Zebulon Montgomery Pike (1779-1813) Stephen Harriman Long (1784-1864) Jim Beckwourth (1798-1867) William Wells Bent (1809-69) Colo. Gov. John Evans (1814-97) James William Denver (1817-92) Nathan Meeker (1817-79) George Addison Crawford (1827-91) Benjamin F. Wadsworth (1827-93)
Horace Tabor (1830-99) Baby Doe Tabor (1854-1935) Tabor Grand Opera House, 1879-81 Union Gen. William Jackson Palmer (1836-1909) Alferd G. Packer (1842-1907) Adolph Coors Sr. (1847-1929) Coors Logo David Halliday Moffat (1839-1911) Moffat Tunnel, 1928

TLW's Coloradoscope™ (Colorado Historyscope)

By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Original Pub. Date: Sept. 29, 2017. Last Update: Oct. 20, 2017.


Walter A. Netsch (1920-2008) U.S. Air Force Academy Chapel, 1962 Sleeper House, 1963 Mesa Lab, 1967 Spider Sabich of the U.S. (1945-76) JonBenet Ramsey (1990-6) John Ramsey (1943-) and Patsy Ramsey (1956-2006) Pete Coors (1946-) Eric Harris (1981-99) and Dylan Klebold (1981-99)
Dan Thornton of the U.S. (1911-76) John Arthur Love of the U.S. (1916-2002) John David Vanderhoof of the U.S. (1922-2013) John Denver (1943-97) Dick Lamm of the U.S. (1935-) Roy Romer of the U.S. (1928-) Bill Owens of the U.S. (1950-) Bill Ritter of the U.S. (1956-) John Hickenlooper of the U.S. (1952-)

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What Is A Historyscope?


Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to Colorado and Colorado history. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.

Colorado (Sp. "red", "ruddy") (named after the Colorado River) (pop. 5.5M) encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains along with the NE portion of the Colo. Plateau and the W edge of the Great Plains, known as the Rocky Mountain Front; it contains 55 mountain peaks over 4K meters tall (13,123 ft.) and 117 peaks over 3K meters tall (9,843 ft.), incl. 53 fourteeners; the tallest is 1,440-ft. (4,401.2m) Mount Elbert in San Isabel Nat. Forest 12 mi. SW of Leadville, 2nd highest in the continental U.S. after 1,405-ft. (4,421m) Mount Whitney in Calif. The Denver-Boulder Axis of Evil contains the seat of the state govt. under the grip of an ever-more liberal political power that has the more conservative rural parts of the state under its octopus grip, spawning secession movements in Northern Colo. et al.

George William Featherstonhaugh (1780-1866) Jean Lafitte (1776-1854)

Might as well face it you're addicted to land? On Apr. 30, 1803 (Sat.) after the English refuse it, the 100M acre, $15M (15 cents an acre) Louisiana Purchase, negotiated by U.S. minister to France Robert R. Livingston, and surveyed by British-born Am. geologist George William Featherstonhaugh (1780-1866) extends the U.S. from the Mississippi to the crest of the Rockies and prepares it for further expansion to the Pacific; on Oct. 20 the U.S. Senate ratifies it, and on Dec. 20 ownership of the territory is formally transferred from France to the U.S. in ceremonies held in Jackson Square in New Orleans (originally Plaza d'Armas); the largest state to be purchased (4th largest of the 50 states) is Montana; French privateer Jean Lafitte (1776-1854) (d. 1823?) establishes his own Kingdom of Baritaria in the swamps and bayous around New Orleans, claiming to command 3K men; too bad, aborigines aren't told they have to register ownership of their lands, allowing the federal govt. to claim them, incl. the La. Bayou, where oil cos. later make billions.

Pikes Peak Zebulon Montgomery Pike (1779-1813) Stephen Harriman Long (1784-1864)

In 1805 N.J.-born Lt. Zebulon Montgomery Pike (1779-1813) explores Minnesota, and negotiates a treaty with the Sioux (Dakota) ceding 100K acres, incl. most of Mineapolis and St. Paul at the confluence of the Minnesota and Mississippi Rivers; on July 15, 1806 he leaves St. Louis to explore New Mexico looking for the sources of the Arkansas River; on Nov. 15 he sights 14,109 ft. (4,267m) pink granite Pikes Peak (El Capitan to the Spanish, which he calls Highest Peak because it's higher thany any peak in the U.S. to the E) in S Colo. (64 mi. S of Denver), but fails in an attempt to climb it, declaring that it will never be climbed (the Utes probably did it all the time to get eagle feathers?), then makes a roundabout return by way of Santa Fe after Spanish soldiers capture his party; his accounts are pub. before those of Lewis and Clark, creating the myth that the Am. West is a "Great American Desert" unfit for human habitation (and hence the place to banish Indian tribes to); in summer 1820 Vt.-born botanist Edwin P. James (1797-1861) becomes the first to climb it while working for explorer Stephen Harriman Long (1784-1864) on his expedition "from the Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains", discovering the health benefits of the mineral waters in Manitou Springs, Colo., and making the first ascent of 13,3K ft. (4,054m) James Peak.

U.S. Maj. Stephen Harriman Long (1784-1864)

On June 6, 1820 an expedition led by Maj. Stephen Harriman Long (1784-1864) goes W from the Missouri River into Neb., and along the Platte River, sighting 14,259-ft. Longs (not Long's) Peak near Estes Park, Colo. (northernmost of the 54 "fourteeners" in the Colo. Rocky Mts.) on June 13; when he returns, Long reports that the entire area between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mts. is unsuitable for farming, despite seeing fields of corn, beans, and pumpkin being cultivated by Pawnees, causing the Great Plains to become known as the "Great American Desert" for the next 50 years; by the 20th cent. it contains the largest irrigated area on Earth.

