head Franz Joseph Hermann Michael Maria von Papen (1879-1969) as chancellor of Germany on June 1 (until Nov. 17); he soon begins trying to win the support of the Nazi Party by lifting the ban on the Storm Abteilung (SA) and deposing the Social Dem. Party in Prussia. On June 3 German pres. Hindenburg dissolves the Reichstag. On June 16-July 9 the 1932 Lausanne Conference reduces German reparations for WWI from $25B to $2B, with strong indications that even this sum won't have to be paid in full by 1961; too bad, Hitler has been using the Treaty of Versailles to whip up support so long that it's too late for him to change. In the summer the Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service) des Reichtsfuhrers-SS is founded by the German Nazi Party, with Reinhard Heydrich as dir. #1 (until 1943), becoming a sister org. to the Gestapo and growing to 6,482 employees by Feb. 1944; after the war it is declared a criminal org. On July 8 the Dow Jones Index bottoms out at 41.22. On July 17 Altona Bloody Sunday sees a shootout between Nazi demonstrators and Communists in Altona, Hamburg, Germany, killing 18; on July 20 after chancellor Franz von Papen sees his chance to replace their foreign-dictated govt. with a nationalist one, the Prussian Coup (Preussenschlag) sees German pres. Paul von Hindenburg dismiss the leftist govt. of Prussia under PM (since 1920) Otto Braun (1872-1955), with von Papen assuming direct control as Reich commissioner, resulting in a court case, with Carl Schmitt (1888-1985) ("Crown Jewel of the Nazi Reich") as atty. for Germany, and Hermann Heller (1891-1933) (a Jew) as atty. for Prussia; the Prussian govt. loses, ending federalism in the Weimar Repub.; Braun flees for Switzerland after Hitler becomes chancellor next Jan., and Hermann Goring becomes PM of Prussia until 1945. On July 18 Belgium enacts new language regs, making French the admin. language of the Walloon provinces and Flemish the admin. language of Flanders. On July 18 the Ouchy Convention between Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg agrees to gradual reductions of mutual economic barriers - ouchy, ouchy, slow down? On July 21-Aug. 21 the Imperial Economic Conference in Ottawa, Canada results in seven bilateral treaties with Great Britain, attempting to stifle any remaining vestiges of free trade in the British Commonwealth, leading to the resignation on Sept. 28 of the free trade Liberal members of the cabinet, who form an opposition led by Sir Herbert Louis Samuel, while the Liberals who stay are led by Sir John Allsebrook Simon (1873-1954). On July 27 Hitler gives a speech in the Brandenburg Stadium in Eberswalde, becoming a classic of psychological manipulation, calling for the elimination of the 30+ other political parties, with the soundbyte "We are intolerant... We have one goal before us, to fanatically and ruthlessly shove all these parties into the grave." On July 31 the German Reichstag elections give the Nazis 230 seats, the Socialists 133, Center Party 97, and Communists 89; no majority is possible since the Nazis and Communists won't cooperate. On Aug. 13 Hindenburg rejects Hitler's claim to be appointed German chancellor, and Hitler rejects his offer to become vice-chancellor under Papen. In late summer a 200-page memo written by Mikhail Riutin calling for the removal of Stalin from power is secretly approved by a number of Soviet Communists led by Nikolai Bukharin (1888-1938); too bad, when Stalin finds out he neutralizes them by Oct., and goes over the paranoid barrier to enough-talk-let's-get-it-going? On Sept. 12 the German Reichstag is dissolved after a no confidence motion passes by 512-42. On Sept. 14 the Belgium govt. is given extraordinary power to deal with the budget deficits caused by the worldwide drepression and the cessation of German reparations payments, and it pressures employers to stabilize failing wages. On Sept. 25 elections in Greece are a V for the royalists against the Liberal Party Venizelists because of the Great Depression, and on Oct. 31 the Venizelos Era in Greece (begun 1909) comes to an end with the resignation of 68-y-o. PM Eleutherios Venizelos (although he tries a couple of short comebacks); on Nov. 4 Panayotis (Panagis) (Panagiotis) Tsaldaris (1868-1936), leader of the right-wing People's Party that was thrown out in 1922 becomes PM (until 1933) of a moderate royalist cabinet that recognizes the 1924 plebiscite establishing the Second Hellenic Repub. in order to shut the Venizelists up; too bad, leaders of the People's Party are implicated in an assassination attempt against Venizelos and express monarchist opinions, while he officially denies everything. On Nov. 6 an election fails to break the deadlock in the German Reichstag after the the Nazis lose 34, giving them 196, and the Communists gain some seats. First Hoover, then Landon, Wilkie and Dewey? On Nov. 8 after a campaign in which Hoover predicts that if his opponent is elected, "grass [would] grow in the streets of a hundred cities, a thousand towns", and Roosevelt counters that his economic reconstruction program is "from the bottom up and not from the top down, that puts the faith once more in the forgotten man at the bottom of the economic pyramid", the 1932 U.S. Pres. Election sees Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) win by a landslide, 52.5% of the electorate voting for pres., and FDR receiving 22.8M popular (57.4%) and 472 electoral votes vs. Hoover's 15.8M popular (39.7%) and paltry 59 electoral votes; the Dems. win control of both houses of Congress, giving FDR a blank check to engage in "bold, persistent experimentation"; the first pres. whose mother votes in the election; Hoover utters the soundbyte "I knew from the bitter experience of all public men from Washington on down, that democracies are fickle and heartless, for democracy is a harsh employer"; the 4 mo. until FDR takes over leaves lame duck Hoover swinging in the wind as FDR refuses to let him take joint action in both of their names and risks things getting worse in the short run for long range credit, causing the Dems. to block Hoover's legislative efforts to alleviate the nation's misery, since by now Hoover's name is mud, with newspapers are already known as "Hoover blankets" and empty pockets turned inside out as "Hoover flags". On Nov. 9 labor strikes in Geneva, Switzerland are crushed by the govt. On Nov. 11 a ceremony celebrating the signing of the WWI Armistice in 1918 is held in Gen. Foch's railway carriage in the Forest of Compiegne, with a new monument showing the German eagle being cut down by a sword, and an inscription saying that the boastings of the German Empire had been brought low; in 1940 Hitler forces the French to sign his armistice in the same carriage. On Nov. 17 German chancellor Franz von Papen resigns; on Nov. 24 Hitler rejects the chancellorship with strings attached, demanding everything or nothing; on Dec. 3 Gen. Kurt von Schleicher (1882-1934) is appointed chancellor #23 (until Jan. 28, 1933), forming a new cabinet; Austrian-born Hitler receives German citizenship and Wilhelm Frick appoints him Regierungsrat in Brunswick. In Nov. a banquet is held by the Soviet Communists to celebrate the 15th anniv. of the Bolshevik Rev. of 1917, and after Stalin orders his teetotaler wife Nadya to drink and refuses, she runs to her apt., where either Stalin shoots her or she commits suicide after he rags her out; the official story is acute appendicitis; the death causes him to go paranoid? A month in which both Einstein and Darwin win? On Dec. 5 Albert Einstein is granted a visa by the U.S. On Dec. 8 Nazi founder Gregor Strasser resigns from all his offices after Hitler catches him being used by Kurt von Schleicher against him. Anti-Semitic nationalist war minister Gyula (Julius) Gombos (Gömbös) de Jakfa (1886-1936) becomes PM of Hungary (until 1936), forming a new govt. that promotes Hungarian fascism while opposing German Nazi influence in Hungary - Heil Gombos? The govt. of Sweden goes Socialist as the Social Dem. Party comes into power (ends 1976). The Japanese occupy Heilungkiang (Hilongjiang) (Ch. "Black Dragon River"), largest province of Manchuria, making it part of their puppet state of Manchukuo. Ivan Maisky (1884-1975) becomes Soviet envoy to the U.K. (until 1943), working to patch things up with the Western Allies during WWII - smiling faces tell lies, and I've got truth? Scottish labor leader Arthur Henderson (1863-1935) becomes chmn. of the League of Nations Internat. Disarmament Conference, winning the 1934 Nobel Peace Prize. Writers in the Soviet Union are mandated by the state to follow the new Socialist Realism lit. style (ends 1990), displaying the steady progress of the Soviet society towards inevitable shining Socialism in a glowing future Shangri-La where everybody is saved and has their mind right and eats well and is warm in winter - and yoo yoo yoo pink Floyd the wall the movie? Japan begins undercutting prices to conquer world markets. The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier (Unknowns) at Arlington Nat. Cemetery in Washington, D.C. is opened to the public without ceremony; an inscription on the marble crypt reads "Here Rests in Honored Glory an American Soldier Known But to God"; the marble is supplied by Rex Loesby, owner of a Colo. quarry. Inventions: The world's first blood bank is established in Leningrad. On Mar. 20 the $14K Boeing P-26 "Peashooter" maeks its test flight, becoming the first all-metal production fighter aircraft and first pursuit monoplane used by the U.S. Army Air Corps; 151 are built by 1956. Am. aircraft designer Gerard Freebairn "Jerry" Vultee (1900-38) of Downey, Calif. designs the Vultee V1 all-metal single-engine 2-pilot high-speed plane, which sets many aviation records, and in 1936 turns it into the 8-passenger V-1A for Am. Airlines, and later into the V-11 U.S. Army Air Corps attack plane; too bad, Vultee dies in a plane crash in 1938 before he can respond to a call for a 2-engine plane, and in 1943 his co. merges with Consolidated Aircraft to become Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corp. AKA Convair. The first German automobile-only Autobahn, designed by Nazi engineer Fritz Todt (1891-1942) opens between Cologne and Bonn.

Adolf Hitler of Germany (1889-1945) Joseph Goebbels of Germany (1894-1945) Hermann Goering of Germany (1893-1946) Nazi Pink Triangles Konstantin von Neurath of Germany (1873-1956) Wilhelm Frick of Germany (1877-1946) Robert Ley of Germany (1890-1945) Baldur von Schirach of Germany (1907-74) Hitler Youth, 1922-45 Baron Kurt von Schroeder of Germany (1889-1966) Ernst von Harnack of Germany (1888-1945) Herbert von Dirksen of Germany (1882-1955) German SS Gen. Sepp Dietrich (1892-1966) Friedrich Flick (19883-1972) Nazis Burning Jewish Books, May 6, 1933 Signing of the Reichskonkordat, July 20, 1933 Franklin Delano Roosevelt of the U.S. (1882-1945) Anna Eleanor Roosevelt of the U.S. (1884-1962) John Nance 'Cactus Jack' Garner IV of the U.S. (1868-1967) Hugh Samuel Johnson of the U.S. (1882-1942) William Christian Bullitt Jr. of the U.S. (1891-1967) Stephen Tyree Early of the U.S. (1889-1951) William Hartman Woodin of the U.S. (1868-1934) Robert Moses of the U.S. (1888-1981) Ferdinand J. Pecora of the U.S. (1882-1971) William Edward Dodd of the U.S. (1869-1940) Raymond Charles Moley (1886-1975) Rexford Guy Tugwell of the U.S. (1891-1979) Harry Hopkins of the U.S. (1890-1946) William Yandell Elliott (1896-1979) Adolf Augustus Berle Jr. (1895-1971) Gheorghe Tartarescu of Romania (1886-1957) Franz Seldte of Germany (1882-1947) William Edward Dodd of the U.S. (1869-1940) Cardinal Michael von Faulhaber (1869-1952) Lion Feuchtwanger (1884-1958) Friedrich Wilhelm von Prittwitz und Gaffron (1884-1955) Reichstag Fire, Feb. 27, 1933 Marinus van der Lubbe (1909-34) Gustav Krupp (1870-1950) Alfried Krupp (1907-67) German Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg (1878-1946) Edouard Daladier of France (1884-1970) Fulgencio Batista of Cuba (1901-73) Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera of Spain (1903-36) Antonio Guiteras Holmes of Cuba (1906-35) Giuseppe Zangara (1900-33) Anton Joseph Cermak (1873-1933) Vidkun Quisling of Norway (1887-1945) Mohammed Zahir Shah of Afghanistan (1914-2007) Sardar Mohammed Hashim Khan of Afghanistan (1885-1953) Vladimir Macek of Croatia (1879-1964) Cordell Hull of the U.S. (1871-1955) Alvin S. Johnson of the U.S. (1874-1971) Harold LeClair Ickes of the U.S. (1874-1952) Frances Perkins of the U.S. (1882-1965) Fiorello Henry La Guardia of the U.S. (1882-1947) Sumner Welles of the U.S. (1892-1961) Jouett Shouse of the U.S. (1879-1968) Carl Schmitt of Germany (1888-1985) Hans Lammers of Germany (1879-1962) Hjalmar Schacht of Germany (1877-1970) Damien de Martel of France Thomas Gardiner Corcoran of the U.S. (1900-81) James Macauley Landis of the U.S. (1899-1964) Benjamin Victor Cohen of the U.S. (1894-1983) Sophonisba Preston Breckinridge of the U.S. (1866-1948) Sir Norman Angell of Britain (1872-1967) Charles S. Johnson (1893-1956) Tadeusz Reichstein (1897-1996) Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940) Hilarius Gilges (1909-33) Raphael Lemkin (1900-59) Henschel Hs 126 Henschel Hs 132

1933 Chinese Year: Chicken - the kind you choke? Time Mag. Man of the Year: Hugh Samuel Johnson (1882-1942). This is the stormiest year for the U.S. in the 20th cent. (21 storms). There are 9.69M Jews in Europe; by 1946 this is down to 3.712M (72% decrease)? Fearless living, or, Is he a saint or a stalker, or, Do I look fat in this? On Jan. 4 a secret meeting hosted by Baron Kurt von Schroeder (1889-1966) between Fritz von Papen and Adolf Hitler, backed by industrialists Gustav Krupp (von Bohlen und Halbach) (1870-1950) and his son Alfried Krupp (von Bohlen und Halbach) (1907-67) brings Hitler to power in Germany after Gen. Kurt von Schleicher fails to conciliate the center and left and Hindenburg rejects a demand for yet another dissolution, and is forced to resign on Jan. 28; on Jan. 30 Hitler is appointed chancellor of Germany and Reichsstathalter of Prussia by Pres. Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934) at the urging of Franz von Papen, who becomes vice-chancellor; Thuringian interior minister (since 1930) Wilhelm Frick (1877-1946) becomes interior minister; gen. (who later becomes the first Field Marshal appointed by Hitler in 1936) Werner von Blomberg (1878-1946) becomes war minister (until 1938), becoming known as the "Rubber Lion" for his slavish devotion to Herr Hitler; Konstantin von Neurath (1873-1956) becomes minister of foreign affairs; Hermann Goering (1893-1946) becomes minister without portfolio (later Prussian PM), going on to get ideas of taking over the army by getting rid of Blomberg; laminated bowling-ball-bald Hans Heinrich Lammers (1879-1962) becomes police chief, soon rising to chief of the Reich Chancellery; non-Nazi nationalists Alfred Hugenberg (1865-1951) and Franz Seldte (1882-1947) are incl., but the Center Party doesn't cooperate; Bavaria's independence ends; Social Dem. leader Ernst Wolf Alexander Oksar von Harnack (1888-1945) (son of Adolf von Harnack) denounces the new govt. as "without goodness or grace", ending up in priz, and executed on Mar. 3, 1945; meanwhile Der Fuehrer (Fuhrer) uses German capitalist money from industrialist Friedrich Flick (1883-1972) et al. to put unemployed men in cool Nazi stormtrooper uniforms and march them around to shut down Jewish competition while his lieutenants Joseph Goebbels et al. run a slick modern propaganda machine spewing hatred and encouraging any and all prejudices against non-party members, who are clearly degenerate misfits not fit to take another breath; a well-coached, slick-dressing and yes, kind of handsome and striking actor waving his hands like a magician or orchestra conductor, he enthralls zombie-like crowds of inferior, er, master races with vague generalities about Der Volk, internat. Jewish banker-backed Communism and the *?!*? Versailles Treaty, and he's especially liked by the ladies for his chaste ascetic lifestyle and the way he kisses poon, er, babies?; the Nazi salute shows everybody how clean they keep their hands, and how they never never masturbate?; Hitler permits 10K Jews a year to emigrate to the British Mandate of Palestine (until 1941); Ireland's anti-Semitic British ambassador Charles Bewley works to keep Ireland closed to fleeing Jewish families; meanwhile former German ambassador (to the U.S.) Count von Bernstorff, who turned pacifist after WWI flees to Switzerland, and Cologne mayor (since 1917) Konrad Adenauer (a devout Roman Catholic who hates Nazis) refuses to shake a local Nazi leader's hand and ends up fleeing to the Maria Laach Abbey for a year, after which it is touch-and-go until Hitler's fall in 1945 - then why did you give him 250 marks? On Jan. 8 a radical (anarchist, syndicalist) uprising in Barcelona, Spain spreads to many other large cities before it is suppressed - you are open and now you are closed? On Jan. 12 a peasant revolt in the Spanish village of Casas Viejas is brutally suppressed, stinking up the govt., and on Apr. 23 municipal elections show a distinct veering to the right. On Jan. 12 the U.S. Congress recognizes the independence of the Philippines. On Jan. 13 the Greek cabinet of Panyotis Tsaldaris is defeated on its financial policy, and on Jan. 16 Venizelos becomes PM again, but is defeated in elections on Mar. 5 after dissolving Parliament, and repub. Gen. Nikolaos Plastiras attempts a coup; on Mar. 10 Tsaldaris becomes PM again (until 1935), with the Venizelists contuing to oppose him. On Jan. 21 the League of Nation rejects Japanese terms for settlement with China, and Japan withdraws from the League. The Lame Duck Amendment is ratified, and guess who's the first lame duck? On Jan. 23 the Twentieth (20th) (XX) (Lame Duck) Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, cutting almost 2 mo. off any future lame duck admin.; too bad that it goes into effect on Oct. 15, too late for FDR's first term? On Jan. 24 the Jewish Museum in Berlin, Germany is founded six days before the Nazis officially comie to power, built next to the Neue Synagogue on Oranienburger Strasse, it contains collections of Jewish art and history; it is shut down on Nov. 10, 1938 (Kristallnacht); in 1988 Polish-born Jewish-Am. architect Daniel Libeskind wins a competition to design a new one, which is finished in 1999 and opened to the public on Sept. 9, 2001 - talk about a bad place to house Jewish history? On Jan. 30 German Jewish novelist Lion Feuchtwanger (1884-1958), who is being lionized on a speaking tour of the U.S. and is the guest of honor at a dinner hosted by German ambassador Friedrich Wilhelm von Prittwitz und Gaffron (1884-1955) receives the news that Hitler has become German chancellor; the next day Prittwitz resigns and tells him he better not return to Germany; sho' 'nuff, the Nazis ransack his house and destroy his mss., his books are put in the bonfire on May 1, his citizenship is stripped on Aug. 25, and he is designated "enemy of the Nazi state #1"; he moves to Sanary-sur-Mer, France, going on to expose Nazism by shooting lit. peas at them from the sidelines; too bad, he visits the Soviet Union in 1937 and lionizes Stalin and his show trials as great great great before returning to France, getting captured by the Germans in 1940, and escaping Camp des Milles to the forgiving U.S. In Jan. Edouard Daladier (1884-1970) becomes PM of France, but his govt. only lasts 7 mo. In Jan. German ambassador to the Soviet Union (since 1928) Herbert von Dirksen (1882-1955) tells Prince Bernard von Bulow of his concerns that the anti-Communist rhetoric of the Nazis might damage the good state of German-Soviet relations, and he replies: "The National Socialists faced with responsibility are naturally different people and follow a policy other than that which they have previously proclaimed. That's always been so and is the same with all parties"; in May Dirksen meets with Hitler, and tells him that he is allowing relations with the Soviet Union to deteriorate to an unacceptable extent, causing Hitler to inform him that he wants an anti-Soviet understanding with Poland, which Dirksen protests because it implies recognition of the German-Polish border; in Aug. Dirksen is warned by Soviet PM Vyacheslav Molotov that the state of German-Soviet relations would depend on how friendly the Reich chooses to be towards the Soviet Union; no surprise, in Oct. Dirksen is reassigned, becoming the German ambassador to Japan (until 1938). In Jan.-Mar. the Japanese invade Rehe (Jehol), leading to a May 31 truce signed at Tanggu which creates a DMZ in E Hebei province under Japanese domination. On Feb. 9 (Thur.) the Oxford Union Society in England debates the big question "That this House will in no circumstances fight for its King and Country", and after five speakers, topped by pacifist atheist philosopher C.E.M. Joad (1891-1953), the motion passes by 275-153; Joad later flip-flops and backs the fight against Hitler, and converts to Christianity with the help of C.S. Lewis. On Feb. 14-16 the Little Entente (formed 1920-1 by Czech., Romania, and Yugoslavia) meets in Geneva and drafts an org. pact for Czech. to resist Nazi agitation among its 3M Germans; on Oct. 4 the Sudeten Nat. Socialist (Nazi) Party, led by Konrad Henlein dissolves under govt. order, and reemerges as the Sudetendeutsche Partie, no longer calling for a Nazi state - just working for one? On Feb. 15 an assassination attempt on pres.-elect Franklin Roosevelt is made by unemployed Italian immigrant bricklayer Giuseppe Zangara (b. 1900) in Bayfront Park in Miami, Fla., who takes five shots at FDR with a cheap pistol from 25 ft. away, missing by inches until Miami homemaker Lillian Cross jostles him, causing him to hit five bystanders incl. Chicago mayor (since 1931) Anton Joseph "Tony" Cermak (b. 1873), who dies on Mar. 6; anti-FDR journalist Westbrook Pegler comments that Zangara "hit the wrong man"; Zangara is executed five weeks later on Mar. 20; FDR's hero status helps propel his New Deal through Congress? On Feb. 17 Newsweek mag. begins pub. (until 2012). On Feb. 25 USS Ranger, the world's first aircraft carrier is launched in Va.; it can handle 75 aircraft. On Feb. 27 the German Reichstag (Wallot Palace) in Berlin (vacant since Dec.) burns and is gutted, and feeble-minded Dutch Communist Marinus van der Lubbe (1900-34) is caught by police in Bismarck Hall naked to the waist, confessing that he did it "as a protest"; Hitler calls it a "sign from heaven" that a Communist rising is beginning, and issues the Decree for the Protection of the People and the State on Feb. 28, getting 5K Communists rounded up, and four party leaders charged with complicity; a court in Leipzig acquits the four party leaders, but convicts van der Lubbe, who is executed next Jan. 10; the world believes the Nazis really did it, but later it is proved that van der Lubbe actually did it alone, and the Nazis only hampered the fire dept.; the Kroll Opera House becomes the new meeting place for the Reichstag until Apr. 26, 1942. On Mar. 4 Hyde Park, N.Y.-born Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) (FDR) (pr. to rhyme with rose, although his 5th cousin Teddy Roosevelt's side of the house pronounces it to rhyme with roof) becomes the 32nd U.S. pres. (until Apr. 12, 1945) in the 43rd U.S. Pres. Inauguration (first disabled pres.) (C student at Harvard U.) (4th N.Y. state gov. after Teddy Roosevelt, Grover Cleveland, and Martin Van Buren, most of any state until ?); Red River County, Tex.-born John Nance "Cactus Jack" Garner IV (1868-1967) becomes the 32nd U.S. vice-pres.; Douglas MacArthur is the grand marshal of the inaugural parade; First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt Roosevelt (1884-1962) is a cigarette smoker; Stephen Tyree Early (1889-1951) becomes the first White House press secy. (until 1950); Herbert Hoover lives a record 31 years, 231 days after leaving office; FDR's First Inaugural Address announces his Good Neighbor Policy of respect for Latin Am. countries, with the soundbyte "In the field of world policy I would dedicate this nation to the policy of the good neighbor, the neighbor who resolutely respects himself and, because he does so, respects the rights of others"; Damon Runyon writes the lead article on FDR's inauguration; Penn.-born Repub. railroad freight car manufacturer and coin collector William Hartman Woodin (1868-1934) becomes U.S. treasury secy., going on to implement bank holidays and take the U.S. off the gold standard, resigning on Dec. 31 due to poor health; FDR gives his campaign Brain Trust of liberal profs. positions in his admin. to jumpstart the ailing nation's economy by redistributing the wealth, incl. Raymond Charles Moley (1886-1975) (Columbia U. law prof. who invented the term "New Deal", and claims that with FDR capitalism was "saved in eight days", then breaks with him by midyear and becomes a conservative Repub. and bitter foe), Harvard Am. history prof. William Yandell Elliott (1896-1979) (later the mentor of Henry Kissinger), Adolf Augustus Berle Jr. (1895-1971) (pr. like burley), and Rexford Guy Tugwell (1891-1979) (agricultural economist, who is appointed gov. of Puerto Rico in 1941-6); Dem. Nat. Committee chmn. (since 1929) Jouett Shouse (1879-1968), hubby of Filene Dept. Store heiress Catherine Filene Dodd, who supported Alfred E. Smith over FDR, flip-flops and becomes pres. of the Assoc. Against the Prohibition Amendment, hastening the repeal of prohibition later in the year; meanwhile super-educated N.Y. construction czar (since the 1920s) Robert Moses (1888-1981) is given a blank check for construction projects in the New York City area, with 80K people working for him building large numbers of playgrounds and swimming pools, the Triborough Bridge, Brooklyn Battery Bridge et al., then attracting the U.N. to build its HQ in Manhattan instead of Philly, his power continuing through the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, during which time he develops a love affair for highways. On Mar. 6 the (66 + 6 + 1)? 73rd Congress (ends Jan. 3, 1935) (elected with him in Nov. 1932 and not scheduled to meet until this Dec.) begins a special session to deal with the nat. emergency of the Great Depression (a term he prefers to "panic"), beginning his Hundred Days (Mar. 9-June 16) of sweeping alphabet-soup "New Deal" legislation, which forever half-socializes the U.S. (the special session actually lasts 7.5 mo.); Frances Coralie Perkins (1882-1965) becomes the first woman to hold a U.S. cabinet-level position as U.S. labor secy. #4 (until 1945); U.S. Sen. (D-Tenn.) Cordell Hull (1871-1955) (author of the 1913 Federal income tax law) becomes U.S. secy. of state (until 1944), with Sumner Welles (1892-1961) as undersecy. (until 1943); former Progressive Party and Repub. Party thorn-in-the-side liberal Harold LeClair Ickes (1874-1952) becomes secy. of the interior and admin. of public works (until 1946), going on to disburse $3.3B of New Deal public works funds; Iowa State College grad. Henry Agard Wallace (1888-1965), ed. (since 1910) of Wallaces' Farmer (founded 1898) becomes agriculture secy. #11 (until 1940); William Christian Bullitt Jr. (1891-1967) (voted most brilliant in his 1913 Yale U. class) is appointed as the first U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union (until 1936); FDR becomes the right man at the right time as he puts on a big act that he's solving the nation's problems while resisting calls to become a dictator? On Mar. 5 after Centrist leader Ludwig Kaas refuses compromise and the Reichstag is dissolved, new elections result in a record vote count (88.8% of the electorate, 39,343,331 votes), and give the Nazis 43.9% of the vote (17,277,328) and the Nationalists 8%, prompting Hitler to claim a "colossal victory"; the Nazis have 288 seats, the Socialists 120, the Communists (who lose 1M votes) 81 (who are barred from attending), the Centrists 74, the Nationalists 52, and others 23. The first shot of WWII was fired by the Jews? On Mar. 12 the Am. Jewish Congress announces a protest to be held at Madison Square Garden on Mar. 27, along with a Jewish Boycott of German Goods; on Mar. 23 20K Jews protest at New York City Hall; on Mar. 24 the British newspaper Daily Express carries the headline "Judea Declares War on Germany - Jews of All the World Unite - Boycott of German Goods - Mass Demonstration", describing it as a "holy war" against Germany; on Mar. 27 there are simultaneous protest rallies in New York City, Boston, Philly, Cleveland et al.; despite the boycott, many Jews continue to do business with Germany; meanwhile Zionist leaders see their chance in using the Nazi regime as the cause that will turn German Jews into Zionists and cause them to emigrate to Palestine, and Hitler strikes the secret Transfer Agreement with them to transfer German Jews to Palestine; too bad, the British demand that each Jew pay 1K pounds sterling upon arrival in Haifa or other ports in Palestine, causing Zionists to subvert the worldwide Jewish boycott of Germany in order to allow Jewish capital to leave with them via internat. merchandise transactions? On Mar. 12 Sachsenhausen (Oranienburg), the first German Nazi concentration camp opens N of Berlin, followed on Mar. 22 by Dachau concentration camp; homosexuals are identified by pink triangles on their stripey uniforms, Jews by yellow, and vagrants by black; Paragraph 175, which is passed this year making homosexuality a capital crime is left on the books for 24 years after the end of WWII, and many of the pink triangle POWs are kept in prison by the FRG, after which the pink triangle becomes the symbol of the gay movement, and it takes until 2002 for the German govt. to issue an official apology; by 1945 8M-10M are interned in concentration camps, and at least half die? On Mar. 16 the big Nazi V in Germany spooks the Belgian govt. to devote 150M francs to military fortifications along the Meuse River; in Dec. infantry term of services are extended from 7 to 18 mo. On Mar. 17 non-NSDAP member Hjalmar Schacht (1877-1970) (named Horace Greeley at birth, then changed to please a grandmother) becomes pres. of the German Reichsbank (until Jan. 1939), followed by minister of economics next Aug., going on to support public works programs and the "New Plan" to end foreign entanglements in the German economy in Sept. 1934, while financing rearmament via Mefo Bills; too bad, in Aug. 1935 he makes a speech denouncing the anti-Semitism of Julius Streicher, and resigns as economics minister in Nov. 1937, is sacked as Reichsbank pres. in 1939, and ends up getting caught trying to assassinate Hitler and end up in a concentration camp. On Mar. 21 Hitler and Hindenburg pay homage to Frederick the Great at the Potsdam Garrison Church in a ceremony attended by the Crown Prince; the parade is marked by "Hitler's weather", an uncanny luck of bright sunny skies whenever a Nazi ceremony is scheduled? On Mar. 23 even though the Nazis don't have the two-thirds majority needed for overall rule, Hitler gets the Reichstag to pass the Enabling Act (Law for the Relief of the Distress of the People and the Reich), which gives him supreme dictatorial powers, allowing him to get around the German Constitution whenever he pleases; as soon as Hitler takes power, the Swastika Flag (co-opting an ancient religious symbol, from the Sanksrit for "to be good") is hoisted, all ministers are arrested, and all govt. offices are taken possession of by storm troopers; Paul Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945) is appointed head of the Ministry of Enlightenment and Propaganda, becoming Germany's grand censor; Baldur von Schirach (1907-74) becomes head of the Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend) (founded 1922), turning 10-y.-o. and older Aryans into anti-Semitic supermen soldiers for the Third Reich; all Nazis are released from prison, while all govt. critics are ordered jailed, to be tried in "Sondergerichte" (special Nazi kangaroo courts); rabbi Leo Baeck (1873-1956) becomes pres. of the Reichsvertretung der Deutschen Juden (Nat. Org. of German Jews), an umbrella org. (disbanded 1938). In Mar. Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss assumes quasi-dictatorial powers in Austria, dissolving the parliament; in June he dissolves the Austrian Nat. Socialist Party. In Mar. FDR invites his buddy Harry Lloyd Hopkins (1890-1946) to join his admin. as head of the Federal Emergency Relief Admin. (FERA), later the Civil Works Admin. (CWA), and Works Progress Admin. (WPA), going on to establish the Nat. Youth Admin. (NYA) and the Federal One programs for artists and writers; in May 1940 he moves into the Lincoln Bedroom at the White House, becoming FDR's first counsel for the war, directing the $50B Lend-Lease Program conceived by pro-Soviet Armand Hammer to fund Stalin. In Mar. Hitler's chaffeur-bodyguard Josef "Sepp" Dietrich (1892-1966) hand-picks 120 SS men for the Sonderkommando Berlin, growing to 800 by Nov. 8, when they swear personal allegiance to Hitler on the 10th anniv. of the Munich Beer Hall Putsch, and are given the name Leibstandarte (Bodyguard Regiment) Adolf Hitler (LAH); next Apr. 13 Heinrich Himmler gives them the name Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH); the Waffen-SS is created as the armed wing of the Nazi Schutzstaffel (Protective Squadron), starting with three regiments, growing to 38 divs. during WWII; it is never part of the Wehrmacht. On Apr. 1 in response to the worldwide Jewish boycott of German goods and an order by Hitler on Mar. 28, Nazi Germany begins its Jewish persecution by boycotting all Jewish-owned businesses for one day. One World Government fans watch with glee as the citizens of the U.S. are robbed by their own government, while the citizens of Germany are robbed of brainpower by theirs? On Apr. 5 U.S. Pres. Roosevelt commands all U.S. citizens to surrender their gold to the govt. at just $20.67 an oz. or face a 10-year prison sentence, then later devalues the dollar 40% by raising the price of gold to $35 an oz.; on Apr. 19 the U.S. goes off the gold standard; 445.5K golden Double Eagle coins minted this year are withheld from circulation and melted down, but a handful survive and become some of the most sought-after coins by collectors; on June 5 Congress voids all gold clauses in public and private debts. On Apr. 7 Nazi Germany passes a law banning Jews from civil service jobs (except if they served Germany in WWI), forcing Jewish professors out, ruining Gottingen U.'s math dept. et al., and ending Germany's supremacy in science; when Nazi education minister Bernhard Rust asks David Hilbert "How is mathematics at Gottingen, now that it is free of the Jewish influence?", he replies "There is no mathematics in Gottingen anymore." On Apr. 22 the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei) (Secret State Police) is formed by Hermann Goering in Prussia, later joining the SS; "From its creation in 1933 until its death in May 1945, anyone living in Nazi controlled territory lived in fear of a visit from the Gestapo." (Rupert Butler) On Apr. 29 Croatian Peasant Party leader Vladimir "Vladko" Macek (1879-1964) is convicted of treason against the Yugoslavian govt. for wanting a Croatian state, and sentenced to three years, causing the mad Croatians to vow to get even; he is released after King Alexander's assassination in 1934. On Apr. 30 FDR appoints Ruth Bryan Owen (1885-1954), widow of William Jennings Bryan as the first female ambassador of the U.S., to Denmark (until 1936). In Apr. Adolf Hitler appoints Robert Ley (1890-1945) (a food chemist known for suffering a brain injury in a 1917 airplane crash in France which left him speaking with a stammer and suffering bouts of erratic behavior) as head of the new Deutsche Arbeitsfront (German Labor Front) (DAF), and in Nov. he establishes Strength Through Joy (Kraft durch Freude) (KdF) to bribe working class families with free vacations, entertainment and other perks in exchange for giving up trade unions and wage increases, going on to build the first cruise liners, the Wilhelm Gustloff and the Robert Ley, which take good little Nazies on Mediterranean cruises. On May 2 all German trade unions (which had already been sacked and their officers arrested) are formally dissolved. On May 4 after the Fascists in Finland found the Patriotic Nat. Movement, the govt. forbids political parties and groups to organize militarily. On May 6 the Nazis burn a ton of "Jewish" books, incl. the "smut" library of the Inst. for Sexual Research of Magnus Hirschfeld, "the Einstein of Sex", who ends up in exile in nice little Nice, Italy. On May 7 the 100th anniv. of the birthday of German composer Johannes Brahms (1833-97) sees the Nazis suspect him of being Jewish (real name Abraham?). On May 10 the nationwide Action Against Un-German Spirit series of 34 public book burnings in Germany led by Joseph Goebbels incl. a crowd of 40K in Berlin, with Goebbels uttering the soundbyte: "No to decadence and moral corruption. Yes to decency and morality and state... The soul of the German people can again express itself. These flames not only illuminate the final end of an old era, they also light up the new"; Time mag. calls it a "bibliocaust", and Newsweek mag. calls it "a holocaust of books", becoming one of the first uses of the term holocaust in connection with Nazis; after hearing that her books were among those burned, Hellen Keller writes a Letter to the Student Body of Germany, with the soundbyte: "History has taught you nothing if you think you can kill ideas." On May 10 100K Jews led by WWI Maj. Gen. John Francis O'Ryan demonstrate against Hitler in New York City, with O'Ryan calling Hitler's policies "a challenge to civilization... a challenge to Christianity and its basic teaching... a challenge to the American spirit of fair play"; marchers carry signs reading "Hitler This is Not the Dark Ages" and "Judaism Will Survive Hitlerism"; 50K more march in Chicago, 20K in Philadelphia, and 10K in Cleveland. On May 12 Switzerland bans the wearing of Nat. Socialist party uniforms. On May 20 Engelbert Dollfuss merges his Austrian Christian Social Party with the Heimwehr and other nationalist-conservative groups to form the Fatherland Front, and cracks down on the Republican Defense League of the Social Dems. (founded 1923); meanwhile in Oct. Nazi sympathizer Rudolf Dertill (1911-) unsuccessfully tries to assassinate him. The Nazis get the nation to work, cleaning up trash, Or, the original Star Drek? On May 20 the Nazis stage a midnight bonfire at the U. of Berlin, burning tens of thousands of "un-German" books by Erich Maria Remarque (1898-1970), Thomas Mann (1875-1955), Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961), James Joyce (1882-1941), Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956), Albert Einstein (1879-1955), Maxim Gorky (1868-1936) et al.; they burn Remarque (who, while a true Aryan, is now labeled a Jew by Goebbels) in effigy in the Obernplatz (in front of the Berlin Opera House); the Nazis close the Bauhaus (founded 1919) in Dessau, and the Inst. of Sexual Science (founded 1919) in Berlin; architects Richard Neutra, Rudolph Schindler, Walter Gropius and Mies van de Rohe emigrate to the U.S., either ruining or saving the U.S. with modern Euro architecture. On May 26 Australia assumes authority over about one-third of the Antarctic continent, an area the size of Australia itself - I can see it from my front porch? On May 27 Japan announces it withdrawal from the League of Nations, effective in two years. In June the first Festival of Nations is held by the Internat. Inst. of Minn. in St. Paul, Minn. to promote multiculturalism. In June the Washington Post (founded 1877), one of the few non-Jewish-owned U.S. newspapers is purchased at a bankruptcy auction by Jewish financier (Federal Reserve chmn. in 1930-3) Eugene Isaac Meyer (1875-1959), and it stays in the family until ?. In June half-black German singer-dancer Hilarius "Lari" Gilges (b. 1909) is kidnapped, tortured, and murdered by the Gestapo and SS, becoming the first Nazi murder in Dusseldorf. On July 6 Germany boxing champ Max Schmeling marries blonde Czech actress Anny Ondra (Anna Sophia Ondrakova) (1903-87) (who appeared in Alfred Hitchcock's "The Manxman" and "Blackmail" in 1929), and they become Germany's #1 glam couple; Hitler's babe Eva Braun (1912-45) later admits to being jealous of her. On July 11 all Protestant churches in Germany are amalgamated in the German Evangelical Church. On July 14 the Nazi party is declared Germany's official party, and all other parties are banned; Jewish immigrants from Poland are stripped of German citizenship; forced sterlization is authorized for those found by a Hereditary Health Court to be defective. The more the Church changes the more it stays the same, 1933 edition? On July 20 after negotiations by cardinal (since 1921) Michael von Faulhaber (1869-1952) and cardinal (since 1929) Eugenio Pacelli (1876-1958) (future Pope Pius XII) (fueled by the dissolution of the Catholic Center Party, formed in the days of Bismarck to protect their rights), Eugenio Pacelli for the Vatican and vice-chancellor Franz von Papen for pres. Paul von Hindenburg of Germany sign the Reichskonkordat (Concordat Between the Vatican and Nazi Germany, later becoming one of the worst skeletons in the Vatican's closet; they did it to ensure that the Nazis won't do to them what they are doing to the Jews, or because they secretly want them to get rid of the Jews from Europe for them, and just have to keep from leaving anything incriminating?; "With the concordat we are hanged, without the concordat we are hanged, drawn and quartered" (Faulhaber); "I had to choose between an agreement and the virtual elimination of the Catholic Church in the Reich", "a pistol had been held to my head", and I was negotiating "with the Devil himself" (Pacelli); on Dec. 22 the Catholic bishops of Austria release the statement "The concordat recently concluded between the Holy See and Germany does not mean that the Catholic Church approves of the three fundamental errors of Nazism... race madness... violent anti-Semitism... extreme nationalism"; after Faulhaber utters the soundbyte "Let us not forget that we were saved not by German blood but by the blood of Christ", and speaks out against euthanasia, the Nazis turn on him, but when they invade the Soviet Union in 1941 he supports them since they're fighting godless Communists, and in June 20, 1945 he protests maltreatment of Nazi Party and Wehrmacht members by the Allies; on June 29, 1951 he ordains new priests Georg Ratzinger (1924-) and his brother Joseph Ratzinger (1927-), who later becomes Pope Benedict XVI. In July Damien de Martel arrives in Syria as the new French high commissioner (until 1946). On Aug. 7-11 the Simele Massacre of Assyrians in N Iraq by the Iraq govt. kills 600-3K. On Aug. 8 the first Soviet Writers' Congress is held in Moscow under Maxim Gorky (1868-1936). On Aug. 27 after an Internat. Jewish Boycott Conference in Amsterdam demands that Germany restore Jews to their positions and they refuse, N.Y. Jewish atty. Samuel Untermeyer (who is elected pres.) pub. a declaration in the New York Times backing a worldwide boycott to destroy their export business in order to make Germany starve, since two-thirds of its food supply is imported and exports pay for it, with the soundbytes "Germany has been converted from a nation of culture into a veritable hell of cruel and savage beasts"; "The Jews are the aristocrats of the world. From time immemorial they have been persecuted and have seen their persecutors come and go. They alone have survived. And so will history repeat itself, but that furnishes no reason why we would permit this reversion of a once great nation to the Dark Ages"; "What we are proposing and have already gone far toward doing, is to prosecute a purely defensive economic boycott that will undermine the Hitler regime and bring the German people to their senses by destroying their export trade on which their very existence depends". On Aug. 30 U. of Chicago historian William Edward Dodd (1869-1940) becomes U.S. ambassador to Germany (until Dec. 29, 1937), soon realizing what the Nazis are doing to the Jews and being completely appalled, failing at all attempts at negotiations and resigning in disgust at being unable to move either them or FDR; "The last pure Jeffersonian to be found in America" (Max Lerner); "a babe-in-the-woods in the dark forests of Berlin." (Charles Callan Tansill) In Aug. Gen. Bakr Sidqi (1890-1937), a Kurdish Arab nationalist orders the Iraqi army to crush Assyrian separatists in Sumail (near Mosul), Iraq, killing 3K civilians and replacing the Iraqi civilian govt. with a military one, becoming the first coup d'etat in the Arab world; now that that's taken care of, on Sept. 8 Faisal I (b. 1883) dies, and his 21-y.-o. pan-Arab nationalist son Ghazi (Arab. "warrior against infidels" I (1912-39) becomes king of Iraq (until Apr. 4, 1939), going on to sympathize with Nazi Germany and claim Kuwait for Iraq. On Sept. 29 a new German law prohibits Jews from owning land. If there's an international Jewish conspiracy, here's where they beat Hitler? In Sept. the Reich Culture Chamber (Reichskulturkammer) is established in Germany, headed by Joseph Goebbels, with the goal of making all German culture "racially pure", and eliminating all that nasty tarty "entartung" (degeneracy) caused by Jewish Bolshevists; after taking a year to decide to chuck all modernism incl. Expressionism, it has 100K pure members by 1935. On Oct. 5 Southern liberal historian William Edward Dodd (1869-1940), new U.S. ambassador to Germany (1933-7) gives a speech at the Am. Club in Berlin describing the New Deal's effect on the U.S. Constitutional system, with the soundbyte: "It was not revolution as men are prone to say. It was a popular expansion of governmental powers beyond all constitutional grants, and nearly all men everywhere hope the President may succeed; on Oct. 12 he gives a speech to the Am. Chamber of Commerce in Berlin, with Joseph Goebbels and Alfred Rosenberg in attendance, using an analogy based on Roman history to criticize the Nazis as "half-educated statesmen" who adopted the "arbitrary modes" of an ancient tyrant. On Oct. 10 Pres. Roosevelt invites Soviet Pres. Mikhail Kalinin to send an envoy to Washington, D.C. to work out the terms of official U.S. recognition of the Soviet Union, which three previous Repub. admins. and his own State Dept. opposed; on Nov. 7 Soviet foreign minister Maxim Litvinov arrives, and on Nov. 16 the recognition is made official, with a number of terms, incl. religious freedom for Americans resident in the Soviet Union, a Soviet promise to refrain from interfering with the internal affairs of the U.S. and to not allow any org. to reside on its territory with the purpose of overthrowing the political or social order of the U.S.; in return the U.S. cancels all Soviet debts except for $75M (which is never repaid). On Oct. 14 Germany quits the League of Nations. Mister Mayonnaise is a little slow sometimes? On Oct. 17 after renouncing his German citizenship, Albert Einstein arrives in the U.S., followed by 60K artists and ? scientists by 1939; on a visit to Palomar Observatory with his 2nd wife Elsa, they are told that the purpose of the equipment is to determine the scope and shape of the Universe, to which Elsa replies "My husband does that on the back of an old envelope". On Oct. 29 Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera (1903-36), son of late Spanish dictator (1923-30) Miguel Primo de Rivera founds a Fascist org. called the Falange Espanola (Spanish Phalanx); it starts out slow. On Nov. 12 Hitler receives 92% of the vote at the gen. election. On Nov. 16 the U.S. resumes diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union for the first time since the overthrow of Kerensky in 1917, with FDR sending a telegram to Maxim Litvinov expressing that relations will "forever remain normal and friendly" - I'll drink to that? On Nov. 20 at FDR's urging the U.S. recognizes the Soviet Union - FDR out-Nevilled Neville Chamberlain? On Nov. 24 Germany passes a law permitting habitual criminals, homeless, beggars, unemployed, and alcoholics to be sent to concentration camps. In Nov. after joining the Nazi Party on May 1, and enjoying the burning of Jewish "un-German" and "anti-German" books, famed jurist and political thinker Carl Schmitt (1888-1985) is appointed pres. of the Union of National Socialist Jurists by Hermann Goering; too bad, after going on to demand that all traces of Judaism be extirpated from German law, he is expelled from his offices in Dec. 1936 for being a fake Nazi (more of an anti-Hegelian Catholic), and wishy-washy on white racism, although he never repudiates his Nazism. On Dec. 23 the judgment is delivered at the Reichstag Fire Trial, and van der Lubbe is sentenced to death. The Nazis win the Danzig elections. Norwegian minister of defense (1931-2) Vidkun Quisling (1887-1945) organizes a Nazi Party in Norway. Germans in North Schleswig begin agitation in Denmark, but make few Nazi recruits. The Nazis begin banning books, listing 4.1K incl. works on "primitive Darwinism". After becoming appalled by the genocide of 1M+ Armenians by the Ottoman Turks during WWI, along with the rise of the Nazis, Polish Jewish scholar Raphael Lemkin (1900-59) begins a crusade to the League of Nations to give internat. legal protection against ethnically-motivated genocide; too bad, they laugh him off, with one delegate claiming the crimes occur "too seldom to legislate"; he goes on to coin the word "genocide" in 1943 and become instrumental in creating the Dec. 9, 1948 U.N. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (ratified by the U.S. in 1988). The new Nazi govt. of Germany demands control of the patents and assets of Junkers Aircraft, and when founder Hugo Junkers balks, they take what they want and place him under house arrest until his 1935 death. They're fleeing Germany to make Lebensraum for Nazi helmet-heads? Bruno Walter leaves Berlin for Vienna. Art in Nazi Germany is declared "gleichgeschaltet", and modernism is suppressed in favor of superficial realism, causing Vassily Kandinsky and Paul Klee to leave Germany for France and Switzerland; meanwhile German sculptor Arno Breker (1900-91) begins making manly nude statues for the Nazis, known for their "mighty momentum and willpower" (Alfred Rosenberg), going on to become the official state sculptor in 1937, complete with 1K assistants; Austrian Josef Thorak (1889-1952) becomes the other official Nazi sculptor, also preferring muscular neoclassical statues. Conductor Fritz Busch and his brother violinist Adolf Busch leave Germany. Converted Jewish chemist (1918 Nobel Chem. Prize winner) Fritz Haber resigns as dir. of the Inst. for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Kaiser Wilhelm Soc. and flees Germany after two other Jewish dept. heads are dismissed under Nazi pressure, while all German scientific research is saddled with new Nazi regs; between this year and 1940 almost one-third of the researchers and dirs. of the society are dismissed on racial or political grounds. Am. economist Alvin Saunders Johnson (1874-1971) founds a fund for non-Nazi intellectuals fleeing Nazi Germany to the U.S., who form the nucleus of the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science of his New School for Social Research in New York City, which becomes known as the "University in Exile". Hitler bans the Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany, causing so many protest telegraphs to be received that they are delivered by the vanload; by 1945 10K JWs are incarcerated, of which 2K die, 2K end up disabled, and 6K return to door-knocking; while in priz they convert many Soviet POWs, who return to the Soviet Union and begin spreading the faith, causing the govt. to force them underground by 1950. Adolf Hitler offers 500K marks to build the fastest racecar in the world, resulting in the Auto Union D-Type racecar, with a sleek streamlined design, AKA "the Hitler Porsche", which later becomes the Audi brand. The German Air Ministry (Reichsluftfahrtministerium) (RLM) is established to have control of all German aviation activities, implementing a standard system for aircraft designation et al.; meanwhile locomotive manufacturer Henschel and Son of Kassel, Germany sets up an aviation div. in Shchonefeld and Johannisthal, going on to produce the Henschel Hs 121 high-wing monopolane (first flight Jan. 4, 1934), Henschel Hs 122 radial-engine parasol wing recon aircraft (first flight 1935), Henschel Hs 123 single-seat biplane dive bomber (first flight May 8, 1935), Henschel Hs 126 two-seat recon aircraft, and the Henschel Hs 132 jet aircraft, with the pilot in a prone position (first flight 1945); it also manufactures the Panzer II, Tiger I, and Tiger II tanks.

Ernst Roehm (Röhm) of Germany (1887-1934) Kurt von Schuschnigg of Austria (1897-1977) Leopold III of Belgium (1901-83) Queen Astrid of Belgium (1905-35) Pierre Étienne Flandin of France (1889-1958) Lázaro Cárdenas del Rio of Mexico (1895-1970) Adm. Okada Keisuke of Japan (1868-1952) Koki Hirota of Japan (1878-1948) Jose Luis Tejada Sorzano of Bolivia (1882-1938) Jose David Toro Ruilova of Bolivia (1898-1977) Jose Maria Velasco Ibarra of Ecuador (1893-1979) Konstantin Päts of Estonia (1874-1956) Gen. Johan Laidoner of Estonia (1884-1953) Andrei Vyshinsky of the Soviet Union (1883-1954) German Gen. Walther von Reichenau (1884-1942) German SS Gen. Sepp Dietrich (1892-1966) Tawfiq Nessim Pasha of Egypt (1874-1938) Augusto Cesar Sandino of Nicaragua (1895-1934) Mary Hubner (1920-) Maurice Thorez (1900-64) Henry Morgenthau Jr. of the U.S. (1891-1967) Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. of the U.S. (1888-1969) Paul van Zeeland of Belgium (1893-1973) Dennis Chavez of the U.S. (1888-1962) Leopold Infeld (1898-1968) Dorothy Thompson (1893-1961) Harry Bridges (1901-90) William Lawrence Shirer (1904-93) Boris Skossyreff (1896-1944) Samuel Insull (1859-1938) Willy Messerschmitt (1898-1978) Messerschmitt BF 109, 1934 Peter DePaolo (1898-1980)

1934 Chinese Year: Dog. Time Mag. Man of the Year: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) (1932, 1941). This year the Great Depression causes thousands of Americans to answer newspaper ads offering paid passage to the Soviet Union along with guaranteed jobs and housing; too bad, they are later caught up in the repression of Stalin and end up in Gulags, many never surfacing again or surfacing many years later. On Jan. 3 anti-Communist "Young Liberal" Gheorghe (Jorge) Tartarescu (1886-1957) becomes PM of Romania (until Dec. 28, 1937). On Jan. 7 6K pastors defy the Nazi govt. in Berlin, declaring that they will not be muzzled. On Jan. 10 Marinus van der Lubbe is executed for starting the Reichstag Fire - I can't forget that scent, but I can't live without it? On Jan. 24 Konstantin Pats (Päts) (1874-1956) becomes PM of Estonia (until Sept. 3, 1937); on Feb. 27 he imposes a law prohibiting members of the miltary from taking part in politics; on Mar. 12 Estonia's experiment with democracy collapses with an attempted coup by the right-wing League of Liberators AKA the Vaps, which is stopped by a counter-coup led by Gen. Johan Laidoner (1884-1953), who gives Pats emergency powers with himself as military CIC (until 1935), going on to get Vaps jailed and curtail civil liberties while working to stabilize the govt., finally holding elections in 1938. On Feb. 5-6 the Stinking Stavisky case causes riots in Paris and other French cities, and on Feb. 8 a coalition cabinet under ex-pres. (1924-31) Gaston Doumergue is formed, excluding Royalists, Socialists and Communists; on Feb. 12 the Gen. Confed. of Labor (CGT) organizes a gen. strike and calls for unity on the left; on Feb. 28 the Chamber gives Doumergue the right to rule by decree on economic matters. On Feb. 12-15 the Heimwehr of Austrian chancellor-dictator (since May 20, 1932) Engelbert Dollfuss ruthlessly suppresses a Social Dem. uprising, and on Mar. 1 establishes the 1-party authoritarian system of Austrofascism; too bad, he is assassinated on July 25 by Austrian Nazis during the unsuccessful July Putsch (ends July 30); Hitler is behind it?; on July 29 36-y.-o. Christian Social Party leader and education minister (since 1933) Kurt Alois Josef Johann (von) Schuschnigg (1897-1977) becomes chancellor #15 (until Mar. 12, 1938) (youngest ever), with Prince Ernst von Starhembeg as vice-chancellor, resisting Nazi efforts to absorb Austria into the Third Reich. On Feb. 17 Belgian king (since 1909) Albert I (b. 1875) dies, and his son Leopold III (1901-83) succeeds him as king of Belgium (until 1950); his blonde Swedish wife Astrid Sofia Lovisa Thyra of Sweden (1905-35) becomes queen (until 1935). On Apr. 13 the U.S. Johnson Debt Default Act is passed, prohibiting financial transactions with foreign govts. who are in default of payment obligations to the U.S on any but cash terms. On Apr. 18 Japan asserts a virtual protectorate over China's relations with the Western powers. In Apr. Finland prohibits the wearing of uniforms and political emblems to combat the rising Fascist movement. On May 29 139 German church delegates from 18 denominations, incl. Friedrich Gustav Emil Martin Niemoller (Niemöller) (1892-1984) and Dietrich Bonhoeffer (1906-45) meet in Barmen, Germany and issue the (Theological) Barmen Declaration, repudiating the Nazi doctrine of blood and race and implying that elevating the German race above others is anti-Christian; "We repudiate the false teaching that the state can and should expand beyond its special responsibility [to provide for justice and peace in the yet unredeemed world] to become the single and total order of human life"; too bad that their Christianity is skin-deep and they prove poor sick sisters compared to the martyrs in the days of the pagan Roman Empire, becoming easily silenced and neutralized?; "In Germany they came first for the Communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew... Then they came for me, and by that time no one was left to speak up." (Niemoller) On June 14 Hitler and Mussolini meet for the first time. On June 21 Hitler flies to Neudeck to see the dying Paul von Hindenburg. Cheer up sleepy Roehm? On June 29-30 (night) after months of plotting to rid himself of a 4M-man threat to his supremacy, with avid Nazi Party member Gen. Walther Karl Ernst August von Reichenau (1884-1942) talking Hermann Goering and Heinrich Himmler into it as necessary to get the Wehrmacht to support the govt., the Night of the Long Knives (Operation Hummingbird) sees Hitler order Waffen-SS gen. Josef "Sepp" Dietrich (1892-1966) to take six men and go to the Ministry of Justice in Berlin and execute a number of SA leaders, incl. Gregor Strasser (b. 1892) (they imprison him then shoot him through a window in his prison cell); Hitler then personally arrests homosexual SA Chief Ernst Julius Gunther Roehm (Röhm) (b. 1887) (earnestly ream what?) in Bad Wiessee on Lake Tegernsee in Bavaria, where the SA leaders were gathered to pork, er, meet with him, and after refusing a chance at suicide, he is shot on July 2 in his cell in Stadelheim Prison in Munich by SS Lt. Col. Michael Hans Lippert (1897-1969); former chancellor Kurt von Schleicher is murdered by the SS in his Berlin flat on June 30; the "blood purge" allows Hitler to take care of all his dirty laundry and silence people who knew too much, but he keeps it secret until a speech on July 13, using their homosexuality as a convenient excuse; on July 20 the SS (Schutztaffel), which broke ranks and went with Hitler is made independent of the SA. In June King Alexander I of Yugoslavia signs a trade agreement with the Nazi govt. On July 7 govt. of Saito Makoto falls, and on July 9 adm. Keisuke Okada (1868-1952) becomes Japanese PM #31 (until Mar. 9, 1936), with Koki Hirota (1878-1948) continuing as foreign minister (until Mar. 9, 1936). On July 12 the Belgian govt. responds to its growing fascist movement and prohibits the formation of military units and the wearing of uniforms by political orgs., and dissolves the Labor Defense Militia and all other fascist orgs. On July 27 Socialists and Communists in France sign an agreement to end infighting and form a united front; in Oct. French Communist Party leader (1930-64) Maurice Thorez (1900-64) calls for a Popular Front against Fascism - incl. all leftists with the chemical formula S, C, or R? On Aug. 1 German pres. Paul von Hindenburg (b. 1847), who had threatened to declare martial law and have the Germany army shut down the SA if Hitler didn't do it dies, and Hitler becomes fuehrer and chancellor; on Aug. 2 the armed forces take a personal oath of loyalty to him; on Aug. 15 Hitler receives Hindenburg's political testament; on Aug. 19 a plebiscite approves by an overwhelming 90% "ja" the vesting of sole executive power in herry hair hair Hitler der Fuehrer, who now combines the offices of pres. and chancellor and announces the Third Reich, the alleged heir to the First Reich or Holy Roman Empire of 962 (800?)-1806 and the Second Reich of Germany 1871-1918, all run by Germans, which Hitler claims will last for 1K years; not so secretly he envisions the Mediterranean Sea as a German lake and the whole world as his oyster, with himself as caesar (kaiser)? - if only he can find the fourth tablet of King Tut? On Sept. 12 Estonia joins the Baltic Pact. On Oct. 9 king (since 1921) Alexander I of Yugoslavia (b. 1888) is assassinated in Marseille, France along with French foreign minister Louis Barthou by a Macedonian activist associated with an ultra-right Croatian nationalist terrorist group, and his cousin Prince Paul Karadordevic (1893-1976) becomes head of a 3-man regency council for the king's eldest son Prince Peter II Karadordevic (1923-70); Croat leader Vladimir Macek is released from prison - rob Peter to pay Paul? On Oct. 19 Alexander Zaimis is reelected pres. of Greece for a 5-year term (until 1935). In Oct. the 100K-man 1st Front Red Army of Mao Tse-tung begins the 6K-mi. Long March (ends Oct. 1935) from their HQ of Juichin in Kiangsi through Kweichow and Szechwan to Yenan (Wuch'ichen) in Shenai, reading their mud-soaked Sun-Tzu all the way while losing 70K men, and making their HQ there for the next 10 years; a 2005 bio. of Mao claims he was carried on the march. On Nov. 8 after French PM Gaston Doumergue proposes the British idea of a change of ministry necessitating a new election, his ministry falls, and is reorganized under Pierre Etienne (Étienne) Flandin (1889-1958), who becomes French PM (until 1935). On Dec. 1 Stalin's comrade Sergei Kirov, head of the Communist Party in Leningrad is assassinated by lone gunman Leonid Nikolaev, triggering the Great Purge (Big Terror) (ends 1939), a purge of the Soviet Communist Party, incl. the arrest and shooting of 98 of 139 members and candidates of the Party Central Committee by 1938; the Russian towns of Vyatka and Yelizavetgrad are renamed Kirov and Kirovograd in his honor; by the end of 1938 850K (36%) members of the Soviet Communist Party have been purged, and Soviet concentration camp pop. reaches 8-10M - put another sucker in the bag of the commie fantasy? On Dec. 5 Italian and Ethiopian troops clash at the Battle of Ual-Ual (Walwal) on the disputed Ethiopian-Somaliland frontier, giving the Italians a rationale for conquering Ethopia - we'll take it all, you all? On Dec. 27 after he tries to blow the whistle on his mistreatment of Ekimos, Dr. Nikolai Vulfson is murdered by Stepan Startsev, sled driver of Konstantin Semenchuk, head of the Glavsevmorput station on Wrangel Island, giving his big chance to up-and-coming prosecutor Andrei Januarevich Vyshinsky (1883-1953), who next year becomes Soviet prosecutor gen., holding a big show trial to convict him, then masterminding the Great Purge, with the Show Trial Must Go On motto "Confession of the accused is the queen of evidence." On Dec. 29 Japan renounces the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930. The Soviet Union is admitted to the League of Nations despite bitter Swiss govt. opposition; meanwhile a planned wage reduction in Switzerland causes a threatened strike, which is averted when the govt. creates an arbitration commission with jurisdiction over all wage disputes, although it causes grumbling. Polish leader Josef Pilsudski signs a non-aggression pact with Germany. Chiang Kai-shek is named pres. of the Chinese executive. After PM Georgiev prepares the ground by suspending the constitution the year before, Bulgarian Tsar Boris III assumes dictatorial powers. William Lawrence Shirer (1904-93) is hired by the Berlin bureau of the Universal News Service, moving in Sept. 1937 to CBS-Radio in Vienna, becoming the first "Murrow Boy", moving to Berlin in 1939 and leaving in Dec. 1940, then returning in 1945 to cover the Nuremberg trials. N.Y. conservation commissioner Henry Morgenthau Jr. (1891-1967), pub. of Am. Agriculturalist (since 1922) becomes U.S. treasury secy. (until 1945) - a Jew versed in family farming running America's finances, now we're safe? Am. journalist Dorothy Thompson (1893-1961) (of German descent) becomes the first U.S. journalist to be expelled from Nazi Germany, going on to take them on and end up as the #2 most influential woman in the U.S. after Eleanor Roosevelt in 1939; "As far as I can see, I was really put out of Germany for the crime of blasphemy. My offense was to think that Hitler was just an ordinary man." The German Labor Front is founded, becoming the only legal trade union in the Third Reich. The Swedish parliament passes a law requiring involuntary sterilization for the inferior ("mentally ill"); between 1935 and 1975 63K people are sterilized. Hitler purchases the Portrait of Frederick the Great by Anton Graff (shown wearing a perruque and a powder-blue uniform) for 34K marks, and has it taken along wherever he goes; in his bunker before committing suicide in 1945, he presents it to his pilot Johann "Hans" Baur (1897-1993). The Swiss set up their legendary bank secrecy laws with the Federal Act on Banks and Savings Banks just in time for fascists everywhere to hide their loot. The British Iron and Steel Federation is established. Wilhelm Emil "Willy" Messerschmitt (1898-1978) and Walter Rethel design the Messerschmitt BF 109 fighter aircraft, of which 35K are eventually built, giving the German Luftwaffe its prized toy. Lord (1st Viscount) Rothermere, whose newspapers back appeasement of the Nazis and even an alliance with Germany builds the Bristol Type 135 Cabin Monoplane with a top speed of 307 mph, higher than any British fighter, and he renames it "Britain First" and presents it to the govt., who begin production in 1936 under the name Blenheim Mark I. Yah here cum der Rooster? The Nazi govt. in Germany tells all liberal thinkers to take a hike, causing an exodus of lit. talent incl. Hermann Broch, Alfred Doblin, Bruno Frank, Alfred Neumann, Franz Werfel (1890-1945), Arnold Zweig (1887-1968), and the Manns (Heinrich, Thomas, Klaus) - comic books will do? Sports: 1925 Indy 500 winner Peter DePaolo (1898-1980) races on the Avus Course near Berlin in the rain, and his engine throws two connecting rods that narrowly miss Adolf Hitler, who is sitting in a box seat; after a crash in Spain puts him in a coma for 11 days, he retires.

Yankee Clipper, 1935 Sir Samuel Hoare of Britain (1880-1959) Sir Anthony Eden of Britain (1897-1977) Eduard Benes of Czechoslovakia (1884-1948) Milan Hodza of Czechoslovakia (1878-1944) William Lyon Mackenzie King of Canada (1874-1950) German Col. Gen. Werner von Fritsch (1880-1939) Carlos Saavedra Lamas of Argentina (1878-1959) Hans Kerrl of Germany (1941-) Col. Francois de La Rocque of France (1885-1946) Theodor Morell of Germany (1890-1948) Karl Brandt of Germany (1904-48) Hellmuth Walter of Germany (1900-80) B-17 Flying Fortress, 1935 Alexander P. de Seversky (1894-1974) P-35 Aircraft, 1935 Junkers Ju 87 Stuka, 1935 Hughes H-1 Racer A6M Zero Bristol Blenheim Bristol Bolingbroke Lawrence Dale Bell (1894-1956) Arthur Middleton Young (1905-95) The Berghof The Berghof Great Hall 'Triumph of the Will', 1935

1935 Chinese Year: Pig. Time Mag. Man of the Year: Haile Selassie (1892-1975). Speaking of pig, this year Stalin begins hundreds of arrests (until mid-1936), getting Article 58 passed to define new counter-rev. offenses and provide for execution of those fleeing abroad, plus imprisonment or exile of their familes, resulting in Stalin's Big Show Trials next year to get rid of his competition at the Soviet slop trough. On Jan. 7 France and Italy sign an agreement giving Italy a free hand in Abyssinia (Ethiopia), and providing for joint cooperation in the event of action by Germany. On Jan. 13 a plebiscite in the Saar Basin results in a 90% vote for union with Germany. Passionate about justice, get a law enforcement degree? On Feb. 23 Italy sends a large force to Eritrea, and France cedes 309 sq. mi. of 8.9K-sq.-mi. French Somaliland to Eritrea. On Feb. 26 Adolf Hitler orders Hermann Goering to reinstate the Luftwaffe, banned by the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; Britain, France, and the League of Nations do nothing about it. On Mar. 1 the Gen. HQ Air Force is established by the U.S. Army for centralized control of aviation combat units inside the continental U.S., separate from but coordinated with the U.S. Army Air On Mar. 16 Adolf Hitler formally denounces and scraps the Versailles Treaty, reintroduces military conscription, and announces the increase of its army to 36 divs., citing failure of other countries to disarm and growth of French and Soviet military forces, causing the Anglo-German Navy Agreement (Treaty) to be signed on June 18, limiting German naval construction to 35% that of the British Royal Navy, with restrictions on ship size and gun caliber, having the effect of driving a wedge into the Anglo-French entente; meanwhile Germany develops the secret Plan Z to get around the restrictions and achieve naval parity by the late 1940s. On Mar. 25 Belgian financier Paul Guillaume van Zeeland (1893-1973) becomes PM of Belgium (until Nov. 23, 1937), forming a nat. unity govt. (Catholics, Socialists, Liberals) with decree powers for one year to deal with Belgium's desperate financial situation; Belgium goes off the gold standard, and the Office de Redressement Economique is established to stimulate economic growth (until 1939). On Apr. 11-14 after Germany declares its intention of creating an air force and increasing its army to 36 divs. (400K men) (4X what the Versailles Treaty allows), the stressed-out Stresa Conference in Stresa Italy on Lake Maggiore between Britain, France, and Italy establishes a common front against Germany, reaffirming the Locarno Treaties, agreeing to resist any German attempt to change the Treaty of Versailles, and declaring that the independence of Austria "would continue to inspire their common policy"; too bad, the vague terms incl. no explicit reference to Germany since none of them really want to invade it to disarm them. On May 2 France and the Soviet Union sign a 5-year alliance eyeing probable German aggression; on May 16 the Soviet Union and Czech. sign a mutual assistance pact whereby the Soviets agree to come to their aid in case of attack provided that France does likewise; the Soviet Union concludes treaties with the U.S. and Turkey, to go with their earlier treaties with France and Czech. - Communism is safe now? On May 2 Winston Churchill gives a Speech to the House of Commons, in which he utters the soundbyte "Want of foresight, unwillingness to act when action would be simple and effective, lack of clear thinking, confusion of counsel until the emergency comes, until self-preservation strikes its jarring gong – these are the features which constitute the endless repetition of history." On May 19 gen. elections in Czech. give the ruling coalition 149 of 300 seats in the chamber; the Sudetendeutsche (Nazi) Party wins 44 seats; on Nov. 5 Slovak Agrarian Party leader Milan Hodza (1878-1944) becomes PM and forms a new cabinet; on Dec. 14 Tomas Masaryk resigns after reaching the age of 85, and his friend, foreign minister Eduard Benes (1884-1948) becomes pres. (until 1938). On May 21 the Nazis ban Jews from serving in the German military. On May 31 the cabinet of French PM Pierre Flandin is overthrown after it demands quasi-dictatorial powers to save the franc, and Pierre Laval becomes PM again (until 1936), obtaining the right on June 7 to rule by decree until Oct. 31, and beginning a severe deflation policy, cutting gov. spending. On June 7 a gen. election in Britain causes a reconstruction of the cabinet, which continues the nat. coalition govt., with Conservative lord pres. of the council (since Aug. 24, 1931) (PM in 1924-9) Stanley Baldwin (1867-1947) succeeding Ramsay MacDonald as PM (until May 28 1937), and Sir Samuel John Gurney Hoare (1880-1959) becoming foreign secy.; too bad, in early Dec. the Hoare-Laval Pact on Abyssinia (Ethiopia), by which it is to cede a large portion of its territory to Italy is pub. and rejected after a public outcry over appeasement of Mussolini, causing Hoare to resign on Dec. 18 and Laval's govt. to fall; on Dec. 22 Hoare is replaced by lord privy seal (since June 1934) Sir Anthony Eden, Earl of Avon (1897-1977) (until Feb. 22, 1938) (known for wearing a Homburg hat, which is named after him, causing Mussolini to call him "the best-dressed fool in Europe"), who tries in vain to get Mussolini to submit the dispute to the League of Nations; at his first audience with him, George V tells Eden: "No more coals to Newcastle, no more Hoares to Paris." On June 9 the He-Umezu Accord is concluded between Japan and China; the Chinese agree to withdraw troops from Hopei and recognize Japan's conquests in NE China. On June 18 Britain and Germany sign a naval agreement whereby Germany promises to keep its navy size to 35% of Britain's, having the effect of driving a wedge into the Anglo-French entente. On June 26 Nazi laws permit forced abortions on women to prevent the transmission of hereditary diseases. On July 16 Hanns Kerrl (1887-1941) becomes German reichminister of church affairs with the mission of subordinating the Christian denominations to Nazism and swear a loyalty oath to Adolf Hitler, with the soundbyte "Positive Christianity is National Socialism", calling Hitler "Germany's Jesus Christ"; after the churches snub him, and the Nazi high command decides that it doesn't want anything to do with Christianity, he dies in office on Dec. 12, 1941, and no successor is appointed. On June 17 German composer Richard Strauss writes a letter to Austrian Jewish writer Stefan Zweig (1881-1942), getting him in trouble. In July the Royal British Legion led by Maj. Francis Fetherston-Godley secretly visits Herr Hitler in Germany, shakes hands with Rudolf Hess, and meets Hermann Goering, who demonstrates his archery skills. On Aug. 28 Finland joins in a meeting of Scandinavian ministers for the 1st time, attempting to form a block of Scandinavian and Baltic states to counter Germany and Russia, and begins the fortification of the Aaland Islands, despite opposition by its inhabitants. On Aug. 31 FDR signs the U.S. Neutrality Act, imposing a gen. embargo on trading in arms and war materials with all parties in a war, and declaring that U.S. citizens travelling on warring ships do so at their own risk; it is set to expire after 6 mo. On Aug. 31 Soviet authorities report that miner Alexei (Alexey) Stakhanov (1906-77) set a record of 102 tons of coal in 5 hours 45 min. (14x his quota), followed on Sept. 19 by 227 tons in a single shift, becoming a big hero, and making the cover of Time mag. on Dec. 16, going on to become a mine dir. and deputy of the Supreme Soviet, the town of Kadiyivka in E Ukraine where he did his feats being renamed in his honor after his death; in Dec. his example inspires the Stakhanovist System (Movement), where teams of workers seek to increase production and efficiency, and are rewarded with bonuses and privileges - an extra crate of beets or ugly shoes? On Sept. 15 a Nazi Party convention is held in Nuremberg, in which Hitler asks the puppet Reichstag to pass the Nuremburg Laws, depriving Jews of all remaining citizenship, and forbidding marriage between Germans and Jews; in Aug. 2010 the original documents end up in the U.S. Nat. Archives. On Oct. 3 after Mussolini rejects Sir Anthony Eden's concessions, the Italian army invades Ethiopia, and takes Adua on Oct. 6, beginning the Second Italo-Abysssian (Italo-Ethiopian) War (ends May 1936); on Oct. 7 the League Council declares Italy the aggressor and begins requesting sanctions, which on Nov. 18 are approved by the League of Nations. On Oct. 23 William Lyon Mackenzie King (1874-1950) becomes PM of Canada again (until Nov. 15, 1948). On Oct. 28 Japanese foreign minister Koki Hirota enunciates his Three Points (Principles) regarding China: establishment of a Japan-China-Manchukuo bloc, suppression of anti-Japanese activities in China, and org. of a joint Chinese-Japanese front against Communism. On Nov. 24 after Japanese efforts to create an autonomous N China collapse, the East Hebei Autonomous Council is created, leading to student demonstrations in Peking on Dec. 9. In Nov. a gen. election in Britain gives the Labour Party 95 more seats, but the Unionists retain their majority with 385. The U.S. Senate by a 52-36 vote refuses to participate in the World Court. Following a plebiscite Germany takes over the admin. of the Saar Basin (Saarland) (near France and Luxembourg) from France (until 1947). The Seventh (last) Comintern Congress of the Soviet Union orders Communist parties throughout the world to join the anti-fascist parties. After Kurt von Schuschnigg (1897-1977) calls Austria the "better German state", he and Prince von Starhemberg stage an Anti-Heimwehr Coup in Vienna, rounding up Nazis and Social Dems. and putting them in camps (until July 1936). German gen. Werner Thomas Ludwig Freiherr von Fritsch (1880-1939) becomes CIC of the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht) (OKW) (until 1938), going on to work with war minister Werner von Blomberg to rearm Germany, while showing hesitancy about supporting Hitler's aggressive diplomacy for fear the army won't be ready in time; when Blomberg is promoted to field marshal in 1936, he is promoted to his vacated rank of col. gen., only to become the 2nd German gen. to be KIA in WWII. The Soviet Union concludes treaties with the U.S. and Turkey, to go with their earlier treaties with France and Czech. - Communism is safe now? U.S. Gen. Joseph Warren "Vinegar" Stilwell (1883-1946) is sent to China as military attache (until 1939), with John Paton Davies Jr. (1908-99) as vice-consul; both liberal China Hands, they become prejudiced against the Chinese Nationalists in favor of the Commies, whom they view as democratic agrarian reformers? The Fascist Croix de Feu org. is founded in France by Lt. Col. Francois de La Rocque (1885-1946) (until 1936); meanwhile the French Fascist Cagoulards (Fr. "hooded men) are formed, and suppressed in 1938. The Lebensborn (Ger. "free born") ("Source of Life") program is established by Nazi SS chief Heinrich Himmler, going on to breed 5.5K German children carefully selected for blond-blue Aryan physical qualities, giving them to families of SS members to be raised; after 1940 the program is expanded to occupied countries, breeding 8K in Norway plus thousands more in Denmark and the Netherlands; in 2005 the aging tykes form Lebensspuren (Ger. "traces of life") (German word for fossils) to try and get a clue; on Nov. 4, 2006 sixty of them hold their first meeting in the E German town of Wernigerode, location of the Harz home for Lebensborn; the Hollywood image of bordellos for SS officers stocked with blond-blue cuties proves to be a fantasy? By this year the Soviet Union has arrested 130K Orthodox priests since 1917, executing 95K of them by firing squad - you're under arrest for running an illegal prayer session? Benito Mussolini gets two nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize, one by a French law prof. and the other by a German college law faculty. After his photographer Heinrich Hoffman is cured of gonorrhea by him, Adolf Hitler invites German physician Theodor Morell (1890-1948) to examine him for "complete exhaustion of the intestinal system", which incl. chronic cramps and flatulence, and after the treatment makes him better he utters the soundbyte "He has saved my life", firing his personal physician (since summer 1934) (SS member) Karl Brandt (1904-48), who goes on to become co-dir. of the Aktion T-4 euthanasia program before being hung by the Allies in 1948 for that plus human experimentation; Morell begins supplying Hitler with "Hitler's speed" Pervitin (found in crystal meth), which Hitler orders to be supplied to front line soldiers. German engineer Hellmuth Walter (1900-80) founds Hellmuth Walter Kommanditgesellschaft, in Kiel to research using hydrogen peroxide as a fuel for rocket engines incl. rocket-assisted takeoff (RATO) and guided missiles, going on to develop main propulsion engines for rocket-powered interceptor aircraft incl. the Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet and Bachem Ba 349 Natter. Architecture: The Berghof (formerly Haus Wachenfeld, built in 1916) in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden is refurbished, becoming Adolf Hitler's vacation residence (until Apr. 1945); Gerdy Troost becomes Hitler's interior designer, furnishing it with carpets, wooden chairs, and velvet curtains; Life mag., the New York Times et al. pub. photospreads glorifying it right up to the start of WWII. Inventions: On Apr. 12 the Bristol Blenheim light bomber makes its first flight, becoming the first British aircraft with all-metal stressed-skin construction, retractable landing gear, flaps, variable-pitch propellers, and powered gun turret; after proving to be no match against the German Messerschmitt Bf 109 in daylight operations, it is used as a night fighter; on Sept. 14, 1939 the Canadian-built Bristol Fairchild Bolingbroke maritime anti-submarine and patrol aircraft makes its first flight. On July 10 Bell Aircraft Corp. (later Bell Aerospace) in Buffalo, N.Y. is founded by Mentone, Ind.-born Lawrence Dale "Larry" Bell (1894-1956), manufacturing the "Bomber Destroyer" YFM-1 Airacuda twin-engine fighter (first flight Sept. 1, 1937), the P-59 Airacomet (first flight Oct. 1,1942) (first U.S. jet fighter), and the P-63 Kingcroba (first flight Dec. 7, 1942), successor to the P-39; in 1941 they hire Paris, France-born helicopter designer Arthur Middleton Young (1905-95), who designs the Bell Model 30 (first flight June 26, 1943), and the Bell Model 47 (first flight Dec. 8, 1945), the first civilian helicopter; in 1960 it is acquired by Textron, with the Bell Helicopter Co. of Ft. Worth, Tex. manufacturing the Bell UH-1 "Huey" (originally HU-1) military helicopter (first flight Oct. 20, 1956), which is adopted by the U.S. Army during the Vietnam War (16K built); Young later goes philosopher, founding the Inst. for the Study of Consciousness in Berkeley, Calif. in 1972. On July 28 the 4-engine Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bomber (named for the belief that it won't need fighter escort) makes its first flight, becoming the first mass-produced large aircraft starting in Apr. 1938; 12,731 are built through 1945 at $238K each. On Aug. 15 the $22,5K Seversky P-35, designed by Russian-born Am. aircraft designer Alexander Nikolaievich Prokofiev P. de Seversky (1894-1974) makes its first flight, becoming the first all-metal monoplane fighter in the U.S. Air Corps, complete with enclosed cockpit and retractable landing gear; it wins the Bendix Air Race in 1937-9, becoming the ancestor of the P-47 Thunderbolt; only 196 are manufactured; too bad, after losing $550K, the Seversky Aircraft Co., founded in 1931 fires Seversky in Apr. 1939, and reorganizes as Republic Aviation Corp.. On Sept. 13 the Hughes H-1 Racer, Hughes Aircraft's first airplane makes its first flight, setting a world airspeed record and a transcontinental U.S. speed record, proposing it as a fighter plane to the U.S. Army, which turns it down; the Japanese Navy copies it and produces the Mitsubishi A6M Zero (Jap. "Reisen" = Zero = last digit of Japanese year 2600 = 1940) (first flight Apr. 1, 1939), producing 1,939 by 1945; when introduced on July 1, 1940 it is the best dogfighting plane in the world, with a 12-1 kill ratio, but by 1944 it becomes outdated, and ends up being used in kamikaze operations. On Sept. 17 the Junkers Ju 87 "Stuka" (Ger. "sturzkampfflugzeug" = dive bomber) makes its test flight, complete with inverted gull wings, fixed spated undercarriage, and Jericho Trumpet wailing sirens mounted on its faired maingear legs, with automatic pull-up dive brakes that ensure recovery from a dive even if the pilot blacks out; 6.5K are manufactured by Aug. 1944. Movies: On Mar. 28 Leni Riefenstahl's Triumph of the Will (Triumph des Willens) debuts, an account of the 1934 Nazi Party rally in Nuremberg, which projects a dreamy white vision and stirs millions of Germans to go out and kill and be killed for the Fatherland and der Fuehrer; after making it, Leni is given preferential treatment by Hitler, subject only to his orders, even though she never joins officially the Nazi Party - any special reason other than that he's God?

