TLW's Anthropologistscope™ (Anthropologist Historyscope)
By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™
© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.
Original Pub. Date: Feb. 20, 2016. Last Update: May 20, 2019.
Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to Anthropology and anthropologist history. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.
Did you ever have a burning yearning to spend your life digging for the brass monkeys? Unleash the beast :) Anthropology, the study of humanity and its alleged ancestors is divided into Social Anthropology and Cultural Anthropology, which are sometimes combined as Sociocultural Anthropology, and more often subdivided into Linguistic Anthropology and Biologial (Physical) Anthropology. In the U.S. and Canada Archeology (Archaeology) is considered a branch of Anthropology that studies Prehistory. Ethnology is a subbranch of anthropolgy analyzing the characteristics and relationships of different peoples; more subdivisions incl. Comparative Mythology and Comparative Religion. Paleontology (Palaeontology) studies all life from the Holocene Epoch (11.7K BP) back; it is combined with physical anthropology into Paleoanthropology (Palaeoanthropology). Sexology may or may not be considered part of Anthropology, but since it covers several academic fields why not, my dad once called me a mistake?
Anthropology is an invention of the Western Christian world; the Muslim World, the Inscrutable East, Africa, etc. had little to do with it until modern times. In fact, some accuse Anthropology of being an attempt to excuse white European colonialism, who the hell do you think you are Mr. Smartypants, a doctor?
Before the rise of modern Science, the Bible was considered the absolute word of God (Jehovah), containing all mankind needed to know for salvation. It claimed that the Universe was created in seven days, and that man was God's greatest creation, created in his image, with woman created as an afterthought to be his helpmate so he wouldn't be lonely and get thoughts about animals. Adam and Eve, the original human pair were perfect in every way, born sinless with the ability to talk directly with God, and placed in the Garden of Eden where perfect food-medicine grew on trees requiring minimal care, with their perfect DNA allowing them to live forever, until they blew it and sinned, and were cast out of the Garden of Eden, losing their contact with God and barred from reentering the garden by angels with swords, with their sinful DNA limiting their lifespans while they had to scratch in the dirt to eat and the women had to endure painful childbearing. Ever since supreme angel-gone-bad Satan, who tricked them into sinning, has been their god, and only a tiny number through the centuries could get out of his grip and worship the true God, which can't be seen, but must be taken on faith. Of course, by the time scientists began deciding that the Bible doesn't satisfy their curiosity, and want to be like gods by peering into the Universe's inner workings, Bible-thumpers began treating them like Satan-worshippers, and when they really went too far by applying science to humans, er, it's not over yet, check back with me after Armageddon if you can. One thing about the Bible, it claims to predict the End of Days, so it's hard to chuck in the trash can without feeling duped.
Either way, the big questions are:
1) Did mankind start out perfect and degenerate, or imperfect and evolve? 2) Is mankind the center of the Universe, or an insignificant but lucky plucker? 3) Are there such things as races, and is one superior to another, and in what way? 4) Ditto for human cultures, incl. the sexes/genders.
Either one makes pretty good sense alone, but the outrageous incompatibility between the God view and the Evolutionist view keeps everyone not quite sure if they are right no matter how long they go down their paths, although evolutionists have been embraced by Big Science and get the lion's share of the academic positions and govt. funding, just the opposite of how it started in the age when the Church ruled. Today the Marxists have deeply embedded themselves in Western academia, often trying to hide while pushing the leftist Political Correctness mindset to get what they want, with Anthropology being one of their main intellectual strongholds with its assertion of the equality of all races and cultures, forever trying to demolish all traces of the old white Christian Order of Europe and all it stood for, esp. the supposed natural order of aristocracy and white Christian male supremacy, while not really standing for anything of its own except that non-WASPs are more equal than WASPs, settle down, get married, that'll be the day. While PC labels like Racist and Sexism are usually right-on, political correctness often goes too far, using the term Islamophobia in a misguided attempt to equate Muslims with members of a race, when they're just adherents of an ideology that has a long history of intolerance and supremacy and violence, with their tolerance soon turning into appeasement, threatening to destroy everything Western liberals have fought for.
Austrian-born Jewish-Am. Marxist anthropologist Eric Robert Wolf (1923-96) is often cited for the soundbyte: "Anthopology is the most scientific of the humanities, and the most humanistic of the social sciences."