William Wells Bent (1809-69) Bents Fort, 1833

In 1833 180' x 135' x 15' adobe brick Bent's Fort (begun 1828) is built in Otero County, SE Colo. along the Santa Fe Trail by St. Louis, Mo.-born William Wells Bent (1809-69) and Ceran de Hault de Lassus de St. Vrain (1802-70) to trade with Southern Cheyenne and Arapaho Plains Indians and trappers for buffalo robes, becoming the only privately-owned fort in the Am. West, and the only major permanent white settlement on the Santa Fe Trail between Missouri and the Mexican settlements, becoming a major trading center and rendezvous point for fur trappers; it is abandoned in 1849 during a cholera epidemic among Plains Indians, and burned in 1852 by Bent, who builds a new stone fort in Big Timbers near modern-day Lamar, Colo., which in 1860 becomes Ft. Wise, renamed Fort Lyon in 1862, and replaced in 1867 by a new Fort Lyon near modern-day Las Animas, Colo.; Bent's Old Fort is designated a nat. historic site on June 3, 1960, and reconstructed in 1976.

In 1837 Fort St. Vrain 7 mi. N of modern-day Fort Vasquez, Colo. at the confluence of St. Vrain Creek and the South Platte River is built by the co. owned by William Bent and Ceran St. Vrain as a fur trading post, going on to employ James Beckwourth, Jean Baptiste Charbonneau (son of Sacagawea) et al.

Jim Beckwourth (1798-1867) Kit Carson (1809-68)

In May 1842 after Bent's Fort misses a shipment of hides wanted by the East, causing them to see their chance, Pueblo, Colo. on the N bank of the Arkansas River at its confluence with Fountain Creek in S Colo. on the border of the Louisiana Purchase is founded as Ft. Pueblo (El Pueblo) by Bent's Fort trader George Simpson et al., who build a log fort to protect against hostile Utes, attracting Va.-born part-black mountain man James P. "Jim" Beckwourth (1798-1867), white mountain man Christopher Houston "Kit" Carson (1809-68), et al. while reaching 100 pop., encouraging farming and ranching; in winter 1846 a party of several hundred Mormons from Miss. arrive, and are joined by a group of sick members of the Mormon Battalion incl. women and children, who all leave for the Salt Lake Valley next July; too bad, the 1848 Mexican-Am. War and the 1849 Calif. Gold Rush deplete it, and by 1854 only 15-20 live there.

Make a run for the border? On Jan. 2, 1848 after the All Mexico idea of annexing Mexico by force is toyed with and dumped (making Pres. Polk reluctant to sign a treaty with Mexico yet), with S.C. Sen. John C. Calhoun uttering the soundbyte: "[W]e have never dreamt of incorporating into our Union any but the Caucasian race - the free white race. To incorporate Mexico would be the very first instance of the kind of incorporating an Indian race; for more than half of the Mexicans are Indians, and the other is composed chiefly of mixed tribes", and John O'Sullivan uttering the soundbyte: "There is no growth in Hispanic America... How would it kick the beam against the simple, solid weight of the two hundred and fifty, or three hundred millions - and American millions - destined to gather beneath the flutter of the stripes and stars, in the fast hastening year of the Lord 1945?", formal peace talks between the proud WASP U.S. and defeated BHRC (Brown Hispanic Roman Catholic) Mexico begin at the village of Guadalupe Hidalgo outside Mexico City, where what's left of the Mexican govt. is holed-up, trapped like brown rats by white wolves?; on Feb. 2 after Nicholas P. Trist engages them in brinksmanship, down-on-its-knees Mexico signs the grossly 1-sided dirty-deal Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, ceding all of Texas above the Rio Grande, plus New Mexico and Calif. (incl. the Nevada region), a total of 529,189 sq. mi. (half of all Mexican territory, incl. the modern states of Calif., Nevada, Utah, and parts of modern Ariz., N.M., Colo., and Wyo.) (the old Aztec homeland of Aztlan?), giving the U.S. a new Am. Southwest and making it a continental power, with a 1,952-mi. 4-state (Texas, N.M., Ariz., Calif.) border with Mexico, while making "reconquista" a perennial Mexican cause, and becoming the first time that the lily-white U.S. actually doesn't want to absorb a people or steal all of their land, preferring to create a border with them racial underclassers safely on the other side, all nicely color-coded for inferiority or separated by language, religion and culture, or both; the rev.-free U.S. has completed its transformation from a cute little agrarian repub. into a continental giant; in return for the land grab the U.S. agrees to pay Mexico $15M ($300M in 2009 dollars, about enough to buy a major league sports team) and assume the claims of U.S. citizens against Mexico up to a $3.75M limit; the treaty is signed days before news of the Calif. gold strike is received; white supremacist gringo (Anglo) disdain for "inferior" Mexicans is firmly implanted, while the continental U.S. is pretty much rounded out (modulo the Gadsden Purchase in 1853); the messy town of Mesilla on the Camino Real N of El Paso is designated as the border of Mexico, causing native Mexicans on the E side of the Rio Grande River to settle there, but they have to move again in 1854 after the Gadsden Purchase gives it to the U.S.; the El Camino Real becomes an extension of the Santa Fe Trail from Mo., and the gringos begin calling it the Chihuahua Trail; Pres. Polk is actually miffed at the terms, since he is eyeing the growing movement that wants to annex all of Mexico, but his fear of Congress' shenanigans causes him to submit the treaty to them, and they ratify it on Mar. 10, ending the Mexican-Am. War (begun 1846); the last Americans leave Veracruz by the end of July, bringing back with them a new taste for cigars (and Mexican senoritas?), although chewing tobacco is still preferred in the South; the Mexican War costs the U.S. 1,721 KIA, 4,102 wounded, and 11,155 dead of disease (total 13,283), at a total cost of $98M; the first successful offensive U.S. war is also the first reported by modern war correspondents, and the first in which West Point graduates play a major role (Robert E. Lee, U.S. Grant, Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, George B. McClellan, George Pickett, George Meade, Braxton Bragg, et al.); "There will be added to the United States an immense empire, the value of which twenty years hence it would be difficult to calculate" (Polk); "Alas, poor Mexico, so far from God and so close to the United States!" (Mexican pres. Porfirio Diaz).

