TLW's Chinascope™ (China Historyscope)
By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™
© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.
Original Pub. Date: Mar. 16, 2017. Last Update: Dec. 31, 2017.
Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to China and Chinese history. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.
In 1,122 B.C.E. Zhou Wu Wang (d. -1119) (-1046 to -1043?) and his father Wen revolt against Chou-hsin, ending the Shang Dynasty and founding the Xi (Northern) Zhou (Chou) Dynasty (China's 3rd dynasty) (ends -256), awarding Korea to Chinese prince-scholar Qi Zi (Ji-zi) (Ki Tse), who founds the independent Kingdom of Choson (Chosen) (Joseon) (ends -194/-108). about this time the city of Peiping (later Peking and Beijing) ("northern capital") (modern pop. 18.6M/24.9M) in NE China 90 mi. NE of the Gulf of Pohai and 12 mi. W of the Pei River is founded as a frontier outpost; it is walled about 1045 B.C.E.
About 250 B.C.E. the port of Shanghai ("upon the sea") (modern-day pop. 24M/34M) in the Yangtze River Delta in C China on the East China coast is greatly improved by the excavation of the Huangpu (Chunshen) River on the orders of Lord Chunshen (d. -238), PM of the Kingdom of Chu during the Warring States Period of China, causing Shanghai to be nicknamed Shencheng ("City of Shen").
In 214 B.C.E. the city of Guangzhou (Canton) (originally Panyu) (modern-day pop. 14M/25M) is founded on the E bank of the Pearl River 75 mi. NNW of Hong Kong and 90 mi. N of Macau by the Qin as a military base for their first unsuccessful invasion of the Baiyue lands of S China; in 226 C.E. after being incorporated into the Han Empire, it becomes the seat of Guang Prefecture, becoming known as the Rice City, City of the Immortals, City of the Five Rams, and City of Flowers.
In 1833 its 20-year charter up once again for renewal by Parliament, the British East India Co. loses its last monopoly of trade over China.
In 1833 starving but cunning English linguist George Henry Borrow (1803-81) is hired by the British and Foreign Bible Society in London to trans. the New Testament into the Manchu language, which he does this year after learning the language in 19 weeks.; too bad, the Chinese govt. prohibits its importation - hun how?
Her Majesty's Most Excellent Drug Pushers carry on? In 1835 British opium sales in China rise to 17,257 chests, up from 2,330 chests in 1788 - feel the kiss, taste the rainbow?
On July 14, 1837 Chinese Manchu emperor (since 1820) Qin Dao Guan pub. an edict calling for the punishment of opium dealers "without the slightest indulgence" - cut off what? stick it up where?
On Nov. 3, 1839 after the Chinese attempt to curb British imports of opium, detaining British ships and destroying 2.64M lbs. of British opium, the First Anglo-Chinese (Opium) War begins (ends Aug. 29, 1842); Chinese junks prove no match for British warships, so it's a cakewalk for the British, although it's a big country?
On Jan. 20, 1841 the island of Hong Kong at the mouth of the Pearl River is ceded to Britain by China, and on Jan. 26 Britain formally occupies it (ends 1997); too bad, China failed to fortify the Pearl and Yangtze Deltas against British warships, turning into a major disaster.
On Aug. 29, 1842 the First Anglo-Chinese (Opium) War (begun Nov. 3, 1839) is ended by the Treaty of Nanking, confirming the cession of Hong Kong to the British drug lords, and making Canton a treaty port open to foreign trade, freeing the Brits to addict millions of Chinese to opium (until 1908) under Hong Kong gov. #1 Sir Henry Eldred Curwen Pottinger (1789-1856) (June 26, 1843 to May 8, 1844) - it's going to be a bright sunshiny day?
In 1844 China allows the first Christian missionaries into their country, and five Chinese ports are opened to U.S. ships after negotiations led by U.S. minister Caleb Cushing (1800-79) result in the Treaty of Wang Hiya (Wangshia), the first U.S.-Chinese treaty of peace, amity, and commerce; French Lazarist missionaries Abbe Evariste Regis Huc (1813-60) and Joseph Gabet begin a journey from China to Tibet, arriving in Lhasa in 1846.
On Feb. 2, 1848 the first Chinese immigrants to San Francisco arrive in the Eagle one week after the Calif. Gold Rush starts, adding to the seven already there. Also in 1848 the Hawaiian govt. begins privatizing land in their country that's been depleted of people by foreign diseases, giving foreign-owned plantations a free hand to monopolize agriculture and import indentured laborers from China, Japan, and other Asian countries in an attempt to mix more "hardy" genes into the Hawaiian pop. - the Hakka women have big feet, the Punti women small feet?
