U.N. HQ, 1948-52 United Nations Flag, 1945 Raphael Lemkin (1900-59) Count Folke Bernadotte of Sweden (1895-1948) Ralph Johnson Bunche of the U.S. (1904-71) U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964) V.K. Krishna Menon of India (1896-1974) Khrushchev (Shoechev) (K-Shoe) at the U.N., Oct. 12, 1960) Maurice Strong of Canada (1929-2015)
Trygve Lie of Norway (1896-1968) Dag Hammarskjöld of Sweden (1905-61) U Thant of Burma (1909-74) Kurt Josef Waldheim of Austria (1918-2007) Javier Pérez Cuéllar of Peru (1920-) Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt (1922-) Kofi Annan of Ghana (1938-) Ban Ki-moon of South Korea (1944-) Antonio Manuel de Oliveira Guterres of Portugal (1949-)

TLW's United Nationsscope™ (United Nations Historyscope)

By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Original Pub. Date: Feb. 27, 2018. Last Update: Mar. 21, 2018.

Abba Eban of Israel (1915-2002) Golda Meir of Israel (1898-1978) Yasser Arafat of Palestine (1929-2004) Col. Muamar Gaddafi of Libya (1942-2011) U.S. Pres. Ronald Wilson Reagan (1911-2004) U.S. Pres. George Walker Bush (1946-) Gen. Colin Luther Powell of the U.S. (1937-) Hugo Chavez of Venezuela (1954-2013) Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran (1956-)
Saddam Hussein of Iraq (1937-2006) Osama bin Laden (1957-2011) World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 U.S. Pres. Barack Hussein Obama (1961-) Mahmoud Abbas of Palestine (1935-) Richard Joseph Goldstone of South Africa (1938-) Samantha Power of the U.S. (1970-) John Robert Bolton of the U.S. (1948-) Nikki Haley of the U.S. (1972-)

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What Is A Historyscope?

"The United Nations was born out of the cataclysms of war. It should justify the sacrifices of all those who have died for freedom and justice. It is our duty to the past. And it is our duty to the future so to serve both our nations and the world." - Dag Hammarskjöld of Sweden (1905-61)

Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to U.N. history. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.

The United Nations (U.N.), the replacement for the lame ineffective League of Nations was founded on Oct. 24, 1945 by 51 member states, which grew to 193 (16 dozen plus 1); it is the world's #1 org. for deliberating on matters of peace and security (conflict prevention), and encompasses scores of entities devoted to health and humanitarian needs, economic and cultural development; its HQ is in Manhattan, N.Y., and is subject to extraterritoriality; as of 2016 its annual budget is $50B, with the largest donor being founding member U.S., who pays $10B.

Roland Garros of France (1888-1918) Anthony Fokker (1890-1939) Max Immelmann (1890-1916) Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1958) Roger Adams (1889-1971)

On Aug. 4, 1914 - Nov. 11, 1918 the horrific World War I causes 15M deaths and 39M military casualties. and destroys the Old Order of white formerly Christian Europe. On Feb. 26-28, 1915 the Germans first use a Flamethrower (Flame Projector) in the village of Douaumont, France near Verdun, becoming the first of 653 flamethrower attacks in the war. On Apr. 1, 1915 French aviator Roland Garros (1888-1918) becomes the first pilot to shoot down an aircraft using a deflector gear, which allows shooting through the propeller; after more Vs against German aircraft on Apr. 15 and Apr. 18, he is shot down and the Germans capture his plane, after which Dutch designer Anthony (Anton Herman Gerard) Fokker (1890-1939) clones then improves the deflector gear into the synchronization (interrupter) gear, mounting them on the new Fokker E.I. in Aug., beginning the Fokker Scourge (Scare) as they shoot down nearly every enemy aircraft they encounter and generate the first German aces, incl. Max Immelmann (1890-1916); next year the French counter with the Nieuport 11 Bebe (Bébé), in which the gun is mounted on the top wing clear of the prop, and the British with the Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2b and Airco DH.2 (Feb. 1916), which mount the engine backwards with the prop in back, causing them to be called "pushers", ending the Fokker Scourge by spring 1917. In 1915 arsenic-based vomiting-sneeze gas Adamsite (DM) (diphenylaminechlorarsine) is synthesized by German chemist Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1957); in 1918 Am chemist Roger Adams (1889-1971) duplicates it, and both sides stockpile it, but it is allegedly never used on the battlefield. On Mar. 22, 1916 the British have their first success with their new Depth Charge off the SW coast of Ireland, destroying a German U-boat. Are you used to Hell yet, try this? On Sept. 15, 1916 Winston Churchill's pet project the Tank (Russian Water Closet) (Char-Schneider) is first used by the Brits in the Somme.

The Great War ends in a Mirror Trick? On June 28, 1919 after ex-chancellor Dr. Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg asks the Allied Supreme Council to place him on trial instead of Kaiser Wilhelm II for war offenses, which they shrug off, the 200-page Treaty of Versailles, containing some 440 articles is signed in the Hall of Mirrors in Versailles by Woodrow Wilson of the U.S., David Lloyd George of Britain, and Georges Clemenceau of France, along with 24 other Allied countries, ending the Great War; Germany signs under protest; the U.S. and Britain agree to come to France's aid if Germany attacks it, although the U.S. never ratifies it; Germany is stripped of much of its power and overseas territories; Belgium acquires the German districts of Eupen, Malmedy, and Moresnet; French marshal Ferdinand Foch utters the immortal soundbyte: "This is not a peace, it is an armistice for 20 years"; Articles 42-44 forbid Germany from having armed forces in the Rhineland; Article 80 forbids Germany and Austria to unite "except with the consent of the Council of the League of Nations"; Articles 100-106 end German sovereignty over Danzig, making it a free city under League of Nations protection; Articles 119-120 deprive Germany of all colonial possessions; Article 170 forbids Germany from importing any military material; Article 191 forbids Germany from buying or building submarines; Article 198 forbids Germany from having any military or naval air forces; Article 231 forces Germany and its allies to accept "responsibility" for the loss and damage caused by the war "imposed upon" the Allies "by the aggression of Germany and her allies"; after the signing, the Allies issue a List of War Criminals to be surrendered to the Allies, incl. the Kaiser, whom the Dutch govt. refuses to extradite.

Sir Eric Drummond of Britain (1876-1951)

On Jan. 10, 1920 the Treaty of Versailles comes into force sans the approval of the U.S., whose support it was framed to require; on Jan. 11 the Euro powers in Versailles recognize the Azerbaijan Dem. Repub. de facto; the League of Nations is founded (until Apr. 20, 1946), holding its first meeting in London on Feb. 11; Sir James Eric Drummond, 7th Earl of Perth (1876-1951) of Britain becomes secy.-gen. #1 (until 1933); the HQ is then moved to Geneva, and The Hague is selected as the seat of the Internat. Court of Justice (World Court); the League of Nations Covenant (effective Jan. 10) incl. Article 16, stating that an act of war against one member will be deemed an act of war against all, with the military forces of the members combined "to protect the covenants of the League"; Article 23 tries to curb the arms, drug, and white slave trades, provide "just treatment" for native peoples, and provide for internat. prevention and cure of disease.

Palace of Nations, 1929-38

In 1929 the Palace of Nations (Palais des Nations) in Ariana Park overlooking Lake Geneva in Geneva, Switzerland is begun (finished in 1938) as the HQ of the League of Nations, becoming the HQ of the Geneva office of the U.N. in 1946, although Switzerland doesn't become a U.N. member until 2002.

Auschwitz Camp Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise (1874-1949) Raphael Lemkin (1900-59)

On Sept. 1, 1939 - Sept. 2, 1945 the horrific $3.5T World War II results in 24M military and 49M civilian deaths, and features the low point of the Jewish Holocaust (Shoah) by the German Nazis - I guess it was the Jews' fault for not ransoming themselves to go to Israel before they could round them up for the camps? The whole experience turns Jews from lovers into fighters, ramping up the Zionist movement with full world sympathy and support by new world superpower U.S., which has its own guilt trip because on Nov. 24, 1942 Budapest-born Am. Zionist leader Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise (1874-1949) announces in a press conference in Washington, D.C. that he was authorized by the U.S. State Dept. to confirm that the Nazis had murdered 2M Jews as part of a plan to exterminate all Jews in Europe; too bad, the nat. newspapers don't consider it front page news, and the U.S. govt. does nada. After the war ends and Americans tour the concentration camps in horror, Polish-born Jewish scholar Raphael Lemkin (1900-59), who single-handedly led an unsuccessful campaign to get the League of Nations to give internat. protections against genocide starting in 1933 finally gets what he wanted after his own people got it, namely the Dec. 9, 1948 U.N. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Gen. Assembly Resolution 260), which doesn't come in force until Jan. 12, 1951, and which the U.S. still doesn't ratify until 1988.

United Nations Flag, 1945

On Aug. 11, 1941 after FDR leaves New London, Conn. on his pres. yacht USS Potomac on Aug. 3 allegedly for a fishing trip, banning the press, then on Aug. 4 secretly boards heavy cruiser USS Augusta, Churchill and FDR hold their first official war meeting in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland aboard new British battleship HMS Prince of Wales, with Churchill wanting a U.S. declaration of war, and FDR only wanting a declaration about the postwar peace, and after Churchill warns FDR "that he would not answer for the consequences if Russia was compelled to sue for peace and, say, by the spring of next year, hope died in Britain that the United States were coming into the war", he agrees to give aid to Russia "on a gigantic scale", and to issue a statement that any "further encroachment" by Japan in the SW Pacific will "produce a situation in which the United States Government would be compelled to take countermeasures, even though these might lead to war between the United States and Japan"; on Aug. 12 they issue the Atlantic Charter, calling for the renunciation of aggression and disarmament of aggressor nations, with no territorial changes "that do not accord with the freely expressed wishes of the people concerned", becoming a foundation stone of the United Nations; FDR utters the soundbyte to the press: "There has never been, there isn't now and there never will be, any race of people on earth fit to serve as masters over their fellow men... We believe that any nationality, no matter how small, has the inherent right to its own nationhood"; they agree to send a joint military mission to Moscow headed by Lord Beaverbrook and W. Averell Harriman to discuss Soviet war production needs.

The coalition against the Nazi Azis, er, Axis comes into full formal existence? On Jan. 1, 1942 reps of 26 Allied nations incl. the U.S., Britain, and the Soviet Union sign the United Nations Declaration (Declaration by United Nations), pledging their full resources against the Axis, and promising not to make peace separately, with the goal being "to ensure life, liberty, independence and religious freedom, and to preserve the rights of man and justice" - Stalin broke that New Year's resolution in a millisecond?

On Jan. 1, 1945 France is admitted to the U.N.

'Opening Session of the U.N.' by Feliks Topolski (1907-89), 1945 Philip Noel-Baker of Britain (1889-1982)

On Apr. 25, 1945 delegates of 46 nations meet in San Francisco for the United Nations Conference on Internat. Org. on June 25 the 111-article U.N. Charter ("We the Peoples of the United Nations... United for a Better World") (the first words authored by U.S. Rep. Sol Boom), drafted by Philip John Noel-Baker (1889-1982) of Britain is adopted unanimously; on Oct. 24 the United Nations (U.N.) is created, with a U.N. Gen. Assembly and a U.N. Security Council, consisting of the Permanent (Big) Five Members (U.S., U.K. Soviet Union, France, Repub. of China) and 10 non-permanent members, changing every two years, the U.N. Relief Rehabilitation Admin. (UNRRA) is created, caring for nearly 7M liberated civilians; the Internat. Maritime Consultative Org. and the Internat. Law Commission are created.

Edward R. Stettinius Jr. of the U.S. (1900-49) Herschel Vespasian Johnson (1894-1966)

On Jan. 17, 1946 after chairing the U.S. delegation to the 1945 U.N. Conference on Internat. Org, Chicago, Ill.-born U.S. secy. of state #48 (1944-5) Edward Reilly Stettinius Jr. (1900-49) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #1, resigning on June 3 after getting pissed-off at Truman's refusal to use the U.N. as a tool to resolve tensions with the Soviet Union, while Truman thinks he's soft on Communism as proved by yielding too much to Stalin as FDR's advisor at Yalta; on June 3 Atlanta, Ga.-born N.C.-raised diplomat Herschel Vespasian Johnson (1894-1966) becomes acting U.S. U.N. rep. (until Jan. 14, 1947).

Robert Moses (1888-1981)

On Jan. 17, 1946 after Iran complains over Soviet interference in its internal affairs, the U.N. Gen. Assembly holds its first session; on Jan. 24 it establishes the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) "to deal with the problems raised by the discovery of atomic energy". On Jan. 25, 1946 the U.N. Security Council adopts Resolution 1 without a vote, establishing the Military Staff Committee (MSC) to plan U.N. military operations and assist in armament regulation, providing a command staff for a set of air force contingents provided by the Permanent Five. On Aug. 29, 1946 the U.N. Security Council votes 10-0-1 (Australia) to admit Afghanistan, Iceland, and Sweden. On Nov. 4, 1946 the U.N. Educational, Scientific and Cultural Org. (UNESCO) is founded in Paris to succeed the League of Nations' Internat. Committee on Intellectual Cooperation, with English biologist Sir Julian Huxley (1887-1975) as secy.-gen. #1 (until 1948), who soon writes UNESCO: Its Purpose and Its Philosophy; too bad, the usual 6-year term is cut to two years due to his agnostic stand and scientific humanism, plus his backing of ZPG and birth control, which pisses-off the Roman Catholic Church. On Dec. 11, 1946 the U.N. Internat. Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) is established to service children in countries devastated y WWII, with Polish physician Ludwik Witold Rajchman (1881-1965) as chmn. #1 (until ?), and Am. businessman Maurice Pate (1894-1965) as exec. dir. #1 in 1947-65; in 1953 the words "internat." and "emergency" are dropped from the name; when Pate dies on Jan. 19, 1965, UNICEF has 550+ long-term programs, and has helped 55M children in 116 countries; in Oct. 1965 UNICEF is awarded the 1965 Nobel Peace Prize. in 2015 its income is $5B. On Dec. 11, 1946 Spain is suspended from the U.N. On Dec. 12, 1946 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-0 to admit Siam (Thailand). On Dec. 12, 1946 after being convinced by N.Y. planning czar Robert Moses (1888-1981) not to build it in Philadelphia, Penn., a U.N. committee votes to accept a 6-block tract of Manhattan real estate offered as a gift by John D. Rockefeller Jr. to be the permanent site of their U.N. HQ, which is begun on Sept. 14, 1948; on Dec. 14 the U.N. Gen. Assembly okays the deal, and adopts a disarmament resolution prohibiting the A-bomb.

Trygve Lie of Norway (1896-1968)

On Feb. 1, 1946 after being recommended by the Soviet Union, Norwegian foreign minister and labor leader Trygve Halvdan Lie (1896-1968) is chosen to be secy.-gen. #1 of the U.N., taking office on Feb. 2 (until Nov. 10, 1952), calling it a "going organization"; after the U.N. becomes involved in the Korean War, the Soviet Union vetoes his reappointment in 1951, but the U.S. stages an end-around run, getting him reappointed by the U.N. Gen. Assembly by 46-5-8, pissing-off the Soviet Union even more, causing him to finally resign.

On Aug. 29, 1946 the U.N. Security Council votes 10-0-1 (Australia for Resolution 8 to admit Afghanistan, Iceland, and Sweden, rejecting Albania, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Transjordan, Ireland, Portugal, and Siam; on Dec. 12 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 13 to admit Siam.

Warren Robinson Austin of the U.S. (1877-1962)

On Jan. 14, 1947 after being appointed by Pres. Truman, U.S. Sen. (R-Vt.) (1931-46) Warren Robinson Austin (1877-1962) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #2 (until Jan. 22, 1953), the first official one since the previous ones had been reps to the U.N. Conference on Internat. Org. not the U.N. per se; he goes on to see the creation of Israel, the partition of India and Pakistan, the 1948 Communist coup in Czech., the Soviet blockade of Berlin and the Berlin Airlift, the Marshall Plan, NATO, the People's Repub. of China, the Chinese occupation of Tibet, and the Korean War.

On Apr. 30, 1947 the U.N. Security Council votes 10-0-1 (Australia) for Resolution 24 to admit Hungary; on May 23 it votes 10-0-1 (Australia) for Resolution 25 to admit Italy; on Aug. 12 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 29 to admit Yemen and Pakistan, and 9-0-2 (Poland, U.S.S.R.) to admit Bulgaria and Romania.

Jawaharlal Nehru of India (1889-1964) Muhammad Ali Jinnah of Pakistan (1874-1948) Fatima Jinnah of Pakistan (1893-1967) Liaquat Ali Khan of Pakistan (1891-1951) Hari Singh of India (1895-1961) Henry Francis Grady of the U.S. (1882-1957)

On Aug. 14, 1947 India becomes independent after 200 years of British rule, and on Aug. 15 Britain voluntarily withdraws its troops as the Union Jack complete with the Star of India is taken down from Viceroy's House in New Delhi seconds after midnight on Aug. 14/15; on Aug. 15 Jawaharlal Nehru (1899-1964) becomes PM #1 of India (until May 27, 1964); India and Pakistan (West Pakistan and East Pakistan, 1K mi. apart), led by secular Muslim gov.-gen. #1 Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948) (Aug. 11) become independent dominions of the British Commonwealth; they are separated by the Wagah (Wagha) Rd. on the Grand Trunk Rd., marking the Radcliffe Line of demarcation; Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan (1896-1951) becomes PM #1 of Pakistan (until Oct. 16, 1951); Jinnah becomes "Father of the Nation" of Pakistan, and his dentist sister Fatima Jinnah (1893-1967) becomes "Mother of the Nation"; 400M people (20% of the pop. of the Earth) gain independence from Whitey, er, Britain; the word "Pakistan" was concocted from Punjab, Afghan, Kashmir, and Baluchistan; Bombay becomes a state of India; in 1947-51 15M people migrate between Pakistan and India; Henry Francis Grady (1882-1957) becomes the first U.S. ambassador to India (until 1948); too bad, Jinnah starts out with a speech seemingly promising a secular state where "Hindus will cease to be Hindus and Muslims will cease to be Muslims, not in a religious sense, for that is the personal faith of an individual, but in a political sense as citizens of one state", then after Hindu-Muslim rocks the house, on Oct. 11 he flip-flops, saying "We should have a state in which we could live and breathe as free men and which we could develop according to our own lights and culture and where principles of Islamic social justice could find free play", then next Feb. 21 adds "We have to stand guard over the development and maintenance of Islamic democracy, Islamic social justice and the equality of manhood in your own native soil"; meanwhile Hindu-Muslim violence kill 200K-1M, and creates 1M refugees in Pakistan and India; Gandhi begins a fast in protest at the partition of Pakistan and India; on Oct. 26 despite a rebellion of the Muslim pop., Hindu maharaja (last) (1925-61) Hari Singh (1895-1961) of Muslim-majority Kashmir signs the Instrument of Accession with India; Lord Mountbatten promises that no permanent union with India will be accepted without a plebiscite by the Kashmiri people, but the Indian govt. hogs its way in and pushes the plebiscite into the future, triggering the Kashmir Conflict (War) (ends ?), causing heavy fighting and becoming a recipe for decades of torment.

Abba Eban of Israel (1915-2002) Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver (1893-1963)

On Nov. 29, 1947 as the British Mandate for Palestine is expiring, after extensive Zionist lobbying by superbrain Jew Abba Eban (1915-2002) and Lithuanian-born Am. Zionist rabbi Abba Hillel Silver (1893-1963) of Cleveland, Ohio, the U.N. by a two-thirds majority (33-13 with 10 abstentions) approves the U.N. Partition Plan for Palestine (U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 181), which recommends the partition of mother-of-all-headaches Palestine into an Arab state and a Jewish state starting next May 15, giving the Jews three slivers of disconnected land along the Mediterranean coast and the Sinai Desert, 60% in the Negev Desert, along with "the creation of a special international regime in the City of Jerusalem, constituting it as a corpus separatum under the administration of the United Nations", with Jews given access to it only as an island cut off from their slivers, surrounded by Arab-controlled land, what an insult; the international regime (which also incl. the city of Bethlehem) was to remain in force for a period of 10 years, after which referendum was to be held in which the residents were to decide the future regime of their city; of course the Arabs reject even this generous plan that gave them about 90% of the original Palestine Mandate, not only in Transjordan and the U.N. partition area, but in the new state of Israel, 800K Arabs bumping elbows with 1.2M Jews, with Jews barred from settling in the 35K sq. mi. of Transjordan, later renamed Jordan, a probable double snub on Christians and their John the Baptist; the Muslim Arabs immediately declare jihad against the 600K Jews there, starting with a fatwa by the ulema at Al-Ahzar U. in Cairo calling for "jihad to save Palestine and defend the Al-Aqsa Mosque"; the Islamic Resistance in Lebanon is founded, later becoming Hezbollah; the seaport of Haifa at the base of Mt. Carmel on the S shore of the Bay of Acre, where the British-owned oil pipeline from Iraq terminates is included in Israel, becoming a main scene of attacks by the Arab League; after the Arabs place the Jewish pop. in Jerusalem under siege in 1948, Israel regards the internationalization proposals null and void, and establishes Jerusalem as the capital of Israel in 1950.

On Jan. 17, 1948 the U.N. Security Council votes 9-0-2 (Ukraine, U.S.S.R.) to approve Resolution 38, calling upon the govts. of India and Pakistan to refrain from aggravating the situation in Kashmir, and to inform the council of any changes in the situation.

On Jan. 20, 1948 the U.N. Security Council votes 9-0-2 (Ukraine, U.S.S.R.) to approve Resolution 39, establishing a 3-man committee to advise it on the best course of action in Kashmir.

On Mar. 5, 1948 the U.N. Security Council votes 8-0-3 (Argentina, U.K., Syria) for Resolution 42 to be informed of the situation in Palestine; on Apr. 1 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 43 to request representatives relating to the Palestine situation, and 9-0-2 (Ukraine, U.S.S.R.)for Resolution 44 to call for a special session of the Gen. Assembly on Palestine; on Apr. 17 it votes 9-0-2 (Ukraine, U.S.S.R.) for Resolution 46 to call for an end to hostilities in Palestine; on Apr. 23 it votes to establish a Truth Commission for Palestine.

On Apr. 10, 1948 the U.N. Security Council votes 10-0-1 (Argentina) for Resolution 45 to admit Burma.

David Ben-Gurion of Israel (1886-1973) Dorothy de Rotschild (1895-1988) Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam Pasha (1893-1976) British Gen. Sir John Bagot Glubb (1897-1986) Adolf 'Al' Schwimmer of Israel (1917-2011) Golda Meir of Israel (1898-1978) Moshe Dayan of Israel (1915-81)

A big day for Bible thumpers and Millennium Feverists? "Thus says the Lord God: O my people, I will open your graves and have you rise from them, and bring you back to the land of Israel." (Ezekiel 37:12) On May 14, 1948 (midnight) the Jewish Nat. Council in Tel Aviv, Palestine proclaims the new Jewish State of Israel, with David Ben-Gurion (1886-1973) (known for the soundbyte "The Bible is our deed to the land of Israel") as PM #1 (until Jan. 24, 1954); it incl. an Unwritten Israeli Constitution, and a unicameral Knesset (Heb. "assembly"), whose HQ along with the Israeli Supreme Court bldg. are paid for by Yad Hanadiv (Rothschild Foundation), chaired by wealthy English Zionist Dorothy Mathilde de Rothschild (nee Pinto) (1895-1988); "We offer peace and amity to all the neighboring states and their peoples, and invite them to cooperate with the independent Jewish nation for the common good of all. The State of Israel is ready to contribute its full share to the peaceful progress and development of the Middle East"; the U.S. recognizes it 11 min. later, but Pres. Truman refuses to call it a Jewish state, although he ignores advice from his advisers in order to recognize it because he believed that it fulfills Biblical prophecy?; "Thus says the Lord God: O my people, I will open your graves and have you rise from them, and bring you back to the land of Israel." (Ezekiel 37:12); the Israeli army had nine obsolete planes for an air force, no cannons or tanks, and 60K trained fighters, only 18.9K of them fully ready for fighting, causing operations chief Yigael Yadin to tell David Ben-Gurion, "The best we can tell you is that we have a 50-50 chance." On May 15 the British Palestine Mandate ends and the British withdraw, leading to the 1948 Arab-Israeli War with Arab states as Lebanese, Syrian, Iraqi, Egyptian, and Transjordanian troops, supported by Saudi and Yemenite troops attack, screaming "Allahu Akbar", "Jihad", and "Idbah al-Yahud" (slaughter the Jews), showing that it isn't a nationalist but a religious struggle, and sorry, but Islam will never accept the Jewish state of Israel; the Islamic Resistance in Lebanon is founded to wage jihad, later becoming Hezbollah; on May 15 Egyptian Arab League secy.-gen. #1 (1945-52) Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam Pasha (1893-1976) utters the soundbyte "This will be a war of extermination and a momentous massacre"; on May 17 the Soviet Union recognizes Israel; Jordanian King Abdullah Ibn Hussein's British-trained Arab League under British Lt. Gen. Sir John Bagot Glubb (1897-1986) (AKA Glubb Pasha) seizes control of Judea and Samaria, along with the Jewish Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem on May 28 ("The blackest event in Israel's War of Independence") and annexes them, cutting off access by Jews to the Western Wall until 1967, going on to destroy or desecrate 50+ synagogues in the Jewish Quarter; only Great Britain and Pakistan recognize the annexation; Egypt occupies (but doesn't annex) Gaza; on May 22 the U.N. Security Council votes 8-0-3 (Ukraine, U.S.S.R., Syria) to order a ceasefire in Palestine; U.S. aircraft manufacturer Adolf "Al" Schwimmer (1917-2011) violates U.S. laws to smuggle surplus aircraft and found the Israeli Air Force on May 28, is convicted in 1950 of violating the U.S. Neutrality Act, and becomes pres. of Israel Aircraft Industries until 1978, finally receiving a pardon by Pres. Bill Clinton in 2000; on May 29 the U.N. Truce Supervision Org. (UNTSO) (the first U.N. peacekeeping force) is established, with HQ in Jerusalem to oversee the truce; Golda Meir (1898-1978) becomes the Israeli ambassador to the U.N; after losing 6,373 of 650K Israelis and spending $500M to achieve the truce; on July 7 the U.N. Security Council votes 8-0-3 (Ukraine, U.S.S.R., Syria) to urgently appeal to prolong the truce in Palestine; Ha Tikva(h) becomes the Israeli national anthem; the knee-jerk reaction of Arabs is to expel all Jews from Arab cities from Casablanca to Baghdad; the Christian pop. of Jordanian Jerusalem falls from 25K to 11K by 1967 as restrictive laws are placed on them; the Vatican hides the Temple Menorah and other holy vessels looted from the Jewish Temple of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. so that they can't be used by the Israelis to rebuild it; they are returned on ?

Count Folke Bernadotte of Sweden (1895-1948) Ralph Johnson Bunche of the U.S. (1904-71)

On May 20, 1948 Swedish diplomat Count Folke Bernadotte (1895-1948) is appointed as the first U.N. mediator on Palestine. On June 28 he makes the first formal peace proposal to the Arabs and Israelis, proposing that Palestinian and Transjordan form a "union, comprising two members, one Arab and one Jewish". After that was rejected, he made a 2nd proposal on Sept. 16 for two independent states. On Sept. 17 (Fri.) he is assassinated in Jerusalem by the Zionist Lehi terrorist group (AKA the Stern Gang), who wrongly believes that the Israeli govt. is about to accept the proposal. On Sept. 18 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-0 to condemn the killing as "a cowardly act which appears to have been committed by a criminal group of terrorists", after which the Lehi group is disarmed and its members arrested, but nobody is ever charged with the killing, causing Sweden to have frosty relations with Israel, even though it recognizes it in 1950. In Sept. the Israeli govt. also dissolves the Irgun Zionist terrorist org. (founded 1931), whose members later found the right-wing Herut (Heb. "freedom") Party, predecessor of the Likud Party; Bernadotte is succeeded as U.N. mediator #2 by U.S. diplomat Ralph Johnson Bunche (1904-71), who works out a truce on Nov. 4 (U.N. Security Council Resolution 61) and an armistice on Nov. 16 (U.N. Security Council Resolution 62), and on Dec. 29, 1950 becomes the first African-Am. to win the Nobel Peace Prize.