In 1542 Spanish explorer Alvar Nunez (Álvar Núñez) Cabeza de Vaca (Sp. "cow head") (1490-1557) pub. Naufragios (original title: "La Relacion y Comentarios"), an account of his journeys in the U.S. Southwest in 1528-36, containing detailed accounts of the tribes he encountered while acting as a trader and faith healer, making him a proto-anthropologist.
In 1593 the English term "anthropology" (Gr. "anthropos" + "logia" = humanity + study) was coined by English theologian Richard Harvey (1560-1630) in Philadelphus, or a Defence of Brutes and the Brutans History, becoming the first "ology". The History of Anthropology shows that Anthropology only became a science in the 19th cent.
In 1647 brother scientists Thomas Bartholin (1616-80) and Rasmus (Erasmus) Bartholin (1625-98) of the U. of Copenhagen define Anthropology as follows: "Anthropology, that is to say the science that treats of man, is divided ordinarily into Anatomy, which considers the body and the parts, and Psychology, which speaks of the soul."
In 1650 Irish Anglican archbishop James Ussher (Usher) (1581-1656) pub. Annals of the Old Testament, Deduced from the First Origins of the World: The Chronicle of Asiatic and Egyptian Matters Together Produced from the Beginning of Historical Time up to the Beginnings of Maccabees (Annales Veteris Testamenti, a Prima Mundi Origine Deductim, una cum rerum Asiaticarum et Aegyptiacarum chronico, a temporis historici principio usque ad Maccabaicorum initia producto), a 1.6K-page Latin tome that uses the Bible to date the creation of the world to nightfall (6:00 p.m.) Sunday, October 22, 4004 B.C., which jives with the Bible verse "One day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day" (2 Peter 3:8), meaning that Jehovah gave the Earth 6K years and it's running out fast; he dates the birth of Christ to 4 B.C.E.; it is later used in annotated eds. of the King James Bible, making it super-popular; by the late 19th cent. scientists and theologians begin to ditch it, with Am. Hebrew scholar Wiliam Henry Green (1825-1900 pub. the soundbyte in the influential article Primeval Chronology in Bibliotheca Sacra (1890): "We conclude that the Scriptures furnish no data for a chronological computation prior to the life of Abraham, and that the Mosaic records do not fix and were not intended to fix the precise date either of the Flood or of the creation of the world" - a Christian would say Sunday not Saturday or Friday?
In 1706 English lexicographer John Kersey the Younger pub. a rev. ed. of The New World of English Words, which incl. the definition "Anthropology, a Discourse or Description of Man, or of a Man's Body."
In 1749-89 French scientist ("Father of Natural History") George-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-88) pub. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière, avec la description du Cabinet du Roy (36 vols.) (8 more vols. pub. posth.), which becomes an internat. hit, shocking Bible-thumpers with the claim that the Earth has been developing for at least 75K years via "organic particles", pointing out similarities but not the common ancestry of humans and apes while entertaining it as a hypothesis, preparing peoples' minds for the advent of Darwinism, Anthropology, etc.; too bad, he views the Caucasian race of Adam and Eve as the pinnacle, and all other races as a degenerated version caused by climate, etc. - if they only coulda seen U.S. Pres. George W. Bush?
As white Americans fight to create a new homeland for their "race" on stolen Amerindian land, a German scientist lays the theoretical basis for the original sin of white supremacy so that white will always be right theoretically no matter how the facts look? In 1776 German biologist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840) pub. De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa Liber (On the Natural Varieties of Humanity), which lays the foundation for the science of anthropology; taking it as given that only God can create them, he defines the four "races" of mankind as Caucasian, Mongolian, American Indian, and Ethiopian (African); in 1795 he adds Malayan; of course the punch line is that white is right and black is bad - and for the in-between colors, welcome to Progressive.com, Manwich, Manwich, we adore thee?
In 1798 German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) pub. Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View, based on lectures delivered in 1772-96, trying to define anthropology as a branch of philosophy, dividing it into a physiological category ("what nature makes of the human being") and a pragmatic category (what things a human "can and should make of himself").
In 1853-5 French historian Joseph Arthur, Count de Gobineau (1816-82) pub. An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races (Essai sur l'inégalité des races humaines), explaining how the Aryan Master Race (his, of course) created all culture, and how miscegenation (racemixing) ruined India, Egypt, Persia, Spain, and even has crept into France, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, everywhere, becoming the seminal doctrine of 19th cent. scientific racism, making a monkey, er, disciple of Richard Wagner - let's face it, Lexington Steele is unstoppable?