Edward VIII of England (1894-1972) Edward VIII (1894-1972) and Wallis Simpson (1897-1986) George VI of England (1895-1952) The Cat in the Hat Albert Pierre Sarraut of France (1872-1962) Leon Blum of France (1870-1952) Farouk I of Egypt (1920-65) Spanish Gen. Francisco Franco (1892-1975) Spanish Gen. Emilio Mola Vidal (1887-1937) Spanish Gen. Queipo de Llano y Sierra (1875-1951) Spanish Gen. Quiepo de Llano y Sierra (1875-1951) Loyalist Spanish Gen. Jose Miaja Menant (1878-1958) Loyalist Spanish Gen. Jose Miaja Menant (1878-1958) Count Galeazzo Ciano of Italy (1903-44) German Field Marshal Wolfram von Richthofen (1895-1945) Edda Mussolini (1910-95) Polish Gen. Edward Rydz-Smigly (1886-1941) Nikolai Yezhov of the Soviet Union (1895-1940) Gen. Ioannis Metaxas of Greece (1871-1941) Germán Busch Becerra of Bolivia (1904-39) Jose David Toro Ruilova of Bolivia (1898-1977) Rafael Franco of Paraguay (1896-1973) Alf Landon of the U.S. (1887-1987) Frank Knox of the U.S. (1874-1944) Joseph Edward Davies of the U.S. (1876-1958) Andrei Vyshinsky of the Soviet Union (1883-1954) Grivori Zinoviev of the Soviet Union (1883-1936) Lev Borisovich Kamenev of the Soviet Union (1883-1936) German Maj. Bernhard Kruger (1904-89) Francisco Largo Caballero of Spain (1869-1946) Vicente Lombardo Toledano (1894-1968) Gabriel Heatter (1890-1972) Westbrook Pegler (1894-1969) James Aloysius Farley of the U.S. (1888-1976) Wilhelm Gustloff of Sweden (1895-1936) Leon Degrelle of Belgium (1906-94) Kamil Krofta of Czechoslovakia (1876-1945) Jacques Doriot of France (1898-1945) Leon Cortes Castro of Costa Rica (1882-1946) Brig. Gen. Alexander Gore Akwright Hore-Ruthven, 1st Earl Gowrie of Australia (1872-1945) Jesse Owens of the U.S. (1913-80) Archie Williams of the U.S. (1915-93) Luz Long of Germany (1913-43) Marty Glickman of the U.S. (1917-2001) Ralph Metcalfe of the U.S. (1910-78) Cornelius Johnson of the U.S. (1913-46) Dave Albritton of the U.S. (1913-94) Eulace Peacock of the U.S. (1914-96) Konrad Frey of Germany (1909-74) Alfred Schwarzmann of Germany (1912-2000) Kristjan Palusalu of Estonia (1908-87) Inga Arvad (1913-73) Tim McCoy (1891-1978) Vickers Wellington

1936 Chinese Year: Rat. Time Man, er, Woman of the Year: Mrs. Wallis Warfield Simpson (1897-1986). On Jan. 1 internat. naval limitations set by treaties officially expire, ending warship construction holidays and the status quo in the Pacific, although the Japanese are rumored to have secretly been building up fortifications incl. sub bases in the Pacific; the U.S. plans a series of fortifications from the coast of Alaska to Midway Island, Guam, and Samoa. On Jan. 6 the Spanish Cortes is dissolved, and elections are scheduled for Feb.; meanwhile in Jan. Germany signs contracts to buy the output of Spanish mines for use in their military machine, and after the new Spanish govt. cancels them in Feb., pissed-off Hitler begins plotting with Gen. Jose Sanjurjo Sacanell (1872-1936) and Gen. Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teodulo (Teódulo) Franco y Bahamonde, Salgado y Pardo de Andrade (1892-1975) to overthrow them, meeting with them in Berlin in Mar., after which in Dec. Germany receives its first iron ore shipments from Spanish Morocco, followed by 1M tons of iron, tin, antimony, copper, and ignite by the end of 1939, giving them the resources to take over Europe; in July the Germans send the Condor Legion (ends Mar. 1939), commanded by field marshal Wolfram von Richthofen (1895-1945), cousin of WWII ace Manfred von Richthofen AKA the Red Baron, who was KIA on Apr. 21, 1918 on his first mission with him) develops new methods of terror bombing and designs the Jericho Trumpet for the JU 87 Stuka dive-bomber; meanwhile Britain refuses to help France fight Spain because of their longtime rivalry. On Jan. 15 the Japanese delegation walks out of the naval disarmament conference after rejecting tonnage restrictions on warships. King for a year, or, I Have Eight English Eddies and She Has a Brazilian Bikini Wax, or, The Original Homer Simpson? On Jan. 20 king (since May 6, 1910) George V (b. 1865) dies, and his depressed, sexually degenerate (submissive?) eldest son Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christianu George Andrew Patrick David) (1894-1972) (by Mary of Teck) becomes king of Great Britain (58th monarch) (until Dec. 11) (325 days); 568,387 people pass George's coffin in Westminster Hall, and 3M people throng the streets to view the procession to Westminster Abbey for the burial; on his deathbed, George V utters the prophecy "After I'm gone, the old boy will ruin himself in 12 months"; upon seeing his daddy's coffin lowered, Edward comments "Christ, what will happen next?"; a power struggle ensues over Edward's friendship with British Nazi Party leader Oswald Mosley, led by PM Stanley Baldwin, who uses the king's licentious cruise on the steam yacht Nahlin in the Mediterranean with his babe, causing worldwide publicity after British diplomat Philip Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian (1882-1940) gives the scoop to Eugene Meyer, owner of the Washington Post, which is blanked out in England, and Baldwin tricks the king into asking his advice on his relationship with Simpson, which he is legally bound to follow, then tells him to give her up or abdicate, because as head of the Church of England, which doesn't let divorced people marry, yada yada yada, which he can never do since she's his dominatrix and makes him beg for a light for his cigs?; Duchess Elizabeth of York detests the "royal harlot", but Churchill stands up for Edward in Parliament, and is hooted down, and the adoring public protests with signs reading "Hands Off Our King" and "Abdication Means Revolution"; however, (does she tie his Windsor knot just right?) after trying all year to get by, slide by, and get over it, all in vain, on Dec. 3 Edward VIII, with the soundbyte "At long last I am able to say a few words of my own" announces that he's in love with a divorced Am. woman (whose 2nd divorce has not become final?), and abdicates on Dec. 11 (first voluntary abdication in British history) after 325 days in power, saying in a Dec. 11 radio broadcast (written by Churchill): "I have found it impossible to carry on the heavy burden of responsibility and to discharge the duties of king as I would wish to do without the help and support of the woman I love"; his reluctant brother Albert, Duke of York (who bears a striking resemblance to Dr. Seuss' Cat in the Hat?) becomes king George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George) (1895-1952) of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (59th monarch) on Dec. 11 (until Feb. 6, 1952), placing his daughter Elizabeth Alexandra Mary (b. 1926) next in line for the throne, becoming the 3rd time that there have been three different English kings in the same year (1066, 1483); he suffers from a bad stutter, which he tries mightily to overcome with Australian speech therapist Lionel Logue (1880-1953) (Lat. "speech") (who calls him "Bertie"); within 24 hours of his accession the Irish parliament passes the External Relations Act, dissolving his power in Ireland; the royal family refuses to recognize Wallis' title of Her Royal Highness but makes him the Duke of Windsor, and he leaves for Monts, France where on June 3, 1937 they marry, with the new king banning the royal family from attending, and then live in exile for much of the rest of their lives, forever trying to talk George VI into letting them back in, while the real problem of his Nazi connections makes it impossible?; meanwhile misgivings about the capacity for kingship of the duke of York cause some to prefer his brother Duke George of Kent, who is married to beautiful Princess Marina and has a son to succeed him, until rumors of his kinky interests in black women, hard drugs and young men, plus a gay affair with playwright Noel Coward surface, with Charles Russell later telling Coward, "You were almost a king's mistress, weren't you?"; at the wedding Wallis Simpson wears a wedding dress by Chicago-born. couturier Mainbocher (1891-1976). On Jan. 20-24 the League of Nations Council holds its 19th session in Geneva; too bad, they can't agree to impose petroleum sanctions on Italy, allowing them a free hand in Ethiopia. On Jan. 22 French PM Pierre Laval's govt. falls over the Hoare-Laval Pact, and on Jan. 24 former 1-mo. Radical PM (Oct. 26-Nov. 26, 1933) Albert Pierre Sarraut (1872-1962) becomes PM of a stopgap govt. (until June 4). On Jan. 26 elections in Greece are another pyrrhic V for the pesky Venizelists, who fail to gain a majority; on Apr. 13 Gen. Ioannis (John) Metaxas (1874-1941) becomes PM (until Jan. 29, 1941), and after being blocked from forming a coalition govt. by the Venizelists who insist that repub. officers purged in 1935 be reinstated, he accepts parliament's offer to shut down for 5 mo.; on May 9 tobacco workers in Salonica strike, killing 12; on Aug. 4 after the Communists stage a 24-hour gen. strike to protest compulsory labor arbitration, Metaxas stages a military coup and becomes dictator (until 1941), proclaiming martial law, dissolving parliament, and ruling with an iron hand, calling himself the "First Peasant", "First Worker", and "National Father", claiming the Greek title of Arhigos (chieftain), proclaiming a "Third Hellenic Civilization", and going on to institute a bread-and-circuses approach, launching public works programs, raising wages, lowering bread prices and canceling agricultural debts to keep the pop. happy; he draws Greece closer to Germany but keeps good relations with Britain, France and Turkey because of fear of Mussolini. On Feb. 4 Swiss Nat. Socialist leader Wilhelm Gustloff (b. 1895) is assassinated by a Jew in Davos, causing the Swiss govt. to ban the Nat. Socialist Party, pissing-off the German govt., which protests and raises tensions; on May 5, 1937 the MS Wilhelm Gustloff passenger ship is launched, going on to become involved in the worst loss of life in a maritime sinking in history on Jan. 30, 1945 (9.4K people). On Feb. 6-16 the IV (4) (1936) Winter Olympic Games are held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, with 646 athletes (566 men, 80 women) from 28 nations competing in 17 events in 4 sports; Alpine skiing makes its debut; Sonja Henie (1912-69) of Norway wins her 3rd straight gold in figure skating, then stinks herself up by having her photo taken shaking Hitler's blondes-only-need-apply rock steady-not hand?; Norway wins the games with 7 golds, 5 silvers and 3 bronzes. On Feb. 10 the German Gestapo is officially placed above the law and merged with the SS; in Mar. the SS Deathshead Div. is established to guard rehabilitation, er, concentration camps. On Feb. 24 a plebiscite in Switzerland extends the period of military training. On Feb. 26-29 the Feb. 26th Incident sees Japanese PM Saito, finance minister Takahashi et al. assassinated in an uprising of young army officers of the Imperial Way Faction in Tokyo; on July 7 a military tribunal sentences 17 of the officers to death. On Feb. 29 the U.S. Congress votes to extend the 1935 Neutrality Act to May 1, 1937, and forbids extension of loans or credits to belligerents. On Feb. 29 historian Kamil Krofta (1876-1945) becomes foreign minister of Czech. (until 1938) as the govt. rearms and constructs strong fortifications along the German frontier. In Feb. the League of Nations fails to agree on applying oil sanctions to Italy, keeping them going in Ethiopia. On Mar. 7 Adolf Hitler (1889-1945), taking advantage of the Ethiopian crisis, and denouncing the Locarno Pact and the Versailles Treaty while pointing to the French-Soviet alliance and the threat of encirclement remilitarizes the Rhineland with German troops, diverting British and French attention from Italy, but appeasement-happy Britain still won't consider military action against Herr Hitler; on Mar. 12 Britain, France, Belgium and Italy denounce the German actions, and accept Hitler's vague proposals for a new agreement. On Mar. 9 Hirota Koki becomes PM of Japan (until Feb. 2, 1937), forming a cabinet dominated by the military, and greatly increasing the budget and pumping up heavy industry. On Mar. 9-10 PM Milan Hodza of Czech. visits Vienna, and on Apr. 2 concludes an Austro-Czech Trade Agreement with Austria, stirring hopes of bringing it into the Little Entente. On Mar. 12 Britain, France, Belgium, and Italy officially protest Germany's violation of the Locarno Treaties, but after Germany threatens war with France, Britain backs down and refuses to participate in economic sanctions; meanwhile Hitler proposes to guarantee the frontiers in W Europe, then reneges after they try to make him guarantee the frontiers in E Europe. On Mar. 14-24 the League of Nations Council holds the 1st meeting of the 91st session in London. On Mar. 19 Albania and Italy sign a series of financial and trade agreements, increasing Italian control. On Mar. 23 the Three-Power (Rome) Pact is signed in Rome by Italy, Austria, and Hungary to counter German power. On Mar. 25 after Italian and Japanese delegates walk out, the London Naval Agreement is signed in London between Britain, France, and the U.S., agreeing to limitations in ship tonnage and gun size, but not numbers of ships - don't you speak Spanish? On Mar. 29 the Great Depression all-but conquered in Germany, Der Fuehrer Adolf Hitler receives 99% of the vote from the grateful German Volk in a referendum. On Apr. 1 the Austrian govt. reintroduces military conscription in violation of the Treaty of St. Germain. On Apr. 1 the British govt. sends letters of reassurance to the Belgian and French govts. promising support in the event of a war with Germany. On Apr. 8 in response to Japanese expansionism, the Russo-Mongolian Mutual Assistance Treaty is signed. On Apr. 11 the Turkish govt. appeals to the signatories of the Lausanne Treaty to revise it to allow them to fortify the Straits, causing the Montreaux Internat. Conference to be called for July. On Apr. 30 the British govt. announces plans for the construction of 38 warships, becoming the largest building program since 1921. On May 3 parliamentary elections in France give the Radical Socialist Popular Front (Front Populaire) a majority in the chamber, and with the help of huge (300K worker) sit-down strikes on June 5 the first Popular Front ministry is formed, headed by Socialist Party leader Leon Blum (1870-1952) as PM (until 1937), supported by the Communists, causing the far right to create the slogan "Better Hitler than Blum"; on June 7-8 the Matignon Agreements lead to radical socioeconomic reforms, incl. a 40-hour work week and reorg. (followed by nationalization) of the Bank of France on June 12, nationalization of the munitions industry on July 17, along with paid vacations and compulsory arbitration for labor disputes; too bad, all the free lunches soon cause prices to rise and the franc to rapidly decline, while capital flees the country to avoid being stolen by the govt.; meanwhile green-eyed Belgium hustles to copy them. On May 5 after using poison gas, the Italians occupy Addis Ababa, and resistance collapses; Halie Selassie flees to England via Palestine (until 1941); on May 9 the Italian campaign in Ethiopia ends, and Ethiopia loses its independence for the 1st time in history, being annexed to Eritrea and Italian Somaliland to form Italian East Africa (until 1941); Italian King Victor Emmanuel assumes the title of emperor of Ethiopia; meanwhile Ethiopian insurgents begin a guerrilla war against the Italians - time for the League of Nations to step in, yuk yuk? On May 8 suspected Nazi sympathizer Leon Cortes Castro (1882-1946) becomes pres. of banana-coffee country Costa Rica (until 1940), going on to build ports in Quepos and Golfito while preventing Jewish immigration and maintaining ties with rich German expatriates. On May 11-13 the impotent League of Nations Council holds a meeting in London; on May 14 Guatemala informs them that it is quitting the League; on May 27-30 the League holds a conference in Madrid over the Pacific. On May 14 Austrian chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg forces his rival Prince Ernest Stahremberg (Heimwehr CIC) to resign as vice-chancellor and leader of the Fatherland Front, giving him total control, allowing him to visit Rome on June 1. On May 24 parliamentary elections in Belgium give PM Paul Van Zeeland's Govt. of Nat. Unity a V, but also gives the anti-Communist Francophile Rexist Party (AKA Christus Rex) (which broke off from the Roman Catholic Party), led by Walloon Belgian Leon Degrelle (1906-94) 21 of 212 deputy seats plus 12 senators, and Degrelle meets with Hitler and Mussolini, receiving 100K marks and 2M lire; on June 24 Belgium passes a social program copied from the Popular Front next door in France; too bad, as the Rexist Party goes more and more fascist, its support dwindles, so that by 1939 they are down to four deputy and four senate seats. In May the German-Yugoslav Barter Agreement is signed to help Yugoslavia after losing trade with Italy over its sanctions during the Ethopian Crisis; it is unpopular with the Yugoslav pop. On June 5 the Swiss govt. begins an extensive armament and military modernization program. On June 17 Heinrich Himmler (1900-45), head of the Gestapo since 1934 becomes head of the German "order police" (Ordnungspolizei), the chief of all German police, local and state, with oversight of the concentration camp system, allowing him to rise to #2 in power behind Hitler. On June 19 the govt. of Ireland declares the Irish Repub. Army illegal. On June 22 Honduras drops out of the League of Nations, followed on June 26 by Nicaragua. On June 25-July 4 the League of Nations Council holds its 2nd meeting of the 92nd session in Geneva; on June 30-July 4 the League of Nations holds the 2nd meeting of its 16th session in Geneva, followed on July 2-4 by a conference in Geneva to help Jews, er, refugees from Germany receive legal status during their transit. On June 30 the French govt. of Leon Blum suppresses Fascist parmilitary groups, which reform as political parties, with the Croix de Feu becoming the Parti Social Francais (PSF), and Communist-turned-Fascist Jacques Doriot (1898-1945) founding the Parti Populaire Francais, going on to collaborate with the Vichy regime. On July 4 the League of Nations ends its sanctions against Italy, abandoning League member Ethiopia and causing the League to become pretty much kaput as a political org.; this gives the Japanese ideas in Manchuria? On July 11 the Austro-German Agreement is signed, acknowledging Austrian independence and promising no more German interference in return for Austria promising to implement a "more German" foreign policy; Hitler is now free to work to firm up his fascist partnership with Mussolini and unleash the dogs of war in Spain? Spain turns into a chessboard with Hitler and Stalin making the moves, and Mussolini and Franco acting as pieces, while anti-fascists from all over the world try to get in the game? On July 17/18 (Fri./Sat.) the Spanish Civil War (ends 1939), a rightist revolt against the leftist Popular Front govt. begins with the revolt of the Morocco garrison under gens. Emilio Mola and Francisco Franco, spreading to army towns in Spain, incl. Cadiz, Seville, Saragossa, and Burgos, and gaining the support of the bulk of the Spanish army; Madrid is initially held by the loyalists under Gen. Jose Miaja Menant (1878-1958) (until 1937), and Barcelona under ?; on July 23 the Junta de Defensa Nacional sets up in Burgos as the seat of Franco's nationalist govt. until the capture of Madrid in 1939; Franco's hometown of El Ferrol in Galicia, NW Spain is captured by his forces soon after the war begins for a moral V; on July 20 Gen. Jose Sanjurjo (b. 1872), the leader of the rightist revolt is killed in a plane crash in Estoril, Portugal when he overloads the plane with baggage, uttering the immortal soundbyte "I need to wear proper clothes as the new caudillo of Spain"; lucky Francisco Franco becomes the new leader of the rightists, quelling rumors that he you know what to get his promotion; the war splits Europe into fascist and anti-fascist camps, with Hitler and Mussolini aiding Franco, and Stalin aiding the loyalists, who hastily organize a militia composed of workers from labor groups; the war causes Chilean poet Pablo Neruda (1904-73) to turn to Communism, while the loyalists put out a call to the Communist Internat. for volunteers, recruiting from many countries, incl. the U.S.; Mussolini sends 50K-75K volunteers to Spain along with armaments, forcing him to devalue the lira on Oct. 5 and raise taxes. On July 19 Gen. Chiang Kai-Shek's Nationalist forces establish control over Guangdong (Kwangtun), giving them control of S China. On July 20 the Montreux Internat. Conference in France, held by the signatories of the Lausanne Treaty agree to return the Bosporus Straits to Turkish control, giving them sovereigny over the Dardanelles, with responsibility for communications between the Black Sea and Mediterannean Sea. On July 28 the repub. loyalist govt. of Spain confiscates all Roman Catholic Church property, pissing-off Pope Pius XI and causing him to recognize Franco's Fascist govt. on Aug. 27, 1937.

Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) Fritz Schilgen of Germany (1906-2005) Ernest Lee Jahncke of the U.S. (1877-1960) Avery Brundage of the U.S. (1887-1975) Count Henri de Baillet-Latour (1876-1942) Gebruder Dassler Schuhfabrik Jesse Owens of the U.S. (1913-80) Archie Williams of the U.S. (1915-93) Luz Long of Germany (1913-43) Marty Glickman of the U.S. (1917-2001) Ralph Metcalfe of the U.S. (1910-78) Cornelius Johnson of the U.S. (1913-46) Dave Albritton of the U.S. (1913-94) Eulace Peacock of the U.S. (1914-96) Konrad Frey of Germany (1909-74) Alfred Schwarzmann of Germany (1912-2000) Kristjan Palusalu of Estonia (1908-87) Inga Arvad (1913-73) Tim McCoy (1891-1978)

The greatest chance to stop WWII with the fellowship of sports is in the hands of a black, two Jews, and a mental cripple at the Big 1936 Aryan Olympics? On Aug. 1-16, 1936 Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) hosts the XI (11th) (1936) Summer Olympic Games in Berlin, after the first-ever torch relay from Olympia, Greece, devised by Nazi filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl, who films the dramatic lighting of the flame in Olympic Stadium, the final torchbearer being graceful certified blonde-blue Aryan runner Fritz Schilgen (1906-2005), who does not compete (2nd time the Olympic flame is used); 3,963 athletes (incl. 331 women) from 49 nations participate in 129 events in 19 sports; the first televised Olympics, beamed to TV sets in Berlin and Potsdam, and later used by aliens from outer space as a signal that earthlings are ready for Carl Sagan's Contact?; basketball and handball debut as outdoor sports (handball doesn't appear again until 1972); French and Canadian athletes give an Olympic salute at the opening ceremony which looks dangerously close to the Nazi salute?; the U.S. almost boycotts the Olympics until a backroom power play, with U.S. asst. Navy Secy. (since Apr. 1, 1929) Ernest Lee Jahncke (1877-1960) being expelled from the IOC, and pro-Nazi USOC pres. #5 (since 1928) Avery Brundage (1887-1975) put in his place, maneuvering the USOC into a close vote to send a team, which most Jewish athletes boycott, while blacks welcome the propaganda chance (showing the cracks in the U.S. Jewish-black alliance, or is it something about every Jew and Aryan being shorter down there and the black bucks hoping to get lucky with the German girls, er, forget it?) (Brundage utters the soundbyte this year: "I am fed up to the ears with women as track and field competitors... her charms sink to something less than zero. As swimmers and divers, girls are as beautiful and adroit as they are ineffective and unpleasing on the track") (after the Olympics, his construction co. gets a contract to build the German Embassy in the U.S., and after he dies he is revealed to have been the a-hole who got American Injun Jim Thorpe's medals taken away for playing semi-pro ball); Hitler orders the Berlin police to arrest all gypsies before the games and keep them in a special camp, but exempts foreign visitors from Nazi anti-gay laws?; signs warning shoppers about Jewish-owned shops are taken down, but Hitler initially has signs mounted over toilets reading "Dogs and Jews not allowed", then backs down and removes them after Belgian IOC pres. (since 1925) Count Henri de Baillet-Latour (1876-1942) (who went on record as saying that women shouldn't take part in the Olympics) faces him down; only pure Aryan athletes are permitted by Hitler to compete for Germany; most athletes (incl. from the U.S., incl. Jesse Owens) wear track shoes made by ardent Nazi brothers Adolf "Adi" Dassler (1900-78) and Rudolf Dassler (1898-1974) of Herzogenaurach, Bavaria (12 mi. from Nuremberg); too bad, after the war, Adi rats Rudolf out as a member of the SS, causing them to split, after which in 1948 Rudolf founds Puma nearby across the Aurach River, and Adi renames his co. Adidas (run like a Nazi?); (the solution to world peace was on their feet all the time?); the well-heeled lily-white Aryan German athletes, while winning the most medals as a group and proving Aryan superiority to the Aryans are upstaged in the non-German world by black U.S. athlete (former Ohio State U. star) (son of a sharecropper and grandson of slaves) Jesse Owens (1913-80), "the Ebony Express", who becomes the 1st U.S. and 2nd athlete ever to win three individual Olympic golds, in the 100m (10.3 sec.) (Aug. 3), long jump (26 ft. 5-5/16 in.) (Aug. 4), and 200m (20.7 sec.) (Aug. 5); after Avery Brundage kisses Nazi butt by pulling Jews Martin Irving "Marty" Glickman (1917-2001) and Sam Stoller (1915-85) (the only two Jews on the U.S. Olympic team) out of the 4x100m relay, they put in Owens and yet-another-black-athlete Ralph Harold Metcalfe Sr. (1910-78) (world's fastest human from 1932-4, who placed 2nd to Owens in the 200m), and on Aug. 9 the U.S. team wins by 15 yards, setting a record of 39.8 sec., which lasts 20 years (until 1956); Hitler allegedly snubs "black nigger ape" Owens, but actually doesn't, as he decided to skip all medal presentations after the first day, when he did snub two U.S. blacks, high jumpers Cornelius Cooper "Corny" Johnson (1913-46), (who won the first U.S. gold) and David Donald "Dave" Albritton (1913-94); not that Owens is in love with the white racist U.S. so much either, saying "Hitler didn't snub me, it was FDR who snubbed me. The President didn't even send me a telegram"; black athlete Archibald Franklin "Archie" Archie Williams (1915-93) wins another gold for the U.S. in the 400m; blonde model Aryan German long jumper Carl Ludwig "Luz" "Lutz" Long (1913-43) does an un-PC thing by giving Owens advice that keeps him from elimination in the preliminary, then when Owens wins the gold, running out to congratulate him, clutching his right hand with his left and hoisting their arms into the air while facing toward Hitler, becoming Owen's defining moment of the Olympics, saying "It took a lot of courage to befriend me in front of Hitler... You can melt down all the medals and cups I have and they wouldn't be a plating on the 24 carat friendship that I felt for Luz Long at that moment"; Owens was not given segregated facilities in Germany like back in the good ole USA, and was idolized by German fans?; (if Luz Long coulda taken over Germany and Jesse Owens the U.S. right then, send me the screenplay?); too bad, fellow black athlete ("world's fastest human") Eulace Peacock (1914-96), who beat Owens 5x in a row in the 100m the year before is injured and doesn't compete (just what the Yanks need, to field a strutting black peacock in front of Herr Hitler?); on Aug. 8 the Washington U. crew team, representing the U.S. comes behind to pass Germany and edge Italy by 0.6 sec. to win the rowing gold in front of Hitler; the first basketball gold goes to the U.S., who beats Canada 19-8 in a mud court in the rain, where dribbling is impossible, and spectators have to stand; honorary-Aryan India wins the gold in field hockey, continuing their streak (1928-56); Konrad Frey (1909-74) and Karl Alfred Markus Schwarzmann (1912-2000) of Germany each win three golds in gymnastics, and Frey wins six medals and Schwarzmann wins five medals total, beating Owens' four (which are all gold); Estonia competes for the 1st time (next 1992), and godlike Aryan-looking Kristjan Palusalu (Trossmann) (1908-87) (who is later treated like merde during WWII by the Soviets, who force him to fight Finland, after which he defects to their side) wins two golds in men's heavyweight wrestling; Germany wins individual and team gold in all three equestrian events; Italy wins the gold in soccer, which is touted as a big V by Benito Mussolini; Japan wins a gold and bronze in the marathon using Korean runners under Japanese names; Danish journalist Inga Arvad (Petersen) (1913-73) accompanies Hitler at the Olympics and interviews him 2x, then has a bedroom affair with JFK in 1941-2, which the FBI tapes, holding it against him for life; in 1945 she marries Am. cowboy star Tim McCoy (1891-1978).

On Aug. 2, 1936 France calls on the world to not intervene in the Spanish Civil War. On Aug. 3 the U.S. State Dept. urges Americans to leave Spain because of the civil war. On Aug. 11 Gen. Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist forces enter Guangzhou (Canton), uniting almost all of China under their rule. On Aug. 14-15 Gen. Franco wins the Battle of Badajoz, his first major V, and begins a major offensive through the Tagus River Valley towards Talaverna and Toledo, where a Nationalist garrison is being sieged by loyalists. On Aug. 19 the Trial of the Sixteen (Trial of the Trotskyite-Zinovievite Terrorist Center), conducted by chief prosecutor Andrei Januarevich Vyshinsky (1883-1954) sees Stalin break a taboo and stage his first Moscow show trial of sacred cow Old Bolsheviks, incl. former triumvirate (troika) members Grigory Yeseevich Zinoviev (1883-1936) and Lev Borisovich Kamenev (1883-1936), in which the "dogs of the Fascist bourgeoisie," "mad dogs of Trotskyism," "dregs of society," "decayed people," "terrorist thugs and degenerates", and "accursed vermin" confess to everything but the kitchen sink (esp. support for Leon Trotsky) before being convicted and executed in Moscow on Aug. 25; Vyshinsky becomes an internat. star, and is appointed vice-PM in 1939-44, deputy minister for foreign affairs in 1940-9, and minister for foreign affairs in 1949-53. On Aug. 24 Germany passes a conscription law requiring two years of compulsory military service. On Aug. 29 rightists and fascists force the resignation of Romanian PM Nicholas Titulescu, ending his attempts to form friendly relations with France, Russia and the Little Etente against Germany; the king still attempts to stay friendly with France and Czech., purchasing Czech. armaments with French loans. On Sept. 6 Gen. Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist forces establish control over the S province of Guangxi (Kwangsi); meanwhile he refuses to accede to demands from local provincial leaders to start a war against the Japanese. On Sept. 9 the 27-nation (incl. Germany and Italy) Non-Intervention Committee meets in London (until 1939) to discuss the prevention of foreign intervention in the Spanish Civil War, and draw up a plan; too bad, they can't stop it, as Germany and Italy end up sending 75K troops to help Franco. On Sept. 10 German propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels accuses Czech. of harboring Soviet army planes on its soil as part of his program to eat, er, denounce t he appetizing little hors d'oeuvre, er, country. On Sept. 14 Herr Hitler gives a speech in Nuremberg denouncing Bolshevism and declaring his goal of seizing Russian territory for Lebensraum; meanwhile the Internat. Brigades are formed by the Communists to fight against Franco in the Spanish Civil War; 59K volunteers from 55 countries serve, incl. British writer George Orwell (now a Marxist, later their worst nightmare?); philosopher Jose Ortega y Gasset (1883-1955), whose writings contributed to the fall of the Spanish monarchy in 1931, and who was a member (1931-3) of the Cortes that promulgated the repub. constitution flees Spain until 1949. On Sept. 17-23 the League of Nations holds a conference in Geneva on the use of radio broadcasting to promote peace, agreeting to a convention prohibiting the use of broadcasting for propaganda and false news that threaten internat. peace and security; on Sept. 18-26 the League of Nations holds its 93rd session in Geneva; on Sept. 21-Oct. 10 the League of Nations assembly holds its 17th session in Geneva. On Sept. 26 the Swiss govt. devalues the Swiss franc to keep up with France, and on Sept. 27 takes it off the gold standard, causing an economic revival; on Sept. 27 the Dutch govt. takes the guilder off the gold standard. In Sept. Stalin appoints Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov (Ezhov) (1895-1940) as head of the NKVD, who ramps up the Great Purge, which begins to be called the Yezhovshchina (Yezhov Era). On Oct. 1 Gen. Francisco Franco is proclaimed chief (caudillo) of the Spanish state and leader of the Nationalist movement, causing Germany and Italy to withdraw recognition of the loyalist Spanish govt. and recognize him on Nov. 18. On Oct. 1 the Japanese issue Seven Secret Demands to the Chinese Nationalist govt., threatening immediate invasion of N and C China if they don't employ Japanese advisers in every level of Chinese govt., integrate Japanese troops into Chinese forces, give autonomy to five N Chinese provinces, and reduce Chinese tariffs to the 1928 level; after the Chinese tell them to stuff it, the Japanese send troops to Shanghai. On Oct. 1 the Soviet govt. signs the 1936 London Naval Convention. On Oct. 2 after the costs of Socialist govt. have to be paid, the French franc is devalued without fixing its gold content, and Britain and the U.S. pony up to prevent chaos in the foreign exchanges. On Oct. 5 Italy devalues the lire and introduces various levies on capital; meanwhile Italian intervention in Spain alienates Britain and France and throws him in Hitler's arms, even though Mussolini and Hitler think each other are clowns? On Oct. 6 fascist Hungarian PM (since 1932) Gyula Gombos (b. 1886) dies of kidney failure in Munich after boasting to Hermann Goering that Hungary will be completely remodeled along fascist lines within two years with himself as dictator - take me home to my family? On Oct. 6 the Turkish pop. of Alexandretta, Egypt riots against the Franco-Syrian Treaty of Friendship, causing the Turkish govt. to intercede and begin talks with the French (ends July 1938). On Oct. 6-24 the Internat. Labor Org. (BIT) holds its 21st session in Geneva under Paal Berg of Norway, addressing naval issues. On Oct. 10 Austrian chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg disbands the pesky Heimwehr and transfers its members to the Fatherland Front militia, and expels Heimwehr members from his cabinet; on 18 Schuschnigg is proclaimed Front Fuehrer, consolidating dictatorial control - Heil Shushy? On Oct. 22 the Belgian govt. proclaims martial law and arrests Leon Degrelle to crackdown on the pesky Rexists. On Oct. 25 after a 2-day visit go Germany by Italian foreign minister Count Nobile Ciano, the Rome-Berlin Axis alliance is formed by Mussolini and Hitler, which Mussolino proclaims in Rome on Nov. 1 after signing an alliance with Germany on Oct. 26, giving Germany a free hand in Austria while Germany gives them a free hand in Ethiopia; Mussolini is the coiner of the term "axis"; now the Fascist powers are cooking with gas in their demands for changes in the status quo? On Oct. 27 leaders of the Scandinavian countries agree to take steps to increase their security, becoming known as Scandinavia's Day. In Oct. Hitler announces a Four-Year Economic Plan, making Hermann Goering an economic dictator. In Oct. the Internat. Labor Org. (BIT) holds its 22nd session in Geneva under chmn. Paal Berg of Norway, discussing the minimum wage of children employed as sailors and other naval issues. On Nov. 3 the Swiss govt. outlaws the Communist Party. On Nov. 6 the Siege of Madrid (ends Mar. 28, 1939) begins as Franco's nationalist forces encircle it, causing the Spanish loyalist govt. to move to Valencia while the loyalists dig in. On Nov. 9-12 the Vienna Conference of reps. of the Rome protocol states (Austria, Hungary, Italy) helps Italy consolidate its position in the Danube River Basin. On Nov. 10 the govt. of Argentina outlaws the Communist Party. On Nov. 10 gen. Edward Rydz-Smigly (1886-1941) becomes marshal of Poland and #2 in power after the pres., changing his name to Smigly-Rydz - insert Polish joke here? On Nov. 13 the Franco-Lebanese Treaty recognizes the special status of Lebanon vis a vis Syria. On Nov. 14 Germany denounces internat. control of its waterways and seizes control; only France, Czech. and Yugoslavia protest. On Nov. 16 Joseph Edward Davies (1876-1958) becomes U.S. ambassador #2 to the Soviet Union (until June 11, 1938), going on to attend some of the Stalinist purge trials and believe in the guilt of the accused as well as the basic goodness of Comrade Stalin, sending Washington the immortal soundbyte: "Communism holds no serious threat to the United States. Friendly relations in the future may be of great general value." On Nov. 18 Germany and Italy recognize Franco's Spanish govt. On Nov. 25 Germany and Japan sign an Anti-Comintern Pact against Communism and the Third Internat; Italy signs later, driving the Soviets into the arms of the Western dem. states. On Nov. 30 Syria elects a new nationalist govt. by a huge majority, and on Dec. 26 ratifies the Franco-Syrian Treaty of Friendship and Alliance. On Dec. 5 the Soviet Union promulgates a new 1936 Soviet Constitution to replace the 1924 one, written by Nikolai Bukharin, reorganizing the Soviet Federation of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhtan, Kirghistan, Tadzhikistan, Turmenistan, and Uzbekistan, claiming it as "the most democratic in the world", providing free secret elections and universal suffrage, and guaranteeing complete freedom of press, assembly and religion, and personal privacy (as long as the basic structure of Soviet society isn't changed and the Commie Party retains political power) - enjoy your new office Sgt. Munch, don't let the power go to your head? On Dec. 10-16 the League of Nations Council holds its 95th session in Geneva. On Dec. 12-25 Gen. Chang Hsueh-liang kidnaps Gen. Chiang Kai-shek in an effort to force him to declare war against the Japanese, but is forced to release him after countrywide demonstrations. On Dec. 18 the Public Order Act of 1936 is passed in Britain (effective Jan. 1), aimed at the British Union of Fascists, outlawing paramilitary activities and training along with the wearing of political uniforms in public. On Dec. 20/21 German Jew Helmut (Helle) Hirsch (1916-37) is arrested by the Gestapo for planning to blow up the Nazi Party HQ in Nuremberg, then executed next June 4 despite efforts of U.S. ambassador William Edward Dodd. On Dec. 23 the keel is laid for the Graf Zeppelin, the first German aircraft carrier; it is never put into service. On Dec. 28 Mussolini sends Italian planes to Spain in support of Gen. Francisco Franco. In Dec. Belgium extends infantry troop service from 7-18 mo. in order to increase army size. Germany passes a Loyalty to the Fatherland Law saying that "Every German man and woman must render service to the Fatherland in time of war, and that Germans who live abroad, incl. those of dual nationality, are bound to serve when called up." High-living Gian Galeazzo Ciano, Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (1903-44), son of Fascist Party founding member Adm. Count Costanzo Ciano, and husband (since 1930) of Mussolini's eldest daughter Edda Mussolini (1910-95) is appointed by Mussolini to succeed him as foreign minister of Italy. British fascist Oswald Mosley leads an anti-Jewish march to Whitechapel, London, but is driven out. Chiang Kai-shek enters Canton, and declares war on Japan. Germany begins building the Siegfried Line (Westwall) W of the Rhine River opposite the French Maginot Line. Nazi SS Maj. Bernhard Kruger (1904-89) sets up Operation Bernhard in Sachsenhausen and Oranienburg concentration camps to counterfeit British and U.S. currency to ruin their economies, using Jewish POWs, becoming the biggest counterfeiting operation to date in history, going on to print 134.6M in British pound notes; in 1943 they are sent to Merano, Italy for laundering, and are used to pay for the rescue of Mussolini. The Hindenburg lands at Lakehurst, N.J. after its first transatlantic flight - I'll be baack? The German diesel-electric ship Wuppertal is launched. Dorothy Parker (1893-1967) et al. found the Hollywood Anti-Nazi League, which gains 4K mostly wealthy members, who don't realize their money is being funneled to the Communist Party via Soviet agents Otto Katz and Willi Muenzenberg (Münzenberg) (1889-1940)?; it is disbanded after the Aug. 1939 signing of the Molotov-Rippentrop Pact. The Von Trapp Singers are a big hit at the Salzburg Music Festival. Inventions: On June 15 the British twin-engine Vickers Wellington long range medium bomber featuring geodesic construction makes its first flight, entering service in Oct. 1938, finding use as a night bomber until replaced by the 4-engine Avro Lancaster; 11,461 are produced by 1945.

Adolf Hitler of Germany (1889-1945) Neville Chamberlain of Britain (1869-1940) The Hindenburg Disaster, May 6, 1937 Ernst August Lehmann (1886-1937) Nazi Degenerate Art Exhibition, 1937 Camille Chautemps of France (1885-1963) Yvon Delbos of France (1885-1956) Paul-Emile Janson of Belgium (1872-1944) Prince Fumimaro Konoye of Japan (1891-1945) Gen. Ugaki Kazushige of Japan (1868-1956) Hayashi Senjuro of Japan (1876-1943) Muhammad Mahmud of Egypt (1877-1941) Juan Negrin Lopez of Spain (1887-1956) Hugo LaFayette Black of the U.S. (1886-1971) Samuel Taliaferro 'Mr. Sam' Rayburn of the U.S. (1882-1961) William Henry Hastie Jr. of the U.S. (1904-76) Octavian Goga of Romania (1881-1938) British Prince George (1902-42) and Duchess Marina (1906-68) of Kent British Prince George, Duke of Kent (1902-42) Leslie Hore Belisha of Britain (1893-1957) Ahmed Messali Hadj (1898-1974) Prince Rashed Al Khuzai of Jordan (1850-1957) Sir Alan Patrick Herbert (1890-1971) Amelia Earhart (1897-1937) Frederick Joseph Noonan (1893-1937) Edward Roscoe Murrow (1908-65) Trofim Lysenko (1898-1976) Karl Radek (1885-1939) Soviet Marshal Mikhail Nikolaevich Tukhachevsky (1893-1937) Soviet Marshal Alexander Iliich Egorov (1883-1939) Soviet Marshal Semen Mikhailovich Budenny (1883-1973) Kyösti Kallio of Finland (1873-1940) Albert Speer of Germany (1905-81) German Gen. Friedrich Hossbach (1894-1980) Carl Jacob Burckhardt (1891-1974) William Randolph Hearst (1863-1951) Andrei Tupolev of the Soviet Union (1888-1972) Vladimir Petlyakov of the Soviet Union (1891-1942) Louis-Ferdinand Céline (1894-1961) Petlyakov Pe-2, 1939 Willy Messerschmitt (1898-1978) Messerschmitt Me 209, 1938

1937 Chinese Year: Ox. Time Man and Woman of the Year: Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975) and Mme. Chiang Kai-shek (Soong Mei-ling) (1898-2003). By this year the Soviet Union is the largest country in Europe, followed by France; by 1939 Germany passes France up and becomes #2; in Jan. a census of the Soviet Union reveals 30M people "missing"; Stalin responds by declaring the census an act of sabotage, and soon the census takers are missing? After the economic growth rate reaches 14% a year, and unemployment falls from a high of 25% in 1933 to 14%, FDR takes the advice of his advisers to move away from Keynesian policies, cutting the budget, reducing deficit spending, and tightening the money supply to stave off inflation, causing the double-dip Roosevelt Recession of 1937-8, erasing all previous gains of the FDR admin. in a few mo. as GDP drops 13%, industrial production drops 33%, wages drop 35%, and 4M lose their jobs; after getting Congress to pass a stimulus bill, the recession reverses within another 3 mo. On Jan. 2 Britain and Italy sign an agreement for mutual respect of interests and rights in the Mediterranean and the maintenance of the independence and integrity of Spain; the actual situation isn't affected. On Jan. 3 U.S. Rep. (D-Tex.) (1913-61) Samuel Taliaferro "Mr. Sam" Rayburn (1882-1961) becomes U.S. House majority leader (until Sept. 16, 1940), going on to become U.S. House Speaker for 17 years starting on Sept. 16, 1940 until Jan. 3, 1947, then 1949-53 and 1955-61, becoming known for his "Board of Education" meetings after hours, featuring poker, bourbon whiskey and political wheeling-dealing, where he is fond of saying "I am not for sale", and never takes a bribe, dying with modest means; he coins the term "Sun Belt" when lobbying for Route 66 to connect the "Frost Belt" with it. On Jan. 13 the 105' x 121' x 42' high U.S. Gold Bullion Depository in Ft. Knox, Ky. receives its first shipment of gold, $200M from Philly; by June most U.S. gold is stored there; the visible part is called the attic, and below is a 2-story basement vault with its own roof and guarded by a 20-ton vault door; inside are rows of 27.5 lb. gold bricks; visitors are not allowed without a pres. order, and later only FDR and Truman visit it - Goldfinger, he's the man, the man with the golden touch? On Jan. 19 Japan withdraws from the Washington Conference Treaty which tried in vain to limit the size of its navy. On Jan. 20 (1st time ever in Jan.) U.S. pres. #32 Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) is inaugurated for a 2nd term in the 44th U.S. pres. inauguration; John N. Garner begins a 2nd term as 32nd U.S. vice-pres.; FDR's Second Inaugural Address states his modern liberal view of govt., that "the essential democracy of our nation and the safety of our people depend not upon the absence of power, but upon lodging it with those whom the people can change or continue at stated intervals through an honest and free system of elections"; he then decries the existence of poverty in a rich land with the soundbyte "I see one-third of a nation ill-housed, ill-clad, ill-nourished... The test of our progress is not whether we add more to the abundance of those who have much; it is whether we provide enough for those who have too little"; the first pres. inaugural concert is held at Constitutional Hall - Robin Hood in a January suit from Sears? On Jan. 23 Japanese PM Hirota Koki's cabinet falls, and army leaders prevent gen. Ugaki Kazushige (1868-1956) from forming a new one; on Feb. 2 Hayashi Senjuro (1876-1943) forms a cabinet, but on Apr. 30 the gen. election goes against him, and on May 31 he resigns; on June 4 Prince Fumimaro Konoye (Konoe) (1891-1945) becomes PM of Japan (until Jan. 5, 1939), instituting an aggressive nonpartisan war policy, with Hirota Koki as foreign minister. On Jan. 24 Bulgaria and Yugoslavia sign a Treaty of Friendship and Perpetual Peace, bringing an end to their long-standing antagonism. On Jan. 25 the soap opera Guiding Light debuts on NBC Radio (until June 29, 1956), created by Irna Phillips (1901-73); it moves to CBS Radio in 1947, and debuts on CBS-TV on June 30, 1952, becoming the longest-running TV and radio drama, finally ending on Sept. 18, 2009. In Jan. a major revolt in Honduras, led by gen. Justo Umana begins, and is crushed by Feb., with all rebels imprisoned or driven into exile. On Feb. 3-8 the Spanish Nationalist rebels win the Battle of Malaga and occupy it. On Feb. 5 Pres. Roosevelt, furious with the anti-New Deal stance of the Hughes Supreme Court proposes increasing the number of justices on the court, but critics accuse him of attempting to pack it, and Congress defeats his plan, causing vice-pres. Henry Wallace to say that the plan killed the New Deal, but justices Hughes and Roberts suddenly flip-flop, letting Rosey Belt have it his way; meanwhile former NRA head Hugh Samuel Johnson denounces his former boss FDR as a dictator for the scheme, and backs Wendell Willkie in the 1940 pres. election, while fending off accusations of Fascist sympathies and of giving a Fascist salute during an NRA parade (he was framed?). On Feb. 7 a new French defense plan creates a ministry of defense, extends the Maginot Line, and nationalizes the Schneider-Creusot Armaments Factory factory; on Feb. 13 French PM Leon Blum announces a "breathing spell" in the Socialist reform program in order to float huge defense loans to capitalists, causing the extreme left to split and spark worker unrest, leading to the Clichy Massacre on Mar. 16. On Feb. 18 Agriarian Party leader (former PM) Kyosti (Kyösti) Kallio (1873-1940) is elected pres. #4 of Finland with the support of the Social Dems., and sworn-in on Mar. 1 (until Dec. 19, 1940). On Mar. 14 Pope Pius XI issues the encyclical Mit Brennender Sorge (with burning sorrow), condemning Nazi doctrines in veiled language - the curse of the wererabbit? On Mar. 19 Pope Pius XI issues the encyclical Divini Redemptoris, with the soundbyte "Since Communism is intrinsically evil, whoever wants to save Christianity and civilization from destruction must refrain from aiding it in the prosecution of any project whatever", becoming an official papal declaration of war against godless Communism. On Mar. 25 Italy and Yugoslavia sign a 5-year Non-Aggression and Neutrality (Belgrade) Pact, recognizing Italian possession of Ethiopia in return for trade concessions, ending their long-standing feud, and positioning Yugoslavia between the French and Italians. i>FDR's court-stacking program reaches critical mass? On Apr. 13 British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal is launched. On Apr. 26 28 Nazi bombers blitz the sacred Spanish Basque city of Guernica and obliterate it along with its entire pop., killing 250-1.6K; Picasso immortalizes it in a mural for the Spanish exhibit at the 1939 Paris World Exhibition. 5-6-37-boom? On May 6 (Thur.) the 830-ft. hydrogen-filled German Zeppelin LZ 129 Hindenburg (call sign DEKKA), commanded by Ernst August Lehmann (b. 1886) explodes and burns as it approaches its mooring tower at the Lakehurst, N.J. Naval Air Station, killing 13 passengers and 22 crew out of 36 passengers and 61 crew aboard, plus a Navy crewman on the ground, Lehmann uttering the deathbed soundbyte "It must have been an infernal machine"; Herbert O. "Herb" Morrison (1905-89) of Chicago's WLS radio gives the first recorded eyewitness news broadcast as he describes the disaster ("It's burning, bursting into flames") and breaks down in tears; the ship made 10 passenger-carrying round trips in 1936, and this is the first and last crossing of 1937; the U.S. monopily refused to sell helium to the Germans, forcing them to use hydrogen, and therefore it's a conspiracy, as dirigible development virtually ends in favor of more expensive, fuel-wasting and lucrative powered aircraft, produced in the U.S.? - fuel prices finally get so high that dirigibles make a comeback in ? On May 12 the Coronation of George VI and Queen Elizabeth is broadcast worldwide, becoming the first worldwide radio broadcast heard in the U.S., and a big V for Technicolor; BBC-TV covers the procession following the coronation, becoming the first use of TV outside a broadcast van; on June 21 it broadcasts the Wimbledon Tennis Championships for the first time; on Sept. 16 it makes the world's first live TV broadcast of a soccer match, between Arsenal and Arsenal Reserves. On May 13 five U.S. war cemeteries are dedicated in France, incl. Aisne-Marne (at Belleau), Flanders Fields (Waregem), Meuse-Argonne (Romagne), Oise-Aisne (Fere-en-Tardenois), Somme (Bony), and St. Mihiel (Thiaucourt); in Aug. another is dedicated at Brookwood in Britain. On May 14-June 15 the Imperial Conference is held in London. On May 25-Nov. 25 the 1937 Paris Exhibition (Exposition Internationale des Artes et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne) features the pavilions of the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany facing each other. On May 28 68-y.-o. Conservative chancellor of the exchequer (1923-4) and health minister (1931) Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940) becomes British PM (until 1940) after 70-y.-o. Stanley Baldwin (b. 1867) retires, beginning his policy of trying to save lives, er, peaceful coexistence, er, appeasement; Baldwin is made 1st Earl of Bewdley, and later confesses his failure to inform the British people of the preparations the Germans were making for WWII; Winston Churchill later utters the soundbyte "An appeaser is one who feeds a crocodile hoping it will eat him last" - just what the position needs, the freshness of youth? On May 28 Conservative transport minister (since June 29, 1934) Leslie Hore-Belisha (1893-1957) replaces Alfred Duff Cooper as secy. of state for war, pissing-off Liberals, and anti-Semites, who claim he's a closet Bolshevik (Horeb-Belisha), esp. when he tries to introduce conscription next year, causing a song to be sung by troops, with the words "Die for Jewish freedom/ As a Briton always dies", after which he is summarily dismissed on Jan. 5, 1940. On June 11 the arrest and execution (on Dec. 6) of deputy defense minister, Field Marshal (since 1935) Mikhail Nikolaevich Tukhachevsky (b. 1893) is the start of the Stalinist Purge of the Red Army, which axes half of the 80K men in the officer corps, incl. chief of the Red Army staff, Field Marshal Alexander Iliich Egorov (1883-1939) and 14 of 16 army commanders; ex-Trotsky supporter Karl Radek (1885-1939) (ed. of "Izvestia") and other political leaders are also put on show trials in the Trial of the Seventeen in Jan. before being axed; Radek lucks out (not) and is given 10 years in priz, serving four before being murdered by the NKVD; one Field Marshal who survives is Semen Mikhailovich Budenny (1883-1973), chief of the cavalry and military cmdr. of Moscow. On June 19 after the Socialist govt. of Leon Blum in France is drawn to the brink of a civil war over its attempted New Deal reforms and his demands for emergency fiscal powers, his cabinet resigns, followed by Blum, and on June 22 former PM (1930, 1933-4 - a total of 3 mo.), Radical Socialist Camille Chautemps (1885-1963) becomes PM #115 of France (until Mar. 13, 1938), w ith Blum as vice-PM, then the Senate changes its mind, giving the new cabinet the desired powers. On July 1 after making public statements that Nazism is un-Christian doodoo, leading German Protestant pastor Martin Niemoller (Niemöller) (1892-1984) of Berlin-Dahlem is arrested on trumped-up charges of "malicious and provocative criticism" of the regime, sent to Moabit Prison in Berlin, tried next Mar., and found guilty but released by the judges, causing enraged Hitler to order him thrown into Sachsenhausen concentration camp (until 1945) as "my personal prisoner"; 700 of 18K German Evangelical Church pastors are arrested in the coming months to scare them, with most released; Bishop Marahrens is made to issue the statement, "The National Socialist conception of life is the national and political teaching that determines and characterizes German manhood. As such, it is obligatory upon German Christians also." On July 7 the Nagoya Pan-Pacific Peace Exposition is interrupted by the China Incident, a skirmish between Japanese and Chinese troops at the Battle of Lugou (Marco Polo) Bridge in a Peking suburb, which sparks a Japanese invasion of China, taking Peking on July 29, and attempting to conquer China within 3 mo., going on to seize Tientsin, Shanghai, Nanking and Hangchow; too bad, the Chinese resist, and the invasion ends up dragging out eight years, with the loss of millions of Chinese lives; 300K-400K Chinese are raped, tortured and killed in the 6-week Rape of Nanking (Nanjing) this year and next; on Dec. 14 the Japanese change the name of the city back from Peiping to Peking, and make it the capital of Japanese-controlled North China; on Dec. 7, 2005 Japanese foreign minister Taro Aso (tear a new asshole? the royal asshole?) finally urges his nation to show "deep remorse" for its actions? (ah, little goo-goo has finally worn himself out, and needs to change his diapies?); Chiang Kai-shek drops hostilities with the Chinese Communists and unites with them against the foreign invaders; the Chinese govt. flees to Chungking; in-again out-again gen. Feng Yu-Hsiang is appointed CIC of the 3rd War Area against the Japanese - what country is known for its hog bristle brushes? On July 7 after arriving in Palestine last Nov. 11, the British Peel (Palestinian Royal) Commission pub. a report recommending the ending of the Palestine mandate and the division of Palestine into Arab and Jewish states, with Britain maintaining their mandate only over Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and a corridor to the sea; the Arabs reject it, and the British Parliament refuses to implement it, and continue rioting until 1939; at this time it is the Jews not Arabs who are called Palestinians; David Ben-Gurion later writes "Had partition been carried out, the history of our people would have been different and six million Jews in Europe would not have been killed - most of them would be in Israel." On Aug. 1 Buchenwald Concentration Camp in Weimar, Germany opens; 240K prisoners come through between 1937-45, and 56K die; 13K are transferred to Auschwitz and other extermination camps. In Aug. British prince George, Duke of Kent (1902-42), husband since Nov. 29, 1934 of his 2nd cousin Princess Marina of Greece-Denmark (daughter of Prince Nicholas), known for his numerous affairs with both sexes and drug addictions visits Poland with a plan to become king of Poland a la the Greek plan; although he is well received, Hitler has other plans and it falls through after the Nazi invasion. On Sept. 14 Czech.'s first pres. Tomas Masaryk (b. 1850) dies; on Oct. 16 a meeting of the Sudetendeutsch Party is broken up by police, causing Konrad Henlein to call for complete autonomy for Germans. On Oct. 5 Pres. Roosevelt calls for aggressor nations to be "quarantined". On Oct. 13 Germany sends a Note to Brussels guaranteeing Belgium's inviolability and integrity as long as it abstains from military action against it - but do you understand the Second Touch? On Oct. 16 the S.25 Short Sunderland Flying Boat, developed for the British RAF by the Short Brothers makes its first flight, going on to be used effectively against German U-boats. On Oct. 24 Paul Van Zeeland resigns after charges of corruption regarding the Belgian Nat. Bank, and a new coalition govt. in Belgium is formed by Liberal Paul-Emile Janson (1872-1944), son of liberal statesman Paul Janson (1840-1913) (until 1938). On Oct. 27 Saudi king Ibn Saud issues a Statement on Palestine Partition, with the soundbytes: "Our hatred for the Jews dates from Allah's condemnation of them for their persecution and rejection of Isa (Jesus Christ), and their subsequent rejection later of His chosen Prophet. It is beyond our understanding how your Government, representing the first Christian power in the world today, can wish to assist and reward these very same Jews who maltreated your Isa (Jesus)"; It were far preferable form every point of view if Great Britain were to make Palestine a British Possession and rule it for the next 100 years, rather than to partition it in the way they propose: such partition cannot possibly solve the difficulty but must only perpetuate it and lead to war and misery"; "Today I am the Imam or Spiritual Leader as well as the Temporal Ruler of the greater part of Arabia. I also have not a little influence in all the great Muslim countries of the world"; "Verily the word of Allah teaches us, and we implicitly believe this, that for a Muslim to kill a Jew, or for him to be killed by a Jew ensures him an immediate entry into Heaven and into the august presence of Allah. What more then can a Muslim want in this hard world, and that is what my people are repeatedly reminding me of?"; "The main thing at all costs is to prevent the Jews from having an independent state of their own sliced out of Arab territory with no one to guide their future acts and policy. For from such will come a perpetual struggle with the Arabs living round them." On Nov. 5 the Hossbach Memorandum revealing Hitler's big plans to acquire Lebensraum (living space) for the German Volk by playing Caesar is produced at a secret conference in the Reich Chancellery attended by Hitler, war minister Werner von Blomberg, Army CIC Werner von Fritsch, Navy CIC Erich Rader, Luftwaffe CIC Hermann Goering, and foreign minister Constantin von Neurath; Hitler's adjutant (since 1934) col. (later gen.) Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig Hossbach (1894-1980) takes the minutes, after which Hitler claims that if something happens to him it is to be treated as his last will and testament; the cavalier way he toys with world war shocks Blomberg, Fritsch, and Neurath, who begins suffering heart problems and asks to be relieved from his post, while Hitler gets rid of the other two within 3 mo., and takes control of the army, with nobody able to stop him, even though he continues to proclaim a desire for peace in public; after the war the memorandum is a big piece of evidence against Goering. On Nov. 6 Italy and Japan sign an anti-Comintern pact. On Nov. 14 Czech elections are postponed and political meetings forbidden; on Nov. 29 Sudetendeutsch reps leave parliament. On Nov. 17 British Cabinet member (Conservative leader of the House of Lords since 1935) Lord Halifax visits Hitler at his Wachenfeld Palace near Berchtesgaden (on Mt. Watzmann in Upper Bavaria 10 mi. S of Salzburg), and returns deeply impressed by the twerp, er, Herr Hitler and his Third Reich? On Nov. 25 Germany and Japan sign a pact. On Dec. 7 Switzerland recognizes Romansch as a fourth nat. (non-official) language to stop Italian plots in some of the cantons. On Dec. 11 Italy withdraws from the League of Nations. On Dec. 12 Japanese planes sink 450-ton U.S. gunboat USS Panay, commanded by Lt. Cmdr. James J. Hughes on the Yangtze River in China, killing one sailor; Japan later apologizes and pays $2.2M in reparations. On Dec. 14 a German decree states that gypsies are "inveterate criminals". On Dec. 28 rabid anti-Semitic poet Octavian Goga (1881-1938) becomes PM of ga-ga Romania despite his Nat. Christian Party only receiving 10% of the vote, and he immediately begins an orgy of anti-Semitic legislation while striving to set himself up as a dictator, competing with the Iron Guard with his Lancieri (Lance-Bearers), and resigning after 6 weeks (Feb. 10, 1938). On Dec. 29 Eamon de Valera becomes PM of Ireland as the new constitution comes into effect, declaring Ulster to be part of the new state of Eire (Ireland) (ends 1948), which cuts all connections with the British Commonwealth except for retaining Irish envoys; it proclaims a 1937 Irish Constitution, creating a bicameral nat. legislature called the Oireachtas, composed of the Dail Eireann (lower house) and Seanad Eireann (senaate), headed by the Taoiseach (pr. TEE-shock) (PM), nominated by the lower house and appointed by the pres. (7-year term, direct election), who heads a cabinet of 7-15 members. In Dec. French foreign minister Yvon Delbos (1885-1956) embarks on an extended visit to France's eastern allies, but fails to find much support in opposing Germany - wink 'em, blink 'em, bat 'em up? Aden in S Yemen (ruled by Britain since 1839 as part of India) becomes a British crown colony; after the Suez Canal is closed in 1956, it becomes the main British base in the region. Burma becomes a self-governing protectorate of Britain; the 700-mi. Burma Road (finished 1938) between Lashio (Myanmar), Burma and Kunming, China is built by 160K Burmese and Chinese laborers to help fight Japan; after supplies arrive at Kunming, they go through the 24 Turns to the provisional capital of Chongquing before servicing front-line troops. Poland refuses to sign an agreement to return Danzig to Germany; meanwhile Swiss diplomat Carl Jacob Burckhardt (1891-1974) becomes the last League of Nations high commissioner for the free city of Danzig (until 1939), working to fight off the Nazi threat in vain, returning to Geneva in 1939-45, after which he becomes pres. of the Internat. Red Cross in 1945-8, becoming known for keeping its strict neutrality and calling Nazism a lesser evil than Communism. Amnesty is declared for illegal Austrian Nazis. Mussolini vists Libya and Berlin. Mussolini and Schuschnigg meet in Venice. Britain signs naval agreements with Germany and the Soviet Union. Iceland's Althing announces that it will not seek renewal of the treaty binding it with Denmark. Switzerland signs an agreement with the engineering and metalworking industries, causing strikes to virtually stop. The Soviets start a crackdown on Tibetan Buddhism among the Mongols (ends 1939). The Zionist Haganah terrorist org. begins terrorist activities in Palestine, starting with attacks on Palestinian buses that kill 24 and injure 25 by 1939, followed in 1939 by blowing up an Iraqi oil pipeline near Haifa. The well-laid Duke of Windsor (former King Edward VIII) meets Adolf Hitler during a tour of Germany, prompting accusations that he is pro-Nazi - English, American, German, he doesn't know what he is? Soviet aircraft designers Andrei Nikolaevich Tupolev (1888-1972) and Vladimir Mikhailovich Petlyakov (1891-1942) are arrested on trumped-up charges of fascism, and sent to a prison lab (sharaga) in Moscow; Petlyakov goes on to design the Petlyakov Pe-2 dive bomber, which makes its first flight on Dec. 22, 1939, and becomes the workhorse of the Red Army; Tuplev is released in 1944 in order to "conduct important defense work". Tupolev is released in 1944 in order to "conduct important defense work". Wilhelm Emil "Willy" Messerschmitt (1898-1978) does it again and designs the Messerschmit Me 209 single-engine propeller-driven racing plane, which holds the world propeller-driven aircraft air speed record for several decades. Albert Speer (1905-81) becomes Hitler's chief architect, "the first architect of the Third Reich". The first illegal heroin labs in Marseille, France are set up by Corsican gang leader Paul Bonnaventure Carbone, whose network starts out with morphine paste from Turkey, and evolves into the French Connection. Music: Hans Leip, Lili Marlene; written by a German soldier in 1915 (WWI), then set to music next year by Norbert Schultze and sung by anti-Nazi German singer Lale Anderson, becoming a big hit with the German Africa Korps in 1941, after which the English vers. by Tommie Connor becomes a hit with Allied troops, after which Marlene Dietrich scores another hit in 1943, followed by Vera Lynn after WWII, becoming a hit with British vets; "My Lili of the lamplight,/ My own Lili Marlene." Nonfiction: Louis-Ferdinand Celine (1894-1961), Bagatelles Pour un Massacre (Trifles for a Massacre); predicts that the goyim or gentiles will be led to slaughter each other for the Jews in another world war, after which nationalism will become un-PC, opening up Europe to mass immigration by non-whites, along with race-mixing and laws against hate crimes; big hit in Vichy France; duh, he was right?