Raphael Lemkin (1900-59)

On Dec. 9, 1948 after over a decade of lobbying by Polish-born Jewish scholar Raphael Lemkin (1900-59) (who coined the word "genocide" in 1943) the U.N. Gen. Assembly adopts Resolution 260: Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide; it goes into effect on Jan. 12, 1951; the U.S. doesn't ratify it until 1988; meanwhile the Fagan Report (Report of the Native Laws Commission of 1946) issued by the govt. of South Africa admits the impracticability of complete racial segregation and recommends abolishing restrictions on black migration into urban areas, but the Afrikaner Nat. Party vehemently rejects it, and the govt. of Jan Smuts is narrowly defeated in the gen. election, putting Afrikaner nationalist Daniel Francois Malan (1874-1959) in power as PM on June 4 (until Nov. 30, 1954), who goes on to pass comprehensive white supremacist Apartheid Laws (ends 1994).

On Dec. 10, 1948 the U.N. Gen. Assembly adopts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, partially formulated by Eleanor Roosevelt, but it is not given the legal force of a treaty until 1966; it declares that everyone has the right to an adequate standard of living incl. satisfactory housing; the first Internat. Human Rights Day; too bad, Communist nations abstain, as does the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and in 1981 the Repub. of Iran calls it a secular interpretation of Judeo-Christian tradition incompatible with Sharia, after which in 2000 the 57-nation Org. of the Islamic Conference (OIC) votes to endorse the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam, which states that people have "freedom and right to a dignified life in accordance with the Islamic Sharia", after which in July 2001 the European Court of Human Rights rules that "the institution of Sharia law and a theocratic regime were incompatible with the requirements of a democratic society".

On Dec. 11, 1948 by 35-23 the non-binding U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 194 is passed, calling for the return of Palestinian refugees to their homes; all six Arab countries at the U.N. (Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen) vote against it; Israel isn't a U.N. member yet.

On Mar. 4, 1949 the U.N. Security Council votes 9-1-1 (Egypt against, U.K. abstaining) for Resolution 69 authorizing the admission of Israel.

On May 1, 1950 the U.N. Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) (founded Dec. 8, 1949) begins administering the 950K Palestinians in refugee camps, which grow by 1987 to 2.2M, one-third still living in U.N. camps.

On June 10, 1950 after stepping up guerrilla activity in South Korea, which suffers from inflation, a cabinet crisis, gen. unrest and brutal police actions, the North Korean govt. proposes to the U.N. Korean Commission that elections for an all-Korean legislature be held in Aug.

U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964)

M*A*S*H time? On June 25, 1950 North Korean forces (with permission from Stalin) cross the 38th parallel and invade South Korea, starting the Korean War (ends 1953); China assists the North, while U.N. troops, led by U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964) aid the South; on June 25 the U.N. Security Council is called by the U.S., and the Soviet delegate doesn't attend, making it possible for them to pass Resolution 82 by 9-0-1 (Yugoslavia abstaining), calling for the withdrawal of the North Korean troops and a ceasefire; on June 27 the U.N. Security Council passes Resolution 83 by 7-1-0 (Yugoslavia against, Egypt abstaining), calling on U.N. members to assist South Korea and invokes military sanctions, causing Pres. Truman to order the U.S. Air Force and Navy into the Korean conflict, and orders the U.S. Seventh Fleet into the Straits of Formosa to block an invasion of China by Formosa (freeing the Chinese to build up forces to cross the Yalu River into North Korea later?); on June 28 Seoul is captured by the North Koreans; on June 30 the first U.S. ground forces are committed; on July 7 the Security Council authorizes a unified U.N. command in Korea under U.S. leadership, and the hastily-formed U.S. Eighth Army backed by 20 other U.N. members takes the North Koreans on; MiG Alley in the Yalu River Valley in NW Korea becomes the scene of a 10-1 kill ratio for U.S. planes; in the opening months of the war, the South Korean military and police execute 4.9K pro-Communist civilians who signed up for reeducation classes, and don't admit it until Nov. 2009 - do you know why we're here, to jack my price up?

Ashley Montagu (1905-99) Edward Franklin Frazier (1894-1962)

On July 18, 1950 UNESCO releases The Race Question, written by English-born Jewish-Am. anthropologist Montague Francis Ashley-Montagu (Israel Ehrenberg) (1905-99), black Am. sociologist Edward Franklin Frazier (1894-1962) et al., questioning the validity of race as a biological concept and suggesting the substitution of "ethnic group"; revised eds. pub. in 1951, 1967, and 1978.

On Sept 26, 1950 the U.N. Security Council votes 10-0-1 (Repub. of China) for Resolution 86, authorizing the admission of Indonesia.

On Nov. 4, 1950 the U.N. Gen. Assembly votes 37-10-12 to reverse its 1946 diplomatic isolation of Spain.

U.N. HQ, 1948-52

On Jan. 8, 1951 the Secretariat Bldg. of the new windowy U.N. HQ (begun Sept. 14, 1948) officially opens in Manhattan, New York City for 3.3K employees on 17 acres of land on 1st Ave. between 42nd and 48th Sts. on rundown Turtle Bay overlooking the East River, donated by John D. Rockefeller Jr. and his son Nelson Rockefeller, allowing the U.N. to move on May 18 from temporary HQ in Lake Success, Long Island to its permanent home; architects incl. Le Corbusier, Oscar Niemeyer, and Harrison & Abramovitz; it is completed next Oct. 9 at a cost of $65M.

On Mar. 30, 1951 after India and Pakistan sign the Karachi Agreement establishing a ceasfire line, the U.N. Security Council votes 8-0-3 (India, Yugoslavia, U.S.S.R.) to adopt Resolution 91 establishing the U.N. Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) to monitor it.

Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. of the U.S. (1902-85)

On Jan. 26, 1953 after losing his reelection to John F. Kennedy in a close race because of spending too much time supporting Ike's candidacy, former U.S. Sen. (R-Mass.) (1937-44, 1947-53) Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (1902-85), grandson of U.S. Sen. (R-Mass.) (1893-1924) Henry Cabot Lodge Sr. (1850-1924) (who went on a tour of duty in WWII as a senator then was forced to resign to stay fighting) becomes U.S. U.N. rep. #3 (until Sept. 3, 1960), with his position elevated to cabinet rank, becoming the longest-serving in that position (until ?); his granddaddy defeated JFK's granddaddy John F. Fitzgerald for the same Senate seat in 1916, and later in 1962 Lodge's son George Cabot Lodge is defeated for the same seat by JFK's brother Ted Kennedy; Lodge Sr. hated the League of Nations, but Lodge Jr. is pro-U.N., uttering the soundbyte "This organization is created to prevent you from going to Hell; it isn't created to take you to Heaven."

In Feb. 1953 Gallup takes its first poll on the U.N., finding that a majority of Americans believe it's doing a good job; the polls turn negative next year, except for 1990-1, 2000-2002 (with the highest approval rating of 58% in Feb. 2002), and 2013; on Feb. 1-10, 2018 only 34% say the U.N. is going a good job, becoming the 22nd time with less than 50%.

Dag Hammarskjöld of Sweden (1905-61)

On Mar. 31, 1953 the U.N. Security Council elects Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjold (Hammarskjöld) (1905-61) of Sweden as U.N. secy.-gen. #2, taking office on Apr. 10 (until Sept. 18, 1961); after being reelected unanimously to a 2nd term in 1957, the Soviet Union gets pissed-off at this handling of the Congo Crisis, and tries unsuccessfully to get him replaced by a 3-man troika; he never marries and is never seen in the company of the opposite gender - that makes him a metrosexual, or a workaholic?

On Dec. 14, 1955 the U.N. Security Council votes 8-0-3 (Belgium, U.S., Repub. of China) for Resolution 109 to admit Albania, Jordan, Ireland, Portugal, Hungary, Italy, Austria, Romania, Bulgaria, Finland, Ceylon, Nepal, Libya, Cambodia, Laos, and Spain.

On Feb. 6, 1956 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 112 to admit Sudan; on July 20 it votes 11-0-0 to admit Morocco; on July 26 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 116 to admit Tunisia; on Dec. 12 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 121 to admit Japan.

Miles Copeland Jr. of the U.S. (1916-91)

On July 19, 1956 the Suez Crisis (ends Nov. 7) begins after ungrateful pres. Gamal Abdel Nasser trades $200M in Egyptian cotton for guns from Czech., causing U.S. secy. of state John Foster Dulles to cancel the U.S. Aswan High Dam loan, causing Nasser on July 20 to nationalize the Suez Canal (which carries 1.5M barrels of oil a day, 1.2M going to W Europe), saying "I look at Americans and say, may you choke to death on your fury!", followed by "We shall build the high dam as we desire. The annual income of the Suez Canal is $100M. Why not take it ourselves?"; in Sept. Egypt takes control of the canal, expelling foreign technicians; at this point the Israelis are pissed-off by Egyptian-backed guerrilla raids from the Gaza Strip, the Brits by the nationalization of the Suez Canal, and the French by Egyptian support of Algerian independence, forming a conspiracy to overthrow Nasser, with British PM Sir Anthony Eden (who sees him as a new Mussolini) hiring CIA man (close friend of Nasser) Miles Axe Copeland Jr. (1916-91) to assassinate him, while planning begins for Operation Musketeer, a French-British plan to recapture the Suez Canal; too bad, Ike opposes the invasion on the grounds that he is an advocate of decolonization, showing up Eden and the British as wusses when they are forced to back down because of their financial dependence on the U.S.; the net result is that Israel moves closer to the U.S. govt., which becomes dominant in the region, and never undertakes any significant military operation without obtaining U.S. consent in advance (until ?); in Sept. French PM Guy Mollete secretly requests to merge France with the U.K. and join the Commonwealth of Nations, but British PM Anthony Eden turns him down, after which in Oct. he meets with Israeli PM David Ben-Gurion and agrees to stage a joint attack on Egypt. On Oct. 13 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-0 to adopt Resolution 118, requiring any settlement of the Suez question to incl. respect for the sovereignty of Egypt while allowing free and open transit through the canal without any kind of discrimination or political considerations, with future disputes between Egypt and the Suez Canal Co. to be settled by arbitration. On Oct. 29 (Mon.) the Suez War (Crisis) (Tripartite Aggression) ramps up (begins) (ends Nov. 7) when 100K Israeli troops invade Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, giving Britain and France an excuse to issue an ultimatum to Egypt and Israel on Oct. 30 calling for a ceasefire, then citing their right to reoccupy the canal under the 1950 Tripartite Declaration; on Oct. 31 Cyprus-based British bombers bomb Egyptian airfields, causing Ike to go nonlinear, and in the evening he goes on TV, saying "We cannot subscribe to one law for the weak, another for those allied to us"; on Oct. 31 the U.N. Security Council votes 7-2-2 (France against, Australia and Belgium abstaining) in Resolution 119 to pass the debate to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, which holds its first emergency special session; on Nov. 3 John Foster Dulles is taken to Walter Reed Hospital for surgery for an ulcer; on Nov. 5 British paratroopers begin landing on the N end of the canal, causing Soviet PM Nikolai Bulganin to warn that nukes will be used if they don't withdraw, and asking the U.S. for an alliance with the Soviet Union, to which Ike replies "Those British, they're still my right arm", accusing the Soviets of trying to divert attention from Hungary, and deciding to send aid to Israel, also issuing the Washington Declaration with British PM Anthony Eden; on Nov. 6 French infantry seize the E side of the canal, but the U.S. intervenes, arranging a ceasefire on Nov. 7 and demanding full British and French withdrawal, which they cave-in and obey; in Nov. a U.N. Emergency Force is created, organized by Lester B. Pearson of Canada (who wins the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize), and in Dec. it supervises withdrawal of French and British forces (ends Jan. 1957), while the U.N. fleet leaves the Suez Canal; Egypt agrees to pay $81M in reparations to the World Bank; the Sinai is demilitarized, with U.N. troops deployed along the Egyptian-Israeli border, and the U.S. commits to keeping the Straits of Tiran open to Israeli shipping; in Nov. Eden, his health breaking down, goes on vacation on Ian Fleming's 007 estate in Jamaica, allowing Harold Macmillian to work to push him out of office.

On Oct. 29, 1956 (Mon.) the Suez War (Crisis) (Tripartite Aggression) begins when 100K Israeli troops invade Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, giving Britain and France an excuse to issue an ultimatum to Egypt and Israel on Oct. 30 calling for a ceasefire, then citing their right to reoccupy the canal under the 1950 Tripartite Declaration; on Oct. 31 Cyprus-based British bombers bomb Egyptian airfields, causing Ike to go nonlinear, and in the evening he goes on TV, saying "We cannot subscribe to one law for the weak, another for those allied to us"; on Oct. 31 the U.N. Security Council votes 7-2-2 (France against, Australia and Belgium abstaining) in Resolution 119 to pass the debate to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, which olds its first emergency special session; on Nov. 3 John Foster Dulles is taken to Walter Reed Hospital for surgery for an ulcer; on Nov. 5 British paratroopers begin landing on the N end of the canal, causing Soviet PM Nikolai Bulganin to warn that nukes will be used if they don't withdraw, and asking the U.S. for an alliance with the Soviet Union, to which Ike replies "Those British, they're still my right arm", accusing the Soviets of trying to divert attention from Hungary, and deciding to send aid to Israel, also issuing the Washington Declaration with British PM Anthony Eden; on Nov. 6 French infantry seize the E side of the canal, but the U.S. intervenes, arranging a ceasefire on Nov. 7 and demanding full British and French withdrawal, which they cave-in and obey; on Nov. 7 U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 1001 establishes the U.N. Emergency Force (UNEF), organized by Lester B. Pearson of Canada (who wins the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize), and in Dec. it supervises withdrawal of French and British forces (ends Jan. 1957), while the U.N. fleet leaves the Suez Canal; which is ordered out of the Sinai on May 16, 1967, and evacuates on June 17 after 15 troops are KIA in the Six Day War of June 5-10; Egypt agrees to pay $81M in reparations to the World Bank; the Sinai is demilitarized, with U.N. troops deployed along the Egyptian-Israeli border, and the U.S. commits to keeping the Straits of Tiran open to Israeli shipping; in Nov. Eden, his health breaking down, goes on vacation on Ian Fleming's 007 estate in Jamaica, allowing Harold Macmillian to work to push him out of office.

Golda Meir of Israel (1898-1978)

On Jan. 8, 1957 after withdrawing from the Suez Canal to a distance of 50 km last Dec. 3, Israel withdraws to a line E of El Arish, allowing the U.N. Emergency Force to control the canal. On Jan. 17, 1957 Israeli foreign minister (since June 18, 1956) Golda Meir (nee Mabovitch) (1898-1978) gives a speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly on the continuing problem of Egypt, the Sinai, Gulf of Aqaba, and Gaza Strip, ending with the soundbyte: "Mr. President, the General Assembly will surely have no difficulty in concluding that the problem of the Gulf of Aqaba with its broad international perspectives; and the question of the Gaza Strip, with its almost unparalleled complexity, require further clarification in a cooperative spirit."

V.K. Krishna Menon of India (1896-1974)

On Jan. 23, 1957 Indian nationalist diplomat V.K. (Vengalil Krishnan) Krishna Menon (1896-1974) gives a speech on Kashmir to the U.N. Gen. Assembly that lasts for 8 hours, becoming the longest U.N. speech until ?

On Mar. 7, 1957 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 124 to admit Ghana; on Sept. 5 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 125 to admit Malaya (Malaysia).

On Dec. 9, 1958 the U.N. Security Council votes 10-0-1 (France) for Resolution 131 to admit Guinea.

Black is as black does, or, Play that funky music white boy? The U.N. declares 1960 the Year of Africa: 17 African states (out of 51, with over 1K different cultures and 800 languages) gain their full or token independence from white European govts. (16 join the U.N.): Cameroon (Jan. 1), Togo (Apr. 27), Mali (June 20), Senegal (June 20), Malagasy Repub. (Madagascar) (June 26), Belgian Congo (Kinshasa) (June 30), Ghana (Gold Coast) (July 1), Somalia (July 1), Ghana (July 1), Dahomey (Aug. 1), Niger (Aug. 3), Upper Volta (Aug. 5), Ivory Coast (Aug. 7) (two brands of bar soap?), Chad (Aug. 11), Central African Repub. (CAR) (Aug. 13), Congo Repub. (Brazzaville) (Aug. 15), Gabon (Aug. 17), Nigeria (Oct. 1), Mauritania (Nov. 28).

On Jan. 26, 1960 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 133 to admit Cameroon; on May 31 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 136 to admit Togo; on June 28 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 139 to to admit Mali; on June 29 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 140 to admit the Malagasy Repub. (Madagascar); on July 5 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 141 to admit Somalia; on July 7 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 142 to admit the (Dem.) Repub. of Congo; on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 147 to admit Dahomey (Benin); on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 148 to admit Niger; on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 149 to admit Upper Volta (Burkina Faso); on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 150 to admit Ivory Coast; on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 151 to admit Chad; on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 152 to admit the Repub. of the Congo; on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 153 to admit Gabon; on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 154 to admit the Central African Repub.; on Aug. 23 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 155 to admit Cyprus; on Sept. 28 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 158 to admit Senegal; on Sept. 28 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 159 to admit Mali; on Oct. 7 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 160 to admit Nigeria.

Sharpeville Massacre, Mar. 21, 1960

On Mar. 21, 1960 the Sharpeville Massacre sees South African police kill 69 and injure 180 of 5K-7K blacks in Sharpeville protesting the apartheid pass laws, causing an internat. protest; on Mar. 30 the govt. declares a state of emergency (until Aug. 31); on Apr. 1 the U.N. Security Council votes 9-0-2 (France, U.K.) to adopt Resolution 134, calling for South Africa to abandon apartheid, making it an internat. pariah; meanwhile the South African govt. bans the PAC and ANC, causing them to go from passive to active resistance; in 1966 the U.N. establishes Mar. 21 as the Internat. Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination.

Joseph Kasavubu of Congo (1910-69) Moise Kapenda Tshombe of Congo (1919-69) Joseph-Désiré Mobutu of Zaire (DRC) (1930-97)

On June 24, 1960 Joseph Kasavubu (Kasa-Vubu) (1910-69), leader of the Alliance des Bakongo (ABAKO) Party is elected pres. #1 of the Repub. of Congo (Leopoldville) (which becomes independent of Belgium), taking office on June 26 (until Nov. 24, 1965). On June 30, 1960 the Repub. of the Congo (capital Leopoldville) is granted independence from Belgium, with Patrice Lumumba as PM, and Joseph Kasavubu as pres.; on July 11 after the Congolese army mutinies against the remaining Belgian officers, Belgian-appointed Christian anti-Communist pro-Western Moise Kapenda Tshombe (1919-69) leads a Belgian-backed secession in mineral-rich Katanga Province in SE Congo (W of Lake Tanganyika), which is controlled by the Belgian Union Miniere and produces weapons-grade uranium, raising the stakes and bringing in internat. intrigue; on July 14 the U.N. Security Council votes 8-0-3 (France, U.K., China) for Resolution 143, calling on Belgium to withdraw its troops and deciding to send U.N. troops (supported by Ghana, Guinea and India), led by U.N. secy.-gen. Dag Hammarskjold to Katanga to oversee the withdrawal, starting the Congo Crisis (ends Nov. 25, 1965), featuring an anti-colonial struggle, a secessionist war, a U.N. peacekeeping operation, and a Cold War proxy battle between the dueling superpowers U.S. and Soviet Union, who lust for all that uranium ore and other minerals; on Sept. 5 Lumumba appoints Machiavelli-thumping ("one of my favorite books)" journalist (former soldier, and one big mean dude) Joseph Desire (Joseph-Désiré) Mobutu (1930-97) as army chief of staff, who gets pissed-off at the U.N. forces for not helping him crush the secessionists and turns to the Soviet Union, which sends massive military aid incl. 1K technical advisors, causing the U.S. to kick Repub. of the Congo pres. #1 (1960-5) Joseph Kasavubu (1910-69) in the pants, after which he fires the govt. of Patrice Lumumba and has him placed under house arrest, causing Lumumba to declare Kasavubu deposed and call on Mobutu to arrest him instead; on Sept. 14 after consulting his Machiavelli, Mobutu leads a CIA-backed military coup, placing Lumumba under house arrest for a 2nd time, and keeping Kasavubu as pres., then ordering the Soviets to leave, accusing Lumumba of Commie sympathies to gain U.S. support, causing him to flee to Stanleyville, where he is captured on Dec. 1, sent to Katanga, then tortured and assassinated next Jan. 17, causing the U.N. Security Council next Feb. 21 to vote 9-0-0 (France, Soviet Union) to adopt Resolution 161, urging the withdrawal of Belgian and other foreign military and mercenary troops and launching an investigation into Lumumba's death, causing the Soviet Union to seek unsuccessfully to get the office of secy.-gen. replaced by a 3-man troika; meanwhile on Nov. 14 Belgium threatens to leave the U.N. if it doesn't stop criticizing its Congo policy, after which on Nov. 22 the U.N. supports Kasavubu and Mobutu anyway; next Nov. 24 the U.N. Security Council votes 9-0-0 (France, U.K.) to adopt Resolution 169, opposing secessionist activities in Katanga and asking all U.N. member states to aid the govt. of the Repub. of the Congo. On Dec. 30, 1962 U.N. troops occupy the last rebel positions in Kanga, forcing Moise Tshombe to flee to Southern Rhodesia.

On Sept. 26, 1960 Fidel Castro gives his longest U.N. speech so far (4 hrs. 29 min.), during which he calls JFK "an illiterate and ignorant millionaire", and utters the immortal soundbyte: "When the philosophy of robbery disappears, then the philosophy of war will disappear" - no need to debate with anybody?

Nnamdi Azikiwe of Nigeria (1904-96) Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa of Nigeria (1912-66)

New Law & Order on Shoe Day on N-BBC? On Oct. 1, 1960 (Shoe Day Minus Eleven) Nigeria declares independence from Britain, and is admitted to U.N. membership as a loose federation of self-governing states with 250 ethnic and linguistic groups; on Nov. 16 U.S.-educated Igbo gen. Benjamin Nnamdi (Igbo "My father is alive") "Zik" Azikiwe (1904-96) becomes gov.-gen. #3 of Nigeria (first native) (until Oct. 1, 1963), also becoming the first Nigerian on the Queen's privy council, founding the African liberation philosophy of Zikism, with the five principles of spiritual balance, social regeneration, economic determination, mental emancipation, and political resurgence, uttering the soundbyte "The challenge of Nigeria as a free state in 20th century Africa is the need to revive the stature of man in Africa and restore the dignity of man in the world"; Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (1912-66) (Muslim) (who was knighted in Jan. by Elizabeth II of Britain and awarded an honorary doctorate in May by the U. of Sheffield) becomes PM #1 of Nigeria (until Jan. 15, 1966), going on to lead the protest against the Sharpeville Massacre, enter an alliance with Commonwealth ministers who want South Africa expelled in 1961, and become a founder of the Org. of African Unity (OAU) in 1963.

Khrushchev (Shoechev) (K-Shoe) at the U.N., Oct. 12, 1960) Julio Adalberto Rivera of El Salvador (1921-73)

Destiny: Shoes? Shoe Day, 10-12-60 (10/2 x 12 = 60)? On Oct. 12, 1960 (Wed.) (Shoe Day) (15th anniv. session) after Soviet PM Shoechev, er, Khrushchev got away with interrupting a speech by British PM Harold Macmillan twice on Sept. 29 by pounding his fists and shouting in Russian (causing Macmillan to ask U.N. Gen. Assembly pres. Frederick Henry Boland (1904-85) of Ireland that he would like a translation), he ramps it up to the next level by waving and pounding his table with his right shoe during a U.N. Gen. Assembly speech by Filipino delegate Lorenzo Sumulong (1905-97), after he said that the Soviet resolution condemning Western imperialism should be viewed with the shoe on the other foot when it comes to their domination of Eastern Europe, uttering the rejoinder "You're a hooligan and stooge of imperialism", causing an adjournment - Bun-dy, Bun-dy?

Adlai Stevenson II of the U.S. (1900-65)

On Jan. 23, 1961 after he refuses to endorse JFK before the Dem. Convention, pissing-off JFK and causing him to snub him for secy. of state and give him the choice of atty. gen., ambassador to the U.K., or this, Los Angeles, Calif.-born former Dem. Ill. gov. #31 (1949-53) Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (1900-65) (who served on the committee that created the U.N., and on the early U.S. delegations to it) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #5 (until July 14, 1965), going on to be treated as a bit player and kept from knowing about the Apr. 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion in advance, giving a speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly with the CIA coverstory that there was no U.S. involvement, embarrassing him but not enough to resign.

Holden Roberto of Angola (1923-2007)

On Feb. 4, 1961 after the Portuguese insist on staying, pissing-off the Communist-led natives, the Portuguese Colonial (Overseas) War (of Liberation) in Angola (ends Apr. 25, 1974) begins with an uprising of Africans in Luanda, led by the Nat. Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA), founded on July 14, 1954 as the Union of Peoples of Angola (UPA) by Holden Alvaro (Álvaro) Roberto (1923-2007); on Mar. 13 Adlai E. Stevenson votes against Portuguese policies in Africa in the U.N. Security Council; on Mar. 15 4K-5K Bakongo rebels attack strategic locations in N Angola, killing 1K+ whites and seizing their farms, with Roberto uttering the soundbyte "This time the slaves did not cower"; on Apr. 18 Portugal sends its first military reinforcements to Angola; on Apr. 25 Roberto meets with Pres. Kennedy, causing Ghanaian pres. Kwame Nkrumah to turn him down for aid; on June 9 the U.N. Security Council votes 9-0-2 (France, U.K.) for Resolution 163, affirming U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 1603 declaring Angola a non-self-governing territory and calling on Portugal to go along; in Mar. 1962 the UPA merges with the Dem. Party of Angola to form the FNLA, establishing the Rev. Govt. of Angola in Exile (GRAE) in Kinshasa on Mar. 27, with Jonas Savimbi as foreign minister, after which Roberto divorces his wife and marries a woman from the village of the wife of Zairian pres. Mobutu Sese Soko to establish a political alliance; in 1963-9 Israel gives it aid.

Nelson Mandela of South Africa (1918-2013) Walter Sisulu of South Africa (1912-2003) Helen Joseph of South Africa (1905-92)

On Apr. 13, 1961 the U.N. Gen. Assembly passes U.N. Resolution 1598, condemning South Africa for apartheid; meanwhile white South African anti-apartheid activist Helen Beatrice May Joseph (nee Fennell) (1905-92), who was arrested for treason in Dec. 1956, banned in 1957 and became the first person to be placed under house arrest is finally acquitted after a 5-year trial, but she stays banned for the next 10 years; meanwhile on May 29-31 Nelson Mandela (1918-2013), leader of the South African Nat. Congress (ANC) (founded 1912) stages a stay-at-home strike, and when that doesn't work, he and Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (1912-2003) give up on peaceful solutions and set up the Spear of the Nation (MK) militant wing, which issues a public announcement on Dec. 16: "The time comes in the life of any nation when there remains only two choices: submit or fight... We shall not submit and we have no choice but to hit back by all means within our power in defense of our people, our future, and our freedom."