In 1855-9 French anthropologist-explorer Paul Belloni Du Chaillu (1831-1903) makes an expedition to West Africa for the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philly, in which he confirms the ancient reports of Hanno the Navigator of Carthage of the existence of gorillas; in 1861 he pub. Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa, which becomes the #1 bestseller of 1861 (300K copies). In 1863-5 he makes an expedition to C Africa, discovering a race of 4'8" avg. black forest pygmies (Gr. "pygme" = distance from elbow to knuckles), (mentioned by Homer, Aristotle, and Herodotus as dwelling in Africa, fighting with cranes and attacking Hercules, who captured some of them in his lion skin and took them to King Eurystheus of Tiryns) in the Ituri Forest; in 1867 he pub. A Journey to Ashango Land.
The Book That Shook the World? Big year for Bible skeptics, secularists, atheistic scientists, anybody against the ancien regime, as Jehovah, the Source of Life Breathed Into Mud is challenged by Godless Evolution, Mud Coming to Life by Itself After It Bubbles Long Enough? The biggest V for the Devil since Eden? The new 95 Theses, but Darwin is smart enough not to publish it on Halloween? On Nov. 24, 1859 (Thur.) English naturalist Charles Robert Darwin (1809-82) pub. On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection, Or, The Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life; the 1st ed. sells out in 1 day; the 1872 6th ed. shortens the title to "The Origin of Species"; the decider, which causes evolutionary "survival of the fittest" theory to triumph among the intelligentsia; English Anglican minister and Cambridge U. prof. of modern history Charles Kingsley (1819-75), who received an advance copy on Nov. 18 writes that he had "long since, from watching the crossing of domesticated animals and plants, learnt to disbelieve the dogma of the permanence of the species", which Darwin adds to the next ed. of his book in a modified form: "He had gradually learned to see that it is just as noble a conception of the Deity to believe that He created a few original forms capable of self-development into other and needful forms, as to believe that He required a fresh act of creation to supply the voids caused by the action of His laws"; Darwin pub. it after spending eight years dissecting barnacles in his basement, then inexplicably switching to the Galapagos finch?; catches on first in Germany among atheists?; "If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed, which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, successive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break down"; Louis Agassiz of the U.S. opposes Darwin, preferring a theory of "Epochs of Creation", based on the absence of missing links between layers of well-formed fossil ecosystems; the phrase "I'll be a monkey's uncle" is coined by Darwin skeptics; "There is a grandeur in this view of life that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved"; what was that about "my theory would absolutely break down" if anything is found that can't be explained by "numerous, successive, slight modifications"?; in practice Darwinism becomes a religion which denies that there is intelligent design in Nature, and therefore tries to deconstruct any evidence of it they find as they go along, yet clings to the notion of common descent, almost as if there was some original, er, accident, and ends up turning into a narrow naturalistic dogma by the end of the 20th cent., taking over U.S. and other Western educational systems with a chilling priesthood? In 1860 after failing to fit it into his Theory of Evolution, Darwin writes the immortal soundbyte: "The sight of a feather in a peacock's tail makes me sick." On Feb. 1, 1871 he writes a Letter to Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, with the soundbyte: "It is often said that all the conditions for the first production of a living organism are now present, which could ever have been present. But if (and oh! what a big if!) we could conceive in some warm little pond, with all sorts of ammonia and phosphoric salts, light, heat, electricity, &c., present, that a protein compound was chemically formed ready to undergo still more complex changes, at the present day such matter would be instantly absorbed, which would not have been the case before living creatures were found." In 1871 he pub. The Descent of Man; "The Simidae then branched off into two great stems, the New World and the Old World monkeys; and from the latter at a remote period, Man, the wonder and glory of the universe, proceeded"; "We civilized men... do our utmost to check the process of elimination; we build asylums for the imbecile, the maimed, and the sick; we institute poor laws; and our medical men exert their utmost skill to save the life of everyone to the last moment... Thus the weak members of civilized societies propagate their kind. No one who has attended to the breeding of domestic animals will doubt that this must be highly injurious to the race of man. It is surprising how soon a want of care, or care wrongly directed, leads to the degeneration of a domestic race; but excepting in the case of man himself, hardly anyone is so ignorant as to allow his worst animals to breed"; "This is the book that contains the foundation in natural history for our view" (Marx to Engels); this book is later used by Eugenicists to justify euthanasia of misfits.