On May 30, 1854 after a push by Ill. Sen. Stephen Douglas to help the North catch up with Pres. Pierce's deal for a southern-route transcontinental railroad, the Missouri Compromise of 1820 is repealed, and the U.S. Kansas-Nebraska Act is passed, creating the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, while permitting a local option on slavery (popular sovereignty) (Tex. Sen. Sam Houston votes against it); both slave owners and free soilers rush in, riots ensue, and the War for Bleeding Kansas begins, trashing the existing political party system, destroying the Whigs and dividing the Dems.

On Dec. 25, 1854 the Fort Pueblo Masacre sees a hunting party of 50 pissed-off Muache Ute warriors led by Chief Tierra Blanca who were given woolen coats infected with smallpox in Oct. fed Taos Lightning by a white trader in Pueblo, Colo., causing them to go on the warpath and wipe out the settlement, killing 15 mainly native Mexican settlers except two Mexican women, two infants, and a mute man named Romaldo, who tells the story with sign language, after which the fort is abandoned, and acting N.M. Gov. William S. Messervy calls for genocide of the entire Jicarilla tribe, with the soundbyte: "The best interest of this territory and the highest dictates of humanity demanded their extinction"; in 1857 new gringos from St. Louis rebuild it and call it Fountain, from the mineral springs at Manitou Spring NW of Colo. Springs; it is incorporated in 1870, gets the railroad in 1872, and in 1881 becomes a steel town with its own blast furnace.

On Aug. 25, 1855 the Kan. Territorial Legislature creates the huge Arapahoe County covering the W part of Kan. Territory, named after the Arapaho Nation (until Jan. 29, 1861).

On Aug. 24, 1857 the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Co. fails; after a decade of prosperity fueled by Calif. gold, the reduction in demand for U.S. grain caused by the end of the Crimean War combined with overspeculation in U.S. railroads, and the Dem. Tariff of 1857 of Mar. 3 (which sets rates at their lowest level since 1816), the Panic of 1857 hits the U.S. and Europe; the depression that follows (ends 1859) intensifies sectional differences as the South prospers with cotton while blocking tariff protection and free public lands wanted by the North; the South also gets an idea that King Cotton is Dick Almighty and that their slave labor system is superior to the up-and-down Northern free labor system; the panic makes the East ripe for the Colo. Gold Rush.

On Jan. 17, 1858 the town of Canon (Cañon) City, Colo. in Fremont County on the Arkansas River in SC Colo. (modern-day pop. 16K) is laid out by people who never live there, after which in late 1859 a new party jumps their claim, putting up the first bldg. in Feb. 1860 as a commercial center for mining in South Park and the Upper Arkansas River; in 1861 the town sends two cos. of volunteers to serve with the 2nd Colo. Infantray, fighting in N.M., Okla., and Mo. until 1865; in 1862 A.M. Cassaday strikes oil 6 mi. N of town, becoming the first commerical oil well W of the Mississippi River; after gold is discovered in Cripple Creek in 1891, several smelters are built; it goes on to become the home of nine state and four federal prisons, incl. the Colo. Territorial Correctional Faciity (1871), with a Welcome sign reading "Corrections Capitol of the World"; it also calls itself the climate capital of Colo.

James William Denver (1817-92) Little Raven (1810-89) Denver Colorado, 1858-

On May 23, 1858 a party from Ga. led by William Greeneberry "Green" Russell (1818-77) arrive at the head of Cherry Creek in Colo. near the South Platte River at the W edge of the Great Plains on the 150-mi. Front Range of the Rocky Mts., and come up empty, going on to prospect on all the streams N to the Cache la Poudre River, returning in early July to the Platte River and camping in Little Dry Creek S of modern-day Denver, discovering gold and taking 20 oz. (several hundred dollars' worth), after which old trader John Cantrell returns to Kansas City with the good news backed up by samples, causing newspapers to start the Colo. (Pike's Peak) Gold Rush, during which 50K migrate within a year and 100K+ migrate by the time of the creation of Colo. Territory on Feb. 28, 1861, with the motto "Pike's Peak or Bust", although no gold is discovered within 50 mi. of it; meanwhile in Oct.-Nov. a party from Lawrence, Kan. that arrived near Pueblo on July 4 settles on the Platte River N of Denver, building 20-30 log cabins, which they call Montana City; on Oct. 29 as a large number of prospectors that heard of the Russell discovery begin settling on both sides of Cherry Creek, founding the villages of St. Charles and Auraria, Kan. settler William H. Larimer Jr. opens the first store in Denver (St. Charles) to service miners working in placer mines, which peter-out by 1860, causing tens of thousands to return home; on Nov. 6 an election is held, and H.J. Graham is selected to travel to Washington, D.C. to talk Congress into organizing a new territory in vain, while A.J. Smith is sent to the Kan. Territorial legislature to do ditto, and they bite, establishing Arapahoe County in the W part of Kan. Territory to the crest of the Rocky Mts.; Southern Arapaho chief Little Raven (Crow) (Hosa) (Oh-has-tee) (1810-89) welcomes the paleface settlers to the Denver gold camp, causing them to name Arapahoe St.; on Nov. 22 the mile-high (5,280 ft. elev.) city of Denver, Colo. (modern. pop. 500K), named after Kansas Gov. James William "Jim" Denver (1817-92) is founded by land speculator "General" William H. Larimer Jr. (1809-75) from Leavenworth, Kan., who founds the Denver Land Co., and calls Colo. "the most picturesque country in the world, with fine air, good water, and everything to make a man happy and live to a good old age"; the Indian tribes are pushed S into the Arkansas River Valley; the real Denver visits Denver in 1875 and 1882 and receives little attention?