Bay of Pigs Bay of Pigs POWs Allen Welsh Dulles (1893-1969) USAF Gen. Charles Pearre Cabell (1903-71) Earle Cabell (1906-75) U.S. Gen. Maxwell Davenport Taylor (1901-87)

On Apr. 15, 1961 six repainted U.S. Air Force B-26 bombers knocked out half of the Cuban air force, but Pres. Kennedy recalled them on Apr. 16 without the 1,511 CIA-trained commandos being informed, and on Apr. 17, 1961 they invaded Cuba in four chartered merchant ships and two landing crafts from Nicaragua in the unsuccessful Bay of Pigs Invasion in Cochinos Bay on the S coast of Cuba 90 mi. from Havana, getting pinned down on a swampy beachhead while their supplies were blocked by reefs until the supply ships were sunk; on Apr. 19 the 300K-man Cuban army finished the invaders off, killing 114 and capturing 1.2K POWs (released in Dec. 1962 for $53M in food and medical supplies, privately raised), after which on Apr. 20 Castro announced the defeat of the invasion; on Apr. 22 Pres. Kennedy accepted "sole responsibility", saying "How could I have been so stupid?" for trusting the CIA and Joint Chiefs of Staff, but he actually held CIA dir. (since 1953) Allen Welsh Dulles (1893-1969) responsible, and he was pressured into resigning in Sept., along with deputy dir. USAF Gen. Charles Pearre Cabell (1903-71), brother of Dallas mayor (1961-4) Earle Cabell (1906-75), allegedly saying that he wants "to splinter the CIA in a thousand pieces and scatter it to the winds", although his memo to do it is ignored (turning the whole CIA against him with a reason to assassinate him?); E. Howard Hunt uses the cover name Eduardo in the Bay of Pigs operation; after the Cuban V, Khrushchev gets the idea of installing nuclear missiles in Cuba to protect it from another invasion, and vetoes Castro's plan of doing it publicly, preferring to do it in secret before the U.S. can react; on Apr. 21 JFK holds a press conference, accepting responsibility for the fiasco, with the soundbyte: "There’s an old saying that victory has a hundred fathers, and defeat is an orphan"; in Apr.-May the Cuba Study Group, led by retired gen. Maxwell Davenport Taylor (1901-87) performed an "autopsy" of the fiasco, then published a report on June 13 concluding that the invasion was Ike's plan, that JFK's decision to not call in additional air strikes did not doom it, and that the CIA and Joint Chiefs of Staff shared the blame; during this time Taylor became a friend of Robert F. Kennedy, who was wowed by his intellect and named one of his sons after him in Jan. 1965; meanwhile Taylor was recalled to active duty and installed to the new post of military rep. to the U.S. pres., causing him to end up cutting off the Joint Chiefs, until JFK appointed him as chmn. on Oct. 1, 1962 (until 1964). So it is here that the plot to kill JFK, who just approved the execution of a U.S. soldier and stabbed others in the back, began, somebody just bought a new shirt, I told you it was your color?

Dag Hammarskjöld of Sweden (1905-61)

On Sept. 17-18, 1961 U.N. secy.-gen. #2 (since Apr. 10, 1953) Dag Hammarskjold (b. 1905) is killed in a plane crash in Northern Rhodesia on the way to negotiate a ceasefire in the Congo; meanwhile JFK, who has been working with him to create an independent Congo rejects proposals for direct military intervention, preferring to support the U.N. peacekeepers, pissing-off the multinat. corps. who seek to carve the Congo up for themselves, causing JFK to get into a war with the CIA, which has has been arming the secessionists in order to promote Belgian mining interests.

On Sept. 29, 1961 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 165 to admit Sierra Leone; on Oct. 25 it votes 9-0-1 (U.S., China) for Resolution 166 to admit Mongolia; on Oct. 25 it votes 9-1-1 (UAR, U.S.S.R.) for Resolution 167 to admit Mauritania; on Dec. 14 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 170 to admit Tanganyika (Tanzania).

U Thant of Burma (1909-74)

On Nov. 30, 1961 after being appointed to serve-out Dag Hammaskjold's term, U Thant (1909-74) of Burma (known for his mixed Muslim-Buddhist background) is unanimously elected as U.N. secy.-gen. #3 (first non-European and first Asian), getting reelected on Dec. 2, 1966 and serving a record 10 years 1 mo. (3,684 days) (until Dec. 31, 1971) after declining a 3rd term.

On Jan. 15, 1962 Portugal walks out of the U.N. Gen. Assembly during a debate on Angola.

Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria (1916-2012) Ahmed Messali Hadj of Algeria (1898-1974) French Gen. Edmond Jouhaud (1905-95) French Gen. Raoul Salan (1899-1984) Pierre Lagaillarde of France (1931-) Jean-Jacques Susini (1933-) French Gen. Georges-Augustin Bidault (1899-1983) Mohammed Khemisti of Algeria (1930-63)

On Mar. 18, 1962 France and Algeria sign the Evian (Évian) Agreement (Accords) in Evian-les-Bains, France, ending the 7-year Algerian War, with France agreeing to pull out of Algeria, ending 132 years of French rule; on Mar. 19 an armistice in Algeria begins, ending the Algerian War of Independence (begun Nov. 1, 1954), although the OAS continues terrorist attacks against traitor Algerians, exploding a bomb on May 2, killing 110 and injuring 147 total; on Apr. 8 a nat. referendum in France approves the accords by 90%-10%; on May 20 the French begin an airlift to evacuate Europeans from Algiers; on May 29 negotiations between the OAS and FLN cause a real armistice in Algeria, which is signed on June 17; too bad, on June 18 the OAS announces that it will continue to fight; on June 30 the last French Foreign Legion troops leave Algeria; on July 1 Charles de Gaulle recognizes Algerian independence, and on July 3 the U.S. recognizes it; on July 31 Algeria declares independence; war losses since 1954 total 30K French and 1.5M Algerians; 1M Europeans are repatriated; on Sept. 15, 1963 FLN founder (1954) Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (1916-2012) (released from priz soon after the truce is signed, after which he uses Communist tactics to eliminate all opposition) becomes pres. #1 Algerian Socialist Repub. (until June 19, 1965), and is recognized by the U.S. on Sept. 29 even though he openly courts Commie support, and 76 FLN vets are sent to Cuba to train terrorists; longtime Algerian nationalist leader Ahmed Messali Hadj (1898-1974) tries to create a party in opposition to the FLN, and ends up in exile in Paris for life; meanwhile on Mar. 23 de Gaulle orders the French army to stage an all-out war against the French right-wing anti-independence OAS and its four leader generals, causing the arrest of gen. Edmond Jouhaud (1905-95) in Oran on Mar. 24, followed on Apr. 20 by gen. Raoul Albin Louis Salan (1899-1984) in Algiers; on Apr. 13 Jouhaud is sentenced by a military tribunal in Paris to death, followed on May 23 by Salan, who gets it reduced to life in priz, and released in 1968; politician Pierre Lagaillard (1931-), who was arrested in Madrid last Oct. is exiled to the Canary Islands, then pardoned in 1968; Jean-Jacques Susini (1933-) hides out in Italy while attempting to assassinate Charles de Gaulle, getting twice condemned to death in absentia, then returns to France after the 1968 amnesty; in June WWII Resistance leader and PM (1949-50) Gen. Georges-Augustin Bidault (1899-1983) (who claims not to belong to the OAS) is accused of conspiracy against the state and stripped of parliamentary immunity, fleeing to Brazil, followed in 1967 by Belgium, then returning to France in 1968 after an amnesty; it takes until 1999 for France to officially call the "operation to maintain order" a "war"; in 1963 the Soviets send experts to Algeria to rid it of hundreds of thousands of French land mines. On Oct. 8, 1862 new Algerian PM Ben Bella arrives in New York City for Algeria's admission into the U.N., and meets at the Dryden Hotel with Cuban pres. Osvaldo Dorticos Torrado to get some pointers, after which he denounces the U.S. to the U.N. Gen. Assembly; amazingly, Adlai E. Stevenson turns his ears off then praises him for "cutting the chains" holding the people of Algeria down, and pledging U.S. financial support; on Oct. 9 Ben Bella addresses the assembly again, proclaiming Algeria's neutrality but also announcing support for Communist nationalist movements in Africa incl. Angola, Rhodesia, South Africa, and Southwest Africa, and calling for Communist China to be admitted to the U.N.; on Oct. 12 his foreign minister Mohammed Khemisti (1930-63) addresses the assembly, calling Capitalism "inappropriate" and saying that Algeria will take the "Socialist road", praising Castro and denouncing efforts to undermine his regime as a threat to internat. peace, and backing the Soviet position on Berlin, saying the settlement must "recognize the realities of the German situation"; despite this, on Oct. 15 JFK gives Ben Bella a friendly welcome on the South Lawn of the White House (first foreign chief JFK greets there), complete with a 21-gun salute, after which he gets another 21-gun salute in Cuba on Oct 16; despite quarantining Cuba on Oct. 22, JFK goes through with $47.5M in food grains and dairy products, 11K U.S. Army tents, a 60-bed field hospital and other medical assistance, then attempts to cover it up with tricky reasoning, all tracing back to his 1957 Senate resolution for U.S. support of the FLN? - so JFK really is pink right down to his underwear?

On July 26, 1962 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 172 to admit Rwanda; on July 26 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 173 to admit Burundi; on Sept. 12 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 174 to admit Jamaica; on sept. 11 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 175 to admit Trinidad and Tobago; on Oct. 4 it votes 11-0-1 (China) for Resolution 176 to admit Algeria; on Oct. 15 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 177 to admit Uganda.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917-63) and Robert Francis Kennedy (1925-68) of the U.S. Andrei Gromyko of the Soviet Union (1909-89) Adlai Ewing Stevenson II of the U.S. (1900-65) in the U.N., 1962 Valerian Alexandrovich Zorin of the Soviet Union (1902-86) John Albert Scali of the U.S. (1918-95) Alexander Feklisov of the Soviet Union (1914-2007)

It takes a real guy to wear pink? On Oct. 14, 1962 (Sun.) after wasting three weeks photographing the wrong end of the island despite intel reports indicating the real location, CIA U-2s detect Soviet ballistic missiles in Cuba; U.S. Air Force pilot Maj. Richard S. Heyser and CIA contract pilot James A. Barnes Jr. (1929-99) identify missile sites in separate flights; on Oct. 16 Pres. Kennedy is informed of them, beginning the Cuban Missile (Caribbean) Crisis (Scare) on Oct. 16-28 (Tue.-Sun.), forcing nuclear missiles out of Cuba only after bringing the U.S. to DEFCON 2 on Oct. 24 (until Nov. 20), and coming close to World War III; too bad, JFK fails to consult Canadian PM John G. Defenbaker before requesting Canada to put its forces on DEFCON 3 status, pissing him off; on Oct. 16 JFK recites the following verse to the State Dept. after being told of the crisis: "Bullfight critics ranked in rows/ Crowd the enormous plaza full;/ But only one is there who knows,/ And he's the man who fights the bull"; on Oct. 18 JFK meets foreign minister Andrei Andreyevich Gromyko (1909-89); on Oct. 22 (7:00 p.m. EDT) JFK announces an air and naval blockade of Cuba, with the soundbyte: "It shall be the policy of this nation to regard any nuclear missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the Western Hemisphere as an attack by the Soviet Union on the United States, requiring a full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union"; on Oct. 23 U.S. ambassador to the U.N. (1961-5) Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (1900-65) speaks at the U.N. about the Cuba crisis; on Oct. 24 (7:06 p.m. ET) JFK signs Proclamation 3504, officially beginning the U.S. blockade of Cuba (ends ?); on Oct. 25 mouse-turned-lion Stevenson presents photographic evidence of Soviet missile bases in Cuba to the U.N. Security Council, demanding that Soviet ambassador Valerian Alexandrovich Zorin (1902-86) answer regarding Cuban missile bases, uttering the immortal mouse-that-roared soundbyte: "I am prepared to wait for my answer until Hell freezes over"; on Oct. 26 JFK warns Russia that the U.S. will not allow Soviet missiles to remain in Cuba, causing Khrushchev to send a private message offering to remove them in return for a U.S. pledge not to invade; on Oct. 27 (a.m.) Khrushchev sends a public hardliner message to JFK offering to withdraw the missiles if the U.S. closes its bases in Turkey, warning that if the U.S. attacks Cuba they will respond with massive military power, causing RFK and George McBundy to suggest the Trollope Ploy of answering the first note and ignoring the second, while making a private assurance that the bases will be closed; on Oct. 28 after receiving a telegram from Castro reading "We should deliver a nuclear first strike", causing him to tell his son Sergei "That is insane", and a warning from ABC-TV journalist John Albert Scali (1918-95) to Soviet embassy official and KGB station chief (1960-4) Col. Alexander (Aleksandr) Semyonovich Feklisov (1914-2007) that a U.S. invasion is only hours away, Khrushchev informs the U.S. that he has ordered the dismantling of the Soviet missile bases in Cuba, and on Oct. 29 Radio Moscow reports that the Cuban nukes have been deactivated, although they really start doing it on Nov. 1?; the final deal also made the U.S. pledge to not invade Cuba, as suggested by Feklisov?; the missiles were dismantled without Castro's knowledge, later pissing him off?; Khrushchev told JFK that their two countries had knotted the cord between them, and the more they pull the tighter the knot gets, and if the knot has to be cut nobody knows what will happen?; Khrushchev was in a bind, and the U.S. gave him a way out by allowing him to tell his people that he stopped the U.S. from exterminating Cuba?; JFK awards plaques to McNamara et al. with calendars that circle the dates Oct. 16-28; in Nov. Che Guevara utters the soundbyte: "If the missiles had remained, we would have fired them against the very heart of the U.S. including New York. The victory of Socialism is well worth millions of atomic victims"; in Jan. 1992 Fidel Castro tells Robert McNamara: "Of course I knew the missiles were nuclear-armed. That's precisely why I urged Khrushchev to launch them. And of course Cuba would have been utterly destroyed in the exchange"; "My dream is to drop three atomic bombs on New York City" (Raul Castro, Nov. 1960).

On Oct. 31, 1962 the U.N. Gen. Assembly asks Britain to suspend enforcement of the new racist 1961 Southern Rhodesian Constitution, but they waffle and it goes into effect on Nov. 1, after which on Nov. 6 U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 1761 calls for sanctions to be imposed on pesky South Africa and its racist apartheid policies, calling on member states to discontinue economic and military relations with them.

On Dec. 16, 1963 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 184 to admit Zanzibar; on Dec. 16 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 185 to admit Kenya.

On Jan. 20, 1964 Pakistan calls for an immediate meeting of the U.S. Security Council to consider the situation in Kashmir; on Jan. 24 India blames Pakistan for stirring up trouble, and asks for direct negotiations; on Feb. 17 the Security Council suspends debate on Kashmir at the request of Pakistani foreign minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.

On Mar. 29, 1964 after numerous Egyptian-backed guerrilla attacks, the British RAF under Capt. Edwards attacks a fort in Yemen, killing 25, during which Edwards and Sapper John Warburton are captured and beheaded and their heads displayed in Sana'a, causing the U.N. Security Council to vote 9-0-2 (U.K., U.S.) on Apr. 9 to adopt Resolution 188 condemning it, after which PM Harold Wilson announces his intention to hand over power to the Federation of South Arabia in 1968, with the British military remaining; too bad, there are 280 guerrilla attacks this year, and 500+ next year, causing the British to announce in 1966 that all forces will be withdrawn at independence.

In Mar. 1964 the phrase "Zionism = Racism" is born at the U.N. Subcommission on the Prevention and Discrimination and the Protection of Minorities after the U.S. proposes that anti-Semitism be recognized as a form of racism, and the anti-Semitic Soviet Union counters next Oct. by reversing the equation.

Ian Douglas Smith of Rhodesia (1919-) Herbert Chitepo of Zimbabwe (1923-75)

On Apr. 13, 1964 the pro-white Rhodesian Front Party of Ian Douglas Smith (1919-) is elected to power in Southern Rhodesia, and he becomes PM of Southern Rhodesia (until Nov. 11, 1965, then PM of Rhodesia until June 1, 1979). On Nov. 11, 1965 the 5% white minority Repub. of Rhodesia does a United States of America and formally declares its independence from Britain via the Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI), with Ian Douglas Smith as PM #1 (until June 1, 1979); on Nov. 12 the U.N. Security Council votes 10-0-1 (France) to adopt Resolution 216, condemning the UDI as "made by a racist minority" and calling on all member states to refuse to recognize or render assistance to it; Britain, which insists on the No Independence Before Majority Rule (NIBMAR) refuses to recognize it, and on Nov. 20 the U.N. Security Council votes 10-1-1 (France) to adopt Resolution 217, calling for a boycott along with the use of force by the U.K., which Zambia (former Northern Rhodesia) supports, causing Rhodesia to deprive it of their trade route through their territory. On Dec. 18, 1965 nine states break off diplomatic relations with Britain for not using force against Rhodesia. On Dec. 28, 1965 the U.S. bans oil sales to Rhodesia. On Jan. 10, 1966 a meeting of Commonwealth heads of govt. in Lagos, Nigeria on pesky Rhodesia condemns its "political system based on racial discrimination" as "an outrageous violation of the fundamental principles of human rights" that is of "wider concern to Africa, the Commonwealth and the world", after which a committee is set up to monitor it. On Jan. 31, 1966 Britain ceases all trade with Rhodesia. On Mar. 18, 1966 the U.S. Dept. of Commerce orders economic sanctions against Rhodesia, prohibiting exports of useful items. On Apr. 7, 1966 after the British Beira Patrol muffs its interception of Greek oil tanker Joanna V headed for Beira, Rhodesia, Britain asks the U.N. Security Council for authority to use force against oil tankers violating their embargo against Rhodesia; on Apr. 9 they vote 10-0-5 (Bulgaria, France, Mali, Uruguay, U.S.S.R.) to adopt Resolution 221 aimed at blocking it, calling on U.K. to use force if necessary, but limiting the blockade to Beira and only by the Royal Navy, allowing other toil tankers with oil for Rhodesia to dock at other Mozambican ports; on May 12 the African members of the council call for the British army to blockade all of Rhodesia. On Apr. 27, 1966 the ZANU Rebellion (Second Chimurenga) (ends 1980) begins in white-run Rhodesia as the Zimbabwe African Nat. Liberation Army (ZANLA) (formed in 1965), led by Herbert Wiltshire Pfumaindini Chitepo (1923-75) battles Rhodesian forces, who kill seven ZANLA men. On July 12, 1966 Zambia threatens to leave the British Commonwealth over its peace overtures to Rhodesia, causing Rhodesia to cut off its trade route, after which the U.S., Britain, and Canada organize an airlift to ship gasoline into Zambia; next year Britain agrees to finance new trade routes for Zambia. In Sept. 1966 a 2nd meeting of Commonwealth heads on Rhodesia (first in Jan.) is held, issuing a communique supporting Britain's objections to using force, which Tanzanian pres. Julius Nyerere refuses to sign. On Nov. 5, 1966 38 African states demand that Britain use force against Rhodesia. On Dec. 2, 1966 British PM Harold Wilson negotiates with Rhodesian PM Ian Smith on the HMS Tiger in the Mediterranean, agreeing to black majority rule within 15 years; too bad, the British govt. rejects the agreement on Dec. 5,, and appeals on Dec. 6 for U.N. sanctions. On Dec. 16, 1966 the U.N. Security Council approves an oil embargo against Rhodesia, and adopts the Internat. Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Internat. Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; on Dec. 17 South Africa refuses to participate, causing British PM Harold Wilson on Dec. 20 to withdraw all his offers to Rhodesia and announce that he will only agree to independence after a black majority govt. is founded; Portugal also refuses to participate. On Feb. 27-Mar. 4, 1967 the Org. of African Unity (OAU) meets, urging the use of force to end South Africa's mandate over South-West Africa (Namibia) and topple the Ian Smith regime in Rhodesia.

On Oct. 9, 1964 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 195 to admit Malawi; on Oct. 30 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 196 to admit Malta; on Oct. 30 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 197 to admit Zambia.

Gen. Suharto of Indonesia (1921-2008) Pramoedya Ananta Toer of Indonesia (1925-2006)

Sukarno no, Suharto go? On Jan. 2, 1965 after getting pissed-off at the seating of its neighbor enemy Malaysia on the U.N. Security Council, Indonesia becomes the first nation to withdraw from the U.N. (resuming membership next year after a peace agreement), and on Mar. 19 it nationalizes all foreign oil cos.; on Sept. 30-Oct. 1 a coup by junior military officers in Jakarta kills six generals, and is crushed by Pres. Sukarno, after which Java-born Muslim Gen. Suharto (Soeharto) (1921-2008) stages a military coup against Sukarno, becoming pres. #2 of Indonesia on Mar. 12, 1967 (until May 21, 1998); on Oct. 20 Suharto begins mass arrests of Communists after blaming them for the coup, outlawing the Communist Party then massacring 500K-1M peasants, workers, students and activists by next year, with the CIA furnishing 5K names of Communist leaders, while using his Golkar Party (founded Oct. 20, 1964) to rule with an iron hand, proclaiming the New Order (ends 1998), banning celebration of the Chinese New Year and other Chinese culture in an effort to force assimilation of mainly rich Chinese Indonesians (5% of the pop.); Indonesian leftist writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer (1925-2006), known for being sympathetic to the Indonesian Chinese is imprisoned on Buru Island without charges until 1979, then kept under house arrest until 1992; in 1979 his 4-part novel Buru Quartet is pub., getting banned by the govt. and making him a poster boy for human rights and free speech advocates; the 1983 Mel Gibson film "The Year of Living Dangerously" is set in the 1965 Indonesian civil war.

On Mar. 15, 1965 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0- for Resolution 200 to admit Gambia; on Sept. 20 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 212 to admit Maldives; on Sept. 20 it votes 11-0-0 for Resolution 213 to admit Singapore.

Arthur Joseph Goldberg of the U.S. (1908-90)

On July 28, 1965 after being nominated by Pres. Johnson, liberal assoc. justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (since Sept. 28, 1962) Arthur Joseph Goldberg (1908-90) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #6 (until June 24, 1968), laboring under an exaggerated opinion of his abilities to end the Vietnam War, along with the expectation of being reappointed to the court and/or backed as the first Jewish pres. of the U.S., with the soundbyte: "I thought I could persuade Johnson that we were fighting the wrong war in the wrong place."

On Aug. 5, 1965 the undeclared Indo-Pakistani (Kashmir) War of 1965 (ends Sept. 23) begins with India charging Pakistan with infiltrating with irregulars, after which on Aug. 6 Indian forces cross the ceasefire line in an offensive toward Lahore, winning their first major mountain battle on Aug. 14-15, after which the Pakistanis counterattack around Tithwal, Uri, and Punch, causing an Indian thrust into Azad Kashmir, capturing the key pass of Haji Pir 5 mi. inside the Pakistan border; on Sept. 1-19 72 Pakistani tanks and two infantry brigades counterattack in Punjab, catching the Indians unprepared and causing heavy losses, causing Indian air counterattacks, which Pakistan copies on Sept. 2, followed on Sept. 6 by a paratrooper raid of Punjab; on Sept. 4 the U.N. Security Council unanimously adopts Resolution 209, calling for a ceasefire and cooperation with the U.N. Military Observer Group in Pakistan; on Sept. 6 the U.N. Security Council unanimously adopts Resolution 210 calling for a ceasefire in Kashmir, on Sept. 8 Britain bans arms supplies to India, while the U.S. lends military aid to both sides, despite a Pakistani loan agreement with Communist China; on Sept. 20 the U.N. Security Council votes to approve Resolution 211 calling for a ceasefire on Sept. 22 at 07:00 GMT, with both sides withdrawing to their pre-Aug. 5 positions, which is accepted by both sides by Sept. 22, and marked by frequent violations for months, with India having control of two-thirds of Kashmir, after a total of 3K Indians and 3.8K Pakistanis are KIA.

On June 21, 1966 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 223 to admit Guyana; on Oct. 14 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 224 to admit Botswana; on Oct. 14 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 225 to admit Lesotho; on Dec. 7 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 230 to admit Barbados.

On Dec. 16, 1966 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-4 (Bulgaria, France, Mali, U.S.S.R.) to adopt Security Resolution 232, approving an embargo against Rhodesia of asbestos, iron ore, pig iron, chrome, sugar, tobacco, copper, animal products, oil and oil products, arms, ammo, military vehicles and aircraft, and equipment and material for the manufacture of arms and ammo, and adopts the Internat. Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Internat. Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; on Dec. 17 South Africa refuses to participate, causing British PM Harold Wilson on Dec. 20 to withdraw all his offers to Rhodesia and announce that he will only agree to independence after a black majority govt. is founded; Portugal also refuses to participate.

In 1966 the U.N. passes two Internat. Human Rights Covenants and presents them to the U.S. for signing, but the latter cites Cold War concerns and refuses (one of them is ratified in 1992); meanwhile the U.S. is busy propping up repressive regimes around the world merely because they claim to be anti-Communist: Bolivia, Chile, Guatemala, Haiti, Iran, Liberia, Pakistan, Paraguay, Somalia, South Africa, South Korea, South Vietnam, Sudan, Zaire et al. The U.N. adds four 2-year-term non-permanent seats to the U.N. Security Council to go with the five permanent seats (U.S., Soviet Union, U.K., France, Taiwan); in 1971 Red China replaces Taiwan, and in 1991 the Russian Federation replaces the Soviet Union.

Arthur Joseph Goldberg of the U.S. (1908-90)

On Nov. 22, 1967 (JFK Assassination Day) the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 to approve Resolution 242, calling for Israel to withdraw from territories it captured in the Six-Day War, an end to belligerency, and recognition of the right of every state in the area "to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries", while implicitly calling on adversaries to recognize Israel's right to exist; U.S. ambassador #6 to the U.N. (since July 28, 1965) Arthur Joseph Goldberg (1908-90) (drafter of the resolution) utters the soundbyte: "I never described Jerusalem as occupied territory... Resolution 242 in no way refers to Jerusalem, and this omission was deliberate", and "It can be inferred from the incorporation of the words secure and recognized boundaries that the territorial adjustments to be made by the parties in their peace settlements could encompass less than a complete withdrawal of Israeli forces from occupied territories"; the principle of land for peace becomes the basis of all future peace agreements between Israel and the Arabs until ?

On Dec. 12, 1967 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 243 to admit Yemen.

Antonin Novotny of Czechoslovakia (1904-75) Alexander Dubcek of Czechoslovakia (1921-92) Ludvik Svoboda of Czechoslovakia (1895-1979) Oldrich Cernik of Czechoslovakia (1921-94)

Let's forget the past, or, Your mouth, mouth, mouth? Czechoslovakia plays cat and mouse with the Soviet Bear and gets eaten? On Jan. 5, 1968 the Prague Spring begins when Leonid Brezhnev replaces repressive (since 1957) Antonin Novotny (1904-75) as first secy. of the Czech Communist Party with indubitably liberal Alexander Dubcek (1921-92) (until Apr. 17, 1969); on Mar. 22 Dubcek announces liberal dem. reforms to implement "Socialism with a human face"; on Mar. 30 (as a hedge or a cover-story?); Moravian-born Communist hardliner war hero Ludvik Svoboda (1895-1979) is elected Czech pres. #8 (until May 28, 1975), then on Apr. 7 centrist fuel minister (son of a miner) Oldrich Cernik (1921-94) becomes PM (until Jan. 28, 1970); on Apr. 19 the secy. of the nat. assembly promises rehabilitation of political prisoners and freedom of the press, assembly and religion, and on June 27 does as promised; both Dubcek and Svoboda turn down invites to conferences in Moscow and Warsaw, although they receive support from Tito of Yugoslavia and Ceausescu of Romania - what's that creaking noise on the frontier?