In 1871 English anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (1832-1917) pub. Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Art, and Custom (2 vols.), which founds modern Cultural Anthropology, popularizing the term "animism" as the first phase of religious development, claiming that all cultures manifest a "unanimity", the result of "uniform action of uniform causes", with parallel ethnographic concepts and practices proving the existence of "law of human thought and action", preferring cultural evolution over diffusion.
In 1879 the Bureau of (American) Ethnology (BAE) is founded by the U.S. Congress to transfer archives relating to Native Ams. from the Interior Dept. to the Smithsonian Inst., with John Wesley Powell as dir. #1, who turns it into an anthropological research inst.; in 1965 it merges with the Smithsonian Dept. of Anthropology to form the Smithsonian Office of Anthropology; in 1968 their archives become the Nat. Anthropological Archives.
In 1884 Canadian geologist Joseph Burr Tyrrell (1858-1957) discovers bones of the Albertosaurus sarcophabus in the Badlands of Alberta, becoming the namesake of the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeongoloty in Alberta.
In 1885 after living for several years with the Cherokee, Richmond, Ind.-born self-taught ethnographer James Mooney (1861-1921) pub. Linguistic Families of Indian Tribes North of Mexico, with Provisional List of Principal Tribal Names and Synonyms, followed by The Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees (1891), Siouan Tribes of the East (1894), Native American Ghost Dance Songs (1894), The Ghost-Dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890 (2 vols.) (1896), Calendar History of the Kiowa Indians (1898), Myths of the Cherokee (1902), Indian Missions North of Mexico (1907), and The Swimmer Manuscript: Cherokee Sacred Formulas and Medicinal Prescriptions (ed. Frans M. Olbrechts) (1932), founding the ethnographic study of Native Ams.
In 1890 Scottish social anthropologist Sir James George Frazer (1854-1941) pub. The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (2 vols.); 2nd. ed. 1900 (3 vols.); 3rd ed. 1906-15 (12 vols.), bringing out similarities of ancient myths, religions, cults, and rites, and their parallels to Christianity, incl. the concept of the dying king sacrified for the good of the kingdom, pissing-off the Victorian British public by daring to incl. the story of Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection in its scope, inviting agnosticism, causing him to move the crucifixion to a speculative appendix, and exclude the discussion of Christianity from the 1-vol. abridged ed. entirely; a gold mine for anthropologists and archeologists, turning on anthropologist Bronislaw Malinowski, philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, psychologist Sigmund Freud, writers Joseph Campbell, James Joyce, Ernest Hemingway, D.H. Lawrence, William Butler Yeats, T.S. Eliot, H. P. Lovecraft, Robert Graves, Ezra Pound et al.; "In this sacred grove there grew a certain tree round which at any time of the day, and probably far into the night, a grim figure might be seen to prowl. In his hand he carried a drawn sword, and he kept peering warily about him as if at every instance he expected to be set upon by an enemy. He was a priest and a murderer; and the man for whom he looked was sooner or later to murder him and hold the priesthood in his stead. Such was the rule of the sanctuary" (of Diana Nemorensis AKA Diana of the Wood in the Alban Hills SE of Rome).
In 1891 Dutch paleoanthropologist Marie Eugene Francois Thomas Dubois (1858-1940) discovers Java Man in Java, Indonesia, naming it Pithecanthropus erectus after becoming convinced that the human species originated in the tropics, becoming the first early hominid specimens to be found outside Africa or Europe, making him world famous; too bad, after fighting the scientific establishment for acceptance and gaining ground, he dies a bitter man; his specimens are later classified as Homo erectus erectus, who lived 1.8M years ago - he went ape?
In 1902 the Am. Anthropological Assoc. (AAA) is founded in Arlington, Va. by 175 people after Franz Boas tried to limit it to 40 prof. anthropologists; pres. #1 (1902-12) is William John McGee (1853-1912); it takes over the journal American Anthropologist (founded 1888); in 2010 the executive board pub. the statement: "The strength of Anthropology lies in its distinctive position at the nexus of the sciences and humanities."