Louis Leon Ludlow of the U.S. (1873-1950) Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. of the U.S. (1888-1969) Joseph P. Kennedy (1888-1969) Family, 1937 Herbert von Dirksen of Germany (1882-1955) Nancy Astor of Britain (1879-1964) Arthur Seyss-Inquart of Austria (1892-1946) Paul Henri Spaak of Belgium (1899-1972) Joe Louis v. Max Schmeling, June 22, 1938 Lavrenti P. Beria of the Soviet Union (1899-1953) Lord Walter Runciman of Britain (1870-1949) Jozef Tiso of Slovakia (1887-1947) Emil Hacha of Czecho-Slovakia (1872-1945) Rudolf Beran of Czecho-Slovakia (1887-1954) Alfred Duff Cooper of Britain (1890-1954) German SS Gen. Ernst Kaltenbrunner (1903-46) German SS Gen. Heinrich Müller (1900-45) Josef Bürckel of Germany (1895-1944) Georges-Etienne Bonnet of France (1889-1973) Jozef Lipski of Poland (1894-1958) Ismet Inonu of Turkey (1884-1973) German Gen. Erich Hoepner (1886-1944) German Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt (1875-1953) Reinhard Heydrich of Germany (1904-42) Patriarch Miron Cristea of Romania (1868-1939) Arita Hachiro of Japan (1884-1965) Nuri as-Said of Iraq (1888-1958) Genrikh Samoilovich Lyushkov of the Soviet Union (1900-45) Soviet Field Marshal Vasily Konstantinovich Blucher (1889-1938) Harry Lloyd Hopkins of the U.S. (1890-1946) Sol Bloom of the U.S. (1870-1949) Douglas Hyde of Eire (1860-1949) Franz Joseph II of Liechtenstein (1906-89) German Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel (1882-1946) German Gen. Heinz Guderian (1888-1954) German Gen. Franz Halder (1884-1972) German Gen. Walther von Brauchitsch (1881-1948) Joachim von Ribbentrop of Germany (1893-1946) Martin Dies Jr. of the U.S. (1900-72) Stanley Forman Reed of the U.S. (1884-1980) Crystal Bird Fauset of the U.S. (1894-1965) Thurman Wesley Arnold of the U.S. (1891-1969) Hendrik de Man of Belgium (1885-1953) Sir Nicholas George Winton (1909-2015) Max Steineke (1899-1952) Charles Hamilton Houston (1895-1950) Lady Stella Reading of Britain (1894-1971) Herschel Grynszpan (1921-45) Ernst vom Rath (1909-38) Vincent de Moro-Giafferi (1878-1956) Archbishop Theodor Innitzer (1875-1955) Sufi Abdul Hamid (1903-38) Taylor Caldwell (1900-85) Cyril Connolly (1903-74) John Gould Fletcher (1886-1950) C.L.R. James (1901-89) Father Charles Edward Coughlin (1891-1979) John La Farge Jr. (1880-1963) Kate Smith (1909-86) Matthias Sindelar (1903-39) Enrico Fermi (1901-54) Werner Heisenberg (1901-76) Carl von Weizsäcker (1912-2007) Otto Hahn (1879-1968) Fritz Strassmann (1902-80) Lise Meitner (1878-1968) Otto Frisch (1904-79) Albert Hofmann (1906-2008) Archbishop William Temple of Britain (1881-1944) Willem Visser't Hooft of the Netherlands (1900-85)

1938 Chinese Year: Tiger - hold that tiger? Time Mag. Man of the Year: Adolf Hitler (1889-1945). This year 32K die in auto accidents in the U.S. - the price of freedom is the right to act stupid? On Jan. 7 the Italian govt. announces a huge naval construction program supplementing the rearmament plan that began the previous year. On Jan. 10 after trying since 1935, the Ludlow Resolution, introduced by U.S. Rep. (D-Ind.) Louis Leon Ludlow (1873-1950), which requires a nat. referendum to confirm a declaration of war by Congress (except in the event of an invasion) is reintroduced, and seems likely to pass until FDR voices strong opposition, sending a letter to the Speaker of the House saying that he would be unable to conduct an effective foreign policy, after which it is defeated by a narrow 209-188 vote. On Jan. 11 FDR makes a proposal to the British govt. to convene a world conference to reduce armaments, promote economic security, and ameliorate the effects of a future war; British PM Neville Chamberlain tells him to buzz off - Herr Hitler needs a new pair of shoes? On Jan. 12 the new Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union (created by the 1936 constitution) meets for the first time. On Jan. 12 Austria recognizes the Franco govt. in Spain. On Jan. 12 the Romanian govt. strips Jews of their citizenship; on Jan. 18 King Carol II of Romania dissolves the parliament before it can meet as the country's anti-Semitic program brings business to a near halt; on Feb. 10 he dismisses PM Octavian Goga in an attempt to reverse the flow, and sets up a "concentration cabinet" of seven former PMs under the leadership of patriarch Miron Cristea (1868-1939), suspending the constitution along with civil liberties; meanwhile the Iron Guard and the Nat. Peasants' Party of ex-PM Julius Maniu maneuver against him, but a nat. plebiscite on Feb. 24 overwhelmingly backs the king, and on Apr. 19 kinda-cool-but-sick Iron Guard leader Corneliu Codreanu (1899-1938) is railroaded into jail for 6 mo., increased to 10 years on May 27 after a plot against the king is discovered, and the entire Iron Guard is cracked down on; on Nov. 30 Codreanu and 13 other Iron Guard members are shot by guards while being moved, and are framed for an escape attempt. I'm an analytical, intuitive, athletic guy? On Jan. 12 the Blomberg-Fritsch-Krise Affair begins when 60-y.-o. war minister, Field Marshal (since 1936) Werner von Blomberg marries 26-y.-o. typist Erna "Eva" "Margarete" Gruhn (1912-), with Hermann Gering (who is on the make, wanting to get rid of his "boss") as best man at the ceremony and Hitler as a witness, and when Hitler later finds out about her past record as a ho from Goering, he gets pissed-off and orders Blomberg to annul the marriage, and when he refuses he ends up resigning on Jan. 27, getting exiled for a year to the island of Capri with his wife, giving Goering his chance to implement phase 2 and get unmarried OKW CIC (since 1934) Col. Gen. Baron Werner von Fritsch framed on charges of homosexuality, causing him to resign on Feb. 4, after which former WWI lance corporal Hitler takes personal control of the entire Wehrmacht, retaining it even after Fritsch is cleared by a military court on Mar. 18 because of his big V with the Austrian Anschuluss of Mar. 12; Hitler then permanently replaces the Ministry of War (Reichskriegsministerium) with the OKW, and appoints new Gen. Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (1882-1946) as CIC, with Gen. Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (1888-1954) and Gen. Franz Halder (1884-1972) as his chief assts., while Keitel talks Hitler into appointing his friend Heinrich Alfred Hermann Walther von Brauchitsch (1881-1948) as CIC of the German Army in Feb. (until 1941); in Feb. Hitler also replaces Constantin von Neurath as foreign minister (until 1945) with Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (1893-1946), putting the diplomatic corps under Hitler's direct control; Keitler goes on to prove incapable of standing up to Hitler, who ignores his advice against invading France and Russia, causing him to earn the nickname "LaKeitel", an approximation to the English word "lackey". On Jan. 17 the British and Irish govts. begin meeting to resolve their trade war (mutual 20% tariffs) (begun 1933), resulting on Apr. 25 in the Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement. On Jan. 17 millionaire-by-thirty Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy Sr. (1888-1969) (who made his fortune running liquor during Prohibition, allowing him to launder it through huge profits supposedly made by RKO Pictures in 1928, after which in 1933 his co. Somerset Importers becomes the exclusive U.S. agent for Gordon's Gin and Dewar's Scotch, allowing him to buy the Merchandise Mart in Chicago) becomes U.S. ambassador to the U.K. (until Oct. 22, 1941) (first Irish Roman Catholic); on June 13 he meets with new German ambassador to the U.K. (until Sept. 1939) Herbert von Dirksen (1882-1955), with Dirksen writing the soundbyte: "It was not so much the fact that we want to get rid of the Jews that was so harmful to us, but rather the loud clamor with which we accompanied this purpose. [Kennedy] himself fully understood our Jewish policy"; Kennedy later tells British MP (1919-45) Nancy Witcher Langhorne, Viscountess Astor (1879-1964) that the "Jew media" in the U.S. is a big problem, and that "Jewish pundits in New York and Los Angeles" were already making noises contrived to "set a match to the fuse of the world"; he resigns when war is inevitable because of his staunch isolationist and appeasement position; a cool Photograph of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph P. Kennedy and their Nine Children (4 boys, 5 girls) is taken at Bronxville, N.Y. in 1937. On Jan. 25-Feb. 2 the League of Nations holds its 100th session in Geneva. On Feb. 2 King Farouk I dismisses the Egyptian parliament; on Apr. 2 nat. elections give the Wafdist Party a disastrous defeat, letting the king keep them down for the next four years (until 1942). On Feb. 7 the League of Nations holds its 3rd conference in Geneva to deal with non-Aryan refugees leaving Aryan Paradise Germany. On Feb. 9 elections in Northern Ireland give Unionists a big V, ending any hopes of a merger with the Irish Free State. On Feb. 16 after Adolf Hitler meets with Austrian chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg at Berchtesgaden and demands that National Socialists be incl. in Austria's govt., he appoints Dr. Seuss (1904-91), er, Arthur Seyss-Inquart (1892-1946) as interior minister. On Feb. 15 Franco's Nationalist troops recapture Teruel, nullifying Loyalist gains since last Dec., then begin a spectacular drive toward the sea, taking Vinaroz on the Gulf of Valencia on Apr. 15, severing Castile from Barcelona and Catalonia. On Feb. 20 Sir Anthony Eden resigns as British foreign secy. in a dispute with PM Neville Chamberlain over seeking an agreement with Italy without waiting for a settlement of the Spanish problem, and Winston Churchill leads the public outcry; Hitler-admiring Lord Halifax succeeds as foreign secy. On Feb. 20 Hitler gives a speech promising protection to German minorities in Czech. and elsewhere outside the Reich; on Mar. 4 Czech PM Milan Hodza declares that his country will resist outside interference. On Feb. 23 twelve Chinese fighter planes drop bombs on Japan - back atcha? In Feb. the govt. of Hungary again arrests Ferenc Szalasi and 72 other Hungarian Nat. Socialist Party leaders in an attempt to stomp them out; too bad, Germany soon annexes Austria and becomes their next-door neighbor, causing the 500K Germans in Hungary to act up. On Mar. 8 Herbert Hoover tells Hitler that his doctrine would be unacceptable and intolerable in the U.S - but just in case, let's start HUAC? On Mar. 9 Kurt von Schusnigg calls for a plebiscite, but on Mar. 11 after being faced with a German invasion he resigns, and Austrian pres. Wilhelm Miklas appoints Arthur Seyss-Inquart as chancellor; on Mar. 12 after inviting (by telegraph) and welcoming the German troops to occupy Austria, Dr. Seuss, er, Schusnigg proclaims Anschluss (union), violating the who-cares Treaty of Versailles; the German troops are given a hero's welcome by the majority of the Austrian pop., after which Hitler decrees that it will be incorporated into the Third Reich as the province of Ostmark; on ? Hitler personally leads troops into Vienna, and is presented with the Holy Lance of Christ; on Mar. 13 Seyss-Inquart officially joins the Nazi Party, then signs the law making the incorporation official, becoming pres., with an honorary SS rank of Gruppenfuhrer, followed by minister without portfolio in Hitler's govt. in May 1939; 6'7" facially-scarred (from dueling during his student days, or from a drunk-driving accident) Ernst Kaltenbrunner (1903-46) is appointed PM (with the new rank of SS Gruppenfuherer also), and Josef Burckel (Bürckel) (1895-1944) is appointed "commissioner for the reunion of Austria" (read "Jewish Question"?); Kaltenbrunner goes on to rise to great powah, intimidating even Heinrich Himmler, and stopping the promotion of Adolf Eichmann to SS-col. (for not being anti-Semitic enough?); no surprise, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) flees Vienna for London; the world is astounded at Mussolini's calm acceptance of the presence of the Nazis at the Brenner Pass; poor Czech. is now surrounded on three sides by the Nazis, and on Mar. 14 the German govt. gives assurances of its desire to improve relations; British newspaper magnate Lord (1st Viscount) Rothermere writes Hitler to congratulate him, and proposes invading Romania next, and pays $5K a year to Austrian princess Stephanie Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingfurst (1891-1972) in an attempt to ingratiate himself with Hitler, and since she is widely suspected (and is) a Nazi spy, she becomes known as "London's leading Nazi hostess"; too bad, when WWII begins he has to cut her loose. On Mar. 15 Stanford U. geologist Max Steineke (1899-1952), working for Aramco makes the first commercial oil find in Saudi Arabia. On Mar. 15 after a Last Plea to the Moscow Supreme Court (Mar. 12), Russian rev. and Stalin lookalike Nikolai Bukharin (b. 1888) is executed for treason after the last Stalinist show trial, the Trial of the Twenty-One (Bukharin, Rykov, Jagoda, et al.), where Stalin himself hides behind a double-mirrored wall in the courtroom running the puppet "peoples' judges", then later goes around cynically asking "What happenened to my good friend Comrade Bukharin?"; Bukharin writes How It All Began while in priz. On Mar. 16-17 Franco's forces bomb Barcelona 18 times despite protests by the Vatican and foreign powers to leave nonmilitary targets alone. On Mar. 16 the Polish-Lithuanian Crisis begins; on Mar. 19 Lithuania is forced to sign a peace agreement with Poland. On Mar. 18 the Nazi Weapons Act is passed, relaxing gun ownership restrictions while prohibiting firearms dealing to Jews; gun owners must carry ID cards; on Nov. 11 interior minister Wilhelm Frick prohibits Jewish gun ownership; after the Allies win WWII in 1945, they prohibit all private gun ownership until 1956. Spring is again just around the corner? On Mar. 22-25 German activists withdraw from the Czech parliament, causing PM Milan Hodza to announce a Nationality Statute, giving parliamentary rep. based on proportionality, which underwhelms them, causing Sudetendeutsche Party leader Konrad Henlein on Apr. 24 to put forward his Carlsbad Program, calling for full German autonomy, which is rejected, causing Henlein to visit London, then Berlin (posing as the soul of moderation?); the Czech govt. mobilizes 400K troops on the frontier after disorders in the German districts; Hitler fortifies the German-French frontier and orders a huge increase in German air forces; the statue is passed on July 26. On Mar. 24 the U.S. asks that all powers help refugees fleeing from the nasty Nazis. On Mar. 24-Apr. 7 100K Chinese Kuomintang under Gen. Li Zongren (Tsung-jen) (1890-1969) defeat 30K Japanese in the Battle of Taierzhuang (Tai'erzhuang) (Xuzhou) on the E bank of the Grand Canal of China (NE of Xuzhou), with half of the Japanese force killed or wounded vs. 30K Chinese, becoming a turning point in the war. On Mar. 26 Hermann Goering warns all Jews to leave Austria - did he bring that defense up at Nuremberg? On Mar. 26 Japan passes the Nat. Mobilization Bill, giving the state the power to dictate all phases of the economy; on May 26 the cabinet is reorganized to give six seats to the military, causing PM Fumimaro Konoye to resign in protest. On Mar. 28 the Japanese install a puppet govt. in Nanjing, China under Liang Hongzhi (1883-1946) (until Mar. 1940). In Mar. in Austria within days of the Anschluss, squads of Nazis and Austrian museum personnel empty the Viennese palaces of the Rothschild brothers Alphonse and Louis, and hide the loot in the Alt Aussee salt mines near Salzburg. In Mar. Poland forces Lithuania to renounce its claims to Vilnyus (Vilnius). In Mar. the Federation of Trade Unions of Syria is founded by organized labor to fight for workers' rights and to force the govt. to allow independent labor orgs. without employer participation. On Apr. 5-6 the foreign ministers of Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland meet to discuss their mutual defense, but Denmark's unwillingness to challenge Germany causes it to fall through. On Apr. 6 the U.S. recognizes the German conquest of Austria; on Apr. 10 Germany annexes Austria. On Apr. 16 the Anglo-Italian Pact is signed, recognizing Italian sovereignty over Ethiopia in return for Italy withdrawing its volunteers from Spain after the civil war ends; both countries agree to maintain the status quo in the Red Sea, and Italy agrees to desist from hostile propaganda in the Middle East. On Apr. 24 all German Jews are ordered to register their property; on May 29 the Jewish role in the Hungarian economy is restricted to 20%; on June 25 Jewish physicians in Germany are only allowed to treat Jews. On Apr. 25 Britain concludes a 3-year agreement with Ireland, bringing their long-standing feud to an end :). On Apr. 24 all German Jews are ordered to register their property; on May 29 the Jewish role in the Hungarian economy is restricted to 20%; on June 25 Jewish physicians in Germany are only allowed to treat Jews. On Apr. 25 Britain concludes a 3-year agreement with Ireland, bringing their long-standing feud to an end :). On Apr. 30 Switzerland appeals to the League of Nations to recognize its unconditional neutrality; on May 14 the League council accepts their view, relieving them from all obligations incl. having to take part in economic sanctions against future aggressors. In Apr. Edouard Daladier becomes PM of France again. In Apr. Franco's nationalist forces break through Republican defenses and reach the sea; on Apr. 19 Franco declares victory in the Spanish Civil War; the Battle of the Ebro starting on July 25 signals the beginning of the end for the Spanish Republicans fighting the Franco nationalists, going into retreat by Nov. In Apr. archbishop of Vienna (since 1932) Theodor Innitzer (1875-1955) meets with Hitler and then directs all Catholic clergy and laity to "unconditionally support the great German State and the Fuhrer", signing a declaration along with other Austrian bishops endorsing the Anschluss, with the signature "Heil Hitler!", causing him to become known as the "Heil Hitler Cardinal", causing Pope Pius XI to order him report to the Vatican and sign a retraction, while Vatican Radio broadcasts a vehement denunciation of the Nazi action; in Oct. thousands attend a sermon by Innitzer in the Cathedral of St. Stephen in Veinna, where he utters the soundbyte "There is just one Fuhrer: Jesus Christ", causing 100 Nazis to ransack his residence the next day. On May 8 the 444-mi. Natchez Trace Parkway between Fairview, Tenn. and Natchez, Miss. is begun on the original route of the Natchez Trace, which was used by Euro explorers in the late 18th and early 19th cents. (finished 2005). On May 9-12 in Utrecht a Provisional Constitution for the World Council of Churches (WCC) is adopted by a provisional committee led by Archbishop William Temple (1881-1944) of York as chmn., and Willem Adolph Visser't Hooft (1900-85) of the Netherlands as secy. gen. #1 (until 1966), and in Oct. it begins sending out invitations to 196 churches and the Vatican for the first WCC gen. assembly in Aug. 1941; too bad, the war intervenes, and it isn't held until Aug. 23, 1948 - heil Visser't Hooft? On May 13 Paul Janson's govt. in Belgium is replaced by a coalition headed by moderate Socialist Paul Henri Charles Spaak (1899-1972), who becomes PM of Belgium on May 15 (until Feb. 22, 1939). On May 17 the radio quiz show Information, Please!, created by Dan Golenpaul (1900-74) debuts on the NBC Blue Network (until June 25, 1948). On May 17 the U.S. Congress passes the U.S. Carl Vinson Naval Act, providing for a 2-ocean navy. On May 19-20 the First Czech Crisis results when Sudeten Germans in Czech. demand autonomy. On May 26 the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) of the U.S. House of Reps. begins its work of searching for "un-American propaganda" in the U.S., led by chmn. Martin Dies Jr. (1900-72) (D-Tex.) - Jefferson dies? In May Flossenburg (Flossenbürg) Camp in the Oberpfalz region of Bavaria, Germany is built, holding a total of 96K prisoners, of which 30K die by Apr. 1945. In May the Bletchley Park mansion in Milton Keyenes, Buckinghamshire, England, conveniently located between Oxford and Cambridge is purchased by British Adm. Sir Hugh Sinclair, head of MI6 to house codebreakers, who go on to crack the German Enigma machine et al. In May-June a revolt in the Mexican province of San Luis Potosi by Gen. Saturnino Cedillo (1890-1939) is crushed by Gen. Cardenas. On June 25 Gaelic League pres. Douglas Hyde (1860-1949) becomes pres. #1 of Eire (until June 24, 1945). Degenerate? Can I see? On June 30 the Germans vote to confiscate so-called "degenerate art", with "Reichmaster of Public Hair" artist (known for his racially pure nudes of women to encourage German men to have pure children) Adolf Ziegler (1892-1959) put in charge of a 6-man commission authorized to confiscate it throughout the Reich, resulting in 5K works seized; on July 19-Nov. 30 the Nazis hold the Degenerate Art (Entartete Kunst) Exhibition in Munich, featuring 650 works by "cultural Jewish Bolshevik" Max Beckmann (1884-1950) (who flees to exile in Amsterdam), Otto Dix (1891-1969), Edgar Ende (1901-65), Max Ernst (1896-1976), Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938), Paul Klee (1879-1940), Emil Nolde (1867-1956) et al. (112 artists, only 6 Jewish?), arranged in a manner calculated to create disgust for these pathetic degenerates, complete with Nazi slogans and labels displaying how much money the museums wasted on the Jewish crap (not mentioning the Weimer hyperinflation of the 1920s, but since that was caused by the Jews, they deserve it?); after the exhibition opens, Goebbels rushes out and gets more works seized, totalling 16,558; in 4 mo. over 2M rush to see the degenerate stuff, and after the exhibit tours Germany and closes, the paintings are auctioned in Switzerland for big marks, although some high Nazis make off with Cezannes, Van Goghs, etc.; in Mar. 1939 4K works are burned after they can't be sold, and when the Red Army invades Berlin in 1945, they discover an underground cache, which they steal and put in the Heritage Museum in St. Petersburg; Dresden art dealer Hildebrand Gurlitt (1895-1956) collects 1.5K paintings, telling authorities that they were destroyed in the firebombing of Dresden; his widow passes them to their son Cornelius Gurlitt (1934-), who hides them behind pallets of canned goods in his seedy apt. until they are discovered in 2011, and revealed by the govt. on Nov. 3, 2013; their worth is estimated at $1.3B. In June a leftist strike in France helps bring the Popular Front govt. down by Oct. In June Pope Pius XI commissions U.S. Jesuit John La Farge Jr. (1880-1963) (son of the artist) to write the encyclical Humani Generis Unitas (The Unity of the Human Race), expressly condemning Nazi anti-Semitism, but popey dies before it can be pub.? - the world is turning over a new leaf, not? On July 4 France and Turkey sign a friendship treaty. On July 5-15 Pres. Roosevelt convenes an internat. conference in Evian, France over the plight of Jewish refugees, but nothing is done - water under the bridge? On July 19-21 British King George VI and Queen Elizabeth visit Paris to demonstrate solidarity. On July 21 German law decrees that all Jews must have ID cards by Jan. 1, 1939; on Aug. 17 Jewish men must add the name Israel to their name, Jewish women the name Sarah; on Sept. 27 German Jews are forbidden to practice law - Israel, Sarah and Beanstein, attys. at nothing? On July 22 the Imperial War Graves Commission finishes its task of building cemeteries for WWI; George VI dedicates the Australian Nat. Memorial in Villers-Bretonneux, France. On July 25 Franz Joseph (Josef) II (1906-89) becomes prince of Liechtenstein (until 1989), becoming the first to live full-time in the principality, and becoming very popular, keeping the country neutral in WWII. On July 29 a revolt in Crete against Gen. Metaxas is quickly quashed, and on July 30 Metaxas is declared PM of Greece for life. On June 30 African-Am. anti-Semitic Islam convert Sufi Abdul Hamid (Eugene Brown) (b. 1903), known as the Black Hitler for boycotting and picketing mainly Jewish white-owned businesses in Harlem, N.Y. to pressure them into hiring his black union members, and who likes to wear a mustache, Nazi-style military shirt, gold-lined cape, purple turban, and a dagger in his belt dies when his plane runs out of fuel and crashes. In July the loyalists attack Franco's army from the rear, beginning an offensive along the Ebro River in NE Spain, halting the progress of Franco's forces for the rest of the year, during which Mussolini withdraws some troops from Spain, leaving 40K; too bad, the loyalists are too weak to press their attack. On Aug. 3 new viscount (since June 1937) (a title higher than his shipping magnate father, who's only a baron) Liberal British mediator Walter Runciman, 1st Viscount Runciman of Doxford (1870-1949) arrives in Prague, but gets nowhere with Konrad Henlein and his demands, causing him to send London a final report saying that the German pop. wants the Sudetenland to become part of Germany, leading to the Munich Agreement. On Aug. 8 Mauthausen-Gusen Concentration Camp 12 mi. E of Linz, Austria opens. On Aug. 18 Pres Roosevelt dedicates the Thousand Islands Bridge, connecting the U.S. and Canada along the St. Lawrence River. On Aug. 21 the Little Entente meets at Bled, Yugoslavia, and recognizes Hungary's right to rearm, with non-aggression pacts agreed to. On Aug. 26 the Central Office for Jewish Emigration in Vienna is set up under Adolf Eichmann (1906-62) - only one class, cattle? On Sept. 2 the Italian govt. passes Anti-Semitic Laws, prohibiting marriage between Italians and non-Aryans, excluding Jewish teachers and students from schools, and giving Jews who have taken up residence in Italy since 1919 6 mo. to leave; after taking effect on Nov. 17, the policies are loosely enforced, later pissing-off the Nazis. On Sept. 2 Pope Pius XI tells German pilgrims that no Christian can take part in anti-Semitism since all Christians are Semites - a pox upon the house of Mussolini? On Sept. 7. the Second Czech Crisis begins as Sudeten leaders break off negotiations with the govt. after an incident at Moravska (Moravská) Ostrava; discussions are resumed on Sept. 10; on Sept. 12 in a speech in Nuremberg, Adolf Hitler demands self-determination for the Sudeten Germans in Czech., causing the Czech govt. to proclaim martial law on Sept. 13, causing Neville Chamberlain to formulate the secret Plan Z to negotiate directly with Hitler at the 11th hour to avert war by charm; on Sept. 15 Konrad Henlein et al. flee across the frontier. On Sept. 14 Graf Zeppelin II, the world's largest airship makes its maiden flight - like the Nazi regime, it's full of hot air and about to go up in flames? Excuse me while I slip into something fatuous? On Sept. 15 ready-to-please British PM Neville Chamberlain visits Adolf Hitler in Berchtesgaden, where Hitler threatens to invade Czech. unless Britain supports the German takeover of the Sudetenland in Czech.; on Sept. 18 PM Edouard Daladier and Radical-Socialist French foreign minister Georges-Etienne Bonnet (1889-1973) arrive in London, and decide to urge the Czech govt. to accept Hitler's terms, and on Sept. 20 Czech. proposes arbitration based on the 1925 German-Czech Locarno Treaty, which Britain and France reject; on Sept. 21 pressure by France and Britain causes Prague to yield, and on Sept. 21 Milan Hodza's cabinet resigns, and a new govt. is formed under Gen. Jan Sirovy; on Sept. 21 Winston Churchill condemns Hitler's annexation of Czech., while Mussolini remains in the background; on Sept. 22-23 Chamberlain visits Herr Hitler again at Bad Godesberg (Ger. "Mountain of His God"?); on Sept. 24 (early a.m.) Hitler issues the Godesberg Memorandum, demanding the surrender of the German territories at once, with plebiscites of the areas with large German minorities by Nov. 25; on Sept. 24 the Czech govt. orders full mobilization, throwing the world into its most serious crisis since 1918; on Sept. 26 Hitler issues an ultimatum to the Czech govt.; on Sept. 26 Daladier and Bonnet come to London again, and decide this time to support Czech. in resisting Hitler, while Chamberlain asks Hitler for a conference to give him what he wants without force; on Sept. 27 FDR also appeals to Hitler for a conference, which Hitler agrees to on Sept. 28 after Mussolini (put up to it by Chamberlain and Roosevelt) persuades him; on Sept. 29 Hitler, Ribbentrop, Mussolini, Ciano, Chamberlain, and Daladier meet in Munich, and just after midnight on Sept. 30 Chamberlain, seconded by Lord Halifax caves in to Darth, er, Herr Hitler, and signs the Munich Agreement (Pact), along with French PM Edouard Daladier and Mussolini, transferring the Sudetenland to Germany over Czech protests, with Hitler promising not to make any more territorial demands on Europe; on Sept. 30 the Czech govt. also caves in to the settlement; Chamberlain predicts "peace in our time", claiming a V for his appeasement policy, while Germany now dominates C Europe and is on the verge of dominating the entire Danubian area, and the last dem. outpost in C Europe is kaput; during the conference, a plot to depose Hitler headed by Fourth Panzer Group cmdr. Gen. Erich Hoepner (1886-1994) is stopped in its er, tracks with the announcement of the Munich Agreement, and Hitler fails to uncover it; on Oct. 1 British first lord of the admiralty (since 1937) Alfred Duff Cooper (1890-1954) resigns in protest of the Munich Agreement, with the soundbyte: "War with honour or peace with dishonour; but war with dishonour - that was too much"; Chamberlain appoints Lord Runciman as lord pres. of the council until the outbreak of WWII; meanwhile during the Munich crisis the British govt. issues gas masks to civilians - I mays look white, but I aims to appease, yessuh, massuh, yessuh? On Sept. 27 the League of Nations declares Japan the aggressor against China. On Sept. 29 the Polish govt. issues an ultimatum to Prague demanding the 400 sq. mi. Teschen region of Silesia, and Prague yields; on Oct. 2 Polish forces occupy the area, gaining 240K pop., incl. 100K Poles. In Sept. Chain Home, the first workable British radar system begins operation; by Dec. Britain has five coastal radar stations to warn of enemy aircraft. On Sept. 29 Gen. Ugaki Kazushige resigns, and on Oct. 29 Arita Hachiro (1884-1965) becomes Japanese foreign minister (until Aug. 29, 1939). On Oct. 1 Germany annexes the Sudetenland, and German troops occupy it by Oct. 3, completing the annexation by Oct. 10. On Oct. 3 Sir Samuel Hoare gives a speech in the House of Commons, with the soundbyte: "I say that if we had made an ultimatum in the days immediately before the Nuremberg speech Europe would today have been plunged into a world war." On Oct. 5 seeing his country lose 5M of 15M pop., incl. 2.85M Germans, 1.16M Czechs and Slovaks, 591K Hungarians, 77K Poles, 60K Jews, and 37K Ruthenians, along with 16K out of 54.5K sq. mi. of territory, Czech pres. (since 1935) Eduard Benes resigns and leaves for the U.S. (remaining in exile until 1946), triggering a violent campaign against him and Tomas Masaryk for getting them into this mess?; the Little Entente is kaput; Winston Churchill gives a speech in the House of Commons, with the soundbyte: "I will begin by saying what everybody would like to ignore or forget but which must nevertheless be stated, namely, that we have sustained a total and unmitigated defeat", to which Viscountess Astor shouts "Nonsense!" On Oct. 5 German Jewish passports are marked with the letter J at the request of Swiss officials to make it easier to bar Jews from the land of Swiss chocolate. On Oct. 6 the Repub. of Slovakia is given full autonomy, with Roman Catholic priest Joseph (Jozef) Tiso (1887-1947) as pres. #1 on Oct. 26 (until Apr. 1945), becoming a Nazi puppet throughout the war. On Oct. 8 Ruthenia is given full autonomy and renamed Carpatho-Ukraine; meanwhile German-backed Ukrainian separatists begin to stir things up while the Polish govt. seeks to partition it among themselves, Hungary and Romania, opposed by Germany. On Oct. 8 the Italian Fascist Grand Council abolishes the chamber of deputies, the last vestige of the old constitution, and replaces it with a chamber of fascist unions and corporations. On Oct. 9 Czech and Hungarian delegates meet, and fail to reach agreement, leading to frontier clashes; after a joint German-Italian decision Hungary receives a broad 5K sq. mi. strip of S Slovakia and Ruthenia with a pop. of 1M, but no common frontier with Poland, as both Hungary and Poland had wanted. On Oct. 14 the Nazis plan to wall the Jews in all major cities into nice little ghettos - with the locks and keys in their control? On Oct. 20 Czecho-Slovakia (new spelling) complies with Nazi policy and outlaws the Communist Party and begins persecuting Jews. On Oct. 21 after entering Tsingtao and installing a Chinese puppet govt. in Nanking, Japanese troops occupy Canton, followed on Oct. 25 by Hankow. On Oct. 22 after his NKVD chief Genrikh Samoilovich Lyushkov (1900-45) defects to Japan on June 13, holds a press conference and exposes Stalin's purges, his boss, Russian marshal Vasily Konstantinovich Blucher (Blyukher) (b. 1889), cmdr. of the Far East Front is arrested and convicted of espionage for Japan, and tortured to death, dying in Moscow on Nov. 9 without confessing; Lyushkov goes on to plan the assassination of Stalin next Jan. in the Black Sea resort of Sochi, but it is foiled. On Oct. 24 Polish ambassador (1934-9) Jozef (Józef) Lipski (1894-1958) meets with German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop in Berchtesgaden, and is presented with Germany's demand for annexation of the Free City of Danzig, which Lipski refuses. In Oct. trade unions in Romania are dissolved and replaced with guilds under royal control. In Oct. leftist English historian A.J.P. Taylor (1906-90) gives an uncustomary political speech at the annual dinner commemorating a protest by Oxford dons against James II on 1688 on the eve of the Glorious Rev., protesting the popular Munich Agreement and calling for Nazi Germany to be resisted as a greater tyrant than James II. On Nov. 1 German Field Marshal Col. Gen. Gerd von Rundstedt (1875-1953) retires. On Nov. 2 Germany gives S Slovakia to Hungary. Two pair of eyeglasses for free, but no eye exam? On Nov. 9-10 the nights witness rampaging mobs throughout Germany and Austria, organized by "blonde beast" Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (1904-42) and other Nazis freely attacking Jews and Jewish-owned businesses in what becomes known as Kristallnacht (Crystal Night) (Night of the Broken Glass), destroying 267 synagogues and thousands of homes and businesses, killing 91 Jews, and sending 25K-30K to concentration camps, while causing 1B marks in damage; the synagogue of Cologne is destroyed, and is not rebuilt until 1959, after which in Aug. 2005 Pope Benedict XVI visits it during his first foreign trip to preside over World Youth Day; on Nov. 12 all Jewish retail establishments in Germany are ordered to close by the end of the year; on Nov. 15 Jewish children are expelled from German schools; some Jews commit suicide out of despair; public outcry over what Germany claims is an "internal affair" causes the British to lower barriers against Jewish immigration, while Nazi leaders decide to keep future cleansing actions as secret as possible; meanwhile Am. journalist Dorothy Thompson (1893-1961) champions the cause of Herschel Feibel Grynszpan (Grunspahn) (Greenspan) (1921-45), a German-born Polish Jewish immigrant to France, whose assassination on Nov. 7 of minor German closet gay diplomat Ernst Eduard vom Rath (b. 1909) (AKA Madame Ambassadeur) was used by the Nazis to incite the German public into Kristallnacht, and goes on to broadcast over NBC radio to 5M listeners, raising $40K for the Journalists' Defense Fund, which pays for top Euro lawyer Vincent de Moro-Giafferi (1878-1956) to defend Grynszpan using the defense that it was a crime of passion not politics since he and Rath had been sexual lovers, even though it really was about the persecution of Polish Jews; after this causes the trial to get repeatedly delayed, the Nazis end up capturing him after they invade France in 1940, then end up with the same problem about trying him publicly, after which he disappears during the war in a Nazi prison; in 2008 Jewish journalist Yaron Svoray uncovers a dump in Klandorf near Brandenburg, Germany (N of Berlin) that was used by the Nazis to deposit rejected loot from Kristallnacht. On Nov. 11 (Armistice Day) Kate Smith (1909-86) debuts the song God Bless America by (don't say it, a Jew?) Irving Berlin (1888-1989); he originally composed it 20 years earlier but shelved it - perfect song title at this time by somebody named Berlin who's one of the Chosen People? On Nov. 11 the Regulations Against Jewish Possession of Weapons are promulgated by Nazi German interior minister Wilhelm Frick, disarming all Jews on the theory that they "cannot be regarded as trustworthy"; even knives and clubs are confiscated - the Holocaust will be a cakewalk? On Nov. 12 Hermann Goering announces that he favors Madagascar as a Jewish homeland - are you sure that's far enough away, or is that because it's home to the lemurs? On Nov. 15 a delegation of British Jews and Quakers appeals to British PM Neville Chamberlain to permit special emergency immigration of Jewish refugee children from the German Reich, causing the House of Commons to debate the idea on Nov. 21, approving the Kindertransport rescue mission, which takes in 10K children in the 9 mo. before the outbreak of WWII. On Nov. 16 the Anglo-Italian agreement of Apr. 16 is put into effect. On Nov. 17 Italy passes its own version of the anti-Jewish Nuremberg laws - what's pasta without pork products? On Nov. 20 Germany receives from the Czech govt. the rights to a highway across Moravia to Vienna, and to a canal connecting the Oder and Danube Rivers; the truncated Czech state now has no defensible frontiers and is a mere German satellite. On Nov. 20 the first documented anti-Semitic remarks over U.S. radio are made by Roman Catholic "Fighting Priest" Father Charles Edward Coughlin (1891-1979) of the Shrine of the Little Flower in Royal Oak, Mich., who defends the activities of the Nazi govt. as a necessary defense against the Soviet govt., and disses FDR. On Nov. 21 Nazi forces occupy W Czech. and declare its people German citizens. On Nov. 22 the govt. of Finland dissolves the Fascist Patriotic Nat. Movement. On Nov. 24 Mexico seizes oil land adjacent to Texas. On Nov. 26 Poland renews its non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union to protect against a German invasion, and begins efforts to build a barrier of Baltic and Balkan states against Germany. On Nov. 30 Emil Hacha (1872-1945) is elected pres. #3 of Czecho-Slovakia (until 1945), appointing anti-Benes Agrarian Party leader (1933-) Rudolf Beran (1887-1954) as PM (until 1939) on Dec. 1. On Nov. 30 a big demonstration in the Italian chamber demands the cession of Corsica and Tunisia by France. In Nov. after news of Kristallnacht, British converted Jew Sir Nicholas George "Nicky" Winton (1909-2015) gains House of Commons approval to permit immigration of Jewish refugees from Germany aged less than 17, and saves 669 by next year, becoming known as "the British Schindler". On Dec. 1 Britain opens a voluntary "national register" for war service, and begins buying large number of planes from the U.S. On Dec. 6 France and Germany sign a pact guaranteeing the inviolability of their existing frontier. On Dec. 8 Lavrenti Pavlovich Beria (1899-1953) (a fellow Georgian of Stalin who's been with the Bolsheviks since 1917) replaces Nikolai I. Ezhov (Jezjov) as head of the Soviet NKVD (Commissariat for Internal Affairs) (secret police), signalling a relaxation in the Stalinist purges; 10% of the entire labor force is now in forced labor camps. On Dec. 13 Neuengamme Concentration Camp near Hamburg is built by the SS, holding 106K POWs in 80+ subcamps by 1945, of which 50%+ die; on Apr. 26-May 2, 1945 the last 10K POWs are put on ships, which are sunk by the RAF; in 1943 it builds a female subcamp in Salzwedel, which holds 3K women, Jewish and non-Jewish, and is liberated on Apr. 29, 1945. On Dec. 15 Washington sends its 4th note to Berlin demanding amnesty for Jews - wasn't that the 10 plagues of Egypt? On Dec. 17 Italy declares the 1935 pact with France invalid because ratifications had not been exchanged, but France insists on its validity. On Dec. 28 France orders the doubling of forces in French Somaliland, sending two warships. In Dec. German ambassador to Britain (1938-9) Herbert von Dirksen (1882-1955) attends a formal dinner given by British PM Neville Chamberlain to correspondents of the German News Agency in London, then when Chamberlain speaks of the "futility of ambition, if ambition leads to the desire for domination", Dirksen takes it as meaning Hitler and leads them all in a walkout; meanwhile FDR recalls the U.S. ambassador to Germany, and it does likewise with the U.S. Anti-Semitic Am. auto magnate Henry Ford (1863-1947) is awarded the first-ever Grand Cross of the German Eagle Order by the Nazi govt.; Charles Augustus Lindbergh (1902-74) receives another medal presented in Germany by Hermann Goering; meanwhile Mussolini introduces the good ole German goose-step into the Italian army, calling it the "Passo Romano" (Roman Step). U.S. Rep. (D-N.Y.) (since 1921) Sol Bloom (1870-1949), a strongly Zionist Jew becomes chmn. of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs - of course there's no international Jewish conspiracy? Gertrude Stein leads a campaign to award a Nobel Peace Prize to Adolf Hitler. The U.S. Foreign Agents Registration Act (FARA) requires persons who are agents of foreign powers to make periodic public disclosures. Interpol (founded 1923) falls under control of Nazi Germany (until 1945). Socialist thinker Hendrik de Man (1885-1953) becomes pres. of the Belgian Labour Party, going on to devise the "Man Plan" to stop the rise of Fascism in Belgium; too bad, after Belgium capitulates to the Nazis in 1940, he becomes a collaborator, and after the Nazis turn on him he flees to Switzerland, and is convicted in absentia of treason after the war. After his Zionist aunt Jessie Johnson Hatcher influences him, U.S. Dem. congressman Lyndon Baines Johnson (1908-73), who took office last year and supported an immigration bill for Jews from Lithuania and Poland sticks his neck out to arrange for visas for Jews in Warsaw (which is more than one-third Jewish, while Poland has 3.3M Jews, 10% of the pop.) then smuggle them through the port of Galveston, Tex. into the U.S. this year and next, saving 400-500 from the Nazis. Jewish scientist Otto Meyerhof, dir. of the Inst. for Physiology flees Germany under Nazi pressure, followed by Karl Neuberg, dir. of the Inst. for Biochemistry next year. Germany has 350 theaters and 12K periodicals this year - their last hurrah? Italian physicist Enrico Fermi (1901-54) is allowed by Mussolini to travel to Stockholm to receive his Nobel Prize, and uses the opportunity to defect to the U.S. Oskar Kokoschka leaves Germany for England. Leni Riefenstahl tours the U.S. and is treated like manure in Hollywood, returning and complaining of the "smear campaigns of the Jews"; after the war she files over 50 lawsuits against anybody publishing anything about her past connections with the Nazis - I'm a lily-white apolitical artist? Nonfiction: Louis-Ferdinand Celine (1894-1961), L'Ecole des Cadavres (The School of Corpses); how Germany should ally with France against Britain and the Internat. Jewish Conspiracy (which incl. the U.S. and U.S.S.R.), even though Hitler is a "Jew" who spouts "Aryan baloney" and shouldn't be trusted too far, although he is better than French Communist Party leader Maurice Thorez, with the soundbyte: "Who is the true friend of the people? Fascism. Who has done the most for the working man, the USSR or Hitler? Hitler.. Who has done the most for the small businessman? Not Thorez but Hitler!"

Pope Pius XII (1876-1958) Hitler at the Reichstag, Jan. 30, 1939 Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov of the Soviet Union (1890-1986) Joachim von Ribbentrop of Germany (1893-1946) Sir Nevile Henderson of Britain (1882-1942) Jozef Lipski of Poland (1894-1958) German Gen. Theodor Eicke (1892-1943) Spanish Gen. Segismundo Casado Lopez (1893-1968) Friedrich Werner von Schulenburg of Germany (1875-1944) Hubert Pierlot of Belgium (1883-1963) Armand Calinescu of Romania (1893-1939) Faisal II of Iraq (1935-58) Jan Christiaan Smuts of South Africa (1870-1950 Gen. Carlos Quintanilla Quiroga of Bolivia (1888-1964) Laurence Adolph Steinhardt of the U.S. (1892-1950) Sir Earle Christmas Grafton Page of Australia (1880-1961) Robert Gordon Menzies of Australia (1894-1978) British Adm. Andrew Browne Cunningham (1883-1963) Polish Gen. Wladyslaw Eugeniusz Sikorski (1881-1943) German Gen. Udo von Woyrsch (1895-1983) Felix Frankfurter of the U.S. (1882-1965) William Orville Douglas of the U.S. (1898-1980) Earl Kemp Long of the U.S. (1895-1960) Birger Dahlerus of Sweden (1891-1957) Warsaw, Sept. 1939 Nazis Marching Through Warsaw, Sept. 27, 1939 Wanna Dance? Whatcha Got? Nazis Kicking a Jew in Poland, 1939 Wladyslaw Raczkiewicz of Poland (1885-1947) Albert Maria Forster of Germany (1902-52) U.S. Gen. George C. Marshall (1880-1959) Dr. Leonardo Conti of Germany (1900-45) Max de Crinis of Germany (1889-1945) Philipp Bouhler of Germany (1899-1945) Dr. Karl Brandt of Germany (1904-48) German SS Col. Viktor Hermann Brack (1904-48) Werner Heyde of Germany (1902-64) Konrad Henlein of Germany (1898-1945) Hermann (Pfannmüller) of Germany (1886-1961) Finnish Field Marshal Karl Gustav Emil von Mannerheim (1867-1951) Juho Eljas Erkko of Finland (1895-1965) Juho Kusti Paasikivi of Finland (1870-1956) Finnish Gen. Hjalmar Siilasvo (1892-1947) Soviet Gen. Alexey Vinogradov (-1939) Count Pal Teleki of Hungary (1879-1941) German Maj. Alfred Naujocks (1911-66) German Maj. Gen. Odilo Globocnik (1900-45) German Gen. Walther von Reichenau (1884-1942) German Gen. Georg-Hans Reinhardt (1887-1963) German Capt. Otto Schuhart (1909-90) German Col. Helmut Knochen (1910-2003) German Maj. Gen. Hans Oster (1887-1945) Fritz Thyssen of Germany (1873-1971) Lord Haw-Haw (1907-46) Lothar Erdman (1888-1939) Jean Giraudoux of France (1882-1944) Walther Funk of Germany (1890-1960) Albert Forster of Germany (1902-52) Arthur Greiser of Germany (1897-1946) Hans Frank of Germany (1900-46) German Capt. Hans Langsdorff (1894-1939) The Admiral Graf Spee Scuttled, Sept. 17, 1939 German Capt. Fritz-Julius Lemp (1913-41) German Capt. Günther Prien (1908-41) German Gen. Eduward Wagner (1894-1944) Japanese Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto (1884-1943) British Adm. Andrew Browne Cunningham (1883-1963) Philip Henry Kerr of Britain (1882-1940) German Gen. Johannes Albrecht Blaskowitz (1883-1948) Sir John Cecil Masterman of Britain (1891-1977) British RAF Officer Edward James Kain (1918-40) RAF Pilot Herbert Brian Lightroller (1917-39) Arthur Graham Owens of Britain (1899-1957) Canadian Gen. Harry Crerar (1888-1965) Archbishop Cesare Orsenigo (1873-1946) Sister Alice Maria Jadwiga Kotwska (1899-1939) Irena Sendler (1910-2008) Henry Söderberg of Sweden (-1998) Huynh Phu So (1919-47) Manuel Prado y Ugarteche of Peru (1889-) Dr. Norman Bethune (1890-1939) Robert Maynard Hutchins (1899-1977) Thomas Joseph 'Boss Tom' Pendergast (1873-1945) Karl Ernst Krafft (1900-45) Louis de Wohl (1903-61) Johann Georg Elser (1903-45) Edward Franklin Frazier (1894-1962) Frans Eemil Sillanpaa (1888-1964) Ernest Orlando Lawrence (1901-58) Adolf Butenandt (1903-95) J. Robert Oppenheimer of the U.S. (1904-67) Leopold Ruzicka (1887-1976) Sir John Turton Randall (1905-84) German Capt. Erich Warsitz (1906-83) Hans von Ohain of Germany (1911-98) Heinkel HE-178, 1939 James Smith McDonnell (1899-1980) John Knudsen Northrop (1895-1981) Artem Mikoyan (1905-70) Mukhail Gurevich (1893-1976) MiG-3, 1940 Pavel Sukhoi (1895-1975) Sukhoi Su-2 Lockheed P-38 Lightning, 1939 Avro 679 Manchester William Patrick Stuart-Houston (1911-87) Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Leó Szilárd (1898-1964) Eugene Paul Wigner (1905-95) Pierre van Paassen (1895-1968) Vivien Leigh (1913-67) and Clark Gable (1901-60) in 'Gone With the Wind', 1939

1939 Chinese Year: Rabbit - as in run, rabbit, run? Time Mag. Man of the Year: Joseph Stalin (1879-1953) (1st time); next time 1942. In 1939-45 the U.S. builds an avg. of 127 aircraft a day; Soviet Union: 62; Britain: 59; Germany: 46; Japan: 31; Italy: 4 (Allies: 248, Axis: 81); the Soviet Union has 1M-2M trained parachutists; the Soviet Army has 21K battle-ready tanks (incl. 6,456 BT tanks) vs. 3,195 for Germany; Stalin deliberately prepared for WWII to bring a Commie Paradise to Europe, helping Germany rearm so they would chew up France and Britain and soften them up for Commie takeover?; Red agitprop made the Red Army appear weak and outdated, when it was in fact the best equipped in the world?; the surprise German attack on Stalin was initially successful because Stalin was preparing for a surprise attack on them, and there were only offensive troops, with no defensive preparations? India contributes 2.5M volunteer soldiers for WWII, losing 87K by 1945. At the start of the war the French franc is valued at 38 to the U.S. dollar and 176.5 to the English pound sterling. On Jan. 1 the Measure for the Elimination of the Jews from the German Economy bans Jews from working with Germans, except as slaves - oh here it comes, the sinus pressure? On Jan. 17 the German govt. issues an order forbidding Jews to practice as dentists, veterinarians, and chemists. On Jan. 20 Pres. Roosevelt gives his 1939 State of the Union Address to Congress, asking for $552M for defense. On Jan. 22 the atom is first split at Columbia U. - now the international Zionist conspiracy gives a green light to WWI, right? On Jan. 23 the Dutch War Scare sees German Adm. Wilhelm Canaris leak fake plans to invade the Netherlands in Feb. with the aim of using Dutch airfields to launch a strategic bombing offensive against Britain, fooling it into changing its policies. On Jan. 27 Adolf Hitler orders Plan Z, a 5-year naval expansion program to create a huge German fleet capable of crushing the Royal Navy by 1944, giving the Kriegsmarine top priority for German economic resources. On Jan. 30 Hitler threatens the Jews with annihilation in a Reichstag Speech announcing an "export battle" to increase German foreign exchange holdings, with the soundbyte that if war breaks out, "The result will not be the Bolshevization of the Earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe." In Jan. Reichsbank pres. (since 1933) Hjalmar Schacht is dismissed by Adolf Hitler, and replaced by Walther Funk (1890-1960). On Feb. 2 Hungary joins the Anti-Comintern Pact. On Feb. 6 the Spanish govt. flees to France along with Pres. Manuel Azana. On Feb. 6 British PM Neville Chamberlain gives a speech in the House of Commons, warning that any German attack on France will be automatically considered an attack on Britain. On Feb. 6 German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop responds to a Jan. 26 speech by Georges Bonnet, referring to his alleged statement of last Dec. 6 accepting Eastern Europe as being in Germany's exclusive sphere of influence and warning that all French security commitments in that region are "now off limits", leading to a pissing contest over just what he really said. On Feb. 10 Pope (since 1922) Pius XI (b. 1857) dies, leaving the anti-racist encyclical Humani Generis Unitas (The Unity of the Human Race) explicity condemning Nazi anti-Semitism unsigned, and on Mar. 2 Cardinal (since 1929) (papal secy. of state and chief adviser to Pius XI) Eugenio Pacelli is elected Pope (#260) Pius XII (1876-1958); he is formally crowned on Mar. 12, setting his prime objects as 1: a new translation of the Psalms, 2: a definition of the Dogma of the Assumption, and 3. excavations under St. Peter's Basilica in Rome to find out if St. Peter is actually buried there; a confusing mixture of black and white comes out of the chimney of the Sistine Chapel after his election, raising eyebrows, later remembered after the smoke incident during the 1958 election of modernist pope John XXIII. On Feb. 14 the German battleship Bismarck is launched. On Feb. 22 the Netherlands recognizes the Franco regime in Spain, followed by Great Britain and France on Feb. 27; on Feb. 28 Pres. Azana resigns in exile in Paris. In Feb. the U.S. Wagner-Rogers Bill proposes admitting 20K refugee Jewish children to the U.S., but it dies in committee in June - and so do the children? On Mar. 6 a military coup in Madrid is led by Gen. Segismundo Casado Lopez (1893-1968), resulting in the removal of suspected Stalin puppet PM Juan Negrin and his colleagues, who flee to France; the new Nat. Defense Council is headed by Gen. Jose Miaja Menant, the defender of Madrid in 1936-7; the Repub. fleet escapes from Cartagena and takes refuge in the Tunisian port of Bizerte, where the French intern it; the new regime's policy is "peace with honor", but the Communists begin a civil war in Madrid, which is quashed, followed by a failed attempt to compromise with Gen. Franco, who forces unconditional surrender. On Mar. 6 after Patriarch Cristea dies, Dracula-lookalike Armand Calinescu (1893-1939) becomes PM of Romania, but is assassinated by the Iron Guard on Sept. 21 in Bucharest, creating a cabinet crisis; he is succeeded by Gen. George Argeseanu, then on Sept. 28 by Constantine Argetoianu, then on Nov. 24 by former PM (1933-7) Gheorghe Tartarescu (until July 4, 1940), who seeks an alliance with the Romanian Communist Party in opposition to Ion Antonescu's dictatorship. Hitler remodels his living room? On Mar. 10 Slovakian PM Joseph Tiso is deposed by Prague, causing him to appeal to Hitler, who summons Czech. pres. Emil Hacha and foreign minister Frantisek Chvalkovsky to Berlin, and tells them to "place the fate of the Czech people... trustingly in the hands of the Fuhrer"; on Mar. 14 the Repub. of Czecho-Slovakia is dissolved, and Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine (Ruthenia) declare independence; on Mar. 15-16 Germany occupies the country in violation of the Munich Agreement, claiming the right for Germans to have Lebensraum (living room) (until May 8, 1945); on Mar. 15 Bohemia and Moravia become a German protectorate, and Tiso puts Slovakia under German protection; former German minister Konstantin von Neurath becomes protector of Bohemia and Moravia, and Hitler leaves Hacha as "head of state", removing Rudolf Beran as Czech PM on Apr. 27. On Mar. 21 Ghandi calls on the world to disarm, thinking that Hitler would have to follow, even though he would hold five aces to a worldwide bust hand? On Mar. 22-23 Germany marches into Klaipeda (Memel) in Lithuania. On Mar. 31 Britain and France agree to support Poland if Germany threatens to invade, ending the British policy of appeasement. In Mar. Sir Alec Seath Kirkbride (1897-1978) becomes British resident adviser in Amman, Jordan. In Mar. the possibility of a nuclear chain reaction accompanying the fission of uranium by neutrons, uncovered by German physicists Otto Frisch and Lise Meitner is discussed by French physicists Hans von Halban, Frederic Joliot-Curie, and Lew Kowarski, and U.S. physicist Enrico Fermi, exciting considerable interest among scientists about the possibility of a nuclear bomb. On Apr. 2 Adolf Hitler orders his generals to make plans for the invasion of Poland. On Apr. 3 Iraqi king (since Sept. 8, 1933) Ghazi I (b. 1912) is killed in a car accident, and on Apr. 4 he is succeeded by his infant son Faisal II (1935-58) (until July 14, 1958); Anglophile PM Nuri as-Said is widely suspected of staging the death, Iraqi crowds shouting "You will answer for the blood of Ghazi", and he goes on to get puppet regents installed; too bad, after the fall of France in 1940 his main military man Col. Salah al-Din al-Sabbagh goes pro-German, leaving him in the lurch. On Apr. 5 membership in the Hitler Youth becomes mandatory. On Apr. 6 Poland and Great Britain sign a military pact. On Apr. 7 Italy invades Albania, which offers only token resistance; less than a week later Italy annexes it; on Apr. 8 King Zog I flees. On Apr. 7 Australian PM (since 1931) Joseph A. Lyons dies, and is succeeded by Sir Earle Christmas Grafton Page (1880-1961) as PM #11 of Australia; as quick as opening presents, on Apr. 26 Sir Robert Gordon Menzies (1894-1978) becomes PM #12 (until Aug. 29, 1941). On Apr. 7 Spain announces its adherence to the German-Italian-Japanese Anti-Comintern Pct. On Apr. 11 Hungary leaves the League of Nations. On Apr. 13 Britain and France guarantee Romanian and Greek independence following Italian conquest of Albania and rumors of a German ultimatum to Romania; the Romanian govt. plays both sides of the street by concluding a commercial agreement with Germany. Get your updated homemade homegrown Bibles, right here? On Apr. 14 (74th anniv. of Lincoln's assassination) the novel The Grapes of Wrath by Am. writer John Steinbeck (1902-68) (based on articles written for the San Francisco News) is pub., causing a political storm comparable to Harriet Beecher Stowe's 1852 Uncle Tom's Cabin. On Apr. 14 Pres. Roosevelt writes Hitler and Mussolini a letter begging them to not start a *!?!! war and requesting assurances on 31 named nations while suggesting armaments reduction discussions; Hitler rejects his offer on Apr. 28 in a speech at the Kroll Opera House, claiming that Poland actually threatens Germany, and summarily revoking the Polish-German non-aggression pact; he justifies the conquest of Czech. by claiming they have WMD (munitions), and that if Germany doesn't get control of them there would be "the danger of immense explosions"? On Apr. 16 Stalin signs a pact with Britain and France. On Apr. 18 Franz von Papen becomes the German ambassador to Turkey. On Apr. 18 after a cabinet crisis in Feb.-Mar. and elections on Apr. 2, Hubert Pierlot (1883-1963) forms a Catholic Liberal govt. in Belgium. On Apr. 20 Herr Joseph "junk the useless eaters" Goebbels gives a speech honoring Herr Hitler on his 50th birthday; pro-Fascist Archbishop (since 1922) Cesare Vincenzo Orsenigo (1873-1946), papal nuncio in Berlin (1930-45) holds a warm reception for Hitler, who is allegedly a good Roman Catholic, albeit a little too obsessed with the political consequences he's drawn from godless Darwinism?; Orsenigo goes on to stink up the Roman Catholic Church, playing footsie with the Holocaust. On Apr. 26 conscription is introduced in England. On Apr. 27 the British govt. begins conscription for men ages 20-21 in order to increase the forces by 300K. On May 1 Konrad Ernst Eduard Henlein (1898-1945) becomes Reichsstatthalter and Gauleiter of Reichsgau Sudetenland in Bohemia and Moravia, going on to become one of the milder Nazis, who enjoys personal protection by Hitler; on May 10, 1945 he commits suicide in an Allied internment camp. On May 5 Hungary decides to reduce the Jewish role in their economy to 6% - same as sales tax? On May 12 an Anglo-Turkish mutual assistance pact is announced. On May 15 the Ravensbruck Camp for women is established 50 mi. N of Berlin; German gynecologists use their big chance to experiment with abortion and forced sterilization - seeding the wombs personally? On May 16 London stockbroker (converted Jew) Nicholas "Nicky" Winton (Wertheim) (1909-) writes a letter to Pres. Roosevelt urging him to allow Jewish refugee children from Czech. to emigrate to the U.S.; on June 7 U.S. London embassy official Rudolf E. Schoenfeld responds that the U.S. govt. "is unable, in the absence of specific legislation, to permit immigration in excess of that provided by existing immigration laws." On May 17 George VI and Queen Elizabeth arrive in Quebec on the first visit to Canada by reigning British sovereigns, arriving on June 8, and leaving on June 11 to visit the U.S. On May 17 the British govt. pub. the Woodhouse Partition Plan for Palestine for separating the Arab and Jewish pops. after negotiations with Arabs and Jews fall through; the 1936-9 Arab Revolt in Palestine ends with over 10% of the adult male Palestinian Arab pop. between ages 20-60 killed, wounded, imprisoned, or exiled, i.e., up to 5K killed and 15K wounded, vs. up to several hundred Jews killed. On May 17-June 10 the 1939 British Royal Tour of North Am. sees George VI and Queen Elizabeth tour Canada and the U.S., pissing-off Adolf Hitler, who calls Elizabeth "the most dangerous woman in Europe"; her royal wardrobe was designed by close gay London fashionista Norman Bishop Hartnell (1901-79). On May 19 Churchill signs a British-Russian anti-Nazi pact. On May 22 Hitler and Mussolini sign the Pact of Steel, committing Germany and Italy to a military alliance and forming the Axis powers; ironically, Italy assumes that they would be given three years till the outbreak of a new war to restock supplies lost during the Spanish Civil War. On May 23 the British Parliament decides to make Palestine independent by 1949. On May 23 Hitler proclaims that he wants to move into Poland for a little lebensraum, and orders his high command to prepare to invade it. On June 1 the sub HMS Thetis sinks on her first dive in Liverpool Bay, England, killing 99. On June 2 the Cuban Navy escorts the Jewish refugee ship "voyage of the damned" St. Louis, carrying 937 Jewish passengers fleeing the Nazis out of Havana Harbor; the refugees are later accepted by Belgium, Holland, France, and Britain; meanwhile in May the British Parliament approves a British White Paper restricting Jewish immigration to Palestine over the next five years to 75K, causing the Aliyah Bet (Heb. "Ascent B") of illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine to begin (until May 14, 1948), which the Brits try to stop with a naval blockade of the Palestine coast involving 100K troops and a network of coastal radar stations and long-range patrol planes; captured refugees are put in British prison camps in Palestine, Cyprus, and Kenya; 100K attempt to enter Palestine on 142 voyages in 120 ships, with 50K+ stopped, and 1.6K drowned at sea; on Aug. 3 the 1.5K-ton Tiger Hill sails from Constanta with 750 immigrants, and on Sept. 1 it is fired on by British gunboats off Tel Aviv and beached; on Oct. 3 the steam riverboat Uranus carrying 1.1K immigrants sails down the Danube River from Vienna, and is stopped at the Romanian border and ordered to disembark in Kladovo, Yugoslavia; 915 end up getting caught and killed by the Nazis. On June 7 King George VI and his wife Queen Elizabeth arrive at Niagara Falls, N.Y. from Canada on the first visit to the U.S. by a reigning British monarch; on June 11 they taste their first hotdogs at a party held by FDR. On June 17 Sweden, Norway, and Finland reject a German offer of a mutual non-aggression pact (spawned by a letter by FDR to Hitler suggesting that they feel threatened), preferring rigid neutrality; Denmark, Estonia and Latvia accept the offer. On June 19 the city of Atlanta, Ga. enacts the first legislation in the U.S. prohibiting the use of pinball machines, with a penalty of $20 fine and 30 days work sentence. On June 24 Pan Am makes its first U.S.-to-Britain flight. On June 20 the HE-176, the first jet plane is test-flown at Peenemunde, then demonstrated for Hitler on July 3. In June France cedes the Hatay region around Alexandretta and Antioch to Turkey, pissing-off the Syrians, who stage nationalist demonstrations, causing the French high commissioner to suspend the Syrian constitution along with the Syrian regime put in power in 1936. By June 309K Jews from the German Reich have applied for asylum in the U.S., vying for 27K slots available under the combined German-Austrian-Czech. quota. In June-Aug. Britain, France, and the Soviet Union negotiate a "peace front" to block further Nazi expansion, but a deadlock results after Stalin insists on the right to send troops through Poland in case of German aggression. In the summer the allied nations begin shipping their gold reserves to a new safe vault (built in 1936) in Fort Knox in the U.S., giving it a total of 650M oz., most of the world's supply; after Pearl Harbor the Library of Congress sends valuable documents there stored in copper-lined oak cases, incl. the DOI, Constitution, Gutenberg Bible, Magna Carta, Gettysburg Address, Articles of Confederation, and Lincoln's Inaugural Addresses. On July 4 Nazi thugs beat up the Archbishop of Vienna (since 1932) Theodor Innitzer (1875-1955) - did they use the word crap? On July 7 FDR orders U.S. Rear Adm. Richard E. Byrd to makes his Third Antarctic Expedition in order to head off German claims, and he leaves in Oct., arriving at Little America next Jan., and making four exploratory flights in 5 mo., discovering Thurston Island, several mountain ranges, and 150K sq. mi. of new territory. On July 23 Mahatma Gandhi writes a letter to Adolf Hitler, addressing him "Dear friend", with the soundbyte: "It is quite clear that you are today the one person in the world who can prevent a war which may reduce humanity to a savage state. Must you pay that price for an object however worthy it may appear to you to be? Will you listen to the appeal of one who has deliberately shunned the method of war not without considerable success? Any way I anticipate your forgiveness, if I have erred in writing to you." In early Aug. Italian Count Galeazzo Ciano holds secret conferences with Nazi leaders about Poland. On Aug. 2 after Hungarian-immigrant Jewish physicists Leo Szilard (Leó Szilárd) (1898-1964) (who had produced a nuclear chain reaction in his lab at Columbia U.) and Eugene Paul Wigner (1902-95) (both of whom are put up to it by Niels Bohr) drive to the summer vacation cottage on Old Cove Rd. on Nassau Point in Cutchogue, Long Island (sunniest spot in N.Y.) of pipe-smoking bike-riding Albert Einstein (1879-1955) to persuade him to help the U.S. develop the atomic bomb in the fear that Germany could build one first, asking directions of a 7-y.-o. boy on the street to find him, Szilard explains the concept of a nuclear chain reaction to him, and replies "I never thought of that" (Daran habe ich gar nicht gedacht), then signs the famous Aug. 2, 1939 Letter to Pres. Roosevelt urging the creation of an atomic weapons research program, which after Jewish-Am. economist (friend of Einstein) Alexander Sachs (1893-1973) meets with FDR on Oct. 11 and delivers it becomes the Manhattan Project. On Aug. 6 senior German military personnel meet in Obersalzberg, Germany to plan an invasion of Poland. On Aug. 7 Hermann Goering's friend, Swedish businessman and amateur diplomat Johan Birger Essen Dahlerus (1891-1957) meets in his house in Schleswig-Holstein near the Danish border with seven British businessmen, who tell him that Britain will stand by its treaty obligations to Poland. On Aug. 11 Laurence Adolph Steinhardt (1892-1950), former U.S. ambassador to Sweden (1933-7) and Peru (1937-9) is appointed U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union (until Nov. 12, 1941). On Aug. 19 Soviet commissar for foreign affairs Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (1890-1986) (replacing Maxim Litvinov, whose Jewish background causes a problem when negotiating with Hitler, although he is appointed deputy foreign minister after the war with Germany starts) outlines the Soviet requirements for a trade agreement to German ambassador Count Friedrich Werner von Schulenburg (1875-1944), insisting on a special protocol defining the German and Soviet spheres of interest; meanwhile after evaluating the pace of the non-aggression negotiations with the Soviet Union, Hitler orders the Kriegsmarine to begin the opening operations for Fall Weiss (Plan White), the invasion of Poland; the German pocket battleships Admiral Graf Spee and Deutschland along with dozens of U-boats sail for their advance positions; Hitler spends the next few days worrying that the Russians will not come to terms in time for the rest of the invasion plans to unfold as scheduled? On Aug. 20 the Danzig-Polish Crisis begins (ends Sept. 1) when Nazi Danzig gauleiter Albert Maria Forster (1902-52) publicly announces that the hour of deliverance is near. On Aug. 20 Soviet troops under Gen. Georgi Zhukov deliver a decisive defeat to Japanese forces in Inner Mongolia. On Aug. 21 Germany and the Soviet Union conclude a trade treaty, startling the world; on Aug. 22 the British govt. reiterates its pledges to Poland, and appeals to Germany for a truce in Eastern Europe with negotiation of German claims. On Aug. 22 Adolf Hitler allegedly utters the Armenian Quote to Wehrmacht cmdrs. in his home in Obersalzberg: "Who still talks nowadays of the extermination of the Armenians?" On Aug. 23 King Leopold III of Belgium issues an Appeal for Peace on behalf of Belgium, the Netherlands, and the Scandinavian states, followed on Aug. 24 by another Appeal for Peace by Pope Pius XII; when it all proves of no avail Belgium mobilizes but proclaims neutrality in the Sept. 3 war. On Aug. 24 (Thur.) (early a.m.) the 10-year Nazi-Soviet (Molotov-Ribbentrop) Non-Aggression Pact (dated Aug. 23) is signed in Moscow by Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (1890-1986) and German foreign minister Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (1893-1946), dividing the states of N and E Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence, and splitting Poland in two, pissing-off the West and causing the peace negotiations to be dropped; it calls for mutual non-aggression, plus neutrality if the other party is attacked by a 3rd power; secret protocols, made public years later assign Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Bessarabia to the Soviet sphere of influence; Poland is partitioned along the rivers Narev, Vistula, and San; Germany retains Lithuania, enlarged by the inclusion of Vilnyus (Vilnius). On Aug. 23 the British govt. begins printing 2.45M copies of their Keep Calm and Carry On motivational poster to raise morale in the face of coming air attacks on major cities; too bad, they are kept in cold storage, and few survive. On Aug. 24 after PM Nitwit, er, Neville Chamberlain hastily recalls it, the British Parliament approves an Emergency Powers Bill, giving the govt. power to create defense regs. covering virtually every aspect of everyday life; the Royal Navy is put on a war footing, all leaves are cancelled, and the Naval and coast defense reserves aree called up incl. radar and anti-aircraft units; the last British and French citizens in Germany are ordered home by their respective governments. On Aug. 24 Pres. Roosevelt appeals to King Victor Emmanuel, Adolf Hitler, and Polish pres. (1926-39) Ignacy Moscicki for direct German-Polish negotiations; Poland agrees to third-party conciliation; meanwhile Hermann Goering puts Birger Dahlerus on a plane to tell British foreign secy. Lord Halifax that Germany wants an understanding with Britain. On Aug. 25 Britain and Poland sign an "ironclad guarantee" Mutual Assistance Treaty, and the British parliament meets in special session and votes the govt. dictatorial powers; meanwhile Poland calls up reserves, and the German Foreign Ministry cuts off all telegraph and telephone communication with the outside world in accordance with Fall Weiss; at approx. 18:30 Central European Time after receiving a message from Mussolini that he will not honor the Pact of Steel if Germany attacks Poland, and disappointed that Chamberlain's government has not fallen as a result of the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, Hitler postpones Fall Weiss (scheduled for Aug. 26 at 04:30) for five days; too bad, some units in forward positions don't get the message and attack targets along the border. On Aug. 26 the Kriegsmarine orders all German-flagged merchant ships to head to German ports immediately in anticipation of the invasion of Poland; meanwhile French PM Daladier appeals to Hitler, receiving a reply on Aug. 27 reiterating his demands on Poland while pleading for German-French peace. On Aug. 26 Yugoslavia finally grants Croatia a large degree of autonomy, and announces plans to reorganize Yugoslavia long federal constitutional lines; Croat leader Vladimir Macek is appointed vice-PM. On Aug. 27 German envoy Birger Dahlerus meets in London with Neville Chamberlain, Lord Halifax et al., and gives Germany's offer for Danzig and a referendum on the Polish Corridor in exchange for guaranteeing Poland's borders, which the Poles refuse; on Aug. 28 the British govt. replies, urging a truce and repeating warnings of British action in case of German aggression; on Aug. 29 Joachim von Ribbentrop presents British ambassador to Germany (since May 28, 1937) Sir Neville Meyrick Henderson (1882-1942) with Hilter's final demands in 16 points, refusing to negotiate and calling for the arrival of a Polish plenipotentiary in Berlin within 24 hours (before Sept. 1); on Aug. 30 (p.m.) Polish ambassador (1934-9) Jozef (Józef) Lipski (1894-1958) telephones to arrange a meeting with Ribbentrop, and after admitting that he hasn't been granted plenipotentiary authority, the meeting is refused; the Germans already knew it from intel; German ambassador to Britain (since 1938) Herbert von Dirksen (1882-1955) tells Berlin that Britain will not honor the Anglo-Polish military alliance, and will back down if Germany invades Poland, saying that Neville Chamberlain knows "the social structure of Britain, even the conception of the British Empire, would not survive the chaos of even a victorious war", hence would abandon its commitments to Poland, convincing Adolf Hitler that any German attack on Poland would result only in a localized German-Polish war, not a world war; Dirksen was so anti-Polish that he overstated his case, and after Britain declares war on Germany he is fired; meanwhile British shipping is recalled from the Baltic and Mediterranean, emergency rationing is introduced in Germany, and military preparations proceed on all sides. On Aug. 27 the first Turbojet Airplane, the 4.4K-lb. German Heinkel He-178, powered by a Heinkel S3B turbojet, designed by Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain (1911-98) is test-flown at Marienehe in N Germany by pilot Capt. Erich Warsitz (1906-83); on Nov. 1 it is demonstrated to the German Air Ministry - if they hadn't yawned it off the war might have turned out differently? On Aug. 29 Chaim Weizmann informs England that Palestinian Jews will fight in the upcoming war. On Aug. 30 the Poles partially mobilize. On Aug. 30 a 6-man "cabinet council for defense of the Reich" is set up in Germany, with Hermann Goering as pres. On Aug. 30 Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto (1884-1943) is appointed CIC of the Japanese fleet. On Aug. 31 the Japanese invasion army is driven out of Mongolia by Soviet forces led by Gen. Georgi Zhukov, who destroy the last resistance of the Japanese Sixth Army at Khalkhin Gol. On Aug. 31 the Supreme Soviet ratifies the pact with Germany. On Aug. 31 Operation Himmler (Konserve) (Canned Goods), a false flag assault on a radio station in the frontier town of Gleiwitz, Germany, led by SS Maj. Alfred Helmut Naujocks (1911-66) ("the Man Who Started WWII") sees Nazis shoot concentration camp prisoners dressed as Poles as a political pretext for Germany to invade Poland the next day; on Aug. 31 the German govt. pub. a moderate 16-Point Proposal to Poland, but communications are cut off with Warsaw before it can be transmitted, and Hitler, claiming his proposals have been rejected gives the order to march; on Aug. 31 the British fleet mobilizes, and civilian evacuations of women and children from London begin. In Aug. Marinegruppenkommando West is established by the Germans to conduct naval ops in the Helgoland Bight, North Sea, and Atlantic, with HQ in Sengwarden near Wilhelmshaven; next Aug. the HQ is moved to the Place de la Concorde in Paris. In Aug. the Slattery Report is released by the U.S. Interior Dept., proposing that European Jews be allowed to emigrate to Alaska; despite being supported by FDR it is turned down by Congress - too close to the mainland?