In 1850 the pop. of China: 430M, Germany: 34M, France: 33M, Spanish-speaking America: 22.5M, Great Britain: 21M, Brazil: 7.2M. In the 1850s Chinese laborers begin migrating to the Malay Peninsula to work in tin mines, with many ending up as coastal pirates. The Euros decide that profit trumps Christ in China? On Feb. 25, 1850 emperor (since 1820) Qin Dao Guan (b. 1782) dies, and on Mar. 9 Qin Xian Feng (Qing Hsien-fung) (Chin. "universal prosperity") (1831-61) becomes Qing (Manchu) emperor #7 of China (until Aug. 22, 1861); after bribing a midwife to coverup her lack of virginity, cagey Manchu babe Cixi (Tzi-Hi) (Tsu-Hsi) (1835-1908) enters his harem as a concubine, 5th rank, then gives him some hot hsien-fung, bearing son (future emperor) Tong Zhi (Tung-chih) in 1856, receiving a promotion to 2nd rank in 1858; when the 30-y.-o. old man dies she proves she's done her homework, going on to virtually rule China for half a cent.; meanwhile S Chinese peasants demanding land and equality, led by Hong Xiuquan (Xichuan) (Hung Hiu-Tsuen) (Hong Huoxiu) (Renkun) (1814-64), a Hakka Christian who had studied under Southern Baptist missionary Issachar Jacox Roberts (1802-70), and had made many converts, becoming Taiping heavenly king next Jan. 11 (until June 1, 1864), claiming to be the brother of Jesus Christ, and becoming known for keeping a Saturday Sabbath and eschewing tobacco and opium, burning it wherever found, begin the 14-year Taiping (Chin. "great peace") Rebellion (ends 1864); Hong Xiuquan proclaims himself emperor of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, attacks Peking, and takes Nanking (1854) and Shanghai from the Manchus, making thousands of Christian converts, albeit with a fractured trans. of the Bible; too bad that they destroy all idols, incl. statues of Christian saints and the Virgin Mary, pissing-off the Jesuits, who drag in the French to support the Manchus, and make the U.S. and British missionaries (who together had only made 1.5K converts) jealous, causing them to begin spreading disinfo., calling them pagans and accusing them of atrocities; worse of all, the British get mad at loss of opium revenue and send arms to the Manchus, which PM Gladstone later calls a black mark on British history?; the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in S China grows to 30M people before it is brutally crushed, with 20M killed by the Qing Dynasty under gen. Zuo Zongtang (Tso Tsung-t'ang) (1812-85) (AKA Gen. Tso).
In 1852 the first major wave of Chinese immigration to the U.S. is a breathtaking 20K.
On Dec. 31, 1853 Russian tsar (since 1824) Nicholas I grants to Eastern Siberia gov. (since 1847) Nikolai Nikolayevich Muravyov (Muravyov-Amursky) (1809-81) the right to negotiate with the Chinese about extending the Russian border to the Amur River (prohibited since the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk), along with troops and settlers, and next year he sends a 77-barge fleet led by the steamship Argun to sail to the Amur's estuary, led by explorer (later adm.) Gennady Ivanovich Nevelskoy (1813-76) (known for the soundbyte "Where the Russian flag is hoisted it should never be lowered"), who goes on to prove that Sakhalin is an island. Meanwhile in 1853 the Yellow River diverts its course into the Gulf of Chihli (Po Hai).
On Oct. 8, 1856 the Arrow (Second Anglo-China) War (ends Oct. 24, 1860) begins after Chinese authorities in Canton board the ship Arrow (flying the British flag) and arrest some Chinese members of the crew, but not its British capt. (the Chinese owner of the ship lived in Hong Kong, you see, so he had the right to fly the Union Jack); when the sailors are later returned but no apology is made, the British rep. in Canton summons warships to attack and occupy Canton, which escalates into a gen. demand to better observe the Treaty of 1842 by giving the English free entrance to certain Chinese ports; U.S. Navy Capt. Andrew Hull Foote (1806-63) is sent to Canton to establish fortified shore posts to protect U.S. residents, and then storms and destroys some Chinese forts firing on them, becoming a minor hero.