In 1911 German-born Jewish-Am. anthopologist Franz Uri Boas (1858-1942) pub. The Mind of Primitive Man, shocking the racism out of U.S. anthropologists; rev. ed. pub. in 1938; "There is no fundamental difference in the ways of thinking of primitive and civilized man. A close connection between race and personality has never been established. The concept of racial type as commonly used even in scientific literature is misleading and requires a logical as well as biological definition."
The original Planet of the Apes without claiming copyright? In 1911 Piltdown Man, the "missing link" between humans and apes is finally discovered by amateur anthropologist Charles Dawson (1864-1916) in the 50K-y.-o. 10-ft. Piltdown Quarry in Lewes (near Uckfield), East Sussex, England, and dated to the Pliocene and labeled as "Eoranthropus", dated to 500K B.C.E.; oops, after 40+ years it is proved to be a hoax (jawbone of an ape no more than 50K y.o.) in 1953 after ending up in the Farmer's Museum in Cooperstown, N.Y. in 1948; meanwhile desperate anthropologists look to save face.
In 1912 German-Am. anthropologist Franz Uri Boas (1858-1942) reports striking differences in cranial form between U.S.-born children and their Euro-born parents, showing that environment has a large effect on skull shape, shocking the fat-headed racist scientific world.
In 1922 after doing field work in Papua New Guinea at Mailu Island and Trobiand Islands, pioneering the practice of participant observation, Cracow-born Polish anthropologist Bronislaw Kasper Malinowski (1884-1942) pub. Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An Account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea, about the Trobriand People in the Kiriwina Islands NE of Papua New Guinea, founding the science of ethnography, or study of one culture via direct contact, which is combined into multi-cultural studies by library ethnologists, who are considered second class since they're just paper-pushers?; followed by "The Sexual Life of Savages in North-Western Melanesia" (1929), and "Coral Gardens and Their Magic" (1935).
In 1924 the Taung Baby (Child), Australopithecus africanus is discovered in South Africa by Australian anthropologist Raymond Dart (1893-1988).
In 1924 Munich-born German philosopher Max Ferdinand Scheler (1874-1928) pub. Man and History, founding Philosophical Anthropology, differing with Aristotle's mind-body "rational animal" distinction by claiming that a human has a tripartite structure of body, soul, and spirit, with love and hatred not psychological emotions but intentional spiritual acts, which he calls "intentional feelings", allowing him to base his philosophical anthropology in a Christian metaphysics of the spirit, claiming that man is born with a tabula rasa vis a vis the ideas of religion, philosophy, and science, and that even if one rejects God like Nietzsche, the ubiquitousness of the concept makes it still necessary to study and deconstuct the basic concepts to build a philosophically foundational science of man, which whole idea is rejected by Martin Heidegger et al.; too bad, he dies before he can pub. his magnum opus showing how philosophical anthropology will address the totality of man while staying informed of all the sciences incl. biology, psychology, and sociology; in 1954 Karol Wojtyla (future Pope John Paul II) pub. his doctorial thesis "An Evaluation of the Possibility of Constructing a Christian Ethics on the Basis of the System of Max Scheler".
In 1927 French explorer Theodore Andre (Théodore André) Monod (1902-2000) and French biologist Vladimir Besnard (1890-1960) discover 6.4K-y.-o. (Neolithic) Asselar Man in Adrar des Ifoghas (near Essouk) in Mali, becoming the oldest known skeleton of a modern Negroid human - Cain maybe?
In 1928 Philly-born cultural anthropologist Margaret Mead (1901-78) (student of Franz Boas and Ruth Benedict) pub. Coming of Age in Samoa, based on her visit in 1925-7 to the land of topless babes, which claims that morals are relative to the society, becoming an anthropological bestseller; "Courtesy, modesty, good manners, conformity to definite ethical standards are universal, but what constitutes courtesy, modesty, very good manners, and definite ethical standards is not universal. It is instructive to know that standards differ in the most unexpected ways" (Franz Boas); too bad, after her death Kiwi anthropologist Derek Freeman et al. begin questioning her understanding of Samoan sexuality, causing a firestorm of controversy. In 1935 she pub. Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies, which claims that females dominate males in the Chambri (Tchambuli) Lake region of the Sepik River Basin in Papua New Guinea sans problemos, meaning that masculine and feminine traits are not purely innate but are also learned, giving a boost to the feminist movement. In 1949 she rubs it in with Male and Female, based on her study of seven Pacific islands.