Sanity This Way Johannes Popitz of Germany (1884-1945) Erwin Planck of Germany (1893-1945) Hjalmar Schacht of Germany (1877-1970) German Gen. Georg Thomas (1890-1946) Ulrich von Hassell of Germany (1881-1944) German Gen. Ludwig Beck (1880-1944)

The only sane people left don't have critical mass? In Aug. 1939 monarchist Prussian finance minister (1933-45) Johannes Popitz (1884-1945), businessman Erwin Planck (1893-1945) (son of physicist Max Planck), and Reichsbank pres. (1933-9) Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht (1877-1970) (coiner of the term "Iran" for Persia, which he sold to the shah) approach gen. Georg Thomas (1890-1946), head of the Defence Economy and Armament Office, asking him to do something to thwart the outbreak of war, getting him to write a memorandum to his superior Gen. Wilhelm Keitel, head of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, claiming that a war against Poland would set off a world war that Germany could not win owing to massive logistics problems; Keitel tries to allay Thomas' fears by telling him that the Führer was planning no such war; next year Planck, Popitz, diplomat Christian August Ulrich von Hassell (1881-1944), and German chief of staff (1935-8) Ludwig August Theodor Beck (1880-1944) draft a provisional constitution on the assumption that the West will overthrow Hitler, ending up getting executed for the July 20, 1944 Plot.



The World Turns

Is this where I come in? On Sept. 1, 1939 (4:40 a.m.) (dawn) (Fri.) World War II (ends Sept. 2, 1945) (#2 of ?) begins when Germany invades Poland in a blitzkrieg with 2K tanks and 1K planes, starting with salvos from the battleship SMS Schleswig-Holstein aimed at the Polish garrison in Gdansk (Danzig), while Albert Maria Forster (1902-52) proclaims the reunion of Danzig and Germany; at 8:00 a.m. Swedish diplomat Birger Dahlerus is told by Hermann Goering that Poland attacked Germany first, proving that "they never meant to attempt to negotiate"; at 12:30 p.m. Dahlerus telephones undersecy. Lord Cadogan in London, who submits his comments to the Cabinet, who reply that they will only negotiate after German forces withdraw from Poland; at 10 a.m. Adolf Hitler delivers his Happy to Invade Poland Speech at the Kroll Opera House, justifying his aggression as not really being that, with the soundbyte: "I am from now on nothing more than the first soldier of the Reich. I have once more put on the coat that was most sacred and dear to me. I will not take it off again until victory is assured, or I will not survive the outcome" - famous last words? On Sept. 1 about 20 min. after airing "Mickey's Gala Premiere", BBC-TV suspends operations for the imment outbreak of WWII. On Sept. 1 Finland announces its neutrality. On Sept. 1 an 8 p.m. curfew is announced for Jews in Germany. On Sept. 1 Britain and France mobilize while expressing readiness to negotiate if German forces are withdrawn from Poland; the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) arrives in France. On Sept. 1 Italy and Yugoslavia declare their intention of remaining neutral. On Sept. 1 Switzerland proclaims neutrality, while its parliament grants special wartime authority to the Federal Council as a precaution. On Sept. 1 Polish marshal Edward Rydz-Smigly (1886-1941) is elevated to CIC of the Polish army - so he can get all the blame? On Sept. 1-5 the Battle of Tuchola Forest in Poland is a German V. On Sept. 2 (a.m.) German aircraft bomb the railway station at the Polish-Silesian border town of Kolo near Kalisz, hitting a refugee train from Jarocin and Krotoszyn, killing 111; the Polish govt. reports that 130 incl. 12 soldiers have been killed in air raids on Warsaw, Gydnia and other towns; the Germans capture it on Sept. 18. On Sept. 2 Italy proposes a 5-power conference to discuss the Polish situation, but Britain refuses to negotiate while Germans remain on Polish soil; Britain and France send an ultimatum, to which Hitler replies with a note blaming Britain for encouraging the Poles in a policy of provocation and persecution and rejecting demands for withdrawal; Hitler didn't really want war? On Sept. 2 the Stutthoff Concentration Camp 34km E of Danzig is established. So who really started it, Germany or Britain? On Sept. 3 (Sun.) (9 a.m.) British ambassador to Germany (since May 28, 1937) Sir Nevile Meyrick Henderson (1882-1942) (who cabled the Foreign Officer in London in Feb. with the message: "If we handle him [Hitler] right, my belief is that he will become gradually more pacific, but if we treat him as a pariah or mad dog we shall turn him finally and irrevocably into one") delivers Britain's final ultimatum to the Reich's Foreign Ministry to stop the invasion, giving two hours to make up their mind; at 10:50 a.m. Birger Dahlerus telephones the British Foreign Office with a proposal from Hermann Goering to fly to London to negotiate, which is rejected; at 11 a.m. as the German army continues to crush the poorly-equipped Poles, Britain declares war on Germany, then six hours later (5 p.m.) France declares war on Germany, followed by Australia, New Zealand, South Africa (Sept. 6), and Canada (Sept. 10); on Sept. 3 Hitler makes his Fuck the British Proclamation to the German people, declaring his resolve to defy the British "war inciters" who have "for centuries pursued the aim of rendering the peoples of Europe defenseless against the British policy of world conquest by proclaiming a balance of power, in which Great Britain claimed the right to attack on threadbare pretexts and destroy that European State which at the moment seemed most dangerous"; despite loud support of Germany by the Italian press, Italy surprises the world by maintaining neutrality?; Germany immediately interns thousands of Brits, and eventually releases most of them; Britain immediately interns 74K German, Austrian, and Italian citizens, mostly Jews, but they are released within 6 mo. On Sept. 3 Winston Churchill becomes first lord of the admiralty (until May 11, 1940). On Sept. 3 three Waffen-SS Death's Head (Totenkopf) Regiments (24K men) sent by Hitler to Poland under Gen. Theodor Eicke (1893-1943), with orders to "incarcerate or annihilate" every enemy of Nazism, along with more orders to SS Gen. Udo Gustav Wilhelm Egon von Woyrsch (1895-1983) to carry out the "radical suppression of the incipient Polish insurrection in the newly occupied parts of Upper Silesia" in order to impose permanent German rule over Poland begin having their fun, burning the village of Truskolasy to the ground and shooting 55 pleasant Polish peasants incl. a 2-y.-old child; at Wieruszow 20 Jews are rounded up and shot, incl. 64-y.-o. Israel Lewi and his daughter Liebe, who is told to open her mouth for "impudence" and shot in the mouth; more German bombers attack the defenseless town of Sulejow, containing 9.5K Poles and Jews, machine-gunning those who flee to the woods. On Sept. 3 the German Kriegsmarine begins its campaign against British merchant shipping with 17 U-boats; on Sept. 3 British liner SS Athenia is mistakenly sunk by German sub U-30 under limping, er, lame, er, Capt. Fritz-Julius Lemp (1913-41) off the coast of Ireland as it heads home to Montreal from Liverpool carrying 1,103 passengers, killing 112 incl. 28 Americans, becoming the first British passenger liner sunk by a Nazi sub; the Germans attempt to stage a coverup of their boo-boo, Hitler himself claiming that Churchill had planted a time bomb in it; Am. actress Judith Evelyn and her producer hubby Andrew Allan survive; Russian-Am. TV inventor Vladimir K. Zworykin is scheduled to leave London on the ship, but instead goes shopping for a tuxedo after he left his in Beirut earlier, and misses it?; FDR makes a radio broadcast with the soundbyte: "Let no man or woman thoughtlessly or falsely talk of America sending its armies to European fields. At this moment there is being prepared a proclamation of American neutrality." On Sept. 3 Spain proclaims neutrality in the Danzig and Poland conflict, and remains neutral throughout WWII. On Sept. 3 Greece proclaims neutrality. On Sept. 3 (Bloody Sun.) the Nazis murder 1K Poles, incl. several dozen boy scouts at Bydgoszcz, Poland; on Sept. 23-24 they return and kill 800 more Poles, esp. intellectuals and leaders; since Sept. 23 is Yom Kippur, they force several thousand Polish POWs into the synagogue and make them relieve themselves then clean up their mess with Jewish prayer shawls and other holy items. On Sept. 3 the British govt. orders the London Zoo and other public parks to shut down; most of the animals are shipped to the new Whipsnade Zoo Park in Dunstable Downs, Bedfordshire, England, founded by the British Zoological Society, giving animals and birds max. possible freedom; meanwhile venomous animals are killed for safety. On Sept. 3 (eve.) Adolf Hitler leaves Berlin on his private train car Amerika to enjoy his big V in Poland, living on it for the next two weeks. On Sept. 3 (night) Operation Western Air Plan 14 by the British govt. drops 13 tons of anti-Nazi leaflets from 10 aircraft on the Ruhr Valley, with the soundbyte: "Your rulers have condemned you to the massacres, miseries and privations of a war they cannot ever hope to win"; on Oct. 1 (night) British bombers drop leaflets accusing the Nazi leaders of secreting huge sums of money overseas; after 1 mo. 97M leaflets are printed, and 31M dropped, but public skepticism about the efficacy of the "Confetti War" causes 39M to be pulped. Scarzone, now with green tea? On Sept. 3-May 10 the Sitzkreig (Sitting War) (Phony War) disappoints big battle fans because there is very little action on the Western Front, the French hiding behind their Maginot Line and the Germans behind their Siegfried Line (Westwall), limiting fighting to night clashes by opposing patrols; meanwhile the Atlantic is a riot? On Sept. 4 German troops storm into the Free City (since 1920) of Danzig (Gdansk) and annex it to Germany. On Sept. 4 the Mir Ghetto in Poland is exterminated; the Czestochowa Massacre sees the Nazis order Jews to hand over all their property to Aryans, killing 1K. On Sept. 4 the British RAF stages its first bombing raid of the war over Germany at Wilhelmshaven, losing five of 10 bombers after failing to damage any ships; four bombs are accidentally dropped on Esbjerg, Denmark; RAF pilot Herbert Brian Lightoller (b. 1917), son of Charles Lightroller, senior officer to survive the 1912 sinking of the Titanic is KIA. On Sept. 4 the U.S. organizes the Neutrality Patrol to track and report the movements of any warlike operations of belligerents in the waters of the W hemisphere, assisting British Royal Navy vessels in convoying merchant shipping across the Atlantic Ocean; to augment the fleet, the U.S. Navy recommissions 77 destroyers and light minelayers from Philadelphia and San Diego; in practice they aid the Brits by shadowing German vessels and radioing their locations in clear text. On Sept. 4-6 the Battle of Piotrkow Trybunalski is a V for the Polish army, which is ordered to retreat, allowing the Germans to occupy it; 1K are killed by bombing in the neighboring town of Sulejow; on Sept. 5 the Nazis ethnically cleanse Piotrkow Trybunalski (Piotrykov) (Petrokov) (Petrikau), setting fire to Jewish homes then shooting anybody running from them; on Sept. 14 the Nazis enact a 5:00 p.m. curfew, with shoot on sight as the penalty; on Oct. 8 after 28K Jews from the surrounding countryside crowd in, the Germans declare it a ghetto, becoming the first; on Oct. 28 they seal it. On Sept. 5 the U.S. proclaims neutrality in WWII, issuing a pres. proclamation making it a crime for a U.S. citizen to join a warring power's military or hire someone to take them across the border to enlist in a foreign military, which doesn't stop eight U.S. pilots, AKA the Knights of the Air from flying for the RAF to defend Britain from the Nazis - that's our spirit of service? On Sept. 5 after South African PM (since 1924) James Barry Hertzog advocates neutrality towards Nazi Germany and is deposed by a party caucus, former PM (1919-24) Jan Christiaan Smuts (1870-1950) becomes PM of South Africa again (until 1948), and his govt. rejects legislation which would make it neutral in WWII; on May 28, 1941 Smuts, who served with Winston Churchill in WWI is appointed a British Field Marshal, becoming the irst South African to hold the rank. On Sept. 5 German troops cross the Vistula River in Poland, and on Sept. 6 capture Jew-filled Cracow (Krakow) while Herr Hitler is observing the capture of a Polish corps at Tuchola Forest. On Sept. 5 German U-boats sink five unarmed merchant ships, four British and one French; British ship HMS Ajax sinks two German merchant ships after they fail to stop when ordered. On Sept. 6 the first WWII German air attack on Great Britain takes place. On Sept. 6 after they battle a German tank unit, 19 Polish officers are shot after surrendering at Mrocza, Poland - Geneva has no power over us Nazis? On Sept. 6 South Africa declares war on Germany. On Sept. 6 Chaim Weizmann, pres. of the World Zionist Org. pub. a letter in The Times of London giving full backing to the war against Germany, which the Germans use to label all Jews in Germany as potential enemy agents. On Sept. 7 Poland's Westerplatte naval forces surrender to the Germans, while Polish CIC Edward Rydz-Smigly and most of the govt. evacuate Warsaw as it comes under German attack, reaching Brest by Sept. 11, from where he orders that Warsaw be defended at all costs; the Poles are able to hold Warsaw and nearby Modlin Fortress for months, but the bulk of Polish forces waiting at the Romanian bridgehead for the promised counterattack by French and British forces are stood up. On Sept. 7 France invades Germany in Operation Saar, marching into the Cadenbronn and Wendt Forest at Saarlouis, Saarbrucken, and Zweibrucken and driving 5 mi. into Germany while meeting little or no opposition. On Sept. 7 two convoys of merchant ships are established by the British to counter those *!?! German U-boats, one from the Thames into the English Channel into the Atlantic, the other from Liverpool into the Atlantic. On Sept. 7 Hitler orders army CIC Gen. Brauchitsch not to interfere with Storm of the SS operations in Poland; SS chief Reinhard Heydrich tells his men "The Polish ruling class is to be put out of harm's way as far as possible. The lower classes that remain will not get special schools, but will be kept down in one way or another"; an SS battalion executes 33 Polish civilians in Ksiazki (Hohenkrich), Poland. On Sept. 7 despite a brave defense, the Germans take Pabianice, Poland, opening the road to Lodz. On Sept. 7 the first meeting of the new Land Forces Committee of the British War Cabinet sees new first lord of the admiralty Winston Churchill propose pumping the army up to 20 divs. by Mar.; their report gives them 12 mo., with 35 divs. by the end of 1941, predicting that the war will last at least three years. On Sept. 8 Pres. Roosevelt declares a "limited national emergency" in response to the outbreak of war in Europe. On Sept. 8 after enthusiastic Nazi Party member Lt. Gen. Walther Karl Ernst August von Reichenau (1884-1942) leads the German 10th Army into Poland, his Fourth Panzer Div., commanded by Maj. Gen. Georg-Hans Reinhardt (1887-1963) reaches the suburbs of Warsaw, entering on Sept. 9; after his XXXXI Panzer Corps becomes one of three that break through the Ardennes and W to the sea in May 1940, Lt. Gen. Reinhardt is promoted to full gen. on June 1, 1940, going on to lead Army Group to Leningrad in Oct. 1941, leading the Third Panzer Army to the outskirts of Moscow, valiantly fighting and retreating and taking command of Army Group Center on Aug. 16, 1944, fighting while retreating through Poland back to Prussia, only to be forced into retirement in Jan. 1945 after he disagrees with Der Fuhrer - it's not just how you're covered, it's how you're treated? On Sept. 8 the SS drive several hundred Jews into a synagogue in Bedzin, Poland, then set it on fire, killing 200; on Sept. 9 the Germans charge other Jews with the crime, executing 30 - let's have some fun? On Sept. 18-14 the Nazis capture the port city of Gydnia, Poland near Danzig; on Oct. 16 all Jews are ordered to leave. On Sept. 9 after refusing to have the letter J stamped on his passport, German Jewish jurist Gerhard Leibholz (1901-82) escapes Germany with his wife (the twin sister of Dietrich Bonhoeffer) and two daughters to Switzerland. Speaking of treatment? On Sept. 9 630 Czech political prisoners arrive from Bohemia in Dachau Camp N of Munich; ? survive. On Sept 9 German Col. (later quartermaster-gen. of the Wehrmacht) Eduard Wagner (1894-1944) meets with army chief of staff Gen. Halder, writing in his diary: "It is the Fuhrer's and Goering's intention to destroy and exterminate the Polish nation. More than that cannot even be hinted at in writing." On Sept. 9-19 the Battle of the Bzura River (Kutno) near Poznan sees 19 Polish divs. defeated by the Germans, who take 170K Polish POWs along with all of W Poland. On Sept. 10 Canada declares war on Germany. On Sept. 10 the Battle of the Atlantic begins (ends May 8, 1945). On Sept. 10-27 the Germans savagely bomb Warsaw; on Sept. 14 German planes bomb Nalewki, the Jewish quarter of Warsaw (pop. 393K, one-third of the total pop.) on the Jewish New Year while the synagogues are full. On Sept. 10-11 (night) German sub Triton mistakenly torpedoes British sub HMS Oxley near Stavanger, Norway, becoming the first British naval loss of WWII; coincidentally, on July 5 the 3rd USS Triton submarine is laid down in Portsmouth, N.H. On Sept. 11-14 the Battle of Przemysl sees the Germans enter the S Polish city of Przemysl on the San River, home to 17K Jews (one-third of the pop.), arresting, beating, and shooting 43 leading Jewish citizens. On Sept. 12 Adm. Andrew Browne Cunningham (1883-1963) is appointed CIC of British naval forces in the Mediterranean until 1942, then becomes allied naval cmdr. in the Mediterranean under Gen. Eisenhower, getting a promotion to adm. of the fleet in 1943. On Sept. 12 after visiting the front line in Poland and finding out about German atrocities against civilians, German Adm. Wilhelm Franz Canaris (1887-1945) visits Hitler's HQ train in Ilnau, Upper Silesia to protest, but after talking to armed forces high command chief Gen. Wilhelm Keitel and being told that every German army command in Poland is being appointed a civilian chief in charge of "racial extermination", he chickens out. On Sept. 13 the SS Death's Head Brandenburg Div. begins its "cleansing and security measures" program, arresting and shooting large numbers of "suspicious elements, plunderers, Jews, and Poles", cleansing 13 towns in the next two weeks. On Sept. 14 the Nazis shoot five Jews and two Poles in Sieradz, Poland; in Piotrkow, Poland the Nazis enact a 5:00 p.m. curfew, with shoot on sight as the penalty. On Sept. 15 Polish sub Orzel arrives in Tallinn, Estonia after escaping the German invasion of Poland. On Sept. 15 Hitler watches German forces cross the San River in Poland in close pursuit of the bombed-silly Polish army at Jaroslaw. On Sept. 15 Charles Lindbergh gives his first Nonintervention Speech, telling listeners to look beyond the surface and see who is behind the scenes (pesky international Jews, hint hint?), and that the U.S. is a global island with a natural hemispheric defense and therefore should stay out of Europe's wars and take care of itself, starting a duel with FDR that ends with the Pearl Harbor attack on Dec. 7, 1941. On Sept. 17 after Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov, using a secret clause in the Aug. 23 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact creating a demarcation line, announces that the Polish govt. has ceased to exist, the Soviet Union invades Poland from the E, taking 217K Polish POWs and occupying E Poland within a week with losses of 737 dead and 2K wounded, while the Polish army retreates toward Romania to avoid a fight; on Sept. 18 Polish CIC Edward Rydz-Smigly crosses the Romanian border and is interned, resigning on Oct. 27, while large numbers of Polish troops cross S Europe and regroup in France, ending up in Britain when France surrenders, and many others remain to form a Polish underground; the invasion prompts the French on Sept. 30 to withdraw from Germany to the Maginot Line in anticipation of a German counterattack; the only French offensive of WWII lasts 14 days. On Sept. 17 after being launched in Apr. then suspended for the invasion of Poland, a meeting is held in the Army Ordinance HQ in Berlin to relaunch the German A-bomb Project, led by physicists Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901-76) and Carl Friedrich von Weizsacker (Weizsäcker) (1912-2007), based in Strasbourg. On Sept. 17 (night) British aircraft carrier HMS Courageous is sunk off SW Ireland by German sub U-29 under Capt. Otto Schuhart (1909-90), killing 518 of 1,202. On Sept. 18 Am.-born Irish-raised pro-Nazi Lord Haw-Haw (William Joyce) (1907-46) debuts as the radio host of Reichsrundfunk Berlin, becoming as popular as the BBC in Britain with his signature "Germany calling, Germany calling", and message that Britain should give up; he renewed his British passport less than 1 mo. earlier - you had me at haw-haw? On Sept. 18 at Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp distinguished German journalist Karl Hermann Dietrich Lothar Erdman (b. 1888) is savagely beaten to death for complaining about ill-treatment of fellow prisoners - the German Foot Amendment? On Sept. 19 the Wehrmacht murders 100 Jews in Lukow, Poland; in May 1941 a large Jewish ghetto for 12K is created, and liquidated by the end of 1942. On Sept. 19 Hitler makes a triumphal entry into Danzig to cheering crowds, and gives an address at the Artus Court of the Danzig Guild Hall, complaining that the Russians are already marching into Poland, and that Warsaw is still in Polish hands, uttering the soundbyte: "I have given the German Luftwaffe the order to fight this war humanely, which means that they will attack only fighting troops"; he also utters the soundbyte: "The moment might very quickly come for us to use a weapon with which we ourselves could not be attacked." On Sept. 20 British PM Neville Chamberlain claims that at least six U-boats have been sunk in the first fortnight of the war. On Sept. 20 after the troops of the German Fourteenth Army grow uneasy with the atrocities of the SS in Poland, Field Marshal von Rundstedt tells them that they are no longer welcome in the war zone, and to cease anti-Jewish operations in the Katowice area, which they ignore. On Sept. 20 after moving to the holiday resort town of Zoppot, Poland and meeting with Reich chief medical officer Leonardo Conti (1900-45), taking a page from his hit book "Mein Kampf" ("He who is bodily and mentally unsound may not perpetuate this misfortune in the bodies of his children"), craziest of them all Adolf Hitler signs the Euthanasia Decree, written by psychologist Max de Crinis (1889-1945), authorizing euthanasia of mental patients in Germany (backdated to Sept. 1) (ends Aug. 23, 1941), which causes 50K-80K incl. many babies to be murdered by 1941; this on top of the 2M sterilized in this decade by his regime; the Nazis set up Aktion T-4 (Aktion T4) a program of "racial hygiene" to "cleanse" all German citizens with alleged intellectual or physical disabilities from the German body, with HQ at Tiergartenstrasse 4 in Berlin (Gen. Foundation for Welfare and Institutional Care); the program is run by Philip Bouhler (1899-1945) (head of Hitler's private chancellery) and Karl Brandt (1904-48) (Hitler's personal physician), and Brandt's asst. Werner Heyde (Fritz Sawade) (1902-64), and carries out human experimentation as well as murder; "The idea is unbearable to me that the best, the flower of our youth must lose its life at the front in order that feebleminded and asocial elements can have a secure existence in the asylum" - Hermann Pfannmuller (Pfannmüller) (1886-1961) - where do I sign up? On Sept. 21 after Reinhard Heydrich holds a conference with his Special Task Force, telling them about the big plan to cleanse W Poland of Jews and herd the rest into walled-off ghettos in big cities, with the "ultimate aim" of the "final solution of the Jewish question" to take "a prolonged period of time", the first Judenrat Jewish admin. bodies for liaison with the Nazis are formed in Poland; on Nov. 18 Nazi gov.-gen. of Poland (1939-45) Hans Frank (1900-46) organizes more Judenrat councils of elders; in Nov. after student demonstrations, he orders all Czech. univs. closed, and on Nov. 24 the Gestapo executes 120 students accused of anti-Nazi activities; Frank also orders all Czech gypsies (Roma) to settle permanently within 2 mo. On Sept. 21 SS chief Reinhard Heydrich meets with high Nazis in Berlin to discuss the Einsatzsolution (Final Solution) of the Jews, and goes on to organize murder squads (Einsatzgruppen) to acccompany the military - Jew stew, anyone? On Sept. 22 petrol rationing is introduced in Britain. On Sept. 23 all Jews in Germany have their radios confiscated. On Sept. 23 the German admiralty decrees that all French and British ships stopped by a U-boat must shut off their radio or face sinking or capture. On Sept. 23 Austrian Jewish pshrink Sigmund Freud (b. 1856) dies in London - couldn't stand it psychologically? On Sept. 24 German U-boats sink a Swedish steamer, a British cargo boat, and three U.K.-bound neutral merchant ships. On Sept. 25 Churchill claims that the U-boat menace has been overcome; the same day U-48 (which is never damaged until it is scuttled at the end of the war) sinks the 5K-ton merchant steamer SS Royal Sceptre and casts its crew adrift 300 mi. from land - pardon me while I go to the bathroom and suck on my fingers? The original mouse that roared? On Sept. 25 Andorra and Germany finally sign an official treaty ending WWI after the 1919 Versailles Peace Treaty failed to incl. Andorra. On Sept. 25 (night) the Germans launch Operation Coast, an incendiary bomb attack on stubborn Warsaw, which drops 72 tons, burning a large part of the city down; meanwhile what's left of the Polish army holds out in Modlin 20 mi. NW of Warsaw, and the Hel Peninsula near Danzig. On Sept. 27 (2 p.m.) after the German Eighth Army attacks on Sept. 26 and refuses an offer of a truce from the 140K Polish defenders, Warsaw surrenders to the Nazis; 140K POWs are taken incl. 36K wounded; after waiting three days (scared of disease?), on Oct. 1 the German army enters the city after demanding 10 Christian and two Jewish hostages, then sets up soup kitchens for the starving pop., shutting them down as soon as a film crew gets some footage; on Oct. 1 the last Polish troops surrender in the Hel Peninsula, while three Polish subs and three destroyers escape to Britain; the fighting ends with 694K Polish POWs taken by the Germans and 117K by the Russians; 60K Polish soldiers were KIA along with 25K Polish civilians vs. only 14K German soldiers; on Oct. 5 Hitler attends the Nazi victory march through the city's rubble after 100K women and children have been massacred; a huge banquet is held at the airfield, with stolen Polish delicacies as the main fare; as he is about to fly back, Hitler tells foreign journalists: "Take a good look around Warsaw - that is how I can deal with any European city"; Reinhard Heydrich becomes head of the new Reich Main Security Office (RSHA); Poland is defeated by Oct. 6. On Sept. 29 (5 a.m.) the Fourth Partition of Poland begins as the German-Soviet Boundary and Friendship Treaty is signed, supplemented by secret protocols to amend the secret protocols of Aug. 23; Lithuania is reassigned to the Soviet sphere of influence; after Stalin draws the new border on a map, Poland's partition line is moved E from the Vistula River line to the line of the Bug River, putting 22M Poles under German rule, and causing the German troops that had to move back to the Vistula River when the Russians invaded to return to the Bug River; 300K+ Jewish refugees are trapped in E Poland under Soviet control; in return for receiving Lvov and the nearby oil wells of Drohobycz, the Soviets promise Germany 300K tons of oil a year; Germany keeps a small part of SW Lithuania, the Uznemune region; on Oct. 29 the Soviet Union and Estonia sign a treaty of mutual assistance giving the Soviets the right to station 25K troops in Narva, Baltiski, Haapsalu, and Parnu; on Oct. 5 a defense pact is signed with Latvia allowing 30K Soviet troops to be stationed there; on Oct. 10 Lithuania signs a treaty allowing 20K Soviet troops to be stationed; after Stalin decides that since it still uses the Cyrillic rather than Latin script to write Romanian it must have deep Russian roots, Bessarabia is annexed back as the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Repub. On Sept. 30 Polish gen. Wladyslaw Eugeniusz Sikorski (1881-1943) sets up a Polish govt. in exile in Paris. On Sept. 30 Hitler issues top secret Fuhrer Directive No. 5, instructing that his new Polish borderlands "be constantly strengthened and built up as a line of military security towards the East", with "the garrisons necessary for this purpose eventually moved forward beyond the political frontier of the Reich"; it also orders the war at sea to be carried on against France and England, with ships "definitely established as being hostile" attacked without warning, along with those which use their wireless after being stopped; after sinking a merchant ship, it "must be justified in the war diary as due to possible confusion with a warship or auxiliary cruiser". On Sept. 30 after being imprisoned in Romania and pressured by France, Polish pres. (since 1926) Ignacy Mosici (1867-1946) resigns and moves to Geneva, Switzerland, where he rides out the war; Wladyslaw Raczkiewicz (1885-1947) becomes pres. of the Polish govt. in exile in London until his death on June 6, 1947, watching the British sell him out for Stalin at the Feb. 1945 Yalta Conference, who convinces them that only a strong pro-Soviet Polish govt. can guarantee Soviet security. On Sept. 30 German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee sinks British merchant ship SS Clement, making 185K tons of Allied shipping sunk in Sept. By Sept. 282K Jews have left Germany, plus 117K more from Austria; 95K went to the U.S., 60K to Palestine, 40K to Britain, 18K to Shanghai, and 75K to Central and South Am., mainly Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Bolivia. By fall the U.S. economy is booming from orders from Europe for armaments - nasty Zionist and capitalist jokes here? In Sept. Gen. George Catlett Marshall (1880-1959) becomes U.S. Army chief of staff (until 1945), becoming the 2nd in that position not to come out of West Point (Va. Military Inst.); the army only has 200K men in it now, but it grows to 8M by the end of the war. In Sept. Philip Henry Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian (1882-1940) is appointed British ambassador to the U.S. (until Dec. 12, 1940), exceeding Winston Churchill's instructions by breaking the news to the U.S. public that Britain is bankrupt and needs massive amounts of U.S. aid to continue fighting Germany, forcing FDR's hand and making him propose the Lend-Lease Program. In Sept. 21-y.-o. Irene (Irena) Gut (1918-2003) is captured with her Polish military unit by Soviet soldiers, who beat and rape her and make her work in a Soviet field hospital, after which she escapes to Radom, Poland next year, and is captured by the Germans, who send her to slave in a munitions factory, where she hooks ups with 70-y.-o. German army maj. Eduard Rugemer, who gets her a cushy job in a hotel kitchen, after which they work together to hide 12 Jews in his gazebo and in the forest for the rest of the war, while she gives him nooky. Nerds win in Chi town? In the fall the U. of Michigan plays the U. of Chicago at Stagg Field in Chicago and wins by a score of 85-0; the next day UC pres. (1929-45) Robert Maynard Hutchins (1899-1977) bans jock-friendly football and turns the stadium over to nerdy scientists, who go on to create the first atomic pile. In Sept. as WWII starts, British Intelligence stages a coup by arresting most German agents in Britain; Oxford history prof. Sir John Cecil Masterman (1891-1977), who was a POW in Ruhleben Camp in WWI is made chmn. of the Twenty Committee, which runs the Double-Cross (XX) System, turning German spies in Britain into British agents, starting with Welshman Arthur Graham Owens (White) (1899-1957) (codename Snow), who tricks the Nazis into believing that he has set up a large spy network in Wales and is about to stage Plan Guy Fawkes to poison the reservoirs - we're just two animals? In Sept. the Pepsi jingle "Pepsi-Cola hits the spot; Two full glasses, that's a lot; Twice as much for a nickel too; Pepsi-Cola is the drink for you! (Nickel nickel nickel nickel, trickle trickle trickle trickle)" makes its debut in between radio announcements of the war. Nostradamus from the Sky? In the fall Joseph Goebbels' wife introduces him to the 1568 ed. of the gloomy prophecies of Nostradamus (1503-66), convincing him to have the Propaganda Ministry hire Swiss astrologer Karl Ernst Krafft (1900-45) to reproduce passages from them, and starting in May 1940 drop them from aircraft in France to convince the French that Hitler won't attack SE France in an attempt to open up the roads to Paris and the Channel ports; British Intelligence, headed by German Roman Catholic astrologer Louis de Wohl (1903-61) (who later has a private audience with the pope and begins writing historical novels about Roman Catholic saints) responds by spending £80K on retaliatory propaganda consisting of fake Nostradamus quatrains, which they drop over France and Belgium until 1943; Krafft immediately gains status among the Nazis by predicting the attempt on Hitler in Nov., using Nostradamus' Century VI, Quatrain 51. In Sept.-Oct. 50K Polish journalists, univ. professors and military officers are executed, 20K by the Nazis, 30K by the Soviets. On Oct. 3 Winston Churchill utters his coolest soundbyte, calling the Soviets a "riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma" - and that spells the acronym RIME? On Oct. 5 Soviet foreign minister V.M. Molotov invites Finnish foreign minister Juho Eljas Erkko (1895-1965) to Moscow for political discussions; the Finns delay the meeting until Oct. 12 while Field Marshal (since 1933) Carl (Karl) Gustaf (Gustav) Emil von Mannerheim (1867-1951) prepares Finland for war, mobilizing on Oct. 9, and erecting the Mannerheim Line on the Russian border; on Oct. 12-Nov. 8 Finnish special envoy Juho Kusti Paasikivi (1870-1956) negotiates in Moscow, refusing to allow the establishment of Soviet military bases, and offering counterproposals on Oct. 23; the talks are broken off on Nov. 13, and the Soviets denounce the Soviet-Finnish Non-Aggression Treaty (renewed Apr. 7, 1934). On Oct. 4 Hitler signs a secret amnesty for all SS men detained by the army for brutality against civilians. On Oct. 5 Hitler's envoy, Swedish businessman Johan Birger Esen Dahlerus (1891-1957) meets with British foreign secy. Lord Halifax, telling Hitler on Oct. 9-10 that Britain demands restoration of Polish statehood, disarmament of the German army, and a plebiscite in Germany on Hitler's foreign policy; Hitler demands Germany's right to fortify its new frontier with Russia, and return to Germany of its pre-WWI colonies "or suitable substitute territories". The opera, the opera, we all like the opera? On Oct. 6 Hitler gives a speech at the Kroll Opera House, blaming the Poles for their ills and pardoning himself for conquering them, and suggesting negotiations with the West, with the soundbyte: "Why should this war in the West be fought? For the restoration of Poland? The Poland of the Versailles Treaty will never rise again"; he also utters the soundbyte: "Destiny will decide. One thing is certain, in the course of world history there have never been two victors, but very often only vanquished." On Oct. 8 Hitler signs a decree annexing Polish frontier regions to Silesia and East Prussia, incl. West Prussia, Poznan, Upper Silesia, and the former free city of Danzig, creating Greater East Prussia, Danzig West Prussia, and Posen; on Oct. 12 the remainder of German-occupied Poland incl. Warsaw, Cracow, Radom, and Lublin is organized as the Generalgouvernement (Gen. Govt.) under a civilian gov.-gen. with capital in Cracow, demoting Warsaw; on Oct. 17 admin. control of Poland is taken from the army by Hitler, who gives it to senior Nazi Party leaders, incl. Albert Maria Forster (1902-52), who becomes gov. of Danzig West Prussia, Arthur Karl Greiser (1897-1946), who becomes gov. of Posen, and fellow scumbag lawyer Hans Frank (1900-46), who becomes gov.-gen. of the Gen. Govt., uttering the soundbyte: "Poland shall be treated like a colony. The Poles will becomes the slaves of the Greater German Empire"; Danzig West Prussia and Posen are to be transformed into "pure and Germanic provinces in full bloom". On Oct. 8 RAF reconnaissance planes shoot down a German flying boat over the North Sea. On Oct. 8 the SS shoots 20+ Poles incl. several children in Swiecie, Poland in front of 150 German soldiers, causing army protests to Hitler, which causes him to rant about the "childish ideas" of his army's leaders, saying that one cannot fight wars "with the methods of the Salvation Army". On Oct. 9 in the midst of negotiations with Britain, Hitler issues a secret directive to army CIC Gen. Keitel for Operation Yellow, an offensive "in greatest possible strength" against France and Belgium through Luxembourg, Belgium, and Holland, "to serve as a base for the successful prosecution of the air and sea war against England", and to create a "wide protective area" for the Ruhr; on Oct. 10 he tells top military cmdrs. that the goal is "the destruction of the power and ability of the Western powers ever again to oppose the state consolidation and further developments of the German people in Europe", adding that "by no treaty or pact can a lasting neutrality with Soviet Russia be ensured with certainty", and what they need is a "prompt demonstration of German strength", hence the attack in the West can not begin "too early", and should happen "in all circumstances, if at all possible, this autumn". On Oct. 14 Winston Churchill visits allegedly secure deep water anchorage Scapa Flow in Scotland, where the British battle fleet is anchored; the same day German U-boat U-47 under Capt. Gunther (Günther) Prien (1908-41) slips through and sinks HMS Royal Oak, killing 833, and then escapes undetected, causing Churchill to order the construction of concrete barriers; Prien is personally awarded an Iron Cross by Hitler. On Oct. 16 British fighter pilots shoot down two German bombers over the E coast of Scotland, becoming the first shot down over home territory. On Oct. 16 British warships HMS Southampton, HMS Edinburgh, and HMS Mohawk are damaged. On Oct. 17 SS field divs. are given judicial immunity from the army; SS men can only be tried by their own superiors. On Oct. 17 after finding two old cartridge cases from his partridge shooting days in his home, Father ? Pawlowski (b. 1869) of Chocz, Poland is savagely beaten and executed by the Gestapo, and ordered to be buried in a Jewish cemetery by Jews. On Oct. 18 the Jewish star of David is required to be worn by Jews in Poland. On Oct. 18 Pres. Roosevelt bans war subs from U.S. waters and ports. On Oct. 18 Hitler's Fuhrer Directive No. 7 authorizes German U-boat attacks on passenger ships "in convoy, or proceeding without lights". On Oct. 19 Reichsmarshal Hermann Goering begins plundering art treasures throughout Nazi-occupied areas. On Oct. 20 the first German Balts fleeing the Soviets in Estonia arrive in Danzig. On Oct. 21 the Luftwaffe starts attacks against North Atlantic convoys, sinking four more British ships on Oct. 25. On Oct. 21 the British War Cabinet holds its first meeting in the Underground War Room in London. On Oct. 21 Hitler gives a secret speech to senior Nazi Party officials, with the soundbyte that once he's taken care of France and Britain, he will turn his attention to Russia "and show who was the master there" after defeating their poorly-trained ill-equipped army, after which he will "set about restoring Germany to how she used to be." On Oct. 22 the Germans begin deporting Jews from Poznan (Posen), largest city in W Poland, with 250K Jews. On Oct. 25 Hans Frank announces that Polish Jewish males ages 14-60 are to be forced into work service; by the end of the year there are 28 work camps near Lublin, 21 near Kielce, 14 near Warsaw, 12 near Cracow, and 10 near Rzeszow, all with harsh conditions and near-starvation pay. On Oct. 27 Canadian Brig. Gen. Henry Duncan Graham "Harry" Crerar (1888-1965) arrives in London to establish a Canadian military HQ, becoming chief of staff next year. On Oct. 28 anti-German demonstrations and strikes take place in Czech. On Oct. 28 Heinrich Himmler issues a Procreation Order to his SS men to father Aryan supermen soldiers for future wars, establishing the Lebensborn (Ger. "Fount of Life") stud farm system which houses young fertile Nordic girls whose children are raised in maternity homes with special benefits. On Oct. 28 a Spitfire shoots down a German Heinkel-111 over Humbie, Scotland, killing 2 of 4, becoming the first German aircraft of the war shot down on British soil; crewmembers Rolf Niehoff and Kurt Lehmkuhl are captured and made POWs. On Oct. 30 German sub U-56 (which never suffers any damage until it is scuttled at the end of the war) fails in an attack on the English battleship HMS Nelson W of the Orkney Islands with Winston Churchill (1874-1965), Dudley Pound and Charles Forbes aboard; on Dec. 4 Nelson is damaged by a magnetic mine off Loch Ewe. On Oct. 30 after massacring 24 Poles on Sept. 7, the Nazis have Trick or Treat fun with some Jews in Gmina Turek, Poland, forcing them into the synagugue and making them crawl and sing while being whipped, then take down their trousers for spanking; when one shits his pants in fear, he is forced to smear it over the faces of the others; Gen. Johannes Albrecht Blaskowitz (1883-1948) protests to Hitler, with no results. On Nov. 2 Joseph Goebbels visits Lodz, Poland, home of 200K Jews, and comes away respecting their differences, er, writing: "It is indescribable. They are no longer people, but beasts. There is therefore not a humanitarian, but a surgical task. Here one must make a radical incision, otherwise Europe will be ruined by the Jewish sickness." On Nov. 3 96 schoolteachers are rounded up, arrested, and shot by the Gestapo in Rypin, Poland; on Nov. 15 two Jewish cemeteries are destroyed in Rypin, and the Nazis resettle the Jews to Warsaw; some escape to the Soviet Union where they are deported to Siberia. On Nov. 3 the U.S. Congress at FDR's urging ends their arms embargo, repealing provisions in the 1937 Neutrality Act forbidding shipment of arms to belligerent nations (except Germany of course) and granting of economic credits to them, setting up the Anglo-French Purchasing Board in Washington, D.C., led by British-born Canadian industrialist Arthur Blaikie Purvis (1890-1941). On Nov. 5 after dumping on Gen. Walther von Brauchitsch for his "defeatist" spirit for mentioning wet weather, limit daylight hours for flying, poor morale et al., Hitler sets Nov. 12 as the big date for the attack on the Wicked Witch of the West, causing Gen. von Brauchitsch and Gen. Franz Halder to begin talking about overthrowing the Bavarian bum; on Nov. 7 after a bad weather report Hitler postpones the attack, which is lucky because traitors in the ranks Gen. Hans Oster (1887-1945) and Paul Thummel (Thümmel) (1902-45) (who both work for Adm. Canaris) leak it. On Nov. 6 the Gestapo seizes all 184 profs. and lecturers at Cracow U. and sends them to Sachsenhausen Camp, where 17 die from torture. On Nov. 7 Lodz, Poland is incorporated into the Third Reich as the city of Litzmannstadt in honor of WWI Gen. Karl Litzmann (1850-1936); on Nov. 15 they begin destroying all the Jewish synagogues, creating a sealed ghetto in 1940 that they systematically starve, killing 5K in the first half of 1941 - new Roundup Puff and Go kills the weeds, not your hands? On Nov. 8 the Beer Hall Assassination Attempt on Hitler at the annual 1923 Munich Beer Hall Putsch memorial at the Burgerbraukeller fails after Hitler and party members leave for Berlin unexpectedly 8 min. early, and a bomb planted inside the pillar behind where he is speaking explodes, killing seven and injuring 60+, with Hitler calling it "corroboration of Providence's intention to let me reach my goal"; watchmaker Johann Georg Elser (1903-45) (who had been held at Dachau Camp as a Commie sympathizer then released) is captured trying to cross the Swiss border at Konstanz, and convicted, uttering the soundbyte: "I wanted through my act to prevent more bloodshed"; he is sent to Sachsenhausen as Hitler's "special prisoner" to be made a special example of after the war, until the looming defeat causes his quick execution on Apr. 9, 1945 in Dachau. On Nov. 8 50 Polish officer POWs are marched through the resort town of Ciechocinek, Poland then shot. On Nov. 9 the Venlo Incident sees the SS under Col. Helmut Knochen (1910-2003) kidnap British intel agents Capt. Best and Maj. Stevens after they are lured over the Dutch-German border at Venlo, giving them an excuse to invade Holland for abandoning its neutrality; the mastermind is Alfred Naujocks of Gleiwitz radio station fame. On Nov. 9 the Germans begin expelling all 170K Jews living in German-controlled regions of Poland, forcing them to abandon what they can't carry, incl. 120K from Posen (renamed Warthegau), 35K from Danzig West Prussia, and 15K from East Upper Silesia; 1K+ Polish intellectuals are arrested in Warsaw; "As a trustee of the German cause in this country, with the express order to Germanize it afresh, it will therefore be my task to do everything possible to remove every manifestation of Polonism within the next few years, no matter what the kind" (Albert Forster). On Nov. 11 (Polish Independence Day) after blowing up the monument to Polish hero Thaddeus Kosciuszko in Lodz on Nov. 9, the Germans celebrate Polish unindependence by marching past the rubble; meanwhile 350 Poles are taken from the Gydnia labor camp and shot in Wejherowo after being forced to dig their own graves, going down shouting "Long live Poland", incl. Sister Alice Maria Jadwiga Kotwska (b. 1899). On Nov. 12 Norman Bethune (b. 1890), a surgeon from Canada who only works in needy Socialist countries dies in N China from blood poisoning from a cut while working with the Chinese rev. army; later Chmn. Mao pub. an essay in memory of him and makes it required reading, and a statue is erected and a hospital and medical school are named in his honor. On Nov. 13 two German supply ships are scuttled when cornered by the British navy. On Nov. 14 Winston Churchill informs the British War Cabinet of the new German secret veapon of magnetic mines, which on Nov. 13 almost sunk British minelayer HMS Adventure in the Thames Estuary, killing 23; on Nov. 19 they sink two British, one French, one Swedish, and one Italian merchant ship; on Nov. 20 they sink British minesweeper Mastiff; on Nov. 22 the Germans parachute more magnetic mines into the Thames Estuary, but goof and drop one on land near Shoeburyness E of London, allowing it to be reverse-engineered; on Nov. 23 Hitler tells his generals that although they will soon attack Belgium, Holland, and France, Britain doesn't need to be invaded because it "could be forced to her knees by the U-boat and the mine"; on Nov. 24 the British Admiralty announces the completion of a 300 sq. mi. minefield from the Thames Estuary to the Netherlands; on Nov. 28 the British begin a naval blockade of all German export shipments in the North Sea, causing Hitler on Nov. 29 to issue Fuhrer Directive No. 9, with the soundbyte: "In our fight against the Western Powers, England has shown herself to be the animator of the fighting spirit of the enemy, and the leading enemy power. The defeat of England is essential to final victory", adding that the most effective means is "to cripple the English economy at decisive points", incl. "holding a sector of the coast across from England" and "carrying the war" to English industry by naval blockade, mining, and air bombardment of ports and industrial sites; on Dec. 19 the British Admiralty devises a demagnetization coil to wrap around a ship and render the mines less effective. On Nov. 15 Stalin reduces the size of the permanent border fortified areas with Germany by one-third; on Nov. 21 after advice by Gen. Kulik, he decides to disband all Soviet tank corps to allow the cavalry to take over. On Nov. 16 the SS under odious Jew-hating Maj. Gen. Odilo Lotario Globocnik (1904-45) burns the Jewish Academy in Lodz (#1 in Poland) along with all its books, the fire lasting 24 hours while the Jews assemble and weep and the German military band plays to the joyful shouts of soldiers to drown them out. On Nov. 16 Kiwi pilot Edward James Kain (1918-40) shoots down a German bomber at a record alt. of 27K ft. On Nov. 16 a German U-boat torpedoes the tanker Sliedrecht off Ireland. On Nov. 17 Britain and France agree to coordinate their economic efforts. On Nov. 17 after protests against the Nazi occupation of the Czech homeland, the Nazis storm the U. of Prague and murder nine graduate students and send 1.2K to concentration camps, closing all Czech univs., causing Internat. Students' Day to be observed. On Nov. 18 Dutch KNSM passenger ship Simon Bolivar hits an "unnotified" German mine in the North Sea, killing 86. On Nov. 18 the Irish Repub. Army (IRA) explodes three bombs in Picadilly Circus in London. On Nov. 18 380 Jews are shot in Ostrow Mazowiecka, Poland; Hitler is personally informed of it by Heinrich Himmler. On Nov. 21 PM Neville Chamberlain imposes an embargo on all German trade in retaliation for the sinking of neutral ships. On Nov. 22 after a Jew kills a Polish policeman, 53 Jews from No. 9 Nalewki St. in Warsaw are executed by the Germans, becoming the first mass killing of Jews in Warsaw; they first offer to ransom them, but when the money is given to them by the Jewish Council they announce it's too late and keep it. On Nov. 23 Hans Frank in Cracow announces that all Jews age 10+ must wear a 4-in. white armband marked with the Star of David "on the right sleeve of their inner and outer clothing"; in Warsaw the star must be blue; the penalty is imprisonment. On Nov. 23 German battle cruiser Scharnhorst sinks British armed merchant cruiser HMS Rawalpindi in the Iceland Gap, killing 270 of 308. On Nov. 25 the Nazis report sinking four British ships in the North Sea, but London denies it. On Nov. 25 Erhard (Eberhard) Wetzel and Gerhard Hecht of the Racial Political Office in Berlin send a 40-page memo titled The Issue of the Treatment of Population in Former Polish Territories from a Racial-Political View to top Nazi leaders incl. Heinrich Himmler,outlining Generalplan Ost for ethnic cleansing and German colonization, stressing how medical care should be "limited to the prevention of the spreading of epidemics to Reich territory", and how the births of new Poles "must be curtailed in every possible way"; "We are indifferent to the hygienic fate of the Jews"; "We should exclude from deportations racially valuable children and raise them in old Reich in proper educational facilities or in German family care. The children must not be older than eight or ten years, because only till this age we can truly change their national identification, that is 'final Germanization'. A condition for this is complete separation from any Polish relatives. Children will be given German names, their ancestry will be led by special office." Don't mess with Santa Claus? On Nov. 26 the Soviets accuse Finland of an artillery attack on their border town of Mainila, which they shelled themselves (false flag attack); on Nov. 28 the Soviet Union scraps its non-aggression treaty with Finland; on Nov. 29 Soviet planes bomb an airfield at Helsinki; on Nov. 30 (a.m.) the Soviets invade Finland with 26 divs. totalling 465K men, later increased to 4 armies, 50 divs., 1M men, 2485 tanks, and 2K guns, vs. 9 divs. and 130K men for the Finns, starting the Russo-Finnish Winter War; the Soviets have 1K+ planes, vs. 150 clunkers for the Finns; on Nov. 30 the Soviets bomb Helsinki, killing 61; on Dec. 2 Tass announces the establishment of a People's Govt. of Finland; the Finnish army fights back on the frontiers, inventing the Molotov Cocktail to fight Soviet tanks; on Dec. 3 the Finns appeal to the League of Nations, causing it to expel the Soviet Union on Dec. 14 and issue a plea to give the Finns all possible aid; on Dec. 7 the Battle of Suomussalmi begins (ends Jan. 8) with the capture of Suomussalmi by the Soviet 163rd Div.; on Dec. 25 Finnish troops counterattack in -35C temps and drive the Soviet 54th and 163rd Divs. back into their own territory, killing 25K, causing Soviet Brig. Gen. Alexey Vinogradov to be executed for failure, while silly ass Finnish Col. Hjalmar Fridolf Siilasvuo (1892-1947), inventor of the Motti (encirclement) tactic is promoted to gen. and sent to command Finnish troops pinned down at Kuhmo; on Jan. 1 the Battle of Raate Road sees Finnish troops repel a Soviet attack by Jan. 7 after massive help from France and other nations, along with volunteers; the Finns go on to hold out against the Soviet Union for 104 days (until Mar. 12, 1940), using the heavy forests, cold winter, and neat white snow uniforms with skis to even the odds - Herr Hitler misses the lesson? On Dec. 1 Reichsfuhrer-SS Heinrich Himmler orders the deportation of Polish Jews - to special chicken farms? On Dec. 2 New York City's North Beach (later La Guardia) Airport in Queens begins operations as an airliner from Chicago lands at one minute past midnight. On Dec. 2 British Imperial Airways and British Airways merge to form British Overseas Airways Corp. (BOAC), Britain's state airline. On Dec. 2 the German liner Watussi is scuttled after interception by South African Defence Force bombers and shelling by HMS Renown. On Dec. 3 the RAF scores direct hits on German warships at the Heligoland Bight naval base. On Dec. 4 German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee sinks the Blue Star liner Doric Star in the S Atlantic. On Dec. 5 two Polish subs escape from the Baltic Sea to join the British Royal Navy. On Dec. 6 Germany warns neutral ships to resist the British blockade. On Dec. 7 Britain announces the sale of 30 fighter aircraft to Finland. On Dec. 8 two more U-boats are reported to have been destroyed as the British campaign to destroy three a week continues. On Dec. 8 the Germans shoot 31 Poles incl. six Jews in Warsaw for "acts of sabotage". On Dec. 11 all Polish Jews living under the jurisdiction of the Gen. Govt. are ordered to serve two years of forced labor, with an extension "if its educational purpose is not fulfilled". On Dec. 12 German liner SS Bremen (built 1929) reaches safe port after the British sub HMS Salmon gives warning under the rules of war. On Dec. 13 after it sinks three British merchant ships in five days, the Battle of the River Plate in the S Atlantic begins when German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee is hunted down by British cruisers HMS Achilles, HMS Ajax, and HMS Exeter, who score 50+ hits on it, resulting in serious damage to both sides, with Exeter rendered a blazing hulk and the Graf Spee withdrawing to the Uruguayan capital Montevideo for repairs; on Dec. 15 the Uruguayan govt. gives the Graf Spee 36 hours to leave harbor; on Dec. 17 unable to complete repairs within the 24 hour time-limit stipulated by internat. law for foreign warships in neutral ports to leave, and under strict orders by OKM not to go into internment in Uruguay, Capt. Hans Langsdorff (1894-1939) takes his ship outside Montevideo and scuttles it; on Dec. 20 Langsdorff commits suicide, shooting himself in a hotel room wrapped in a German naval flag - the German Luger salute? On Dec. 14 1.5K Polish Jews are deported from Poznan to the Gen. Govt., and told to bring all the luggage they want; when the train leaves the Nazis decouple the luggage wagons. On Dec. 17 the first 7.5K Canadian troops arrive in Britain on five escorted passenger liners, all volunteers. On Dec. 19 the German Navy launches 7.9K-ton armed cruiser Atlantis (Schiff 16) (Raider C), converted from a freighter with a set of false flags to lure Allied merchant ships close enough to sink or capture. On Dec. 19 Hans Frank writes the soundbyte in his diary: "We canot shoot 2,500,000 Jews, neither can we poison them. We shall have to take steps, however, designed to extirpate them in some way - and this will be done." On Dec. 21 Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich name Adolf Eichmann leader of Referat IV B, the group in charge of transport of Jews for the Final Solution. On Dec. 21 Stalin's 60th birthday arrives, and on Dec. 20 Hitler sends him a telegram: "Best wishes for your personal well-being as well as for the prosperous future of the people of the friendly Soviet Union"; Stalin replies: "The friendship of the peoples of Germany and the Soviet Union, cemented by blood, has every reason to be lasting and firm." On Dec. 22 a train collision in Genthin, Germany near Magdeburg kills 136 and injures 101, becoming the worst railway accident in German history (until ?); on Dec. 22 another 99 are killed in a 2nd train wreck near Friedrichshafen, Germany, becoming the first and only major railroad accidents of the decade - which M:I episode was that? On Dec. 25 the British admiralty announces the completion of a minefield 500 mi. long and 35 mi. wide down the E coast of Britain. On Dec. 25 (Xmas) Guiness Brewery of Dublin provides every member of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in France with a free bottle of Guinness Stout. On Dec. 26 (night) the Wawer Massacre near Warsaw sees 170 men and boys rounded up after two German soldiers are killed by two Polish common criminals evading arrest; after 160 are executed, the last 10 are forced to bury them. On Dec. 28 German industrialist Friedrich "Fritz" Thyssen (1873-1951), a longtime financial backer writes a Letter to Adolf Hitler, dissing him for concluding a pact with the Soviets, with the soundbyte: "Your Propaganda Ministry even dares to state that the good Germans who voted for you, the professed opponents of Communism, are, in essence, identical with those beastly anarchists who have plunged Russia into tragedy and who were described by you yourself as 'bloodstained common criminals'." On Dec. 30 Hitler delivers a speech at the Berlin Sportspalast, with the soundbytes: "British history is a ceaseless row of rapes, of extortions, of tyrannical abuse, of subjugation, of pillage. There are many things that would be unthinkable in any other state and in any other people. War was declared for everything. War was waged to increase trade. War was waged to get other peoples addicted to opium. War was also waged, when necessary, to win gold mines, to attain power over diamond mines"; "So I praise Mr. Churchill. He speaks openly what the old Mr. Chamberlain only silently thought and hoped. He says it: our goal is the dissolution of Germany. Our goal is the destruction of Germany. Our goal is the extinction, if possible, of the German people. We want to beat Germany"; "When has Britain ever respected women and children? The whole blockade war is deliberately against women and children. The war against the Boers was solely against women and children. That was when the concentration camp was invented. This idea was born of a British brain. We only researched it in the encyclopedia and later copied it, only with one difference: Britain locked women and children in these camps, and over 20,000 of the Boers' women died pitiably." Former Hungarian PM (1920-1) Count Pal Teleki (1879-1941) becomes PM of Hungary again (until 1941). Impressionist dramatist Jean Giraudoux (1882-1944) becomes chief of propaganda for France. After giving a speech with the soundbyte "We National Socialists have monopolized all resources and all our energies during the past seven years so as to be able to be equipped for the supreme efforts of battle", booze-swigging Robert Ley, head of the German Labor Front (DAF) (the most corrupt Nazi org.?), who in 1937 caused a scandal by greeting the Duke and Duchess of Windsor while soused is sidelined in favor of armaments minister Fritz Todt (1891-1942), 1938 founder of the Organisation Todt (OT) to build the Siegfried Line (West Wall), using "guest workers" then slave labor, leaving the worker force free to join the military. The village (kibbutz) of Dan (Jacob's 5th son) is founded in NE Israel on the site of an ancient town on the N side of Israelite territory. The Mikoyan-Gurevich (MiG) Design Bureau in the Soviet Union is founded by Armenian Artem Ivanovich Mikoyan (1905-70) and Jewish Russian Mikhail Iosifovich Gurevich (1893-1976) to design fighter aircraft, which become known as "MiGs", starting with the MiG-1 high alt. fighter (first flight Apr. 5, 1940), of which only 100 are built, followed by the MiG-3 (first flight Oct. 29, 1940), of which 3,172 are built by 1941. The Nazis ban all performances of Wagner's Parsifal. After the German occupation, Polish Jewish heroine Irena Sendler (1910-2008) helps smuggle 2.5K Jewish children out of the Warsaw Ghetto with fake IDs before being caught in 1943 and evading execution by paying off the guards. The United Jewish Appeal is founded by William Rosenwald (1903-96) (son of Sears, Roebuck & Co. chmn. Julius Rosenwald) et al. to provide funds for Jewish refugees in Europe and Palestine. Frank Buchman reforms the Oxford Group as Moral Re-Armament. The Jehovah's Witnesses in Switzerland, who had been targeted by the Nazi and Catholic elements and almost shut down for distributing "trashy literature" in 1936, distribute millions of copies of their booklet Fascism or Freedom, which calls Hitler "a representative of Satan", and exposes the Roman Catholic hierarchy for "working hand in glove with the Fascists", causing the Swiss govt. to come down on them and ban the booklet, after which the JWs sneak their remaining copies into neighboring Liechtenstein. Halifax, N.S. in Canada becomes a main base for convoys to/from Europe in WWII (until 1945). Swedish YMCA rep. (atty.) Henry Soderberg (Söderberg) (-1998) begins visiting German POW camps in N Germany incl. Stalag Luft III, providing extensive free amenities incl. libraries, sports equipment, musical instruments for a band and orchestra, and religious items needed by chaplains, becoming known as "the Welcome Swede"; it later becomes the scene of the Great Escape (filmed in 1963); he also visits Oflag 64, home of U.S. POW J. Frank Diggs (later a U.S. News and World Report journalist), who pub. The Welcome Swede: The True Story of a Young Man Who Brought Hope to Thousands of Nazi Germany's Prisoners of War (1988). A Swedish legislator nominates Adolf Hitler for the Nobel Peace Prize, but withdraws it later in the year. The Am. Nazi Party is founded in the U.S., gaining 200K members? Balloons are first used as barriers against aircraft attacks in Britain. German sex hormone scientist Adolf Butenandt (1903-95) shares the Nobel Chem. Prize with Croatian-born Swiss chemist Leopold Stephen Ruzicka (1887-1976), but the Nazis prevent him from claiming it until 1949 - gray hair stinks? McDonnell Aircraft Corp. in St. Louis, Mo. is founded by James Smith "Mac" McDonnell (1899-1980), going on to produce the F-4 Phantom II and the Mercury and Gemini space capsules, and later the F-15 Eagle and F/A-18 Hornet; in 1967 it merges with Douglas Aircraft Co. of Long Beach, Calif. Former Douglas Aircraft. Co. chief engineer John Knudsen "Jack" Northrop (1895-1981) founds Northrop Corp., pioneering the flying wing (tailless aicraft). After emigrating to Germany in 1933 and trying unsuccessfully to get a high govt. job from his uncle Adolf Hitler, then fleeing to the U.S., Liverpool, England-born William Patrick "Willy" Houston (nee Hitler) (1911-87) pub. Why I Hate My Uncle in Look mag.; he goes on to enlist in the U.S. Navy after special action by FDR. Netherlands-born Am. journalist Pierre van Paassen (1895-1968) pub. Days of Our Years, a bestseller covering his journalistic travels to several countries showing the pre-WWII maneuvers of Europe's empires; "On the other hand, against the evil of Germany's collapse stood the alternative of giving Adolf Hitler, under a Four-Power accord, carte blanche to break out of his dangerous isolation by clearing himself a road through Czechoslovakia to the oil and wheat fields of Rumania, thus putting him in possession of the wherewithal to risk a war of long duration with the Soviet Union. For it is Russia, which Herr Hitler, by a stroke of the pen, has relegated to Asia, that is to provide Germany with the markets and colonies she lacks at present. In this way Germany's pressure on the Western imperialisms will be lessened, and at the same time the intolerable burden of carrying the Reich's colossal war machine will be shifted, at least partially, from the shoulders of the German people to those of the prospective colonial tribes in the Muscovite plan." Inventions: On Aug. 27 the first Turbojet Airplane, the 4.4K-lb. German Heinkel He-178, powered by a Heinkel S3B turbojet, designed by Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain (1911-98) is test-flown at Marienehe in N Germany by pilot Capt. Erich Warsitz (1906-83); on Nov. 1 it is demonstrated to the German Air Ministry - if they hadn't yawned it off the war might have turned out differently? After Joseph Stalin issues the 1936 Ivanov Order for an aircraft capable of performing recon and bombing, the Sukhoi Co. (originally Sukhoi Design Bureau OKB-51) in Moscow, Russia is founded by Tupolev employee Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi (1895-1975) to manufacture military aircraft, starting with the Sukhoi Su-2 light bomber (first flight Aug. 25, 1937). The Nazis invent the Haunebu Anti-Gravity Engine for their flying saucers? Sir John Turton Randall (1905-84) of Birmingham, England invents the Cavity Magnetron microwave transmitter in Nov., which is 1000x more powerful than previous transmitters, becoming the basis of radars and microwave ovens - winning the Battle of Britain?