In 1858 Chinese immigrants begin coming to Canada; the first Chinese immigrant arrives in New York City; quick-on-the-draw Calif. passes a law banning entry of Chinese, and Mongolians too. On June 18, 1858 the Treaty of Tianjin (Tientsin) allows cigarettes to be imported into China duty-free. Also in 1858 Russia and China sign the Treaty of Aygun (Aigun), negotiated by Nikolai Muravyov, an "unequal treaty" extending the Russian border to the Amur River, incl. Priamurye, Sakhalin Island and most of Primorsky and Khabarovsk, and granting Russia free access to the Pacific Ocean, getting Muravyov a promotion to Count Amursky ("of the Amur River"); to get new settlers he ends up importing Baikal Cossacks and Nerchinsk peasants.
In 1859 Vladivostok (Russ. "rule of the East") (modern pop. 500K) is founded by Count Nikolai Muravyov-Amursky on the Golden Horn Bay on the Pacific Ocean on land belonging to China.
Thanks for your cooperation? On Aug. 1, 1860 after China bans foreign embassies in Peking, British forces under Gen. Sir James Hope Grant (1808-75) land, then on Aug. 12 bombard Sinho with the world's first breech-loading rifled artillery pieces, taking the Taku Forts opposite Hong Kong on Aug. 21; meanwhile on Sept. 21 French forces under Gen. Charles Guillaume Marie Apollinaire Antoine Cousin-Montauban (1796-1878) (created Comte de Palikao by Napoleon III in 1862) defeat the Chinese at the Battle of Palikao (Pa-li-Chau) at Eight Mile Bridge outside Peking, and reach Peking on Sept. 26, occupying it with 17K Anglo-French soldiers on Oct. 6, then on Oct. 18-20 burning the already-looted Imperial Summer Palace (Yuan Ming Yuan) 9 mi. NW of Peking (built 1707) at the orders of British high commisioner to China (former gov.-gen. of Canada and son of the Elgin Marbles guy, therefore a pro at destroying historical monuments to get souvenirs?) James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin (1811-63) in retaliation for the 10-day imprisonment starting on Sept. 18 of British diplomat Sir Harry Smith Parkes (1828-85), destroying priceless antiquities, along with some hairy parks, but saving a lot of porcelain which ends up in English and French country houses, after which the act is criticized by Victor Hugo et al. as barbaric, although the Brits never give the goodies back; the imperial court is forced to relocate to the Forbidden City (until 1924), and a new smaller Summer Palace is built by Empress Cixi, then burnt again by the Brits in the 1900 Boxer Rebellion; on Oct. 18 the Treaty (Convention) of Peking between junky Qin Dynasty China, Britain, France, and Russia, negotiated by Russian diplomat Count Nikolai (Nikolay) Pavlovich Ignatiev (Ignatyev) (1832-1908) and signed by Prince Gong of China and Lord Elgin of Britain forces China to open 11 ports to Westerners, cede both banks of the Amur River and the land S of Vladivostok (Ussuri Krai, the ancient Manchu province of East Tartary) to Russia, and Stonecutters' Island and 3 sq. mi. of the Kowloon Peninsula to Hong Kong for a 99-year term; on Oct. 25 another treaty gives the British rights to opium trading in 90% of the country, and gives Christians the right to proselytize and own property - opium and Christ go hand in hand?
On Oct. 10, 1911 the 1911 Xinhai (Hsin-hai) (Chinese) Rev. (Rev. of the Young Chinese) against the Manchu Dynasty begins when the rev. HQ of the Wuchang org. is discovered plotting against the central railway admin. of Sheng Xuanhuai (1844-1916), and spreads rapidly and bloodily through the W and S; in early Oct. Dr. Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) (1866-1925) visits the U.S. to raise money from Chinese immigrants; on Oct. 10 he checks into Denver, Colo.'s Brown Palace Hotel, Rm. 321 (later the Coronet Room), raising $500; he returns to China the next day after reading newspaper headlines saying "Chinese Revolt is Menace to Manchu Dynasty" (Rocky Mt. News), and "Foreigners Throughout Empire in Deadly Peril" (Denver Post); ever after Chinese tourists stop by to see his signature in the guest register; the provinces begin seceding from the Qing Dynasty and join the rev., incl. Jiangsu on Nov. 3, Sichuan on Nov. 22, and Shandong on Dec. 12; on Oct. 14 former Korean resident Yuan Shikai (Shih-K'ai) (1859-1916) is recalled to military command by the Manchu court, and on Nov. 8 is elected PM of the provisional nat. assembly; on Dec. 4 he signs a truce with rebel gen. Li Yuanhong (1864-1928), and sends Tang Shaoyi (1862-1938) as his rep. to negotiations in Shanghai; on Dec. 30 Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, back from the U.S. and Europe is elected provisional pres. of the new Repub. of China (1912-49) by delegates from 16 provinces meeting in Nanking (Nanjing); the Manchu (Great Qing) Dynasty in China (in power since 1644) abdicates; Sun Yat-Sen appoints Gen. Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975) as his military adviser, with "Dragon Lady" Madame Chiang Kai-shek (Mayling Soong) (1897-2003) waiting in the wings; the calendar is reformed, pigtails are abolished, and (a little late, after 4.5B women's feet are ruined?) foot binding (the golden lotus) is finally outlawed; polygamy begins to decline as marriages for love become common - come all you young maidens and listen to me, never place your affections on a green willow tree?