On Dec. 2, 1929 the first skull of Peking (Beijing) Man (Sinanthropus pekinensis) is discovered by Canadian anthropologist Davidson Black (1884-1934) at the Zhoukoudian (Choukoutien) Cave System 30 mi. from Beijing (discovered in 1921).
In 1930 Am. anthropologist Leslie Alvin White (1900-75) is hired by the U. of Mich., going on to found its anthropology dept., rebelling against Franz Boas and proposing a model of universal cultural evolution, which views culture as driven by technology, becoming ever-more complex while consuming ever-more energy, proposing the formula "P=ET" (degree of cultural development in terms of product produced is the product of energy consumed per capita per year times the efficiency of energy utilization), with the soundbyte: "Man as an animal species, and consequently culture as a whole, is dependent upon the material, mechanical means of adjustment to the natural environment." On Jan. 1, 1959 he pub. his masterpiece The Evolution of Culture: The Development of Civilization to the Fall of Rome.
In 1934 New York City-born Columbia U. prof., student of Franz Boas and collaborator-lover of Margaret Meat, er, Mead Ruth Benedict (1887-1948) pub. Patterns of Culture, which becomes a bestseller, trans. into 14 languages in many eds., becoming a std. work, making her the first woman to be recognized as prominent in a learned profession; written after visiting native Am. tribes starting in 1922, incl. the Zuni (Apollonian), Dobu (Treacherous), and Kwakiutl (Dionysian), discovering that some are matriarchial; "A culture, like an individual, is a more or less consistent pattern of thought and action"; "What really binds men together is their culture - the ideas and the standards they have in common"; "The nature of the trait will be quite different in the different areas according to the elements with which it has combined"; "If we are interested in cultural processes, the only way in which we can know the significance of the selected detail of behavior is against the background of the motives and emotions and values that are institutionalized in that culture" - oh boy, er, girl?
In 1949 after traveling to Europe in 1924 and meeting Jiddu Krishnamurti on his return journey, turning him on to the subject, White Plains, N.Y.-born Joseph John Campbell (1904-87) pub. The Hero With a Thousand Faces, original title "How to Read a Myth", which points out similarities between Western and Eastern religions, and introduces the "monomyth" (hero's journey); "Truth is one, the sages speak of it by many names."
On July 18, 1950 UNESCO releases The Race Question, written by English-born Jewish-Am. anthropologist Montague Francis Ashley-Montagu (Israel Ehrenberg) (1905-99), black Am. sociologist Edward Franklin Frazier (1894-1962) et al., questioning the validity of race as a biological concept and suggesting the substitution of "ethnic group"; revised eds. pub. in 1951, 1967, and 1978.
In 1952 Birmingham, England-born social anthropologist ("Father of Structural Functionalism") Alfred Reginald Radcliffe-Brown (1881-1955) posth. pub. Structure and Function in Primitive Society, becoming known as "the Father of Modern Social Anthropology" with Bronislaw Malinowski.
In 1955 Kansas City, Mo.-born anthropologist Francis (F.) Clark Howell (1925-2007) becomes a prof. at the U. of Chicago, rising to chmn. in 1966 before moving in 1970 to UCB, making field trips to Europe starting in 1953 to study the Neanderthals, moving in 1957-8 to Tanzania, then Spain in 1961-3, ending up in the Omo River region of S Ethiopa, where he pioneers postassium-argon dating methods, adding a broad spectrum of modern sciences to anthropology and becoming known as "the Father of Modern Paleoanthropology". In 1965 he pub. Early Man, which features a chart showing how easy it is for scientists like him to see back in Time by depicting an ape turning into Albert Einstein by easy jumps like a parade, which later becomes popular for dissing one's favorite enemy by inserting him in the lineup.
In 1955 in reaction to Leslie White's theory of universal cultural evolution, Washington, D.C.-born anthropologist Julian Haynes Steward (1902-72) pub. Theory of Culture Change: The Methodology of Multilinear Evolution, coining the term Cultural Ecology, for the "ways in which culture change is induced by adaptation to the environment", pissing-off some (mainly Marxist) social scientists, who don't accept any kind of environmental determinism over human actions.