On Oct. 17, 1858 a group of gold prospectors from Fort St. Vrain 30 mi. to the E led by Capt. Thomas Aikens camp in Red Rocks on Boulder Creek in modern-day Settler's Park at the mouth of Boulder Canyon in Boulder Valley in Arapaho territory near the camp of Southern Arapaho chief Niwot (Left Hand) (1825-64) in Valmont Butte, who rides to their camp to warn them to leave, but allegedly changes his mind after being wined, dined, and liquored-up, then having a dream of a flood washing his people away but letting the whites survive, welcoming them after uttering Niwot's Curse of the Boulder Valley: "People seeing the beauty of this valley will want to stay, and their staying will be the undoing of the beauty"; he actually only let them build cabins to live in for the winter, and after gold is discovered Aikens reneges on his promise, forming the Boulder City Town Co.?

In Dec. 1858 Highland, Colo. is founded by William Larimer Jr. in North Denver on high ground on the W side of the South Platte River Valley overlooking Auraria and Denver, with a bridge built on 15th St. across the Platte River to connect it to them, permanently isolating it from Denver's wildlife-filled river, railroad yards, and smog; in 1875 Owen Le Fevre et al. petitions Arapahoe County to establish a village govt., and in 1885 after annexing Potter Highland and Highland Park the city of Highlands is incorporated, with most of the pop. consisting of Repub. Protestants, incl. many Freemasons, who build the beautiful Highlands Masonic Temple at 36th Ave. and Federal Blvd.; Highland is annexed by Denver in 1896; the streets running N from Federal Blvd. are named after U.S. Civil War Union gens., incl. Grove, Hooker, Irving, Julian, King, Lowell, Meade; TLW lives at 23rd Ave. and Hoooker St. in Highland in 1982-2010.

On Jan. 15, 1859 gold is discovered in Gold Hill above Left Hand Canyon, and on Mar. 7 it becomes the first mining district and permanent mining camp in Colo., causing the Boulder City Town Co. to be organized on Feb. 10 by A.A. Brookfield and 56 shareholders, who plat the the town of Boulder, Colo. 25 mi. NW of Denver on the Front Range of the Rockies near the Flatirons into 4,044 lots at $1K each, becoming the only city in the U.S. to derive its water supply from a glacier, the Arapaho Glacier; in 1872 after the pop. dwindles, telluium is discovered in Gold Hill, causing the pop. to return to the 1K level.

In spring 1859 South Golden Rd. from Denver, Colo. W through the bed of modern-day Sloan Lake to Golden, Colo. is founded for gold prospectors headed to the Rockies; in 1861-3 Sloan Lake mysteriopusly appears on dry land owned by homesteader Thomas F. Sloan, causing South Golden Rd. to be moved to 15th St., which later becomes Colfax Ave.

Nathaniel Peter Hill of the U.S. (1832-1900)

On May 6, 1859 Ga. prospector John H. Gregory (1820-64) discovers the first gold lode in Black Hawk, Colo. in the mountains W of Denver in Gilpin County N of Idaho Springs, becoming known as the Gregory Lode in Gregory Gulch; in the next 2 mo. more veins are discovered, causing 10K prospectors to flock in by next year, founding Mountain City, which later becomes Central City, Colo., "the richest square mile on Earth"; Chinese workers are hired to work the placer deposits in Gregory Gulch but forbidden to work in the hard rock mines, most returning to China; in 1863 an unsuccessful attempt is made to form a hard rock miners' union; by 1900 the town is down to 3,114 pop., and a few hundred by the 1950s; the nearby town of Black Hawk becomes known as "the City of Mills" after Montgomery, N.Y.-born future U.S. Sen. (R-Colo.) (1879-85) Nathaniel Peter Hill (1832-1900) builds the first successful ore smelter there in 1868, and the Colo. Central Railroad extends its line there in 1872; both towns are revived with the introduction of casino gambling in 1991, with dinky Black Hawk outgrowing dinky Central City because the 8.4-mi. parkway from I-70 (from Denver) to Central City passes through it, after which in 2004 a highway going straight to Central City is built, but fails to change gamblers' habits.

William Austin Hamilton Loveland (1826-94)

On June 16, 1859 the town of Golden, Colo. is founded along Clear Creek at the base of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains 12 W of Denver, named after Ga.-born prospector Thomas L. "Tom" Golden, whose partner George Andrew Jackson of Mo. made a major strike on Chicago Creek near modern-day Idaho Springs on Jan. 7; it becomes the capital of the provisional Territory of Jefferson in 1860-1, and of the official Territory of Colo. in 1862-7, when it is moved to Denver; Ill.-born William Austin Hamilton Loveland (1826-94) builds Golden's first storefront, helping establish it as the territorial capital by offering his bldgs. to the legislate and senate, building the town's first brick storefront in 1863 for his Loveland Block, which becomes the oldest commercial brick bldg. in Colo. to survive to modern times; in 1864 after purchasing the right-of-way in the canyon W of Golden, he co-founds the Colo. Central Railroad (Colo., Clear Creek and Pacific Railway), connecting it to the transcontinental railroad in Wyo., which fails to stop the rival Denver Pacific Railway from completing a line from Denver to Cheyenne, Wyo., finishing its own line in 1877, after which in 1866 the town of Loveland, Colo. in Larimer County is founded along its route.

Garden of the Gods, Colo.

On Aug. 13, 1859 Colorado Springs, Colo. (originally Colorado City) on the Colo. Front Range at the confluence of Fountain and Camp Creeks is formally organized, serving as the capital of Colo. Territory from Nov. 5, 1861 to Aug. 14, 1862, when the capital is moved 70 mi. N to Denver; in Aug. surveyors M.S. Beach and Rufus Cable discover Garden of the Gods rock formation near Colorado Springs, with Beach suggesting that it would make a great place for a beer garden, and Cable replying "Beer garden! Why, it is a fit place for the gods to assemble"; it becomes a U.S. nat. park in 1909, and is designated a nat. natural landmark in 1971.