On Nov. 15, 1935 after Japanese efforts to create an autonomous N China collapse, the Japanese puppet-buffer state East Hebei Autonomous Anti-Communist Council is proclaimed in N China by collaborationist Yin Ju-Keng (1885-1947) (until July 1937), backed by Kwantung Gen. Kenji Doihara comprising 22 counties in Hopei Province, with capital at T'ungchow, leading to student demonstrations in Peking on Dec. 9. In July 1937 800 troops of the Kuomintang Chinese 29th Army under Gen. Song Zheyuan camp outside the walls of Tongzhou, making a secret deal with Yin Ju-keng and defeating the Japanese, after which East Hopei troops massacre the town's Japanese pop., ending the East Hebei Autonomous Council (begun Nov. 1935); Yin is captured by the Japanese and spared from execution after the intervention of Toyama Mitsuru, then allowed to return to Beijing and given a minor govt. post in Shanxi Province by the nationalist govt., then arrested by the Red Chinese and executed for treason in Nanjing on Dec. 1, 1947.
The Chinese Civil War ends with Mao painting the town Red? On Jan. 1, 1949 Peking (renamed Beijing next year) is taken by the People's Liberation Army without a fight, thanks to the work of Chinese Communist gen. Peng Zhen (1902-97); the Kuomintang collapses, ending the Chinese Civil War (begun Jan. 1946), and by Dec. Gen. Chiang Kai-shek flees with his 600K-man army to Taiwan, vowing to return one day; on Aug. 28 the U.S. State Dept. produces a White Paper on China, claiming that the U.S. had gone as far as an ally could go and that it's all Chiang Kai-shek's fault, becoming the last non-muddled report the U.S. State Dept. produces?; on Sept. 21 prosperous Chinese peasant's son Mao Tse-tung (Zedong) (1893-1976) proclaims the creation of the People's Repub. of China (PRC), with Zhou Enlai (1898-1976) as PM, finally adopting the Gregorian Calendar; on Oct. 1 Mao raises its very very red flag in a ceremony attended by umpteen zillions in Tiananmen Square (Chin. "Gate of Heavenly Peace") in C Beijing, who believe this to be the 2nd greatest event in human history after the 1917 Bolshevik Rev. as they throw off the humiliating yoke of imperialism and capitalism to become slaves of the state?; on Oct. 2 the Soviet Union formally recognizes the PRC; on Dec. 2 Chiang Kai-shek proclaims Taipei, Taiwan as the temporary capital of "real" China; as the years go by, Mao centralizes absolute power to himself, becoming a de facto emperor - the more China changes, the more it stays the same?
On Nov. 10, 1965 Chinese Gang of Four member Yao Wenyuan (1931-2005) pub. the 10K-word "On the Historical Beijing Opera 'Hai Rui Dismissed from Office'" in the Shanghai Daly, dissing a popular opera by Beijing deputy mayor Wu Han as being a veiled attack on Mao for his 1959 dismissal of defense minister Peng Dehau, launching the Chinese (Great Proletarian) Cultural Rev. (ends 1976) after the Beijing party apparatus tries to protect Wu Han and Mao decides to make an example of them and get rid of them and every other potential enemy in China; the other Gang of Four members are Mao's 3rd and last wife Jiang Qing (1914-91), Zhang Chunqiao (1917-2005), and Wang Hongweng (1933-92), all of whom are low-ranking members of the Chinese Communist Party but personally favored by Mao, allowing them to outmaneuver party moderates incl. Deng Xiaoing and take China down the Red roller coaster; after Mao dies, the Gang of Four is arrested on Oct. 6, 1976, and the Cultural Rev. shoved up their butts?