On Apr. 18, 1968 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 249 to admit Mauritius; on Sept. 11 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 257 to admit Swaziland; on Nov. 6 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 260 to admit Equatorial Guinea.

On May 29, 1968 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 to adopt Resolution 253, blockading Southern Rhodesia and requesting member nations to end trade and travel relations, condemning the recent "inhuman executions carried out by the illegal regime in Southern Rhodesia which have flagrantly affronted the conscience of mankind."

George Wildman Ball of the U.S. (1909-94)

On June 26, 1968 Des Moines, Iowa-born former undersecy. of state for economic affairs in the Kennedy admin. (1961-8) George Wildman Ball (1909-94), known for Ball's Rule of Power "Nothing propinks like propinquity", and who was called crazy by JFK for suggesting that the Vietnamese War one day might need up to 300K troops, then helped overthrow Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem replaces resigning Arthur J. Goldberg as U.S. ambassador to the U.N. #7 (until Sept. 25), becoming known for his pro-Israel quotes incl. "Until 1956, Americans treated Israel not much differently from other friendly states", "Yet the wonder of it all is that, while engaged in a seemingly endless struggle, the Israelis have managed to turn a desert into a garden"; "Most Americans approach the problems of the Middle East with a pro-Israeli bias, and rightly so", "Not only must Americans admire Israel, there can be no doubt that we have an interest in, and special responsibility for, that valiant nation", and "The question is no longer whether the United States should contribute to assuring Israel's survival and prosperity; that goes without saying."

On July 1, 1968 the U.S., Britain, and U.S.S.R. sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons), drafted by Alfonso Garcia Robles of Mexico, pledging to refrain from helping any non-nuclear country get nukes; 59 other nations soon sign it, with France and Communist China holding out until 1992, and India, Pakistan, and Israel holding out until ?; the Soviet invasion of Czech. causes the U.S. Senate to delay ratification until Mar. 5, 1970, and in 1995 the 174-nation U.N. votes to extend it indefinitely - are you ready for hearts on fire?

Czech Invasion, Aug. 11, 1968 Gustav Husak of Czechoslovakia (1913-91) Soviet Adm. Nikolai G. Kuznetsov (1904-74) Vladimir Maximov (1930-95)

Every spring the toilets explode? Prague Spring yes, Hungarian Summer no? On Aug. 20, 1968 (night) fearing a Hungarian-copycat rev., the Soviets announce new military maneuvers along the Czech border, and in the early hours of Aug. 20/21 200K forces (incl. 5K tanks) of the Warsaw Pact (Soviet Union, Bulgaria, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, but not Romania) stage the 1968 Czech Invasion (AKA Operation Danube) to prevent the new govt. of Alexander Dubcek from carrying out promised dem. reforms; Dubcek and other members of the Czech Presidium incl. PM Oldrich Cernik are arrested to take them to the Kremlin (Dubcek is making a phone call, and Russian parachutists tear the phone from his hands and cut the cord); occupation forces are increased to 650K; Hollywood child star Shirley Temple Black (1928-) is in Prague during the invasion, and leads the first car of a convoy of Westerners to the Czech border; after PC pres. Ludvik Svoboda lobbies on their behalf, the arrested leaders return to Prague on Aug. 27 and announce reversal of their reforms, then on Aug. 28 Slovak anti-reform deputy PM Gustav Husak (1913-91) takes over from duped Czech, er, Dubcek as first secy. of the Czech Communist Party, taking office next Apr. 17 (until Dec. 12, 1987); after Soviet foreign minister Adm. Nikolai Gerasimovich Kuznetsov (1904-74) arrives in Prague, Dubcek bans political clubs on Sept. 6, Czech authorities introduce a censorship system on Sept. 13, and the foreign minister who presented the Czech case at the U.N. resigns under pressure on Sept. 19; Soviet writer Vladimir Emelyanovich Maximov (originally Lev Alekseyvich Samsonov) (1930-95) resigns as ed. of the Communist lit. journal Oktyabr to protest the Czech invasion. On Aug. 23the Soviet Union casts its 105th U.N. Security Council veto to block a resolution condemning its own invasion of Czech.

James Russell Wiggins of the U.S. (1903-2000)

On Oct. 7, 1968 after being appointed by lame duck Pres. Johnson, Luverne, Minn.-born managing ed. of The Washington Post (since 1947) James Russell Wiggins (1903-2000) (known for ending racial IDs in news articles) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #8 (until Jan. 20, 1969), replacing George W. Ball, who resigned on Sept. 25 to advise Hubert H. Humphrey on foreign policy.

On Nov. 1, 1968 the U.N. Gen. Assembly elects Colombia, Finland, Nepal, Spain, and Zambia to replace Brazil, Denmark, India, Canada, and Ethiopia on the U.N. Security Council in 1969-71.

On Dec. 26, 1968 Arab terrorists fire on an Israeli airliner in Athens, killing one passenger; on Dec. 28 Israeli heli-borne commandos retaliate by bombing Beirut Internat. Airport, destroying 13 Lebanese airliners; on Dec. 31 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 262 condemning Israel for the attack.

Charles Woodruff Yost of the U.S. (1907-81)

On Jan. 23, 1969 after being appointed by Pres. Nixon, Watertown, N.Y.-born Dem. diplomat Charles Woodruff Yost (1907-81) (ambassador to Thailand in 1946, Laos in 1954-6, Syria in 1958, and Morocco in 1958-61) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #9 (until Feb. 25, 1971), resigning to concentrate on writing, visiting Red China in 1973 and 1977 and becoming co-chmn. of Americans for Salt II in 1979.

On Oct. 10, 1970 the South Pacific island group of Fiji declares independence after 96 years of British rule; on Oct. 10 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 287 to admit Fiji.

On Feb. 10, 1971 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 292 to admit Bhutan; on Aug. 18 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 296 to admit Bahrain; on Sept. 15 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 297 to admit Qatar; on Sept. 30 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 299 to admit Oman; on Dec. 8 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 304 to admit the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

George Herbert Walker Bush of the U.S. (1924-)

On Mar. 1, 1971 after being appointed by Pres. Nixon and unanimously confirmed by the U.S. Senate, Milton, Mass.-born U.S. Rep. (R-Tex.) (since Jan. 3, 1967) George Herbert Walker Bush (1924-) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #10 (until Jan. 3, 1971).

Sheik Mujibur Rahman of Bangladesh (1920-75)

Muslim Pakistan, split in two by Hindu India finally becomes two Muslim nations with India's help? On Mar. 1, 1971 Pakistani pres. Agha Mohammad Yahya Khan postpones the opening of the country's first popularly elected nat. assembly over a disagreement over the proposed new all-Pakistan constitution; meanwhile after the Bengal-based Awani League wins 167 of 313 seats, a revolt in East Pakistan simmers, with widespread riots and strikes; on Mar. 7 Bengali Sheik Mujibur Rahman (1920-75) of the Awami League gives a historic speech at the Race Course Ground in Dhaka (Dacca) before 1M, calling for civil disobedience and armed resistance, resulting in murders of non-Bengalis, pissing-off Yahya Khan, who calls him a traitor and on Mar. 25 orders the army sent in under bloody Operation Searchlight, which becomes known for systematically raping hundreds of thousands of Bengali women to make them unmarriageable, causing many suicides, assisted by the fanatical local Muslim paramilitary Razakars (Pers. "volunteers"), who consider that dismemberment of "Pure" Muslim Pakistan would be an offense against Islam itself; on Mar. 26 (midnight) East Pakistan proclaims independence, and Rahman is arrested and hauled off to Faisalabad (Lyallpur), West Pakistan (until Jan. 8, 1972), beginning the Bangladesh Liberation War (ends Dec. 17); on Apr. 25 the new bang-a-dish country takes the name Bengali Dish, er, Bangladesh ("Country of Bengal") (modern pop. 150M) (#7 most populous country on Earth), with capital at Dhaka (Dacca) (modern pop. 6.7M/12.3M) on the Buriganga River, known as the "the City of Mosques", with 90% of the country being Muslims (96% Sunni, 3% Shiite), and 9% Hindus; despite an Apr. 2 plea from the U.S., Soviet Union and other nations to settle it peacefully, Indian-Pakistani troops clash along the East Pakistani frontier on Apr. 24-25; 200K-3M East Bengalis are eventually killed in the fighting, while 8M-10M refugees flee to India; on Aug. 1 (7:00 p.m.) (Sun.) the Concert for Bangladesh is held by ex-Beatle George Harrison in Madison Square Garden in New York City, with help from Bob Dylan, Ravi Shankar, Eric Clapton, Ringo Starr, Billy Preston, Leon Russell, Badfinger et al., to a crowd of 40K, becoming the first large benefit concert in history; it raises $243,418.51, which is administered by UNICEF, after which sales of the triple album and concert film bring in more bucks; on Dec. 6 after failing to come to an agreement, the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0-4 for Resolution 303 (France, Poland, U.K., U.S.S.R.) referring the matter to the U.N. Gen. Assembly; meanwhile the Pakistani govt. begins persecuting the 5K-sq.-mi. Chittagong Hill Tracts, committing genocidal acts against its mainly Buddhist pop. while attempting to resettle the area with Bengalis, killing 10K in 1980-97.

On Oct. 25, 1971 over the objection of the U.S. by a 76-35 vote (17 abstentions), U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolution 2758 recognizes the People's Repub. of China (PRC) (Red China) as the sole lawful representative to the U.N.; they also vote "to expel forthwith the representatives of Chang Kai-shek from the place which they unlawfully occupy at the United Nations"; on Nov. 15 the PRC is seated at the U.N. for the first time, taking the Repub. of China's seat on the U.N. Security Council.

Kurt Josef Waldheim of Austria (1918-2007)

On Dec. 21, 1971 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 306 to appoint crypto-Nazi Kurt Josef Waldheim (1918-2007), Austria's permanent rep. to the U.N. to succeed U Thant as U.N. secy.-gen. #4; he takes office on Jan. 1, 1972 (until Dec. 31, 1981).

Maurice Strong of Canada (1929-2015)

On June 5-6, 1972 after 152 experts from 58 countries submit data for the report "Only One Earth: The Care and Maintenance of a Small Planet", the U.N. Conference on the Human Environment of reps. from 114 nations (with the slogan "Only One Earth") meets in Stockholm, Sweden, and agrees on 200 points regarding environmental improvement, a declaration of principles, and a plan for a permanent secretariat to coordinate progress; China insists that pop. is not a world problem; China and France insist on the right to stage atmospheric nuclear tests; the U.S. refuses to spend money on internat. environmental problems; the U.N. founds the U.N. Environment Programme in Nairobi, Kenya (first U.N. agency with HQ in the Third World), with Socialist Canadian oil exec ("Father of the Global Environmental Movement") Maurice Frederick Strong (1929-2015) as dir. #1 (until 1976), who utters the soundbyte: "We may get to the point where the only way of saving the world will be for industrial civilization to collapse"; too bad, his real agenda is pop. reduction via abortion et al., fueled by his devotion to New Age pagan religion, run from the New Age Manitou Centre on the 200K-acre Baca Ranch near Crestone, Colo. (founded 1978), which spawns several other pagan centers.

John Albert Scali (1918-95)

On Feb. 20, 1973 Canton, Ohio-born ABC-TV journalist John Albert Scali (1918-95) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #11 (until June 29, 1975).

On June 22, 1973 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 335 to admit East and West Germany; on July 18 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 336 to admit the Bahamas.

Israeli Gen. Avigdor Kahalani (1944-) Ahmed Zaki Yamani of Saudi Arabia (1930-) Israeli Gen. David Elazar (1925-76)

Drop your matzohs, it's time to fight again? The U.S. backing of Israel causes a 2nd mini-Armageddon after the first one in 1967 didn't phase it, and this time it feels it? The definition of intelligence failure? On Oct. 6, 1973 (Sat.) (Yom Kippur) (2:00 p.m.) after Saudia Arabia and the other OPEC nations double the price of oil to $3.07 a barrel and cut back production, and Libya nationalizes foreign-owned oil assets, and Egyptian troops stage a fake drill on May 27 to lull the Israelis into complacency, and on Sept. 13 Israel shoots down 13 Syrian fighter jets after being attacked first, causing Egypt and Syria to have an excuse to put their armies on alert on Oct. 1, which the Israelis underestimate, Egypt and Syria start the Yom Kippur (Ramadan) (October) (Fourth Arab-Israeli) War (ends Oct. 25) with Israel to regain the Sinai and the Golan Heights "like the wolf on the fold" (Lord Byron) a 1.2K-tank 50K-man Syrian army, supported by counter-battery artillery fire and a Soviet-made SAM-6 network attacks Israel's Purple Line (180 tanks) on the Golan Heights, outnumbering the two Israeli brigades, the 7th on the N and the Barak (Thunderbolt) on the S by 9-1; under the leadership of Lt. Col. (later brig. gen.) Avigdor Kahalani (1944-) the Barak Brigade is broken in the "Valley of Tears" and the Syrians race towards the Sea of Galilee, but are turned back on Oct. 7; meanwhile on Oct. 6-8 Egyptian tanks cross the Bar-Lev Line and establish a bridgehead on the E bank of the Suez Canal, but are stopped and turned back by Oct. 11 despite the arrival of Iraqi reinforcements after anti-tank and other weapons are rushed in by the U.S.; on Oct. 12 the Israelis push to within 18 mi. of Damascus; on Oct. 13 Jordanian troops arrive to defend Damascus; on Oct. 14 Israeli tanks rout the Egyptian army, destroying 250 Egyptian tanks while losing only 25 of their own; on Oct. 15 Israeli tanks under Gen. Ariel Sharon (who resigned from the army in July to form the right-wing Likud Party, and is recalled) cross to the W bank of the canal and fight the Battle of the Chinese Farm (ends Oct. 17), and poise to encircle the Egyptian Third Army, while on Oct. 15 Moscow announces that it will assist the Egyptians "in every way" to regain the territory lost in 1967; on Oct. 16 after Pres. Nixon forgets his anti-Semitism and asks Congress to authorize emergency aid for Israel, and Saudi oil minister (1962-86) Ahmed Zaki Yamani (1930-) spurs it to quadruple the price of crude, OPEC announces the Second Arab Oil Embargo (ends Mar. 18, 1974) (first in 1967) to the U.S. and other countries supporting Israel, raising the price of oil another 70% to $5.11 a barrel, which Arab ministers agree to on Oct. 17, agreeing to cut production in 5% increments until their objectives are met; over the opposition of defense secy. James Schlesinger and state secy. Henry Kissinger, who tries to delay it for fear of offending the Russians, with the soundbyte: "We are going to get blamed just as much for three planes as for three hundred... Use every [plane] we have, everything that will fly", Nixon bulldogs Operation Nickel Grass into high gear, flying 567 airlift missions that deliver 22K tons of supplies, plus another 90K tons by sea; upon hearing of the airlift, Israeli PM Golda Meir cries; meanwhile on Oct. 17 four Arab foreign ministers meet with Pres. Nixon in Washington, D.C. to urge mediation; on Oct. 17 Soviet PM Alexei Kosygin meets with Anwar Sadat in Cairo, and on Oct. 19 Nixon publicly proposes a $2.2B military aid package for Israel, ccausing Libya, Saudi Arabia and the other Arab states to join the embargo by Oct. 20, and after Netherland is added to the embargoed nations, oil prices rise to $12 a barrel, triggering recessions and inflation that last until the early 1980s, with oil prices continuing to rise until 1986; on Oct. 20 Henry Kissinger meets in Moscow with Leonid Brezhnev, uttering the soundbyte "The Arabs can get guns from the Russians, but they can get their territory back only from us"; on Oct. 22 the joint U.S.-Soviet Resolution 338 calling for a ceasefire receives a 14-0-0 (China) vote in the U.N. Security Council, but fighting resumes 12 hours later, and on Oct. 23 they vote 14-0-1 (China) for Resolution 339, calling for a new ceasefire to be agreed by Israel and Egypt on Oct. 24; on Oct. 25 the U.S. Nat. Security Council votes 14-0-1 (China) for Resolution 340 demanding a ceasefire and a return to positions occupied on Oct. 22 at 16:50 GMT, setting up a U.N. Emergency Force II (UNEF II) (ends July 1979), with permanent council members excluded, causing the U.S. to put its forces on precautionary alert while Nixon is moping about the Watergate affair, but after the U.S. detects plutonium on Soviet ships in the Mediterranean and fears Soviet intervention, Nixon calls Brezhnev on the Hot Line and negotiates a mutual pullback, causing the ceasefire to hold after 18 days of fighting, ending the war on Oct. 25 with 7.5K Egyptians, 7.3K Syrians, and 4.1K Israelis KIA; on Oct. 7 at 3:55 a.m. Operation Joshua (arming an A-4 Skyhawk jet with nuclear-tipped missiles?) is ordered at an Israeli AF base in Beersheba, but countermanded?; after Syrian missile batteries in Lebanon take a heavy toll on their fighter jets, Israel develops the first modern unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); on Nov. 21 the Israeli Agranat Commission convenes to investigate why the military wasn't prepared for the invasion, and ends up blaming chief of staff (1972-4) Gen. David "Dado" Elazar (1925-76), even though military intel chief Eli Zeira and defense minister Moshe Dayan blocked his requests for a callup of reserves on Oct. 5 plus a preemptive air strike at 11:00 a.m. on Oct. 6, causing him to soon die of a heart attack (broken heart?) - what did Churchill say you get when you put the bravest military heroes at a table together, the sum of their fears?

On June 10, 1974 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 351 to admit Bangladesh; on June 21 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 352 to admit Grenada; on Aug. 12 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 356 to admit Guinea-Bissau.

Yasser Arafat of Palestine (1929-2004)

On Nov. 13, 1974 the U.N. Question of Palestine Debate features PLO chmn. Yasser Arafat (1929-2004) (picked by an Arab summit over King Hussein I of Jordan) addressing the U.N. Gen. Assembly wearing a fatigue uniform complete with pistol, giving a speech calling for "one democratic state" to replace Israel, after which Israeli chief delegate Yosef "Joe" Tekoah (1926-91) denounces his speech; on Nov. 22 the U.N. passes U.N. Gen. Assembly Resolutions 3326 and 3327, recognizing "the right of the Palestinian people to regain its rights by all means in accordance with the purposes and principles of the U.N. Charter", and giving the PLO status as their rep, with U.N. observer status; European Community countries support the continued existence of Israel; meanwhile left-wing secular Palestinian radical rejectionist (rejecting a peaceful settlement with Israel) Abu Nidal (Arab. "Father of the Struggle") (real name Sabri Khalil al-Banna) (1937-2002) founds the Abu Nidal ("father of struggle") Org. (ANO) after being expelled from Yasser Arafat's Fatah faction in the PLO in Mar., going on to orchestrate random cruelty attacks in 20 countries that kill or injure 900+, calling himself "the Father of Jihad", with the soundbyte "I am the evil spirit of the secret services. I am the evil spirit which moves around only at night causing them nightmares" - love stinks?

Daniel Patrick Moynihan of the U.S. (1927-2003)

On June 30, 1975 after being appointed by Pres. Ford, Tulsa, Okla.-born U.S. ambassador to India (since Feb. 28, 1973) Daniel Patrick Moynihan (1927-2003) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #12 (until Feb. 2, 1976), going on to become a vocal critic of U.N. Security Council Resolution 3379 declaring Zionism to be racism, making him a star, despite pissing-off Henry Kissinger, who accuses him of confusing foreign policy with a synagogue; he also shamelessly panders Pres. Ford's line that since Indonesia is a key ally against Communism, their 1975 invasion of East Timor is okay, successfully preventing U.N. Security Council action.

The original Dili Dili? On July 17, 1975 86% Muslim Indonesia seals its occupation of 97% Roman Catholic East Timor (a half-island 1.2K mi. from Jakarta and 400 mi. from Australia) with a formal annexation; on Aug. 11 a civil war between the UDT and Fretilin causes gov. Mario Lemos Pires to flee the capital Dili; on Nov. 28 Portuguese colonial rule collapses, and East Timor proclaims independence; on Dec. 5 U.S. secy. of state Henry Kissinger leaves Indonesia after visiting with pres. Suharto and giving tacit approval to a Dec. 7 invasion of East Timor by Indonesia (ends July 17, 1976), which leaves 200K of 600K dead (many of starvation) after a prolonged genocide that the world turns its back on, with appeals to the U.N. getting nowhere and U.N. observers prevented from visiting guerrillas, who fight on in the jungles for the next 24 years (until Oct. 1999).

On Aug. 18, 1975 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 372 to admit Cape Verde; on Aug. 18 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 373 to admit Sao Tome and Principe; on Aug. 18 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 374 to admit Mozambique; on Sept. 22 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 375 to admit Papua New Guinea; on Oct. 17 it votes 14-0-1 (France) for Resolution 376 to admit Comoros; on Dec. 1 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 382 to admit Suriname.

On Nov. 10, 1975 by 72-35-32 the infamous Arab-sponsored U.N. General Assembly Resolution 3379 (co-sponsored by Fidel Castro) is adopted, equating Zionism with racism, as if wanting to live in one's ancestral homeland after two thousand years of suffering racism is racist, and wanting pesky hate-filled Muslim locust Arabs to resettle in Arab lands with others of the same mental sickness instead of fighting their attempts at setting up Muslim superiority Sharia where Jews have to pay a yearly jizya tax just to not be murdered is racial discrimination, when they're all the same race and it's about religious ideology; of course it causes a worldwide Jewish outcry, with U.S. ambassador Daniel Patrick Moynihan saying that the U.S. will never "acquiesce in this infamous act"; it is revoked on Dec. 16, 1991, becoming the first and only resolution the U.N. revoked (until ?).

William Warren Scranton of the U.S. (1917-2013)

On Mar. 15, 1976 after being nominated by Pres. Ford, Repub. Penn. gov. #38 (1963-7) William Warren Scranton (1917-2013) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #13 (until Jan. 19, 1977).

On Aug. 16, 1976 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 394 to admit Seychelles; on Dec. 1 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 399 to admit Western Samoa.

causing Pres. Carter to rebuke him and the White House to disavow his views; he is forced to resign after meeting with a rep of the PLO against U.S. policy. On Jan. 30, 1977 after being appointed by Pres. Carter on Dec. 16, New Orleans, La.-born U.S. Rep. (D-Ga.) (since Jan. 3, 1973) Andrew Jackson Young Jr. (1932-) (former friend of MLK Jr., who was with him when he was assassinated in Memphis, Tenn. in 1968) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #14 (first African-Am.) (until Sept. 23, 1979), going on to become Atlanta, Ga. mayor #55 in 1982-90. On July 12, 1978 he compares Soviet dissidents to U.S. civil rights activists, and utters the soundbyte that there are "political prisoners in both countries", causing Pres. Carter to rebuke him and the White House to disavow his views; he is forced to resign after meeting with a rep of the PLO against U.S. policy.

On July 7, 1977 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 412 to admit Djibouti; on July 20 it adopts Resolution 413 by consensus to admit Vietnam.

On Nov. 4, 1977 the U.N. Security Council votes unanimously to adopt Resolution 418, imposing a mandatory arms embargo on South Africa; on Nov. 28, 1986 it unanimously adopts Resolution 591, strengthening the embargo; on May 25, 1994 it unanimously adopts Resolution 919, recalling all resolutions on South Africa.

On Aug. 17, 1978 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 433 to admit the Solomon Islands; on Dec. 6 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 442 to admit Dominica.

Douglas McHenry of the U.S. (1936-)

On Aug. 23, 1979 (night) hunky Soviet ballet dancer Alexander Godunov (1949-95) defects while the Bolshoi Ballet is on tour in New York City; he only has 75 cents in his pocket; on Aug. 25 his wife Russian ballerina Lyudmila Iosifovna Vlasova (1942-) is prevented from taking off to Moscow from New York City in a Soviet airliner because U.S. secy. of state Warren Christopher suspects she is being deported involuntarily; after negotiations with U.S. diplomat Donald McHenry, she is allowed to talk to U.S. reps. in a mobile lounge, convincing them she is not under coercion, and allowed to take off; on Sept. 23 after being appointed by Pres. Carter St. Louis, Mo.-born Dem. diplomat Donald Franchot McHenry (1936-) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #15 (until Jan. 20, 1981), becoming the 2nd African-Am.

On Sept. 12, 1979 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 453 to admit Saint Lucia.

On Feb. 19, 1980 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 464 to admit Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; on July 30 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 477 to admit Zimbabwe.

On July 30, 1980 the Israeli Knesset passes the Basic Law for Jerusalem, declaring it Israel's "eternal and indivisible capital"; on Aug. 20 the U.N. Security Council votes 14-0-1 (the U.S. abstaining) for Resolution 478, which declares it a violation of internat. law that is "null and void" and "must be rescinded", and calls for member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from the city, causing many to relocate to greater Tel Aviv, and others to the Jerusalem suburb of Mevaseret Zion, located on a mountain ridge 10 km. away straddling the Jerusalem-Tel Aviv highway.

On July 30, 1980 the Repub. of Vanuatu ("land, home") (formerly New Hebrides) (modern-day pop. 270K) gains independence from joint British-French rule (since Nov. 16, 1887); next July 8 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 489 to admit Vanuatu.

Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick of the U.S. (1926-2006)

On Feb. 4, 1981 after being nominated by Pres. Reagan, Duncan, Okla.-born staunch anti-Communist Repub. Jean Jordan Kirkpatrick (nee Jeane Duane Jordan) (1926-2006) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #16 (first woman) (until Apr. 1, 1985), becoming known for her Kirkpatrick Doctrine of U.S. support for any anti-Commie govt., incl. authoritarian regimes, causing Noam Chomsky to call her the "chief sadist-in-residence of the Reagan administration", uttering the soundbyte: "What takes place in the Security Council more closely resembles a mugging than either a political debate or an effort at problem-solving."

On Sept. 23, 1981 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 491 to admit Belize; on Nov. 10 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 492 to admit Antigua and Barbuda.

Javier Pérez Cuéllar of Peru (1920-)

On Dec. 11, 1981 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 494 to appoint Javier Perez de Cuellar (Javier Pérez de Cuéllar) y de la Guerra (1920-) of Peru as U.N. secy.-gen. #5, becoming the first from Latin Am.; he takes office on Jan. 1, 1982 (until Dec. 31, 1991).

On Dec. 14, 1981 after Syrian dictator Hafiz al-Asad utters the soundbyte that he will never make peace with Israel "even in a hundred years", Israeli PM Menachem Begin annexes the Golan Heights (seized from Syria in 1967), and the Knesset ratifies it the same day, pissing-off the U.S., which on Dec. 18 suspends the Dec. 1 U.S.-Israel Strategic Cooperation Agreement; on Dec. 20 U.S. ambassador Samuel Lewis meets with Begin in Tel Aviv, and receives a dressing-down, with the soundbyte: "The people of Israel have lived 3,700 years without a memorandum of understanding with America, and will continue to live for another 3,700", bringing up the Inquisition, Vietnam War, and anti-Semitism in the U.S., after which the Reagan admin. backs down; meanwhile on Dec. 17 the U.N. Security Council votes 13-0-2 (East Germany, U.S.S.R.) for Resolution 497, declaring the annexation "null and void and without international legal effect", calling on Israel to rescind it; next Jan. 28 after they refuse, they vote 13-0-2 (U.K., U.S.) for Resolution 500 to call an emergency meeting of the U.N. Gen. Assembly.