Robert Williamson Steele (1820-1901)

On Oct. 29, 1859 after moving from Omaha, Neb. to Central City to prospect for gold, Chillicothe, Ohio-born Dem. Neb. Rep. (since 1857) Robert Williamson Steele (1820-1901) is nominated as provisional gov. of the proposed Territory of Jefferson, opening the first session of the provisional territorial legislature on Nov. 7, getting into a pissing contest with officials of Kansas Territory, who refuse to recognize it; on Nov. 6, 1860 Repub. candidate Abraham Lincoln wins the U.S. pres. election, making Steele a pariah; on Jan. 26, 1861 the Territory of Colo. is proclaimed by the U.S. Congress, and signed into law on Jan. 28 by Pres. Buchanan, and on June 6 Steele issues a proclamation disbanding the Territory of Jefferson and calling for loyalty to the U.S.

Gen. George Eliphaz Spencer of the U.S. (1836-93)

In Nov. 1859 Champion, N.Y.-born George Eliphaz Spencer (1836-93) founds the town of Breckenridge, Colo. just W of the Continental Divide in Summit County, named after U.S. vice pres. #14 John C. Breckinridge of Ky. in hopes of flattering the federal govt. into putting a post office there, which becomes the first between the Continental Divide and Salt Lake City, Utah; too bad, Breckinridge sides with the Confeds., causing the citizens to change the name; Spencer joins the Union Army on Oct. 16, 1862, rising to brig. gen. then becoming a Repub. U.S. Sen. in Ala. in 1868-79; skis (from the Nordic word for sticks) are first used in the state when 10 men in a snowbound mining camp along the Blue River near Breckenridge build their own skis to travel down the valley, where they begin the town of Eldorado West; Breckenridge Ski Resort opens on Dec. 16, 1961.

In 1859 the town of Georgetown on Clear Creek 45 mi. W of Denver is founded on small gold strikes, followed by major silver strikes, incl. the Pelican Mine (in Silver Plume) in 1868 and the Dives Mine in 1869.

In 1859 gold is discovered in California Gulch near the headwaters of the Arkansas River at 10,152 ft. alt. in the Rocky Mts. of Colo., causing the town of Oro (sp. "gold") City to spring up, reaching 5K pop. next year; too *bad, the gold runs out and the town is abandoned, but in 1874 silver is discovered there, causing people to return, founding Leadville, Colo., which is incorporated on Feb. 18, 1878, becoming the highest incorporated city in the U.S.

John Wesley Iliff Sr. (1831-78)

In 1859 blue-eyed Christian teetotaler John Wesley Iliff Sr. (1831-78) comes to Denver, Colo. from Ohio Wesleyan U. in Delaware, Ohio, opening a gen. store on Blake St. and trading supplies for livestock from new immigrants, then fattening them on the open range and using the profits to buy land in NE Colo., creating the largest ranch in Colo. history, raising as many as 35K head a year to sell to Union Pacific construction crews, becoming a millionaire known as "the Cattle King of the Plains" and leaving his fortune to found Iliff School of Theology in 1892, basis of the U. of Denver; on June 20, 1859 Polish-born Freemason Fred Z. Salomon (1830-) becomes the first Jewish merchant in Denver - get out of Denver, baby, go?

The ugly but useful butthole of the Colo. Front Range? In 1859 Commerce City, Colo. in Kansas Territory starts out as a trading post-hotel-ranch on Henderson Island in the South Plate River S of Denver, founded by Kan. Territory pro-slavery politician, Leavenworth Journal ed., and Bleeding Kansas col. John D. "Colonel Jack" Henderson, becoming the first permanent settlement in the South Plate River Valley between Fort St. Vrain in Neb. Territory and Cherry Creek in Kan. Territory; on Jan. 29, 1861 the E side of Kansas Territory becomes the state of Kansas, and on Feb. 28 the W side becomes part of Colo. Territory, which on Nov. 1 creates Arapahoe County, which stretches from modern-day Sheridan Blvd. 160 mi. E to the Kansas border, and from modern-day County Line Rd. 30 mi. N to Parallel 40 deg. North (168th Ave.), wich Denver as the county seat until 1902; in 1876 after Colo. becomes a state on Aug. 1, Riverside Cemetery (the metro Denver area's oldest cemetery) is founded in Commerce City, followed in 1892 by Rose Hill Cemetery, founded by the United Hebrew Cemetery Assoc.; the town of Derby is founded in 1889 along with Irondale, followed by Adams City in 1903; on Apr. 15, 1901 the Colo. legislature splits Arapahoe County into Adams County, a new consolidated City and County of Denver, and South Arapahoe County, which is renamed Arapahoe County on Apr. 11, 1903, with Littleton as the county seat; on Nov. 8, 1904 Brighton, Colo. (incorporated on Sept. 1887 and named for Brighton Beach, N.Y.) becomes the county seat of Adams County; in Dec. 1942 Rocky Mountain Arsenal is founded to the E of Commerce City (closed in 1992); on July 27, 1949 after Amendment 2 legalizing pari-mutuel betting on horses and greyhounds is approved in 1948, Mile High Kennel Club is founded in Commerce City for greyhound racing; on Dec. 18, 1952 Commerce City is incorporated as Commerce Town, changed in 1962 to Commerce City; in 1989 53 sq. mi. of Adams County is transferred to the City and County of Denver for the new Denver Internat. Airport (DIA); on Nov. 15, 2001 the NW corner is transferred to the City and County of Broomfield.