It's not your father's Olds? The bullet and the big character poster is stronger than the ballot in Red China? On Feb. 12, 1966 the Group of Five, led by Beijing mayor (since 1951) Peng Zhen (1902-97) pub. the Feb. Outline, trying to diffuse the issue of the "Hai Rui Dismissed from Office" brouhaha, causing Gang of Four members Jiang Qing and Yao Wenyuan to fire back with articles denouncing them; on May 16 Chairman Mao pub. the Notification, criticizing Peng Zhen and disbanding the Group of Five, launching the Great Proletarian Cultural Rev. (ends 1976) against the liberal bourgeoisie elements in the Communist Party, ramping up his personality cult and touting him as "a genius, everything the Chairman says is truly great, one of his words will override the meaning of tens of thousands of ours"; on May 25 female Beijing U. philosophy prof. Nie Yuanzi (1921-) pub. the first dazibao (big character poster), calling the rector and other profs. at her univ. "black anti-Party gangsters", which Mao orders to be broadcast nationwide; on May 26 the first youth group of Red Guards is formed at Tsinghua U. to kick their elders' bourgeois butts for Mao; on June 1 the People's Daily calls for the purging of all imperialists, imperialistic intellectuals, or people with imperialist affiliations, after which the Red Guards write a formal letter to Mao on July 28 asking for official approval of mass purges, which he responds to with the epic article Bombard the Headquarters; on Aug. 8 the Chinese Communist Central Committee approves the 16 Points of the Cultural Rev. to "struggle against and crush those persons in authority who are taking the capitalist road", calling on all workers to "transform the superstructure" by writing big character posters and holding great debates, fighting the Four Olds (Old Customs, Old Culture, Old Habits, Old Ideas), pretending to grant unprecedented freedom of speech as long as it rubberstamps Mao; on Aug. 16 11M Red Guards gather in Beijing, where Mao warmly receives them on top of the Tiananmen Square gate; the terror campaign destroys all religious bldgs. and tortures and/or kills everybody with any kind of Western education or an IQ higher than a rice doughnut, with Mao on Aug. 22 issuing an order preventing police intervention in Red Guard actions while uttering the soundbyte "Hitler was even more ferocious. The more ferocious the better, don't you think? The more people you kill, the more revolutionary you are"; in Aug.-Sept. 1,772 are murdered in Beijing; in Sept. 534 are killed and 704 commit suicide; on Sept. 5 Mao invites all Red Guards to visit Beijing at govt. expense; on Oct. 10 Mao's puppet gen. Lin Biao (1907-71) publicly criticizes Deng Xiaoping and Liu Shaoqi, and Deng is sent to a reeducation camp 3x until being rescued by Zhou Enlai; by the end of the Cultural Rev. 1M+ are killed or driven to suicide; the Red Guards close medical schools and dump Western-trained physicians in favor of "barefoot doctors" peddling Chinese herbs; meanwhile the new Chinese Jehovah Mao pub. the "Little Red Book" Quotations from Chairman Mao, which immediately becomes required reading for good (live) Chinese Communists and Western leftists, and is full of soundbytes, e.g., "Political power grows out of the barrel of a gun", and "Communism is not love, it is a tool with which we crush the enemy", and promotes the term "political correctness" (PC) to describe the "correct" party line, which ends up getting eagerly adopted by the Western left.
The Chinese Spring ends in the Tank Man? On Apr. 15, 1989 in China former party chief Hu Yaobang dies, and thousands of students in Shanghai and Beijing take to the streets to mourn him; on Apr. 18 they try to storm the Communist Party HQ in Beijing; by Apr. 21 tens of thousands crowd Tiananmen Square, waving banners demanding greater political freedoms, with "black hand" Liu Xiaobo (1955-) leading the fight for multiparty democracy, then persuading students to leave the square before the troops massacre them, for which he is awarded the 2010 Nobel Peace Prize; by Apr. 27 there are 150K protesters (10% of the pop. of Beijing), and 300K army troops are called in (first time since Communism took over?), but the rural troops are easily loved-up by the privileged (children of the elite) students, and disperse within four days sans bloodshed inside the square, although troops fire on protesters outside the center of Beijing en route to the square, and some tracer bullets are fired into the square - my, my, black-eyed pea?
On Nov. 7, 2017 Pres. Trump visits China, becoming the first foreigner leader allowed to tour the Forbidden City.