U.S. Gen. Edward L. Rowny (1917-) Paul Henry Nitze of the U.S. (1907-2004)

On June 12, 1982 after an internat. convocation at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, 750K stage a March from the U.N. to Central Park to protest the Reagan nuclear arms buildup, becoming the largest protest in U.S. history, virtually shutting New York City down; protesters demand a nuclear freeze, i.e., moratorium on nuclear weapon development, which the U.S. rejects after claiming a Soviet advantage with missiles based E of the Urals; musicians James Taylor, Bruce Springsteen, Jackson Browne, and Linda Ronstadt perform; on June 29 Polish-Am. U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Edward L. Rowny (1917-) opens new talks in Geneva with Soviet negotiator Viktor Karpov; in July U.S. medium-range arms negotiator Paul Henry Nitze (1907-2004) and Soviet negotiator Yuli A. Kvitsinsky (1936-) have a "walk in the woods" outside Geneva, and agree on a "joint exploratory package" of 75 launchers for each nation in Europe, Soviet SS-20 missiles to be limited to three warheads each, NATO Tomahawk cruise missiles to four, and no deployment of U.S. Pershing II missiles.

U.S. Pres. Ronald Wilson Reagan (1911-2004)

On June 17, 1982 U.S. Pres. (1981-9) Ronald Wilson Reagan (1911-2004) delivers a speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly Special Session Devoted to Disarmament, with the soundbytes: "The United Nations is dedicated to world peace, and its charter clearly prohibits the international use of force. Yet the tide of belligerence continues to rise. The charter's influence has weakened even in the 4 years since the first special session on disarmament. We must not only condemn aggression; we must enforce the dictates of our charter and resume the struggle for peace"; "The record of history is clear: Citizens of the United States resort to force reluctantly and only when they must. Our foreign policy, as President Eisenhower once said, 'is not difficult to state. We are for peace first, last, and always for very simple reasons.' We know that only in a peaceful atmosphere, a peace with justice, one in which we can be confident, can America prosper as we have known prosperity in the past, he said"; "America has no territorial ambitions. We occupy no countries, and we have built no walls to lock our people in. Our commitment to self-determination, freedom, and peace is the very soul of America. That commitment is as strong today as it ever was"; "My country learned a bitter lesson in this century: The scourge of tyranny cannot be stopped with words alone. So, we have embarked on an effort to renew our strength that had fallen dangerously low. We refuse to become weaker while potential adversaries remain committed to their imperialist adventures."

On Sept. 22, 1983 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 537 to admit Saint Kitts and Nevis.

Winston Bernard Coard of Grenada (1945-) Gen. Hudson Austin of Grenada (1938-)

That's Grenada, not Granada, or, We'll give you a kick in the ass, that's the American Way? On Oct. 12, 1983 in Grenada pro-Cuban Marxists within the govt. (which came to power in a 1979 coup) led by deputy PM Winston Bernard Coard (1945-) overthrows and imprisons PM Maurice Bishop and his supporters at Ft. Rupert (later Ft. George), then assassinate him and 40 others on Oct. 19 after supporters try to break him out, after which gen. Hudson Austin (1938-) seizes power and declares a military curfew, causing Dominican PM (1980-95) Mary Eugenia Charles, a member of the Org. of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) to appeal to the U.S. to intervene, citing ties with Cuba and construction of a 10K-ft. runway that could be used for Cuban and Soviet arms shipments; on Oct. 21 citing the presence of U.S. medical students at St. George's Medical School that need protection, U.S. Pres. Reagan authorizes Operation Urgent Fury, a 10-ship invasion of Grenada, and on Oct. 25 (two days after the Marine Barracks disaster in Lebanon) 6K U.S. and 1K OECS forces, incl. 1.8K U.S. Marines invade the island (the 2nd largest country in the Western hemisphere invading the 2nd smallest), handily defeating the 750 Grenadian troops and 600 Cuban construction workers; 19 Americans, 45 Granadians and 29 Cubans die before resistance ends on Oct. 28; the U.S. vetoes a U.N. Security Council resolution condemning the invasion, while some U.S. allies claim it's a ploy to distract attention from the debacle in Lebanon; Austin and other military officers are sentenced to death in 1986, their sentences later commuted to life in prison; no Medal of Honor awards result from the Grenada action.

On Feb. 24, 1984 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 548 to admit Brunei.

U.S. Lt. Gen. Vernon A. Walters (1917-2002)

On May 22, 1985 after fellow Roman Catholic Pres. Reagan promotes him from roving ambassador (since 1981), New York City-born military intel expert Army lt. gen. Vernon A. Walters (1917-2002) (CIA deputy dir. in 1972-6) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #17 (until Mar. 15, 1989), going on to become U.S. ambassador to West Germany in 1989-90 and to Germany in 1990-1.

On Oct. 24, 1985 U.S. Pres. (1981-9) Ronald Reagan delivers a speech to the 40th Session of the U.N. Gen. Assembly, with the soundbytes: "Thank you for the honor of permitting me to speak on this anniversary for the United Nations. Forty years ago, the world awoke daring to believe hatred's unyielding grip had finally been broken, daring to believe the torch of peace would be protected in liberty's firm grasp. Forty years ago, the world yearned to dream again innocent dreams, to believe in ideals with innocent trust. Dreams of trust are worthy, but in these 40 years too many dreams have been shattered, too many promises have been broken, too many lives have been lost. The painful truth is that the use of violence to take, to exercise, and to preserve power remains a persistent reality in much of the world"; "The vision of the U.N. Charter - to spare succeeding generations this scourge of war - remains real. It still stirs our soul and warms our hearts, but it also demands of us a realism that is rock hard, clear-eyed, steady, and sure - a realism that understands the nations of the United Nations are not united. I come before you this morning preoccupied with peace, with ensuring that the differences between some of us not be permitted to degenerate into open conflict, and I come offering for my own country a new commitment, a fresh start"; "On this U.N. anniversary, we acknowledge its successes: the decisive action during the Korean war, negotiation of the nonproliferation treaty, strong support for decolonization, and the laudable achievements by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Nor must we close our eyes to this organization's disappointments: its failure to deal with real security issues, the total inversion of morality in the infamous Zionism-is-racism resolution, the politicization of too many agencies, the misuse of too many resources. The U.N. is a political institution, and politics requires compromise. We recognize that, but let us remember from those first days, one guiding star was supposed to light our path toward the U.N. vision of peace and progress - a star of freedom."

On Sept. 22, 1986 as the Soviet Union is cracking, lame duck U.S. Pres. (1981-9) Ronald Reagan delivers a speech to the 41st Session of the U.N. Gen. Assembly, with the soundbytes: "The United States remains committed to the United Nations. For over 40 years this organization has provided an international forum for harmonizing conflicting national interests and has made a significant contribution in such fields as peacekeeping, humanitarian assistance, and eradicating disease. And yet no one knows better than those in this chamber how the noble ideals embodied in the charter have often remained unfulfilled"; "Last year I pointed out in my address to the General Assembly the differences between the United States and the Soviet Union are deep and abiding. But I also called for a fresh start in relations between our two nations, a fresh start that could benefit our own people and the people of every nation. Since that time, the United States has taken action and put forth new proposals that could lead our two countries and the entire world in a direction we all have long sought to go. Now more than ever, it is the responsibility of the Soviet Union to take action and demonstrate that they, too, are continuing the dialog for peace"; "In the past, when I have noted such trends—when I've called for a forward strategy for freedom and predicated the ultimate triumph of democratic rule over totalitarianism - some have accused me of telling people what they want to hear, of urging them not to engage the day but to escape it. Yet, to hope is to believe in humanity and in its future. Hope remains the highest reality, the age-old power. Hope is at the root of all the great ideas and

On July 20, 1987 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 598 to approve a U.S.-sponsored resolution demanding an end to the Persian Gulf War between Iraq and Iran, a move supported by Iraq but dismissed by Iran; it also requests the U.N. secy.-gen. to send a team of observers to monitor the ceasfire, effective Aug. 8, 1988.

In 1987 Burma, once the "rice bowl of Asia" earns the title of Least Developed Country in Asia from the U.N.

On Jan. 3, 1988 the Israeli Army orders nine Palestinian activists deported as part of a controversial crackdown to stop the uprising in the occupied territories; on Jan. 5 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 607 to ask Israel not to do that in the first council vote against Israel since 1981, citing the Geneva Conventions; meanwhile the Jewish Women in Black begin holding weekly vigils at busy road junctions in Jerusalem, holding signs saying "End the Occupation", their protest spreading to other countries incl. Serbia, Spain, Belgium, England, India, and Philippines.

On Aug. 9, 1988 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 619, creating the U.N. Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group, led by Bangladeshi Brig. Gen. Anam Khan to monitor the ceasefire.

On Jan. 6, 1989 the U.S. presents photographic evidence to the U.N. Security Council to justify its shootdown of two Libyan jet fighters off the Libyan coast as self-defense; the Libyan ambassador claims it's faked.

Tom Pickering of the U.S. (1931-)

On Mar. 20, 1989 after being appointed by Pres. George H.W. Bush, Orange, N.J.-born diplomat Thomas Reeve "Tom" Pickering (1931-) (U.S. ambassador to Jordan in 1974-8, Nigeria in 1981-3, El Salvador in 1983-5, and Israel in 1985-8) becomes U.S. U.N. ambasbador #18 (until May 7, 1992), going on to help lead the U.N. Security Council during the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, upstaging U.S. secy. of state James A. Baker so much that Bush makes him the U.S. ambassador to India on Aug. 14, 1992 (until Mar. 23, 1993), after which Pres. Clinton makes him U.S. ambassador to Russia in 1993-6, and Madeleine Albright makes him undersecy. of state for political affairs in 1997-2000 after being passed over for secy. of state for her, causing Time mag. to call him the "five star general of the diplomatic corps".

On Apr. 11, 1989 Israel begins Operation Grapes of Wrath air offensive against Hezbollah party leaders in Beirut and S Lebanon, conducting 1.1K airraids and using 25,132 artillery shells; too bad, on Apr. 18 the Qana Massacre sees an Israeli artillery barrage mistakenly hit the U.N. peacekeeping camp in Qana, S Lebanon, killing 106 Lebanese civilians; Israeli PM Shimon Peres describes it as a "grave error"; on Apr. 27 U.S. secy. of state Warren Christopher (deputy atty. gen. under LBJ) mediates an end to the operation; the Qana massacre is used by al-Qaida to recruit members, incl. Mohammed Atta.

9/11 minus 11? On Feb. 13, 1990 the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany AKA the Two Plus Four Agreement is drafted by the Four Powers that occupied Germany at the end of WWII (U.S., U.K., U.S.S.R., France), renouncing all rights and allowing a unified Germany to become sovereign next year; it is signed in Moscow on Sept. 12, effective next Mar. 15, clearing the way for a united Germany on Oct. 3, when East and West Germany reunify after 45 years, and the burly Berlin Wall officially comes down.

Saddam Hussein of Iraq (1937-2006)

On May 28, 1990 Iraqi dictator-pres. (since July 16, 1979) Saddam Hussein (1937-2006) opens a 2-day Arab League Summit in Baghdad with a keynote address in which he says that if Israel were to deploy nuclear or chemical weapons against Arabs, Iraq would respond with "weapons of mass destruction" - talk about putting your foot in your mouth?

Ali Hassan al-Majid of Iraq (1941-2010) Cicciolina of Italy (1951-) Franklin Graham of the U.S (1952-)

Saddam's big miscalculation? On Aug. 2, 1990 Black Thursday sees Iraqi troops invade Kuwait and set up a well-oiled puppet govt. by Aug. 3; on Aug. 2 by a 14-0-1 (Yemen) vote the U.N. Security Council approves Resolution 660, condemning Iraq and demanding the unconditional withdrawal of Iraqi troops; PLO chief Yasser Arafat's support of Sodamn Insane results in the PLO's isolation; on Aug. 3 thousands of Iraqi soldiers push to within a few mi. of the border with Saudi Arabia, heightening world concerns about the invasion spreading; on Aug. 6 the U.N. imposes sanctions on Iraq, barring it from selling oil except in exchange for food and medicine; on Aug. 6-7 Operation Desert Shield begins as Pres. Bush at the request of King Fahd sends U.S. troops to Saudi Arabia to guard it, and are joined on Aug. 11 by Egyptian and Moroccan troops from the Arab League; on Aug. 8 Iraq annexes Kuwait as its 19th province, with Saddam Hussein's cousin Ali Hassan Al-Majid (Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti) (1941-2010) as military gov.; Italian politician Cicciolina (Ilona Staller) (1951-) offers to have sex with Saddam Hussein if he will release all foreign hostages; the Saudis permit U.S. troops to use a base in their country, angering Muslim conservatives, who see infidels polluting their soil, while Kuwaitis are more practical, but politely request Army chaplains to remove religious insignia from their uniforms and get antsy about the sight of women driving cars and carrying guns?; after seeing women soldiers among the U.S. forces, 47 women from the Saudi intelligentsia go for a joy ride to protest Saudi Arabia being the world's only country that keeps women from driving, getting arrested and crushed by the regime; meanwhile Am. Christian evangelist Franklin Graham (1952-) (son of Billy Graham) is told by Saudi officials that Christian Bibles and religious material is illegal to send to Saudi Arabia in the mail, along with alcohol and porno - the U.S. is faced with the dilemma that destroying minority Sunni control of Iraq will make it easy for Shiite Iran to absorb it, opening a royal road to Israel through Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, which is why they don't attack and cut off Baghdad when the Iraqi troops are out in Kuwait, but just try to drive them back? Too bad, Bush Jr. isn't up to speed when he gets in the White House?

In other words, I hate all you infidels? On Aug. 5, 1990 the 57-member Org. of the Islamic Conference (OIC) signs the upside-down Cairo Declaration of Human Rights, a rebuke to the Dec. 10, 1948 U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), substituting you-guessed-it Sharia, declaring "the place of mankind in Islam as viceregent of Allah on Earth", a reference to Quran 3:110, proclaiming Muslim supremacy and calling Christians and Jews (People of the Book) "perverted transgressors".

U.S. Gen. Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (1934-2012) U.S. Navy Capt. Michael Scott Speicher (1957-91)

On Jan. 16/17, 1991 (Wed./Thur.) the (Persian) Gulf War (AKA Operation Desert Storm) (ends Feb. 28) is launched by the U.N. to recover Kuwait less than 17 hours after Iraqi Pres. Saddam Hussein fails to meet a U.N. deadline for withdrawal of military forces from his "19th province"; 680K Allied troops (incl. Arab, British and French and 415K Americans) are arrayed against 545K Iraqi troops (with 480K reserves) concentrated in Kuwait and SE Iraq; U.S. forces incl. 245K Army, 75K Marines, 50K Navy, and 45K Air Force (who have use of NATO air bases in Turkey); the U.S. has 13 combat ships in the Mediterranean, 26 in the Red Sea, incl. aircraft carriers Saratoga, Kennedy, Roosevelt, and America, and 34 in the Persian Gulf, incl. the aircraft carrier Midway, and amphibious ships; the U.S. Central Command is just E of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; no-fly zones are declared and patrolled by U.S. and British planes; U.S. troops are vaccinated for anthrax in preparation for the war; the Styx song Show Me the Way is adopted by the Gulf War Troops as their anthem; Operation Desert Storm, commanded by U.S. Gen. Herbert "Stormin'" Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (1934-2012) sees coalition forces from 35 nations begin a 6-week air attack on Iraq; CNN correspondents Peter Arnett, Bernard Shaw, and John Holliman report the start of the war live from a Baghdad hotel; Iraq fires eight Scud surface-to-surface missiles at Israel; in early Feb. 1.5K allied tanks and 150K allied troops are positioned for a flanking maneuver along Iraq's lightly defended S border with Saudi Arabia; on Feb. 24 the U.S.-led coalition opens its ground war against Iraq, faking a frontal invasion in S Kuwait, with the real forces attacking from the W on three points; on Jan. 17 U.S. Navy pilot Capt. Michael Scott Speicher (b. 1957) becomes the first U.S. service member KIA in the Gulf War, and it takes until Aug. 2, 2009 to identify his remains; on Feb. 26 the main highway from Kuwait to Basra becomes the Highway of Death in a huge traffic jam of fleeing Iraqis, and 10K Iraqis are KIA; on Feb. 27-28 Saddam stages his last stand with a fierce tank battle (largest since WWII), in which 200 Iraqi tanks and no U.S. tanks are destroyed (during the war U.S. Abrams M1 and M2 tanks kill 2K Iraqi tanks without a loss); the fighting ends on Feb. 28 after 110K Iraqi soldiers and tens of thousands of Iraqi civilians are killed, and 30K Iraqi POWs are taken; Saudi Arabia is charged $60B to pay for their defense, and takes out its first-ever ($4.5B) loan to pay for it (paid up on May 22, 1995); no Medals of Honor are issued for this action.

On Mar. 2, 1991 the U.N. Security votes 11-1-3 for Resolution 686, demanding that Iraq implement their 12 resolutions 660-2, 664-7, 669-70, 674, 677-8 after arranging a ceasefire; on Apr. 3, 1991 the U.N. Security Council votes 12-1-2 (Cuba, Ecuador, Yemen) for Resolution 687, laying down the law for loser Iraq, and establishing the U.N. Special Commission (UNSCOM) to ensure compliance with WMD prohibition; on Apr. 5, 1991 the U.N. Security Council votes 10-3-2 (Cuba, Yemen, Zimbabwe) (China, India) for Resolution 688, calling for Iraq to end repression of its people incl. Kurds; France, U.K., and U.S. use the resolution to establish no-fly zones above the 36th parallel to protect humanitarian operations; on Apr. 9 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 689, recalling Resolution 687 and setting up a DMZ with Kuwait and deploying the U.N. Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission of 200 military observers, with HQ in Umm Qasr, Iraq, growing to a max of 1,187 on Feb. 28, 1995 before withdrawing on Sept. 30, 2003.

On Aug. 8, 1991 the U.N. Security Council adopts Resolution 702 without vote to admit North Korea and South Korea; on Aug. 9 it adopts Resolution 703 without vote to admit the Federated States of Micronesia; on Aug. 9 it adopts Resolution 704 without vote to admit the Marshall Islands; on Sept. 12 it adopts Resolution 709 without vote to admit Estonia; on Sept. 12 it adopts Resolution 710 without vote to admit Latvia; on Sept. 12 it adopts Resolution 711 without vote to admit Lithuania.

Boutros Boutros-Ghali of Egypt (1922-)

On Nov. 21, 1991 after the 102-member Non-Alignment Movement lobbies for it, the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 720 to appoint Boutros Boutros-Ghali (1922-) of Egypt as U.N. secy.-gen. #6; he takes office on Jan. 1, 1992 (until Dec. 31, 1996); the U.S. vetoes his reappointment, claiming he failed to implement necessary reforms.

On Nov. 27, 1991 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 721 supporting the efforts of secy.-gen. Javier Perez de Cuellar to end the fighting in Yugoslavia, and begins deploying peacekeeping troops as requested by Serbia and Croatia.

Leonid Kravchuk of Ukraine (1934-)

On Dec. 1, 1991 the Ukraine becomes an independent nation, with Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (1934-) of the Social Dem. Party as pres. on Dec. 5 (until July 19, 1994). Ding Dong the witch is dead - which old witch? On Dec. 8 the Commonwealth of Independent States Treaty is signed in the Belovezhskaya Pushcha Nat. Reserve 31 mi. N of Brest, Belarus by Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus (formerly Byelorussia), putting an end to the U.S.S.R. (Soviet Union) (founded Dec. 30, 1922); on Dec. 21 Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Moldova join the five Central Asian repubs. Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan (formerly Kirghiz), Tadzhikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan in agreeing to join the Commonwealth; as Boris N. Yeltsin begins to gain control of the govt., Gorbachev diplomatically resigns on Dec. 25, giving him the nuclear codes; the collapse of the Soviet Union creates a "short twentieth century", framed by the 1917 Russian Rev. and this year, throwing the U.S. out of work as the needed counterforce to the evil empire, and giving it more of an old United Kingdom imperialist role?; "The collapse of communism in effect signified the collapse of liberalism, removing the only ideological justification behind U.S. hegemony" (Immanuel Wallerstein, Pax Americana is Over); Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan return their nuclear weapons inherited from the Soviet Union.

On Jan. 23, 1992 the U.N. Security Council adopts Resolution 732 without vote to admit Kazakhstan; on Jan. 29 it adopts Resolution 735 without vote to admit Armenia on Jan. 29 it adopts Resolution 736 without vote to admit Kyrgyzstan; on Jan. 29 it adopts Resolution 737 without vote to admit Uzbekistan; on Jan. 29 it adopts Resolution 738 without vote to admit Tajikistan; on Feb. 5 it adopts Resolution 739 without vote to admit Moldova; on Feb. 7 it adopts Resolution 741 without vote to admit Turkmenistan; on Feb. 14 it adopts Resolution 742 without vote to admit Azerbaijan; on Feb. 25 it adopts Resolution 744 without vote to admit San Marino; on May 18 it adopts Resolution 753 without vote to admit Croatia; on May 18 it adopts Resolution 754 without vote to admit Slovenia; on May 20 it adopts Resolution 755 without vote to admit Bosnia and Herzegovina; on July 6 it adopts Resolution 763 without vote to admit Georgia.

On Jan. 7, 1993 Macedonia submits its application for U.N. membership; in Feb. Greece steps in and objects to the use of the name Macedonia, claiming it as theirs from historical use, and that it shouldn't be adopted by Slavs, who might have designs on N Greece; internat. arbitration results.

On Jan. 8, 1993 the U.N. Security Council adopts Resolution 800 without vote to admit the Slovak Repub.; on Jan. 8 it adopts Resolution 801 without vote to admit the Czech Repub.; on Apr. 7 it votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 817 to admit Macedonia; on May 26 it adopts Resolution 828 without vote to admit Eritrea; on May 26 it adopts Resolution 829 without vote to admit Monaco; on July 8 it adopts Resolution 848 without vote to admit Andorra.

Madeleine Korbel Albright of the U.S. (1937-)

On Jan. 27, 1993 after being appointed by Pres. Clinton, Prague, Czech.-born Dem. Madeleine Albright (Marie Jane Korbelova) (1937-) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #20 (until Jan. 21, 1997), going on to get in a long catfight with U.N. secy.-gen. Boutros Boutros-Ghali and refuse until the end to call the genocide in Rwanda genocide.

On May 25, 1993 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 to adopt Resolution 827, establishing the Internat. Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague; it goes on to indict 161 persons by Dec. 2004; the court is abolished on Dec. 31, 2017.

In Sept. 1993 the U.N. Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) is established, operating until June 1996, then reestablished in Apr. 2004.

On Oct. 5, 1993 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 to adopt Resolution 872, establishing the U.N. Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) to assist in the implementation of the Arusha Accords of Aug. 4 ending the Rwandan Civil War; it ends in Mar. 1996 after failing to prevent the 1994 Rwandan Genocide.

1994 Rwandan Genocide, Apr. 7-July, 1994 Pasteur Bizimungu of Rwanda (1950-) Paul Kagame of Rwanda (1957-) Jean Kambanda of Rwanda (1955-)

Tut-tut-tutsi goodbye, tut-tut-tutsi don't cry? The war of tall vs. medium in a land with one-percent pygmies? On Apr. 6, 1994 (Wed.) the Rwandan Genocide begins after longstanding hate between the short-statured majority (85%) Hutu and tall-statured minority (15%) Tutsi (Watusi) tribes goes critical mass after a plane carrying Burundian Hutu pres. Cyprien Ntaryamira and Rwandan Hutu pres. Juvenal Habayrimana is shot down as it approaches the Rwandan capital of Kigali, killing them both, and triggering civil wars in both countries, with Hutu youth gangs in Burundi massacring Tutsi, crying "Cut down the tall trees", followed by the Tutsi-controlled army killing Hutus, killing 300K by 1996; Hutu Sylvestre Ntibantunganya (Gishubi Gitega) (1956-) becomes pres. of Burundi (until 1996); meanwhile across the border in Rwanda (Africa's most Christian nation), news of an imminent power-sharing agreement between Hutus and Tutsis proposed by Hutu moderate Habyarimana causes a state-run radio station controlled by Hutu extremists to inflame fears of a Tutsi takeover, and after the double assassination of Hutus (by Hutu extremists?) "proves" it, a 100-day killing spree begins as the pres. guard begins killing Tutsi opposition leaders, followed by the police and soldiers attempting to slaughter the entire Tutsi pop., resulting in 500K-1M Rwandans (mostly Tutsis, plus moderate Hutu sympathizers) out of a pop. of 7.7M being slaughtered, mainly by the 30K-member Interahamwe militia, with the gen. Hutu pop., goaded by the govt.-controlled radio (which calls Tutsis "cockroaches") joining in; on Apr. 9 Jean Kambanda (1955-) becomes PM of Rwanda, and remains in office for the Hundred Days of Genocide, later confessing to genocide; the Tutsi-led Rwanda Patriotic Front fights back, and after a 14-week civil war it sweeps the country and is victorious by July, after which Pres. Paul Kagame ousts the Hutu govt., ending the slaughter, which becomes infamous for the total lack of internat. response, the U.N. in Rwanda pulling out after a measly 10 of its soldiers are killed; a push by Catholics to establish schools, which was most successful among the Tutsi causes the schools to become killing pens; 1.7M Hutu refugees flee into Zaire, while starvation causes a slaughter of wildlife, and prof. poachers run amok without govt. control, killing 250 Congolese park wardens; the new Tutsi-controlled govt. of Rwanda allows Hutu Pasteur Bizimungu (1950-) to serve as pres. (until 2000), with Tutsi rebel leader Paul Kagame (1957-) (founder of the Rwandan Patriotic Front) as vice-pres. and eminence grise until 2000, when he becomes you-can-i-am pres. (until ?); after the French do nothing, French institutions in Rwanda are shut down, and Rwanda switches its official language from French to English; on Feb. 25, 2010 French pres. Nicolas Sarkozy issues an apology, acknowledging "mistakes"; in 2004 a French judge accuses Kagame of being behind the shooting down of the pres. plane, which he denies; the fun then spreads to Zaire, as Hutu guerrillas hiding among the refugees begin attacking the govt., causing it to threaten to exile their own Tutsi, and leading to Rwanda supporting Tutsi rebels against the same govt.; the complicity of the Roman Catholic Church in the genocide, which ends up turning thousands of Rwandans away, incl. two Catholic nuns convicted in 2001 by a Belgian court for aiding and abetting murders; a Catholic nun who helped militias kill hundreds hiding in a hospital is sentenced to 30 years in Nov. 2006; Roman Catholic Hutu priest Athanase Seromba (1963-), who ordered militamen to set fire to a church filled with 2K Tutsis huddled inside for safety and then orders it bulldozed after some remain alive, is convicted on Dec. 13, 2006 and sentenced to 15 years; by 2006 63K genocide suspects (9.2% of the 8.2M pop.) are detained in Rwanda, and authorities say at least 761K should stand trial; in 2003 a wildlife survey shows that 20K of the 50K native bonobos in existence were wiped out; the bad example of the Roman Catholic Church later causes many Rwandans to turn to Islam.

On Nov. 29, 1994 the U.N. Security Council votes 13-0-2 (Brazil, Russia) for Resolution 963 to admit Palau.

On Jan. 30, 1995 the U.N. Security Council votes 14-0-1 (China) for U.N. Security Council Resolution 975, transfering responsibility from the Multinat. Force (MNF) to the U.N. Mission in Haiti (UNMIH); on Mar. 31 U.S. forces in Haiti turn over their peacekeeping duties to the U.N. Mission in Haiti (UNMIH) as Pres. Clinton praises the restoration of democracy during a ceremony in Port-au-Prince.

On Feb. 8, 1995 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 976 to send the 7K-man U.N. Angola Verification Mision III to Angola to police their 1994 accord.

On Mar. 3, 1995 the last U.N. forces depart from Somalia.