Pony Express, 1860-1 William Hepburn Russell (1812-72) William Bradford Waddell (1807-72) Alexander Majors (1814-1900)

80 riders and 400 horses cover for the lack of a telegraph system as Americans have finally stolen the continent from east to west? On Apr. 3, 1860 the Pony Express created by the merger of the Central Overland Calif. and Pikes Peak Express Cos. begins service between St. Joseph, Mo. and Sacramento, Calif. (1,850 mi.) (ends Nov. 20, 1861 after 19-1/2 mo.); horses are ridden at full gallop, and are changed at 157 (192?) relay stations 10 mi. (12 mi.?) apart, and each rider rides 100 mi.; founders are William Hepburn Russell (1812-72), William Bradford Waddell (1807-72), and Alexander Majors (1814-1900); posters read "Wanted: young, skinny, wiry fellows not over eighteen. Must be expert riders, willing to risk death daily. Orphans preferred. Wages $25 per week"; the first rider is either Johnny Frye or John William "Billy" Richardson (1850-), who departs St. Jo at exactly 7:15 p.m.; William "Sam" Hamilton becomes the last of 30 men to carry the mail on the westward trip, arriving in Sacramento after midnight on Apr. 14 (about 1 hour less than 10 days total); James Randall picks it up eastbound from San Francisco; when the rider reaches St. Jo, overeager spectators pluck hairs from the horse's tail as souvenirs; meanwhile a steamer carries the mail from Sacramento to San Francisco, and when the Pony Express rider disembarks he is greeted by rockets and a band playing "See, the Conquering Hero Comes"; riders carry their mail in a mochila (saddle mail bag), with 1K or so letters wrapped in water-resistant oiled silk, going from St. Jo to Sacramento via Marysville, Kan., Ft. Kearny, Neb., Julesburg, Colo., Ft. Larami, Wyo., Salt Lake City, Utah, and Friday's Station, Nev.; "Buffalo Bill" Cody is a rider at age 15; the mail costs 10 cents from the East Coast and $5 per half oz. from St. Jo to Sacramento; riders incl. Wild Bill Hickock, and William Frederick Cody, who later becomes Buffalo Bill Cody; the Kansas City Internat. Airport is later built 25 mi. S of St. Jo, "where the Pony Express started and Jesse James ended".

In 1860 Englewood, Colo. is founded in the area of Little Dry Creek S of Denver under the name Orchard Place by Thomas Skerritt, who ploughs the first road to Denver in 1864; in 1883 the Cherrelyn horsecar path is laid, later hosting the Cherrelyn horse trolley, which connects with Denver's Broadway (until 1908); Englewood is incorporated in 1903, with landowner J.C. Jones as mayor #1; in 1905 Swedish Nat. Sanatorium (later Swedish Medical Center) is founded; in 1849 the city purchases 2.5K acres on the Platte Canyon, creating McLellan Reservoir, giving it water independence from Denver, sparking a building boom; in 1965 Cinderella City Mall is founded on the former city park, opening on Mar. 7, 1968, becoming the largest covered mall W of the Mississippi River; it is demolished in 1999.

In 1860 Denver Gen. Hospital is founded at 11th Ave. and Wazee St. in Denver, Colo., moving to 6th Ave. and Cherokee St. in the Lincoln Park neighborhood in 1873, founding the first nursing school W of the Mississippi River and pioneering the treatment of TB; on Jan. 1, 1997 it becomes a quasi-state agency called Denver Health Medical Center.

In 1860 the first schoolhouse opens in Boulder, Colo.

On Feb. 18, 1861 the Treaty of Ft. Wise (later Ft. Lyons) in SE Colo. between the U.S. govt. and six Southern Cheyenne and fur Southern Arapaho Indian chiefs settles the Indian tribes in SE Colo. near Sand Creek 100 mi. SE of Denver near the Colo.-Kan. border.

On Feb. 28, 1861 the South-free U.S. Congress, itchy to get its hands on gold and other mineral resources creates the Colorado Territory (until Aug. 1, 1876), followed on Mar. 2 by the Dakota Territory (until Nov. 2, 1889), and the Nevada Territory (until Oct. 31, 1864); Colorado was originally to be called Idaho, a word suggested in 1860 by lobbyist George M. Willing, who claims it was an Indian word meaning "gem of the mountains", but is discovered to be a hoax just in time (the original Hugo Weaving as Agent Smith?); Carson City, named by founder Abraham Curry after aging Kit Carson beats out the more populous Virginia City to remain the capital of silver-rich Nevada; meanwhile engineer Philip Deidesheimer (1832-1916) comes up with a better idea to stop silver mine cave-ins in Nev., the Square-Set Method of timbering, based on the honeycomb, beginning in the Ophir mine - the Cartwright boys are wowed?

Richard Jordan Gatling (1818-1903) Gatling Gun, 1862

On Apr. 12, 1861-May 9, 1865 the horrific U.S. Civil War sees the invention of the first modern weapon when N.C.-born agricultural equipment maker Richard Jordan Gatling (1818-1903) patents the 10-barrel hand-cranked hundreds-of-rounds-per-min. Gatling Gun (the first practical machine gun) just in time for use on some Johnny Rebs; it is first used by the Union Army in 1864, but luckily never sees extensive use.

William Gilpin of the U.S. (1813-94)

On May 29, 1861 after being appointed by Pres. Lincoln as gov. #1 of Colo. Territory, Wilmington, Del.-born Quaker Repub. William Gilpin (1813-94) arrives in Denver, Colo. to cheering crowds, dealing with Confed. sympathizers, a possible Confed. invasion, and difficulties with the Arapaho and Cheyenne after U.S. Army troops withdraw to fight the war, forming the 1st Regiment Colo. Volunteers; too bad, he pays for it by issuing $375K in drafts on the U.S. Treasury without authorization, causing a recall movement to form in the summer, but the regiment later gains fame and the treasury eventually honors the drafts, but too late to prevent Gilpin being removed next Apr. in favor of John Evans.