Country Leader From To
United States of America Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) Mar. 4, 1933 Apr. 12, 1945 Franklin Delano Roosevelt of the U.S. (1882-1945)
United Kingdom Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940) May 28, 1937 May 10, 1940 Neville Chamberlain of Britain (1869-1940)
United Kingdom George VI (1895-1952) Dec. 11, 1936 Feb. 6, 1952 George VI of England (1895-1952)
Soviet Union Joseph Stalin (1878-1953) Apr. 3, 1922 Mar. 5, 1953 Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union (1878-1953)
China Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975) Dec. 11, 1939 May 31, 1945 Chiang Kai-shek of China (1887-1975)
Canada William Lyon Mackenzie King (1874-1950) Oct. 23, 1935 Nov. 14, 1948 William Lyon Mackenzie King of Canada (1874-1950)
France Albert Francois Lebrun (1871-1950) May 10, 1932 July 10, 1940 Albert Lebrun of France (1871-1950)
Germany Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) Aug. 2, 1934 Apr. 30, 1945 Adolf Hitler of Germany (1889-1945)
Italy Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) Oct. 31, 1922 July 25, 1943 Benito Mussolini of Italy (1883-1945)
Italy Victor Emmanuel III (1869-1947) July 29, 1900 May 9, 1946 Victor Emmanuel III of Italy (1869-1947)
Spain Francisco Franco (1892-1975) Apr. 1, 1939 Nov. 20, 1975 Francisco Franco of Spain (1892-1975)
Mexico Lazaro Cardenas (1895-1970) Dec. 1, 1934 Nov. 30, 1940 Lazaro Cardenas of Mexico (1895-1970)
Papacy Pope Pius XII (1876-1958) Mar. 2, 1939 Oct. 9, 1958 Pope Pius XII (1876-1958)

Franklin Delano Roosevelt of the U.S. (1882-1945) Sir Winston Churchill of Britain (1874-1965) Joseph Stalin of the Soviet Union (1879-1953) French Marshal Henri-Philippe Petain (1856-1951) Charles de Gaulle of France (1890-1970) Hugh Dalton of Britain (1887-1962) Leo Amery of Britain (1873-1955) German Gen. Kurt Student (1890-1978) German Gen. Johannes Albrecht Blaskowitz (1883-1948) Dunkirk, May 26-June 4, 1940 Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) in Paris, June 23, 1940 Battle of Britain, July 10, 1940 12 New German Field Marshals, July 19, 1940 Walter Frentz of Germany (1907-2004) French Gen. Pierre Hering (1874-1963) Vidkun Quisling of Norway (1887-1945) Josef Terboven of Germany (1898-1945) Hans Frank of Germany (1900-46) Franz Rademacher of Germany (1906-73) 'Welcome to Auschwitz' Sign Zyklon B Geman SS Gen. Richard Glücks (1885-1945) German Gen. Wilhelm Mohnke (1911-2001) Fritz Todt of Germany (1891-1942) Polish Capt. Witold Pilecki (1901-48) St. Paul's Cathedral, Dec. 29, 1940 Sir Hugh Dowding of Britain (1882-1970) British Field Marshal Lord Gort (1886-1946) British Gen. Victor Morven Fortune (1883-1949) British Gen. Sir Giffard Le Quesne Martel (1889-1958) Pierre Laval of France (1883-1945) Paul Reynaud of France (1878-1966) Georges Mandel of France (1885-1944) Arthur Seyss-Inquart of Austria (1892-1946) German Gen. Erwin Rommel (1891-1944) German Gen. Heinz Guderian (1888-1954) German Field Marshal Walther von Brauchitsch (1881-1948) German Gen. Erich von Manstein (1887-1973) German Gen. Nikolaus von Falkenhorst (1885-1968) German Gen. Walther Warlimont (1894-1976) British Gen. Archibald Wavell (1883-1950) Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis (1891-1969) British RAF Group Capt. Douglas Bader (1910-82) British Adm. Philip Louis Vian (1894-1968) German Adm. Erich Raeder (1876-1960) Richard Hermann Hildebrandt of Germany (1897-1952) Otto Abetz of Germany (1903-58) U.S. Adm. James Otto Richardson (1878-1974) U.S. Adm. Robert Lee Ghormley (1883-1958) U.S. Gen. George Veazey Strong (1880-1946) U.S. Gen. Delos Carleton Emmons (1889-1945) Hans Thomsen of Germany (1891-1968) Mieczyslaw Niedzialkowski of Poland (1893-1940) Wendell Willkie of the U.S. (1892-1944) Charles Linza McNary of the U.S. (1874-1944) Joseph William Martin Jr. of the U.S. 1884-1968) Sumner Welles of the U.S. (1892-1961) Japanese Adm. Yonai Mitsumasa (1880-1948) Prince Fumimaro Konoye of Japan (1891-1945) Gustaf (Gustav) V of Sweden (1858-1950) Wang Jingwei of China (1883-1944) Gen. Peng Dehuai of China (1898-1974) Lavrenti P. Beria of the Soviet Union (1899-1953) Soviet Field Marshal Boris Mikhailovich Shaposhnikov (1882-1945) Soviet Field Marshal Grigory Ivanovich Kulik (1890-1950) Jesse 'the Body' Ventura (1951-) Soviet Field Marshal Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (1895-1970) Soviet Field Marshal Kliment Efremovich Voroshilov (1881-1969) Andrei Zhdanov of the Soviet Union (1896-1948) Manuel Avila Camacho of Mexico (1897-1955) German Capt. Heinrich Bleichrodt (1909-77) Gen. Enrique Peñaranda of Bolivia (1892-1969) Gen. Ion Antonescu of Romania (1882-1946) Italian Gen. Rodolfo Graziani (1882-1955) Jesse Holman Jones of the U.S. (1874-1956) Robert Daniel Murphy of the U.S. (1894-1978) U.S. Gen. Lewis Blaine Hershey (1893-1977) William Francis 'Frank' Murphy of the U.S. (1890-1949) U.S. Gen. Benjamin Oliver Davis Sr. (1877-1970) U.S. Gen. Benjamin Oliver Davis Jr. (1912-2002) British Air Chief Marshal Sir Richard Edmund Charles Peirse (1892-1970) German Adm. Theodor Krancke (1893-1973) French Adm. Jean Louis Xavier Francois Darlan (1881-1942) British Wing Cmdr. Eric James Brindley Nicolson (1917-45) Varian Fry of the U.S. (1907-67) Hiram Bingham IV of the U.S. (1903-88) German SS Gen. Sepp Dietrich (1892-1966) German Gen. Karl Litzmann (1850-1936) German Capt. Hans Jenisch (1913-82) German Lt. Col. Fritz Knöchlein (1911-49) German Prince Wilhelm of Hohenzollern (1906-40) German pilot Werner Mölders (1913-41) Gustav V of Sweden (1858-1950) Miriam Davenport (1915-99) Marian Rejewski (1905-80) Fatima Jinnah of Pakistan (1893-1967) Liaquat Ali Khan of Pakistan (1891-1951) Count Paul Teleki of Hungary (1879-1941) Sir Richard Stafford Cripps of Britain (1889-1952) Paul-Gerhard Braune of Germany (1887-1954) Edmund Aloysius Walsh (1885-1956) Richard Sorge (1895-1944) Vera Atkins of England (1908-2000) Nancy Wake of Australia (1912-) British Capt. Edward Fegen (1891-1940) William Signius 'Big Bill' Knudsen of the U.S. (1879-1948) Sidney Hillman of the U.S. of the U.S. (1887-1946) William 'Wild Bill' Langer of the U.S. (1886-1959) Robert Heinrich Wagner of Germany (1895-1946) Andrei Vyshinsky of the Soviet Union (1883-1954) Leon Trotsky of the Soviet Union (1879-1940) Ramón Mercader (1914-78) Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov of the Soviet Union (1890-1986) Joachim von Ribbentrop of Germany (1893-1946) Avraham Stern (1907-42) Bernard Fay (1893-1978) Alfred Rosenberg of Germany (1893-1946) Sir George Paget Thomson (1892-1975) Sir Henry Thomas Tizard (1885-1959) Georg Charles de Hevesy (1885-1966) Hans von Halban (1908-64) Lew Kowarski (1907-79) William Allen White (1868-1944) Ernest William Gibson Jr. of the U.S. (1901-69) 'The Great Dictator', 1940 Igor Sikorsky (1889-1972) VS-300, 1940 KV-1 Tank, 1940 Charles Emil Sorensen (1881-1968) B-24 Liberator, 1942 D.98 Mosquito, 1940 P-51 Mustang F4U Corsair Clarence Leonard 'Kelly' Johnson (1910-90) David Low (1891-1963) David Low Cartoon 'The Eternal Jew', 1940 Ferdinand Marian (1902-46) in 'Jud Süss', 1940 Kristina Soderblom (Söderblom) (1912-2001) Veit Harlan (1899-1964)

1940 Chinese Year: Dragon. Time Mag. Man of the Year: Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965); next time 1949. The Sixteenth (16th) U.S. Census reports the total pop. as 131,669,275 (7.2% increase - smallest ever) (44.2 per sq. mi), incl. 1.2M native-born Germans, and ? mostly European immigrants, with 5M aliens registered under the Alien Registration Act; whites stay at a record 89.8% of the total pop.; avg. life expectancy: 64 years (up from 49 in 1900); pop. of Washington, D.C.: 665K. Number of Jews remaining in Germany: 202K, plus 57K in Austria. During WWII 200K Allied servicemen endure up to five years in German POW camps, incl. the Birdmen (Birdwatchers) of the German Stalags. The undeclared Japanese war on China causes the Kuomintang Nationalists and the Communists to table their civil war in favor of ousting the Japanese; the Communists have 800K members with a secure base in Yan'an in Shaanxi Province; the Kuomintang are based in Chongqing (Chungking) in Sichuan Province, and mess up by abusing the local pop. while the Communists offer them the moon, and found a univ. at Yan'an to breed anti-Japanese pro-Commie thinkers - facts are not neutral and whoever controls the schools controls the world? On Jan. 1 Hitler issues a New Year's Proclamation to the Nazi Party, with the soundbyte: "The Jewish capitalistic world will not survive the twentieth century." On Jan. 2 after 70 Jews begin starving to death a day in Warsaw, the Polish Gen. Govt. forbids pub. of obituary notices. On Jan. 6 British foreign secy. Lord Halifax warns Norway of its intention to lay mines in Norwegian waters to stop German merchant ships from bringing Swedish iron ore to German ports; they never carry it out. On Jan. 7 the BBC Forces Programme debuts on radio (until Feb. 26, 1944). On Jan. 8 Britain extends food rationing from meat to butter and sugar; meanwhile the last of 316,192 children evacuated to the countryside at the outbreak of the war return to London. On Jan. 8 Benito Mussolini sends a letter to Hitler, asking if it's really worth it to invade Britain when the U.S. will back them, "to risk all - including the regime - and to sacrifice the flower of German generations in order to hasten the fall of a fruit which must of necessity fall and be harvested by us, who represent the new forces of Europe", adding: "The big democracies carry within themselves the seeds of their decadence"; instead, he proposes the compromise of the creation of a Polish state, with the soundbyte: "In Poland and the Baltic it is Russia that has been the great beneficiary of the war, without firing a shot... I am sure that you cannot abandon the anti-Bolshevik and anti-Semitic banner you have brandished for twenty years"; Hitler takes until Mar. 10 to answer, with the soundbyte "Sooner or later, I believe, Duce, that Fate will force us after all to fight side by side." On Jan. 9 Richard Hermann Hildebrandt (1897-1952), SS chief of Danzig West Prussia informs Heinrich Himmler that his men carried out "the elimination of 4,000 incurable patients from Polish mental hospitals", along with 2K German mental hospital patients in Pomerania. On Jan. 10 Hitler sets Jan. 17 as the date for Operation Yellow, the German invasion of the West, starting with saturation bombing of French airfields on Jan. 14; too bad, on Jan. 10 the Mechelen Incident (Affair) sees Maj. Helmut Reinberger crash in Mechelen-sur-Meuse on the Belgian side with operational plans in his briefcase, tipping them off, causing Dutch and Belgian troops to begin mobilizing on the border, which doesn't phase Hitler; on Jan. 16 Hitler postpones the offensive to spring so that he can "count on at least eight days of fine and clear weather". On Jan. 13 despite protests from the Soviets, Sweden agrees to a British request to allow volunteers for the Finnish resistance to pass through their country unarmed and ununiformed. On Jan. 16 former navy minister (1937-9) Adm. Yonai Mitsumasa (1880-1948) (known for his short undecipherable Nambu accent speeches) becomes PM #37 of Japan (until July 22). On Jan. 18 the Gestapo arrests 255 Jews in Warsaw, and shoots them on Jan. 21 in the Palmiry Woods. On Jan. 21 Pope Pius XII broadcasts a speech from the Vatican about the plight of Polish civilians, 15K of whom have died in the war, with the soundbyte: "The horror and inexcusable excesses committed on a helpless and a homeless people have been established by the unimpeachable testimony of eyewitnesses"; on Jan. 23 in another broadcast he condemns the existence of concentration camps and condemns Nazi persecution of the Jews. On Jan. 22 Maj. Gen. Friedrich Mieth (1888-1944), chief of staff of the German First Army tells his officers: "The SS has carried out mass executions without proper trials" which "besmirch" the honor of the German Army; after Hitler is informed, he dismisses him. On Jan. 25 German Polish occupation gov.-gen. (1939-45) Hans Michael Frank (1900-46) issues an order for the remodeling of the Polish economy within his Gen. Govt. "for the immediate reinforcement of the military power of the Reich", with Poland to provide Germany with raw materials and manpower of 1M workers incl. 750K agricultural workers (50% women). On Jan. 27 Winston Churchill gives a speech in Manchester, with the soundbyte: "A hundred thousand Czech workmen had been led off into slavery to be toiled to death in Germany", but this "pales in comparison with the atrocities which... are being perpetrated upon the Poles... We may judge what our fate would be if we fell into their clutches. But from them also we may draw the force and inspiration to carry us forward on our journey and not to pause or rest till liberation is achieved and justice is done.... Come then. Let us to the task, to the toil, each to our part, each to our station... There is not a week, nor a day, nor an hour to lose." On Jan. 29 the Soviets begin secret negotiations in Sweden with Finland to scrap their Commie People's Govt. of Finland in exchange for a longer coastline on the Gulf of Finland and some control of the entrance to protect Leningrad, as well as more control in Karelia; on Jan. 31 it is announced in Helsinki that 377 Finnish civilians have been killed by Soviet air raids in the 2-mo. war. On Jan. 30 Reinhard Heydrich founds the IV-D-4 govt. dept. in Berlin to deport Jews anywhere they want. In Jan. U.S. Adm. James Otto Richardson (1878-1974) is appointed CIC of the U.S. Pacific Fleet, protesting its forward deployment from San Pedro, Calif. to indefensible Pearl Harbor in vain, with FDR telling him, "Jim, you just don't get it"; in Feb. 1941 he is replaced with more trusting Adm. Husband E. Kimmel; FDR deliberately parked most of the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor to lure the Japanese into an attack, and Richardson was fired for objecting? - proof of a conspiracy to juke the U.S. into WWII by luring the Japs into a dumb move? In Jan. after cracking the wirings of the rotors and reflectors at the end of 1932, only to see the design leapfrog ahead of him, Polish mathematician Marian Adam Rejewski (1905-80) cracks a key used for the German Enigma machine last Oct. 28; by Oct. several Enigma keys are cracked, allowing British intel to read secret German messages with regularity, making Rejewski one of the biggest heroes of the war; too bad, he can't talk until 1967. In Jan.-Feb. 250 Gypsy children from Brno are used as guinea pigs in Buchenwald Camp to test Zylkon B, followed by 600 Soviet POWs and 250 Polish POWs in Auschwitz Camp I on Sept. 3, 1941 - it is then either found too slow, messy and dangerous to use for mass exterminations, or used in mass exterminations despite the problems and availability of far easier methods, you can ask but we'll never know? On Feb. 1 the Soviets under Gen. Timoshenko launch a major offensive against the Finnish Mannerheim Line, but are beaten back by Feb. 3; too bad, they regroup and break through on Feb. 8, causing the Finns to establish a new defense line, which breaks on Feb. 13, defeating the pooped Finnish army by Feb. 16, which retreats again. On Feb. 2 German Lt. Gen. Wilhelm Ulex and his superior Gen. Johannes Albrecht Blaskowitz (1883-1948) begin protesting the inhuman brutality of German police in Poland, recommending their disbanding, causing Hans Frank on Feb. 13 to travel to Berlin to get Blaskowitz dismissed in vain, while the police brutality goes on unabated. On Feb. 5 the British and French decide to land troops in Stavanger, Bergen, and Trondheim; too bad, Hitler's intel finds out, and assigns Adm. Theodor Krancke (1893-1973) to counter it; on Feb. 21 Hitler appoints Gen. Nikolaus von Falkenhorst (1885-1968) to lead the invasion of Norway and Denmark. On Feb. 5 FDR appoints William Francis "Frank" Murphy (1880-1949) to the U.S. Supreme Court as justice #81 (until July 19, 1949), bringing the court back up to nine members; the 8-1 U.S. Supreme (Hughes) Court decision in Minersville School District v. Gobitis causes a nationwide outburst of violence against the Jehovah's Witnesses for refusal to salute the U.S. flag, which the court says can be compelled by the state even against religious conscience; the students are expelled - and now can go door-knocking full time? On Feb. 8 Lodz Ghetto is established in Poland; Mar. 7 (Thur.) is Bloody Tuesday; it is sealed on May 1, trapping 160K Jews in Hitler's Hell, with 31,721 apts. and only 725 having running water, along with a dead man wire around it. On Feb. 11 Hitler and Stalin sign the 1940 German-Soviet Commercial Agreement to trade German manufactured goods, armaments, and blueprints and prototypes of advanced military systems (incl. blueprints of the the battleship Bismarck) in return for oil and agricultural products. On Feb. 12 British minesweeper HMS Gleaner under Lt.-Cmdr. Hugh Percival Price (1901-) sinks German sub U-33, recovering three Engima rotors, along with three cypher keys, codenamed Dolphin, Pike, and Oyster; they only succeed in breaking Dolphin, used by surface vessels, but the Germans change it. On Feb. 16 the Altmark Incident sees British destroyer Cossack violate Norwegian neutrality and board German supply ship Altmark, rescuing 299 British POWs after killing four German sailors, then making a mad dash through the Skagerrak to the Baltic Sea, winning Capt. (later Adm. of the Fleet) Philip Louis Vian (1894-1968) a Victoria Cross. On Feb. 16 Jesuit priest Edmund Aloysius Walsh (1885-1956), head of the foreign service school of Georgetown U. gives a speech in Washington, D.C., in which he claims that the war aims of Hitler are a "reestablishment of the Holy Roman Empire" (962-1806 C.E.); after the war, with Hitler destroyed by a U.S.-Soviet Communist alliance, he suggests to freshman U.S. Sen. Joseph McCarthy that he might use the anti-Communist issue to gain political prominence. Is that you, Santa Claus? On Feb. 21 German concentration camp inspectorate dir. SS Gen. Richard Gluecks (Glücks) (1885-1945) informs Heinrich Himmler that he has found a site for a "quarantine" camp for Poles to be punished for disobedience and worked, a former Austrian-Hungarian cavalry barracks composed of brick bldgs. on the outskirts of Oswiecim, Poland, which the Germans rename Auschwitz; Jews are not mentioned. On Feb. 26 the U.S. Air Defense Command is created. In Feb. German exiles (in England) Otto Frisch and Rudolf Peierls discover that an A-bomb can be made with a few kg of U-235, ending the insoluble problem of the need for a moderator for U-238 to slow neutrons down; too bad, the ratio is 0.7% of U-235 to 99.3% of U-238, making chemical separation extremely difficult. On Mar. 4 after the ice hardens, Soviet forces launch a major offensive on Viipuri, Finland, causing PM Risto Ryti to fly to Moscow on Mar. 7 for peace negotiations. On Mar. 5 NKVD head Lavrenti (Lavrentiy) Pavlovich Beria (1899-1953) proposes the execution of all members of the Polish officer corps, which is approved by Stalin, and in Mar. the Katyn Forest Massacre of 4K+ Polish officers by the Soviets (all neatly shot in the back of the neck) takes place, after which the Soviet govt. officially denies it; the Russian govt. doesn't release the archives until 1992, and puts them online in Apr. 2010; another 10K Polish officers are taken to Russia and killed, and their bodies aren't discovered until ?. On Mar. 8 a Polish workman in Cracow is overheard by the Gestapo humming the Polish nat. anthem "Poland Has Not Yet Perished", and shot dead in the street. On Mar. 12 after 27K Finnish and 58K Russian troops are KIA in the 105-day Winter War, defeated Finland signs the Moscow Peace Treaty with the Soviet Union, leasing the Hango Peninsula to Russia for 30 years, and giving up territory which on Mar. 31 becomes the Karelian Soviet Socialist Repub., known for having 60K lakes; on Mar. 14 the British War Cabinet cancels Operation Wilfred, a plan to invade Narvik, Norway and seize 1.5M tons of iron ore waiting to be shipped to Germany, then seize the iron ore fields at Gallivare (Gällivare), Sweden for fear of driving the Norwegians and Swedes into the arms of the Germans. On Mar. 15 two British bombers drop 6M-7M leaflets on Warsaw; on return, one lands by mistake in Germany but takes off again safely. On Mar. 16 15 German bombers attack the British fleet anchored at Scapa Flow naval base N of Scotland, damaging heavy cruiser Norfolk, killing three officers, and killing a civilian watching the raid at his cottage door; after Winston Churchill utters the Mar. 18 soundbyte: "There was considerable feeling in the country that while the Germans used bombs we only dropped leaflets", on Mar. 19 50 British bombers attack the German seaplane base in Hornum on Sylt Island, but fail to do any damage; one plane bombs Bornholm Island by mistake. On Mar. 16 after Pope Pius XII urges negotiations to decentralize Germany and hold a plebiscite in Austria, along with "a regime change and an avowal of Christian morality", a small group of Germans incl. Gen. Ludwig Beck, Col. Hans Oster, and ex-Leipzig mayor Carl Goerdeler hold meetings, which go nowhere under the iron grip of the Nazi regime. On Mar. 17 Dr. Fritz Todt (1891-1942) is appointed Reich minister for weapons and munitions, using his slave labor force to arm the Notsick, er, Nazi war machine. On Mar. 18 Adolf "night train" Hitler and Benito "makes the trains run on time" Mussolini meet at the Brenner Pass in the Alps at the Italian-German border, and after Hitler monopolizes the conversation, starry-eyed Il Duce agrees that Italy will join the war, although he tries to lobby for a 3-4 mo. postponement of German's Western offensive, which Hitler pooh-poohs, saying that once France is defeated Britain will come to terms; he never actually gives Mussy notice of his attack on the West, or his plans to invade Norway, but peppers him with letters dissing the French and British for spinelessness. On Mar. 20 Edouard Daladier is ousted, and Paul Reynaud (1878-1966) becomes PM #118 of France (until June 16), meeting with Neville Chamberlain a week later in London to sign a joint declaration that neither country will sign a separate peace with Germany; he privately lobbies the British to take the Swedish iron ore fields after a diversionary action in Norway, and to bomb Soviet oilfields in the Caucasus to cut off Germany's oil supply. and to bomb Soviet oilfields in the Caucasus to cut off Germany's oil supply. On Mar. 30 a puppet Chinese govt. headed by Wang Jingwei (1883-1944) ("the Chinese Quisling") is established in Nanjing by the Japanese. On Apr. 3 Hungarian PM (1939-41) Count Paul Teleki (Pál Janos Ede Count Teleki de Szék) (1879-1941) signs the Berlin Pact. On Apr. 4 Neville Chamberlain utters the soundbyte that Hitler has "missed the bus". On Apr. 8/9 (night) Germany invades Norway, with troops landing at Narvik, Bergen, Kristiansand, and Trondheim, causing the govt. to flee to Hamar; former Norwegian war minister and Nazi henchman Vidkun Abraham Lauritz Jonsson Quisling (1887-1945) becomes PM in Oslo, his name becoming synonymous with traitor; too bad, on Apr. 24 Hitler appoints German Nazi Party man Josef Antonius Heinrich Terboven (1898-1945) to take effective control, making Quisling a figurehead; on Apr. 10 five British destroyers attack Narvik, sinking two of 10 German destroyers, losing two of their own, then returning on Apr. 13 and sinking the other eight; on Apr. 13 the British and French land at Namsos and Andalsnes near Trondheim, and win initial Vs before being evacuated in May-June; meanwhile Hitler orders German troops to evacuate Narvik; on Apr. 15 the Brits decode the Enigma key used by the Germans in the Norwegian operation, but can't transmit the intel to the field in a timely fashion; by Apr. 17 13K British troops are in Norway N of Narvik and S of Trondheim; on Apr. 29 German troops from Oslo and Trondheim link up, outmaneuvering them. On Apr. 9 (Wesertag) (a.m.) Germany invades Denmark in Operation Weserubung (Weserübung) (Weser River Exercise), causing the govt. to capitulate immediately; Thorvald Stauning remains head of the govt., and Christian X remains in Copenhagen, resisting attempts to make Jews wear yellow stars of David, later resulting in the saying "He wore a yellow star in sympathy"; Hungarian chemist George Charles de Hevesy (1885-1966) of the Niels Bohr Inst. dissolves the gold Nobel Prize medals of Max von Laue and James Franck in aqua regia and leaves the bottle on a shelf in his lab until the war ends, then has the Nobel Society recast the medals. On Apr. 11 the Nazis rename the captured towns of Lodz and Brzeziny in Poland to Litzmannstadt and Lowenstadt (Lion City) after WWI Gen. Karl Litzmann (1850-1936), the Lion of Brzeziny, who became a Nazi Party bigwig. On Apr. 14 220 Poles incl. women and children are rounded up and shot in Serokomla, Poland. On Apr. 20 Hitler celebrates his 51st birthday by establishing the Norland SS regiment which incl. Norwegians and Danes. On Apr. 23 (Passover) the Nazis humiliate and torture Jews and Poles in Stutthof Camp. On Apr. 27 Heinrich Himmler orders the construction of the Auschwitz (Oswiecim) set of 40+ concentration camps in East Upper Silesia in S Poland near the Czech border (whose sturdy brick bldgs. were formerly an Austrian-Hungarian garrison and cavalry barracks), with the motto "Work Makes Free" (Arbeit Macht Frei); it opens on June 14 (as the Nazis summer in Paris?); it has 7K staff members, only 750 of whom are ever punished after the war; SS man Rudolf Hoess (1901-47) becomes commandant; on Sept. 19 after expressing a desire to gather intel there, Polish army capt. Witold Pilecki (1901-48) lets himself be rounded up in Warsaw and sent there, and escapes 2.5 years later, giving the outside world its first news of what goes on there, allowing the Polish govt. in exile to convince the Allies of the Holocaust; after the war he is sent on a new mission to spy on the Soviets, and is caught and executed, after which the Polish Communist govt. suppresses info. about him until 1989. On May 2 the Brits withdraw a whole div. from France in case the Germans invade British soil. On May 4 the Germans sink Polish destroyer Grom near Narvik, killing 56, with the rest being rescued by British battleship HMS Resolution. The German Blitzkrieg of the West is the stuff legends are made of? On May 10 (dawn) after lying in a speech that he will respect Holland's neutrality, while lying in wait in a train in Euskirchen 30 mi. from the Belgian frontier, Adolf Hitler's German Blitzkrieg by 136 divs. begins (ends June 22) sans declarations of war, starting with 2.5K aircraft bombing airfields in France, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg, followed by 16K troops under Luftwaffe Gen. Kurt Student (1890-1978) parachuting into Leiden, Rotterdam, and The Hague while 100 glider troops seize the Belgian bridges across the Albert Canal (which leads to Antwerp), and more siege the Eben-Emael Fortress, taking it on May 11; after invading Luxembourg, the Germans bypass the Maginot Line (which was only intended to protect the coal and steel industries of Alsace and Lorraine, and was never captured throughout the war) and invade Belgium through the Ardennes Forest via a "sickle cut" led by Gen. Erich von Manstein (1887-1973) (Belgium surrenders May 28), then the neutral Netherlands (surrenders May 14-15) (German troops parachute into the country wearing Dutch army uniforms?), followed on May 12 by France (surrenders June 25); France loses 217K KIA and 400K wounded, vs. 46K Germans KIA and 121K wounded, plus 1K aircraft lost; exiled Kaiser Wilhelm II in Apeldoorn, Holland refuses Winston Churchill's offer of asylum in Britain, preferring to live and die under German occupation. On May 10 after a coalition govt. becomes mandatory to fight the Germans, and the Labour Party led by his bitter enemy Edward Hugh John Deale Dalton (1887-1962) refuses to support him, failed appeaser Neville Chamberlain resigns after British Conservative politician Leopold Charles Maurice Stennett "Leo" Amery (1873-1955) tells him "In the name of God, go!", conveniently croaking on Nov. 9, and Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965) (architect of the Norway disaster?) becomes British PM (until July 27, 1945) and defense minister, forming a special defense committee with the chiefs of staff to make daily strategic decisions, working to stop the British govt. from capitulating to Hitler in secret meetings, then on May 13 giving his Blood and Toil Speech (first speech as British PM), with the soundbyte "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears, and sweat." On May 10 as Germany invades Belgium, Rexist leader Leon Degrelle is arrested by the Belgian govt. as a suspected German collaborator and shipped to France; when Belgium and France surrender, Degrelle returns, and declares the Rexist Party to be in union with the Nazi Party, and forms a Walloon section of the Wehrmacht which ends up on the Eastern Front in a bustiere mini-dress? On May 10 Operation Fork sees Danish dependency Iceland accepts a British garrison under protest in case of a German invasion (until July 1941). On May 10 German ship Antilla is scuttled in Malmok, Antilles to prevent capture by Dutch forces, as French troops land on Aruba to guard the Lago Refinery (until July 6); meanwhile the homes of approx. 200 German, Austrian, and collaborating Dutch persons on Aruba and Curacao are searched; on May 12 British troops of the 2nd Battalion of the King's Shropshire Light Infantry arrive on Curaco; on July 6 they relieve the French on Aruba (until Feb. 11, 1942). On May 10-June 17 the Germans shoot down 959 aircraft in France, killing 1,192 crew. On May 13 after calling George VI at 5 a.m. to beg for aircraft support, then leaving The Hague for Rotterdam, embarking on British destroyer Hereward and not being able to make it to Zeeland, Queen Wilhelmina and the Dutch govt. escape to London and establish a govt.-in-exile. On May 14 (a.m.) the Germans blitz-bomb the Rhine River bridges in Rotterdam, killing 814 civilians with errant bombs, which the Allied press balloons to 25K-30K; on May 15 (9 p.m.) after losing Rotterdam the Dutch army surrenders. On May 14-15 the Battle of Gembloux, the first large-scale tank battle of WWII sees the French artillery-infantry stop the German blitzkrieg until they outflank them to the S; the myth of the use of the internal combustion engine and radio technology with a track and wheel force to rupture the enemy front and disorganize their rear is born, even though many German generals doubted the wisdom of the attack and it is really the fast-thinking opportunistic German operational level and its sheer recklessness that won out and caused the generals to later make it sound like a sound strategy? On May 15 (night) the first British bomber attack on the Ruhr by 78 bombers hits 24 oil targets, losing 16 planes. On May 15 (night) FDR devises the "pushover" method of skirting the U.S. Neutrality Act by flying aicraft to the Canadian border, pushing them across, then flying them to Newfoundland, where they can be shipped to Britain. On May 16 as the German 7th Panzer Div. under Gen. Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel (1891-1944) (later "the Desert Fox") penetrates 50 mi. into France towards Cambrai, and more German Panzers under Gen. Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (1888-1954) reach 60 mi. E of Sedan, French forces pull out of Belgium. On May 17 the German Sixth Army under Gen. Walther von Reichenau occupies Brussels, causing the British 3rd Div. under Gen. Bernard Montgomery to retreat to the Dendre River; Gen. Franz Halder (1884-1972) writes the unusual soundbyte in his diary: "The Fuhrer is excessively nervous. He mistrusts his own success. He's afraid to take risks. He'd really like to stop now" - Brussels doubts? On May 17 the Panzers of Gen. Guderian reach the Oise River at Origny 10 mi. E of St. Quentin, while the French 4th Armored Div. under Col. Charles Andre Joseph Marie de Gaulle (1890-1970) slows them down, earning him a promotion to gen. On May 17 the Germans bomb Middleburg, Netherlands, destroying a third of the old city center to compel surrender of Zeeland. On May 18 the Germans capture Antwerp. On May 18 Gen. Guderian captures St. Quentin, while Gen. Rommel captures Cambrai and Le Cateau, where French Gen. Henri Honore (Honoré) Giraud (1879-1949) and the French Ninth Army walk into a trap, and Giraud is captured; French WWI ace (14 Vs) Lt. Marius Jean Paul Elzeard Ambrogi (1895-1971) gets his first and only WWII V in Cambrai. On May 18 after arguing in vain for a French offensive war against the Nazis, new interior minister (the Winston Churchill of France) Georges Mandel (Louis George Rothschild) (1885-1944) increases security in Paris, rounding up suspicious persons and setting up traffic stops; Russian writer Vladimir Nabokov and his Jewish wife escape Paris weeks before it falls on a French ocean liner's last voyage to New York City; on June 16 Mandel is offered by Churchill's military liaison officer British Gen. Edward Spears a trip out of France along with Charles de Gaulle, which Mandel declines, with the soundbyte: "You fear for me because I am a Jew. Well, it is just because I am a Jew that I will not go tomorrow; it would look as though I was afraid, as if I was running away"; on June 21 after trying to persuade Pres. Albert Lebrun, the presidents of the Chamber of Deputies and of the Senate, and the entire cabinet to travel to French North Africa to continue the fight against the Germans, he embarks with 25 other mainly Radical or Socialist deputies incl. Pierre Mendes France and Jean Zay and one senator on the Massilia; too bad, on Aug. 8, 1941 they are arrested in Morocco by Gen. Charles Nogues on the orders of Vicy PM Pierre Laval, and Churchill tries in vain to get Mandel released, calling him "the first resister" (above de Gaulle), after which they are sentenced to life imprisonment on Nov. 4, 1941. On May 19 the SS Death Head Div. goes into action for the first time in France near Cambrai, killing 200 French Moroccan troops while only losing 16 of their own - how do you say N-word in German? On May 19 (night) Winston Churchill delivers his first radio broadcast as PM, titled "Be Ye Men of Valour", with the soundbytes: "This is one of the most awe-striking periods in the long history of France and Britain. It is also beyond doubt the most sublime"; the two peoples "have advanced to rescue not only Europe but mankind from the foulest and most soul-destroying tyranny which has ever darkened and stained the pages of history", helping "a group of shattered states and bludgeoned races: the Czechs, the Poles, the Norwegians, the Danes, the Dutch, the Belgians - upon all of whom the long night of barbarism will descend, unbroken even by a star of hope, unless we conquer, as conquer we must, as conquer we shall." On May 19/20 the Germans reach Amiens and Abbeville, cutting the BEF off from the main French army along with its supply line and bases, trapping hundreds of thousands of British, French, and Belgian soldiers with their backs to the sea, causing Hitler to jump for joy, talking "in words of appreciation of the German army and its leadership" while he "busies himself with the peace treaty which shall express the theme, 'Return of territory robbed over the last four hundred years from the German people'"; adding that he will "repay" the French by forcing them to accept peace terms in the same spot in Compiegne where the Germans capitulated in 1918, and as for the British, they "can have their peace as soon as they return our colonies to us". On May 20 an advance German Panzer div. reaches the English Channel at Noyelles, France. On May 20 Prince Wilhelm of Hohenzollern (b. 1906), grandson of Kaiser Wilhelm II and heir to the German imperial throne is wounded in Valenciennes, dying on May 26 in Nivelles; his funeral service is attended by 50K, pissing-off jealous Hitler, who on ? issues the Prince's Decree (Prinzenerlass), barring all members of the former German royal houses from service in the military. On May 20 after his plane is shot down while machine-gunning French-Belgian refugees, and he is standing on the roadside with a crewman surrounded by an angry crowd, German Sgt. Wilhelm Ross (b. 1917) is shot in the head by a French soldier. On May 21 the Battle of Arras sees an Allied counterattack by the 50th (Northumbrian) Infantry Div. and 1st Army Tank Brigade against the flank of the German army near Arras in NE France fail, causing them to withdraw to avoid encirclement; the SS Death Head Div. is overrun after their anti-tank gun is no match for the British Matilda tank. On May 21 a special unit of Nazis arrives in Soldau (Dzialdowo) in East Prussia, killing 1.5K mental patients in 18 days, with the reports calling them "successfully evacuated". On May 21 (night) British Fascist leader Sir Oswald Mosley and 35 leading members are arrested, followed within a week by 346 more members. On May 22 the Germans reach Le Crotoy at the mouth of the Somme River, cutting the Allied armies in half; 58 British tanks under Lt. Gen. Sir Giffard Le Quesne Martel (1889-1958), counterattack at Arras, but are stopped by dive bombers after killing 89 members of Gen. Rommel's 7th Panzer Div. and 39 members of the SS Death Head Div., becoming the Panzers' first D, causing Hitler to order a halt to the offensive before reaching the Channel ports - big mistake? On May 22 Parliament grants the British govt. wide emergency powers. On May 22 British intel at Bletchley Park breaks the German Enigma key used by the German Luftwaffe, allowing 1K messages a day to be deciphered and sent to the field via special secure mobile unit. On May 22-26 the Siege of Calais sees 4K British and French (mainly British) troops with 40 tanks defend the port against a German Panzer div. aided by German bombers, losing 300 killed and 200 wounded vs. 750-1,750 Germans killed or wounded. On May 23 the Treachery Act of 1940 is passed in Britain to prosecute and execute spies by getting around the stiffer rules of evidence for treason; it is suspended after the war, and repealed on Jan. 1, 1968. On May 23-25 after 1K of 1.2K British troops evacuate by sea, Boulogne falls to the Germans. On May 24 an air attack by the Germans begins on the sea off the Channel coast, sinking French destroyer Chacal off Dunkirk, and British destroyer HMS Wessex off Calais, badly damaging Polish destroyer Bzura. Herr Hitler makes a mistake of - don't say it out loud - caution? On May 24 (night) on Hitler's orders, the German Fourth Army under Gen. von Rundstedt halts its advance on the trapped BEF, causing the SS Death Head (Totenkopf) Div. 15 mi. SW of Dunkirk along the line of the AA Canal with bridgehead at Saint-Venant to have to pull back over the Canal d'Aire under British artillery fire, losing 42 KIA; in the evening Gen. Halder is refused permission by Gen. Rundstedt to attack Dunkirk because "the mechanized groups must first be allowed to pull themselves together"; on May 25 the 6th Panzer Army under Waffen-SS Gen. Josef "Sepp" Dietrich (1892-1966) (Hitler's former chaffeur-bodyguard) defies Hitler's orders and continues the advance, ordering his III Battalion to cross the canal and take the heights, driving off British artillery observers, earning Dietrich a Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross. On May 25 the Luftwaffe attacks Zeebrugge, Blankenberge, Nieuport, Dunkirk, and Ostend, with Ostend receiving the heaviest bombing; meanwhile the British attack Saint-Venant, forcing the SS-VT Div. to retreat, becoming the first-ever SS unit retreat; the German advance resumes on May 26, with the Deutschland Regiment reaching the Leie River at Merville on May 27, forcing a bridgehead across the river then waiting for the SS Totenkopf Div. only to see British tanks arrive first until the Totenkopf Panzerjager Platoon arrives and saves the day. Herr Hitler makes a mistake of - don't say it out loud - caution? On May 26 (the night that Calais falls) the British begin Operation Dynamo (Miracle of Dunkirk) (planned in the dynamo room of the Naval HQ in Dover Castle), the evacuation of Dunkirk (Dunkerque) to Dover (ends midnight June 2) (7 days), with the Germans allowing the 198,229 British and 139,997 French troops (338,226 total) to escape German encirclement on 42 British destroyers plus 1.2K Allied naval and civil craft incl. the 700 "Little Ships of Dunkirk", a flotilla of anything they can scrounge up in England that can float, surviving to fight the Krauts another day, with Winston Churchill uttering the soundbyte: "The whole root, the core, and brain of the British Army" have been rescued by a "miracle of deliverance"; the Luftwaffe tries in vain to stop the evacuation, losing 176 aircraft vs. 106 British aircraft; the Germans take 34K British POWs; the British leave 38K vehicles, 12K motorcyles, 475 tanks, 400 anti-tank guns, 1K heavy guns, 8K bren guns, 90K rifles, and 7K tons of ammo, leaving only 600K rifles and 12K bren guns in Britain; 136K British and 200K Polish troops remain in W France, and more British troops are en route from Norway; British gen. Sir Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander (1891-1969) is in charge of the evacuation, getting a promotion to CIC in the Middle East in 1942; the big decision to evacuate is made by BEF cmdr. Gen. John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort (1886-1946); double amputee RAF pilot Douglas Robert Steuart Bader (1910-82) scores his first Vs over Dunkirk, working up to group capt. and becoming a British hero. On May 26 (the night that Calais falls) the British begin Operation Dynamo (planned in the dynamo room of the Naval HQ in Dover Castle), the evacuation of Dunkirk (Dunkerque) to Dover (ends midnight June 2) (7 days), with the Germans allowing the 198,229 British and 139,997 French troops (338,226 total) to escape German encirclement on 42 British destroyers plus 1.2K Allied naval and civil craft incl. the 700 "Little Ships of Dunkirk", a flotilla of anything they can scrounge up in England that can float, surviving to fight the Krauts another day, with Winston Churchill uttering the soundbyte "The whole root, the core, and brain of the British Army" have been rescued by a "miracle of deliverance"; the Luftwaffe tries in vain to stop the evacuation, losing 176 aircraft vs. 106 British aircraft; the Germans take 34K British POWs; the British leave 38K vehicles, 12K motorcyles, 475 tanks, 400 anti-tank guns, 1K heavy guns, 8K bren guns, 90K rifles, and 7K tons of ammo, leaving only 600K rifles and 12K bren guns in Britain; 136K British and 200K Polish troops remain in W France, and more British troops are en route from Norway; British gen. Sir Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander (1891-1969) is in charge of the evacuation, getting a promotion to CIC in the Middle East in 1942; the big decision to evacuate is made by BEF cmdr. field marshal John Standish Surtees Prendergast Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort (1886-1946); the British Special Operations Executive (SOE) is created for underground resistance, creating the French "F" Section under Maurice James Buckmaster (1910-92) (who made it out of Dunkirk) and Vera Maria Atkins (Rosenberg) (1908-2000) (a Romanian Jewish immigrant who becomes a British citizen in 1944) to infiltrate operatives back into German-occupied France after training them at Baker St. and Orchard Ct. in London; French-speaking Anthony Morris "Tony" Brooks (1922-2007) (AKA Agent Alphonse) becomes the youngest and longest-surviving F Section organizer, and is parachuted into France in July 1942 as part of a special force assigned by Churchill to "set Europe ablaze"; one big mistake the Nazis make is allowing the Frogs to ship their entire heavy water inventory (188 liters) along with their Paris Group of nuclear scientists to Britain, where they settle at Cambridge and become the Tube Alloy Project, later merging with the Manhattan Project - long live living long and loving every minute of it? On May 27 the Le Paradis Massacre sees 97 members of the Royal Norfolk Regiment, 2nd Battalion under Maj. Lisle Ryder (1903-) surrender in Paradis 50 mi. from Dunkirk only to be machine-gunned in a pit in front of a brick barn by the 14 Co. of the SS Totenkopf Div. under orders of Lt. Col. Fritz Knoechlein (Knöchlein) (1911-49), who is hanged in Hamburg on Jan. 28, 1949 when he makes the mistake of leaving two survivors, Pvt. Albert Pooley and Pvt. William O'Callagan. On May 28 (4 a.m.) Leopold III orders Belgian forces to cease fighting, causing the Belgian govt. in exile in Paris to declare him deposed, causing Winston Churchill to warn that it's too soon to "pass judgment" on him. On May 28 the 1st SS Div. Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler takes Wormhout (Wormhoudt) 10 mi. from Dunkirk; the Wormhout (Wormhoudt) Massacre sees the 50-man Royal Warwickshire Regiment surrender along with 30 French soldiers, only to be taken to a barn and shot and grenaded under orders of SS Capt. (later gen.) Wilhelm Mohnke (1911-2001), leaving five survivors; another 35 British POWs are murdered in the same area; on Apr. 24, 1988 the British Sunday Times reports that Mohnke is living as a retired businessman in Hamburg; an official British report is not released until 2011. On May 28 British troops finally take Narvik, only to find that the War Cabinet has authorized Operation Alphabet, the evacuation of Norway; on June 3/4 4.5K troops are evacuated from Narvik. On May 28 Heinrich Himmler writes the top secret Himmler Utopia Plan for reducing Poland to "the largest possible number of parts and fragments", from which the "racially valuable elements" would be extracted, while the rest "withers away", the remainder to be turned into subhuman labor robots taught only "how to count up to a maximum of five hundred, how to write his name, that it is God's command that he should be obedient to Germans, honorable, industrious, and brave." On May 30 the British are completely cornered at Dunkirk as SS divs. continue to advance into France as far as Saint-Etienne 250 mi. S of Paris; on May 31 the French surrender, pleasing Hitler, who tells the Leibstandardte SS Adolf Hitler: "Henceforth it will be an honour for you, who bear my name, to lead every German attack." On May 31 Winston Churchill tells French leaders that the U.S. has been "roused" by events, and is willing "to give us powerful aid"; U.S. army chief of staff George C. Marshall finds another loophole in the laws, declaring munitions to be surplus in order to give them to Britain, which places an order for 15K tons of newfangled TNT; after meeting with WWI hero Marshal Petain and discussing how the French should fight it out in French North Africa if they lose France, Churchill notes a "detached and somber" look on his face, "giving me the feeling that he would face a separate peace". In May the base for the U.S. Pacific Fleet is moved from San Diego, Calif. to Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. In May a camp is set up in Woldenberg, Germany (Dobiegniew, Poland) for captured Polish officers (until Jan. 1945). In May the anti-Communist Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies (CDAAA) is formed by William Allen White (1868-1944) et al. to promote a "pro British policy" against the Axis by providing military material support in order to keep the U.S. out of the war, opposing the Am. First Committee, growing to 700 local chapters; in mid-Dec. the No Foreign War Committee is formed by Verne Marshall to oppose it; after White issues the soundbyte "The Yanks Are Not Coming", which pisses-off New York City Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia, who accuses him of "doing a Laval", i.e., copying French foreign minister Pierre Laval, a leader in the French Vichy govt., White is replaced next Jan. by former U.S. Sen. (R-Vt.) (since June 24, 1940) Ernest William Gibson Jr. (1901-69); after the June 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union, the words "Aiding the Allies" are dropped from the name to allow support for the Soviets without calling them allies; the org. dissolves after the Dec. 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. On June 1 the Germans get close enough to Dunkirk to bombard the 20K British and 60K French troops remaining with artillery, which doesn't stop them from evacuating 64,229 while losing three British and one French destroyers, two troop transports, a minesweeper and a gunboat. On June 3 the Germans bomb Paris, killing 254 incl. 195 civilians. I want a perfect body, I want a perfect soul? On June 3 after the Nazis revive a 1937 Polish plan, the Madagascar Plan is proposed by Franz Rademacher (1906-73), head of the Jewish Dept. of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Germany; on June 20 Hitler tells Adm. Raeder that now Germany can send all its pesky Jews to Madagascar; on Aug. 15 with Hitler's approval, Adolf Eichmann releases a memo calling for the resettlement of 1M Jews per year for four years, with the island governed as a police state under the SS; too bad, the D in the Battle of Britain causes it to be postponed, and it is permanently shelved in 1942 with the commencement of the extermination of European Jewry. On June 4 Winston Churchill gives his Fight Them on the Beaches Speech to the House of Commons, with the soundbyte: "Even though large tracts of Europe and many old and famous states have fallen or may fall into the grip of the Gestapo and all the odious apparatus of Nazi rule, we shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender. And even if, which I do not for the moment believe, this island or a large part of it were subjugated and starving, then our empire beyond the seas, armed and guarded by the British Fleet, will carry on the struggle until in God's good time the New World with all its power and might, sets forth to the liberation and rescue of the Old", all of which rallies public opinion for the war and his govt.; he also utters the soundbyte about FDR: "Don't let the president come out with a peace plan! It will just embarrass us, and we won't accept it"; U.S. Pres. John F. Kennedy later utters the soundbyte that Churchill "mobilized the English language and sent it into battle"; if he had accepted Hitler's peace overtures then millions would have been saved from horrible fates, and Britain would have not lost its world power status, sharing the world with Germany, hence WWII is all his fault? - a hairless sloth? On June 5 (4 a.m.) the Battle (Fall) of France begins (ends June 22), with 143 German divs. attacking 65 French, 22 Belgian, 10 British and 9 Dutch divs. along a 140-mi. front; the Germans enjoy air superiority with 2.5K aircraft vs. a few hundred British aircraft and some obsolete French aircraft; Hitler directs the battle from his new HQ in Bruly-de-Pesche, Belgium near the French border; Paul Reynaud appoints Gen. Charles de Gaulle to be undersecy. of state for war - France is a piece of cake? On June 7 Italy orders its ships to neutral ports. On June 7 after the Norwegian 6th Div. surrenders and defense chief Otto Ruge is taken POW, King Haakon VII and his govt. flee Tromso aboard British cruiser Devonshire to London and establish a govt.-in-exile; on June 9-10 Norway surrenders. On June 8 Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 14, halting the advance in the Chateau-Thierry-Metz-Belfort triangle in E France and diverting troops to the siege of Paris. On June 8 British aircraft carrier HMS Glorious and destroyers HMS Ardent and HMS Acasta are sunk by the Scharnhorst and the Gneisenau while evacuating the last of 25K British troops from Narvik, Norway, killing 1,515 of 1,558 aboard. On June 9 after Churchill talks the War Cabinet into denying Paul Reynaud's request for more airplane squadrons, and instead convinces them that Britain's survival is the key to the war, 11K British-French troops begin evacuating at Le Havre, followed on June 10 by Cherbourg and St. Valery-en-Caux; meanwhile the Germans advance towards Rouen. On June 10 after German tanks close in on St. Valery-en-Caux, and the British 51st Div. under Maj. Gen. Sir Victor Morven Fortune (1883-1949) tries to make a last stand, French troops under Lt. Gen. Marcel Ihler (1880-1975) march in front of them waving white flags. On June 10 Gen. Rommel reaches Les Petites-Dalles on the Channel coast, uttering the soundbyte: "We climbed out of our vehicles and walked down the shingle beach to the water's edge until the water lapped over our boots." On June 10 Italy declares war on Britain and France, and on June 11 bombs Malta, then occupies SE France, with Hitler uttering the soundbyte: "First they were too cowardly to take part. Now they are in a hurry so that they can share in the spoils", adding: "I would have done everything the other way around. This must be the last declaration of war in history. I never thought the Duce was so primitive. Never in my life will I sign a declaration of war. I will always strike first"; on June 10 FDR makes his Stab in the Back Speech at the U. of Va., with the soundbyte: "On this tenth day of June 1940, the hand that held the dagger has struck it into the back of its neighbor", pledging to "extend to the opponents of force the material resources of this nation. We will not slow down or detour. Signs and signals call for speed, full speed ahead"; Britain begins rounding up 4.1K Italians age 16-70 who lived there less than 20 years; on June 11 Italy bombs Port Sudan, Aden, and Malta, while Britain bombs Genoa, Turin, and Eritrea; on June 12 Italian merchant ship Romolo is scuttled near Nauru to avoid capture by armed Australian merchant cruiser HMAS Manoora; on ? Italy invades SE France; in order to prevent Italian Vs in Africa and free Ethiopia from Italian rule, the East African Campaign by the Allies, led by the British under Gen. Sir Archibald Percival Wavell (1883-1950) begins (ends Nov. 27, 1941); the Italian invasion of France sputters out in two weeks, with 631 Italian vs. 40 French casualties. On June 11 the Germans occupy Reims and Reims-Champagne Air Base, and the French govt. flees Paris S to Briare on the Loire River; Churchill visits them, finding out that they have lost 35 of 103 divs., and telling them: "It is possible that the Nazis may dominate Europe, but it will be a Europe in revolt, and in the end it is certain that a regime whose victories are in the main due to its machines will one day collapse. Machines will beat machines." On June 11 after Hitler orders the Messerschmitt co. to make planes that can carry tanks across the English Channel for an invasion, work begins on the Messerschmitt ME 323 Gigant military glider, which can carry 120 fully-equipped troops (120 tons) riding on plywood floors; they end up being used to support Gen. Rommel in North Africa. On June 12 the British govt. announces a complete blockade of Italy. On June 12 46K British-French troops incl. 12 generals holed-up at St. Valery-en-Caux are captured by the 7th Panzer Div. of Gen. Rommel, who then attacks and captures Cherbourg on June 17-19. On June 12 the U.S. ships 600 freight cars of military supplies from Raritan, N.J. to Britain and France incl. 500K rifles, 80K machine guns, and 900 big guns. On June 12-14 the Soviet Baltic Fleet begins a total military blockade of Estonia; Andrei Alexandrovich Zhdanov (1896-1948) is sent to supervise Estonia's absorption into the Soviet Union. On June 13 Gen. Franco announces a new Spanish policy of non-belligerency, implying all aid to Germany and Italy short of military involvement (until Oct. 1943). On June 13 the French govt. flees to Tours then Bordeaux (like in WWI); meanwhile after PM Paul Reynaud appeals to FDR for U.S. intervention, he replies to Churchill that it's "doing everything in its power to make available to the Allied Governments the material they so urgently require, and our efforts to do still more are being redoubled"; after a diplomatic exchange, FDR prohibits the French from publicizing his message. On June 13 Adolf Hitler gives an interview to German-born Am. Hearst correspondent Karl Henry von Wiegand (1874-1961), telling him that Germany has no territorial designs in the Am. continent. The Nazis wash the gay right out of Gay Paris' hair? On June 14 (6:00 a.m.) after French military gov. Gen. Pierre Hering (1874-1963) declares it an open city on June 12, and the French cease military activity in suburban towns to give them a free path, the French weep as the Germans occupy Paris; after 2M have already fled, leaving 700K, who are told of a new 8:00 p.m. curfew; at 9:45 a.m. the German Fourth Army under Gen. von Kluge triumphantly marches down the Champs-Elysees to mock the Nov. 1918 French victory march; PM Paul Reynaud resigns, is arrested and sent to Ft. du Portalet, transferred to German custody in 1942 and held in Germany until the end of the war; the SS sets up shop headed by Col. Helmut Knochen (1910-2003); Austrian-born Jewish novelist Ernst Weiss (b. 1882) commits suicide in his Paris apt.; the Nazis order all French films made prior to 1937 destroyed, causing Henri Langlois, 1936 founder of the Cinametheque Francois to smuggle huge numbers of films and documents to unocupied France, incl. Charlie Chaplin's "The Great Dictator". On June 14 the Earl of Suffolk leads a special operation in France to recover a cache of French industrial diamonds along with the world's supply of heavy water (26 cans) (188 l), taking Paris Group scientists Hans Heinrich von Halban (1908-64) and Lew Kowarski (1907-79) from Bordeaux in British collier Broompark; they settle at Cambridge and become the Tube Alloy Project, later merging with the Manhattan Project - long live living long and loving every minute of it? On June 14 Canadian troops land in Brest, France, moving through Rennes to Laval, only to be ordered on June 15 to return to Britain via St. Malo, losing six who went AWOL in Laval; on June 18 the German 5th Panzer Div. occupies it. On June 14 an army lorry crashes into a house in Burley in Wharfedale, Yorkshire, England, killing 19 of 21 soldiers On June 15 the Germans take WWI pest fortress city Verdun and pate fois gras city Strasbourg, followed on June 17 by mustard city Dijon. On June 15-25 Operation Ariel evacuates 163,225 British troops from France incl. 30K from Cherbourg, 21.5K from St. Malo, 32.5K from Brest, 57K from St. Nazaire and Nantes, 2K from La Pallice, and 19K from S France; on June 17 a German bomber sinks British passenger liner RMS Lancastria at St. Nazaire, killing 6.5K soldiers, with 2,477 survivors, becoming the greatest British naval disaster in history (until ?); the British govt. covers it up until U.S. newspapers leak it six weeks later. On June 16 deputy PM Marshal Philippe Petain threatens to resign if the French cabinet doesn't ask for an immediate armistice, and PM Paul Reynaud asks Britain to release France from its agreement not to make a separate peace, and they agree, but propose an Anglo-French Union, which the cabinet rejects, causing Reynaud to resign, and Petain to form a new govt. and ask Germany for an armistice at 11:00 p.m.; on June 17 (a.m.) Hitler learns of it, and jerks his knee before stepping backward while cameraman Walter Frentz (1907-2004) photographs him, causing Canadian producer John Grierson to loop it and make Hitler dance a jig, whipping-up ridicule; on June 17 (p.m.) after Petain broadcasts the news, Winston Churchill broadcasts a speech, with the soundbyte: "Whatever has happened in France makes no difference to our actions and purpose. We shall do our best to be worthy of this high honor. We shall defend our island home, and with the British Empire we shall fight on unconquerable until the curse of Hitler is lifted from the brows of mankind. We are sure that in the end all will come right"; on June 20 on Hitler's orders the Armistice site is destroyed incl. a German eagle impaled on a sword and a large stone tablet reading "Here on the eleventh of November 1918 succumbed the criminal pride of the German Reich, vanquished by the free peoples which it tried to enslave; a statue of Foch is left intact to mock him; the Armistice carriage is taken to Berlin, not surviving the war. On June 16 as Soviet troops invade Estonia, Soviet minister Vyacheslav Molotov presents an ultimatum to Latvia, accusing it of violating the 1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, after which the Soviet NKVD invades and absorbs the Baltic repubs. of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to create the 14th, 15th, and 16th Soviet Repubs.; on June 17 Estonia capitulates to avoid bloodshed, and the Soviet military occupation is completed on June 21 after the Estonian Single Signal Battalion holding out in Tallinn surrenders; on July 21 the Estonian Soviet Socialist Repub. is proclaimed (ends Aug. 20, 1991), along with the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Repub. (ends Mar. 11, 1991); on July 23 the Red Army occupies Latvia; on Aug. 5 after proposing the incorporation of Western Ukraine into the Soviet Union last year, then deporting or killing 34,250 Latvian Trotskyists, Bukharinites, and foreign agents, Odessa-born Great Purge mastermind Andrey Januarevich Vyshinsky (1883-1954) sets up the Latvian Soviet Socialist Repub. (ends Sept. 6, 1991), headed (until 1952) by puppet Augusts Kirhensteins (1872-1963), going on to arrest 27,586 (most of whom are deported), and shoot 945 in the next year; Vyshinsky becomes a big man with Stalin, who names him deputy people's commissar of foreign affairs in 1904-9, accompanying him to Yalta and Potsdam; U.S. spokesman Sumner Welles (1892-1961) announces the U.S. policy of non-recognition of Soviet annexation, after which 50 countries follow suit. On June 17 (night) British bombers attack the oil installations at Leuna, Germany S of Leipzig. On June 18 the Germans occupy Cherbourg, Briare, Colmar, Le Mans, Nevers, Rennes, and Vannes, while the British bomb Hamburg and Bremen. On June 18 (6:00 p.m.) Brig. Gen. Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970) issues his Appeal of June 18 to the French people via radio from London, talking about how the French govt. is "alleging the defeat of our armies", with the soundbyte: "But has the last word been said? Must we abandon all hope? Is our defeat final? No!", pointing to the "vast empire" of the British and the "immense industrial resources" of the U.S., with the soundbyte: "This is a world war... There still exists in the world everything we need to crush our enemies some day. Today we are crushed by the sheer weight of the mechanized forces hurled against us, but we can still look to a future in which even greater mechanized forces will bring us victory. Therein lies the destiny of the world", inaugurating the Free French Nat. Committee; on June 28 Britain recognizes them, followed by the other Allies and French Resistance by 1942, and it goes on to command all French troops fighting with the Allies and Resistance, collectively known as the Fighting French. On June 18 British PM Winston Churchill gives his Finest Hour Speech to the British people from London, urging Brits to display a stiff upper lip against the German Blitz, and cause future generations to say "This was their finest hour", and uttering the soundbyte "What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilization. Upon it depends our own British life, and the long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us"; the mainline Christian churches in the U.S. and Britain, who are preaching WWII as a war between Christendom and anti-Christian Statism use Churchill's speech as major ammo - let's go kill for Christ again, like he needs it? On June 18-19 Hitler and Mussolini meet in Munich, and Hitler surprises him by arguing for lenient terms for France, and by his "many reservations on the desirability of demolishing the British Empire, which he considers even today to be an important factor in world equilibrium"; "Hitler is now the gambler who has made the big scoop and would like to get up from the table, risking nothing more" (Count Ciano) "For Mussolini the idea of Hitler's waging war and, worse still, winning it, is altogether unbearable" (Count Ciano) (Nov. 20). On June 19 the Japanese govt. announces that it opposes any change in the status quo of French possessions in Indochina, contradicting its liberator image in Southeast Asia. On June 19 the Germans occupy Nantes and Brest. On June 19 French Capt. Pierre Jean Ronarch steals new unfinished battleship Jean Bart from dry dock at St. Nazaire and sails it to Casabalanca. On June 19 German troops massacre 30 French Moroccan troops trying to surrender between Dijon and Lyon; on June 21 at Villefranche-sur-Saone S of Nevers the SS Death Head Div. takes 25 white French POWs after killing 44 Moroccans. On June 19-24 the British evacuate 22,656 British citizens from the Channel Islands off France, then occupy them on June 30 for the rest of the war. On June 20 a French delegation travels to Rethondes in the Forest of Compiegne to conduct armistice negotiations. Grassroots democracy in the U.S. vs. the hidden powers, Part What? On June 20 Charles Lindbergh speaks at the Peace and Preparedness Rally in Los Angeles, Calif., claiming that the U.S. is virtually impregnable and that those who want it to intervene to defend England really want it to defeat Germany; on Sept. 4 the America First Committee is founded by Yale U. law students Robert Douglas Stuart Jr. (1916-), Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (1913-2006) (future U.S. pres.), Potter Stewart (1915-85) (future U.S. Supreme Court justice), and Robert Sargent Shriver Jr. (1915-2011), going on to recruit writers Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951), E.E. Cummings (1894-1962), Gore Vidal (1925-2012), John Thomas Flynn (1882-1964), Walt Disney (1901-66), Lillian Gish (1893-1993) et al. along with 800K members in 650 chapters, centered in Chicago, Ill., opposing enforcement of the 1939 U.S. Neutrality Act and U.S. entry into WWII, with Lindbergh as its #1 spokesman; they disband on Dec. 11, 1941 after the Pearl Harbor attack - pure luck or a planned end-around run by cagey FDR? On June 20 the Gestapo and police begin executing Polish intellectuals and politicians in the Palmiry Forest, incl. Polish Socialist leader Mieczyslaw Niedzialkowski (b. 1893) on June 21, going on to kill 1,739 by July 17, 1941; after being interviewed by Heinrich Himmler, who asks him, "What do you want from us, what do you expect?", Needlekowski responds: "From you I neither want nor demand anything. With you I fight." On June 21 the Germans reach Rennes, Brittany, France. On June 21 (3:30 p.m.) after being shuttled from Bordeaux, French negotiators are stunned to find themselves in the prized railway coach in which Germany had capitulated in 1918 in Compiegne, and at 3:40 p.m. after Hitler leaves, Gen. Keitel reads the armistice terms, incl. German occupation of 75% of France, along with a French govt. on the remainder controlling the colonies, with the French fleet not allowed to pass out of French control, and all 1,538,000 French POWs remaining under German control. On June 21 the Polish govt.-in-exile arrives in London from Paris, and are greeted at Paddington Station by George VI. On June 22 the Italians bomb Alexandria, Egypt. Fie-yur? On June 22 (6:50 p.m.) (8 days after the Germans overrun Paris) new French PM Marshal Henri-Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Petain (Pétain) (1856-1951) signs the Second Armistice at Compiegne with Germany (to take effect on June 25) in the same Orient Express railway carriage of Gen. Foch used in the 1918 signing, surprising the world by his lenient terms, dividing France into occupied (60%) and unoccupied (40%) zones, with the French allowed to keep their colonial empire and part of their fleet, disappointing Mussolini, who wants it all for himself, as well as Corsica, Nice, along with Malta, Egypt, and Sudan from the British; total killed: Germans 45K, French 92K, Belgians 7.5K, British 3.5K, Dutch 2.9K; Hitler has now conquered Poland, Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, and France; Hitler has the carriage taken to Berlin as a souvenir; in Apr. 1945 it disappears on a railway line between Elsterwerda and Grossenhain 50 mi. S of Berlin (British bombing raid?), after which a replica is created; Hitler dances a jig after the Allied surrender (actually, a faked newsreel by Allied intel, but who cares, it's practically history now?); on July 10 Petain replaces Albert Lebrun as pres. of France (although Lebrun never officially resigns), and rules the unoccupied part of France from Vichy, with former PM (1931-2, 1935-6) Pierre Laval (1883-1945) as vice-PM (until 1941), cooperating with the Nazis and their program of giving free working vacations to lucky Jews; meanwhile the real pres. Albert Lebrun flees to Vizelle (Isere) on July 15, but is finally captured by the Nazis on Aug. 27, 1943 and imprisoned in Itter Castle in Tyrol, then released on Oct. 10, 1943 due to poor health; after the Allies return, on Aug. 9, 1944 Lebrun meets with Charles de Gaulle and officially resigns?; in July ex-king Edward VIII and his babe Wallis leave France for more exile in Lisbon, Portugal, where he is later alleged by the Brits to have agreed to become a pro-Nazi puppet king of England upon a Nazi V, then made gov. of the Bahamas to get him out quietly of the way?; Harvard-educated French historian Bernard Fay (1893-1978), dir. of the French Nat. Library is hired by the Vichy regime to root-out pesky Jew-connected OWG-plotting Freemasons, compiling a list of 170K, of whom 989 get sent to concentration camps, where 549 are killed; 3K more lose their jobs, although he protects Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas; in 1943 he produces the film Forces Occultes, dir. by Jean Mamy, which claims to prove a worldwide Jewish-Freemason conspiracy, making their archenemies the Nazis into heroes; after the war Mamy is executed in 1949 as a collaborator, and Fay receives a life sentence in 1946, then with Toklas' financial help escapes to Switzerland in 1951. On June 23 (5:45 a.m.) now the Master of Europe, Herr Hitler tours Paris, visiting the French Opera, and Napoleon's Tomb ("the greatest and finest moment of my life"), ordering the remains of Napoleon's son Duc de Reichstadt in Vienna to be laid next to him, uttering the soundbyte: "I am grateful to fate to have seen this town whose aura has always preoccupied me"; he also visits the Eiffel Tower, telling Albert Speer "It was the dream of my life to be permitted to see Paris"; after ordering the statue of WWI French Gen. Mangin and the memorial to British nurse Edith Cavell destroyed, at 8:30 a.m. he flies out of Le Bourget Airport, circles the city, and returns to Bruly-de-Pesche, ordering Speer that evening to resume work on his all-new Nazi Berlin, to be finished by 1950, with the soundbyte: "Wasn't Paris beautiful? But Berlin must be made far more beautiful. In the past I often considered whether I would not have to destroy Paris. But when we are finished in Berlin, Paris will only be a shadow, so why should we destroy it?"; his ultimate aim is to rechristen Berlin as Germania, the capital of the world - this is as good as it gets? On June 23 (night) after British PM Winston Churchill requests the army to create them, British volunteer Commandos (Striking Cos.) begin hit-and-run raids on the French coast between Calais and Boulogne. On June 24 Marshal Henri-Philippe Petain of France signs an armistice with Italy, agreeing to an Italian occupation zone of 832 sq. km containing 28.5K inhabitants, incl. Menton, with a DMZ of 50km from the Italian Alpine Wall, incl. Grenoble and Nice. On June 24 French ex-ministers fleeing occupation intending to carry the fight to North Africa reach Casablanca, only to find that Moroccan gov.-gen. (1936-43) Charles Hippolyte Nogues (Noguès) has already accepted the armistice. On June 24 German Holland gov.-gen. (1940-5) Arthur Seyss-Inquart (1892-1946) prorogues Parliament; on July 5 he makes it a crime to listen to BBC radio broadcasts. On June 24-28 the 1940 Repub. Nat. Convention in Philadelphia, Penn. nominates Time mag.-backed newcomer (who switched from Dem. to Repub. in the mid-1930s, staying on the liberal side and waffling about the New Deal and isolationism) Wendell Lewis Willkie (1892-1944) of Ind. on the 6th ballot, bypassing Sen. Robert A. Taft of Ohio and New York City district atty. Thomas E. Dewey; conservative Oregon Sen. Charles Linza McNary (1874-1944) is nominated for vice-pres.; the campaign slogan is "Roosevelt for Ex-President"; U.S. Rep. (R-Mass.) Joseph William Martin Jr. (1884-1968) becomes permanent chmn. of the Repub. Nat. Convention (until 1952). On June 26 with its non-aggression pact with Germany in hand, the Soviet Union demands the return of Bessarabia from Romania, and the cession of Northern Bukovina (Bucovina) (19.3K sq. mi., pop. 3.5M), and after Hitler urges them to do it and they agree on June 27, and occupy it on June 28-July 4, and Romania is the biggest Black Sea country no more; on July 1 after pressure from Germany and Italy, Romania renounces the Anglo-French guarantee of its integrity, and on Aug. 30 yields the 17.4K sq. mi. half (2.4M pop.) of N Transylvania to Hungary in the Vienna Award, creating the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Repub. (#13) (a small part of SE Bessarabia along the Black Sea coast and another small part in the NW are added to Ukrainian SSR), with capital at Kishinev (Chisinau). On June 26 Hitler visits the area of the Western Front where he served in WWI; as he drives through Lille, a woman shouts out the window "The Devil!" On June 27 the Germans set up radio beacon beams in Brest and Cherbourg to use by bombers targeting Britain. On June 28 Italian Air Marshal Italo Balbo (b. 1896), Libyan gov. since 1933 and Mussolini's heir apparent is shot down by mistake by Italian anti-aircraft fire while trying to land in Tobruk. On June 29 Hitler leaves his HQ at Bruly-de-Peche for a new HQ called Tannenberg in the small village of Kniebis near Freudenstadt in the Black Forest. On June 30 German forces occupy the Channel Islands of Guernsey and Jersey. On June 30 Soviet aircraft occupy the port of Izmail in Bessarabia. On June 30 Hitler orders "all objects of art, whether state-owned, or in private Jewish hands" in Paris confiscated for safekeeping "as a security for eventual peace negotiations", and Joachim von Ribbentrop assigns new embassy employee Heinrich Otto Abetz (1903-58) to the job, which he does enthusiastically; on Sept. 17 Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (1893-1946) takes over, after which the Vichy govt. protests the whole program in Oct. in vain, and by the end of Oct. the Louvre is stuffed full, requiring more space; in Nov. Abetz becomes the German ambassador in Paris. In June a French Vichy admin. is installed in Syria (until 1941). In June-July 526 British pilots are KIA. In June-Sept. German U-boats sink 351 ships. On July 1 the Italian govt. of Mussolini threatens action against Greece for letting British warships use its territorial waters in attacks on Italian ships. On July 1 German U-boats begin attacking merchant ships in the Atlantic. On July 1 the British govt. establishes the Special Operations Executive (SOE) to administer all underground acts of sabotage, subversion, and propaganda in German-occupied Europe and neutral countries, with Churchill giving it the motto: "Set Europe ablaze!"; the French "F" Section is created under Maurice James Buckmaster (1910-92) (who made it out of Dunkirk) and Vera Atkins (1908-2000) (a Romanian Jewish immigrant who becomes a British citizen in 1944) to infiltrate operatives back into German-occupied France after training them at Baker St. and Orchard Ct. in London; French-speaking Anthony Morris "Tony" Brooks (1922-2007) (AKA Agent Alphonse) becomes the youngest and longest-surviving F Section organizer, and is parachuted into France in July 1942. On July 2 Marshal Petain moves his Unoccupied Zone govt. from Bordeaux to Vichy. On July 2 Hitler orders his military to prepare invasion plans for Britain, contingent on attaining air superiority; on July 3 the British conclude that any invasion will be preceded by a major air war. On July 2 German U-boat U-47 sinks British liner SS Arandora Star, carrying enemy aliens incl. Jewish refugees off Ireland, killing 714 of 1,582. On July 3 after French Vichy Adm. Jean Louis Xavier François Darlan (1881-1942) refuses to cooperate, the British launch Operation Catapult to keep Germany from taking over French warships, issuing an ultimatum to ships at Mers-el-Kebir Naval Base in Oran to hand them over, and when they refuse they bombard them for 5 min., sinking cruiser Dunkerque and battleships Provence and Bretagne, killing 1.25K, while cruiser Strasbourg, aircraft carrier Commandant Teste, and five destroyers escape to Toulon, causing the Vichy govt. on July 5 to break off diplomatic relations with Britain; meanwhile all French ships in British ports are boarded and captured without violence, except for submarine Surcouf, where one French sailor is killed; Winston Churchill utters the soundbyte about the deaths at Oran: "I leave it with confidence to Parliament, I leave it also to the nation, and I leave it to the United States, I leave it to the world and to history", causing FDR to become convinced of the British will to continue the war alone. On July 5 pissed-off Romania joins the German-Italian Axis. On July 5 after Japan asks the Vichy govt. for military bases in French Indochina then occupies them in the midst of negotiations, the U.S. passes the U.S. Export Control Act, forbidding export of vital materials and military equipment to Japan without a license; meanwhile the thought of the Japanese romping over the colonies of defeated France and Holland causes the U.S. to sweat about a Pacific War. On July 5 Boris Mikhailovich Shaposhnikov (1882-1945), Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (1895-1970), and incompetent (friend of Stalin) artillery chief Grigory Ivanovich Kulik (1890-1950) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to actor-wrestler Jesse "the Body" Ventura (1951-)?) are promoted to field marshal; Shaposhnikov becomes chief of the Red Army Staff - a lot of room at the top after all them purges? On July 6 after the Japanese demand that the British close the Burma Road, their main arms supply route to China, and they don't want a 3rd enemy, they fold and close it for 3 mo. until Oct. 8. On July 6 carrier-based British aircraft attack the Libyan port of Tobruk. On July 6 Hitler returns to Berlin for the first time in 2 mo., and is greeted by vast crowds waving 1M Swastika flags that are distributed free. On July 6 the first German daylight bombing raid over Britain at Aldershot kills three Canadian troops. On July 7 to avoid another Mers-el-Kebir the French Vichy navy in Alexandria, Egypt folds and scuttles their ships; meanwhile those at Casablanca and Dakar refuse, causing the British to damage battleships Richelieu and Jean Bart. On July 9 British and Italian naval forces fight the Battle of the Toe of Italy (Calabria) (Punta Stilo), with British aircraft Eagle gaining air superiority, and British battleship Warspite badly damaging Italian battleship Giulio Cesare. On July 9 German commerce raider Komet sails NE from Germany to the Bering Strait with the help of Soviet icebreakers, going on to sink six merchant ships before returning. On July 9 Hitler holes-up in his mountain retreat of Obersalzberg near Berchtesgaden to make pencil sketches of a new opera house at Linz, the town he lived in as a young man. On July 9 German Protestant pastor Paul-Gerhard Braune (1887-1954) writes Hitler a letter protesting his euthanasia program for endangering "the ethics of the people as a whole", asking "Whom if not the helpless should the law protect?"; after he is told to stuff it by Hitler's Chancellery head Hans Lammers, Reinhard Heydrich issues an arrest warrant for "sabotaging measures of the regime in an irresponsible manner", and he is softened up in a Gestapo prison in Berlin for 10 weeks then released on probation. The war is saved with British and U.S. technology? On July 10 after air marshal Hermann Goering promises Hitler it will only take 1-2 weeks, Germany, having only one unfinished business (the pesky Brits) begins the Battle of Britain (ends Nov. 2) with an all-out air attack starting in SE England, with the coast around Dover becoming known as Hell-Fire Corner as it is shelled by German guns from the opposite coast; on July 10 120 German planes attack a British shipping convoy in the English Channel, while 70 more bomb docks in S Wales; the British Ministry of Aircraft Production begins calling for citizens to donate aluminum, with the soundbyte: "We will turn your pots and pans into Spitfires and Hurricanes, Blenheims and Wellingtons"; after it doen's work as planned, they restart it officially on Aug. 13 (Eagle Day); the Luftwaffe has 1.5K fighters vs. 850 for the Brits, who are hampered by being on the defensive, needing to hold back half their force for defense of Midlands and N factories; on July 10 the British Ministry of Aircraft Production begins calling for citizens to donate aluminum, with the soundbyte: "We will turn your pots and pans into Spitfires and Hurricanes, Blenheims and Wellingtons"; on July 14 the Striking Cos. launch Operation Ambassador (ends July 15) to attack Guernsey, turning into a fiasco, with one killed and two taken POW; air chief marshal Sir Hugh Dowding (1882-1970) is CIC of the RAF Fighter Command; a new secret veapon called RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) is used to effect by the Allies, facing 2.5K total German planes, who fail in their attempt to control the Channel, losing 1.7K planes and killing 23K British civilians before giving up; Rolls-Royce wins the battle with their Merlin Engines for the single-seat Supermarine Spitfire (first flight Mar. 5, 1936) and Hawker Hurricane (first flight Nov. 6, 1935), which can out-turn the German Messerschmitt Bf-109 (first flight May 29, 1935) but have a lower ceiling; the U.S. and Britain begin cooperating in radar development at the MIT Radiation Laboratory in Cambridge, Mass.; until Aug. 7 the Germans carry out only "test raids" on Channel merchant shipping, sinking 30K tons and downing 148 British planes, with losses of 286 German planes; the main air battle on Aug. 24-Sept. 6 is fought over the radar installations and S airfields of Fighter Command, but the Germans screw up and leave the radars intact, and fail to finish off the airfields, instead going on to attack factories and London, spurred by Hitler, who was mad that the Brits had bombed Berlin and wanted to get even; the battle ends with 414 British and allied pilots KIA (about one-third). On July 11 Marshal Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Petain (Pétain) (1856-1951) becomes chief of state of Vichy France (until Aug. 19, 1944). On July 12 after Hermann Goering tells Hitler that it's better to occupy Spain and North Africa than invade Britain, Operation Felix, a plan to occupy Gibraltar is launched; too bad, Gen. Francisco Franco fails to commit Spain to ender the war on the Axis side, causing it to be delayed into 1944, then dropped; meanwhile Operation Goldeneye is devised by the Brits incl. future "James Bond 007" author Ian Fleming to thwart a German invasion of Gibraltar. On July 15 after seeing Germany's concentrated armor divs. easily defeat France's infantry-dominated army in six weeks, the U.S. Army organizes the I Armored Corps; in May the U.S. Army only has 28 tanks (10 medium, 18 heavy), plus 900 obsolete models. By July 16 Hitler moves to a new HQ called Eagle's Lair (Adlerhorst) at Schloss Ziegenberg near Bad Nauheim and Giessen in the E foothills of the Taurus Mts. On July 16 Hitler signs Gen. Order No. 16, calling for preparations for Operation Sealion, "a landing operation against England", to be on a "broad front approximately from Ramsgate to the area west of the Isle of Wight", with the main objective being to make it impossible for the RAF "to deliver any significant attack against the German crossing"; Gen. Rommel spends the last mos. of the year training his troops for it. On July 19 the 1940 Field Marshal Ceremony at the Kroll Opera House sees Hitler create 12 new disciples, er, field marshals incl. Moritz Albrecht Franz Friedrich Fedor von Bock (1880-1945), Wehrmacht CIC Heinrich Alfred Hermann Walther von Brauchitsch (1881-1948), Albert Kesselring (1885-1960), Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (1882-1946), Gunther Adolf Ferdinand "Hans" von Kluge (1884-1944), Wilhelm Josef Franz Ritter von Leeb (1876-1956), Siegmund Wilhelm Walther List (1880-1971), Erhard Milch (1892-1972), Walther von Reichenau (1884-1942), Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (1875-1953), Hugo Sperrle (1885-1953), and Job Wilhelm Georg Erdmann "Erwin" von Witzleben (1881-1944); he promotes Field Marshal Hermann Goering to the new position of Reichmarschall (marshal of marshals); he also outlines his "peace offer" to Britain, with the soundbyte: "If the struggle continues it can only end in annihilation for one of us. Mr. Churchill thinks it will be Germany. I know it will be Britain... I am not the vanquished begging for mercy. I speak as a victor. I can see no reason why this war must go on. We would like to avert the sacrifices that claim millions", adding that it's possible "that Churchill will once again brush aside this statement of mine by saying that it is merely born of fear and doubts of victory. In this case I shall have relieved my conscience of the things to come" - Hitler has a conscience? On July 19 after rejecting Hitler's peace offer with the soundbyte "By resistance, not appeasement", FDR signs the U.S. Two-Ocean Navy (Vinson-Walsh) Act, authorizing 130 new ships to be added to the 488-ship navy incl. 18 aircraft carriers, seven battleships, 42 subs, 115 destroyers, and 27 cruisers. On July 19 all telephones are confiscated from Jews in Germany - to protect their huge hooked noses from damage? On July 21 as the Soviet Union formally annexes the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, Hitler tells his military cmdrs. in Obersalzberg to make plans to invade the Soviet Union. On July 21 the Benes Decrees, are first issued by Czech pres. Edvard Benes, dealing with reconstruction of the country, then progressing into expulsion of ethnic Germans by Oct. 27, 1945. On July 22 British foreign secy. Lord Halifax rejects Hitler's peace proposal in a radio address, with the soundbytes: "His only appeal was to the base instinct of fear, and his only arguments were threats. His silence as to the future of nations whom on one false pretext or another he has subjugated is significant"; "Certainly no one here wants the war to go on for a day longer than is necessary, but we shall not stop fighting till freedom for ourselves and others is secure." On July 22 after his pro-British pro-U.S. stance pisses-off the imperialists, Yonai Mitsumasa is succeeded by former PM (1937-8) Prince Fumimaro Konoye (Konoe) (1891-1945), who becomes Japanese PM #39 (until Oct. 16, 1941), pressuring Vichy France to cede military bases in French Indochina, with the threat of military force, declaring on July 31 that his aim is "the setting up of a New Order in Greater East Asia". On July 23 Britain recognizes the Czechoslovak Nat. Liberation Committee in London as the Czech. provisional govt.; meanwhile the Germans attempt to extinguish Czech culture while crushing the Jews. On July 23 Hitler attends a performance of Wagner's Gotterdammerung - Ruhe, Ruhe du Gott? On July 24 the U.S. agrees to allocate new weapons to the British according to mutual needs until the end of 1941, starting with 14,375 new aircraft to Britain and 19,902 to the U.S. On July 24 (night) despite being well-marked and signalling with a siren, French merchant steamer Meknes (Meknès) sailing from Southampton carrying 1,179 repatriated French sailors is sunk by a German torpedo boat, killing 383. On July 25 Winston Churchill authorizes Polish forces in Britain to be issued U.S. rifles as soon as they arrive. On July 29 the German navy informs Hitler that an invasion of Britain would not be possible until mid-Sept., and that even then the navy can't withstand a British naval counterattack this year; meanwhile after Gen. Jodl tells Col. (later Gen.) Walther Warlimont (1894-1976), chief of the army planning section of Hitler's plan to attack Russia "as soon as possible", probably May 1941, he silences Warlimont's objections of a disastrous WWI-style 2-front war with the soundbyte: "Gentlemen, it is not a question for discussion but a decision of the Fuhrer." On Aug. 1 Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 17, "conduct of air and sea warfare against England", stating that a successful air offensive is required before a seaborne landing, and calling for an "intensification of the air war" on Aug. 5, "the Day of the Eagle", targeted at Britain's air industry; meanwhile after Air Marshal Goering is informed by a German pilot that the British Spitfires are as good as German fighters, he replies: "If that is so, I will have to send my air inspector general to the firing squad", pissing-off guess-who WWI ace Ernst Udet (1896-1941), who never forgets it. On Aug. 2 King (1907-50) Gustav V (1858-1950) of Sweden secretly offers to mediate a peace agreement with Hitler and George VI, causing George VI to write in his diary: "Until Germany is prepared to live peaceably with her neighbours in Europe, she will always be a menace. We have got to get rid of her aggressive spirit, her engines of war, and the people who have been taught to use them." On Aug. 3-19 the Italians occupy British Somaliland, along with capital Berbera on Aug. 19. On Aug. 10 Romania passes anti-Jewish laws. On Aug. 13 (Day of the Eagle) (delayed from Aug. 5) 1,485 German aircraft begin bombing British airfields and aircraft factories, losing 45 planes vs. only 13 British planes; on Aug. 14 after poor weather limits the attacking force to 500 planes, 75 are shot down vs. 34 British planes; on Aug. 15 after sending 1,270 fighters and 520 bombers, the Germans lose 75 planes vs. 34 for the Brits; on Aug. 18 71 British and 27 British aircraft are lost, totalling 367 German planes lost, causing Goering to give them a rest on Aug. 19, which Churchill calls "a big mistake", after which on Aug. 20 Churchill gives his So Much to So Few Speech to the House of Commons, with the soundbyte: "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few", warning Hitler that even if he takes Russia, it won't save him because British air power "may in another year attain dimensions hitherto undreamed of", allowing them to bomb Germany, with the soundbyte: "Even if Nazi legions stood triumphant on the Black Sea or indeed the Caspian, even if Hitler were at the gates of India, it would profit him nothing if at the same time the entire economic and scientific apparatus of German war power lay shattered and pulverized at home"; meanwhile by Aug. 22 100 British aircraft are destroyed on the ground. On Aug. 14 British intel figures out that the Germans won't invade Britain until they achieve air superiority. On Aug. 14 FDR agrees to give Britain 50 U.S. destroyers in exchange for use of bases in the Caribbean and W Atlantic. On Aug. 16 British flight Lt. (later wing cmdr.) Eric James Brindley Nicolson (1917-45) takes on four German fighters above Southampton, shooting one down despite his plane burning, resulting in severe burns, earning him the only Victoria Cross for a fighter pilot during WWI. On Aug. 17 Hitler declares a blockade of the British Isles; British war losses so far are secretly tallied at 8,266 sailors and 4,400 soldiers KIA, 729 civilians killed, and 3,851 pilots and aircrew killed or missing. On Aug. 18 the German commission in the Netherlands suppresses all representative bodies, and the Netherlands becomes a protectorate (Schutzstaat). The original who-killed-Kennedy conspiracy in the Pentagon? On Aug. 20 after arriving in Liverpool on Apr. 15, a fact-finding mission consisting of Rear Adm. Robert Lee Ghormley (1883-1958), Army Brig.-Gen. George Veazey Strong (1880-1946), and Army Air Forces Maj. Gen. Delos Carleton Emmons (1889-1965) visits London, finding that the recent report by U.S. London ambassador Joseph P. Kennedy claiming "the devastating effect of German air attacks on England's ports, fields, and armament industry" is moose hockey, and that Britain was sure to hold out against the Nazis for at least 6 mo. On Aug. 20 on orders of his old comrade and archenemy Stalin, Leon (Lev) Trotsky (b. 1879), who once had an affair with artist Frida Kahlo is mortally wounded with an icepick (blunt side of an alpenstock) to the head in his home in Coyoacan ("place of the coyotes") in S Mexico City by Spanish-born KGB agent Jaume Ramon (Ramón) Mercader del Rio Hernandez (1914-78), who gives his name as Jacques Mornard until 1950, receiving the Order of Lenin for it, then rotting away in priz until 1960, after which he becomes a Cuban and Soviet Commie hero with free drinks at every bar; meanwhile 300K turn out for his funeral procession in Mexico City. On Aug. 20 the Battle of a Hundred Regiments (ends Dec. 5) pits the Chinese People's Liberation Army under Gen. Peng Dehuai (1898-1974) in a series of assaults on strategic Japanese points in N China; the Japanese beat the Communists back after taking heavy casualties, retaliating against the local pop. On Aug. 20 (night) Italian bombers raid British-held Gibraltar. On Aug. 23-24 the Germans begin their first all-night air raids on C London, AKA the London Mini-Blitz (ends Sept. 7), causing 300-600 killed and 1K-3K injured a day by Sept. 7; on Aug. 23 90 German bombers are shot down; actually the Aug. 23 attack was not aimed at London but 12 bombers fly off course and bomb it, killing nine civilians; Buckingham Palace is hit, causing the Queen Mum to utter the soundbyte "I am almost able to look the East End in the face." On Aug. 25 (night) the first British air raid on Berlin takes place, with a huge AA barrage failing to bring down a single plane, and no German civilians killed; leaflets are dropped warning that "The war which Hitler started will go on, and it will last as long as Hitler does"; on Aug. 28 (night) another raid kills 10 German civilians; on Aug. 30 (night) another raid hits the Siemens plant; the raids are witnessed by CBS-Radio journalist William L. Shirer - less is more? On Aug. 26 for the first time British fighters force back all but one of the German formations raiding S England. On Aug. 27 the Vichy govt. abrogates a pre-war French decreee forbidding incitements to race hatred. On Aug. 30 the British begin Operation Hats, sending several warships from Gibraltar to Alexandria carrying munitions to build British strength in Egypt. On Aug. 30 (night) a raid by 800 German aircraft against nine British fighter centers loses 17 planes over Biggin Hill Aerodrome; the British only lose one plane; more German bombers drop incendiary bombs on London. In Aug. the Kommandoamt der Waffen-SS is formed within the SS High Command, and new Waffen-SS chief of staff Gottlob Christian Berger (1896-1975) talks Hitler into allowing ethnic Germans from Denmark and Norway to form the SS Regiment Nordland, and Dutch and Flemish ethnic Germans to form the SS Regiment Westland, which are combined into the 5th SS Panzer Div. Wiking; so many volunteers sign up that a new training camp is opened in Sennheim, Alsace-Lorraine. In Aug. 1,075 British civilians are killed in German air raids. On Sept. 2 after U.S. ambassador to Britain Joseph P. Kennedy advises that British surrender is "inevitable", and Churchill advises FDR that in the event of British surrender its colonial islands close to U.S. shores could become a direct threat if they fell into German hands, and after British gold, foreign currency, securities, forced liquidation of assets in North Am., and surrender of patents and royalties on radar and jet engines runs out, the British-U.S. Destroyers-Bases Agreement is signed, giving Britain 50 mothballed WWI destroyers and some obsolescent small arms in exchange for land rights on British possessions in the Caribbean incl. Antigua, Bahamas, Bermuda, St. Lucia, Trinidad, British Guiana, and Newfoundland-Labrador; the destroyers become the Town class, and are named after British towns if there is a U.S. town of the same name; the deal allows the U.S. to protect the British possessions against German takeover in case of British defeat, so it isn't all one-sided?; on Sept. 6 after most of the rickety buckets prove unseaworthy without major work, six U.S. destroyers are delivered to the British at Halifax, N.S.; the obvious violation of neutrality is used as a weapon by Repubs. in the pres. election, allowing them to call FDR a war-monger, but after he wins FDR comes up with the end-around run of the Lend-Lease Act to really aid Britain bigtime, so the Brits owe the Yanks for saving their asses in WWII? On Sept. 4 after getting over the shock of the bombing of impregnable Berlin, Hitler cracks up an audience of German women nurses and social workers in Berlin with a speech, with the soundbytes: "When they declare they will increase their attacks on our cities, then we will raze their cities to the ground", and "In England they're filled with curiosity, asking 'Why doesn't he come?' Be calm, be calm, he's coming, he's coming!"; William L. Shirer is in the audience. On Sept. 4 unrest causes King Carol II to name Iron Guard sympathizer Gen. Ion Victor Antonescu (1882-1946) as dictator (until Aug. 23, 1944), causing PM Gheorghe Tarescu to resign; on Sept. 5 Antonescu suspends the 1938 constitution and dissolves parliament; on Sept. 6 the Iron Guard forces Carol II to flee with his mistress Magda Lupescu amid whistling bullets, settling in Mexico City then Rio de Janeiro, and his son succeeds as king Michael I (1921-) (until Dec. 30, 1947), becoming a puppet of the Iron Guard and Antonescu, beginning the "National Legionary State" (ends 1944); after unsuccessfully trying to set up a govt. in exile after Romania joins the Nazi side in WWII, Carol II marries Magda in Rio in 1947; on Sept. 7 the Treaty of Craiova cedes 3K-sq.-mi. S Dobrudja to Bulgaria; on Nov. 27 former PM Nicolae Iorga (b. 1871), the sole remaining vocal supporter of Carol II is assassinated by the Iron Guard; too bad, after Antonescu proves pro-German and the Iron Guard remains nationalistic, they begin to split ranks; meanwhile they agree on the right to massacre rioters. On Sept. 5 the Germans introduce the 1935 Nuremberg Laws to Luxembourg, and seize all 355 Jewish-owned businesses. On Sept. 7 (4:00 p.m.) after Hitler decides that he can make Britain submit without an invasion and orders German bomber raids on London, causing Goering to travel to Pas de Calais in his train Asia to take command, the London Blitz (ends May 10) by the Nazis begins as 300 bombers and 600 fighters attack the docks and oil depots on the lower Thames River, dropping 337 tons of bombs and killing 448 after missing and hitting crowded tenements; at 8:07 p.m. the Brits prematurely issue the codeword "Cromwell" to warn of an imminent invasion, helped by German deceptive tactics incl. movement of barges to Channel bases and cancellation of German army leave; when they fail to invade on Sept. 8, Churchill visits East End, London, and they tell him: "London can take it"; on Sept. 9 after two straight nights of bombing, George VI also visits East End; on Sept. 10 in retaliation for the indiscriminate bombing of London, the War Cabinet tells pilots to drop bombs anywhere they can if they can't locate their targets, causing Joseph Goebbels' garden to be bombed; the final count in London is 43K killed and 1M structures destroyed. On Sept. 11 Italy invades Egypt to gain control of the Suez Canal. On Sept. 11 on learning of the Romanian coup, Hitler sends a military mission to Romania to help protect its oil wells in Ploesti N of Bucharest and prepare them for use in the Russian invasion. On Sept. 12 (night) the Germans bomb docks in Liverpool, Swansea, and Bristol. On Sept. 13 the Italians cross their Libyan border and occupy Sollum, Egypt, threatening the British naval base at Alexandria and the Suez Canal. On Sept. 14 German Adm. Erich Johann Albert Raeder (1876-1960) advises Hitler that "the present air situation does not provide conditions for carrying out the invasion, as the risk is still too great", causing Hitler to say that the conditions for invading Britain are "not yet in hand", but the bombing of London should go on, because "If eight million inhabitants go crazy that can lead to catastrophe. If we get good weather and can neutralize the enemy's air force, then even a small-scale invasion can work wonders", postponing Operation Sealion (originally scheduled for Sept. 12) on Sept. 17 "until further notice", with the soundbyte "We have conquered France at the cost of 30K men. During one night of crossing the Channel we could lose many times that, and success is not certain", but leaving the invasion force in place as a bluff, causing the Allies to bomb it, and Hitler's officers to beg him to let them withdraw, which he allows on Sept. 23; Hitler drops the British invasion plans in favor of an attack against the Soviet Union while leading his own men to believe he will go after the Brits again next spring, and the Soviets to believe they're being moved E only to get out of the range of British bombers. On Sept. 14 Congress passes the U.S. Selective Service Act, providing for the first peacetime draft in U.S. history; the Alternative Service Program is established for conscientious objectors; in Oct. U.S. Brig. Gen. Lewis Blaine Hershey (1893-1977) becomes acting head of the U.S. Selective Service System, becoming permanent dir. on July 31, 1941 (until 1970) - free Hershey bar for enlisting? On Sept. 15 Battle of Britain Day sees massive German air raids on London, Southampton, Liverpool, Manchester, Bristol, and Cardiff by 700 fighters and 230 bombers; the Germans lose 60 planes to 26 for the Brits; because the Germans usually attack at night, fighters are almost never used? On Sept. 16 British-based Polish planes attack the German invasion barges at Boulogne, tearing most of them up, making the Battle of Britain effectively kaput. On Sept. 17 Italian destroyers Aquilone and Borea are sunk off Benghazi by RAF bombers. On Sept. 17 (10 p.m.) (after trailing it for 10 hours) German sub U-48 under 30-y.-o. Capt. Heinrich Bleichrodt (1909-77) fires a torpedo into British liner SS City of Benares (former luxury liner) in the North Atlantic, carrying 407 crew and passengers incl. 90 children being evacuated from England to Canada; it sinks in 30 min. in a gale 500 mi. from land and 300 mi. from any rescue vessel, killing 126 crew and 134 passengers incl. 77 children; as a British destroyer races to aid them, the survivors take to lifeboats; Lifeboat 12, carrying 46 adults and six children in a boat with cap. of 30 is missed by the destroyer and drifts for eight days before being rescued, causing a backlash against both the Germans and British; 11-y.-o. Colin Ryder-Richardson (1929-2012) becomes the youngest to achieve the King's Award for Bravery after trying in vain to rescue his nurse from drowning; after the war Bleichrodt is charged at Nuremberg but is acquitted of knowing that children were on board; 49-y.-o. Polish businessman Bohdan Nagorski (1890-1987) (great-uncle of ABC News producer Tom Nagorski), who is carrying a diplomatic pouch for the Polish govt.-in-exile is a survivor. On Sept. 19 Danish-born German spy Wulf Dietrich Christian Schmidt (1911-92) AKA Harry Williamson parachutes into Britain, and is soon arrested and turned into double-agent Tate, going on to fool the Germans so bad they award him an Iron Cross, 1st Class; "One of the seven spies who changed the world" (Nigel West). On Sept. 20 Zionist and future Israeli PM Menachem Begin (b. 1913) is arrested in his Lithuanian home while playing chess with his wife; as the Soviet pigs drag him away he calls out that he concedes the game. On Sept. 20 Ft. Breendonck Camp near Antwerp in Belgium gets its first prisoners. On Sept. 23-25 the British and Free French launch their first offensive, Operation Menace (Battle of Dakar), an attack on Vichy-held Dakar in hopes of liberating French West Africa; too bad, after refusing to switch loyalties, they resist, their battleship Richelieu damaging British cruiser Cumberland and battleship Resolution, causing them to retreat, after which Churchill refuses to back another attack because Britain has too much on its plate. On Sept. 23 the Japanese invade Lang Son Province in N Vietnam from S China, and occupy Indochina; the French flee, giving over their military installations to the invaders to avoid destruction of the country; on Sept. 27 a Communist-led anti-French rebellion begins in Bac Son in N Vietnam. On Sept. 23 Heinrich Himmler launches Operation Tooth, telling SS Lt. Col. Hermann Pook (a dentist) to examine arriving concentration camp inmates for dental gold and tattoo their upper left arms and mark the locations on special forms so that when they die they can collect it; the Allies capture millions of forms after the war. On Sept. 23 (night) the nightly British air raid on Berlin catches Joseph Goebbels dining at the Adlon Hotel with several dignitaries incl. the Spanish foreign minister, causing them to finish in the hotel's air raid shelter. On Sept. 25 Britain attacks Tobruk Harbor in Libya. On Sept. 25 Norwegian Nazi puppet ruler Josef Terboven dissolves the admin. council and installs an all-Nazi-puppet govt., causing the Norwegian Front resistance org. to be created. On Sept. 25 the U.S. announces more loans to China in support of Gen. Chiang Kai-shek against Japan. On Sept. 26 the U.S. extends the license system for goods exported to Japan to iron and steel scrap. On Sept. 27 the Tripartite Pact (Axis) is signed by Germany, Italy, and Japan, who each pledge to help the others if attacked by the U.S. On Sept. 27 Jews in occupied France are ordered to carry special ID cards; Jewish shopkeepers must put a yellow-black "Jewish business" sign in their windows; on Sept. 28 works by 842 authors are pulled from French bookshops, incl. by Jewish writers and French patriots; all Jews are required to register at police stations, giving their nationality, profession, and address. In Sept. the Fat Year for German U-boats begins as they can operate from occupied France, sinking 32 Allied merchant ships in Oct. In Sept. English radar scientist Sir Henry Thomas Tizard (1885-1959) leads the Tizard Mission to the U.S. to introduce it to British scientific-technological developments incl. the magnetron, the Whittle gas turbine, the Tube Alloys Project (nukes) et al. On Oct. 1 the German Army launches Operation Otto to construct and improve roads and railways leading to the Soviet border, using forced labor to build the Otto Line on the W bank of the Bug River. On Oct. 1 Albert Einstein (1879-1955) and his stepdaughter Margot receive their U.S. citizenship at Trenton, N.J. On Oct. 4 Hitler and Mussolini meet at the Brenner Pass (7th meeting), and Hitler warns him against new campaigns in Africa, offering help; he also admits that he has given up trying to invade England, but declares: "The war is won - the rest is only a question of time" - I want to be one less? On Oct. 5 after losing 433 fighter aircraft since Aug. 13, Hitler orders an end to daylight raids on Britain; meanwhile 489K children are evacuated to the countryside by mid-Oct., and hundreds of thousands take to sleeping in the subways. On Oct. 5 civil servants in the Netherlands are required to sign an "Aryan attestation". On Oct. 7 German troops enter Romania to protect the oilfields. On Oct. 8 Britain reopens the Burma Road, soon sending $20M of U.S. military supplies from Lashio on 2K U.S.-built trucks. On Oct. 12 Hitler orders Operation Sealion abandoned except as a deception. On Oct. 12 (Columbus Day) FDR gives an Address on Hemisphere Deense in Dayton, Ohio, with the soundbyte: "Our course is clear. Our decision is made. We will continue to pile up our defense and our armaments. We will continue to help those who resist aggression, and who now hold the aggressors far from our shores." On Oct. 14 (night) a German night raid of London starts 900 fires, killing 400 incl. 64 of 600 at the Balham Tube Station. On Oct. 15 Charlie Chaplin's The Great Dictator debuts, becoming Chaplin's first all-dialogue film, playing duel roles as a Jewish barber with amnesia who is mistaken for Adenoid Hynkel, dictator of Tomania, effectively ridiculing Herr Hitler so much that he bans it in Germany; the world is a giant balloon to play with?; Jack Oakie plays Benzino Napaloni of Bacteria; Chaplin works so hard at using his mustache as a prop that he never appears with one onscreen again? On Oct. 16 the walled Warsaw Ghetto is created, then sealed on Nov. 26 after 150K Jews are forced to crowd in with 250K Jews already living there, and 100K Poles are forced to move out, taking only what they can carry, becoming the largest Jewish ghetto established by the Nazis - why go out for great kosher? On Oct. 16 16M Americans register for the draft, with FDR delivering a Radio Address on Selective Service Registration Day, with the soundbyte: "We are mobilizing our citizenship, for we are calling on men and women and property and money to join in making our defense effective." On Oct. 16 after deserting his ship in Boston to go to New York City to sell his services to the German embassy then returning, British merchant seaman George Johnson Armstrong (1902-41) is arrested, then deported to Britain, becoming the first British citizen of the war hanged for spying on July 10, 1941. On Oct. 16 (night) the British bomb German naval bases at Kiel after the British cabinet tells them that if they miss their designated targets they should dump the bombs on large cities incl. Berlin, but never tell the public that their vaunted precision bombing is moose hockey. On Oct. 17 a 6-sub German wolf pack incl. U-47 and U-48 based in Lorient attacks 35-ship Convoy SC 7 (Slow Convoy) from Sydney, N.S., sinking 20 ships; on Oct. 18 it sinks 12 of 49 ships of Convoy HX 79 (Halifax) from Halifax, N.S., for a total of 152K tons of shipping. On Oct. 18 (night) German bombers make their 200th air raid on Liverpool. On Oct. 21 Winston Churchill delivers a Speech to the People of France, with the soundbyte: "We seek to beat the life and soul out of Hilter and Hitlerism. That alone, that all the time, that to the end. We do not covet anything from any nation except their respect." On Oct. 22 Jewish businesses in the Netherlands are required to be registered. On Oct. 22 after sinking 17 ships on seven patrols for a total of 110K tons of Allied shipping, German sub U-32 is forced to the surface with depth charges; Capt. Hans Jenisch (1913-82) becomes the first U-boat ace of WWII to be captured; "The prisoners are all fanatical Nazis, and hated the British intensely", German Vs having "established Hitler in their minds, not merely as a God, but as their only God." On Oct. 22 5K German Jews in the W German provinces of Baden, the Saar, and the Palatinate are dispossessed of their property and shipped to Gurs Camp in the Pyrenees in SW France near Pau, which has no medical or sanitary facilities; when German pastor Heinrich Gruber (Grüber) (1891-1975) protests, he is sent to Sachsenhausen, surviving to testify against Adolf Eichmann in 1961; on Aug. 14, 1946 Robert Heinrich Wagner (Backfisch) (1895-1946), wartime German civil admin. chief of Alsace is hanged in Strasbourg for carrying out the deportations. On Oct. 23 after travelling on his private train Amerika and meeting with Vichy France deputy PM Pierre Laval in Montoire-sur-le-Loir on Oct. 22, Hitler meets with Gen. Franco for 9 hours in the town of Hendaye on the Franco-Spanish :) border and fails to get the latter to join the Axis or allow German troops through Spain to attack Gibraltar for a Jan. 10 attack, later telling Mussolini "I would rather have three or four teeth extracted than go through that again"; on Oct. 24 Hitler meets with 84-y.-o. French Marshal Henri-Philippe Petain at Montoire, and fails to get him to declare war on Britain or pledge to fight the Free French in Africa, although they do shake hands. On Oct. 24 the 40-hour work week goes into effect under the 1938 U.S. Fair Labor Standards Act - just when they're about to enter the war? On Oct. 24 the U.S. agrees to equip 10 British divs. for the "campaign of 1942". On Oct. 25 black officer Benjamin Oliver Davis Sr. (1877-1970) becomes a brig. gen. in the U.S. Army, becoming the first African-Am. U.S. army gen.; his son Capt. Benjamin Oliver Davis Jr. (1912-2002) goes on to become one of the first black officers in the Tuskegee Airmen in Mar. 1942. On Oct. 27 the Brazzaville Declaration by Charles de Gaulle announces the creation of the Empire Defense Council in French Equatorial Africa, inviting Vichy-run possessions to join. Neo-Roman Empire Italy goes too far when it challenges Neo-Greek Empire Greece's manhood and gets flipped the Greek bird? On Oct. 28 (Mon.) (5:30 a.m.) after demanding occupation rights to unspecified "strategic" Greek sites at 4 a.m. (dawn), and and getting a curt "Oxi" (Okhi) (Ohi) (Ochi) ("Hell No") response from Greek dictator Ioannis Metaxas, followed by "Alors, c'est la guerre" ("Well then, that's war"), Italian troops in Albania invade Greece, while the Greek pop. takes to the streets shouting "Oxi", launching the Greco-Italian War (ends Apr. 23, 1941); the same day Hitler meets with Mussolini in Florence, Italy, who greets him with "Fuhrer, we are on the march", getting pissed-off at not taking his advice to secure Egypt by taking Alexandria and/or Crete; meanwhile the British scramble to honor their 1939 agreement to help Greece, sending troops and military equipment. On Oct. 28 450+ German aircraft attack S England, losing 28 vs. seven British planes. Trick or Treat 1940, the original Read My Lips: No New Taxes? On Oct. 30 after Repub. Wendell Willkie positions himself as the peace candidate, and FDR as a war monger, FDR gives a No War Speech in Boston, Mass., with the soundbyte "I have said this before, but I shall say it again and again and again: Your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars" - what's that stamped on your foreheads, the word dumbass? On Oct. 31 a Belgian Govt.-in-Exile is formed in London. On Oct. 31 (night) German pocket battleship (heavy cruiser) Admiral Scheer under Adm. Theodor Krancke (1893-1973) slips through the Denmark Strait into the Atlantic on its first combat sortie, going on to sink 13 merchant ships, the armed merchant cruiser Jervis Bay, and capture three merchant ships for a total of 115,195 tons of shipping in a 5-mo. cruise; Krancke goes on to command Navy Group West which controls all German naval vessels in France. In Oct. a U.S. Army bus collides with a lorry near Marlborough, Wiltshire, killing 10 soldiers and injuring 21. In Oct. U.S. Brig. Gen. Lewis Blaine Hershey (1893-1977) becomes acting head of the U.S. Selective Service System, becoming permanent dir. on July 31, 1941 (until 1970) - free Hershey bar for enlisting? In Oct. WWI hero Sir Richard Edmund Charles Peirse (1892-1970) becomes chief of the RAF Bomber Command (until Jan. 1942). On Nov. 1 British bombers attack military targets in Berlin and Rome. On Nov. 2 the Germans stage their last night raid of the London Blitz (begun Aug. 23), losing a total of 2,433 aircraft and 6K+ airmen. On Nov. 4 the Greeks counterattack, driving the Italians back to their starting points. On Nov. 5 (Tues.) the 1940 U.S. Pres. Election reelects FDR, who carries 38 states; of the 58.9% who vote for pres., FDR wins 27.3M popular (54.7%) and 449 electoral votes to Wendel Willkie's 22.3M popular (44.8%) and 82 electoral votes; the Dems. retain control of both houses of King Congress; after the U.S. enters WWII, Willkie calls for nat. unity, and FDR makes him an unofficial envoy to other countries, making a round-the-world airplane trip in 1942 - an Indianan will never be president? On Nov. 5 German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer under Capt. (later adm.) Theodor Krancke (1893-1973) attacks 37-ship Convoy HX 84 en route from Nova Scotia to Britain in the mid-Atlantic, sinking armed merchant cruiser Jervis Bay, killing 189, along with five other ships; for giving the convoy an order to scatter to minimize losses, losing his own life, Jervis Bay Capt. Edward Stephen Fogarty Fegen (b. 1891) is awarded the Victoria Cross. On Nov. 6 the British mount a counteroffensive against the Italians at Gallabat, but are driven back. On Nov. 6 the German Sixteenth Army sends an Enigma message ordering apparatus used for equipping British invasion barges put in storage, which is decoded by the British, confirming that the invasion is off. On Nov. 7 British bombers strike the Krupp armament factories in Essen. On Nov. 7 Operation Coat sees five British warships led by battleship Barham leave Gibraltar to reinforce naval forces in Egypt. On Nov. 8 on the 17th anniv. of the 1923 Munich Putsch Hitler has to deliver his speech an hour early to avoid British bombers. On Nov. 11 the Germans arrest 123 trying to lay wreaths at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Paris incl. 90 schoolchildren; on Dec. 23 they execute civil engineer Jacques Bonsergent (b. 1912), who stumbled into the demonstration while visiting Paris for a friend's wedding, becoming the first Parisian (French person?) executed by the German occupation; the Jacques Bonsergent Metro is named for him in 1946. On Nov. 11 British steamer SS Automedon is boarded by German raider Atlantis, which captures the Automedon Bag, a set of secret documents revealing that the British can't hold Hong Kong, Malaya, or Singapore in the event of a war with Japan, which the Germans pass to them, giving them ideas. On Nov. 11 the first official mass execution at Dachau concentration camp N of Munich is of 55 Polish intellectuals from Cracow. On Nov. 11-12 (night) Operation Judgement sees 24 British torpedo bombers from aircraft carrier Illustrious cripple the anchored Italian fleet at Taranto, Italy, sinking battleship Duilio and damaging two others along with two cruisers, which gives the Japanese ideas about how to attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor, causing them to begin planning for Operation Z; it gives the same idea to U.S. Navy secy. Frank Knox, who suggests that precautionary measures be taken. On Nov. 12 Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 18, proposing Operation Felix to get Spain to join the Axis by seizing Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, Madeira, and Spanish Morocco in order to "drive the English from the western Mediterranean". On Nov. 12-13 Soviet foreign minister (since 1939) Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov (1890-1986) visits Hitler in Berlin, becoming the first high-ranking Soviet official to do so at his direct invitation, discussing how the four totalitarian powers will divide the world incl. carving up Britain's kaput empire, "a bloc of 40 million square kilometers in a gigantic auction"; on Nov. 13 an evening banquet is given in the Russian embassy in Unter den Linden by German foreign minister (since 1938) Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (1893-1946), and the toast to Hitler is interrupted by a British air raid, causing them all to take refuge in Ribbentrop's home air raid shelter; after Ribbentrop continues to harp to Molotov about dividing England up now that it has been so decisively beaten, Molotov replies, "If England is beaten, why are we sitting in this shelter?"; Molotov tells Ribbentrop that Stalin wants the Kattegat and Skagerrak between Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, which the Germans took over from Denmark in May, pissing-off Hitler and making him more eager to attack. On Nov. 13 the Free French under Gen. Charles de Gaulle capture Libreville from the Vichy French, taking the rest of Gabon by Nov. 15. On Nov. 13 after being sent to Britain as an informal emissary to gauge Britain's ability to fight the Germans and learn how British intel works, future CIA head William Joseph "Wild Bill" Donovan (1883-1959) passes a message to FDR from German charge d'affairs (Nov. 1938-Dec. 11, 1941) Hans Thomsen (1891-1968) that Germany would join with Japan if the latter were to declare war on the U.S. On Nov. 14 (night) to get even with the Nov. 8 bombing of Munich, 500 German bombers bomb Godiva-town Coventry, England, creating a firestorm that destroys 60K of 75K bldgs. and kills 568, leaving most corpses unidentifiable, causing the Germans to coin the term "Koventrieren" (to Coventrate), and giving the Brits an idea that they later use on Germany - that'll shut Ribbentrop's trap? On Nov. 15-16 (night) the British bomb industrial centers in Hamburg, Germany, killing 233 on Nov. 16 after clouds and icing cause them to miss military targets and hit civilians. On Nov. 15 the first 75K men are called to duty in the U.S. armed forces under peacetime conscription. On Nov. 16 the Brits get even for Coventry by bombing Hamburg, Germany, killing 233 after clouds and icing cause them to miss military targets and hit civilians. On Nov. 18 Soviet German spy Richard Sorge warns Stalin from Tokyo that the Germans are preparing an attack. On Nov. 18 Hitler meets with Italian minister Count Ciano at Obersalzberg, getting pissed-off at the failure of the Greek campaign, warning that it might result in the British getting an air base in Athens to bomb the oil wells at Ploesti, Romania, making it necessary for the Germans to intervene, which can't be done before next Mar. On Nov. 18 the Germans first use a parachute mine, killing 39 soldiers at Theydon Bois N of London. On Nov. 19 at the insistence of his sister the Crown Princess of Italy, Hitler meets at the Berghof with Belgian King Leopold, who is being held a prisoner in his own country, and offers him N France if the Belgians cooperate unconditionally with the Germans in the war. On Nov. 19 (night) the British bomb the Skoda armaments factory in Pilsen, Czech., doing little damage; it remains operation through most of the war. On Nov. 21 the British attack Italian-held bases in Libya incl. Benghazi. On Nov. 22 after breaking through the Italian line on Nov. 15, the Greeks defeat the Italians at the Battle of Koritsa 15 mi. inside the Albanian border, capturing 2K Italian POWs, 600 machine guns, and 135 field guns, with Greek pres. Gen. Ioannis Metaxas uttering the soundbyte: "We fight, not only for our own existence, but also for the other Balkan peoples and Albania's liberation as well." On Nov. 22 Naval CIC U.S. Adm. Harold R. Stark writes a letter to Pacific fleet cmdr. James Otto Richardson (1878-1974) inquiring if Pearl Harbor needs torpedo nets to protect it from a surprise Japanese attack, and on Jan. 8 Richardson replies that they aren't needed. On Nov. 23 Romania joins the Axis, and on Nov. 27 the Iron Guard executes 64 former officials of King Carol II's govt. while rioting spreads. On Nov. 23 (night) the Germans heavily bomb Southampton, England, followed on Nov. 24 (night) by Bristol. On Nov. 24 Slovakia under pres. Josef Tiso signs the Tripartite Pact, joining the Axis. On Nov. 24 Libyan-based Italian bombers raid the British naval base at Alexandria. On Nov. 24-30 three British merchantmen stage Operation Collar to supply Mediterranean naval forces in Malta and Alexandria that had been split in half by the Italian entry into the war, with Mussolini calling the Mediterranean the "Italian lake". On Nov. 25 after protests against new anti-Jewish laws in Holland since Nov. 23, the Germans close Delft U., forbidding students to enroll elsewhere; the Dutch Order Service (Orde Dienst) organizes a resistance, concerned mainly with maintaining calm until the peace? On Nov. 28 after setting up a special task force in Oct., Nazi brain man Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (1893-1946) sets up HQ in the house of a Jew to loot France, Belgium, and Netherlands of all valuable art works incl. 5K paintings, needing four large warehouses and a Jewish-owned dept. store to hold it all. On Nov. 28 Fritz Hippler's Nazi film The Eternal Jew (Der Ewige Jude) debuts in Berlin, comparing Jews with rats, "money-mad bits of filth devoid of all higher values, corrupters of the world"; Hitler gives a speech in the film announcing that a new war can only bring about the final annihilation of Jewry. Thank you, next please? On Dec. 1 the British Eighth Army (incl. Indian troops) under Gen. Sir Archibald Wavell begins a W desert offensive (their first) in N Africa against the Italians starting in Mersa Matruh 300km W of Alexandria, Egypt, outflanking them and taking 40K Italian POWs by Dec. 9; on Dec. 11 the British take Sidi Barrani, and begin invading Libya on Dec. 12, taking Sollum on Dec. 17; by Dec. 13 the Italians, led by Mussolini favorite Gen. Rodolfo Graziani (1882-1955) have lost 139K POWs and are crumbling, and he resigns his command early next year; Wavell gets promoted to field marshal; meanwhile Conservative MP (1919-45) Lady Astor calls the British Eighth Army the "D-Day Dodgers", implying that they are avoiding the real war in France, causing The Ballad of the D-Day Dodgers to be composed to the tune of "Lili Marlene". On Dec. 7 (night) the British bomb industrial targets in Dusseldorf, Germany. On Dec. 10 Gen. Franco refuses Hitler's 2nd request to permit German troops to cross Spain to capture Gibraltar, forcing him to issue Fuhrer Directive No. 19, cancelling Operation Felix, and ordering Operation Attila to occupy Vichy France to control the naval base at Toulon and air bases on the Mediterranean coast; Franco pisses Hitler off by saying that he will enter the war against England only when it is "ready to collapse". On Dec. 10 Polish joke CIC Edward Rydz-Smigly escapes from internment in Romania and crosses into Hungary, then ends up back in Warsaw next Oct. 30, where he assumes the disguise of a common underground soldier until he dies of sudden heart failure on Dec. 2. On Dec. 12-15 (night) the Germans bomb steel-town Sheffield, England. On Dec. 13 Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 20, ordering German troops in Romania reinforced in order to stage Operation Marita, an invasion of N Greece along with seizure of British bases in the Greek islands, after which "the forces engaged will be withdrawn for new employment". On Dec. 13 British bomb disposal expert Capt. M.F. Blaney and Lt. Richard James are blown up trying to dismantle an unexploded bomb at Manor Park in East London along with eight others watching from across the road, earning Blaney a posth. George Cross. On Dec. 15 in Paris Hitler restores the ashes of Napoleon's son Napoleon II, King of Rome (1811-32), who was a prisoner of Metternich in the Schonbrunn Palace in Vienna, and had been buried in the crypt of the Capuchin Church in Vienna; Marshal Petain refuses to attend, and the French people yawn it off. On Dec. 16 to get even for Coventry, the British try to firebomb Mannheim, Germany, but screw up, killing only 23 civilians. On Dec. 16 a secret British govt. report advises giving top priority to bombing German oil facilities, and a directive is issued on Jan. 13. On Dec. 17 British forces reach the Libyan border, being told by Churchill "to maul the Italian Army and rip them off the African shore to the utmost extent". On Dec. 18 Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 21, ordering the military to make plans "to crush Soviet Russia in a quick campaign" to be ready by May 15, while making certain "that the intention to attack does not become discernable"; Hitler expects Finland and Romania to fight on his team to take Leningrad first, then Kiev, then Moscow, with the final objective being to "erect a barrier against Asiatic Russia" on the Volga-Archangel line; the operation is initially known as Operation Fritz until history-man Hitler changes it to Operation Barbarossa (Red Beard), named after HRE Frederick I Barbarossa (1122-90), who is supposed to be sleeping in a cave in Mt. Kyffhauser in Thuringia or Mt. Untersberg in Bavaria, his red beard growing through the table before him and his eyes half-closed, waiting for the ravens flying around to disappear to signal his reawakening to return to save Germany; Soviet spymaster in Japan (since 1933) Richard Sorge (1895-1944) (posing as a German Nazi journalist under the codename Ramsay) warns Stalin, who doesn't believe him, saying "There's this bastard who's set up factories and brothels in Japan and even deigned to report the date of the German attack as 22 June. Are you suggesting I should believe him too?"; when he advises Stalin on Sept. 14, 1941 that the Japanese are not going to attack the Soviet Union, he believes him and pulls troops out of the east, allowing him to begin the victory push against Hitler; he also tells Stalin that if the Germans capture any city on the Volga River, Japan will attack, causing Stalin to dig in at Stalingrad. On Dec. 21 the entire supreme court of Norway resigns in protest against Nazi justice. On Dec. 21 (night) the British bomb Berlin, killing 45 civilians, causing Joseph Goebbels to comment in his diary: "So considerable losses, after all." On Dec. 23 everything's-gonna-be-fine-trust-me Hitler visits military units on the English Channel coast, and his train Amerika has to be shunted into a tunnel at Boulogne when a British bombing attack begins. On Dec. 24 hundreds of telegrams arrive in Polish homes in Warsaw greeting them with news of the death of their relatives in Auschwitz and other Nazi punishment camps. On Dec. 28 British intel learns that its 28 raids of oil installations at Gelsenkirchen, Germany were ineffective. On Dec. 28 Richard Sorge reports that a 40-div. German reserve army is being formed in Leipzig. On Dec. 29 FDR gives his Arsenal of Democracy Speech on radio, in which he utters the soundbyte: "The people of Europe who are defending themselves do not ask us to do their fighting. They ask us for the implements of war, the planes, the tanks, the guns, the freighters, which will enable them to fight for their liberty and for our security. We must be the great arsenal of democracy." On Dec. 29 (night) the Nazis stage a massive London Firebombing Blitz on both banks of the Thames River, destroying Guildhall and eight churches designed by Christopher Wren (who rebuilt 52 churches after the Great Fire of 1666); a haunting Photo of St. Paul's Cathedral visible through the flames while being saved by firefighters hampered by an exceptionally low tide gets mucho publicity; Harvard U. historian Crane Brinton is the fire marshal; British civilian deaths in Dec. total 3,793. In Dec. Kuomintang leader Gen. Chiang Kai-shek demands that all Chinese Communist Eighth Route Army forces withdraw N of the Yangtzi River by the end of the year, followed by all New Fourth Army forces by the end of Jan., but the latter oppose his ultimatum. In Dec. after living together on and off for four years, novelist Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) marries war correspondent Martha Gelhorn (1908-98) (until 1945); Gelhorn goes on to become the only woman to land in Normanday on D-Day (June 6, 1944). Sir Winston Churchill appoints Labour leader (avowed Marxist) Sir Richard Stafford Cripps (1889-1952) as British ambassador to the Soviet Union, who warns Stalin of the possibility of a Nazi attack, and after it happens in June 1941 goes on to engineer an alliance between the Soviet Union and the Allies, becoming super-popular in Britain and gaining jobs in the War Cabinet, lord privy seal, and leader of the House of Commons; too bad, Churchill smells a threat to his position as PM, and in Sept. 1942 sends him on the Cripps Mission to India to strike a deal that they will get full self-govt. after the war for loyalty during it, then pulls the rug under his feet, causing him to step down as Commons leader and accept a less glamorous job as minister of aircraft production for the rest of the war (until 1947). Sir Anthony Eden becomes British foreign secy. again (resigned 1938). Henry L. Stimson becomes U.S. secy. of war (until 1945); just like in 1911-13. Anti-FDR labor leader John L. Lewis resigns as head of the CIO after an election. Jesse Holman Jones (1874-1956) is appointed U.S. commerce secy. by FDR (until 1945). Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (1908-79), poor little rich boy son of John D. Rockefeller Jr. is appointed to the new Office of the Coordinator of Inter-Am. Affairs by FDR. Robert Daniel Murphy (1894-1978) is appointed U.S. envoy in French North Africa (until 1942), going on to prepare for Operation Torch. William "Wild Bill" Langer (1886-1959), known for being forced from office as gov. of N.D. in 1934 for fraud becomes a U.S. Sen. (R-N.D.) (until 1959), going on to lead the isolationists and back conspiracy theories of a shadow govt. of "millionaire monopolists, international bankers or crooks" running the U.S by selecting pres. nominees in both major parties. The Home Guard (Local Defence Volunteers) is formed in Britain. The Special Operations Executive (SOE) is established by the British as a secret military org. to promote guerrilla war in occupied territories. The U.S. Alien Registration (Smith) Act is passed, making it a federal crime to advocate the overthrow of the U.S. govt. or any state govt. by force; it is worded so loosely that it becomes a swinging cannon on deck depending on who's in power? The French Foreign Legion (founded 1831) is disbanded (until 1945). The Maud (Military Application of Uranium Detonation) Committee in Britain under English physicist Sir George Paget Thomson (1892-1975) convenes, recommending the development of the atomic bomb next year. Kiwi-born Australian journalist Nancy Wake (1912-) works with the French maquisards against the Germans,becoming a hero. British Fascist leader Oswald Mosley is imprisoned under British Defence Regs (until 1945). FDR appoints GM vice-pres. William Signius "Big Bill" Knudsen (1879-1948) as dir. of the Office of Production Management, and Jewish-Am. labor leader Sidney Hillman (1887-1946) as co-dir. (until 1942) - they both die soon after he does, worked to death? Former (1936) Repub. vice-pres. nominee Frank Knox is appointed U.S. Navy secy. by FDR; investment banking firm (Dillon, Reed and Co.) pres. (since 1938) James Vincent Forrestal is appointed undersecy., then becomes secy. in 1944, becoming the man in Foggy Bottom (later the Pentagon) who has to wear shades his future is so bright? The Germans set up Nazi Police Reserve Battalion 101 to massacre Jews in Eastern Europe, usually by shooting them into open pits. The U.S. obtains a right to establish a military base on the British-held island of Antigua, West Indies. German fighter ace Werner "Pappy" Molders (Mölders) (1913-41), hero of the Spanish Civil War and developer of the Finger-Four Formation gets 68 French-British kills, becoming the first German pilot to receive the Knight's Cross with oak leaves, swords, and diamonds; after being transferred to the Eastern Front in June 1941, he reaches a record 100 Vs in mid-July, is promoted to col., retired, then is killed in his Heinkel He 111 en route to Berlin in a heavy thunderstorm in Breslau on Nov. 22, 1941. The British Scientific Advisory Committee is formed by the War Cabinet. The Musical Herr, starring Hitler is such a dog that there's a mass exit of the intelligentsia from his theater of operations to lucky America, causing a brain boom? Am. journalist Varian Mackey Fry (1907-67), the "Artists' Schindler" travels from the U.S. to unoccupied Vichy-controlled Marseille, France with a list of 200 prominent (mainly Jewish) intellectuals and artists known to be in areas of Nazi-occupied Europe, and hooks up with U.S. vice-consul Hiram "Harry" Bingham IV (1903-88), Am. artist Miriam Davenport (1915-99), and Am. heiress Mary Jayne Gold (1909-97) to create the Emergency Rescue Committee, going on to smuggle 2K-4K (2.5K?) of them out of the clutches of the Gestapo to neutral Portugal and Martinique, where most end up the U.S. after getting around the usual Anti-Semitism, incl. artists Jean Arp (1886-1966), Andre Breton (1896-1966), Marc Chagall (1887-1985), Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968), Max Ernst (1891-1976), and Jacques Lipchitz (1891-1973), chemist Otto Meyerhof (1884-1951), writers Hannah Arendt (1906-75), and Franz Werfel (1890-1945), and composers Paul Abraham (1892-1960), Bela Bartok (1881-1945), Ralph Benatzky (1884-1957), Paul Hindemith (1895-1963), Emmerich Kalman (1882-1953), Ernst Krenek (1900-91), Darius Milhaud (1892-1974), Arnold Schonberg (1874-1951), Robert Stolz (1880-1975), Oscar Straus (1870-1954), Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), Ernst Toch (1887-1964), and Kurt Weill (1900-50); meanwhile, thanks to Herr Hitler and impresario Varian Fry, the Jewish trash, er, Abstract Expressionist Art Movement is founded in New York City in this decade, emphasizing spontaneous personal expression, paint as an object of art, and the art of painting itself; the Big Six are Philip Guston (1913-80), Willem de Kooning (1904-97), Barnett Newman (1905-70) (a miniminalist who paints big stripes), Jackson Pollock (1912-56) (splash artist), Mark Rothko (1903-70) (another minimialist), and Clyfford Still (1904-80); others incl. Milton Avery (1885-1965) ("the American Matisse"), Max Ernst (1891-1976), Robert Motherwell (1915-91), Franz Kline (1910-62), and Mark Tobey (1890-1976); later the CIA secretly promotes them as a weapon in the Cold War via the Congress for Cultural Freedom, founded in 1950. French composer Jean Martinon (1910-76) is taken POW by the Germans, going on to compose several works, incl. Chant des Captifs while incarcerated; in 1946 he appointed conductor of the Bordeaux Philharmonic Orchestra. George VI of Britain institutes the George Cross - I want to stand on a rooftop and recommend it to everybody? Harvard Hospital is sent to England by Harvard Medical School, and located near Salisbury, England (80 mi. W of London), where it becomes a U.S. military field hospital, then in 1946 is turned into the Common Cold Research Center (until 1990). Kiwi-born British cartoonist Sir David Alexander Cecil Low (1891-1963) gains fame for producing a series of wicked Anti-Hitler Cartoons. Films: Veit Harlan's Jud Süss (The Jew Suss) (Sept. 24), a Nazi anti-Jewish film backed by Joseph Goebbels based on German Jewish banker Joseph Suss Oppenheimer (1698-1738) and filmed in his hometown of Ludwigsburg in Baden-Wurttemberg 8 mi. N of Stuttgart, starring greasy, hooked-nose Austrian actor Ferdinand Marian (Haschkowetz) (1902-46) (forced to act in the movie by Goebbels after he finds out that his stepson is half-Jewish) as money and power-hungry "Court Jew" Suss, and Werner Krauss as a sinister rabbi "Ghetto Jew"; a typical fair and balanced Nazi treatment of their racial enemies, portraying them as creepy dirty mice who like to deflower lily-white Aryan girls and control the world economy; Harlan's blonde-blue Swedish 3rd wife Beata Margareta Kristina Soderbaum (Söderbaum) (1912-2001) ("the Ideal Aryan Woman") also stars, gaining the nickname "Water Corpse of the Reich" for her habit of committing suicide by drowning in this and other flicks; on Sept. 30 Heinrich Himmler orders all SS men and police to view it. Inventions: On May 13 Ukrainian-born Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (1889-1972) (1889-1972) of the U.S. makes his first free flight in the Vought-Sikorsky VS-300, giving the U.S. heli power. On May 29 the U.S. Navy/U.S. Marine Corps Chance Vought F4U Corsair fighter, powered by the Double Wasp engine makes its first flight, entering service on Dec. 28, 1942, with high demand causing manufacturing to be shared by Goodyear (FG) and Brewster (F3A); until problems with carrier landing are solved, it is replaced by the Grumman F6F Hellcat; it goes on to earn an 11:1 kill ratio vs. Japanese planes; after being adopted by New Zealand and France, 12,571 are produced by 1953, becoming the longest production run of any U.S. piston-engined fighter. On Oct. 26 the $51K North American Aviation P-51 Mustang makes its test flight, with the British RAF replacing its Allison V-1710 engines with the Rolls-Royce Merlin, giving it equal or better high-altitude performance to the Luftwaffe fighters after it is introduced in Jan. 1942; 15K are built by 1984. The U.S. Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber (AKA the Flying Boxcar) (bomb cap. 4 tons), designed by Consolidated Aircraft of San Diego, Calif., with greater range and speed than a B-17 begins production in England; in Aug. 1942 the new 3.5M sq. ft. Ford Motor Co. plant in Willow Run, headed by Danish-born engineer Charles Emil Sorensen (1881-1968) opens, becoming the largest factory in the U.S. (largest outside the Soviet Union), ramping production up to one an hour, causing it to become the most-produced U.S. military aircraft (18,482) (until ?); too bad, it is hard to steer, has a tendency to catch on fire, and can't take much battle damage, causing it to be called the Flying Coffin. The Soviet Union introduces the heavily-armored Voroshilov KV-1 Tank, named after Stalin's friend Kliment Efremovich Voroshilov (1881-1969) On Jan. 27 the U.S. Army Air Corps Lockheed P-38 Lightning fighter aircraft with distinctive twin booms and central nacelle containing the cockpit and armament, designed by super engineer Clarence Leonard "Kelly" Johnson (1910-90) makes its first flight, becoming the only fighter aircraft manufactured by the U.S. during WWII, helping U.S. aces in the Pacific Theater score mucho Vs, led by Richard Bong with 40Vs; 10,037 are built at an avg. cost of $97K; in June 1943 Kelly sets up the Lockheed Skunk Works in Burbank, Calif. to perform high-priority projects sans bureaucracy and red tape, going on to produce the U-2 Dragon Lady, SR-71 Blackbird, F-117 Nighthawk, and F-22 Raptor. On Nov. 25 the 2-man British De Havilland DH.98 Mosquito ("Mossie") AKA "The Wooden Wonder" too-fast-to-catch multi-role recon-fighter-bomber aircraft makes its first flight, introduced on Nov. 15, 1941, evolving from photo-recon missions to low-med.-high alt. bombing missions with Blockbuster bombs, becoming the most versatile warplane ever built; there is room for only one passenger, in the bomb bay. African-Am. physician (inventor of Scotch Tape) Charles Richard Drew (1904-50) invents the Blood Bank to provide blood for Britain; too bad, he is prohibted by segregation laws from donating his own blood; after having an auto accident in 1950 he bleeds to death, causing a false rumor that he had been refused treatment by a hospital because he was black. In the fall Louis Mountbatten of the British Royal Navy invents Mountbatten (Plymouth) Pink, a new naval camouflage color that is a shade of lavender mauve grey, which makes ships vanish during dawn and dusk.