On Feb. 24, 1996 the Cuban govt. shoots down two civilian aircraft operated by the Miami-based Cuban refugee group Brothers to the Rescue in internat. airspace, causing Congress to pass the U.S. Helms-Burton Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (Libertad) Act of 1996, signed by Pres. Clinton on Mar. 12, reaffirming the trade embargo, authorizing private claims to owners of property confiscated by Cuba, and denying admission to the U.S. to top execs that used or invested in property that was confiscated by Cuba's Communist govt., requiring the U.S. pres. to "determine that there exists a democratically elected government in Cuba" before restoring diplomatic recognition; the U.N. Gen. Assembly denounces it as a violation of internat. law; after Cuba tries to justify its actions, U.S. U.N. ambassador Madeleine Albright utters the soundbyte: "This is not cojones. This is cowardice", which Pres. Clinton calls "probably the most effective one-liner in the whole administration's foreign policy."

Kofi Annan of Ghana (1938-)

On Jan. 1, 1997 after the U.N. Security Council appoints him without a vote on Dec. 13, Kofi Atta Annan (1938-) of Ghana becomes U.N. secy.-gen. #7 (until Dec. 31, 2006).

Bill Richardson of the U.S. (1947-)

On Feb. 18, 1997 after being nominated by his friend Pres. Clinton, Pasadena, Calif.-born Hispanic U.S. Rep. (R-N.M.) (since Jan. 3, 1983) William Blaine "Bill" Richardson III (1947-) (known for diplomatic missions to Baghdad, Bangladesh, North Korea, Cuba, Guatemala, India, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Peru, and Sudan), becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #21 (until Aug. 18, 1998), going on to fly to Afghanistan to negotiate a ceasefire with the Taliban, which fails; he goes on to becomes Repub. gov. #30 of N.M. in 2003-11.

On Jan. 15, 1998 after U.N. intervention, Croatian sovereignty is restored to Eastern Slavonia, the last Croatian territory seized by the Serbs.

On Jan. 17, 1998 Sodamn Insane celebrates the 7th anniv. of the start of the Gulf War by threatening to evict all U.N. weapons inspectors from his lovely little garden state of Iraq.

William Scott Ritter Jr. (1961-) Stephen Joshua Solarz of the U.S. (1940-2010)

In Jan. 1998 U.N. weapons inspections in Iraq are blocked after the Iraqis accuse U.S. team head William Scott Ridder Jr. (1961-) of being a spy; inspections are allowed to resume in Feb.; Saddam Hussein blocks inspections again in Aug., then breaks off negotiations in Oct., but relents in Nov. after the U.S. builds up its forces in the region; meanwhile U.S. Rep. (D.-N.Y.) (1975-93) Stephen Joshua Solarz (1940-2010) leads a group of conservatives urging Pres. Clinton to overthrow him; Ritter goes on to claim that Iraq possesses no significant WMDs, becoming the #1 most credible critic of the Bush admin.; too bad, he has a weakness for sex with minors, and is arrested in 2001 and 2010 for soliciting them for sex on the Internet, and convicted and given a sentence of 1.5-5 years.

On Feb. 6, 1998 Pres. Clinton and British PM Tony Blair warn Saddam Hussein that any more hanky-panky with the U.N. weapons inspectors will likely bring a cowboy, er, military response.

On June 25, 1999 the U.N. Security Council adopts Resolution 1248 without vote to admit Kiribati; on June 25 it votes 14-0-1 (China) for Resolution 1249 to admit Nauru; on July 28 it adopts Resolution 1253 without vote to admit Tonga.

Richard C. Holbrooke of the U.S. (1941-2010)

On Sept. 7, 1999 U.S. ambassador to Germany (1993-4) Richard Charles Albert "the Bulldozer" Holbrooke (1941-2010) (known for brokering the 1995 Dayton Peace Accords) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #22 (until Jan. 20, 2001), going on to use his presidency of the U.N. Security Council to broker a deal in Dec. 2000 to lower the U.S. dues in return for paying $900M in back dues, helped by a contribution by billionaire Ted Turner, founder of the UN Foundation, get the U.N. Security Council in Jan. 2000 to hold six debates on African crises in DRC, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe incl. the AIDS epidemic (first time a health issue is treated as a global security matter), and secure membership in the U.N. Western European and Others regional group for Israel, along with consultative status for the Hadassah Jewish women's service org.; after he leaves he takes over the Global Business Council on HIV/AIDS, expanding it from 17 to 225 members and increasing coverage to malaria and TB, becoming Hillary Clinton's top choice for U.S. secy. of state.

On Oct. 15, 1999 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 1267, designating Osama bin Laden and his assocs. as terrorists and establishing sanctions for them, al-Qaida, and the Taliban; on Dec. 11, 2008 it adds the Pakistan-based terrorist group Jamaat-ud-Dawa and four others as terrorist fronts under its 1999 Resolution 1267.

On Dec. 17, 1999 the U.N. Security Council votes 11-0 (China, France, Malaysia, Russia) to adopt Resolution 1284, creating the U.N. Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) to replace the U.N. Special Commission (UNSCOM); Iraq rejects the resolution, claiming it doesn't meet its reqts. for the lifting of the 1990 sanctions.

On Feb. 17, 2000 the U.N. Security Council votes 14-0-1 (China) for Resolution 1290 to admit Tuvalu; on Oct. 31 it adopts Resolution 1326 without vote to admit the Federal Repub. of Yugoslavia, which in 2003 becomes Serbia and Montenegro, which become separate in 2006.

Hans Martin Blix of Sweden (1928-)

On Mar. 2, 2000 former Swedish foreign affairs minister (1978-9) Hans Martin Blix (1928-) becomes exec chmn. of the U.N. Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) (until June 2003), going on in 2002 to search Iraq unsuccessfully for WMDs.

On Sept. 6, 2000 the Taliban captures the Northern Alliance HQ of Taloqan, Afghanistan, and on Sept. 7 requests the U.N. to recognize it as the official Afghan govt.; the U.N. Security Council responds on Dec. 19 by voting 13-0-2 (China, Malaysia) for Resolution 1333 to recall all resolutions on Afghanistan, tighten diplomatic sanctions, and impose an arms embargo, repeating its demands for extradition of Osama bin Laden - french me a fry, bring me a nut, kashmir me, I won't comply?

World Trade Center - before Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 World Trade Center Sept. 11, 2001 The Pentagon, Sept. 11, 2001 Mohamed Atta (1968-2001) Waleed Mohammed al-Shehri (1978-2001) Wail al-Shehri (1973-2001) Abdulaziz al-Omari (1979-2001) Satam al-Suqami (1976-2001) Marwan al-Shehhi (1978-2001) Fayez Banihammad (1977-2001) Mohand al-Shehri (1979-2001) Hamza al-Ghamdi (1980-2001) Ahmed al-Ghamdi (1979-2001) Hani Hanjour (1972-2001) Khalid al-Mihdhar (1975-2001) Majed Moqed (1977-20010 Nawaf al-Hazmi (1976-2001) Salem al-Hazmi (1981-2001) Ziad Jarrah (1975-2001) Ahmed Ibraham al-Haznawi (1980-2001) Ahmed al-Nami (1977-2001) Saeed al-Ghamdi (1979-2001) George W. Bush (1946-) and Colin Powell (1937-) of the U.S. Osama bin Laden (1957-2011) 9/11 Terrorists Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (1964-) Pres. Bush reading from 'The Pet Goat' on 9/11 Andy Card of the U.S. (1947) Todd Morgan Beamer (1968-2001) Rick Rescoria (1939-2001) Sergio G. Villanueva (-2001) Richard N. Perle of the U.S. (1941-) Thomas Joseph 'Tom' Ridge of the U.S. (1945-) Father Mychal F. Judge (1933-2001) James Anthony Traficant Jr. of the U.S. (1943-) Jonathan Franzen (1959-) Eric Henry Monkkonen (1942-2005) Peter Orner

On Sept. 11, 2001 (Tues.) Pres. George W. Bush is targeted in an assassination plot by al-Qaida in Sarasota, Fla.? On Sept. 11 (Tues.) the New York Times pub. a story about ex-Weatherman radical William Charles "Bill" Ayers (1944-), quoting him as saying "I don't regret setting bombs. I feel we didn't do enough." On Sept. 11 (Tues.) the 9/11 Attacks see the New York City skyline changed after 19 lowdown cowardly stinking crazed Satan-controlled Muslim raghead jihad terrorist scumbags (incl. 15 Saudis) hijack four U.S. commercial airliners and take over the unprotected cabins, using flying lessons given them in the U.S. to steer and crash into the twin towers of the World Trade Center (WTC) (dedicated in Apr. 1973), and also the Pentagon; Am. Airlines Flight 11 (Boeing 767) from Boston to Los Angeles hits the North Tower at 8:46:26 a.m. with a direct hit that disables all the elevators; actor Tony Perkins' wife Berinthia "Berry" Berenson-Perkins (b. 1948) is on Flight 11; United Airlines Flight 175 (Boeing 767) from Boston to Los Angeles hits the South Tower at 9:02:54 a.m. at an angle, permitting people to escape; Flight 175 has a mysterious pod attached to the undercarriage, indicating that the whole show is really being run by the govt. and the plane was unmanned and remotely-controlled?; Am. Airlines Flight 77 from Washington, D.C. to Los Angeles hits the SW face of the Pentagon at 9:43 a.m. on the 60th anniv. of its groundbreaking; it was really a U.S.-launched missile, and was covered-up?; Pres. Bush had a meeting scheduled with affiliates of the Muslim Brotherhood after he arrived back at the White House; Pres. Bush first informs the nation of "an apparent terrorist attack on our country" at 9:30 from the school; at 9:45 a.m. the FAA grounds all civilian domestic and internat. flights to-from the U.S., although an El Al (Boeing 747) flight is allowed to take from JFK Airport to Tel Aviv at 4:11 p.m.; commercial flights resume on Sept. 13, followed by private flights on Sept. 14; on Sept. 20 a flight containing Bin Laden family members is allowed to leave the U.S., carrying four Americans; on Sept. 11 NBC-TV commentator Tom Brokaw answers a speculation by Matt Laurer with "This is war. This is a declaration and execution of an attack on the United States", later chanting "War! War!"; "When I saw the second airplane hit, I knew jihad has come to America" (Nonie Darwish); the South Tower implodes at 9:59:04 a.m., followed by the North Tower at 10:28:31 a.m., after the jet fuel ignites tons of paper, which causes internal temps as high as 2K F; Pres. Bush is informed of the South Tower crash at 9:07 a.m. by White House chief of staff (2001-6) Andrew Hill "Andy" Card Jr. (1947-) while visiting with 2nd grade (mainly black) students at Emma E. Booker Elementary School in Sarasota, Fla., and turns red, but stays with the kids, reading aloud from the children's story The Pet Goat (by Siegfried Engelmann and Elaine C. Bruner) with them; British-born former U.S. Army officer Cyril Richard "Rick" Rescoria (b. 1939), vice-pres. of security at Morgan Stanley (scheduled for retirement at year's end) dies after helping 2.7K coworkers to safety; after rushing in to help not knowing about the impending collapse; 343 firefighters die in the Twin Towers, and firefighter (Argentine native) Sergio Gabrial Villanueva (b. 1968) becomes a hero; Hollywood actor Steven Vincent "Steve" Buscemi (1957-) (a former NYC firefighter) quietly returns to Engine Co. 55 and works 12-hour shifts, trying to avoid publicity; two Port Authority of N.Y. and N.J. police officers survive the towers' collapse and are rescued from the rubble after 22 hours; 300K are evacuated by boat in lower Manhattan after hundreds of craft answer a Coast Guard call for help "From All Available Boats" and converge on the West Side; meanwhile United Air Lines Flight 93 from Newark, N.J. to San Francisco, Calif. carrying 37 passengers and seven crew is hijacked by Beirut, Lebanon-born pilot (al-Qaida member) Ziad Samir Jarrah (1975-2001) and three Saudi Arabia-born muscle men Ahmed bin Abdullah al-Nami (1977-2001), Ahmed Ibrahim al-Haznawi (1980-2001), and Saeed Abdallah Ali Sulayman al-Ghamdi (1979-2001), crashing at 10:03 a.m. near Shanksville in Somerset County, Penn. (60 mi. SE of Pittsburgh and 150 mi. NW of Washington, D.C.) after the 33 all-American passengers are first cowed by a fake body bomb then fight back against the four ragheads instead of cowering like sheep, and kick the surprised terrorists butts, although too late to prevent the crash; Flight 93 passenger Todd Morgan Beamer (b. 1968) becomes a U.S. hero when he quarterbacks the makeshift anti-raghead team with the all-American words "Let's roll!", which are heard on his cellphone; his sad-proud wife Lisa later founds the charity Heroic Choices; the Flight 93 Nat. Memorial is established on Sept. 24, 2002, and dedicated on Sept. 10, 2011; 2,976 are killed in the 9/11 attacks, incl. 2,605 in New York City, 125 at the Pentagon (incl. 55 military personnel), and 246 on the four planes, with 24 listed as missing, becoming the most Americans lost on U.S. soil since the Sept. 17, 1862 Battle of Antietam, and the greatest single-day civilian loss of life in the U.S. since the May 31, 1889 Johnstown Penn. Flood; Time mag. pub. a 9/11 tragedy issue with a cover photo by Lyle Owerko; many Palestinians openly celebrate the attackon the Great Satan U.S.; Iraqi pres. Saddam Hussein utters the soundbyte: "The American cowboys are reaping the fruit of their crimes against humanity"; the govts. of Cuba, Iran, Libya, and North Korea join a worldwide chorus denouncing the attacks; Arab leaders denouncing the attacks incl. King Hussein of Jordan, Egyptian pres. Hosni Mubarak, and Lebanese PM Rafik Hariri; some Muslims around the world express sympathy for the 9/11 victims, incl. a moment of silence at a World Cup match between Bahrain and Iran on Sept. 14, and a candlelight vigil by Palestinians in Jerusalem on Sept. 15 along with another in Tehran; on Sept. 14 Ireland holds a nat. day of mourning, becoming the only country other than the U.S. and Israel to do so; the Taliban in Afghanistan condemns the attacks but denies that Osama bin Laden is behind them; bin Laden also denies involvement, claiming that there is a govt. within the govt. of the U.S. that wants to turn the 21st cent. into a cent. of conflict between Islam and Christianity, suggesting U.S. Jews and intel agencies; the mastermind was mechanical engineering-trained Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (1964-); the economic repercussions cost the U.S. economy $1T (same as Bush's June 7 tax cut); 40K workers work at "The Pile" at Ground Zero for the next 8 mo., removing 1M tons of rubble, and 69% of them later develop permanent lung problems known as "WTC Cough"; NASA astronaut Frank Culbertson films the smoking WTC from space; New York Fire Dept. chaplain (Roman Catholic Franciscan friar) Father Mychal (Michael) Fallon Judge (b. 1933) dies at the WTC, becoming the "Saint of 9/11" ("God is going to make the headlines some day rather than the Devil, so don't give up"); St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church at 130 Liberty St. is destroyed, and the govt. stalls in rebuilding it until ?; St. Paul's Chapel at 209 Broadway facing Church St. opposite the E side of the WTC, where new U.S. pres. #1 George Washington prayed after his first inauguration on Apr. 30, 1789 is not harmed, and the syacmore tree in its courtyard becomes known as the 9/11 Sycamore, with a memorial later built for it (Isaiah 9:10); at 8:30 p.m. Pres. Bush gives a great Red-Blooded Am. Cowboy Speech from the White House, with the soundbyte "Make no mistake about it, the U.S. will hunt down and punish those responsible for these cowardly acts"; the U.S. launches into a new kind of war, the Global War on Terror (Terrorism) (ends ?); Osama bin Laden and his Al-Qaida org. are immediately suspected and become the world's most-wanted criminals, despite of a lack of hard evidence; Egyptian-born 9/11 ringleader ("Emir of the WTC Attack") Mohamed Mohamed Atta (b. 1968) (Mohamed Attacker?) (who created the jihad cell in Hamburg, Germany in the late 1990s, incl. three of the four pilots) is found to have met in Prague with an Iraqi spy, throwing suspicions on Saddam Hussein, and New York City-born U.S. nat. security adviser Richard N. Perle (1941-) allegedly either blames the 9/11 attack on Iraq or wants retaliation to incl. them; Pres. Bush activates the "shadow govt." of 75-150 top officials working 90-day shifts in underground bunkers on the East Coast; the Five Dancing Israelis incident starts with a woman named Maria claiming to see a white van with five men in it filming the burning Twin Towers, allegedly with shouts of joy, who are alleged to be Israeli Mossad agents, although they are interviewed and deny dancing etc., causing conspiracy theorists to claim 9/11 was a Mossad operation; New York City Mayor Rudolph William Louis "Rudy" Giuliani (1944-) leads the city in a heroic manner after the attacks, earning the title "America's Mayor", and calling the deaths "worse than anyone could bear"; "Vanity Fair" ed. Graydon Carter comments "I think it's the end of the age of irony"; British Queen Elizabeth II comments "Grief is the price we pay for love"; Russian pres. Vladimir Putin orders a massive expansion of intel-gathering efforts in North Am. and W Europe; a folded $20 U.S. bill shows the Twin Towers burning?; Algerian-born British airline pilot Lotfi Raissi becomes the first person accused of participating in the 9/11 attack, and is held for five mo. in Belmarsh hi-security prison in London, then put through nine years of hell until being cleared on Apr. 23, 2010; the 20-ft. Ground Zero Cross, a fortuitous configuration of fallen I-beams draws memorial messages and becomes a religious monument; Alicia Esteve Head, who is in Spain on 9/11 arrives in the U.S. in 2003 and pretends to be 9/11 Twin Towers survivor Tania Head, becoming er, head of the survivors' network until she is exposed in 2007, becoming the subject of the 2012 book The Woman Who Wasn't There: The True Story of an Incredible Deception by Robin Gaby Fisher; ; meanwhile by 2003 a joke translation of Quran 9:11 begins circulating: "For it is written that a son of Arabia would awaken a fearsome Eagle. The wrath of the Eagle would be felt throughout the lands of Allah and lo, while some of the people trembled in despair still more rejoiced, for the wrath of the Eagle cleansed the lands of Allah; and there was peace"; later conspiracy theorists begin exposing the 9/11 attacks as really perpetrated by the U.S. govt. to give them a pretext to destroy the last bastions of the Bill of Rights in the name of homeland security and give them a coverstory to invade the Middle East at will to secure oil, and point to a giant 9/11 conspiracy and coverup, incl. the framing of Muslim terrorists, who allegedly could never have accurately flown the airliners into the WTC, the fact that no fighters were scrambled to accept any of them, the fact that Osama bin Laden et al. were originally trained by the U.S., the problem that eight of those named on the FBI's list of 19 names later turn up alive and well living in different countries, and the evidences of the deliberate demolition of WTC Bldg. 7, which hadn't been struck by an airplane; later civil engineers prove WTC Bldg. 7 was in free-fall for 2.5 sec., pointing to planted explosives; others claim to rebut conspiracy allegations; did the U.S. govt murder its own people to make a power grab, then stage a coverup, stay tuned?; in Aug. 2009 a group of law enforcement officers and others who participated in the 9/11 rescue and cleanup develop immune system cancer and other health problems; by 2010 3K WTC survivors are still experienced long-term PTSD; on Mar. 11, 2010 they reach a $657.5M settlement; Saudi princess Haifa bint Faisal, wife of U.S. ambassador to Saudi Arabia Prince Bandar bin Sultan is later discovered to have donated money via a conduit to two of the 9/11 hijackers.

On Sept. 12, 2001 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 1368, condemning the 9/11 attacks and expressing readiness to take the necessary steps to respond to terrorism, recognizing the right of individual and collective self-defense.

John Negroponte of the U.S. (1939-)

On Sept. 19, 2001 after being appointed by Pres. George W. Bush in Feb. and being ratified by the Senate on Sept. 15, London, England-born diplomat John Dimitri Negroponte (1939-) (U.S. ambassador to Mexico, 1989-93) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #23 (until June 23, 2004), after which on June 29 he succeeds L. Paul Bremer as U.S. ambassador to Iraq (until Mar. 17, 2005) before becoming dir. #1 of nat. intelligence on Apr. 21, 2005 (until Feb. 13, 2007), controlling a $40B budget.

On Sept. 28, 2001 after a 5-min. meeting, the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 1373, responding to 9/11 by calling on all member states to ratify all existing internat. conventions on terrorism, share intel, and restrict immigration, establishing a terrorism committee to monitor compliance; too bad, the term "terrorism" isn't defined, and only al-Qaida and the Taliban are put on the sanctions list.

On May 20, 2002 East Timor (modern-day pop. 1.1M) gains independence from Indonesia, becoming a brand new nation; on May 23 the U.N. Security Council adopts Resolution 1414 without vote to admit East Timor.

On July 24, 2002 the U.N. Security Council adopts Resolution 1426 without vote to admit Switzerland.

On Jan. 20, 2003 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 1456, calling on all states to prevent and suppress all support for terrorism, mentioning human rights for the first time but failing to define terrorism.

On Jan. 25, 2003 a French-brokered peace in Ivory Coast is signed, calling for the govt. of pres. Laurent Gbagbo to share power with pro-Guei rebels, with Seydou Diarrhea, er, Diarra as PM; too bad, Gbagbo reneges, and riots begin in the capital Yamoussoukro, causing a ceasefire to be signed on May 3 and another peace to be declared on July 4, supported by 4K U.N. peacekeeper troops; the rebels continue to hold the N half of the country.

Gen. Colin Luther Powell of the U.S. (1937-)

On Feb. 5, 2003 U.S. secy. of state #65 (2001-5) Gen. Colin Luther Powell (1937-) delivers a speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, claiming that Iraq has WMDs, using it as the Bush admin.'s rationale for war; too bad, he mistakenly names obscure jihadist Abu Musab al-Zarqawi 21x, making him a celeb that causes him to recruit followers in Iraq and lay the groundwork for ISIS; after the invasion fails to find any WMDs, he calls the speech a "blot" on his record, claiming that he warned Pres. Bush "If you break it, you own it."

On Feb. 27, 2004 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 to adopt Resolution 1528 to create the U.N. Operation in Cote d'Ivoire (Opération des Nations Unies en Côte d'Ivoire) (ONUC), to take over from the MINUCI on Apr. 4 (ends ?); by Mar. 31, 2017 it comprises 17 uniformed and 689 civilian personnel.

John Claggett Danforth of the U.S. (1936-)

On July 23, 2004 U.S. Sen. (R-Mo.) (1975-95) John Clagett Danforth (1936-) (grandson of Purina Mills founder William H. Danforth) (known for the Danforth Report whitewashing the 1993 Waco Siege) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #24 (until Jan. 20, 2005), attempting unsuccessfully to bring peace to the Sudan and submitting his resignation on Nov. 22 six days after the announcement that he is going to be replaced by Condoleeza Rice.

On Oct. 8, 2004 in response to the Sept. 1 Beslan School Massacre in Russia et al., the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 1566, condemning terrorism, which is defined as "criminal acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act", adding that such acts are "under no circumstances justifiable by considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or other similar nature", with U.S. U.N. ambassador John Danforth uttering the soundbytes: "The resolution which we have adopted states very simply that the deliberate massacre of innocents is never justifiable in any cause - never", and "Some claim that exploding bombs in the midst of children is in the service of God", calling it instead "the ultimate blasphemy"; the resolution calls for the creation of a working group to expand the list of sanctioned terrorist entities beyond al-Qaida and the Taliban; meanwhile work begins to draft a comprehensive convention defining terrorism for adoption by the U.N. Gen. Assembly (ends ?).

Rafik Hariri of Lebanon (1944-2005) Saad Hariri of Lebanon (1970-)

Valentine's Day Shakespearean Tragedy, or Who Was That Masked Man? On Feb. 14, 2005 a massive 1K kg car bomb blasts the motorcade of 60-y.-o. billionaire Muslim politician and former PM (1992-8, 2000-4) Rafik Hariri (b. 1944) in Beirut, Lebanon, killing him along with six bodyguards and 15 passersby, and wounding almost 100; he resigned last Oct. 20 after a dispute with Syria over its influence and its maintenance of 15K troops in Lebanon; on Mar. 24 a U.N. report concludes that Lebanon's probe into the killing is unsatisfactory, and the U.N. begins its own investigation; his 2nd son Saad Hariri (Saad ed Deen Rafiqk Al-Hariri) (1970-) becomes head of his daddy's Sunni Movement of the Future; on July 22, 2010 Hezbollah chief Hassan Nasrallah makes a surprise announcement that his party is likely to be implicated in the assassination.

Ruud Lubbers of Netherlands (1939-2018)

On Feb. 20, 2005 former Dutch PM (1982-94) Rudolphus Franciscus Marie "Ruud" Lubbers (1939-2018) resigns as the 9th U.N. high commissioner for refugees over sexual harassment allegations; he held the post since Jan. 1, 2001, and refused to accept a paycheck.

On Feb. 26, 2005 gunmen kill nine U.N. Bangladeshi peacekeeping troops in a grass ambush in NE Congo near the town of Kafe 20 mi. NW of Bunia.

On Mar. 21, 2005 U.N. secy.-gen. Kofi Annan lays out his plans for sweeping changes to the U.N. before its 191-member General Assembly; his 63-page report is released on Mar. 20, callings for a new U.N. Human Rights Council to replace the Commission on Human Rights, an expanded Security Council, a streamlined Secretariat, programs to cut poverty and nuke proliferation, and a new convention against terrorism by Sept. 2006.

On Apr. 10, 2005 40K anti-Japanese protesters rally in Guangzhou, along with more in other major Chinese cities over Japan's bid to get a permanent seat on the U.N. Security Council; on Apr. 13 China calls Japan's decision to let cos. explore a disputed area of the East China Sea for natural gas a "provocation" that could imperil Japan's bid for a permanent U.N. Security Council seat; on Apr. 14 a 3rd straight week of anti-Japanese demonstrations over Japan's wartime past and its bid for a permanent U.N. Security Council seat takes place in China, worrying the govt. that protesters could end up criticizing their regime.

On Apr. 13, 2005 the U.N. Gen. Assembly after seven years of waffling adopts a Global Treaty to Prevent Nuclear Terrorism, making it a crime to possess radioactive material or weapons with the intention of committing a terrorist act.

On May 5, 2005 Tony Blair wins a historic 3rd term as Britain's PM, but his Labour Party's majority in Parliament is sharply reduced from 161 to 68 seats (594 of 646), with only 37% of the popular vote, lowest winning share in English history; he enjoyed landslide victories in 1997 and 2001; two makeshift granades explode outside the British Consulate near the U.N. HQ in New York City as British voters go to the polls; Sadiq Aman Khan (1970-) becomes Labour MP for Tooting, London (until ?).

John Robert Bolton of the U.S. (1948-)

On May 12, 2005 after being nominated by Pres. George W. Bush, the GOP-controlled Foreign Relations Committee votes 10-8 along party lines to send the nomination of ultra-conservative interventionist John Robert Bolton (1948-) as the next U.S. ambassador to the U.N. to the full U.S. Senate, but without the usual recommendation; Sen. George Voinovich (R-Ohio) calls Bolton "the poster child of what someone in the diplomatic corps should not be. He is an ideologue and fosters an atmosphere of intimidation" - work, it's like you don't even know me? On Aug. 2 Pres. Bush takes advantage of Congress being in recess to appoint controversial diplomat John Robert Bolton (1948-) as U.S. ambassador #25 to the U.N., saying, "This post is too important to leave vacant any longer"; he resigns on Dec. 31, 2006 after becoming known for undiplomatic outbursts and failing to gain Senate confirmation.

In May 2005 another peace is signed in 99-44/100 pure Ivory Coast, and elections are scheduled for Oct., but they are canceled after the U.N. declares it impossible to stop the fighting, and the U.N. Security Council recommends that pres. Laurent Gbagbo remain in office for another year while turning over most of his power to new transitional PM Charles Konan Banny (1942-), gov. of the West African Central Bank, who becomes PM on Dec. 7 (until Apr. 7, 2007).