On Oct. 24, 1861 the first transcontinental (New York City to Telegraph Hill in San Francisco) Western Union Telegraph Line is completed, beating the pesky Injuns and Confederate sympathizers who tried to stop it; Shoshone chief Sho-kup calls it "wire rope express", adding "Before the white men came to my country, my people were happy and had plenty of game and roots. Now they are no longer happy, and the game has almost disappeared"; on Nov. 20 the Pony Express (begun Apr. 3, 1860) ends service after carrying 3K pieces of mail using 183 (121?) riders and 500 ponies, and only losing one pouch; meanwhile on July 1 the Overland Trail for stagecoaches, operated by the Overland Stage Co. begins service from Atchison, Kan. through Colo., S Wyo., Fort Bridger, and along the Oregon Trail to Salt Lake City, Utah; in 1866 it is acquired by Wells Fargo, who operates it until 1869; the town of Virginia Dale, Colo. 5 mi. from the Wyo. border is a trail stage station managed by Jack Slade (hubby of Virginia Slade), who meets Mark Twain and later turns into the town drunk, getting lynched in Mont. in 1864 - the 2-ton rhino is safely back in captivity?

Union Gen. Edward Richard Sprigg Canby (1817-73) Union Col. John Milton Chivington (1821-94) Union Gen. John Potts Slough (1829-67)

On Mar. 26-28, 1862 after the Confederates capture Albuquerque, N.M. (westernmost battle of the U.S. Civil War), the Battle of Glorieta Pass ("the Gettysburg of the West") on the Santa Fe Trial in New Mexico E of Santa Fe sees Union forces under Gen. Edward Richard Sprigg Canby (1817-73), aided by the 1st Colo. Infantry Regiment (1,342 men) stop Confederate forces under Maj. Henry Hopkins Sibley; "They were regular Demons, in the form of Pike's Peakers from the Denver City gold mines... shooting us down like sheep"; although the battle is a draw, Colo. Col. "Fighting Parson" women and children by the volunteer troops of the First Colo. Infantry, led by Methodist minister (since 1844) Col. John Milton Chivington (1821-94) messes up their supply train, bayoneting 600 horses and mules, causing them to give up their attempt to take Colo. gold fields and return to Tex.; Colo. volunteers cmdr. Col. (later gen.) John Potts Slough (1829-67) (pr. like cow) is so hated by his troops that they try to kill him by firing a howitzer at him?; in 1879 the 1st Colo. Infantry Battalion is born - getting some practice for Indian squaws and children?

Colo. Gov. John Evans (1814-97)

On Mar. 31, 1862 Pres. Lincoln appoints his old Ill. neighbor, Waynesville, Ohio-born Northwestern U. and U. of Denver founder John Evans (1814-97) as Colo. gov. #2 (until 1865), going on to stink himself up with the 1864 Sand Creek Massacre and be asked to resign by Pres. Johnson on July 18, 1865.

William Newton Byers (1831-1903)

In 1863 Ohio-born William Newton Byers (1831-1903), founder of the Rocky Mountain News in Denver buys Hot Sulphur Springs, Colo. 95 mi. NW of Denver via a crooked deal with a Minn. Sioux woman with the intention of making it "America's Switzerland", causing the Ute tribe to unsuccessfully sue; meanwhile he and Colo. territorial gov. William Gilpin launch "The Utes Must Go" campaign; too bad, the railroad doesn't arrive until 1928 after the Moffatt Tunnel is built.

Colo. Gov. John Evans (1814-97)

On Mar. 3, 1864 Colo. Seminary is founded in the mining camp of Denver, Colo. by Colo. Territory gov. (1862-5) John Evans (1814-97) for the Methodist Church; in 1880 it becomes the U. of Denver, becoming the oldest independent private univ. in the Rocky Mt. region.

Union Col. John Milton Chivington (1821-94) Black Kettle (1801-68) Colo. Gov. John Evans (1814-97) U.S. Capt. Silas Stillman Soule (1838-65)

Keep those stiches loose and soon you'll have a nice little cover? Just when white-on-white carnage is starting to end, White is Right America finally goes too far even for its own conscience? On Nov. 29, 1864 (a.m.) in Colorful Colo. after a band of Cheyenne and Arapaho leave Ft. Lyons without permission, scaring the pop. of Denver, causing Pres. Lincoln to approve shoot-on-sight orders, after which Gov. Evans issues a proclamation in Aug. ordering "all citizens of Colorado... to go in pursuit of all hostile Indians [and] kill and destroy all enemies of the country", the Sand Creek (Chivington) (Cheyenne Indian) Massacre of the 330-person camp of chiefs Black Kettle (1801-68) (Southern Cheyenne) (115 lodges) and White Antelope (Arapaho) (8 lodges) (9 mi. from modern-day Lamar) along a sluggish trickle of the South Platte shocks the nation with cruelty to native women and children by the volunteer troops of the First Colo. Infantry, led by Methodist minister (since 1844) Col. John Milton Chivington (1821-94), who was ordered to take his 750 soldiers to SE Colo. by Colo. Territorial Gov. (1862-5) John Evans (1814-97) to rid the state of Injuns after the mutilated bodies of a white settler, his wife and two young children are exhibited in Denver; after Chivington tells his men the night before, "Kill and scalp all, little and big; nits make lice; kill every topknot", and "I long to be wading in gore", then right before the attack, "Boys, I won't tell you who you are to kill, but remember our murdered women and children on the Platte; take no prisoners", the white devils kill and mutilate about 150 mostly women, children and elderly, even though they had set up camp at the direction of a U.S. gen. and flew a U.S. flag along with a white flag; some soldiers make trophies out of women's vaginas after cutting off their breasts and suckling them; chief White Antelope is castrated, and his scrotum later used as a tobacco pouch; in the night Jack Smith, half-breed son of squawman John S. Smith is murdered in his father's lodge after Chivington tells his men not to take prisoners; Chivington claims an Indian kill of 500-600, vs. 9 of his men killed and 38 wounded, and lies that most of the women and children escaped, burning the bodies and the camp to cover his tracks; 11 white captives are found in the lodges, and later used to justify the attack; mountain man Jim Beckwourth was the guide used to lead them to the camp, but suffers from arthritis and only watches from a distance; despite an attempted coverup, the Denver papers (beginning a long tradition of biased reporting) calling Chivington a hero, the Congressional Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War along with the U.S. Army hold hearings; Capt. Silas Stillman Soule (1838-65) (a dedicated abolitionist), who refused to order his men to fire on the Indians, testifies against Chillington, er, Chivington, "the Butcher of Sand Creek", and is later murdered; in 1865 the U.S. admits guilt and orders reparations, which a cent. later are still not paid; the whole affair causes Colo. statehood to be delayed until 1876; Chivington avoids an ordered court martial because his officer's commission expires, and is hounded to his death in 1894, claiming "I stand by Sand Creek"; by the end of the decade the way of life of the Am. Plains Indians is kaput, allowing white settlers to flock in and set up shop after the bison are exterminated; on July 18, 1865 Pres. Johnson asks Gov. Evans to resign for attempting a coverup; the scandal causes Colo. statehood to be delayed until 1876; on Aug.2, 2005 Pres. George W. Bush signs a bill restoring some of their remains to the site and creating the Sand Creek Massacre Nat. Historic Site; on Dec. 3, 2014 Colo. Gov. John Hickenloper formally apologizes to the descendants of the massacre in Denver.