Enough to make good racists of us all? On July 17, 1959 after leading expeditions to 30 mi.-long Olduvai Gorge on the E Seregeti Plains in the Great Rift Valley 27 mi. from Laetoli, Tanganyika since Nov. 1931, Kenyan-born British archeologist-paleoanthropologist Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey (1903-72) (former British missionary, who tries to cling to Christianity and Darwinism at the same time), and his wife (since 1936) Mary Leakey (1913-96) discover the skull of 1.7M-y.-o. Nutcracker Man (Olduvai Hominid 5) (Paranthropus boisei) (Zinjanthropus in Tanganyika, which becomes the first hominin to be dated using K-Ar dating; tools found nearby are later traced to Homo habilis (announced in 1961), our "clearly subhuman ancestor" in Tanganyika, dated to -2.1M to -1.5M, which has a larger brain; the big discovery makes them famous, allowing them to finally get good funding; the Zinjanthropus cranium ends up in the Hall of Man at the Nat. Museum of Tanzania in Dar es Salaam.
In the 1960s Ecological Anthropology is founded as a response to cultural ecology.
In 1965 Time-Life Pubs. pub. Early Man, which incl. the Ape to Man Drawing (March of Man) by Russian-born Am. artist Rudolph Zallinger (1919-95), seeming to compress evolution into a single walk on a fashion model's runway, later getting widely ridiculed by creationists.
In May 1968 British anthropologist Louis S.B. Leakey announces the discovery of a crude stone hammer 12M years old, found in Ft. Ternan in Kenya along with bones of Kenyapithecus wickeri - pardon me?
In 1972 English anthropologist Gregory Bateson (1904-80) pub. Steps to an Ecology of Mind, a contribution to Ecological Anthropology.
In 1972 Kenyan-born anthropologist Richard Erskine Frere Leakey (1944-) (son of Mary Leakey and Louis Leakey, who dies this year, leaving him to carry on) and South African archeologist Glynn Llywelyn Isaac (1937-85) discover a human skull in Koobi Fora Ridge on the E shore of Lake Turkana in N Kenya dated to 1.8M to 2.4M B.C.E., the oldest yet, making Leakey into a celeb.
On Nov. 24, 1974 Am. anthropologist Donald Carl Johanson (1943-) et al. discover a 3.5-ft.-tall female vegetarian tree-dwelling bipedal skeleton (AL 288-1) in 3M-y.-o. strata near the village Hadar, Ethiopia in the Awash Valley of the Afar Triangle, and name it Lucy (after the Beatles' song "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds"), leading to the naming of a new race, er, genus, er, species, Australopithecus afarensis, dated to -3.2M - maybe it's one of the recent 100K+ famine victims?
In 1975 London-born British paleoanthropologist Mary Leakey (nee Mary Douglas Nicol) (1913-96) uncovers jaws and teeth of 11 Australopithecis afarensis (direct ancestor of Homo habilis) skeletons in Laetoli, Tanzania, 25 mi. S of Olduvai Gorge, claiming that they are 3.75M-y.-o. and have human (Homo) characteristics; in 1978 she uncovers the 3.65M-y.-o. fossilized Australopithecus afarensis Laetoli Footprints in volcanic ash, claiming proof that human ancestors walked upright; it takes until 1981 to uncover all of it - you don't want to say Hail Mary around these parts?
On Aug. 9, 1992 Wichita, Kan.-born Stanley Ann Dunham (1942-95), mother of future Pres. Barack Obama is awarded a doctorate in anthropology from the U. of Hawaii under the supervision of Alice Greeley Dewey (1928-), with her 1,043-page dissertation titled "Peasant Blacksmithing in Indonesia: Surviving and Thriving Against All Odds", which claims that Indonesian villagers are just as capitalistic as Westerners, but are kept down by the power elites, who steer all the capital to themselves.
In 1994 4-ft.-tall chimp-like hominid biped Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba with inch-long toe bones that live in forests in the Middle Awash River 140 mi. NE of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (50 mi. from Hadar) is discovered by Los Angeles County, Calif.-born paleoanthropologist Tim D. White (1950-) and his Ethiopian-born UCB anthropology grad student Yohannes Haile-Selassie Ambaye (1961-), dated to -5.6M; "ardi" is Afar (a local language) for basal family ancestor, "ramid" means root, and "Kadabba" means basal family ancestor; they have a grasping opposable big toe; really should be -4.4M B.C.E.?; in 2004 Haile-Selassie, White et al. pub. an article elevating A. kadabba to a species distinct from A. ramidus.