FDR Declaring War on Germany, Dec. 11, 1941, 3:05 p.m. EST Pearl Harbor Attack, Dec. 7, 1941 USS Shaw Exploding, Dec. 7, 1941 Japanese Capt. Mitsuo Fuchida (1902-76) Japanese Ensign Kazuo Sakamaki (1918-99) Hans Thomsen of Germany (1891-1968) Pres. Roosevelt's Dec. 8, 1941 War Message to Congress Franklin Delano Roosevelt of the U.S. (1882-1945) Tom Connally of the U.S. (1877-1963) Brains Trust, 1941 Henry Agard Wallace of the U.S. (1888-1965) Joseph Clark Grew of the U.S. (1880-1965) John Jay McCloy of the U.S. (1895-1989) French Adm. Jean Louis Xavier Francois Darlan (1881-1942) German Gen. Otto von Stülpnagel (1878-1948) German Capt. Franz von Werra (1914-41) German Cpl. Fritz Christen (1921-95) German Lt. Col. Otto Adolf Eichmann (1906-62) German Col. Karl Jäger (1888-1959) German Capt. Karl Fritzsch (1903-45) German SS Capt. Dieter Wisliceny (1911-48) Rudolf Hilferding of Germany (1877-1941) Bishop Theophil Wurm of Wurttemberg (1868-1953) Bishop Clemens Augen, Count von Galen (1878-1946) German Field Marshal Fedor von Bock (1880-1945) German Field Marshal Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist (1881-1954) German Field Marshal Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb (1876-1956) German Field Marshal Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (1875-1953) Friedrich Werner Graf von der Schulenburg of Germany (1875-1944) German SS Brig. Gen. Walther Schellenberg (1910-52) German Gen. Alexander Löhr (1884-1947) German SS Gen. Ernst Kaltenbrunner (1903-46) German SS Gen. Heinrich Müller (1900-45) German Gen. Friedrich August Jeckeln (1895-1946) German Gen. Erich Hoepner (1886-1944) German Col. Helmut Knochen (1910-2003) German Gen. Joachim Lemelsen (1888-1954) German Maj. Gen. Henning von Tresckow (1901-44) German SS Gen. Arthur Nebe (1894-1945) Soviet Gen. Vladimir Efimovich Klimovskikh (1894-1941) Soviet Gen. Maksim Purkayev (1894-1953) Soviet Gen. Ivan Vladimirovich Tyulenev (1892-1978) U.S. Gen. Henry H. 'Hap' Arnold (1886-1950) Romanian Gen. Petre Dumitrescu (1882-1950) Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi II of Iran (1919-80) Dragisa Cvetkovic of Yugoslavia (1893-1969) U.S. Gen. Leslie Richard Groves (1896-1970) U.S. Gen. Holland McTyeire 'Howlin Mad' Smith (1882-1967) Soviet Gen. Mikhail Khatskilevich (1895-1941) Maxim Litvinov of the Soviet Union (1876-1951) Yosuke Matsuoka of Japan (1880-1946) Hinrich Lohse of Germany (1896-1964) German Lt. Friedrich Guggenberger (1915-88) Polish Gen. Wladyslaw Sikorski (1881-1943) Ivan Maisky of the Soviet Union (1884-1975) St. Maximilian Kolbe (1894-1941) Bernhard Lichtenberg (1875-1943) Charles Howard, 20th Earl of Suffolk (1906-41) German Col. Gen. Ernst Udet (1896-1941) Kiwi RAF Cmdr. Henry Neville Gynes Ramsbottom-Isherwood (1905-50) Soviet Pvt. Efim Diskin (-1941) Czech SSgt. Jan Kubis (1913-42) Kurt Russell (1951-) Slovakian SSgt. Jozef Gabcik (1912-42) German Capt. Engelbert Endrass (1911-41) Georges Bégué of France (1911-93) Maria Bruskina (1924-41) British Lt. Col. Mad Jack Churchill (1906-96) The Tuskegee Airmen British Group Capt. Percy Charles Pickard (1915-44) British Wing Cmdr. Robert Stanford Tuck (1916-87) Dorie Miller (1919-43) Soviet Field Marshal Semyon Mikhailovich Budenny (1883-1973) Soviet Field Marshal Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov (1896-1974) Soviet Field Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky (1896-1968) Soviet Gen. Mikhail Petrovich Kirponos (1892-1941) Soviet Gen. Aleksandr Shcherbakov (1901-45) Vladimir Dekanozov of the Soviet Union (1898-1953) Japanese Gen. Hideki Tojo (1884-1948) Japanese Gen. Tomoyuki Yamashita (1885-1946) French Gen. Georges Catroux (1877-1969) Alexandros Koryzis of Greece (1885-1941) Ante Pavelic of Croatia (1889-1959) Vladimir Macek of Croatia (1879-1964) Japanese Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto (1884-1943) U.S. Adm. Husband Edward Kimmel (1882-1968) U.S. Maj. Gen. Walter Campbell Short (1880-1949) U.S. Adm. Chester William Nimitz (1885-1966) U.S. Adm. Isaac Campbell Kidd Sr. (1884-1941) U.S. Gen. Delos Carleton Emmons (1889-1945) German Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel (1882-1946) German Gen. Walther von Reichenau (1884-1942) German SS Lt. Gen. Hermann Fegelein (1906-45) Italian Gen. Annibale Bergonzoli (1884-1973) Gen. Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia (1892-1980) Gen. Draza Mihailovich of Yugoslavia (1893-1946) German Capt. Franz von Werra (1914-41) German Cpl. Fritz Christen (1921-95) German Lt. Col. Otto Adolf Eichmann (1906-62) German Col. Karl Jäger (1888-1959) German SS Capt. Dieter Wisliceny (1911-48) Sir Arthur William Fadden of Australia (1894-1973) John Joseph Curtin of Australia (1885-1945) Konstantin Umansky of the Soviet Union (1902-45) Soviet Gen. Filipp Golikov (1900-80) German Gen. Hanns Albin Rauter (1895-1949) German Gen. Karl Wolff (1900-84) German Maj. Gerhard Engel (1906-76) German Gen. Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski (1899-1972) German Col. Rudolf Lange (1910-45) German Capt. Erich Topp (1914-2005) French Gen. Emmanuel d'Astier de La Vigerie (1900-69) French Capt. Pierre Messmer (1916-2007) Dusan Simovic of Serbia (1882-1962) Rashid Ali al-Gaylani of Iraq (1892-1965) Ho Chi Minh of Vietnam (1890-1969) John Gilbert Winant of the U.S. (1889-1947) U.S. Gen. Lewis Blaine Hershey (1893-1977) U.S. Gen. Claire Lee Chennault (1893-1958) David Eli Lilienthal of the U.S. (1899-1981) U.S. Adm. Ben 'King Bee' Moreell (1892-1978) James Francis Byrnes of the U.S. (1879-1972) Robert Houghwout Jackson of the U.S. (1892-1954) Francis Biddle of the U.S. (1886-1968) Oveta Culp Hobby of the U.S. (1905-95) James Bryant Conant of the U.S. (1893-1978) Harold LeClair Ickes of the U.S. (1874-1952) Leon Henderson of the U.S. (1895-1986) Maxim Litvinov of the Soviet Union (1876-1951) Gustav Celmins of Latvia (1899-1968) Marcel Déat of France (1894-1955) Sir Mark Aitchison Young of Britain (1886-1974) Japanese Gen. Takashi Sakai (1887-1946) Dr. Horst Schumann of Germany (1906-83) German Lt. Hans-Dietrich von Tiesenhausen (1913-2001) Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya of the Soviet Union (1923-41) Indian Gen. Mohan Singh (1909-89) U.S. Capt. Hewitt Terrell Wheless (1913-86) The Pentagon, 1941 George Edwin Bergstrom (1876-1955) U.S. Gen. Leslie Richard Groves Jr. (1896-1970) Henry Robinson Luce (1898-1967) Arthur Hays Sulzberger (1891-1968) Erwin Piscator (1893-1966) French Lt. Alain Le Ray (1910-2007) Nikolai Frantsevich Gastello of the Soviet Union (1908-41) Tor Borg (1899-1960) and Jackie David Harold Byrd (1900-86) Ernst Cahn (1889-1941) Igo Sym (1896-1941) Tuvia Bielski (1906-87) Mikhail Kalashnikov (1919-2013) William Joseph 'Wild Bill' Donovan of the U.S. (1883-1959) Dame Rebecca West (1892-1983) Bob Hope (1903-2003) Frances Langford (1913-2005) Roald Dahl (1916-90) Sir William Stephenson (1897-1989) George Wells Beadle (1903-89) Edward Lawrie Tatum (1909-75) Ancel Benjamin Keys (1904-2004) William Moulton Marston (1893-1947) Lev Davidovich Landau (1908-68) Theodore Alvin Hall (1925-99) Bailey Bridge, 1941 K-Ration, 1941 Henry John Kaiser (1882-1967) Liberty Ship Focke-Wulfe FW 190, 1941 Sir Winston Churchill of Britain (1874-1965) Yousuf Karsh (1908-2002) Australian War Memorial, 1941 P-47 Thunderbolt, 1941 Avro Lancaster Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet

1941 Chinese Year: Snake. Time Mag. Man of the Year: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) (1932, 1934). Collaboration with the Nazis in Netherlands causes the Jewish pop. to shrink from 154,887 this year to 14,346 in 1947. On Jan. 1 Red Army size reaches 4,207,000. On Jan. 1-5 the British capture Bardia in Libya from the Italians under Lt. Gen. Annibale "Electric Whiskers" Bergonzoli (1884-1973), who retreat to Tobruk with a few thousand troops after losing 35,949 POWs. On Jan. 2-6 the Soviets hold strategic war games for the "Northern variant", followed on Jan. 8-11 by the "Southern variant", assuming that the Germans invade first; after the Southern variant counterattack proves more successful, this area is chosen as the main focus of Soviet forces. On Jan. 4 the Greek army resumes its offensive in Albania with 13 divs. against 16 Italian divs., driving them back across the border towards Klissura, which they capture on Jan. 10, causing Mussolini to personally supervise a counterattack on Mar. 9, which is called off in less than two weeks. On Jan. 6 the British launch Operation Excess, sending three escorted merchant ships from Gibraltar to Athens carrying military supplies. On Jan. 6 Pres. FDR delivers his Four Freedoms Speech (Annual Message to Congress), expressing the world aims of U.S. policy as freedom of speech and expression, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear, which sounds good until he adds: "Translated into world terms, means a worldwide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor, anywhere in the world." On Jan. 7-13 Chinese Nationalist Kuomingtang troops, enjoying a $630M lend-lease plus a $500M loan from the U.S., ambush the Communist Chinese New Fourth Army, killing 3K in the New Fourth Army (Wannan) Incident; meanwhile the lovely Japanese forces in China one-up FDR by instituting a policy of "three alls" (kill all, burn all, destroy all) - as yellow kills yellow while white kills white from pole to shining pole on Garden Earth? On Jan. 10 the Germans stage their first air raid in the Mediterranean, with Sicily-based bombers attacking a convoy en route from Gibraltar to Malta, sinking two merchant ships, badly damaging aircraft carrier Illustrious, and crippling cruiser Southampton so bad that the British sink it, killing 80. On Jan. 10 all Jews in the Netherlands are required to register. On Jan. 11 Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 22, pledging help to Mussolini, with the soundbyte: "Tripolitania must be held, and the danger of a collapse on the Albanian front must be eliminated", ordering troops to prepare to move to Albania "to go over to the offensive at a later date"; on Jan. 12 Brits in Malta give their answer by bombing German air bases in Sicily. On Jan. 13 Hitler invites King Boris I of Bulgaria to Berlin, asking him to join the Axis and help Germany attack Greece; Boris does a Franco and declines. On Jan. 13 Stalin holds a meeting with military cmdrs. in Moscow, telling them to prepare for a 2-front war with Germany and Japan. On Jan. 16 the Second Battle of Malta (first in 1565) begins as 70 German dive bombers from Sicily attempt to sink damaged British aircraft carrier Illustrious, known as "HMS Peppercoat" for its extensive damage, killing 50+ civilians and damaging 200 bldgs. while losing 10 aircraft, but failing to sink the carrier; on Jan. 16 85 German dive bombers attack the airfield at Luqa, destroying six British bombers. On Jan. 19 after breaking the Italian code so they can read all messages, 30K British troops launch a counteroffensive in East Africa in Eritrea, Somaliland, and Ethiopia, heading for Addis Ababa, entering Kassala on Jan. 20; meanwhile on Jan. 20 after the British 7th Armored Div. cuts it off, Australian troops attack Tobruk, causing Mussolini to beg Hitler for help, who sends the 15th Armored Div. under Gen. Rommel. On Jan. 20 the U.S. Supreme Court rules 6-3 in Hines v. Davidowitz that a Penn. law requiring aliens to register and carry ID cards is superseded by the 1940 Alien Registration Act under the preemption doctrine. On Jan. 20 U.S. pres. #32 Franklin D. Roosevelt is inaugurated for an unprecedented 3rd term in the 45th U.S. Pres. Inauguration; Iowa-born Henry Agard Wallace (1888-1965) becomes the 33rd U.S. vice-pres.; John Jay McCloy (1895-1989), longtime associate of the Rockefeller family and lawyer for the German chemical firm I.G. Farben, who had long supported the Third Reich and sat with Hitler at the 1936 Berlin Olympics becomes asst. war secy. (until 1945), going on to stink himself up by refusing to bomb rail lines leading to the Nazi gas chambers while offering various phony excuses and later blaming it on FDR. On Jan. 21 the Iron Guard rebels against Romanian dictator Ion Antonescu and massacres 120 Jews in the streets of Bucharest, taking some to cattle slaughterhouses and butchering them Kosher-style as seen in the flick "The Eternal Jew"; the Iron Guard is quickly crushed with backing from Germany then outlawed, its top leaders executed or exiled, after which Antonescu forms an alliance with the Nazis, guaranteeing them Romanian oil reserves and participation in Operation Barbarossa in exchange for helping him recover Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina from the Soviets, with the hopes of also getting back N Transylvania from Hungary after the war. On Jan. 22 Tobruk in Libya falls to the 6th Australian Div., who take 25K POWs; on Jan. 1 the Italians abandon Benghazi. On Jan. 23 Operation Rubble sees five Norwegian merchant ships escape with British help from Gothenburg to Scapa Flow, missing new German battle cruisers Gneisenau and Scharnhorst, which reach the Atlantic and sink 22 merchant ships before being sunk. On Jan. 24 Nazi fighter ace Capt. Franz Xaver Baron von Werra (1914-41), who was shot down over S England last June escapes a POW train in Canada to New York City, receiving mucho publicity, causing Hitler to award him the Knight's Cross; 3 mo. later while Canada seeks his extradition, he returns to Germany via Mexico, Panama, Brazil, and Spain; too bad, on Oct. 25 he crashes into the sea N of Vlissingen on a practice flight, and his body is never found. On Jan. 24 U.S. Navy secy. Frank Knox writes to the British War Dept. that a war with Japan might lead to a surprise attack at Pearl Harbor, with "inherent possibilities of a major disaster". On Jan. 25 as Ky.-born Husband Edward Kimmel (1882-1968) replaces Adm. Richardson as Pacific Fleet cmdr., they jointly write a letter to Naval CIC Adm. Stark discussing the possibility of a Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, causing new pursuit planes and B-17 bombers to be sent to Hawaii and the Philippines. On Jan. 26-31 the 4th Indian Div. captures Agordat, Eritrea; on Jan. 29 Italian troops evacuate Derna, Libya, and Australian troops occupy it on Jan. 30; on Apr. 6 the Germans retake it. On Jan. 27 the Anglo-British Conversations (ABC) between the U.S. and Britain begin to plan how they can work together to defeat Germany in the event that the U.S. enters the war, deciding on a united field command; on Mar. 27 they produce Joint Basic War Plan No. 1, calling for defeating Germany before Japan. On Jan. 29 after building the Metaxa Line, a network of fortifications in N Greece along the Bulgarian frontier, "Hell No" Greek PM (since Apr. 13, 1936) Ioannis Metaxis (b. 1871) dies in Athens of metataxemia, toxemia, causing rumors of being poisoned by the British, his rep as a dictator sweetened greatly by standing up to Mussolini; on Jan. 29 Bank of Greece pres. Alexandros Koryzis (1885-1941), becomes PM #131 of Greece (until Apr. 18), immediately facing a Nazi invasion. In Jan. 2K Jews die in Warsaw from Nazi-imposed hunger; ditto in Feb. In Jan. the Nazis get worked up over Finnish dog Jackie, who mocks Hitler by making a Nazi salute, causing them to try to ruin its 41-y.-o. wholesale merchant owner Tor Borg (1899-1960) of Tampere. On Feb. 5 Romanian Jews are told they will get double punishment for crimes - one for Christ, one for Caesar? On Feb. 5-7 the Italians lose the Tank Battle of Beda Fomm on the Libyan coast 120 mi. S of Benghazi, with 20K Italian POWs taken along with 200 big guns and 120 tanks vs. nine British KIA; on Feb. 6 Australian troops capture Benghazi, destroying 80 tanks and capturing seven generals incl. Gen. Bergonzoli; on Feb. 8 after being given command by Hitler of all German mechanized units in Libya on Feb. 6, with the order to hold Tripolitania to prevent the British from breaking through to Tunisia, Gen. Erwin Rommel and his 5th Panzer Div. leave Naples by sea. On Feb. 6 Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 23, calling for stepping-up the sinking of British merchant shipping and air attacks on armament factories rather than enemy ships and planes in order to strangle the British war economy and hurt operations in Europe and Africa, causing Winston Churchill on Feb. 9 to utter the soundbyte: "Herr Hitler will do his utmost to prey upon our shipping and to reduce the volume of American supplies entering these islands. Having conquered France and Norway, his clutching fingers reach out on both sides of us, into the ocean." On Feb. 7 an editorial in Life mag. by conservative Repub. anti-New Deal big boss Henry Robinson Luce (1898-1967) calls the 20th cent. "the American Century", arguing that the U.S. should become like his Presbyterian missionary parents and forsake isolationism to spread democracy as the world's Good Samaritan, and ending with the big punchline, a call for the U.S. to enter WWII - his Skull & Bones connection makes this an Illuminati conspiracy? On Feb. 8 the U.S. House of Reps by 260-165 passes the U.S. Lend-Lease Bill, followed by the U.S. Senate by 60-31 on Mar. 8, with happy Winston Churchill uttering the soundbyte: "Give us the tools and we will finish the job"; on Mar. 11 FDR signs it, calling it "the end of compromise with tyranny". On Feb. 10 Operation Colossus sees the British launch their first airborne troop attack of the war, dropping 38 paratroopers at a railway viaduct in Trignano (near Potenza) in S Italy; too bad, they are captured, and don't do much damage. On Feb. 11 French Adm. Jean Louis Xavier Francois Darlan (1881-1942), cmdr. of French naval forces since 1939 becomes vice-PM of Vichy France, and the #2 most powerful figure after PM Henri-Philippe Petain. On Feb. 11 the British advance into Italian Somaliland in E Africa. On Feb. 11 the British govt. learns that the German force in Romania will soon be 35 divs., enough to conquer Greece, causing them to order resources to be shifted away from Tripoli to defend it to prevent the Germans from being at the door of Egypt, the Suez Canal, and Jew-filled Palestine. On Feb. 11 after fleeing Germany in 1933, settling in S France in 1938, then being offered immunity by the Vichy French only to be handed over to the Gestapo at the border, Jewish Socialist Dem. (ex-minister of finance of the Weimar Repub.) Rudolf Hilferding (b. 1877) dies in prison in Paris from abuse; his death isn't announced until fall; really murdered on Hitler's orders? On Feb. 12 after the whimpy Italians lose 20K killed or wounded and 130K POWs along with 850 big guns and 400 tanks vs. 500 British KIA and 1.4K wounded, German Gen. Erwin Rommel arrives in Tripoli, followed on Feb. 14 by the first units of the German Afrika Korps; lucky that all British fighters are off in Greece, leaving only one squadron in Cyrenaica. On Feb. 12 Mussolini tries in vain to talk Gen. Franco into joining the Axis - he saw the Charlie Chaplin movie? On Feb. 14 Hitler fails to talk Yugoslav PM (1939-41) Dragisa Cvetkovic (1893-1969) into joining the Axis; meanwhile FDR sends personal messages of support to Prince Paul, prince regent of Yugoslavia and Turkish pres. Ismet Inonu - duh, did you forget about WWI? On Feb. 22 Pelagia Bernatowicz of Grudziadz, Poland is sentenced to death for listening to a Polish radio broadcast by the BBC. On Feb. 24 Hitler gives his Road to the Future Speech in Munich, with the soundbyte: "When I first entered this hall 21 years ago, I was an unknown, nameless soldier, with nothing behind me but my own convictions. During the years since, a new world has been created. The road leading to the future will be easier than the road behind us." On Feb. 25 after 400 Jews are rounded up, strikes break out in Amsterdam, the Feb. 1941 Strike begins, causing Holland SS head Johann Baptist "Hanns" Albin Rauter (1895-1949) to order troops to fire on the strikers, killing 11, after which 389 are deported to Buchenwald, and 2 mo. later the remaining 364 are sent to the stone quarries of Mauthausen camp, which kills them all by fall; the Jewish Council is formed as a German vehicle to communicate their orders; in return for immunity for deportation, they must draw up the list of other Jews to be deported, resulting in the elite saving their own; a registration of Jews in Holland shows 140,552 pure Jew, 14,549 half-Jew, and 5,719 quarter-Jew. On Feb. 25 after seeing through Hitler's BS that daily German recon flights over the Baltic are for lulling Britain into not preparing for an invasion, new Soviet army chief of staff Gen. Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov (1896-1974) issues a secret directive naming Germany as a probable enemy, instructing frontier regions to make preparations; the Baltic Fleet is issued a directive to prepare to lay minefields; too bad, there's a shortage of mines, roads, materials, factories, airfields, etc. On Feb. 27 British Nigerian troops occupy Mogadishu. In Feb. the Communists in Vietnam reorganize into the First Co. of the Nat. Salvation Army, and are destroyed in an ambush by French troops in Sept. - but the other Commies can't live without their love? In Feb. Dutch communists organize a strike in protest of raids on Jewish neighborhoods, causing the Nazis to declare martial law on Mar. 8. In Feb. after being arrested by the French police last Dec. 13, Marcel Deat (Déat) (1894-1955) (known for the article "Why Die for Danzig?") founds the Nat. Popular Rally (Front) (RNP) (Rassemblement National Populaire) by uniting Radical Socialists, going on to collaborate with the Vichy regime. In Feb. USMC Gen. Holland McTyeire "Howlin' Mad" Smith (1882-1967) becomes cmdr. of the U.S. 1st Marine Div., going on to lead it on a Pacific island-hopping victory tour in WWII. In Feb.-Mar. Marshal Goering visits Paris 4x to steal art works from private Jewish collections, incl. paintings by Euro masters; when a local German official objects that he's breaking the law, Goering replies "The highest jurist in the state is me." On Mar. 1 after building three bridges over the Danube River from Romania on Feb. 28, the first German troops enter Bulgaria as Hitler watches King Boris I join the Axis in Vienna. On Mar. 1 the U.S. ambassador in Moscow informs Stalin that U.S. intel believes that Germany is about to attack them. On Mar. 1 Heinrich Himmler orders the construction of Birkenau concentration camp (Auschwitz II) near Auschwitz. On Mar. 3 Krakow (Cracow) Ghetto is established. On Mar. 3 Hitler tells Gen. Jodl that after taking over Russia, the "Jewish-Bolshevik intelligentsia.. must be eliminated". On Mar. 3 German Jew Ernst Cahn (b. 1889) becomes the first person to be shot by a firing squad since the German occupation after his ammonia-based Koco Cafe fire protection system in Amsterdam accidentally triggers, spraying a group of German soldiers and causing a riot; on Mar. 5 Dutch Communist Leen Schijvenschuurer becomes #2 after being caught distributing leaflets calling for a strike. On Mar. 4 Operation Claymore sees the British raid the Lofoten Islands off Norway to capture an Enigma machine from German armed trawler Krebs, killing 14 sailors and capturing 25; too bad, Capt. Hans Kupfinger throws the machine overboard, but they capture the coding documents, allowing German naval messages to be read for several weeks in Apr.-May. On Mar. 5 Hitler issues his Commissar Decree, telling his troops: "The war against Russia cannot be fought in knightly fashion. The struggle is one of ideologies and racial differences, and will have to be waged with unprecedented, unmerciful, and unrelenting hardness"; it gleefully explains the Genocide Loophole: "The Commissars hold views directly opposed to those of National Socialism, hence they must be eliminated. Any German soldier who breaks international law will be pardoned. Russia did not take part in the Hague Convention and therefore has no rights under it." On Mar. 5 Operation Lustre begins, ferrying 60,364 British troops (four divs.) to Greece from Egypt. On Mar. 5 spy Richard Sorge sends Stalin microfilm of a telegram by German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop to the German ambassador in Japan containing his guess of mid-June as the likely date of the German invasion of the Soviet Union. On Mar. 7 German sub U-47 is sunk, killing the entire crew incl. Royal Oak sinker Capt. Gunther Prien. On Mar. 7 Austrian-born Warsaw actor Karol Juliusz "Igo" Sym (b. 1896) is murdered by Polish patriots for declaring himself an ethnic German; when the murders won't give themselves up, the Germans take 160 hostages and shoot 17 of them. On Mar. 11 the U.S. begins to supply Britain and Russia under the Lend-Lease Act. On Mar. 14 Polish patriots Edward Lembicz (b. 1904) and Jan Mikolajczk (b. 1915) are sentenced to death in Poznan by the Germans for singing the Polish nat. anthem. On Mar. 15 Operation Savanna(h), led by Free French soldier Capt. (later gen.) Georges Roger Pierre Berge (Bergé) (1909-97) becomes the first successful insertion of subversives into France via parachute; too bad, their mission of blowing up a bus carrying Luftwaffe pilots is a bust, but the extraction is successful. On Mar. 17 German recon aircraft are sighted over the Soviet Baltic port of Libava (Liepaja) in W Latvia, with Stalin personally countermanding Adm. Kuznetsov's order to fire on them or any German plane crossing the frontier; one plane makes a forced landing outside the harbor, and the piloted is rescued, given dinner, his plane refueled, and waved back to Germany. On Mar. 20 Sumner Welles tells Soviet ambassador (since June 6, 1939) Konstantin Aleksandrovich Umansky (1902-45) of news from Swedish diplomatic missions via the Greeks that the Germans intend to attack the Soviet Union; meanwhile intel div. chief Gen. Filipp Ivanovich Golikov (1900-80) sends Stalin a report describing in detail the coming attack, and giving the date as May 20, but concluding that it might be misinfo. from the British or Germans. On Mar. 22 Japanese agent Nagai (Nagao) Kita is ordered to obtain info. about naval movements in and out of Pearl Harbor; U.S. intel intercepts his instructions but don't get alarmed. On Mar. 24 Rommel captures El Agheila, then on Mar. 25 against Hitler's explicit instructions and Italian protests launches a full-scale offensive against the depleted Brits who are strung out in Greece. On Mar. 24 after replacing Adm. Richardson as Pacific fleet cmdr. in Jan., U.S. Adm. Husband Edward Kimmel (1882-1968) writes a letter to Navy CIC Adm. Stark, with the soundbyte: "The war may be initiated by enemy attack without warning, and these attacks may take any form. Such attacks may be directed against shipping, outlying possessions, naval units, or against Pearl Harbor itself.” On Mar. 25/26 six Italian torpedo boats under Lt. Luigi Faggioni attack Suda Bay in Crete, damaging British cruiser HMS York so bad it has to be beached. On Mar. 25 after British intel figures him out on Mar. 18 and works against him, and four ministers resign on Mar. 20 after he asks them to join the Axis, regent Prince Paul of Yugoslavia has PM Cvetkovic sign the Axis Pact, triggering the British-organized Belgrade Coup on Mar. 26-27, overthrowing and replacing him with 17-y.-o. Prince Peter as head of state, and air force gen. Dusan Simovic (1882-1962) as PM #18 (until Jan. 12); the new govt. offers to sign a non-aggression pact with Germany, but Hitler goes nonlinear and orders the country's death and dismemberment "with merciless harshness and ... in Blitzkrieg style", issuing Fuhrer Directive No. 25 for Operation Punishment, a simultaneous attack on Yugoslavia and Greece, causing the invasion of the Soviet Union to be postponed from May to June. On Mar. 26 Stallin' Stalin issues Order No. 008130, ordering the Western Special Military District to go to a "state of readiness" until June 13, causing 58K men to begin working on fortifications in the Baltic district, 35K in the Western district, and 43K in the Kiev district; too bad, they leave several large gaps in their defense line, esp. around Grodno; at the end of Mar. Stalin calls up 500K men, followed a few days later by 300K more. On Mar. 27 after 12 days the British drive the Italians from Keren in Eritrea. On Mar. 27-29 thanks to British intel breaking Italian codes so they can surprise them, the Battle of Cape Matapan in S Greece and Gaudo Island S of Crete is a V for the British navy over the Italians, who lose 3 of 13 destroyers and 5 of 8 cruisers, along with 2.4K sailors, vs. only two British aircraft lost; British Lt. Prince Philip, son of Prince Andrew of Greece receives an honorable mention for directing the searchlights of the Valiant. On Mar. 30 Hitler tell 200 senior cmdrs. and their staff that the invasion of Hammer and Sickle Land will be on June 22, with the soundbyte: "We have the chance to smash Russia while our own back is free. That chance will not return so soon. I would be betraying the future of the German people if I did not seize it now", explaining his Commissar Decree with the soundbyte that cruelty is "kindness for the future", telling them that "It is not our job to see that these criminals [commissars] survive", telling the shocked generals to carry out his orders with absolute unconditional obedience. On Mar. 31 the Central Office for Jewish Emigration is created in the Netherlands. In Mar. Captain America by Timely Comics (predecessor of Marvel Comics), created by Joe Simon and Jack Kirby debuts with a cover showing him hitting Adolf Hitler in the face; his alter ego is Steve Rogers, born on July 4, 1917 in Lower East Side, Manhattan to Irish immigrants, who is a tall scrawny weakling until given the Super-Soldier serum designed by Abraham Erskine AKA Dr. Josef Reinstein; his popularity zooms during WWII then tanks, and he is retired in 1953, then revived in 1964 to become a member of the Avengers. In the spring U.S. polls indicate that 80% of Americans are opposed to joining WWII. On Apr. 2 British forces begin falling back in Cyrenaica in North Africa; on Apr. 4 Benghazi is recaptured by troops under Gen. Rommel. On Apr. 2 making use of decrypted messages, British torpedo aircraft sink four of five Italian destroyers en route from Massawa to Port Sudan. On Apr. 2 a pro-Axis Arab regime is set up in Iraq by Rashid Ali al-Gaylani (1892-1965), who seizes the Turkmeni town of Kirkuk in NE Iraq (90 mi. SE of Mosul), cutting off the oil pipeline to the Mediterranean used by the British, delighting Hitler, who sends military experts and arms from Vichy Syria, only to have the British retake it by June 1 after landing at Basra on Apr. 18; on Apr. 28 Rashid Ali seals off the British airbase RAF Habbaniya 55 mi. W of Baghdad, trapping 2.2K soldiers and 9K civilians; on May 2 British forces from the airfield launchd preemptive airstrikes on Iraqi forces throughout Iraq, beginning the Anglo-Iraqi War (ends May 31); the siege is lifted by the units based at Habbaniya along with pilots from the training school, a battalion of the King's Own Royal Regiment flown in at the last moment, No. 1 Armoured Car Co. RAF, and the RAF's Iraq Levies; the subsequent arrival of a relief column (Kingcol), part of Habforce sent from Palestine causes the rebel forces to retreat to Baghdad. On Apr. 3 after Hungarian PM Count Pal Teleki commits suicide over Hungarian regent Adm. Horthy's decision to join the Axis, Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 26, promising the Yugoslavian province of the Banat to Hungary, and Macedonia to Bulgaria; Italy is instructed to attack Yugoslavia only after the German attack "begins to be effective". On Apr. 4 disguised German raider KMS Thor sinks British armed merchant cruiser Voltaire; by the end of June German deception ships sink 38 merchantmen, while undisguised raiders incl. Pinguin sink 37. On Apr. 5 the Duke of Aosta, Italian viceroy of Ethiopia orders the evacuation of Addis Ababa; on Apr. 7 the British occupy Massawa, main Italian naval base in East Africa after the Italians lose 3K of 13K; on May 5 Emperor Haile Selassie returns to Addis Ababe after 5 years to the day after leaving. On Apr. 6 (Palm Sun.) (5:00 a.m.) backed up by Bulgaria Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece, launching the April War (Operation 25), starting with Operation Retribution (Punishment) (Castigo), the bombing of Belgrade (ends Apr 10), killing 17K civilians in one day; Luftwaffe Gen. Alexander Lohr (Löhr) (1885-1947), who runs the bombing and also the Sept. 1939 bombing of Warsaw is executed for it after the war; the Axis has 50 divs., Yugoslavia 28 divs., with far less armor; most of Yugoslavia's 600 aircraft are destroyed on the ground; German troops from Austria and Hungary move on Belgrade, while more from Bulgaria move on Nis, Skopje, and Monastir, and more from Bulgaria invade Greece, attacking Salonica; the Luftwaffe bombs Piraeus, sinking six Allied ships followed by Clan Fraser, carrying 200 tons of explosives, which blows up, taking 10 more ships with it; Northern Prince, carrying bomb-making materials for the Greeks is sunk in the E Mediterranean; on ? Italian troops from Albania, Istria, and Zara invade the Dalmatian coast; on Apr. 8 the Germans occupy Salonica (Salonika); on Apr. 9 70K Greek troops under Gen. Konstantinos Th. Bakopoulos (1889-1950) surrender; on Apr. 9 (night) to get even for Belgrade, British bombers drop incendiary bombs on C Berlin, causing Hitler to head for his air raid shelter; on Apr. 10 the Germans occupy Zagreb, allowing Croat nationalist leader Ante Pavelic (1889-1959) to declare Croatian independence, with Croatian Peasant Party leader Vladimir "Vladko" Macek (1879-1964) being smart enough to turn down the job of PM after deciding that the Axis will lose the war, although it results in his arrest in Oct.; Hitler takes his train Amerika to Monichkirchen (Mönichkirchen) near Ahnuldland Graz in S Austria to watch the action, welcoming escaped Canadian POW Franz von Werra (and father a secret child to take over the world one day, named Arnold?); on Apr. 11 as German troops reach the outskirts of Belgrade, Italian troops from Albania, Istria, and Zara invade the Dalmatian coast, occupying Uljan Island and Ljubljana (May 3), while Hungarian troops invade the Banat, moving toward Novi Sad; more Italian troops reclaim the areas taken from them by the Greeks; on Apr. 13 German troops occupy Belgrade (8th Euro capital in 1.5 years), the first citizen to be murdered being a Jewish tailor who spits at the troops and shouts "You will all perish"; on Apr. 17 Yugoslavia surrenders to the Germans in Belgrade after losing 341K POWs incl. 6K officers, and after being refused permission by the king to resign, Greek PM Alexandros Koryzis commits suicide at 4 p.m. as the Germans close in on Athens (the Greek papers call it a heart attack to cover it up); on Apr. 18 after some frustrated Greek soldiers fire on their own officers, the Germans break through the Kiwi-held Aliakhmon Line, closing in on Athens, causing Greek PM (since Jan. 29) Alexandros Koryzis (b. 1885) (who was refused permission to resign by the king) to commit suicide at 4 p.m. (the Greek papers call it a heart attack to cover it up); on Apr. 23 Greece surrenders, with many battery cmdrs. committing suicide while the men sing the Greek nat. anthem; King George II of Greece flees to London and forms a govt. in exile; on Apr. 24-May 1 Operation Demon evacuates 50,732 British troops from Greece to Crete, while resistance inside Greece continues, hampered by ideological differences between the resistance groups; German paratroopers occupy the Greek islands of Lemnos, Thasos, and Samothrace; Bulgaria invades N Greece, and is granted an outlet to the Aegean Sea; Prince Peter and his govt. flee Yugoslavia, which ceases to exist, being replaced by the new supposedly independent Axis-run states of Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro, with some parts ceded to Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Italian protectorate of Albania; the V in Big Y backfires when the heavy-handed tactics of the SS cause Yugoslavians (working with Croats to ethnically cleanse Serbs) to develop a strong resistance movement consisting of two resistance armies, the pro-monarchy anti-Communist Chetniks under Gen. Draza Mihailovich (Drazha Mihajlovic) (1893-1946) and the pro-Soviet Partisans under half-Croatian half-Slovene Marxist Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980), who later after the war tries to wipe out his nationalist opponents, Serb, Slovene, and Albanian. On Apr. 8 (night) German bombers return to Coventrized Coventry, smashing three factories. On Apr. 9 while Hitler is looking the other way, the U.S. signs the U.S.-Danish Agreement with the Danish minister in Washington, D.C., placing Greenland under U.S. protection for the duration while maintaining Danish sovereignty and affirming loyalty to Christian X; FDR tells Churchill that the U.S. will extend its patrol area in the Atlantic as far E as the 25th meridian. On Apr. 10 the Germans under Gen. Rommel cut off 24K Australian troops in Tobruk, starting a siege, but they are repulsed by May 1. On Apr. 10 Stalin starts waking up and issues decrees to defend Moscow and Leningrad with fighter corps. On Apr. 10 the U.S. commits its first hostile action against Germany when destroyer USS Niblack drops depth charges against a U-boat that sunk a Dutch freighter. On Apr. 11 (night) the Germans bomb the docks of Bristol, England; on Apr. 12 Churchill visits it with new U.S. ambassador (until 1946) John Gilbert Winant (1889-1947), who observes high morale. On Apr. 12 French Lt. Alain Le Ray (1910-2007) becomes the first of many persons to escape from Germany's supposedly escape-proof Colditz Prison. On Apr. 13 two years after their 1939 border war, Japan and the Soviet Union sign the 5-year Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact in Moscow, freeing Stalin to concentrate on the German threat, and Japan to concentrate on Asia and the Pacific; Stalin makes a rare public appearance at the railway station to say goodbye to foreign minister (1940-1) Yosuke Matsuoka (1880-1946), with the soundbyte "We are both Asiatics", making a point of making shows of friendships with the German ambassador and military attache. On Apr. 14 Stalin orders 2.3K artillery emplacements built in the W frontier area; only 1K are built by the time of the German invasion. On Apr. 14 Hungarian troops in N Yugoslavia arrest 500 Jews and Serbs and shoot or bayonet them to death. On Apr. 14 Gen. Rommel captures Sollum, Egypt, along with Halfaya Pass. On Apr. 15 the Germans occupy Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, immediately removing the 1930 Gavrilo Princip Plaque and destroying the new Sephardic Il Kal Grande Great Synagogue, with Bosnian Muslims joining in the fun. On Apr. 15 the Soviets force a German aircraft down near Rovno, and find a camera and detailed topographical map of the frontier region. On Apr. 15 Jews in the Netherlands are ordered to turn in their wireless sets. On Apr. 16 (night) to get even for Berlin, the Germans stage a massive bombing raid on London, killing 2.3K. On Apr. 19 British troops retreat to S Greek ports incl. Nauplia, Kalamata, and Monemvasia; on Apr. 20-25 as they evacuate to Crete, the Germans are held in rearguard action by Anzac troops at the Battle of Thermopylae in E Greece, who also evacuate to Crete, causing Hitler on Apr. 25 to issue Fuhrer Directive No. 28 for Operation Mercury to invade Crete. On Apr. 19 (night) attempting to relieve Tobruk, a British commando force lands at Bardia, but is driven off; on Apr. 21 after learning that Gen. Rommel is about to be reinforced with a tank div. at Tobruk, Churchill launches Operation Tiger, sending tanks from Britain to Egypt, hoping there will be no German invasion of Britain. On Apr. 20 Hitler celebrates his 52nd birthday. On Apr. 24 the Lublin Ghetto is sealed. On Apr. 26 Hitler leaves Monichkirchen to visit Maribor (renamed Mariburg) in N Yugoslavia, then visits Graz, Austria, where he gets a "fanatical reception" - from Ahnuld's parents? On Apr. 27 German forces occupy Athens after total losses of 15.7K Greeks, 13,755 Italians, 3,712 British, and 2,232 Germans KIA; under German occupation 300K die of starvation, plus tens of thousands killed in reprisals. On Apr. 29 Hitler gives a speech to 9K officer cadets, with the soundbyte that he never knew the meaning of the word capitulation. On Apr. 29 after his efforts at promoting isolationism are foiled by FDR, German charge d'affairs (since Nov. 1938) Hans Thomsen (1891-1968) telegraphs from Washington, D.C. claiming that the U.S. has broken the Japanese Magic code used by ambassadors; too bad, neither the Germans nor Japanese believe him. On Apr. 30 a German U-boat sinks British troop transport SS Nerissa, killing 73 Canadian soldiers, the only lost at sea during the war while en route from Canada to Britain. On Apr. 30 Otto Frank first writes to Nathan Straus Jr. for help in emigrating to the U.S. In Apr. the Germans sink 394,107 tons of Allied merchant shipping, plus 187,054 tons in Greek ports during evacuation; the British lose 6,065 civilians to bombing. In Apr. eager-to-please Stalin keeps honoring the Aug. 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact, sending Germany 208K tons of grain, 90K tons of oil, 8.3K tons of cotton, 6,340 tons of metals, and 4K tons of rubber imported from Asia. In Apr. after being criticized by FDR for making politically-incorrect America First statements, Charles Lindbergh resigns from the Air Corps Reserve Commission - want me to take my hat off so you get a better look? On May 1 the Soviet May Day Parade sees Stalin put new Soviet ambassador to Berlin Vladimir Georgievich Dekanozov (Dekanozishvili) (1898-1953) in the place of honor next to him above Lenin's tomb; meanwhile a military bulletin warns that the Germans have accelerated troop movements to the border, esp. around Memel 60 mi. S of Libava, the most westerly Soviet naval base, and Herr Hitler orders Berlin bombed nightly to keep up the deception. On May 1 Jewish doctors in the Netherlands are banned from treating non-Jews; all Jews are banned from attending stock and commercial exchanges. On May 4 Hitler gives a speech at the Reichstag in Berlin, with the soundbyte: "The most unscrupulous men of the present time had, as they admit today, decided as early as 1936 to involve the Reich, which in its peaceful work of reconstruction was becoming too powerful for them, in a new and bloody war and, if possible, to destroy it. They had finally succeeded in finding a state that was prepared for their interests and aims, and that state was Poland. All my endeavors to come to an understanding with Britain were wrecked by the determination of a small clique which, whether from motives of hate or for the sake of material gain, rejected every German proposal for an understanding due to their resolve, which they never concealed, to resort to war, whatever happened. The man behind this fanatical and diabolical plan to bring about war at whatever cost was Mr. Churchill. His associates were the men who now form the British government." On May 4-19 an Italian force of 7K collapses against a mixed force of British, Indian, South African, and Abyssinian troops at the Second Battle of Amba Alagi. On May 5 Romanian dictator Ion Antonescu informs Berlin that Soviet troops are moving W from Siberia and concentrating around Kiev and Odessa, and that factories in Moscow "have been ordered to transfer their equipment to the country's interior". On May 5 the blinders are taken off as Stalin gives a speech to military academy graduates, saying that the Red Army is ready to fight "the most modern army", warning that Germany is attempting to seize all of Europe, making it necessary for Russia to be ready, with the soundbyte: "A good defense signifies the need to attack. Attack is the best form of defense... We must now conduct a peaceful, defensive policy with attack. Yes, defense with attack. We must now re-teach our army and commanders. Educate them in the spirit of attack"; he's really trying to bluff the Germans into dropping any invasion plans? On May 5 after a British rout of the Italian occupiers, Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie enters Addis Ababa exactly five years after the Italians captured it, regaining his throne. On May 5 French Resistance spy Georges Begue (Bégué) (George P. Begue) (1911-93) (AKA George Noble and George One) parachutes into Vichy France 20 mi. S of Chateauroux to set up an underground radio transmitter to communicate with London; on May 9 Pierre de Vomecourt (Vomécourt) (1906-86) joins him, becoming the first Special Operations executive (SOE) group leader in France. On May 6 Stalin replaces Molotov as Soviet PM as a last ditch attempt to rescue relations with Germany; meanwhile he orders reserve troops from the Urals and the Volga River to the Dnieper River, W Dvina, and border regions. On May 6 Operation Tiger II sees 13 British merchant ships leave Gibraltar, arriving in Egypt after losing one ship, bringing 238 tanks and 43 fighters. On May 6 London-born Am. comedian Leslie Townes "Bob" Hope (1903-2003) hold shis first USO show before an audience of servicemen in a broadcast from March Field in Riverside, Calif.; Am. singer-actress Frances Langford (1913-2005) joins Bob Hope's radio show, going on to accompany him on his WWII USO tours, singing her signature song "I'm in the Mood for Love", to which one GI shouts "You've come to the right place, honey!", which Hope later says got the biggest laugh he ever heard. On May 7 Spanish Civil War veteran Josip Broz (1892-1980) flees from Zagreb to Belgrade, setting up a Communist resistance org. under the name Valter, later changing it to Tito; on May 11 former Yugoslav army officer Col. Draza Mihailovic sets up a resistance org. in Ravna Gora plateau in W Serbia, attracting Chetniks to fight the Germans; after two years the Brits switch support to Tito after he opposes Serbian nationhood. On May 8 after sinking 28 merchant ships in 10 mo., German commerce raider Pinguin is sunk off Seychelles by British cruiser HMS Cornwall. On May 8 the British capture an Enigma machine from German U-boat U-110 in the Atlantic, which sinks while being towed to Iceland, killing all aboard incl. Capt. Julius Lemp, sinker of Athenia. On May 8 the Nazis force Belgian workers to blow up a monument to victims of the first German WWI gas attack in Belgium in Apr. 1915 in Steenstraat. On May 8 (night) German bombers miss the target of an aircraft engine factory in Derby by 20 mi. after the British use electronic jamming to bend their signal beam. On May 10 the Germans finish Operation Otto (begun Oct. 1, 1940), the construction of road and rail facilities to the Soviet border. On May 10 Hitler's deputy leader (since 1934) Rudolf Hess (1894-1987) (a pilot in WWI) steals a plane and flies to Scotland dressed up in a robe with a number of occult symbols, apparently to negotiate a peace with the Scots (he knew about Sir William Wallace and Sir Robert Bruce and thought Churchill was like Edward I Longshanks?); he parachutes out near Eaglesham just S of Glasgow, is captured, claims that he came to negotiate a peace with Britain, denies any planned attack on Russia, and is declared nuts after an official Nazi announcement says that he is suffering from "a mental disorder", and kept incommunicado and caged throughout the war, incl. a short stay in the Tower of London; the move foils British spy Ian Lancaster Fleming (1908-64), who was trying to use mystic Aleister Crowley to supply him with fake horoscopes - looking for Sir William Wallace to help him fight for his free-ee-ee-dom? On May 10 (night) the Germans badly damage the Houses of Parliament in London, destroying the debating chamber of the House of Commons, making one-third of the streets in C London impassible and killing a record 1,436 civilians; meanwhile the British bomb the U-boat base at Hamburg; on May 10 the London Blitz (begun Aug. 23, 1940) ends, leaving 20K dead and 1.4M homeless. On May 12 German Luftwaffe officer Maj. Axel von Blomberg (b. 1908) (son of Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg) arrives in Baghdad to help Rashid Ali, and on May 15 is killed by a stray bullet from a British plane; meanwhile the Japanese ambassador in Baghdad reports to Tokyo that Rashi Ali won't hold out for more than 3-8 days, esp. if the British advance from Palestine, which is intercepted by British intel, causing the Arab Legion under Maj. Glubb and the Transjordan Frontier Force to be sent 300 mi. to Habbaniya, with the Jordanians mutinying rather than fight rather Muslims, er, Arabs. On May 12 the German high command orders that high-ranking Russian officials and leaders "must be eliminated", making it look like an act of reprisal for reprisals against German pilots. On May 12 after rescuing a team of French nuclear scientists and their stockpile of heavy water (entire world's supply?) before the French defeat, the Holy Trinity of British bomb disposal experts incl. Charles Howard, 20th Earl of Suffolk, 13th Earl of Berkshire (b. 1906), his secy. Miss Morden, and his chauffeur Fred Hards are killed when their 35th bomb explodes in Erith Marshes, Kent. On May 13 Stalin divides the Soviet Union into seven districts in preparation for war with Hitler. On May 14 the Germans begin a massive air bombardment of Malta to deceive the Allies that they are about to invade, but British intel decodes their messages. On May 14 three Poles, Stanislaw Weclas, Leon Pawlowski, and Stanislaw Wencel are sentenced to death in Poznan for resistance, with the Germans pub. the warning "Everyone who believes in resistance will be destroyed." On May 15 the first British jet airplane, the Gloster Whittle E-28/39, developed by Sir Frank Whittle (1907-96) is test-flown; "If you had been given the money you would have been six years ahead of us. If Hitler or Goering had heard that there is a man in England who flies 500 mph in a small experimental plane and that it is coming into development, it is likely that World War II would not have come into being" (Hans Von Ohain). On May 15 after decoding German messages revealing that Gen. Rommel's forces are tired and need rest, the British attack at the Egyptian border in Operation Brevity, forcing them to withdraw from the Halfaya Pass; on May 27 Gen. Rommel recaptures Halfaya Pass, taking 3K POWs and 123 big guns; on May 29 Rommel counterattacks, but they decode the messages again and withdraw in time. On May 15 the Battle of Crete begins with German air attacks, invading early on May 20 in 493 Junkers JU 52 troop planes, most landing near the Maleme airfield, after which the 32K British and Anzac and 10K Greek troops only shoot down seven, although III Battalion 1st Assault Regiment loses 112 of 126 men; in the evening the Germans capture Hill 107, which overlooks the airfield, and on May 21 the Germans capture it, allowing refinforcements to be flown in; on May 22 German dive bombers sink British cruisers Fiji and Gloucester, machine-gunning survivors, killing 725, and damaging battleship Valiant, with Lt. Prince Philip of Greece aboard; on May 23 destroyer Kelly is sunk by 24 dive bombers, killing 130; Lord Louis Mountbatten is a survivor; on May 28 (night) the British begin evacuating from Sphakia, Paleohora, and Plakias while 2.7K Italians land at Sitia; on May 29 the Germans badly damage British flagship HMS Orion, killing 360 of 1,090; on June 1 (night) the British evacuation ends with 17K evacuated and 5K left behind; the Germans lose 1,990 KIA vs. 1,742 British troops and 2,265 sailors, after which Hitler abandons parachute assaults for good. On May 15 Richard Sorge sends Stalin a radio message pinning down the invasion date as June 20-22, causing Soviet troops to be rushed from the Far East to a line between Kreslava and Kremenchug sans equipment and arms. there is only room for one passenger, in the bomb bay. On May 15 after failing to find volunteers, German SS doctor Sigmund Rascher (1909-45) requests permission from Heinrich Himmler to use 2-3 "professional criminals" from Dachau for oxygen endurance tests, and is approved. On May 16 the Soviet Union and Iraq establish diplomatic relations. On May 17 Iceland announces its intention of separating from Denmark; after FDR accepts Churchill's request on June 14, U.S. forces replace British forces in July. On May 19 "Uncle" Ho Chi Minh ("He Who Enlightens") (1890-1969) (Nguyen Sinh Cung) (Nguyen Ai Quoc) (Nguyen That Thanh) (Nguyen Van Thanh) forms the Viet Minh (Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh) (League for the Independence of Vietnam). On May 20 after several thousand Jews emigrate from France and Belgium to neutral Portugal followed by the U.S., German SS Brig. Gen. (deputy of Reinhard Heydrich) Walther Friedrich Schellenberg (1910-52) informs the Gestapo and German consulates that Jewish emigration is forbidden "in view of the undoubtedly imminent final solution of the Jewish problem"; meanwhile in late May Heinrich Himmler tells 120 special task force leaders at the Frontier (Border) Police School in Pretsch on the Elbe River that they will lead 3K SS troops in the rear of the German army in Russia for an "annihilation campaign against the racial enemy"; on June 1 Heydrich adds that the "Eastern Jews" are the "intellectual reservoir of Bolshevism", and "in the Fuhrer's view" must be liquidated - ha ha ha ha staying alive? On May 22 FDR directs the U.S. military to draft War Plan Gray for the occupation of the Portuguese Azores by 28K troops, half Marines. On May 24 the Battle of the Denmark Strait sees British ship HMS Hood (last British battle cruiser built, the pride of the Royal Navy) sunk (killing all but 3 of 1,418 aboard) by German battleship Bismarck (the pride of the German Navy) under Capt. Lindemann, which is itself hunted down and sunk (2.3K lives lost incl. Adm. Lutjens) off Brest, France on May 27 by the British Navy after HMS Dorsetshire puts three torpedoes in it, causing Adm. Lutjens to order it scuttled, and the Dorsetshire and Maori abandon rescuing survivors after a U-boat alarm, causing hundreds of German sailors to be cut to pieces by their propellers; Unsinkable Sam the cat survives, is renamed Oscar, and serves aboard HMS Cossack, which is sunk on Oct. 24, which he also survives, causing him to be renamed to Unsinkable Sam and shipped aboard HMS Ark Royal, which is sunk a few weeks later, after which he is retired in Belfast, Ireland. On May 24 a British sub sinks Italian liner SS Conte Rosso en route to Libya, killing all 1.5K aboard. On May 25 as the British counterattack the Germans at Galatos in Crete with 25 bayonet charges, Greek King George II is evacuated with his ministers to Egypt - old man take a look at my life, I'm a lot like you? On May 26-June 11 the Battle of Bir Hakeim in Libya sees Free French and French Foreign Legion troops repel an Italian attack; on May 28 French Capt. Pierre Joseph Auguste Messmer (1916-2007) (future French PM in 1972-4) holds back 15 German Panzers trying to finish the job; on June 12 the Germans finally take it after killing 72 of 2.5K French troops, causing the Brits to retreat to Egypt, leaving the Germans and Italians at its gates, threatening the Suez Canal - that'll get FDR's attention? On May 27 Pres. Roosevelt gives a radio Fireside Chat titled On An Unlimited Nat. Emergency, citing rising world tensions to proclaim an "unlimited national emergency", announcing that U.S. ports "are helping now to ensure the delivery of needed supplies to Britain", and uttering the immortal soundbyte "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself." On May 30 after a fuel shortage ends Italian air support, Rashid Ali sends the mayor of Baghdad to ask for an armistice; on June 1-2 after getting whipped-up by pro-Nazi Jew-hating Jerusalem grand mufti (1921-48) Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (al-Husseini) (1895-1974) (who fled to Iraq in 1939 with 400 Palestinian supporters), helped by Nazi propaganda, the Farhud (Farhoud) (Arabic "violent dispossession") sees Muslim Nazi sympathizers in Baghdad and Basra, Iraq stage a pogrom against the long-settled (2.6K years) 140K Jewish pop., killing 180, wounding hundreds, and destroying 900 Jewish homes and 586 shops; British authorities stand by and don't pub. their official report until 1958; the dissolution of the Iraqi Jewish community begins, with Nuremberg-style laws, and 90% flee to Israel after 1948, along with 1M Jews from the Arab world. In May U.S. freighter Robin Moor is sunk by a German U-boat. On June 1 the Germans finish conquering Crete. By June 1 the Russians have 150 rifle divs., seven armored divs., and 38 armored brigades on their W border. On June 3 the SS Death Head Div. leaves Bordeaux for Marienwerder, East Prussia for the big fun in ha-ha-ha-ha Russia. On June 4 a pro-Allied govt. is installed in Iraq. On June 4 after refusing Hitler's offer to live on one of his former royal estates in Prussia, Kaiser Wilhelm II (b. 1859) dies in exile in Doorn, Netherlands before getting to see the new German invasion of hated Bolshevik Russia - was he feeling doorn high or doorn low? On June 6 Hitler orders Gen. Brauchitsch to issue the ha-ha-ha-ha Commissar Decree to all cmdrs. On June 8 (2:00 a.m.) to cut the Germans off from the easy route to Palestine and the Suez Canal, 9K British, 18K Australian, 2K Indian, and 5K Free French (De Gaullist) troops launch Operation Exporter, invading Vichy-held Syria and Lebanon from Iraq and Palestine, capturing Damascus on June 21, followed on July 9 by Tyre, and on July 12 by Beirut; an armistice is signed on July 12, and Syria becomes an Allied base for the rest of the war, with French Gen. Georges Catroux (1877-1969) promising them independence with Damascus as capital of the Repub. of Syria (until 1958); it isn't recognized until Jan. 1, 1944; 26-y.-o. Zionist Palestinian volunteer Moshe Dayan (1915-81) loses an eye in the early days. On June 8 German infantry units begin landing in Finland for the attack on Russia. On June 10 (751st anniv. of the drowning death of HRE Frederick I Barbarosa in 1190) the Germans launch Operation Warzburg, laying mines in the Baltic Sea for 10 days to trap the Russian fleet. On June 11 Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 32, laying down detailed plans for the military after it defeats the Soviet Union, incl. Operation Isabella to secure the Atlantic coasts of Spain and Portugal and take Gibraltar, while pressuring Turkey and Iran to help him drive the British from Palestine and Egypt, ordering Tobruk to be taken in Nov.; if possible, the Germans will send a force from Transcaucasia to retake Iraq, using Arabs to "tie down" the Brits "at the right moment by civil commotion or revolt"; after the East is secure, the invasion of Britain will begin. On June 11 Hitler talks with Romanian leader Ion Antonescu, telling him he's not expecting active assistance but "merely expected of Romania that in her own interest she do everything to facilitate a successful conclusion of this conflict", promising him Bessarabia et al. - he has to do a balancing act like Nadia Comaneci? On June 11 (night) the British begin bombing industral targets in the Rhineland, Ruhr, and German North Sea ports for 20 straight nights. On June 12 the Croatian Ustashi Roman Catholic militant group, led by "Croatian Fuhrer" Ante Pavelic (1889-1959) makes a deal with pro-Nazi Muslim Jerusalem grand mufti Muhammad Amin al-Husayni (1895-1974) and the Nazi SS to begin persecuting Jews and Orthodox Christian Serbs in Croatia, causing the mufti to use his connections with Islam admirer Heinrich Himmler to raise the Nazi 13th SS Handzar Div. of mostly Bosnian Muslims who help murder 400K in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina by 1945; they are all issued al-Insani's booklet Islam and Judaism, which begins: "For us Muslims it is unworthy to utter the word Islam in the same breath with Judaism, since Islam stands high over its perfidious adversary"; Pope Pius XII officially backs Pavelic, and he is given sanctuary in the Vatican at the end of the war before escaping to Argentina; in Aug. 1943 after the Germans mistreat them, they mutiny, killing several Germans, causing the mufti to arrive and restore order. On June 12 Winston Churchill makes a speech on the radio, with the soundbytes: "It will not be by German hands that the structure of Europe will be rebuilt or union of the European family achieved. In every country into which the German armies and Nazi police have broken there has sprung up from the soil a hatred of the German name and contempt for the Nazi creed which the passage of hundreds of years will not efface from human memory"; "We shall aid and stir the people of every conquered country to resistance and revolt. We shall break up or derange every effort which Hitler makes to systematize and consolidate his subjugation. He will find no peace, no rest, no halting place, no parley." On June 13 Churchill offers Stalin to send British troops in the event of a German invasion, pissing-off Stalin because he considers it a provocation to push him into war with Germany; instead he ignores reports of a German military buildup on his borders, with the soundbyte: "You can't believe everything Intelligence says"; on June 14 he interrupts a military meeting with Gens. Zhukov and Timoshenko to accept a phone call from Ukraine Communist Party boss Nikita Khrushchev reporting a bumper crop. On June 14 the U.S. freezes German and Italian assets. On June 14 75 merchant ships incl. 30 flying the U.S. flag set sail for Egypt carrying military supplies incl. 200 U.S. tanks. On June 15 the British launch Operation Battleaxe to relieve Tobruk and push Gen. Rommel back through Libya, but it fizzles because of the superior German tanks and guns, and within four days they lose 122 troops and 100 tanks. On June 15 rumors spread in Berlin that an understanding with Stalin is imminent. On June 15 Stalin refuses a request from Ukrainian Gen. Mikhail Petrovich Kirponos (1892-1941) (awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union on Mar. 21, 1940 for bravery in the Soviet-Finnish War, then appointed cmdr. of the Kiev Military District in Feb.) to evacuate 300K civilians from the frontier along the Bug River and set up anti-tank barriers, claiming it would be provocative. On June 16 the last German warship in Soviet waters in the Baltic Sea departs, causing Adm. Tributs on June 19 to report it to Moscow, receiving permission from Adm. Kuznetsov to go to Readiness Level 2 (alert). On June 16 Joseph Goebbels pub. the soundbyte in his diary: The Fuhrer has assessed the [military] operation at four months; I think it will be less. The Bolsheviks will fall like a house of cards", after which the Wehrmacht will replace debased Jewish Bolshevism with "der echte Sozialismus" (real Socialism). On June 16 (night) Churchill delivers a Radio Broadcast to the People of the U.S., with the soundbyte: "Every month that passes adds to the length and to the perils of the journey that will have to be made. United we stand, divided we fall. Divided, the Dark Ages return. United, we can save and guide the world." On June 17 German military cmdrs. receive the codeword "Dortmund", an order to launch the invasion of Russia on June 22; "Altona" would have meant postponement or cancellation. On June 18 (noon) Soviet frontier troops in Bialystok E of the Bug River are put on alert. On June 18 Nazi brain man Alfred Rosenberg completes plans for the Berlin-Tiflis Axis to prevent a Russian comeback, breaking up the Caucasus region into German-administered "gen. commissariats" in Georgia, Azerbaijan, North Caucasus, Krasnodar, and Ordzhonikidze, along with "main commissariats" in Armenia and Kalmyk; it will work along with the Volga-Archangel Line to create a German satellite region incl. Leningrad, Moscow, and Stalingrad, er, Hitlergrad. On June 18 FDR appoints WWI vet (Medal of Honor winner) William Joseph "Wild Bill" Donovan (1883-1959) as coordinator of nat. security info. On June 19 the SS establishes a welfare fund for widows and orphans of SS men KIA. On June 19 Soviet defense minister Marshal Timoshenko orders forward airfields and military installations camouflaged. On June 20 the U.S. Army Air Forces is established, with Gen. Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold (1886-1950) as the first commanding gen., becoming the first/only USAF gen. with 5-star rank, and the first/only person to hold 5-star rank in two different U.S. military services. On June 20 (night) a German recon mission tries to cross the Soviet lines at Buraki on the Prussian-Lithuanian frontier, and is repulsed, with three KIA and two captured. On June 21 (2:40 a.m.) Soviet Gen. Vladimir Efimovich Klimovskikh (1894-1941), chief of staff of the Western Front radios Moscow from Panevezys, Lithuania, warning that "German aircraft with loaded bomb racks" crossed the frontier W of Kovno on June 20, and wire barricades along the frontier near Augustow and Siena were "removed towards evening", adding "From the woods, sounds of engines"; on June 21 (4:00 a.m.) a convoy of 32 German troop ships is spotted at the entrance to the Gulf of Finland; at 2:00 p.m. Stalin calls Moscow military cmdr. Gen. Ivan Vladimirovich Tyulenev (1892-1978) and tells him that "the situation is uneasy", ordering him to bring Moscow's air defenses to 75% of combat readiness, then does ditto to Nikita Khrushchev in Kiev; on June 30 after it goes bad, Klimovskikh is arrested, and he is executed on July 22. On June 21 (afternoon) Hitler writes Mussolini, with the soundbyte that he has just made "the hardest decision of my life". On June 21 (9:00 p.m.) (shortest night of the year) German sgt.-maj. Alfred Liskof (Liskow) (1910-42) deserts, swims the Bug River near Sokal (N of Lviv), and tells Soviet frontier guards at Vladimir-Volynsky that the big invasion is set for next morning, which Kiev district military cmdr. Gen. Maksim Alexeyevich Purkayev (1894-1953) relays to Marshal Zhukov in Moscow, causing Stalin to stall and call it a deception, finally agreeing to alert military cmds. of a "possible" German attack; Zhukov and Timoshenko order firing posts "secretly manned" in the early hours, and all aircraft dispersed and airfields camouflaged before dawn, with preparations made "for blocking out cities and other targets". On June 22 (Sun.) (12:30 a.m.) Hitler has an after-dinner conversation with Adm. Raeder and Albert Speer, boasting of his planned monumental Nazi bldgs. for Berlin, Linz et al., saying that they can get all the granite they want when they conquer Russia, and playing a recording of Franz Liszt's Les Preludes, calling it the "victory fanfare for the Russian campaign", describing his plans to make Trondheim, Norway into German's largest dockyard with a pop. of 250K Germans. Just when the Axis is looking like it's here to stay, high stakes gambling addict Hitler launches Operation Blunderossa and gambles the Third Reich away? On June 22 (Sun.) (4:15 a.m.) (1 year and 1 day after France signed the armistice with Germany) (129 years minus 4 days after Napoleon crossed the Nieman River to invade Russia) after Hitler utters the soundbyte "We have only to kick in the door and the whole rotten structure will come crashing down", in defiance of the Non-Aggression Pact (claiming gross violations of the same by the Soviets), after 17K trains bring troops to the Russian border since Jan., Germany attacks the Soviet Union with 154 German, 18 Finnish, and 14 Romanian divs. (3.2M men) in Operation Barbarossa, facing 2.5M Soviet soldiers in the W, with 2.2M in reserve defending Moscow, Leningrad, the Donetz Basin, and the Urals, with only 30% having automatic weapons, and only 20% of the aircraft and 10% of the tanks of modern design; after bombing 66 airfields to destroy aircraft on the ground, while bombing Kovno, Minsk, Rovno, Odessa, Sevastopol, and Libava, the German army begins advancing along a 930-mi. front; if they had concentrated on securing the oil fields of the south first, they might have won, but thought they could win it all in one summer and lost it all?; the attack interrupts a Soviet ball in the border town of Siemiatycze in E Poland attended by the local German border patrol and some Jews; at 7:00 a.m. Reich propaganda minister Paul Joseph Goebbels (1897-1945) reads a Russian Invasion Proclamation by Hitler over the radio, with the soundbyte: "Weighted down with heavy cares, condemned to months of silence, I can at last speak freely, German people! At this moment a march is taking place that, for its extent, compares with the greatest the world has ever seen. I have decided today to place the fate and future of the Reich and our people in the hands of our soldiers. May God aid us, especially in this fight" (I'm getting seasick?); at 7:15 a.m. Marshal Zhukov issues an order to Soviet troops authorized by Stalin to "attack the enemy and destroy him", but not cross the frontier into Germany, although air strikes are permitted up to 150km (90 mi.) behind the lines against Konigsberg, Memel et al.; at 12:00 noon after frantic attempts to stop the war with diplomatic messages to Germany and Japan, Vyacheslav Molotov announces the attack to the Soviet people; at 9:15 p.m. after the Germans have an easy time penetrating Soviet territory, Marshal Timoshenko issues a directive ordering Soviet forces to go on the offensive and penetrate German territory to a depth of 50-75 mi.; by noon the Germans have destroyed 1K+ Soviet aircraft on the ground, 25% of their air force; on Sept. ? Bishop Rackl, Roman Catholic bishop of Eichstatt, Germany sends out a pastoral letter calling the German invasion "a crusade, a holy war... for faith and church"; by the time Berlin falls in May 1945, 30M+ are killed in "the greatest and most hideous land-air conflict in history (Chris Bellamy); Army Group North (27 divs.), commanded by Field Marshal Wilhelm Josef Franz Ritter von Leeb (1876-1956) heads through the Baltic States to Leningrad; Army Group Center (51 divs.), commanded by Field Marshal Moritz Albrecht Franz Friedrich Fedor von Bock (1880-1945) heads for Moscow; Army Group South (38 divs.), commanded by Field Marshal Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (1875-1953) heads toward the Ukrainian capital of Kiev; Lepava (Liepaja) in W Latvia is among the first cities captured by the 291st Div. of Army Group North, after which all but 30 of 7K Jews are murdered; the Russians have 170 divs. facing them, representing 54% of their total strength; the German advance ultimately reaches a line from Archangel on the White Sea to Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea; the Russkies shock the Nazis with their T-34 medium tank and KV-1 (Kliment Voroshilov) heavy tank, which outclass anything they have, causing a rush to catch up; after German ambassador Friedrich Werner Graf von der Schulenberg (1875-1944) tells Russian minister Vyacheslav Molotov that Germany has been forced to take "countermeasures" in light of Russian military buildup on the border, he replies "Surely, we have not deserved that"; Stalin has a "nervous collapse" and does not speak for 11 days. On June 22 Italy declares war on the Soviet Union. On June 22 Germany declares war on the Soviet Union. On June 22 the Soviet Southwestern Front is formed to defend Ukraine along a 865km line from the Pripyat River and the town of Wlodawa to the Prut River and the town of Lipkany on the Romanian border; the Soviet Western Front is formed to defend a 470km line down to the S border of Lithuania; on June 25 the Soviet Southern Front is formed to defend the area S to Odessa on the Black Sea. On June 22 Operation Kilpapurjehdus (Regatta) is launched by Finland to militarize the Aland Islands to prevent Soviet occupation. On June 22 (eve.) Germany overruns W border frontier fortress towns Kobryn (Kobrin) and Pruzhany, later herding the Jews of Bialystok into the latter to create a ghetto. On June 22 (night) Hitler arrives at the secret camouflaged Wolf's Lair (Wolfschanze) in the pine forests of Mauerwald in East Prussia at Gierloz near the Teutonic Knights town of Rastenburg 110 mi. from Danzig, where for 3.5 years (until Mar. 20, 1945) he lives in a miserable hut and rules the biggest army in history, becoming one of the best-kept secrets of the war. On June 22-July 3 the Luftwaffe achieves air superiority over the Soviets, destroying 2K Soviet aircraft while losing only 35 aircraft, of which 15 are non-combat-related. On June 23 a 3-member Soviet Evacuation Council incl. future PM Alexei Kosygin is set up in Moscow to relocate 1.5K armament and industrial plants in W Russia and Ukraine E beyond the Urals to Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Sverdlovsk, Siberia, and Kazakhstan. On June 23-30 the Tank Battle of Dubno (Dubna) (Brody) sees the Soviets under Maj.-Gen. Konstantin Rokossovsky (1896-1968) counterattack and successfully delay the advance into Ukraine of German Army Group South under Gen. von Rundstedt. On June 24 NKVD head Lavrentiy Beria forms the 100-to-200-man Destruction Battalions of men unfit for military service to guard important installations behind the lines; they have the greatest impact in N Estonia since it's the last Baltic territory the Germans capture. On June 24-25 Soviet gens. Mikhail Grigorevich Khatskilevich (b. 1895) and I.S. Nikitin become the first to be KIA in the German offensive. On June 25 the Germans capture Slonim; on July 1 a Soviet counterattack E of the city allows two tank brigades to escape encirclement; on July 17 the Germans round up 1.2K Jewish men and murder them on the outskirts of the city; Jewish men are taken to a stadium where for three days they are given no food or water, and have to sleep in the open; on Breger St. a German amuses his fellows by commanding Jews to dance, with "Tanzen sie, verfluchten Juden!" (Dance you damn Jews). On June 25 after German troops burn the border village of Slochy and execute all 100 of its pop., Gen. Joachim Hermann August Lemelsen (1888-1954) of the 47th Panzer Corps protests the "senseless shootings of both prisoners of war and civilians", and is ignored, then five days later changes his tune and approves the shooting of commissars and partisans to liberate the Russian people "from the oppression of a Jewish and criminal group". On June 25 the Germans occupy Dubno, Baranowicze (Baranovichi), Lida, and Lutsk, where they discover the Zionist Gordonia underground; Jewish doctor Benjamin From (b. 1894) is dragged from the operating room while operating on a Christian woman, and killed with his entire family. On June 25 after A. Philip Randolph convinces him, FDR signs Executive Order 8802, creating the Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) within the U.S. Office of Production Management to eliminate discriminatory employment practices in U.S. defense industries, i.e. help blacks find jobs; too bad, it can only hear and investigate complaints, but has no enforcement powers, and is terminated on June 30, 1946 after being superseded by the Committee on Fair Employment Practice in May 1943. On June 25-29 the Kaunas Pogrom in Lithuania sees 600 members of the Lithuanian Activist Front backed by the Germans massacre 5K Jews. On June 26 Finland declares war on the Soviet Union; on June 27 Gen. Mannerheim appeals to the Finns to fight a "holy war". On June 26 the Germans occupy Dvinsk 185 mi. inside the Soviet border, allowing them to cross the Dvina River. On June 26 the Germans occupy Kovno on the Nieman River in Lithuania, causing locals to stage a 2-day pogrom on the 35K Jews there, killing 1K+. On June 26 Soviet aviator Nikolai Frantsevich Gastello (b. 1908) becomes the first to conduct a "fire taran" suicide attack with his plane on a ground target near the village of Dekshany in Belarus, becoming a hero of the Soviet Union and household name. By June 27 most of the Russian air force is destroyed by the Germans. On June 27 Hungary declares war on the Soviet Union. On June 27 several thousand Jews are shot in the courtyard of the police HQ in Jassy (Iasy) in NE Romania; Romanian soldiers massacre 250, killing 1,194 more by sending them S in a sealed train for eight days. On June 27 two German Panzer groups link forces E of Minsk, trapping and capturing 300K Russian troops, most of whom don't survive a year. On June 27 the council of deputies of Leningrad organizes "First response groups" of civilians, going on to mobilize 1M citizens for the construction of fortifications; 30K workers are sent from Moscow to Luga S of Leningrad to dig anti-tank ditches and fortifications. On June 27 Nikita Khrushchev organizes 140 partisan units of 10-20 men (2K total) to infiltrate German-occupied territory. On June 27 British cryptographers in Bletchley Park break the German Vulture Enigma key used by the German troops on the Eastern Front; on June 28 Churchill authorizes intel to be passed to the Soviets via British embassy official Lt. Cecil Barclay (1915-) in Moscow. On June 27 Jewish Pole Shalom Cholawski sees a Soviet POW singled out and beaten by a German soldier in Nieswiez, then lined up against a fence and executed for slapping him back. On June 27 the Minn. offices of the Socialist Workers Party are raided by the FBI, after which a grand jury indicts 28 members of violation of the 1861 U.S. Sedition Act (1st time), and the 1940 U.S. Smith Act, and on Oct. 27 their trial begins, and 23 are found guilty of violating the Smith Act for distributing written material encouraging insubordination in the armed forces, and sentenced to 12-to-16-mo. terms; strangely, the U.S. Communist Party supports the trial because they're their enemies the Trotskyists. On June 28 Albania declares war on the Soviet Union. On June 28 the Germans capture Minsk, one-third of the way to Moscow. On June 29 Black Sunday sees the Germans capture Lvov in East Galicia, with the Soviet NKVD massacring 3K Ukrainian POWs before evacuating, after which Ukrainian nationalists slaughter Jews in the streets. On June 29 Moscow orders a scorched earth policy for retreating troops. On June 29 the Germans launch Operation Silver Fox (ends Nov. 17) to take the Soviet Arctic port of Murmansk. On June 29 Polish PM #1 (1919) Ignace Jan Paderewski (b. 1860) dies in New York City, and is interred in Arlington Cemetery in a casket mounted on wheels for return to Poland after the war; it isn't moved until ?, and his heart is left in Arlington. On June 29 the Nazi Party newspaper Volkischer Beobachter pub. the soundbyte about the supposedly inferior Russian soldier, that he "surpasses our adversary in the West in his contempt of death. Endurance and fatalism make him hold out until he is blown up with his trench, or falls in hand-to-hand fighting." On June 29-July 2 all Jewish males ages 16-60 in Dvinsk are arrested. On June 30 Soviet gen. Mikhail Kirponos orders a withdrawal from the Lvov Salient to a new line on Korosten, Novgorod, Shepetovka, Starokonstantinov, and Proskurov, which they reach on July 9, receiving reinforcements. On June 30 HMAS Waterhen is sunk off Sidi Barrani en route to Tobruk, becoming the first Australian warship lost to enemy action in the war; the crew is saved by a British destroyer, after which on July 19 Australian cruiser HMAS Sydney sinks Italian cruiser Bartolomeo Colleoni to get even. On June 30 Lev Kantorovich (b. 1911) becomes the first writer from Leningrad to be KIA by the Germans, becoming a local hero. On June 30 the SS murders 300 Jews in Lutsk, and 1,160 more on July 2, then 3K on July 4 in nearby Ft. Lubart, followed on ? by 180 Jews in Tarnopol, and on ? by 300-500 in Zolochew. On June 30-July 1 Jewish Soviet motorized infantry Gen. Jakov Kreiser slows down the Panzers of Gen. Guderian in the Borisov area on the E bank of the Beresina River, earning him a Hero of the Soviet Union medal; too bad, on June 28 more Germans capture Bobruisk and establish a beachhead on the river. In June the British break the Italian Navy's C38m cypher machine. In June the Germans occupy Lithuania (until 1944), and have their fun with the large Jewish pop. in Vilnyus (Vilnius) and other cities, who violently riot in vain; the mobile SS killing squad Einsatzkommando massacres the entire Jewish pop. of 900-y.-o. Eishyshok (Eisiskes) in two days, killing 3,446, incl. 929 males, 1,636 females, and 821 children; the Tower of Life (Faces) in the U.S. Holocaust Museum in Washington, D.C. (opened in 1993) is a 3-floor display of photos of the dead inhabitants. In June Operation Munchkin is launched in Dachau Camp by Heinrich Himmler to breed fluffy angora rabbits to make fur-lined coats, gloves, socks, and underwear for Nazi soldiers, expanding to 30 other camps, with 6.5K rabbits raised this year, growing to 25K by 1943, collecting 5 tons of fur before the program ends in 1943. In June Jewish RAF Flight Sgt. Sydney Cohen (-1946) veers off-course en route to Malta and makes an emergency landing in his Swordfish biplane in Lampedusa Island, after which the entire 4.3K-man Italian garrison runs out waving white flags and surrenders and makes him cmdr. of the island, the news raising British morale, with the News Chronicle headline reading "London Tailor' Cutter is Now King of Lampedusa", inspiring Yiddish playwright to compose the Yiddish musical "The King of Lampedusa", which debuts in 1943 at the New Yiddish Theatre on Adler St. in New York City, becoming the longest-running production in Yiddish, and is later staged at the Grand Palais in London starring Meier Tzelniker and his daughter Anna; the BBC later broadcasts an English version starring Jewish-English actor Sidney Tafler; Lord Haw-Haw threatens the English theater with a Luftwaffe attack; too bad, Cohen disappears during a flight over the English Channel on Aug. 26, 1946 after viewing the play in Haifa, Palestine in 1944. In June the Am. Council for Judaism is founded by Reformed Jewish rabbis Henry Cohen, Abraham Cronbach, Morris Lazaron, David Philipson, and Louis Wolsey, who don't think that Jews should have a nat. state and oppose Zionism; supporters incl. Sumner Welles and Dean Acheson; New York Times publisher (1935-61) Arthur Hays Sulzberger (1891-1968) (a Reform Jew), who told his editors to bury news of the Nazi genocide on the back pages and omit descriptions of victims as Jews enthusiastically supports it with frequent coverage; in 1946 after visiting a Nazi concentration camp, he gives a speech with the soundbyte: "It is my judgment that thousands dead might now be alive" if the Zionists had put "less emphasis on statehood." On July 1 the Germans launch Operation Salmon Trap (Lachsfang) to take the railway line between Belomorsk and Kandalaksha. On July 1 the Germans occupy Riga, Latvia, inciting the pop. against the city's 40K Jews, causing pogroms that kill 6K in 3 mo.; on July 4 the Great Choral Synagogue is burned with 300 Jews locked in the basement. On July 1 Finnish and German troops begin an offensive E from C Finland to cut off Russia's N lifeline, being surprised by stubborn Russian resistance. On July 1 U.S. Navy aircraft begin anti-submarine patrols from bases in Newfoundland. On July 1 von Ribbentrop fails to talk the Japanese into attacking the Soviet Union in the Far East, deciding to invade French Indochina instead; on July 6 spy Richard Sorge informs Moscow, allowing more reinforcements to be sent to the Western Front. On July 1 (night) art historian Vladimir Levinson-Lessing (1893-1972) leaves Leningrad on a train bound for the E carrying the Hermitage's art treasures and jewels; another treasure train arrives at Sverdlovsk on July 20. On July 2-21 the Germans and Romanians stage Operation Munchen (München) to retake Bessarabia and N Bukovina from the Russians, crossing the Prut River and advancing on Vinnitsa; on Aug. 21 after big Vs, Ion Antonesco is made the 3rd marshal in Romanian history. On July 3 after 12 days Stalin breaks out of his funk and gives his Comrades, Citizens, Brothers and Sisters Speech on the radio: "In spite of the heroic resistance of the Red Army, and although the enemy's finest divisions have met their doom on the field of battle, the enemy continues to push forward, hurling fresh forces to the front... "Comrades, citizens, brothers and sisters, fighters of our Army and Navy... A grave threat hangs over our country. How could it have happened that our glorious Red Army surrendered a number of our cities and districts to Fascist armies? Is it really true that German Fascist troops are invincible, as is ceaselessly trumpeted by the boastful Fascist propagandists? Of course not! History shows that there are no invincible armies and never have been. Napoleon's army was considered invincible but it was beaten successively by Russian, English and German armies. Kaiser Wilhelm's German Army in the period of the first imperialist war was also considered invincible, but it was beaten several times by the Russian and Anglo-French forces and was finally smashed by the Anglo-French forces... We must immediately put our whole production to war footing. In all occupied territories partisan units must be formed to foment guerrilla warfare everywhere, to blow up bridges and roads, damage telephone and telegraph lines, set fire to forests, stores, transports", ordering Hitler "and all his accomplices" to be "hounded and annihilated at every step"; just in case anybody gets any ideas, "Military tribunals will pass summary judgment on any who fail in our defense, whether through panic or treachery, regardless of their position or rank"; after justifying the Aug. 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact on the grounds that it gave him time to build up defenses, he expresses "a feeling of gratitude" to Britain and the U.S. for offers of assistance, and signs an agreement with the Polish govt.-in-exile, whom he had not talked with since Sept. 1939; clueless Gen. Franz Halder (1884-1972) writes the soundbyte in his diary: "It is no exaggeration to say that the campaign against Russia has been won in 14 days"; on July 16 Hitler tells Gen. Keitel et al. that the fact that the Soviets are waging partisan warfare behind the front lines "enables us to exterminate everyone who opposes us". On July 4 after the Germans improve air defenses, a British bombing raid on Bremen loses five of 12 aircraft. On July 4 the SS murder 463 Jews in Kovno; on July 6 they kill 2,514 more. On July 4 the SS murder 54 Jews in Vilna, and 93 more on July 5; ditto to 600 Jews in Tarnopol and 600 in Zborow. On July 5 Yugoslavian (Serbian resistance leader Josip Broz Tito issues an Appeal to Resist, with the soundbyte: "Now is the time. The hour has struck to rise like one man in the battle against the invaders and hirelings"; on July 7 Tito's forces have their first battle with the German police at Bela Crkva, Serbia. On July 5 Hitler's Table Talk at his HQ begins to be recorded by his secy. Martin Bormann, and preserved for posterity; he gives his views on vegetarianism, economics, religion et al.; "The deliberate lie in the matter of religion was introduced into the world by Christianity... Let it not be said that Christianity brought man the life of the soul, for that evolution was in the natural order of things"; "The best thing is to let Christianity die a natural death... When understanding of the universe has become widespread... Christian doctrine will be convicted of absurdity... Christianity has reached the peak of absurdity... and that's why someday its structure will collapse... The only way to get rid of Christianity is to allow it to die little by little"; "Christianity is an invention of sick brains. One could imagine nothing more senseless, nor any more indecent way of turning the idea of the Godhead into a mockery"; "I realize that man, in his imperfection, can commit innumerable errors, but to devote myself deliberately to errors, that is something I cannot do. I shall never come personally to terms with the Christian lie. Our epoch in the next 200 years will certainly see the end of the disease of Christianity." On July 6 the Germans occupy Tartu 200 mi. from Leningrad; meanwhile two German divs. are driven back from Zhlobin, and a German Panzer attack at Rogachev is repulsed as the Soviets bring up reinforcements to Orel and Bryansk. On July 7 First Battle of Kiev (Kiev Defensive Operation) begins (ends Sept. 26) as German troops stage the largest encirclement of troops in history (until ?). On July 7 the U.S. launches Operation Indigo, occupying Iceland with a U.S. Marine brigade, allowing U.S. patrols to reach within 400 mi. of N Scotland. On July 7 1,150 Jews are shot by the SS in Dvinsk; ditto to 7K Jews in Lvov, and to 132 Jews in Dobromil. On July 7 Churchill writes Stalin offering to do "everything to help you that time, geography, and our growing resources allow", ordering the RAF to work for the "devastation of the German cities" to force the Germans to siphon air power from the Eastern Front. By July 8 more than half of the 164 Soviet divs. have been destroyed, with 500K POWs taken, incl. 287K POWs and 2,585 tanks in the Minsk Salient - I'm driven to overcome? On July 8 Stalin removes Gen. ? Korbokov for "permitting the destruction of his army by the Germans", having him shot. On July 8 at Eagle's Lair Gen. Halder writes the soundbyte in his diary: "Fuhrer is firmly determined to level Moscow and Leningrad to the ground, and to dispose fully of their population, which otherwise we shall have to feed during the winter." On July 8 all Jews in Baltic countries are ordered to wear the Star of David. On July 9 the British break the Enigma key used by the German army to direct ground-air operations on the Eastern Front. On July 9-23 the Germans occupy Pskov 180 mi. from Leningrad. On July 10 the Germans cross the Dnieper River in the Ukraine, driving back a massive Soviet counterattack at Korosten; meanwhile the Germans set up the Maly Trostenets (Trastienets) camp for Soviet POWs, which abuses them to the max. On July 10 hundreds of Jews in Jedwabne, Poland 120 mi. NE of Warsaw are massacred by their Roman Catholic neighbors by burning in a barn, after which their property is looted, launching a conspiracy of silence; they take until July 12, 2011 to apologize. On July 10 the first volunteer div. leaves Leningrad for the front lines, with many not issued rifles, although they all get hand grenades and Molotov cocktails. On July 10 Hitler utters the soundbyte to Walther Hewel: "It is I who have discovered the Jews as the bacillus and ferment that causes all decay in society. And what I have proved is this, that nations can survive without Jews, that the economy, culture, art, and so on can exist without Jews and in fact better. That is the cruelest blow I have dealt the Jews." On July 12 the Anglo-Soviet Mutual Assistance Pact is signed, pledging not to make a separate piece - you kill Nazis, we kill Nazis? By July 13 German Army Group Center has penetrated 450 mi. beyond Bialystock ("the Jerusalem of Poland"), coming within 200 mi. of Moscow, where Russian Field Marshal Georgi Konstantinovich Zhukov (1896-1974) and Gen. Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko (1895-1970) are directing defenses. On July 14 the British occupy Syria. On July 14 the British step up bombing intensity with a raid on Hanover, followed by July 23 by two more, along with two on Hamburg, two on Frankfurt, and Mannheim, and one on Berlin; on July 14 Churchill gives his Do Your Worst; We'll Do Our Best speech on the radio, with the soundbyte: "In the last few weeks alone we have thrown upon Germany about half the tonnage of bombs thrown by the Germans upon our cities during the whole course of the war. But this is only a beginning." On July 14 Hitler issues a Supplement to Directive No. 32, laying out a plan to reduce German military size after taking Russia. On July 14 Soviet artillery Capt. Ivan Flerov first uses the Katyusha (named after a love song) rocket launcher in combat near Osha, Vitebsk; it can fire 320 rockets in 25 sec. On July 15 Jews in Minsk are ordered by Hinrich Lohse to wear yellow badges on the chest and the back, to avoid public facilities and walk in the gutters, to be given food only deemed "surplus" to local needs, and to join forced labor gangs; the Minsk Ghetto is established on July 20. On July 15-Aug. 8 the Battle of Uman sees the Germans encircle the 6th and 12th Soviet armies S of Uman, Ukraine. On July 15 a top secret British govt. committee concludes that "the scheme for a uranium bomb is practicable and likely to lead to decisive results in the war", recommending that work continue "on the highest priority and on the increasing scale necessary to obtain the weapon in the shortest possible time." On July 16 the Germans begin encircling Smolensk halfway between Minsk and Moscow (200 mi. from Moscow), completing it on July 27, taking 100K POWs. On July 16 Hitler holds a meeting of his ministers incl. Hermann Goering to discuss the admin. of the occupied Soviet territories, in which live 4M pesky Jews, and says that the lands W of the Ural Mts. are to become a "German Garden of Eden", adding the comment "This vast area must be pacified as quickly as possible; this will happen best by shooting anyone who even looks sideways at us", which they take to mean approval for the Final Solution, and on July 31 Gory Goering gives written authorization to Reinhard Heydrich to go ahead with it. On July 17 Churchill sends Stalin intercepted intel that the Germans are getting disturbed by the extent of Russian resistance and their own casualties, and can no longer provide adequate air protection to Panzers at the front or strategic positions at the rear. On July 17 700 Jews are taken from Vilna by the SS to nearby Ponar and shot. On July 18 in an effort to prevent war with the U.S., Japanese PM Prince Fumimaro Konoye ousts anti-Am. foreign minister Yosuke Matsuoka and replaces him with "pro-Anglo-Saxon" Adm. Tojido Toyoda (according to Herbert Hoover); too bad, on July 25 the U.S. freezes all Japanese assets and cuts off all imports and exports, denying it needed oil, stunning Konoye, who wins secret support from the navy and army to meet FDR on the U.S. side of the Pacific to hear and respond to U.S. demands; FDR secretly wants war so bad he does everything he can to provoke Japan into it? On July 18 after bombing the town on June 22 and occupying it on June 23, 53 Jews are shot by the SS at Mariampole, Poland. On July 18 SS Operational Situational Report for the U.S.S.R. No. 26 gives the total number of Jews "liquidated" inside the Lithuanian border by a task force based in Tilsit as 3,302. On July 18-31 10K Jews are murdered in Kishinev (Chisinau) in Bessarabia. On July 19 Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 33, ordering the army to try to "to prevent any further sizeable enemy forces from withdrawing into the depths of Russia, and wipe them out"; on July 20 Adm. Canaris tells his staff that the mood at Hitler's Wolf Lair is "very jittery, as it is increasingly evident that the Russian campaign is not going by the book", adding: "This war will not bring about the expected national collapse so much as the invigoration of Bolshevism." On July 20 Stalin orders all Red Army units "purged of unreliable elements". On July 20 Minsk Ghetto is established; on July 24 Kishinev (Chisinau) Ghetto is established; on Aug. 1 Bialystok Ghetto is established on Aug. 1; on July 25-27 Petliura Days sees the Ukrainians massacre 2K Jews in Lvov. On July 20 the German army reports that the triangle of Polotsk, Vitebsk, and Nevel 50 mi. NW of Smolensk has become a "partisan region", with roads mined daily. On July 20 a British minelayer is sent to Archangel with military supplies; on July 23 a British naval force leaves Scapa Flow to attack German shipping between the Norwegian port of Kirkenes and the Finnish port of Petsamo. On July 21 Vichy France yields military control of Indochina to the Japanese while retaining some sovereignty, and on July 28 140K (125K?) troops occupy it, although the French only authorized 40K; on July 29 they occupy Cam Ranh Bay naval base 800 mi. from Manila and Singapore; on July 26 pissed-off FDR seizes all Japanese assets in the U.S., after which the British and Dutch East Indies do ditto, cutting off 75% of Japan's overseas trade and 90% of its oil imports, leaving it a 3-year supply; the Panama Canal is closed to Japanese shipping; Gen. Douglas MacArthur assumes command of U.S. forces in the Far East and Philippines, who face the Japanese in French Indochina across the South China Sea; the Japanese occupy Saigon with Vichy approval. On July 21 Hitler visits Army Group North HQ and orders that Leningrad be "finished off speedily". On July 21 the SS forces 45 Jews to dig a pit in ?, then throws them in and orders 30 White Russians to cover them with earth; when they refuse, they machine-gun them all. On July 21 the German Luftwaffe begins nightly air raids on Moscow (until July 27), missing the Kremlin; on July 27-Aug. 27 they stage 24 more air raids, killing 750. On July 23 after holding out for 30 days being pounded by special German mortar Karl with 2-ton projectiles, Brest-Litovsk surrenders, boosting morale of Soviet troops. On July 23 the SS murders 95 Jews and 30 Communists in Kedainiai, Lithuania. On July 23 Hitler issues a Supplement to Fuhrer Directive No. 33, saying that commanders of all rear areas are "to be held responsible together with the troops at their disposal for quiet conditions in their areas", and that they must "contrive to maintain order... not by requesting reinforcements, but by employing suitably draconian methods". On July 24 Operation Sunrise sees the RAF unsuccessfully attack British battle cruisers Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, and Prinz Eugen at Brest and La Pallice. On July 25 the British propaganda film Target for Tonight, produced by Harry Watt debuts, showing squadron leader Percy Charles "Pick" Pickard (1915-44) at the controls while bombing Germany, causing the phrase to enter the jargon. On July 25-29 Ukrainians stage a pogrom in Lvov, killing 2K Jews. On July 27 after four bomb attacks on military vehicles in Belgrade, Serbia, the Germans round up 1,200 Jews then shoot every 10th one - no we're not pinching pennies? On July 27 Hinrich Lohse (1896-1964), German commissar for the Baltic states and White Russia is ordered to give Jews in ghettos "only the amount of food that the rest of the population could spare, and in no case more than was sufficient to sustain life", and to continue "until such time as the more intensive measures for the Final Solution can be put into effect". On July 27 Soviet gens. Pavlov, Klimovskikh, and Korobkov are sentenced to death; Gen. Pyadyshev, organizer of Leningrad's Luga defense line is shot in secret. On July 28 the Germans occupy Kingisepp 70 mi. from Leningrad, after which 30K Leningrad citizens are made to build defense works around it, followed by 100K more around Krasnogvardeisk (Gatchina). On July 28 the Vyazma (Viazma) Plan creates a 350-man partisan unit in Vyazma to work behind the lines; meanwhile SS chief Heinrich Himmler orders his men to take "cleansing actions" against "racial inferiors" and anybody suspected of helping partisans, executing them then burning their village down. On July 29 the Soviets erect a defense line for Moscow between Rzhev and Vyazma. By July 30 the Germans capture 800K Russian POWs and 12K tanks - they should remember Napoleon and just turn around and skedaddle? On July 30 Hitler issues Fuhrer Directive No. 34, ordering the German army to annihilate Soviet troops W of the Dnieper River NW of Kiev, while Army Group Center is ordered "to go over to the defensive". On July 30 the Sikorski-Maisky Agreement, negotiated by Wladyslaw Eugeniusz Sikorski (1881-1943) and Soviet ambassador (to the U.K.) Ivan Mikhailovich Maisky (1884-1975) declares the 1939 Soviet-Nazi Pact null and void, and allows for hundreds of thousands of Poles to be released from Soviet Gulags. On July 30 Polish journalist W. Sakowicz writes about the Jew-killing SS in Ponar, Lithuania: "About 150 persons shot. Most of them were elderly people. The executioners complained of being very tired of their 'work', of having aching shoulders from shooting. That is the reason for not finishing the wounded off, so that they are buried half alive." By July 31 the British can easily read all German U-boat orders sans delay, causing the number of merchant ship sinkings to drop to below 30 vs. 90+ in May. On July 31 Hermann Goering writes SS #2 man Reinhard Heydrich a letter calling for a Final Solution (Entlosung) to the Jewish problem in German territories - I only meant uncircumcize them, give them rhinoplasty, steam clean, and baptize them? On July 31 FDR "co-president" and emissary Harold Lloyd "Harry" Hopkins (1890-1946) has a meeting with Stalin in the Kremlin, telling him "Hitler's greatest weakness was found in the vast numbers of oppressed peoples who hated Hitler and the immoral ways of his government", to which Stalin adds "and countless other millions in nations still unconquered could receive the kind of encouragement and moral strength they needed to resist Hitler only from one source, the United States", welcoming U.S. troops on any part of the Russian front under U.S. cmdrs.; on Aug. 1 Hopkins reports that Stalin has an "unbounded determination to win"; Hopkins is really a Soviet agent? Trust us, your hanging will be happy? On July 31 after a Pole escapes from a labor detail and 10 of 600 men in his block are picked at random to be starved to death in a locked cell, Polish Franciscan friar (St.) Maximilian (Raymund) Kolbe (b. 1894) volunteers to take one of their places, and becomes the last to die; in 1971 lucky Francis Gajowniczek attends his beatification ceremony; on Oct. 10, 1982 Pope John Paul II canonizes him, calling him "The Patron Saint of Our Difficult Century". In July pro-Nazi Latvian officials incl. Gustavs Celmins (1899-1968) return to Nazi-controlled Latvia and set up shop; too bad, the Gestapo arrests Celmins on Mar. 14, 1944 for pro-Latvian underground activities, and he ends up in a concentration camp until the war ends, then ends up in the U.S. in 1949, preaching against Soviet Communism. In July German Gen. Herrmann Karl Robert "Henning" von Tresckow (1901-44) of Army Group Center tries unsuccessfully to get Field Marshal von Kluge (who was dismissed from his command in 1938 then reinstated) to join a klugey risky hair-raising plot to arrest and depose Hitler. In July FDR orders his military cmdrs. to prepare for the total defeat of Germany and Japan? In July-Aug. the Pripyat March, led by SS Lt. Gen. Hans Georg Otto Hermann Fegelein (1906-45) (Eva Braun's brother-in-law), the first planned mass extermination program of the Nazis sees 17,288 Jews from the territories of nine raions of Belorussia and three raions of Ukraine in the region of the Pripyat swamps of the Pripyat River murdered; the villages of Dvarets, Khochan, Azyarany, Starazhowtsy, and Kremna are completely destroyed by burning, and Turaw is partially destroyed; most are shot, and some are drowned in a swamp. On Aug. 1 the U.S. announces an oil embargo against aggressor states. On Aug. 1 SS chief Heinrich Himmler is splashed with brains in Minsk while watching an execution, causing him to go "very green and pale" (and vomit?), causing him to order SS Gen. Arthur Nebe (1894-1945) to find a new method of mass murder, inventing gas vans; he ends up executed for the July 20, 1944 Plot; after the war a film is found in his Berlin apt. showing a gas chamber fed by a truck's exhaust; in Aug. Auschwitz deputy commandant Capt. Karl Fritzsch (1903-45) conducts killing experiments on Russian POWs with Zyklon-B commercial pesticide, removing the warning irritant from the cans, with new label "without irritant". On Aug. 2-29 the Tank Battle of the Yelnya Salient is the first Soviet V over the Germans; on Aug. 4 Hitler tells Field Marshal von Bock and Panzer Gen. Guderian: "If I had known they had that many tanks, I'd have thought twice before invading." On Aug. 8 the Germans siege Odessa, Ukraine (ends Oct. 16). On Aug. 8-11 new regulations are issued in the Netherlands requiring all Jews to register their assets with the Lippmann-Rosenthal Bank. On Aug. 11 after FDR leaves New London, Conn. on his pres. yacht USS Potomac on Aug. 3 allegedly for a fishing trip, banning the press, then on Aug. 4 secretly boards heavy cruiser USS Augusta, Churchill and FDR hold their first official war meeting in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland aboard new British battleship HMS Prince of Wales, with Churchill wanting a U.S. declaration of war, and FDR only wanting a declaration about the postwar peace, and after Churchill warns FDR "that he would not answer for the consequences if Russia was compelled to sue for peace and, say, by the spring of next year, hope died in Britain that the United States were coming into the war", he agrees to give aid to Russia "on a gigantic scale", and to issue a statement that any "further encroachment" by Japan in the SW Pacific will "produce a situation in which the United States Government would be compelled to take countermeasures, even though these might lead to war between the United States and Japan"; on Aug. 12 they issue the Atlantic Charter, calling for the renunciation of aggression and disarmament of aggressor nations, with no territorial changes "that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the people concerned", becoming a foundation stone of the United Nations; FDR utters the soundbyte to the press: "There has never been, there isn't now and there never will be, any race of people on earth fit to serve as masters over their fellow men... We believe that any nationality, no matter how small, has the inherent right to its own nationhood"; they agree to send a joint military mission to Moscow headed by Lord Beaverbrook and W. Averell Harriman to discuss Soviet war production needs. On Aug. 11 the Soviets stage their first air raid on Berlin, causing Hitler on Aug. 12 to issue a Supplement to Fuhrer Directive No. 34, calling for the Crimea to be occupied followed by an offensive over the Kerch Straits towards Batum to destroy Soviet airfields. On Aug. 13 after three starving Jews buy a sack of potatoes from a Lithuanian peasant outside the ghetto of Kovno, the Germans round up and shoot 28 Jews at random. On Aug. 15 the Germans stage a pogrom at Rokiskis on the Lithuanian-Latvian border, killing 3.K Jews; ditto to 600 Jews in Stawiski on the German-Soviet border. On Aug. 15 Heinrich Himmler visits Minsk again along with Gen. Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski to see 98 Jewish men and two women executed, walking up to one and asking him if he and his parents and ancestors are all Jewish, to which he replies "Then I can't help you"; after watching the executions and getting nauseated, Himmler searches for a less stressful (on himself) form of murder, coming up with gas? On Aug. 15 100+ German bombers attack the railway station at Chudovo on the Leningrad-Moscow line. On Aug. 15 British Wing Cmdr. Roland Robert Stanford Tuck (1916-87) leads the first air mission by fighters based in E England against enemy-occupied territories On Aug. 15 spy Richard Sorge radios Stalin that the Japanese won't declare war "before the winter season" because it might "exert an excessive strain on the Japanese economy". In mid-Aug.-mid-Oct. the Germans under SS Gen. Theodor Eicke (1892-1943) murder 18K Russian POWs at Sachsenhausen concentration camp (300 a day). On Aug. 18 the Soviets evacuate the Black Sea port of Nikolayev (Nikolaev). On Aug. 18 the Butt Report is released by the British Air Ministry, finding a widespread failure of bombers to deliver their payloads to the correct target based on cameras mounted on their er, undersides. On Aug. 18 Hitler refuses Gen. von Brauchitsch's request to resume the attack on Moscow, but tells Joseph Goebbels that he hopes to be "beyond" Moscow by the winter. On Aug. 18 after being lured by a promise of a job at the city archives, 534 Jewish intellectuals in the Jewish ghetto in Kovno, Lithuania are shot, causing the musicians to be disguised as policemen to save their lives, forming an orchestra next summer; on Aug. 18 German Lt. Kurt Josef Waldheim (1918-2007) receives a cavalry assault badge for valor E of Kovno. On Aug. 19 Hitler tells visitors at Wolf's Lair: "For the good of the German people we must wish for a war every 15 or 20 years. An army whose sole purpose is to preserve peace leads only to playing at soldiers - look at Sweden and Switzerland"; on Aug. 20 he tells Albert Speer to place captured Soviet artillery and tanks on granite pedestals in the plans for his new Nazi Berlin. On Aug. 20 after being arrested in a demonstration in Paris on Aug. 13, Communists Henry Gaultherot and Szmul Tyszelman (a Jew) are executed. On Aug. 20 Italian troops occupy Gospic and Pag Island on the Dalmatian coast, finding evidence of mass murder of Serbs and Jews by the Ustachi, incl. 791 on Pag (293 women and 93 children) and 3.5K at Jadovno 12 mi. from Gospic. On Aug. 20 (night) the Germans reach Gatchina 28 mi. S of Leningrad. On Aug. 21 (a.m.) after an attack on a German patrol, Germans massacre Jews and Serbs in Sabac, Yugoslavia, then order other Jews to hang them from lamp posts; on Aug. 22 they order them to cut them down and throw them in garbage trucks. On Aug. 21 the Germans occupy Chudovo, cutting the Leningrad-Moscow railway line. On Aug. 21 Australian troops in besieged Tobruk sail back to Egypt after losing 832 killed and 7K taken POW, and are replaced by British troops. On Aug. 21 French Communist Pierre Georges (1919-44) AKA Col. Fabien assassinates young German naval officer Alfons Moser at a Paris Metro station, becoming the first violent anti-German act of the Paris occupation; after they can't find out who did it, German gov. of Paris Gen. Otto von Stuelpnagel (Stülpnagel) (1878-1948) orders 22 civilian hostages executed in the Gestapo prison in Mont Valerien, Suresnes in W Paris, announcing their names on special red posters posted around Paris. On Aug. 24 Churchill delivers a radio broadcast to the British people, with the soundbyte: "Scores of thousands, literally scores of thousands of executions in cold blood are being perpetrated by the German police troops upon the Russian patriots who defend their native soil. Since the Mongol invasions of Europe in the sixteenth century there has never been methodical, merciless butchery on such a scale, or approaching such a scale", with the soundbyte "We are in the presence of a crime without a name"; he doesn't mention Jews since that would give away their ability to decode their messages?; he meant 13th cent. not 16th cent.? On Aug. 25 Britain launches Operation Countenance, occupying Iran's S oilfields while the Soviets occupy the N, issuing a joint ultimatum to the Iranian govt. to accept their "protection", causing Shah (since 1925) Reza Pahlavi I (b. 1878) to abdicate on Aug. 28 in favor of his pro-West Swiss-educated son Mohammed Reza Pahlavi II (1919-80), who on Sept. 16 becomes Iranian shah (last) (until Feb. 11, 1979). On Aug. 25 the Germans occupy industrial city Dnepropetrovsk in Ukraine, finding empty bldgs. On Aug. 25-Sept. 3 Operation Gauntlet sees British, Canadian, and Norwegian commandos invade Spitzbergen and destroy fuel reserves, evacuating 2K Russian civilians to Archangel aboard the Empress of Canada, and rescuing 50 French officers who escaped East Prussia to Russia and were sent there by the Russians. On Aug. 26 Hitler tours the rubble of Brest-Litovsk with Mussolini. On Aug. 26 the Soviets launch a failed counterattack at Velikiye Luki. On Aug. 26-29 after being deported by the Hungarian govt., which refused to take them back when asked, 23.6K Jews are murdered by the SS under orders of Gen. Friedrich August Jeckeln (1895-1946) at Kamenets Podolsk by mowing them down with machine guns in bomb craters; after reaching the 100K mark, he is captured by the Soviets on Apr. 28, 1945, and hanged in Victory Square in Riga, Latvia on Feb. 3, 1946. On Aug. 27 Hitler and Mussolini fly to Field Marshal von Rundstedt's HQ at Ulman in the Ukraine 200 mi. E of Kamenets Podolsk. On Aug. 27-31 the Soviets evacuate 23K soldiers and civilians by sea from Tallinn, Estonia on 190 ships, losing 25 of 29 large troop transports and 10K killed, becoming known as the Baltic Dunkirk; Capt. Vyacheslav Kaliteyev of the Kazakhstan is executed for deserting under fire. On Aug. 28 the Japanese ambassador to the U.S. presents a secret letter from Prince Fumimaro Konoye asking for a personal meeting with FDR; too bad, on Sept. 3 it leaked by the Herald-Tribune, spilling the beans and imperiling Konoye's govt. On Aug. 28 Grafeneck Euthanasia Center dir. Dr. Horst Schumann (1906-83) visits Auschwitz and selects 575 Soviet POWs for use in lethal medical experiments in Sonnenstein near Dresden - walk this way? On Aug. 28 the SS murders 2,076 Jews incl. 599 children at Kedainiai, Lithuania. On Aug. 28 Roman Catholic pastor Bernhard Lichtenberg (1875-1943) of St. Hedwig's Church in Berlin writes a protest letter to Reich chief physician Leonardo Conti (1900-45) protesting the euthanasia program, saying that it "will call forth the vengeance of the Lord on the heads of the German people"; he is sentenced to two years in prison. On Aug. 29 Finnish forces capture Terijoki (changed to Zelenogorsk in 1948) 30 mi. NW of Leningrad, then refuse to advance to Leningrad since they only wanted to restore their pre-1939 frontier; other Finnish troops keep advancing toward Lake Onega E of Leningrad to cut Soviet communications between the Baltic and White Seas. On Aug. 30 the Neva Squadron begins shelling the Germans at Gatchina, firing 340 shells at it on Aug. 31, then relocating naval guns on shore at Pulkovo Heights incl. from 1917 Russian Rev. cruiser Aurora. The F-ckn' 872 worst days of WWII for Russia begin? On Aug. 30 German Army Group North takes Mga 10 mi. E Leningrad, and cuts the last rail line to Leningrad, On Aug. 30-Sept. 8 the Soviets recapture Yelnya between Smolensk and Kaluga, becoming their first major V against the Germans, causing Hitler to give up on taking the Crimea and Caucasus and issue Fuhrer Directive No. 35, ordering Army Group Center to launch Operation Typhoon, the capture of Moscow (Oct. 2). On Aug. 31 the Soviets retake Mga; on Sept. 1 the Germans retake it - Hitler never gets the hint? On Aug. 31 the Germans shoot 3.7K Jews and bury them in mass graves at Ponar 6 mi. from Vilna (Vilnius), Lithuania, followed by 3.4K more on Sept. 6,; eventually they kill 70K Jews and 30K non-Jews, and bury them in oil storage tanks. In Aug. the Germans introduce the Focke-Wulfe FW 190 air superiority fighter, giving them superiority over the RAF for over a year. In Aug. the Flying Tigers (1st Am. Volunteer Group) is founded in Kunming, China by the new U.S. Army Air Forces to fight for China against Japan; after relocating from Mandalay, Burma on Dec. 8, it is led by Col. (later Lt. Gen.) Claire Lee Chennault (1893-1958) (adviser to the Chinese govt. since July 1937) with three squadrons of P-40s that later see action in Burma et al., becoming known for "defensive pursuit". In Aug. British intel intercepts a message from the Japanese ambassador in Berlin, who reports that "In the event of a collision between Japan and the United States, Germany would at once open hostilities with the United States", passing it to FDR - the smoking gun? On Sept. 1 Stalin announces the deportation of all 440K ethnic Volga Germans living in the Volga River region to the E, leaving hundreds of towns and villages from Marxstadt to Strassburg deserted; on Aug. 28 Stalin abolishes the Autonomous Socialistic Soviet Repub. of the Volga Germans. On Sept. 1 after a public outcry by Lutheran Bishop Theophil Wurm (1868-1953) of Wurttemberg and Roman Catholic Bishop Clements August, Count von Galen (1878-1946) of Munster, the German euthanasia program Aktion T-4 (founded Sept. 1939) is officially ended after killing 90K-250K Germans incl. 80K mental patients and 10K POWs with alleged intellectual or physical disabilities, most by gassing; too bad, it still goes on unofficially - in case we missed any? On Sept. 3 600 Soviet POWs and 250 Polish POWs are gassed with Zyklon-B at Auschwitz in their 2nd experiment, which is a success. On Sept. 4 U.S. destroyer USS Greer is attacked by German U-boat U-652 off Iceland after it wrongly connects depth charges dropped by a British aircraft to it, causing FDR to start an undeclared state of war with Germany in the North Atlantic. On Sept. 6 Japanese Prince Fumimaro Konoye holds a 3-hour dinner with U.S. ambassador to Japan (since 1932) Joseph Clark Grew (1880-1965), informing him that Japan now agrees with the four principles the Americans were demanding as the basis for peace; there is no response; on Sept. 29, Grew sends a "prayer" (Herbert Hoover) to FDR to not pass up this chance for peace; on Sept. 30 Grew writes Washington: "Konoye's warship is ready waiting to take him to Honolulu, Alaska or any place designated by the president." On Sept. 6 U.S. merchant ship SS Steel Seafarer en route to Egypt is sunk by German aircraft in the Red Sea 200 mi. S of Suez. On Sept. 6 after influence by SS Capt. Dieter Wisliceny (1911-48), all Jews in German-occupied areas age 6 years and up must begin wearing a yellow Star of David - that ain't mustard that's pure shit? On Sept. 6 all Jews in German-occupied areas age 6 years and up must begin wearing a yellow Star of David - that ain't mustard that's pure shit? On Sept. 8 Germany Army Group North begins the 872-day Siege of Leningrad (St. Petersburg), Russia's 2nd-biggest city (ends Jan. 27, 1944); 1.3M-1.5M Soviet citizens are killed incl. 641K from starvation and 17K from shelling; 150K shells and 100K bombs are dropped on the city; signs are stenciled on bldgs. that they are more likely to be killed by artillery shells on the N side of streets; during the fun and games, the Nazis strip Catherine II the Great's Amber Room (donated to Peter I the Great by Prussia in 1716) in St. Petersburg, and take it to Konigsberg, after which the whereabouts remain unknown until ?; after the war the room is painstakingly reconstructed. On Sept. 8 the Germans capture Shlisselburg (Schlusselburg) (Schlüsselburg) at the head of the Neva River on Lake Ladoga 22 mi. E of St. Petersburg, but can't take Oroshek Fortress; meanwhile Finnish troops cut the Leningrad-Murmansk railway at Lodeynoye Polye 152 mi. NE of St. Petersburg, while German bombers drop 6K+ incendiary bombs on Leningrad, destroying the 4-acre Badayev Warehouse containing food supplies. On Sept. 8 Otto Frank writes to Nathan Straus Jr. to see about obtaining visas for Cuba. On Sept. 9 Soviet Marshal Semyon (Simon) Mikhailovich Budenny (Budyenny) (Budyonny) (1883-1973) asks Stalin's permission to evacuate Kiev, and is refused. On Sept. 9 German Army Group North under Field Marshal Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb begins the Siege of Leningrad while being bombarded by Soviet cruiser Maxim Gorky, battleship Krasny Oktyabr (October Rev.), and battleship Marat; an SS div. from Crete is ordered to cross the Neva River NW of Mga to invade Leningrad from the N, but doesn't have enough pontoons. On Sept. 9 (night) 16 German U-boats attack a convoy of 65 merchant ships in the North Atlantic en route to Britain from Sydney, Cape Breton, Canada, sinking 15 before U-501 is forced to the surface by depth charges from Canadian corvettes Chambly and Moosejaw, scuttling itself before it can be captured, after which Chambly is sunk, along with U-207 - ripped off for the 1942 Humphrey Bogart flick "Action in the North Atlantic"? On Sept. 10 Josef Terboven proclaims a state of emergency in Oslo, launching mass arrests of trade union leaders and shutting down newspapers. On Sept. 10 the govt. of Slovakia in Bratislava issues German-style Nuremberg Laws to oppress the country's 135K Jews. On Sept. 10 Hitler issues a new order to delay the attack on Moscow until Soviet forces in the C Ukraine are encircled E of Kiev between Nezhin and Lubny, which they finish on Sept. 16, capturing 600K POWs - he lost it to General Winter right here? On Sept. 10 Hitler and Hungarian Adm. Horthy visit Marienburg in E Prussia, where Hitler tells him "We don't have your Jewish problem." On Sept. 11 Soviet Marshal Budenny and senior Communist Party official Nikita Khrushchev appeal to Stalin for permission to withdraw from Kiev, causing Budenny to be dismissed, and new cmdr. Gen. Mikhail Petrovich Kirponos (1892-1941) to be told to "search for ways to resist, and only resist." On Sept. 11 Marshal Georgi Zhukov arrives by air in Leningrad to take charge of the city's defenses, ordering a counterattack at Schlusselburg on Sept. 14 then removing Col. Gen. Aleksandr Sergueyevich Shcherbakov (1901-45) (dir. of the Soviet Info. Bureau) and commissar ? Chukhov when they tell him it can't be done. 9/11, Pentagon, naw? On Sept. 11 ground is broken for the 6.5M sq. ft. 5-floor Pentagon in Arlington County, Va. near Washington, D.C. on Hell's Bottom, an abandoned railyard, designed by architects George Edwin Bergstrom (1876-1955) and David J. Witmer (1888-1973), and supervised by Gen. Leslie Richard Groves Jr. (1896-1970), who later heads the Manhattan Project; it has five ring corridors per floor with a total length of 17.5 mi., housing 23K+ employees, surrounding a 5-acre plaza called Ground Zero; it is dedicated on Jan. 15, 1943; before this, war was managed from 17 different locations around Washington, D.C., then consolidated in Foggy Bottom (between Penn. Ave. and Constitution Ave.) (built on a swamp known for its vapors), which was too small and ends up as the HQ of the State Dept.; FDR ordered the building of a temporary structure for the duration of the war, but the generals secretly appealed to Virginia's Congressional delegation for permanent funds - guess what happens exactly 60 years later? The beginning of the PC Police? On Sept. 11 American hero Charles Augustus Lindbergh (1902-74) gives a speech in Des Moines, Iowa, charging that "the British, the Jews and the Roosevelt administration" are trying to drag the U.S. into WWII, saying "Instead of agitation for war the Jewish groups in this country should be opposing it in every possible way, for they will be among the first to feel its consequences... Their greatest danger to this country lies in their large ownership and influence in our motion pictures, our press, our radio, and our government"; the media backlash causes him to go on the defensive and deny that he is anti-Semitic, hampering his efforts to keep the U.S. out of the war. On Sept. 12 the first surreal Nappy-nightmare snows falls on the Russian Front, but doesn't stick; Hitler orders the Leningrad offensive halted, preferring to starve the city into submission, allowing troops to concentrate on Moscow, ordering five Panzer divs., two motorized divs., and most of the Luftwaffe to leave within a week although 30 Soviet divs. trapped in Leningrad are on the verge of capitulating? On Sept. 12 the British RAF sees its first action in N Russia at Vianga 17 mi. NE of Murmansk, shooting down three German aircraft while losing one, causing Kiwi Cmdr. Henry Neville Gynes Ramsbottom-Isherwood (1905-50) and three airmen to become the first and only Allied troops to be awarded the Order of Lenin. On Sept. 12 German police murder 1,255 Jews near Ovruch, Ukraine, after which a monument is erected. In mid-Sept. Hitler orders Albert Speer to increase purchases of monumental granite from Sweden, Norway, and Finland for Berlin and Nuremberg. On Sept. 15 "Forbidden for Jews" signs begin appearing in the Netherlands; Jews are banned from most public places. On Sept. 16 the Germans capture Pushkin (Tsarskoye Selo) near Leningrad, along with the tram station at Alexandrovka, but leave the airport N of the Neva River in Soviet hands, keeping German troops from ever marching in the city itself as a massive airlift begins on Sept. 13 (ends Dec. 1), bringing 6K tons of freight incl. 1,660 tons of arms and munitions and 4,325 tons of food; the Germans go on to engage in atrocities against the Jews in Pushkin. On Sept. 16 German Paris ambassador Heinrich Otto Abetz (1903-58) visits Hitler at Wolf's Lair, and is treated to a Speech on the Future of Nazi Russia; "poisonous nest" Leningrad is to be razed to end "250 years of Asiatic pestilence"; Russia W of the Ural Mts. will become "Germany's India", with the Urals the new frontier; with help from the iron ore fields at Krivoi Rog Germany will become economically self-sufficient; meanwhile 10 members of the French Resistance, mostly Jews are executed in Paris for sabotage. On Sept. 16 German Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel issues OKW Order No. 888/41, ordering German troops in occupied Europe to kill 50 Communists for every wounded German soldier, and 100 for each dead German soldier. On Sept. 16 SS troops and Ukrainian militia murder several hundred Jews in Uman, incl. women and children, causing some German soldiers to suffer nervous breakdowns. On Sept. 16 Atlantic convoy HX 150 sets sail from Halifax, N.S., becoming the first to be escorted by U.S. warships. On Sept. 17 the U.S. Navy increases it role in escorting Allied convoys in the Atlantic bound for England. On Sept. 18 Italian troop transports Neptunia and Oceania are sunk by British sub HMS Upholder, causing German U-boats to arrive in the Mediterranean by Nov. On Sept. 19 German CIC Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel (1882-1946) issues an order reminding his soldiers that "a human life in unsettled countries counts for nothing, and a deterrent effect can be obtained by unusual severity"; after the war this helps get him hanged - movie gangster Harvey Keitel's many evil characters would be proud? On Sept. 19 after the Soviets under Gen. Kirponos (who is KIA on Sept. 16) obey Stalin's orders to fight to the last man until he changes his mind and orders a withdrawal on Sept. 18, the Germans occupy Kiev in the Ukraine after the Soviets lose 1M troops incl. 500K POWs (greatest military D in history?) (only 15K escape); they go on to take Kremenchug 160 mi. to the SE by the end of Sept., allowing the German Sixth Army under Gen. Walther von Reichenau to advance toward Kharkov, the German 17th Army under Gen. Carl-Heinrich von Stulpnagel to advance toward Poltava and then Voroshilovgrad, German Army Group South to advance toward the coast of the Sea of Azov, the German 11th Army under Gen. Erich von Manstein to advance toward the Crimea, taking the entire peninsula except for Sevastopol by fall, and the First Panzer Army under Gen. Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist (1881-1954) to head for Melitopol then Rostov, gateway to the Caucasus. On Sept. 19 276 German bombers attack Leningrad, killing 1K+; on Sept. 21 180 bombers attack Kronstadt, seriously damaging the dockyard. On Sept. 20 Soviet hero gen. Mikhail Kirponos (b. 1892) is KIA in Lokhvytsia, Ukraine. On Sept. 22 Britain asks Finland to end its war with the Soviet Union, followed by the U.S. on Oct. 3, but it fights on. On Sept. 23 after three SS sentries are killed, the SS murders the entire pop. of the village of Krasnaya Gora. On Sept. 24 Waffen SS Totenkopf Div. Cpl. Fritz Christen (1921-95) remains at his gun after his entire battery is KIA, knocking out 13 Soviet tanks and receiving the Iron Cross First Class with Knight's Cross personally from Hitler. On Sept. 24 after British agent Col. D.T. Hudson lands near Petrovac on Sept. 17, Josip Broz Tito and his 70K partisans capture Uzice, Yugoslavia, which has a rifle factory producing 400 rifles a day. On Sept. 24 Japanese consul Nagai Kita is instructed by Tokyo to divide Pearl Harbor into five zones and report the number of warships moored in each; it takes until Oct. 9 for the U.S. govt. to decrypt the message, only to consider it unimportant. On Sept. 25 German Army Group South launches an offensive toward Kharkov and the Crimea, meeting unexpectedly strong defenses incl. the new T-34 Soviet supertank, which the SS Death Head Div. counters with special squads carrying hand-held bombs in satchels; on Sept. 26 SS Capt. Max Seela leads a squad that wastes seven of them. On Sept. 26 after a Lithuanian policeman in Kovno thinks he hears a shot, 1.8K street Jews are rounded up, trucked to a WWI fort, and shot. On Sept. 27 the SS murders 3,446 Jews incl. 800+ children in Eisiskes, Lithuania in specially-dug pits in the Jewish cemetery - I would find it kind of hard to believe in the Jewish God Jehovah after this? On Sept. 27 10K-ton merchant ship USS Patrick Henry is launched in Baltimore, Md., becoming the first of thousands of standardized mass-produced prefab Liberty Ships, produced by Henry John Kaiser (1882-1967), "Father of Modern U.S. Shipbuilding"; the USS Robert E. Peary is built in a record four days. On Sept. 28 ? Vershovsky, Russian mayor of Kremenchug tries to save several hundred Jews from the SS by having them baptized, getting arrested and shot. On Sept. 29 Convoy PQ-1, the first British military supply convoy to Russia leaves Hvalfiord, Iceland for Archangel, arriving on Oct. 11. On Sept. 29 a memorandum written by the chief of staff of the German naval command states: "The Fuhrer is determined to raze Petersburg [Leningrad] to the ground"; on Nov. 27 Hitler tells Finnish foreign minister (1940-3) Rolf Johan Witting (1879-1944) that former Petersburg is to be given to the Finns, with the River Neva forming the postwar border between the German Reich and Finland. On Sept. 29 Moscow orders the evacuation of Russia's largest heavy machine works at Kramatorsk SE of Kharkov. On Sept. 29-30 the Babi Yar Massacre of 33,771 Jews by machine gun takes place in a ravine near Kiev; after the war 726 mass graves of 1.7M Ukrainian Jews are discovered. On Sept. 30 the Finnish army breaks through to Petrozavodsk on Lake Onega. On Sept. 30 after Averell Harriman agrees to send them 400 tons of barbed wire a month, Lord Beaverbrook agrees to send the Soviets Britain's entire supply quota from the U.S. incl. 1.8K fighter aircraft, 2,250 tanks, 500 anti-tank guns, 23K Tommy guns, 25K tons of copper, 27K tons of rubber, and 250K greatcoats, with a further 1.8K British Hurricanes and Spitfires, 900 U.S. fighters, and 900 U.S. bombers promised in nine monthly deliveries, plus 150 sets of Asdic submarine detection units, 1.5K naval guns, 5K anti-aircraft machine guns, and eight destroyers before the end of the year, plus 1K tanks and spare parts, 300 anti-aircraft guns, 300 anti-tank guns, and 2K armored cars with anti-tank guns a month, plus 4K tons of aluminum, 13K tons of steel, and other essential materials, machine tools, medical supplies, and clothing - so much for the Great American Depression? On Oct. 1 Jewish children in Amsterdam are required to attend segregated schools. 10-02-41 - the high water mark of Nazism? On Oct. 2 the Battle of Moscow (Operation Typhoon) (ends Jan. 7) begins with 2K Panzers, as the Russkies enact a scorched-earth policy, with ham Hitler uttering the immortal soundbyte: "Today begins the last great decisive battle of the war", giving Germany "the three greatest industrial districts of the Bolsheviks", concluding "At last we have created the prerequisites for the final tremendous blow which, before the onset of winter, will lead to the destruction of the enemy" - the German version of Ty Cobb? On Oct. 2 the Zagare (Zhager) Massacre sees the SS machine-gun 533 Jewish men, 1,017 women, and 496 children. On Oct. 2 the SS murders 976 Jews in Butrimonys in S Lithuania after furnishing benches so that the local Lithuanian pop. can enjoy the view. On Oct. 2 SS Operational Situational Report No. 101 reports 35,782 "Jews and Communists" murdered in Nikolayev and Kherson on the Black Sea coast. On Oct. 2 under orders of SS chief I-hear-an-empty Col. Helmut Knochen (1910-2003), seven synagogues in Paris are dynamited; after one fuse fails, #7 is blown up on Oct. 3. On Oct. 3 the Germans capture Orel before the Soviets can destroy its factories, causing Hitler to travel specially to address a huge crowd in the Berlin Sportpalast, with the soundbyte: "48 hours ago there began new operations of gigantic dimensions. They will lead to the destruction of the enemy in the East. The enemy has already been routed and will never regain his strength"; he then gives his Grand Conspiracy Speech in Berlin, claiming that a "conspiracy of democratic Jews and Freemasons dragged Europe into war two years ago", that "We had no idea how gigantic the preparations of Russia were against Germany and Europe and how immeasurably great was the danger, how by the skin of our teeth we have escaped destruction not only of Germany but also of Europe", and that Russia has been "broken and will never rise again" - look in the mirror when you say that? On Oct. 3 the British Tube Alloys Project passes its results to James Bryant Conant of the U.S., who tells FDR on Oct. 6 that a 25-lb. A-bomb core will explode with the equivalent of 1.8K tons of TNT; Soviet spy Klaus Fuchs passes the same info. to Stalin. On Oct. 4 the Germans lock-in the staff and patients of a Jewish hospital and orphanage in Kovno then set it on fire, killing any who escape. On Oct. 4 U.S. Army Pvt. Willie Gillis appears on the cover of the Saturday Evening Post for the first of 11x, modeled by Norman Rockwell on his neighbor Robert Buck. On Oct. 6 the Germans occupy Berdyansk, Russia, capturing 100K Russian POWs; the 2nd snow of the year falls on the Russian Front, mere flurries. On Oct. 7 snow flurries fall on Hitler's Wolf's Lair. On Oct. 7 17K Jews are massacred in Rovno (Rivne), Poland. On Oct. 8 Mariupol, Ukraine is captured by the Germans, who reach the Sea of Azov, causing Hitler's press chief Otto Dietrich to tell reporters in Berlin on Oct. 9: "In a military sense Soviet Russia has been vanquished." On Oct. 8 Vitebsk Ghetto in Russia is liquidated of 3K Jews. On Oct. 10 as the first Leningrad starving deaths occur, Gen. Zhukov is recalled to Moscow to halt the German advance, with Gen. Nikolai Bulganin as his political adviser. On Oct. 10 Theresienstadt Ghetto N of Prague is established, followed on Oct. 11 by Chernovtsy Ghetto. On Oct. 10 Hitler utters the soundbyte: "The law of existence prescribes uninterrupted killing so that the better may live"; meanwhile German Sixth Army cmdr. Marshal Walther von Reichenau issues a directive, containing the soundbyte: "The most essential aim of the campaign against the Jewish-Bolshevist system is the complete crushing of its means of power, and the extermination of Asiatic influences in the European region", which "poses tasks for the troops that go beyond the one-sided routine of conventional soldiering", making it necessary for the German soldier to "have full understanding of the necessity of a severe but just atonement on Jewish subhumanity" - E=MC squared might just be a Jewish atonement on you German supermen? On Oct. 12 the Germans occupy Vyazma and Bryansk 235 mi. SW of Moscow (until Sept. 17, 1943), which becomes a center for 60K Soviet partisans; the German armies trap and destroy eight Soviet armies and take 648K POWs; Russian tank soldier Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (1919-2013) is wounded by a German shell in the Battle of Bryansk in W Russia, and has a brainstorm in the hospital, resulting in 1947 in the super-reliable AK-47 (Avtomat Kalashnikov), which fires at 600 rpm, and is too late for WWII service but becomes standard Soviet army issue in 1949, produced by the state-controlled Izhmash Co. in Izhevsk; as good Socialists, they don't attempt to get a patent; by the end of the cent. there are 100M of them, accounting for 80% of all assault rifles, selling for as little as $15; in 2007 Mikhail K. says "I sleep well; it's the politicians who are to blame for failing to come to an agreement and resorting to violence", and adding that it was before he designed it, when Nazi soldiers used superior weaponry against the Red Army that he slept badly. On Oct. 12 the Germans occupy Kaluga 93 mi. SW of Moscow. On Oct. 12 after a 17-day voyage around the North Cape, the first British supply convoy arrives in Archangel with 20 heavy tanks and 193 fighters, followed on Oct. 19 by 140 heavy tanks and 100 fighters, followed on Oct. 22 by 200 heavy tanks and 200 fighters. On Oct. 12 108 Muslim leading citizens of Sarajevo sign the Resolution of Sarajevo Muslims, condemning Ustase persecution of Serbs, disavowing connection with the Muslims who helped them, and asking for help in stopping persecution of Muslims by Serbs. On Oct. 13-Jan. 18 the Battle of Borodino Field is a German V in Oct., followed by a Soviet V in Jan. On Oct. 14 the Germans take Kalinin 90 mi. NW of Moscow. On Oct. 14 the first snow falls in Leningrad, and the temperature on the Russian Front falls below zero, with Hitler uttering the soundbyte: "Weather prediction is not a science that can be learned mechanically"; on Oct. 15 10 in. of snow falls, and after it melts the roads turn to thick mud, which only the wide-tread Soviet T-34 tanks can navigate; Hitler failed to learn the lesson of the Rasputitsa AKA Gen. Mud. On Oct. 14-26 the Germans stage Operation Karlsbad to clear out partisans between Minsk and Smolensk. On Oct. 15 all Soviet govt. offices in Moscow are ordered to prepare to evacuate to Kuibyshev on the Volga River, filling 200 trains, plus another 80K trucks and 12 trains which evacuate 500 factories; meanwhile 56 bridges leading to Moscow are mined, plus 16 more inside the city. On Oct. 15 after the number of Jews in Germany declines to 163K, the Nazis officially forbid Jewish emigration, and begin deporting Jews from the Reich, with 1K transported by train from Vienna to Lizmannstadt, ending up in a ghetto. On Oct. 15 after 200 starved last month, the Germans impose a death penalty on all Jews leaving the Warsaw Ghetto without permission, as well as on any Pole who tries to hide them; meanwhile 20K Jews and 5K Gypsies from around Germany are deported to the Lodz Ghetto, where 100 starved last month - the ACLU would make a mint here? On Oct. 16 after 120K Soviet troops evacuate to Sevastopol in a 3rd Dunkirk, the Germans take Odessa on the Black Sea coast, and Romanian troops penetrate as far as Odessa after occupying Bukovina; on Oct. 22-24 after seeing that the Communists blew up the Romanian HQ, Bolshevik and Jew-hating (same thing to him?) Ion Antonescu orders the Odessa Massacre, a mass extermination of 25K-34K Jews in Odessa and surrounding towns in Transnistria (border between Romania and Ukraine). On Oct. 16 after five U.S. destroyers come to the aid of a convoy from Sydney, Cape Breton, destroyer USS Kearney is torpedoed by a German U-boat off the Iceland coast, killing 11 but not sinking it, causing FDR to utter the soundbyte "Hitler's torpedo was directed at every American" on Navy Day (Oct. 27). On Oct. 16 Prince Fumimaro Konoye resigns, and on Oct. 18 military leader Gen. Hideki Tojo (1884-1945) becomes PM #40 of Japan (until 1944), and now the Party of Complete Agreement with the Rule of the Showa Emperor is poised to showa the world; the Japanese mistakenly believe that the U.S. insists on total troop pullout of Manchuria, causing them to attack needlessly?; meanwhile Stalin pulls 8 divs., half of his Far Eastern force incl. 1K tanks and 1K aircraft for the defense of Moscow - I really want to go? On Oct. 16-25 the Germans take Rzhev, Stalino (Donetsk) (reducing its pop. from 507K to 175K by the end of the war), Taganrog, and Belgorod (Oct. 25) in S Russia, and Mozhaisk, Maloyaroslavets (Oct. 18), Tarusa (Tarussa) (Oct. 24) S of Moscow, while Gen. von Manstein breaks into the Crimea, causing Hitler to celebrate and muse about highways from Germany to the Crimea and Caucasus which "will be studded along their whole length with German towns, and around these towns our colonists will settle" incl. people from "Western countries and America", adding "The Jew, that destroyer, we shall drive out." On Oct. 18 Stalin's spy Richard Sorge and 35 members of his ring are arrested by the Japanese in Tokyo. On Oct. 19 Stalin proclaims a state of siege, ordering Moscow to be defended to the last man and woman; 500K men and women are sent to dig 5M mi. of anti-tank ditches between Moscow and er, Kuntsevo, and at Naro-Fominsk, also laying 185 mi. of barbed wire. On Oct. 19 Hermitage dir. Iosif Orbeli obtains Stalin's permission to release half a dozen orientalists from the front line to celebrate the 800th anniv. of Azerbaijan nat. poet Nizami. On Oct. 20 the Germans reach within 65 mi. from Moscow after occupying 600K sq. mi. of Soviet territory with a pop. of 65M and capturing 3M POWs, shooting any who can't march to Smolensk. On Oct. 20 the Nazi-appointed Joodsche Raad Jewish Council sanctions the creation of a card index of Netherland Jews. On Oct. 20 the first show of Reveille With Beverly, with host Jean Ruth Hay (1917-2004) is broadcast at 5:30 a.m. on radio station KFEL in Denver, Colo.; it is soon picked up by the Armed Forces Radio Service, reaching 11M U.S. soldiers by the end of 1942. On Oct. 20-21 German Wehrmacht and Croatian Ustachi forces massacre 2.3K Serbian men and boys at Kragujevac, Serbia, 1.7K at Kraljevo, and 6K at Macva. On Oct. 21 SS Operational Situation Report No. 120 reports 2.2K Serbs and Jews shot in reprisal for an attack on a train near Topola which killed 22 German soldiers; also 1,757 executed at Kraljevo, and two Greek villages near the Strumen Estuary burned down and the entire male pop. of 202 shot for supporting partisans. On Oct. 21 the Germans shoot 50 hostages in Nantes for the assassination of region military cmdr. Lt. Col. ? Hotz (Hötz) on Oct. 20. On Oct. 21 (noon) lunchtime with Hitler utters the tasty soundbyte; "Didn't the world see, carried on right into the Middle Ages, the same old system of martyrs, tortures, faggots? Of old, it was in the name of Christianity. Today it's in the name of Bolshevism. Yesterday the instigator was Saul: the instigator today is Mardochai. Saul has changed into St. Paul, and Mardochai into Karl Marx. By exterminating this pest, we shall do humanity a service of which our soldiers can have no idea"; in the evening dinner with Hitler waxes lyrical about his new Nazi Master Race Capital of Berlin, with the soundbyte: "Nothing will be too good for the beautification of Berlin. When one enters the Reich Chancellery one should have the feeling that one is visiting the master of the world. One will arrive there along wide avenues containing the Triumphal Arch, the Pantheon of the Army, the Square of the People, things to take your breath away", adding "Granite will ensure that our monuments last forever." On Oct. 21 after three weeks of effort dissassembling the Kramatorsk Heavy Machine Works SW of Kharkov and packing it on trains, 2.5K workers walk 20 mi. E to find a train of their own. On Oct. 22 the Germans murder 25K Jews in Odessa, locking half of them into four large warehouses then setting three on fire and shelling the 4th. On Oct. 23 Jewish emigration from Germany is prohibited, even to Vichy France. On Oct. 24 the German Sixth Army under Gen. Walther von Reichenau retakes Kharkov (Kharkiv), and on Oct. 30 begins the Siege of Sevastopol (ends July 3, 1942). On Oct. 24 3.7K Jews incl. 885 children are rounded up in the Jewish ghetto in Vilna, Lithuania and taken to Ponar to be murdered. On Oct. 24 Hitler arrives at Wolf's Lair, giving speech, with the soundbyte: "From the rostrum of the Reichstag I prophesied to Jewry that, in the event of war proving inevitable, the Jew would disappear from Europe. That race of criminals has on its conscience the two million dead of the First World War, and now already hundreds of thousands more. Let nobody tell me that all the same we can't park them in the marshy parts of Russia. Who's worrying about our troops? It's not a bad idea, by the way, that public rumor attributes to us a plan to exterminate the Jews. Terror is a salutary thing." On Oct. 24 after being put in charge of Jewish deportation to Riga, Berlin civil servant Adolf Otto Eichmann (1906-62) approves a proposal by Hinrich Lohse to use mobile poison gas vans on Jews to save transportation costs; on Oct. 27-30 the first experimental gassings are carried out on 290 elderly Jews in Kalisz in W Poland in a truck linked to its exhaust pipe, after which the other Jews in town are presented with the transportation bill. On Oct. 25 deep snow falls on the Moscow Front. On Oct. 26 the Germans stage their first public hanging in Minsk of three partisans incl. 17-y.-o. Maria "Masha" Bruskina (b. 1924). On Oct. 27 the Germans occupy Volokolamsk 80 mi. NW of Moscow (until Dec. 20); in Nov. 28 Soviet soldiers of the 316th Rifle Div. disable 18 German tanks headed to the Volokolamsk-Moscow Hwy. On Oct. 29 the Great Action sees 9.2K Jews incl. 4,273 children murdered in Fort No. 9 in Kovno. On Oct. 29 the first Soviet troops from the Far East see action at Borodino near Moscow. On Oct. 29 as Germany is winning the war, Winston Churchill gives his Harrow School Speech to his alma mater, with the soundbytes "This is the lesson: Never give in. Never give in. Never, never, never, never - in nothing, great or small, large or petty - never give in", and "These are not dark days; these are great days - the greatest days our country has ever lived; and we must all thank God that we have been allowed, each of us according to our stations, to play a part in making these days memorable in the history of our race." On Oct. 31 (05:25) U.S. destroyer Reuben James is sunk off Iceland by German U-boat U-552 under handsome Capt. (later Rear Adm.) Erich Topp (1914-2005) while escorting Convoy HX-156 from Halifax, N.S., killing 115 of 159, becoming the first U.S. warship lost in WWII, causing FDR to wire Stalin that he approves $1B in lend-lease aid sans interest, with repayment to begin five years after the war ends. Happy Helloween? On Oct. 31 as the Luftwaffe stages 45 bombing attacks on Moscow, the Soviets evacuate 17,614 armament factory workers and 8,590 wounded military officers from Leningrad. On Oct. 31 after trying to obtain food outside their ghetto, 200 Jews are shot at Kletsk (Kleck), Russia. On Oct. 31 SS Gen. Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski (Erich Julius Eberhard von Zelewski) (1899-1972) reports to Berlin: "Today there are no more Jews in Estonia." In Oct. the Nazis begin evacuating Jews from Germany, Austria, and Czech. to the east; lone wolf SS Col. Martin Franz Erwin Rudolf Lange (1910-45) has them shot by the trainload as they arrive in Riga, Latvia, but some of his soldiers balk; Lange's Einsatzgruppe A goes on to murder 250K in Latvia in less than 6 mo. on Oct. 25 Hitler allegedly tells Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich that "It is good when terror precedes us that we are exterminating the Jews. We are writing history anew from a racial standpoint"; too bad, the German D in Moscow during the winter causes the prospect of a long war to loom, making them change from evacuation to extermination, causing Heydrich to send out invitations on Nov. 29 to a meeting in Wannsee lakeside resort in W Berlin to discuss it, and after the Pearl Harbor attack delays it, it is reset for next Jan. 20. On Nov. 1 Belzec Concentration Camp in Poland is established, opening for gassing business on Mar. 13. On Nov. 2 Hitler proposes renaming the Crimea to Gothenland. On Nov. 3 the Germans cut the railway line to Vologda E of Leningrad, and advance toward the air hub of Tikhvin. On Nov. 3 the Japanese high command issues an order to attack Pearl Harbor in 34 days, along with Malaya, the Philippines, and the Dutch East Indies; on Nov. 6 they stage a practice bombing run on Kagoshima Bay. On Nov. 3 the Nazis blow up the Cathedral of the Dormition in Kiev. On Nov. 4 Soviet gunboat Konstruktor en route from Osinovets to Novaya Ladoga on Lake Ladoga carrying refugees is sunk by a German dive bomber, killing 170 refugees and 34 crew. On Nov. 5 U.S. interior secy. (1933-46) Harold LeClair Ickes (1874-1952) is appointed to the key post of petroleum and solid fuels administrator just prior to U.S. entry into WWII - making him into a 1-man OPEC? On Nov. 6 Stalin addresses a rally for the 24th anniv. of the 1917 Russian Rev. underground in Mayakovsky Metro station, saying that the Germans are "men with the morals of beasts", with the soundbyte: "If they want a war of extermination, they shall have one." On Nov. 7 after dropping leaflets for several days warning the pop. to"Prepare for death", the Germans bomb Leningrad. On Nov. 7 Stalin reviews his troops in Red Square from the top of the Lenin Mausoleum; an overnight frost provides good traction for his tanks, which head straight to the front. On Nov. 7 FDR officially extends the U.S. Lend-Lease Act to cover the Soviet Union. On Nov. 7 the Germans mince, er, murder 12K Jews in pits outside Minsk. On Nov. 7 Jews are banned from travelling in the Netherlands sans official permission. On Nov. 7 a Naval Intelligence report claims that Japanese aircraft carriers are still in home waters. On Nov. 7-9 after the Germans make Rovno a capital city and kill 2K-3K Jews, the Massacre at Sosenki Forest sees 15K-18K Jews working in Rovno marched into the forest on phony work assignments and killed, after which a ghetto is established in the Wola neighborhood of Rovno, holding 5K Jews; next Dec. they are shipped by train to the forest near Kostopol and killed. On Nov. 8 the Germans occupy Tikhvin, completing the encirclement of Leningrad. On Nov. 8 a 7-ship Italian-German supply convoy for Gen. Rommel in North Africa is sunk by British Naval Force K out of Malta after they decode all the Italian radio traffic giving its route, strength, and date of departure - make way for a sailor? On Nov. 8 Hitler hosts the annual beer hall celebration in Munich, with the soundbytes: "However long the war may last, the last battalion in the field will be a German one", and "We are deciding the fate of Europe for the next thousand years." On Nov. 9 the Germans occupy Yalta in the Crimea. On Nov. 9 Chetnik leader Gen. Mihailovic tells the Germans that they want to ally with them against the Communist partisans of Josip Broz Tito. On Nov. 9 German double-agents Jack and OK (AKA Mutt and Jeff) stage a fake firebombing of a food depot in Wealdstone near London, fooling the Germans. On Nov. 9 (night) the Leningrad Radio Symphony Orchestra conducted by Karl Eliasberg performs Beethoven's 9th Symphony live on BBC; a German air raid at the end doesn't stop them. On Nov. 10 former foreign minister (1930-9) Maxim Maximovich Litvinov (1876-1951) is appointed as Soviet ambassador to the U.S. (until Aug. 22, 1943), where his Jewish background can't hurt? On Nov. 11 the Australian War Memorial near Canberra is dedicated. On Nov. 12 the temp in Moscow falls to -12C, causing German soldiers to begin suffering from frostbite. On Nov. 13 after FDR sends a special message to talk them into it, the U.S. Congress by 212-194 amends the U.S. Neutrality Act to allow U.S. merchant ships to be armed and pass through war zones. On Nov. 13 British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal is torpedoed off Gibraltar by German sub U-81 under Lt. Friedrich Guggenberger (1915-88), sinking on Nov. 14. On Nov. 13 Winston Churchill writes a Letter to the Jewish Chronicle of London on its centenary, with the soundbyte: "None has suffered more cruelly than the Jew the unspeakable evils wrought on the bodies and spirits of men by Hitler and his vile regime", assuring world Jewry that "in the day of victory the Jew's sufferings and his part in the present struggle will not be forgotten." On Nov. 14 SS Operational Situation Report No. 133 reports the murder of 900 Jews in Mstislavl, 2.2K in Gorky, and 3,726 in Mogilev. On Nov. 15 after ordering murders of Jews stopped in White Russia and the Baltic states and queried by his superiors, Reich commissar Hinrich Lohse replies that economic factors need to be considered first, to which Eastern territories minister Albert Rosenberg replies that those factors "should be ignored". On Nov. 15 Heinrich Hitler issues a decree in Hitler's name making homosexual behavior by SS or police subject to the death penalty. On Nov. 16 exceptionally wintry conditions on the Russian Front see Soviet ski troops go into action for the first time; by this time German sentries falling asleep at their post often freeze to death. On Nov. 16 Joseph Goebbels pub. the article The Jews Are Guilty! in his weekly mag. Das Reich, which was broadcast on radio and given out with monthly ration cards, claiming that it has been proved beyond doubt that world Jewry started WWII, and warning Germans that any showing of sympathy with the doomed Jews will be punished; "The Jews wanted the war, and now they have it. The prophecy which the Fuhrer made in the German Reichstag on 30 Jan. 1939 is also coming true, that should international finance Jewry succeed in plunging the nations into a world war once again, the result would not be the Bolshevization of the world and thus the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe. We are in the midst of that process and thereby a fate fulfills itself for Jewry which is hard but which is more than deserved. Compassion or regret are entirely out of place here." On Nov. 17 after German fighters on the Eastern Front are grounded for two weeks, and Hermann Goering tries to cover his tracks with Hitler by blaming lack of equipment on him, German WWI ace (62Vs) Col. Gen. Ernst Udet (b. 1896) (dir.-gen. of equipment for the Luftwaffe) commits suicide, leaving a suicide note: "Iron One [Hermann Goering], why have you left me?"; on the way back from his funeral, fellow ace Werner Molders crash-lands in fog and rain in Breslau en route to the Crimea, and is killed. On Nov. 17 after taking Melitopol in Oct., the Battle of Rostov sees the German First Panzer Army under Gen. Ewald von Kleist and Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt, and the Romanian Third Army under Gen. Petre Dumitrescu (1882-1950) siege then take Rostov-on-Don on Nov. 20, after which the Soviet 37th Army under Lt.-Gen. Anton Ivanovich Lopatin (1897-1965) retakes it on Nov. 28 despite personal orders by Hitler to hold it, becoming the first significant German withdrawal of the war. On Nov. 17 after his anti-tank battery is wiped out, severely wounded Soviet Jewish soldier Efim Diskin kills five German tanks, receiving a Hero of the Soviet Union medal. On Nov. 17 Heinrich Himmler calls Reynhard Heidrich in Prague to discuss "getting rid of the Jews". On Nov. 18 the German advance on Moscow is met head-on by the Soviet Sixth Army under Gen. Konstantin Rokossovsky, who goes over Zhukov's head to Marshal Boris Shaposhnikov to obtain permission to withdraw to better positions, causing Zhukov to revoke his own superior officer's order and force him to hold, after which his mechanized army is creamed but slows the German 3rd and 4th Panzer Groups down, although leaving them with strategic points N of Moscow. On Nov. 18 German troops attack Venev, and are counterattacked by a newly-arrived Siberian armored div. complete with T-34 tanks and white camouflage uniforms, causing the Germans to panic for the first time as far back as Bogorodisk. On Nov. 18 the British launch Operation Crusader (ends Dec. 30) to divert the Germans from the Eastern Front by attacking Gen. Rommel in North Africa and relieving the siege of Tobruk. On Nov. 19 German raider Komoran sinks Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney off Australia, killing all 645 aboard; the Komoran also sinks but most of its crew are rescued. On Nov. 20 German Gen. Erich von Manstein (1887-1973) at Roston-on-Don issues an order to his troops, with the soundbyte: "The Jews are the mediators between the enemy in our rear and the still fighting remnants of the Red Army and Red leaders"; as "the bearer of a ruthless ideology" German soldiers must "have understanding of the necessity of a severe but just revenge on subhuman Jewry" - poor innocent creatures, they expect to be shot? On Nov. 21 Gen. Rommel defeats the British 7th Armored Div. at Sidi Rezegh; Nov. 23 Rommel dashes to the Egyptian border in an effort to mop the British forces up, then on Nov. 24 heads for for Sidi Omar, then on Nov. 25 attacks Sidi Azeiz, but fails to find any concentrated British force, overextending his supply lines and making him retreat to Bardia. On Nov. 21 Albert Speer asks for and receives 30K Soviet POWs to help him with his monumental building projects incl. a Liberation Monument in Linz near Hitler's birthplace, and a Great Hall for the Chancellery in Berlin along with an office for Goering. On Nov. 22 Soviet Maj. V.A. Porchunov leads the first convoy of 60 trucks from Kobona across frozen Lake Ladoga to Kokkoreva on the Road of Life; 3.5K trucks eventually operate, with 1K out of service needing repairs at any one time, not enough to prevent 400+ dying a day from starvation in Leningrad. On Nov. 22 after sinking 140K tons of Allied merchant shipping, German commerce raider Atlantis is sunk in the S Atlantic by British cruiser Devonshire while refuelling a German U-boat. On Nov. 23 the Germans occupy Istra AKA New Jerusalem 30 mi. from Moscow. On Nov. 24 the Germans occupy Klin and Solnechnogorsk on the main highway N from Moscow. On Nov. 24 the worried U.S. govt. informs all Pacific cmdrs. of a possible "surprise aggressive movement in any direction, including an attack on the Philippines or Guam"; no mention of Pearl Harbor. On Nov. 25 the Germans in Berlin celebrate the 5th anniv. of the Anti-Comintern Pact; Hitler tells his adjutant Maj. Gerhard Michael Engel (1906-76) that they attacked Moscow 1 mo. too late, making them a pawn of the Russian winter; "Time is his greatest nightmare now." On Nov. 25 the Soviets are pushed back through Venev to Piatnitsa 4 mi. from the Oka River bridge at Kashira; meanwhile German troops N of Moscow cross the Volga-Moscow Canal at Yakhroma and Dmitrov, nearly circling Moscow, but never take Dmitrov; the Germans take Peskhi E of Istra, causing the Soviets to retreat to Kryukovo, where Soviet Gen. Rokossovsky is ordered to make his final stand because "There is nowhere to fall back to." On Nov. 25 German ships SS Maritza and SS Procida en route to Benghazi to supply Gen. Rommel are sunk by the British, leaving him dangerously low on fuel for his airplanes, causing Hitler to order more U-boats to the Mediterranean. On Nov. 25 German sub U-331 under Lt. Hans-Dietrich Freiherr von Tiesenhausen (1913-2001) sinks British battleship HMS Barham off Sollum, Egypt, killing 841 of 1,184. On Nov. 25 the Japanese deadline for end to U.S. sanctions against them is reached, causing automatic military reaction, with troop transports passing Formosa (Taiwan) en route to Malaya; meanwhile FDR's war council meets, with secy. of war Henry L. Stimson writing the soundbyte: "The question was how we should maneuver them [the Japanese] into... firing the first shot without allowing too much danger to ourselves", and Navy secy. Frank Knox writing: "We can wipe the Japanese off the map in three months"; meanwhile Naval CIC U.S. Adm. Harold R. Stark in Washington, D.C. tells U.S. Adm. Husband E. Kimmel, new fleet cmdr. at Pearl Harbor that he believes the Japanese might launch a surprise attack, suggesting the Burma Road, although the Philippines would be "the most embarrassing". On Nov. 25-26 6K Jews are shot by the SS at Fort No. 9 in Kovno. On Nov. 25 and 29 4,934 German Jews are shot by the SS at Fort No. 9 near Kaunas, Lithuania, becoming the first systematic extermination of German Jews. On Nov. 26 after Free French and British troops occupy it in June, Lebanon proclaims independence from France, which has been under Vichy control since 1940, pissing-off Syria. On Nov. 26 the U.S. presents Japan with its terms for ending economic sanctions, incl. giving up occupied territory in China and Indochina, withdrawing recognition of the puppet govt. in Nanking, and withdrawal from the Axis. On Nov. 26 FDR personally warns Francis Sayre, high commissioner of the Philippines of a possible surprise Japanese attack on the Burma Road, Thailand, Malay Peninsula, Dutch East Indies, and Philippines. On Nov. 26 the Japanese First Air Fleet of six aircraft carriers, two battleships, nine destroyers, three subs et al. under Harvard-educated Adm. Isoroku Yamamoto (1884-1943) sails from Tankan Bay in the Kurile Islands for Pearl Harbor, led by 72K-ton flagship Yamamoto, Yamato, the largest battleship ever built; Japanese battleship Musashi is #2; despite radio silence, do the British and Russians detect the fleet on the way and fail to warn the U.S., or what what what? On Nov. 27 the ever-reinforcing Soviets halt the German advance on Moscow and push them back 2-3 mi., taking POWs; a night attack by partisans on the SS Death Head Div. S of Lake Ilmen kills four, wounds 12, and burns their camp. On Nov. 27 FDR decides that Japan is bent on war, causing all Asian and Pacific fleets to be sent a "warning of state of war", with the soundbyte: "If hostilities cannot be avoided, United States desires that Japan commit the first overt act." On Nov. 27 German U-boat U-559 sinks Australian sloop Parramatta off Tobruk, killing 138 of 162. On Nov. 28 fuel-starved Gen. Rommel decides to retreat from Tobruk, and circle around to attack El Duda from the SW; on Nov. 30 Rommel attacks Sidi Rezegh, followed on Dec. 1 by Belhamed, mauling the Kiwi 20th Battalion, who lose 880 KIA, 1,699 wounded, 2,042 taken POW; on Dec. 4 Rommel is repelled from El Duda, and withdraws from the E perimeter of Tobruk. When you got rats you need a cat? On Nov. 28 Adolf Hitler meets with Jerusalem grand mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini, telling him that Germany is "determined... to challenge the European nations one by one into a settlement of the Jewish question and, when the time came, Germany would turn to the non-European peoples with the same call", promising him that after German troops deployed in the Caucasus region break through "the southern exit" they will liberate the Middle East and its Arabs and exterminate the 350K Jews living under British protection there, with Germany's only objective being their destruction, after which al-Husseini will rule a Muslim State of Palestine; after talking Hitler into ordering the end of Jewish emigration to Palestine in return for Muslim support for the Axis, happy al-Husseini utters the soundbyte: "The Arab world is firmly convinced of a German victory, by virtue not only of the large army, brave soldiers, and brilliant military strategists at Germany's disposal, but because Allah could never grant victory to an unjust cause", and begins broadcasting over German shortwave radio to large audiences in the Middle East; “The Arabs were Germany’s natural friends because they had the same enemies as had Germany, namely the English, the Jews, and the Communists"; too bad, the Germans are being forced back in the Caucasus, evacuating Taganrog on Nov. 29; Hitler secretly converted to Islam? On Nov. 29 the Germans hang well-red 18-y.-o. Soviet partisan Zoya Anatolyevna Kosmodemyanskaya (b. 1923) in Petrishchevo behind the Moscow Front for arson, her last words being: "Comrades! Why are you so gloomy? I am not afraid to die! I am happy to die for my people!"; and "You'll hang me now, but I am not alone. There are two hundred million of us. You can't hang us all", becoming a big Soviet hero. On Nov. 29 after repeated attacks the Germans in S Russia withdraw behind the Mius River, causing reinforcements meant for Moscow to be sent from Kharkov, pissed-off Hitler telegraphs Field Marshal von Kleist with the soundbyte "Further cowardly retreats are forbidden." On Nov. 29 Fritz Todt meets with Hitler, and utters the soundbyte: "Given the arms and industrial supremacy of the Anglo-Saxon powers, we can no longer militarily win this war", to which Hitler replies: "How am I supposed to end it, then? I can't see much possibility of ending it politically." On Nov. 30 1K Jews from Berlin and 9K from Riga, Latvia are murdered in Rumbula Forest near Riga, too late to obey an order from Himmler to spare the ones from Germany for forced labor; on Dec. 8 another massacre brings the total to 25K Jews killed; 19 more trains carrying German Jews arrive within 1 mo. On Nov. 30 the first 1K Jews from Prague reach the new concentration camp at Theresienstadt 35 mi. N of Prague, soon followed by all remaining loose Jews from Germany and Czech.; 32K eventually die of hunger and disease, but few are murdered. In Nov. 11K die of starvation and 522 are killed by German shelling in Leningrad. In Nov. U.S. Adm. Ben "King Bee" Moreell (1892-1978) founds the Seabees (originally the Naval Construction Battalion) just prior to the Pearl Harbor attack, and goes on to become the first Navy Civil Engineer Corps officer to attain the rank of 4-star adm. (until ?). In Nov. Gvozdavka-1 Concentration Camp in Ukraine is set up by Romanian troops allied with the Nazis to house Jews from the Ukraine and Moldova, where they are forced to live in the open and starved, 5K dying during the war; bones are discovered in 1974 but the Soviet Union covers it up, and excavations don't begin until 2007. On Dec. 1 the Siege of Leningrad enters Day 92. On Dec. 1 the Germans attempt to break through Soviet defenses at Zvietkovo W of Moscow, and Kolomna S of Moscow, but are thrown back; a Panzer assault at Naro-Fominsk is ditto; by Dec. 2 (dawn) many German soldiers allegedly scream that they can't go on; meanwhile the Soviets form a 2nd defense line in a huge arc from Vytegra on Lake Onega to Astrakhan on the Caspian Sea incl. Kostroma, Gorky, and Saratov on the Volga River, where they amass 59 rifle divs. and 17 cavalry divs. for a counterattack, all without the Germans' knowledge. On Dec. 1 the Jaeger (Jäger) Report by Swiss-born Gestapo head in Lithuania Col. Karl Jaeger (Jäger) (1888-1959) reports that the SS killed 229,052 Jews in Latvia and Lithuania since June, plus 1K in Estonia, and that the only ones left are working in forced labor factories in Vilna, Kovno, and Siauliai; in Feb. he reports that in the past 7 mo. the SS killed 138,272 Jews incl. 34,464 children. On Dec. 1 as Japanese troop ships approach, the British declare a state of emergency in Malaya. On Dec. 1 the govt. of Cuba gives Otto Frank a visa, then cancels it on Dec. 11. On Dec. 1 after being pushed by Tex. oilman David Harold "Dry Hole" Byrd (1900-86) (cousin of explorer Richard E. Byrd) et al., the Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is founded as a nonmilitary auxiliary of the U.S. Air Force. On Dec. 1 (night) Hitler meets with Walter Hewel, and utters the soundbyte: "Probably many Jews are not aware of the destructive power they represent. Now, he who destroys life is himself risking death. That's the secret of what is happening to the Jews." On Dec. 2 in a blinding snowstorm with 50-ft. visibility a German recon battalion reaches Khimki 12 mi. N of the Kremlin, only to be repelled by hastily-armed Russian workers; meanwhile German Panzers attempt unsuccessfully to break through Akulovo 6 mi. S of the Moscow-Mozhaisk Road, and are driven away on Dec. 3, becoming their last attempt to break through to Moscow. On Dec. 2 German Army Group South retreats to Mariupol. On Dec. 2 the Japanese cabinet is reorganized "because of the deteriorating international situation". On Dec. 3 the Soviets evacuate the naval base at Hango, Finland, which was under siege since June 29. On Dec. 4 the Germans attack between Tula and Venev S of Moscow; too bad, overnight the temp drops to -35C, and their tanks won't start in the morning, while thousands of Germans suffer from frostbite after a last-minute drive in Germany to send them women's fur coats proves inadequate. On Dec. 4 Nazi gov. Hinrich Lohse issues a declaration that gypsies are a "double danger" because they carry disease ("especially typhus") and are "unreliable elements who cannot be put to useful work", also passing on "hostile" news reports hurting the German cause, with the soundbyte: "I therefore determine that they should be treated in the same way as Jews." On Dec. 5 (3:00 a.m.) three fresh Soviet reserve armies (88 divs.) equipped for winter fighting launch a major counterattack in a blizzard, attacking along a 500-mi. front from Kalinin to Yelets, forcing the 67 ailing German divs. back from Yakhroma and opening the railway line N from Moscow; despite Hitler's order to hold at all costs, they are driven back 11 mi. from Moscow; German losses on the Moscow Front since Nov. 16 reach 85K; after writing the May 2 soundbyte: "The war against the Soviet Union is the old struggle of the Germans against the Slavs, the warding off of Jewish Bolshevism. No mercy should be shown towards the carriers of the present Russian Bolshevist system", Fourth Panzer Group cmdr. Gen. Erich Hoepner (1886-1944) disobeys Hitler's hold order and orders a retreat, causing him to be dismissed from the Wehrmacht next Jan. 8, causing him to successfully sue to get his pension back, later joining the July 20 Plot. On Dec. 5 Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa declare war on Finland, Hungary, and Romania. On Dec. 5 all non-Dutch Jews are ordered to register for "voluntary emigration" to the East. On Dec. 6 the U.S. govt. S-1 Uranium Subcommittee meets in Washington, D.C. to determine if, when, and at what cost an atomic bomb can be produced by the U.S., with answers due in 6 mo. On Dec. 6 Christian Science Monitor journalist Joseph Close Harsch (1905-98) interviews U.S. Adm. Hubbard E. Kimmel, who utters the soundbyte: "Since you have been traveling, you probably don’t know that as of six days ago the German high command announced that the German armies in Russia had gone into winter quarters. That means that Moscow is not going to fall to the Germans this year. That means that the Russians will still be in the war in the spring. That means that the Japanese cannot attack us in the Pacific without running the risk of a two-front war. The Japanese are too intelligent to run the risk of a two-front war unnecessarily. They will want to wait until they are sure that the Russians have been defeated"; although he might never have never been warned about the Pearl Harbor attack, and didn't know that the Japanese consulate in Honolulu was keeping close tabs on his fleet, his belief that Japan isn't going to war at all sets him up for disaster? Fatal Blunder Two for Hitler: Declaring war on the U.S. while overengaged in Europe leads to the very world war he blames on the Jews? On Dec. 7 (7:55 a.m.) after U.S. ambassador to Japan (since 1932) Joseph Clark Grew (1880-1965) warns FDR of a possible attack, and minutes before/after Japan declares war on the U.S. and U.K., after running overnight with no lights and in radio silence in heavy seas, catching the entire U.S. Pacific Fleet minus its three aircraft carriers and their escorts (which are delivering planes to Midway) anchored like sitting ducks, the Japanese First Air Fleet attacks the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor on "the Gathering Place" Oahu, with a first wave of 183 planes from six Japanese carriers 275 mi. N led by Capt. Mitsuo Fuchida (1902-76) (who leads the attack on Darwin, Australia next Feb. 19, becomes a Christian evangelist in 1950, and a U.S. citizen in 1960), while U.S. Army planes are caught on the ground at nearby Hickam and Wheeler Airfields; the Japanese code signal to begin the Pearl Harbor attack is "Climb Mount Nitaka"; the planes reach Ford Island at 7:55 a.m.; the 2nd wave of 167 planes arrives at 8:40 a.m.; the U.S. loses 188 planes at Hickham, Wheeler, and Bellows Airfields (incl. 159 damaged), and 320 aircraft total that day, with not one U.S. fighter taking off; the Japanese drop 20 tons of bombs, sinking 12 ships and heavily damaging nine more (9 battleships, 3 light cruisers, 3 destroyers, 4 auxiliary vessels, a minelayer and a target ship), with 2,403 killed incl. 68 civilians and 1,178 wounded, which the U.S. govt. understates to the public; the Japanese lose 29 aircraft and five midget subs along with 64 men KIA; Ensign Kazuo Sakamaki (1918-99) becomes the first Japanese POW after his midget sub runs aground on Oahu (make me some saki, sucker?); too bad, the Japanese screw up by failing to destroy repair facilities, submarine pens, and fuel storage tanks; the U.S. is only left with two battleships capable of combat (out of 9) vs. 10 for the Japanese; the battleships sunk are the USS Arizona, which sinks after a torpedo hits a gun magazine, going down in 9. min, killing 1,177 of 1,500 (80%), along with Adm. Isaac Campbell Kidd Sr. (b. 1884); the USS Oklahoma, which rolls over on its side, pinning many underwater, killing 429 of 1,301 crew; the USS West Virginia, which is struck by many bombs and torpedoes; the USS California (salvaged); and the USS Utah; only damaged are the battleships