On June 1, 2005 U.N. Secy.-Gen. Kofi Annan fires staffer (Cypriot diplomat) Joseph Stephanides for manipulating contracts under the $64B Iraq oil-for-food program.

On Aug. 8, 2005 former U.N. procurement officer Alexander Yakovlev of Russia pleads guilty to soliciting hundreds of thousands of dollars in bribes from contractors in connection with the Iraqi oil-for-food program, and the same day Cyprus-born Armenian program chief Benon Vahe Sevan (1937-) is accused by a U.N.-backed probe led by former Federal Reserve chmn. Paul Volcker of taking $148K in kickbacks; in Sept. the probe releases a report claiming that half of the 4.5K cos. taking part in the program paid kickbacks or illegal surcharges.

Mohamed Mostafa ElBaradei of Egypt (1942-)

On Oct. 7, 2005 chief U.N. nuclear inspector Mohamed Mostafa ElBaradei (1942-) and his Internat. Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) win the Nobel Peace Prize, which he claims vindicates his approach of using diplomacy rather than confrontation.

On Oct. 29, 2005 (2 days before the Hindu Diwali Festival) a series of three bomb blasts by Islamic Kashmiri Lashkar-e-Taiba (Urdu "Army of the Righteous") Islamic separatist militants strikes New Delhi, India killing 62 and injuring 210; in Dec. the U.N. declares Lashkar-e-Taiba a terrorist org., and Pakistani prof. Hafiz Muhammad Saeed (1950-) its leader.

On Nov. 24, 2005 the Internat. Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the U.N.'s key nuclear watchdog agency meets in Vienna over the future of Iran's nuclear program; two weeks earlier its head Mohamed ElBaradei traveled to Iran to offer a proposal to move its uranium enrichment program to Russia, which was declined.

On Dec. 6, 2005 the U.N. authorizes a regional peacekeeping force for Somalia, but the Council of Islamic Courts rejects it; on Dec. 19 the first direct fighting between Somalia and Ethiopia begins.

On Dec. 9, 2005 Pres. Clinton tells the U.N. Climate Conference in Montreal that the Bush admin. is "flat wrong" in failing to ratify the Kyoto Protocol to reduce CO2 emissions just because it might damage the U.S. economy, as 150+ countries and about three dozen industrialized countries have done; the huffing-puffing U.S., China, and India still have not signed on.

On Dec. 30, 2005 Egyptian riot police kill 23 unarmed Sudanese migrants in a public park in Cairo that they had occupied for 3 mo. in an effort to pressure U.N. officials into relocating them.

In 2005 in response to the Mar. 2004 bombing of Madrid, the U.N. founds the Alliance of Civilizations to prevent a clash of civilizations, tracing back to the U.N. initiative called "Dialogue Among Civilizations" proposed in 1998 by Iranian pres. Mohammad Khatami to counter Samuel Huntington's book "The Clash of Civilizations"; too bad, it ends up being coopted by Islamic countries against the West.

In 2005 the U.N. Gen. Assembly adopts the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) Doctrine.

On Jan. 1, 2006 the U.N. World Food Program, which fed 600K in North Korea last Dec. officially shuts off aid to the country's 22M people at the govt.'s request.

Allah vs. Superman, or, Maybe that pope was right who called Muhammad the Antichrist? On Feb. 3, 2006 the reprinting of 12 cartoon caricatures of the Muslim Prophet Muhammad from the Sept. 30, 2005 issue of Denmark's Jyllands-Posten, ed. by Flemming Rose (1958-), incl. one of Muhammad with a beard in his turban causes madass protests by Muslims in Britain, Turkey, Lebanon, Syria, Pakistan, Indonesia, Malaysia and Palestine, incl. 50K in Khartoum, Sudan, causing the Danish govt. to apologize, and U.S. State Dept. spokesperson Janelle Hironimus to criticize the papers for "inciting religious or ethnic hatred in this manner", which she calls "not acceptable" (never criticizes the madass Muslims?); on Feb. 4 crazed caricatures of, er, Muslim protesters in Damascus attack the Danish and Norwegian embassies, then on Feb. 5 set fire to the Danish mission in Beirut, while Iran recalls its ambassador to Denmark; on Feb. 6 400 madass Muslims running loose in Tehran attack the Danish Embassy in the name of their prince of darkness Muhammad, the prophet of Satan who preaches hate and murder, intolerance, subjection of women and non-Muslims, polygamy and pedophilia, and doesn't claim to be divine or a healer but is an admitted killer, yet can't even be portrayed, while worshippers must dance around a black meteorite idol from outer space sent by his father the Devil?; in support many other European newspapers reprint them, the headline of France Soir reading "Yes, we have the right to caricature God" (Oui, on a le droit de caricaturer Dieu); on Oct. 28, 2005 a coalition of Dutch Muslim groups try to press criminal charges against the paper, but the prosecutor drops them; on Jan. 1, 2006 Danish PM Anders Fogh Rasmussen backs up the paper's right to freedom of speech; on Jan. 1, 2006 a Christian newspaper in Norway reprints the cartoons; on Jan. 25 Muslim leaders in Saudi Arabia demand punishment of the Danish newspaper, and on Jan. 26 withdraws their ambassador from Denmark as the country begins a boycott of Danish products; on Jan. 30 the paper apologizes for offending the Morons, er, Muslims, but stands by its decision to print them; on Jan. 31 Danish Muslims demand a clearer apology; on Feb. 2 the Jordanian weekly Shihan reprints them with an editorial by former Sen. Jihad Momani, who is then fired as the publisher withdraws the issue from circulation; in 2010 WikiLeaks reveals that Syria helped orchestrate the Motoon riots; meanwhile on Feb. 6 200 more criminals attack the Austrian Embassy in Tehran, yet more crazies storm a U.S. military base outside Bagram, Afghanistan (four being put to sleep by Afghan troops like the mad dogs they are by being shot in the street), and yet more crazed mad dogs stampede in Somalia, killing a teen boy; on Feb. 6 Lebanon apologizes to Denmark about being home to deathhead moth loonies with turbans and beards who can't stand unsevered infidel heads existing on the same planet with them (how can anyone portray the real Muhammad anyway when there are no original pics of him to go by, and don't half of the lookalike loonies call themselves Muhammad, and how is the "idolatrous" behavior of non-believers in the non-Muslim world any business of theirs to punish by taking the law in their own hands?); meanwhile on Feb. 6 Iran's parliament issues a statement mentioning what happened to Salman Rushdie (1947-), with thinly veiled threats that the British author of the cartoons will soon have a death warrant out on him, and sure enough, a $1M reward is put out for the head of the cartoonist; in Nigeria the heavily Muslim north goes bananas and kills 100 Christians in the heavily Christian SE, becoming the bloodiest cartoon fighting; the Muslims then begin pressuring the U.N. to make "defamation of Islam" a world crime, with a yearly vote that starts out strong then dwindles until ?; in July 2013 Lebanese-born Danish Muslim leader Ahmad Akkari, who traveled the Muslim World fueling the uproar over the cartoons repents, admitting the newspaper has the right to print them; too bad, on Sept. 30, 2015 after years of relentless Muslim attacks combined with submission to Sharia by the leftist govts. and PC press, Jyllans-Posten reprints the original page sans cartoons - shouldn't Islam be the world crime, with a worldwide death warrant out for each and every mental zombie suffering from this incurable mental virus for the good of the world? Are there actually any intelligent, sane people in this sick mass mind-control hypnocult ruled by a graveyard Hitler?

On Feb. 5, 2006 cartoon-hating Iran ends all voluntary cooperation with the U.N. nuclear watchdog agency - as it races to build A-bombs and use them with reckless abandon like in a, ahem, cartoon?

On Feb. 16, 2006 U.N. secy.-gen. Kofi Annan says that the U.S. should close its Guantanamo Bay Prison for terrorists as soon as possible.

On Apr. 23, 2006 Osama bin Laden issues a taped message, saying that the West is at war with Islam, accusing the U.S. and Europe of supporting a Zionist war on Islam by cutting off funds to the Hamas-led Palestinian govt., and calling on followers to go to Sudan to fight a proposed U.N. force in Darfur.

On May 9, 2006 Cuba, Saudi Arabia, China, and Russia become the 44th through 47th members of the new U.N. Human Rights Council, which replaces the politicized Human Rights Commission known for allowing members with bad records; 64 of the 191 U.N. member states submitted candidacies, which must be approved by a majority of the states; Venezuela and Iran are rejected; the U.S. didn't apply.

On May 22, 2006 cool-coastline postage-stamp-sized Slav Orthodox Christian Montenegro (pop. 600K, 30% Serb) votes by 55.4% to secede from much larger Serbia, ending its 88-year union (1918), causing celebrations in Podgorica and grumbling in Belgrade; on June 3 Montenegro declares independence, and joins the U.N. as member #192; of the 194 world countries, only Vatican City and Taiwan aren't members; on June 22, 2006 the U.N. Security Council adopts Resolution 1691 without vote to admit Montenegro.

U.S. Pres. George Walker Bush (1946-) Hugo Chavez of Venezuela (1954-2013)

On Sept. 19, 2006 U.N. secy.-gen. Kofi Annan opens the 61st U.N. Gen. Assembly, uttering the soundbyte: "On one side, supporters of Israel feel that it is harshly judged by standards that are not applied to its enemies, and too often this is true, particularly in some U.N. bodies"; on Sept. 19 U.S. Pres. #43 (2001-9) George Walker Bush (1946-) gives a speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, claiming that the U.S. is not in a "war against Islam", saying "This propaganda is false and its purpose is to confuse you and justify acts of terror. We respect Islam"; Iranian pres. Ahmadinejad is nearby but snubs the speech; on Sept. 20 Venezuelan pres. (1999-2013) Hugo Chavez (1954-2013) gives a speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, hamming it up by calling Bush a "diablo", saying "The Devil came here yesterday... as if he were the owner of the world", adding "In this very spot it smells like sulfur still", accusing the U.S. govt. of "domination, exploitation and pillage of peoples of the world"; "We appeal to the people of the United States and the world to halt this threat, which is like a sword hanging over our head"; U.S. ambassador John Bolton comments "Too bad the people of Venezuela don't have free speech"; in Oct. Chavez's behavior costs Argentina a seat on the U.N. Security Council; on Sept. ? a U.S. Secret Service agent accidentally discharges his shotgun as Iranian pres. Imadinnajacket is loading his motorcade at the InterContinental Hotel, freaking out Pres. Bush and co.; Imadinnajacket's refusal to make a public stink of the incident teaches the White House that he acts strategically, with caution, giving them respect for him?

On Oct. 6, 2006 (Fri.) the U.N. Security Council unanimously urges North Korea to abandon all atomic weapons and cancel test plans; on Oct. 9 North Korea detonates a nuke underground anyway, causing Pres. Bush to call it "a threat to internat. peace and security", and the U.N. Security Council to weigh severe sanctions, voting 15-0-0 on Oct. 14 for "clear threat to international peace and security", causing North Koream ambassador Pak Gil Yon to walk out of the council chamber after calling their action "gangster-like" for ignoring the U.S. nuclear arsenal, which gives U.S. U.N. ambassador John Bolton a chance to snicker; the resolution was castrated of its authorization of military action by Russia and China, but bans luxury items such as cognac, French wine, and lobster loved by Kim Jong-il; Russia is alone in saying it has "no doubts" over the North Korean claim of an underground atomic explosion, while U.S. experts claim it was a dud at a mere 1 kiloton.

On Oct. 17, 2006 U.S. officials announce that satellite images of North Korea indicate they are getting ready for a 2nd nuclear test as it holds huge rallies and proclaims that U.N. sanctions amount to a declaration of war.

Jan Pronk of Holland (1940-)

On Oct. 22, 2006 Sudan orders Johannes Pieter "Jan" Pronk (1940-) of Holland, the top U.N. official there (since 2004) to leave after he accuses the army of mobilizing Arab militias on Oct. 14.

On Nov. 7, 2006 Panama wins a seat on the U.N. Security Council on the 48th ballot after Guatemala and Venezuela cancel each other out and drop out; the other new members are Belgium, Indonesia, Italy, and South Africa.

Dr. Margaret Chan (1947-)

On Nov. 8, 2006 bird flu expert Dr. Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun (1947-) of Hong Kong becomes the first Chinese to lead the World Health Org. (WHO) of the U.N. as dir. #7, taking office next Jan. 4 (until July 1, 2017); she was Hong Kong's health dir. in 1997 when the city reported the first-ever outbreak of H5N1 bird flu virus, and wins kudos for ordering all 1.5M poultry in the area slaughtered in 3 days - I can enjoy food again? On Nov. 8 Francisco de Goya's 1778 painting Children with a Cart is stolen from a truck outside a hotel in Stroudsburg, Penn. as it is being transported from the Toledo Museum of Art to the Solomon Guggenheim Museum in New York City; it is recoverd on Nov. 21 in N.J., an FBI agent saying the thieves "probably thought it was a truck full of PlayStations".

On Dec. 10, 2006 Afghan Pres. Hamid Karzai gives a speech on the 58th anniv. of the U.N. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, tearfully lamenting the killing of Afghan children by NATO and U.S. bombs and Pakistani terrorists.

On Dec. 11, 2006 U.N. secy.-gen. Kofi Annan gives his farewell address at the Truman Library in Independence, Mo., saying that the U.S. must not sacrifice its dem. ideals in its war against terrorism, that "human rights and the rule of law are vital to global security and prosperity", and that when Bush, er, the U.S. "appears to abandon its own ideals and objectives, its friends abroad are naturally troubled and confused", and finally "There's no secy.-gen. of the U.N. that's going to be in lockstep with the U.S. or any other country with regard to its policies"; he steps down on Dec. 31.

Ban Ki-moon of South Korea (1944-)

On Dec. 14, 2006 after the U.N. Security Council recommends him by acclamation on Oct. 9, the U.N. Gen. Assembly elects Ban Ki-moon (1944-) of South Korea as U.N. secy.-gen. #8; he is sworn-in on Jan. 1, 2007 (until Dec. 31, 2016), with the soundbyte "My mission could be dubbed Operation Restore Trust", becoming known as "the bridge-builder".

On Dec. 16, 2006 3K ethnic Tamils flee into govt.-held areas in E Sri Lanka, while the U.N. calls on Tamil Tiger rebels to let tens of thousands more flee the rebel-held town of Vaharai in E Batticaloa, where they fired artillery on Nov. 7 from a school filled with refugees, causing the Sri Lankan army to return fire, killing 45 civilians and injuring 100+; boats carrying fleeing civilians capsize, killing 8+.

In Jan. 2007 the U.N. estimates that at least 35K Iraqis have been killed each year since the U.S. Iraq War started in 2003.

On Feb. 3, 2007 Iran opens its Isfahan Uranian Conversion Facility to almost 100 reporters and a delegation of froeign ambassadors from the U.N. nuclear agency.

On Feb. 22, 2007 the U.N. nuclear watchdog agency announces that Iran has ignored the U.N. Security Council ultimatum to freeze uranium enrichment and has instead been expanding its program by setting up hundreds of centrifuges (total 1K), saying that new sanctions will be laid on them.

On Mar. 10, 2007 Iran and Syria join the five permanent U.N. Security Council members U.S., Britain, France, Russia, and China in a regional security conference in Baghdad.

The insurgents begin penetrating the holy Green Zone? On Mar. 22, 2007 a Katyusha rocket fired from a Shiite area of the E bank of the Tigris River hits near the office of PM Nouri al-Maliki, 50 yards from visiting U.N. Secy.-Gen. Ban Ki-moon in Baghdad's Green Zone, causing him to duck just minutes after al-Maliki said that the city is "on the road to stability"; meanwhile the U.S. military announces the capture of Qais al-Khazaali and his brother Laith al-Khazaali, who they claim are behind a Jan. sneak attack that killed five U.S. soldiers in Karbala.

On Apr. 11, 2007 the Algerian al-Qaida group AQIM stages twin suicide attacks, one against the office of the PM in Algiers, the 2nd against a police station near the internat. airport, killing 33 and wounding 150+; on Sept. 6 they bomb a crowd waiting to greet Algerian pres. Abdel Aziz Bouteflika in Batna, killing 22 and injuring 100+; on Sept. 8 the attack the naval barracks in Dellys, killing 30; on Dec. 11 they finish the year by attacking the HQ of the U.N. refugee agency in Algiers, killing 47 incl. 17 U.N. employess.

Zalmay Khalilzad of the U.S. (1951-)

On Apr. 30, 2007 after being nominated by Pres. George W. Bush on Feb. 12 and unanimously confirmed by the Dem.-controlled U.S. Senate on Mar. 29, Afghanistan-born Sunni Muslim Repub. ambassador to Afghanistan (2003-5) and Iraq (2005-7) Zalmay Khalilzad (1951-) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #26 (until Jan. 22, 2009), going on to charge in Nov. that Iran is helping insurgent groups in Afghanistan and Iraq, and is proceeding with its program to build nukes, and urge the U.N. Security Council in Aug. 2008 to take urgent action to "condemn Russia's military assault on the sovereign state of Georgia".

On May 6, 2007 the U.S., Egypt, Iran, the U.N. Security Council et al. hold a conference in Baghdad, Iraq.

On June 11, 2007 French foreign minister Bernard Kouchner announces that the pres. of Sudan has agreed to a hybrid U.N.-African Union peacekeeping force of 20K to stop the bloodshed in Darfur, but is adamant that all of the troops must be African; on June 17 the British ambassador to the U.N. announces that an agreement has been reached, with the commander to be African.

On June 24, 2007 a car bomb kills six U.N. peacekeepers on patrol in S Lebanon; meanwhile a battle between Lebanese troops and Sunni militants in N Lebanon kills 10.

On July 31, 2007 the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 to adopt Resolution 1769, establishing the U.N.-African Union Mission in Darfur (ends ?), which grows to 26K personnel with a budget of $106M/mo. by 2008 after it begins deployment in Oct.; by June 30, 2013 it has 19,735 personnel; by June 20, 2017 it loses 250 personnel KIA.

Kenji Nagai (1957-2007) - Sept. 27, 2007 Kenji Nagai (1957-2007) - before Ibrahim Gambari of Nigeria (1944-)

On Aug. 15, 2007 in Myanmar the raising of fuel prices as much as 500% by the govt. causes citizen protests, launching the Saffron Rev., inspired by Aung San Suu Kyi, which begins as 500 mainly young male Buddhist monks march in Pokokku in N Myanmar (390 mi. NW of Yangon), causing authorities to fire warning shots and beat some of them up; on Sept. 6 the monks take some govt. officials hostage and demand apologies, and the protest spreads throughout Myanmar; on Sept. 22 2K monks march in Yangon in N Myanmar to defy the military junta, along with 10K in Mandalay, passing the house of Aung San Suu Kyi, who appears at her gate (where she is under house arrest) and accepts their blessings; on Sept. 23 150 nuns join in Yangon, along with 15K monks and laymen; on Sept. 24-26 30K-100K, incl. 10K monks stage a pro-democracy protest, which is brutally crushed by troops, who kill up to 200; meanwhile other protests go on in 25 other cities, causing the govt. to move Ain't You So Ashamed Kids to Insein Prison, and impose dusk-dawn curfews starting Sept. 26, then begin arresting hundreds of monks on Sept. 27, which doesn't stop 50K from protesting in Yangon, which troops deal with by hosing them down with insecticide spray, after which the protests stop; on Sept. 27 Japanese photographer Kenji Nagai (b. 1957) is shot and killed in the street like a dog by troops, continuing to take photos as he lies bleeding on the ground, causing Japanese PM Yasuo Fukuda to demand a full explanation; in Sept. U.N. under-secy.-gen. (since 2005) Ibahim Agboola Gambari (1944-) of Nigeria is appointed special U.N. envoy to Myanmar; on Oct. 31 they try it again in Pakkoku, but are down to 100 monks; on Nov. 26 hundreds of monks march against the Myanmar regime in safer Patna, India.

Srgjan Asan Kerim of Macedonia (1948-)

On Sept. 18, 2007 economist-diplomat Srgjan Asan Kerim (1948-) of Macedonia becomes pres. of the U.N. Gen. Assembly (until Sept. 16, 2008).

On Jan. 8, 2008 Sudanese soldiers shoot at a U.N. peacekeeper convoy in Darfur, wrecking a fuel tanker and wounding a local driver.

On Apr. 15, 2008 Pope Benedict XVI arrives for his first U.S. visit, becoming the first pope to be greeted by a U.S. pres. at Edwards AFB in Washington, D.C., where evangelical Methodist cowboy Pres. George W. Bush calls him "the most listened-to man in the world", apologizing for the Church's sex scandals while salivating over the 70M U.S. Catholics, whose numbers grow daily with illegal immigration; popey makes no public statements on Iraq because of the murder of Christian churchmen changing his mind about pulling out too quick?; on Apr. 16 a musical ceremony on the White House Lawn sings happy birthday to him, and he goes on to admit that the clergy sex-abuse scandal has been "very badly handled", then adds "What does it mean to speak of child protection when pornography and violence can be viewed in so many homes through media widely available today?"; on Apr. 17 he meets with victims of sexual abuse in the Boston area, and is given a list of 1K children who were abused going back several decades by Cardinal Sean Patrick O'Malley of Boston, issuing the soundbyte "No words of mine could describe the pain and harm inflicted by such abuse"; on Apr. 18 the pope gives an address to the the U.N., saying that respect for human rights and not violence is the key to solving many of the world's problems (what church has more experience?), and complaining about decision power resting in the hands of a few powerful (unnamed) nations; he leaves on Apr. 20 after leading a Mass before 60K at Yankee Stadium in New York City and telling them to be "obedient" to Church authority - a contradiction?

On Apr. 23, 2008 envoys from the U.S. and other nations dash out of a U.N. Security Council meeting after Libyan ambassador Ibrahim Dabbashi compares the plight of Palestinians in the Gaza Strip to those in Nazi concentration camps - hey I'm Maryann from Gilligan's Island?

On June 3-5, 2008 the 2008 U.N. Summit on World Hunger in Rome attended by 180 countries sees world leaders pledge to reduce trade barriers and boost agricultural productivity to fight soaring food prices, while vowing to cut world hunger in half by 2015; U.N. officials claims that $30B a year is needed to resolve the crisis; meanwhile the U.S. Congress sends a $290B farm bill to Pres. Bush for a 2nd time after fixing a printing error that left out delivery of U.S. food aid abroad.

Rev. Miguel d'Escoto Brockmann of Nicaragua (1933-2017)

On Sept. 16, 2008 Los Angeles, Calif.-born Columbia U.-educated Roman Catholic Maryknoll priest Miguel d'Escoto Brockmann (1933-2017) of Nicaragua (former foreign minister of Daniel Ortega, who went on a 2-mo. hunger strike in 1985 to protest U.S. military intervention via the Contras, then took the U.S. to the World Court, which ruled in 1986 that it violated internat. law and must pay reparations) becomes pres. of the U.N. Gen. Assembly (until Sept. 2009), going on to back Iranian pres. Imadinnajacket and Sudanese pres. Omar al Bashir, and accuse Israel of apartheid against the Palestinians.

On Oct. 28, 2008 Congolese rebels under gen. Laurent Nkunda break a Jan. U.N.-brokered ceasefire and advance toward Goma, sending tens of thousands fleeing, firing on civilians.

On Nov. 13, 2008 senior diplomats from Germany plus the five permanent U.S. security members Britain, China, France, Russia, and the U.S. hold a conclave in Paris to discuss fast-tracking new sanctions on Iran over its nuclear program that have been stalled.

On Dec. 16, 2008 the U.N. Security votes 14-0-1 (Libya) for Resolution 1850, reaffirming support for the 2007 Middle East summit in Annapolis, Md. and for the 2-state solution.

On Dec. 18, 2008 a nonbinding resolution is passed by the U.N. Gen. Assembly, backed by the 57-nation Saudi-based Org. of the Islamic Conference (OIC) urging members to take state action against "defamation of religion" and "incitement to religious hatred", particularly Muslim; meanwhile another nonbinding resolution calling for worldwide decriminalization of homosexuality is signed by 66 of 192 U.N. member countries, but the U.S. refuses.

In 2009 for the first time 1B (1.02B) people worldwide go hungry according to the U.N. World Food Program (100M than in 2008), and on Nov 11 UNICEF pub. a report claiming that almost 200M children have stunted growth because of malnutrition.

On Jan. 1, 2009 the Israeli attack on Gaza continues, stinking themselves up on Jan. 15 by hitting the U.N. HQ and destroying bags of food aid.

Vijay K. Nambiar (1943-)

On Jan. 1, 2009 the Sri Lankan army captures Kilinochchi, capital of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, pushing them to the NE then cornering the rebels in a tiny sliver of land on the NE coast by early Apr.; meanwhile on Apr. 17 top U.N. official Vijay K. Nambiar (1943-) meets with Sri Lankan leaders to discuss the estimated 100K ethnic Tamil civilians that have been trapped by the civil war, of which 4.5K have been killed; sadly, it all started with religion, with the majority Buddhist Sinhalese vs. the minority Hindu Tamils.

Susan Elizabeth Rice of the U.S. (1964-)

On Jan. 26, 2009 after being nominated by pres.-elect Barack Obama on Dec. 1, and er, pacifying her Senate confirmation hearing chaired by Jesse Helms by nursing her infant son while they watched, Stanford-Oxford grad Susan Elizabeth Rice (1964-) (no relation to Condoleezza Rice) becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #27 (until June 30, 2013) (first African-Am. woman), with Obama restoring the position to cabinet level.

On Apr. 20, 2009 British ambassador Peter Gooderham leads dozens of diplomats in walking out of a U.N. Conference on Racism in Geneva after Iranian PM Imadinnajacket calls Israel a "cruel and oppressive racist regime", and says that the state of Israel was created "on the pretext of Jewish suffering" in WWII; protesters dressed in clown wigs disrupt Dinnajacket, shouting "racist" in French and throwing something at him; meanwhile the U.S., Israel, Germany, Poland, and the Netherlands boycott the conference, which soon falls apart.

On May 25, 2009 (a.m.) (U.S. Memorial Day - thanks for thinking of us?) North Korea conducts its 2nd underground nuclear test in three years, drawing global condemnation, incl. from Russia, China, and the U.N. Security Council, which votes unanimously on June 12 for Resolution 1874, imposing sanctions on pesky North Korea, incl. authorizing ship searches on the high seas to look for nukes; their Apr. 5 launch of a long range missile compounds the condemnation, which doesn't stop them on May 27 from announcing that it no longer honors the 1953 armistice that ended the Korean War, and that it will respond with "a powerful military strike" if any nation tries to stop it from exporting missiles and WMDs, calling such naval actions a "declaration of war"; on May 26 South Korea announces that it would join nations doing just that - they have decided that Obama is another Jimmy Carter already?

On June 12, 2009 after it test-fires a barrage of ballistic missiles into waters off its E coast, the U.N. Security Council votes 15-0-0 for Resolution 1874, imposing new sanctions on pesky North Korea in an effort to stifle its nuclear ambitions; by Sept. North Korea is going with the Iraqi flow and placing IEDs on roadsides.

On July 7-10, 2009 the 35th G-88 Summit is held in Italy by the U.S., U.K., Germany, Italy, France, Russia, Canada, and Japan; on July 10 they agree to raise $20B over the next three years for food and farm aid; on July 7 Pope Benedict XIV issues the encyclical Charity in Truth (Caritas in Veritate) for the summit, backing the rights of workers to form unions, and calling for a "true world authority", despite the possibility of "a dangerous universal power of a tyrannical nature"; he is really backing the U.N.?

On Aug. 20, 2009 after thuggish threats from Muammar Gaddafi (revealed by WikiLeaks in Nov. 2010), Abdel Basset Ali Mohammed al-Megrahi, the only person convicted for the 1988 Lockerbie, Scotland jet bombing arrives in Libya to cheers after only serving eight years of his 27-year min. sentence for murdering 270 infidels because he has terminal prostate cancer, drawing criticism from FBI dir. Robert Mueller, U.S. JCS Adm. Mike Mullen et al., along with the victims' families, putting Scottish justice secy. Kenny MacAskill on the grill for making the decision to free the bum; in Dec. it is revealed that he had a £1.8M Swiss bank account, raising the suspicion of payoff money, although the evidence wasn't used at his trial; BP (British Petroleum) is later revealed to have lobbied for release of Libyan terrorist (but of course not him) in order to obtain a 2009 oil lease for the huge Rumaila oilfield (partnering with CNPC of China), which compensates them even when oil is not being produced; by 2010 it becomes obvious that the original 3-mo. lifespan prognostication is way off, causing renewed outcries; British ex-PM Tony Blair flew to Tripolo last June 10 to meet with Daffy to arrange a £400M arms export deal first?; meanwhile Libyan nutcase leader (since 1969) Muammar (al-) Gaddafi (1942-2011) (celebrating his 40th anniv. in power) plans to visit the U.S. for the first time in Sept., being refused permission to pitch his Bedouin tent in New York's Central Park then settling for Englewood, N.J., pissing-off state residents, who lost 38 in the Lockerbie bombing; meanwhile Daffy Duck quacks, er, calls for the dismemberment of Switzerland for mistreating his son Motassim "Hannibal" Bilal Gaddafi last year, then gives a nutty U.N. speech on Sept. 23, saying that Obama should be pres. for life, and that the H1N1 virus was created by the military, demanding $7.7T reparations to Africa for Euro colonialism, uttering the soundbyte "What's next, fish flu?" - they should have put a bomb on the bum's plane to Libya, and another on Daffy's plane to New York, and a 3rd guess where?

On Aug. 21, 2009 the U.N. Refugee Agency expresses shock at reports that a sinking boat carrying illegal immigrants from Libya is ignored by passing vessels, causing 75 of 77 to die en route to Italy.

On Aug. 25, 2009 Rodolphe Adada of the Repub. of the Congo, head of the U.N.-African Union peacekeeping mission in Darfur resigns.

Richard Joseph Goldstone of South Africa (1938-)

On Sept. 15, 2009 after an investigation by the 3-person U.N. Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict incl. pro-Palestinian Desmond de Silva, who on Sept. 28 utters the soundbyte "Even if Bin Laden himself was on board the Mavi Marmara, it wouldn't have made the blockade legal", the 575-page Goldstone Report, by the U.N. Human Rights Council led by Jewish South African ex-judge Richard Joseph Goldstone (1938-) is released, accusing both Israel and Hamas of war crimes, saying that both sides had committed violations of the laws of war, and that while Israel had provocation it overreacted with disproportionate force, targeting Palestinian civilians and infrastructure, even using some as human shields, pissing-off the Israelis; it is approved on Sept. 29, after which in Oct. Palestinian Nat. Authority pres. Mahmoud Abbas (a U.S. ally) is accused of colluding with both the U.S. and Israel by deliberately ignoring it; on Oct. 8 Libya asks the U.N. Security Council to consider it in an emergency session; on Oct. 16 British Col. Richard Kemp testifies before the U.N. Human Rights Council that "The Israeli Defense Forces did more to safeguard the rights of civilians in a combat zone than any other army in the history of warfare. Israel did so while facing an enemy that deliberately positioned its military capability behind the human shield of the civilian population"; on Apr. 1, 2011 Goldstone recants the report, partly blaming israel for not cooperating with the HRC; meanwhile the Israeli govt. considers restricting travel by its officials and military personnel to Europe for fear of arrest as war criminals, and Hamas asks for postponement of a planned Oct. 24-26 ceremony in Cairo to sign a reconciliation pact with Fatah over the report, while Iranian pres. Inastraightjacket says that the West has been using psychological weapons that coverup how Palestians not Israelis are the real victims; on Oct. 12-16 Turkey pulls out of the EU, citing the Gaza atrocities, signaling the rejection of Kemal Ataturk's pro-Western secular Islam and the acceptance of radical fundamental Islam as it turns against its former allies Israel and the U.S. bigtime and openly courts Hamas, Syria, Iran, Hezbollah, and al-Qaida; the B'Tselem group in Israel, which is against Israeli anti-terror actions supplies info. to use in the study; in Oct. it is revealed that the Goldstone Report was initiated by the anti-Israel Org. of the Islamic Conference (OIC) (founded 1969), known for trying to criminalize any criticism of Islam or Muslims worldwide as part of a "stealth jihad"; on Nov. 7 the U.S. Congress votes 344-36 to condemn the report, after which the Obama admin. pressures Israel to accept U.N. oversight of its military for the first time ever; on Dec. 14 a London court issues an arrest warrant for former Israeli foreign minister Tzipi Livni, causing her to cancel a planned visit, after which the British govt. apologizes and foreign secy. David Miliband says that the govt. will change its laws to prevent any more warrants being put out on Israeli officials, causing the Muslim Council of Britain to loudly complain; in May 2010 pro-Israeli activists ban him from attending his grandson's bar mitzvah in Johannesburg.

U.S. Pres. Barack Hussein Obama (1961-)

On Sept. 23, 2009 Pres. Obama delivers his first speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, saying that he intends to begin a "new era of engagement" with the world based on "mutual respect", and that the task of solving global crises "cannot be solely America's endeavor"; he meets with Russian pres. Dmitry Medvedev and gets a concession to consider tough new sanctions against Iran and support him on Sept. 27 as he chairs a historic meeting of the 15-member U.N. Security Council (5th time it has met at the heads-of-state level since 1946, and first chaired by a U.S. pres.), which unanimously approves the U.S.-drafted Resolution 1835 calling on nations with nukes to scrap their arsenals; China, who agrees to the resolution also tells everybody that stepping up pressure on Iran isn't an effective way to persuade them to halt its nuclear program, dissing the Sept. 23 resolution of the five permanent security council members that Iran has until Oct. 1 to prepare a "serious response" to its demands to halt or face consequences, which doesn't phase them, since on Sept. 27-28 Iran tests short and long-range missiles capable of hitting Israel and Europe; luckily, on Oct. 1 after a high-level meeting in Geneva, Iran agrees to ship its enriched uranium to Russia for processing so it can be watched.

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran (1956-)

On Sept. 23, 2009 Iranian pres. (2005-13) Imajackass, er, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (1956-) delivers a speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, which bashes Israel as usual, causing 11 countries to walk out, and Israeli pres. Benjamin Netanyahu to condemn the U.N. for allowing him to speak since he also denies the Holocaust; meanwhile on Sept. 25 Obama, Sarkozy, and Brown accuse Iran of building a secret underground nuke plant, causing him to cave and announce that he will open it to inspection.

Col. Muamar Gaddafi of Libya (1942-2011)

On Sept. 23, 2009 after being forced to live in a Bedouin tent on an estate owned by Donald Trump 40 mi. frm the U.N. HQ, Libyan dictator (since Sept. 1, 1969) Col. Madman Daffy, er, Muammar Gaddafi (1942-2011) ignores the 15-min. limit to deliver a 100-min. speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, his first since 1969, forcing British PM Gordon Brown and other political leaders to wait while he rants and raves, calling the U.N. Security Council the "terror council", blasting the U.N. for failing to stop 65 wars since 1945, and praising "our Obama" while calling for a U.N. inquiry into the assassination of JFK; "After this speech, we will no longer have to obey the resolutions of the Security Council... Either we will continue to work together, or we will split into two camps: equitable united nations with their Security Council, and great powers with their Security Council and the right of veto that they use each other against a friend."

On Oct. 16, 2009 Bosnia, Lebanon, Gabon, Brazil, and Nigeria are elected to the U.N. Security Council for 2-year terms starting next Jan.

On Nov. 16, 2009 PLO leader Ahmed Qurei says that the Obama admin. has reached an understanding with the Palestinian Authority that won't stop efforts to unilaterally create a Palestinian state via a U.N. Security Council resolution, and on Nov. 17 Israel approves the building of 900 new homes for Jews on the West Bank, pissing-off the Obama admin.

On Nov. 16-18, 2009 the 2009 U.N. Food Summit in Rome fails to secure substantial new funds to fight world hunger.

On Dec. 23, 2009 the U.N. Security Council votes 13-1-1 (Libya, China) for Resolution 1907, imposing an arms embargo and sanctions on Eritrea for giving aid to Islamic insurgents in Somalia esp. Al-Shabaab.

Fehmi Bülent Yildirim of Turkey (1966-)

Tell me, friend, when did Saruman the Wise abandon reason for madness? On May 27, 2010 the misnamed Gaza Freedom Flotilla of six cargo ships (three flying Turkish flags, incl. Mavi Marmara, carrying 400 Turks who are members of the Islamic terrorist Humanitarian Relief Foundation (IHH) (Insani Yardim Vakfi), headed by Fehmi Bülent Yildirim (1966-), carrying 10 tons of humanitarian aid incl. bldg. materials and medical supplies sets sail from Cyprus for the Gaza Strip in a symbolic attempt by 680 Muslim and non-Muslim activists from 50 countries to break the 3-year Israeli blockade by refusing to stop at an Israel port for inspection and trucking of supplies by Israel into Gaza like is done every week with 10K tons of food and other supplies; Pres. Obama's associates Bill Ayers and Bernardine Dohrn are closely associated with the Free Gaza Movement; Turkish activist Erdinc Tekir, who is wounded in the fighting is later found to have participated in an Islamic terrorist attack on a Russian ferry in the Black Sea in 1996; some activists chant Intifada songs; others chant the Islamic battle cry "Khaibar, Khaibar, oh Jews, the army of Muhammad will return", and praise martyrdom before departure; on May 31 (U.S. Memorial Day) (pre-dawn hours of June 1 in Israel) the Israeli military boards the flotilla 75 mi. from the coast, initially carrying only paintball guns, then meeting violent resistance, the Turkish jihadists taking four Israeli marines hostage before other armed commandos storm aboard, killing nine activists and wounding 53 (incl. 37 members of the IHH or other Turkish Islamic orgs.), all on the Mavi Marmara, while getting two Israeli commandos wounded while trying to board, then tows it to Ashdod, later releasing the activists accused of attacking Israeli troops after an internat. outcry; causing Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu to apologize, expressing regret and cancelling a planned trip to the White House, later uttering the soundbyte: "The state of Israel faces an attack of international hypocrisy... it is our right and obligation to prevent arms from reaching Gaza. This was not a Love Boat, it was a Hate Boat"; Obama calls the raid "a tragic situation", adding "You've got a loss of life that was unnecessary", calling for an "effective investigation"; on May 31 10K march in Istanbul, Turkey to denounce Israel, along with other demonstrations in London, Athens, etc.; in London 800 protesters attempt to storm BBC Manchester; a women's rally near the Qalandiya Checkpoint between Rammalah and Jerusalem sees Am. journalist Emily Henochowicz loses an eye after being shot with a tear gas canister by Israeli border guards; Turkey threatens action against Israel, putting it on alert; meanwhile on May 31 the U.N. Security Council holds an emergency meeting to discuss the Israeli raid, while Israeli foreign minister Avigdor Liberman claims that the flotilla organizers wanted blood to be shed, saying "Everything proves that it was a group of terrorists who want to promote terror and cooperate with terror"; Arab-Israeli Knesset member Hanib Zoabi, who is aboard the Mavi Marmara calls the IDF operation "criminal"; meanwhile Hillary Clinton is emailed by anti-Israeli advisor Sidney Blumenthal, who compares the raid on the flotilla to the 1976 Entebbe raid, suggesting ways for the U.S. to respond to the incident, with the soundbyte: "Somebody in authority needs to read Israel the riot act"; on June 2 Israeli forces find 1M Euros on one of the ships, intended for use by Hamas, along with a weapons cache; on June 2 pro-Palestinian activists send another boat, the Irish-flagged Rachel Corrie to challenge the Israeli blockade, while Egypt opens a temporary crossing into Palestinian territory, causing thousands of Gazans to flock to it hoping to escape; on June 2 Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei calls for Israel's PM and defense minister to face trial for the raid; on June 2 two rockets are fired from Gaza Strip by the Islamic Jihad, causing a retaliatory Israeli air strike that kills five; on June 2 after warning Israel not to cause an incident, the Obama admin. sides with the flotilla, and announces that it considers the Israeli blockade of Gaza to be "untenable"; Turkish-born Furkan Dogan (b. 1990) is found among the dead activists, with four bullets in his head and one in his chest, all at close range, causing the Israelis to backpeddle; on June 5 after Irish Nobel Peace Prize winner Mairead McGuire says that the activsts are prepared to be arrested, the IDF intercept the Rachel Corrie 35 mi. W of Gaza and escort it to Ashdod without incident; this time the U.S. warns the flotilla not to cause an incident; on June 5 Arab foreign ministers meet in Cairo go discuss the flotillas, and decide to "break the Israeli siege imposed on Gaza", "in any legitimate way", incl. "resistance" (violence); on June 6 Iranian supreme assashollah Ali Khamenei offers the Iranian Rev. Guards to escort future cargo ships to break the blockade; on June 7 the Israeli Navy kills six Palestinian divers, claiming they are terrorists; meanwhle on June 7 Global Muslim Brotherhood leader Youssef Qaradawi warns Israel of Allah's impending warath for having "killed God's prophets"; on June 9 48 trucks with the cargo of the Freedom Flotilla is still waiting at Kerem Shalom crossing after Hamas refuses to accept it, and on June 17 the U.N. agrees to oversee the transfer; on June 11 Turkish pres. Abdullah Gul says that Israel must apologize and compensate the Turkish victims or it might sever diplomatic relations; on June 14 Israel assembles a investigative commission, which on July 12 finds no wrongdoing; on June 15 the Internat. Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) calls Israel's Gaza Strip blockade "collective punishment" and a violation of the Geneva Conventions; on June 17 Syrian pres. Bashar al-Assad says that the Israeli attack on the flotilla has increased the chances of war in the Middle East, and that the current Israeli admin. is a "pyromaniac" govt; on June 19 the Israeli cabinet bows to pressure and eases restrictions on Gaza Strip, reserving the right to inspect for military items; on June 20 Israel gives preliminary plans for razing Palestinian homes in E Jerusalem as a prelude to building Israeli homes, pissing-off the Obama admin. again; on Jan. 23, 2011 the Turkel Commission (Public Commission to Examine the Maritime Incident of 31 May 2010) finds that the blockade "was lawful and complied with the rules of international law, in view of the security circumstances and Israel's efforts to fulfill its humanitarian obligations."

On July 13, 2011 the U.N. Security Council adopts Resolution 1999 without vote to admit South Sudan.

U.S. Pres. Barack Hussein Obama (1961-)

On Sept. 25, 2012 U.S. Pres. Obama gives a speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, uttering the soundbyte: "The future must not belong to those who slander the prophet of Islam", adding: "But to be credible, those who condemn that slander must also condemn the hate we see in the images of Jesus Christ that are desecrated, or churches that are destroyed, or the Holocaust that is denied" - whadya gonna do, kill me?

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran (1956-)

On Sept. 26, 2012 (Yom Kippur) while thousands protest outside the bldg., Iranian pres. (2005-13) Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (1956-) gives a speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, criticizing the U.S. for the manner of Osama bin Laden's killing and questioning the motives of Barack Obama and Mitt Romney for running for U.S. pres, calling Israelis "uncivilized Zionists"; the U.S. boycotts his speech.

Samantha Power of the U.S. (1970-)

On Aug. 5, 2013 Samantha Jane Power (1970-), wife (since 2008) of Cass Sunstein becomes U.S. U.N. ambassador #28 (until Jan. 20, 2017).

On Dec. 5, 2013 the U.N. Security Council votes unanimously to adopt Resolution 2127 to establish the French-backed African-led African-Led Internat. Support Mission to the Central African Repub. (MISCA) (Mission Internationale de Soutien a la Centrafique sous Conduite Africaine) peacekeeping force for Central African Repub. (CAR) (until ?).

On Apr. 10, 2014 the U.N. Security Council unanimously votes for Resolution 2149, approving a 12K-man peacekeeping force for Central African Repub. (CAR). On Apr. 12 new U.S. ambassador to the U.N. Samantha Power utters the soundbyte that the "systematic targeting" of the Muslim pop. in Central African Repub. (CAR) is "heatbreaking"; she doesn't forget to mention "retaliatory attacks against Christians", as if the Christians started it and the Muslims are the good guys?

Vladimir Putin and Barack Obama at the U.N., Sept. 28, 2015

On Sept. 28, 2015 Pres. Obama gives a speech at the 70th U.N. Gen. Assembly, with the soundbyte: "If we cannot work together more effectively, we will all suffer the consequences. That is true for the United States, as well, no matter how powerful our military... We understand the United States cannot solve the world's problems alone", adding "I lead the strongest military the world has ever known. I will never hesitate to protect my country and our allies unilaterally and by force when necessary"; he then complains about Donald Trump et al., with the soundbyte: "We see greater polarization, more frequent gridlock... movements on the far right, and sometimes the left, that insist on stopping the trade that binds our fates to other nations, calling for the building of walls to keep out immigrants", and "Most ominously, we see the fears of ordinary people being exploited through appeals to sectarianism, or tribalism, or racism, or anti-Semitism, appeals to a glorious past before the body politic was infected by those who look different, or worship God differently, a politics of us versus them"; no surprise, he adds that there must be a "rejection by non-Muslims of the ignorance that equates Islam with terrorism", bragging about increasing the yearly quota of Muslim immigrants; Russian pres. Vladimir Putin gives a speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, calling on the world to join Russia's fight against terrorism while preserving Bashed Ass in power in Syria; Iranian pres. Hassan Rouhani gives anspeech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, along with Russian pres. Vladimir Putin; meanwhile Pres. Obama meets with Putin at the U.N., becoming their first meeting in 15 mo.; on Sept. 29 Obama hosts a counter-terrorism summit at the U.N., uttering the soundbyte that Syrian pres. Bashar al-Assad must go before ISIS can be defeated; British PM David Cameron tasks Obama for trying to get the foreign leaders to stop profiling Muslims because "violent extremism is not unique to any faith", with the soundbyte: "Barack, you said it and you're right, every religion has its extremists. But we have to be frank that the biggest problem we have today is the Islamist extremist violence that has given birth to ISIL, to al-Shabaab, to al-Nusrah, al-Qaida, and so many other groups."

On Jan. 31, 2016 after street protests and armed insurgency, the African Union (AU) votes to dismiss a proposal by U.N. secy.-gen. Ban Ki-moon, U.N. ambassador Samantha Power, the EU et al. to deploy troops to Burundi to prevent possible genocide and prepare for a transitional govt. after the ouster of 3-term (since 2005) pres. Pierre Nkurunziza.

On Feb. 1, 2016 U.N. secy.-gen. Ban Ki-moon pub. the op-ed. Don't Shoot the Messenger in the New York Times, scolding Israel for criticizing his earlier comments about the justness of the Palestinian cause while condemning "Palestinians targeting Israeli civilians", containing the soundbyte: "As oppressed peoples have demonstrated throughout the ages, it is human nature to react to occupation, which often serves as a potent incubator of hate and extremism", adding that "History proves that people will always resist occupation".

In Oct. 2016 DC Comics char. Wonder Woman is announced as the honorary U.N. ambassador for the empowerment of women and girls in accordance with U.N. sustainable development goal #5 ("achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls" adopted in 2015 (fulfillment date 2030); too bad, 1,180 U.N. employees sign a petition protesting the appointment because of Wonder Woman's "overtly sexualized image" that is allegedly not "culturally encompassing or sensitive".

On Dec. 23, 2016 (one hour before Sabbath on the U.S. East Coast) after Egypt withdraws it under pressure from Israel, and the backstabbing Obama admin. breaks with tradition and abstains, giving the green light, the U.N. Security Council votes 14-0-1 (incl. New Zealand, Malaysia, Senegal, and Venezuela) to adopt U.N. Security Council Resolution 2334, demanding an end to Israeli settlements in E Jerusalem, affecting 500K, standing and applauding afterwards to rub it in, pissing-off Donald Trump, who tweets: "As to the U.N., things will be different after Jan. 20th"; on Dec. 24 Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu calls it a "shameful ambush"; Am. Jewish leader Alan Dershowitz finally turns on Obama, calling him the worst president ever, with the soundbyte: "He called me into the Oval Office before the election and said to me, 'Alan, I want your support. And I have to tell you, I will always have Israel's back.' I didn't realize that what he meant was that he'd... stab them in the back"; U.S. Sen. (R-S.C.) (2003-) Lindsey Graham, chmn. of the Subcommittee on Foreign Operations of the Senate Appropriations Committee utters the soundbyte that Obama "has gone from naive and foolish to flat-out reckless", adding: "With friends like these, Israel doesn't need any enemies", threatening to defund the U.N.; the first time a U.S. pres. abstains on a U.N. anti-Israel resolution during his last month in office; on Jan. 16 Trump gives an interview to Steve Kroft of 60 Minutes, admitting that he ordered the abstention vote, with the soundbyte: "I don't think it caused a major rupture in relations between the United States and Israel. If you're saying that Prime Minister Netanyahu got fired up, he's been fired up repeatedly during the course of my presidency."

Antonio Manuel de Oliveira Guterres of Portugal (1949-)

On Jan. 1, 2017 after the U.N. Security votes 15-0-0 on Oct. 6 to recommend him, former Socialist PM (1995-2002) Antonio Manuel de Oliveira Guterres (1949-) of Portugal becomes U.N. secy. gen. #9 (until ?).

On Sept. 19, 2017 (a.m.) Pres. Trump gives a speech to the U.N. Gen. Assembly, touting his America First policy and advising other nations to put their countries first too, adding: "We will stop radical Islamic terrorism, because we cannot allow it to tear up our nation and, indeed, to tear up the entire world", warning "Rocket Man" Kim Jong-un of the "depraved regime" in North Korea: "No nation on Earth has an interest in seeing this band of criminals arm itself with nuclear weapons and missiles... The United States has great strength and patience, but if it is forced to defend itself or its allies, we will have no choice but to totally destroy North Korea. Rocket Man is on a suicide mission for himself and for his regime", warning that if he attacks the U.S. his country will be totally destroyed, and demanding that Iran "stop supporting terrorists" and "begin serving its own people", saying that the world will see "very soon" his position on the Iranian nuclear deal, which has an Oct. 15 decision date to cancel or remain in the deal another 90 days; he goes on to describe Assad's rule in Syria as a "criminal regime", and diss the Maduro regime in Venezuela, with the soundbyte: "The problem in Venezuela is not that socialism has been poorly implemented, but that socialism has been faithfully implemented", saying that the U.S. will not stand by while "the government of Venezuela persists on its path to impose authoritarian rule on the Venezuelan people."

Nikki Haley of the U.S. (1972-)

On Dec. 6, 2017 (70 years 7 days after the U.N. vote to create Israel on Nov. 29, 1947) (3 days shy of the centenary of the British conquest of Jerusalem from the Ottomans) after signing the semi-annual waiver of the 1995 U.S. Jerusalem Embassy Act on Dec. 4, despite dire warnings from Muslim and Euro leaders incl. the EU, U.K., Egypt, Abdullah II of Jordan, Saudi King Salman, who calls it "a flagrant provocation of Muslims all over the world", Hamas, which threatens to "open the gates of Hell", and Recep Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey, who calls it a "grave mistake", and warns "Jerusalem is our red line", Pres. Trump announces that the U.S. is recognizing Jerusalem as Israel's capital and that he is ordering the U.S. embassy in Tel Aviv to move there, keeping a campaign promise no matter how much flak results; wasting no time, on Dec. 6 Hamas issues a call for a Day of Rage on Dec. 8, which incl. protests in Indonesia and Malaysia. On Dec. 21 after a speech by U.S. U.N. ambassador #29 (since Jan. 27) Nimrata "Nikki" Haley (nee Randhawa) (1973-) bemoaning its longtime hostility to Israel and threatening the U.N. with defunding, the U.N. Gen. Assembly votes 128-9-35 to adopt a Status of Jerusalem Resolution, declaring "null and void" all actions intended to alter Jerusalem's char., status, or demographic composition, asking nations not to follow Pres. Trump and establish diplomatic missions in Jerusalem, claiming his decision risks igniting a religious war in the Middle East "that has no boundaries" (Palestinian foreign affairs minister Riad al-Malki), whining about the "negative tends" imperiling the Two-State Solution.

On Feb. 10, 2018 (early a.m.) (one day before the 39th anniv. of the Iranian Islamic Rev.) an Iranian drone (UAV) enters Israeli airspace from Syria, causing the IAF to shoot it down and Syrian AA batteries to respond, hitting an Israeli F-16 that crashes in Israeli territory, critically injuring one pilot, after which the IAF raids Syria, hitting 12 targets, becoming their biggest attack against Syria since the 1982 Lebanon war, and Israel warns Iran over its continuing presence in Syria; on Feb. 12 the big rally in Tehran sees hundreds of thousands curse the U.S. as "enemy number one"; on Feb. 20 U.S. U.N. ambassador Nikki Haley gives a speech to the U.N. Security Council, with the soundbytes: "Israel, like any other country, has a right to defend itself and its borders. The Israeli people face the frightening escalation of Islamic terror acts through Israel. The Palestinian Authority refuses to take the most basic steps towards ensuring peace with Israel, and instead incites terrorism. Textbooks in Gaza and the West Bank teach children that Israel has no right to exist. They teach their children to hate Jews. The Hamas charter calls for the destruction of the State of Israel and the Jewish people"; "The West must stop embracing Islam-based hatred of Israel."

Mahmoud Abbas of Palestine (1935-)

On Feb. 20, 2018 Palestinian Authority pres. (since Jan. 15, 2005) Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen) (1935-) gives a speech to the U.N. Security Council, accusing the Trump admin. of abdicating its commitment to an independent Palestinian state, calling for an internat. peace conference under U.N. not U.S. sponsorship; when he abruptly exits stage left after his speech, U.S. U.N. ambassador Nikki Haley utters the soundbyte: "Our negotiators are sitting right behind me, ready to talk. We will not chase after you. The choice, Mr. President, is yours."

On Feb. 26, 2018 the 37th Session of the U.N. Human Rights Council convenes, with U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights Prince Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein complaining of "violations of human rights which should have served as a trigger for preventative action" (meaning alleged Israeli oppression of Palestinians, not his oppression of his people?), calling for a Code of Conduct to stop the U.S. and other permanent members of the U.N. Security Council from making "pernicious use" of their veto against resolutions condemning Israel, like the U.S. has done 43x.

On Mar. 5, 2018 Hungary presents a 12-point "security first" proposal to the U.N. to counter its Global Compact for Migration, which Pres. Trump chucked in Dec., calling it a "no borders plan".

On Mar. 12, 2018 U.S. U.N. ambassador Nikki Haley gives a speech to the U.N. Security Council, covering the history of U.S. involvement in Syria and warning that military action is still on the table against the regime of Bashar al-Assad, with the soundbyte: “This is no cease-fire. This is the Assad regime, Iran and Russia continuing to wage war against their political opponents,” Haley charged. "If we can’t save families that haven't seen the Sun for weeks because they have been hiding underground to escape barrel bombs,” she said, “then the Security Council is as impotent as its worst critics say it is. When the international community consistently fails to act, there are times when states are compelled to take their own action."

In Mar. 2018 a confidential memo is leaked, showing U.S. U.N. ambassador Nikki Haley proposing that U.S. foreign assistance should be withdrawn from dozens of poor countries that vote against it in the U.S.

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