In 1864 after Camp Collins in nearby Laporte is destroyed by a flood in June, Fort Collins in N Colo. on the Cache La Poudre River is founded by the U.S. Army to protect travelers on the Overland Trail; it is decommissioned in 1867, and is platted as a town the same year, becoming the county seat in 1868; in 1872 several hundred agricultural settlers arrive, and the town is incorporated in 1873 after the Colo. Agricultural College (later Colo. State U.) is founded in 1870, going on to become known for stone quarrying, sugar beet farming, and sheep slaughtering, with the lambs fed with sugar beet tops, becoming known by the early 1900s as "the lamb feeding capital of the world".

William Austin Hamilton Loveland (1826-94)

In 1866 the town of Loveland, Colo. in Larimer County S of Fort Collins and 46 mi. N of Denver is founded along the newly constructed line of the Colo. Central Railroad near its crossing of the Big Thompson River, named in honor of its pres. William Austin Hamilton Loveland (1826-94), going on to become known for sugar beets and sour cherries; in 1901 the Great Western Sugar Co. opens a factory there, which closes in 1977; in the late 1920s the Spring Glade Orchard becomes the largest cherry orchard W of the Mississippi River, dwindling under killer freezes and blights until it closes in 1960.

In 1869 Boulder County News begins pub. in Boulder, Colo.; in 1870 the Denver and Boulder Valley Railroad begins operation; in 1870 the pop. is 1,939; in 1871 the town is incorporated; in 1875 the Colo. Banner newspaper begins pub., and Boulder H.S. is founded, becoming the first h.s. in Colo. to graduate a class in 1876.

Nathan Meeker (1817-79) Benjamin F. Wadsworth (1827-93)

In 1870 obeying Horace Greeley's 1865 exhortation to "Go West, young man", Ohio-born Nathanial "Nathan" Cook Meeker (1817-79) arrives in Colo. and founds the utopian Union Colony, which later becomes Greeley, Colo.; each of 300 families pays $155 to be part of the initial "joint stock venture"; meanwhile on Dec. 1 after the Colo. Central Railroad lays tracks through it to link Golden, Colo. with Jersey Junction 5 mi. N of Denver, N.Y.-born Benjain F. Wadsworth and Louis A. Reno (1833-1906) found Arvada, Colo., named after Hiram Arvada Haskin, brother-in-law of settler Mary Wadsworth, wife of Benjamin Wadsworth, who becomes its first postmaster; it incorporates on Aug. 14, 1904.

Union Gen. William Jackson Palmer (1836-1909)

In 1870 the Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad is founded by U.S. Civil War Union Gen. William Jackson Palmer (1836-1909), pioneering narrow gauge tracks and coal-burning engines (based on his earlier trip to Britain), with the mottos "Through the Rockies, not around them" and "Main line through the Rockies", connecting Denver with Salt Lake City, Utah, becoming the highest mainline railway in the U.S. at 10,240-ft. Tennessee Pass in Colo., the mountin portion of the route known for breathtaking scenery, later going through the Moffatt Tunnel and the Royal Gorge; it goes on to operate the Rio Grande Zephyr in 1970-83 (last privately operated intercity passenger train in the U.S.); in 1988 it merges with the Southern Pacific.

In 1871 Longmont, Colo. 31 mi. NNW of Denver, named after Long's Peak is founded by settlers from Chicago, Ill.

Colo. Territorial Correctional Facility, 1861

In 1871 the Colo. Territorial Correctional Facility in Canon City, Colo. opens, becoming the first prison in Colo., housing Colo.'s death row from the 1890s to the 1990s, when it is moved to the Colo. State Penitentiary; in 2012 after a lawsuit by Aurora Chuck-E-Cheese death row prisoner Nathan Dunlap over lack of outdoor exercise facilities, death row prisoners are housed in the Sterling Correctional Facility; in 2013 Colo. Gov. John Hickenlooper grants Dunlap a temporary reprieve.

I fooled around and fell in love, yes I did? In 1872 mass slaughter of the 30M bison in the U.S. begins at the rate of 2M a year under a U.S. govt. policy to "settle the vexed Indian question"; by 1885 only 500 remain; in 1875 Gen. Philip Sheridan tells the Tex. legislature that whites should "kill, skin and sell until the buffaloes are exterminated. Then your prairie can be covered with speckled cattle and the festive cowboy - the forerunner of an advanced civilization."

Adolph Coors Sr. (1847-1929) Coors Logo

In 1873 after fleeing Germany's military draft in 1868 as a ship stowaway, Prussian orphan Adolph Coors Sr. (1847-1929) works his way to Denver, Colo. and founds the Coors Brewing Co. in the nearby foothills town of Golden on the banks of Clear Creek, with the ad slogans "Brewed with pure Rocky Mountain spring water", and "The banquet beer" - before the hippie era fills the creek with you know what? Too bad, he commits suicide on June 5, 1929 in Virginia Beach, Va. by jumping out of a window at the Cavalier Hotel after becoming despondent over Prohibition - crying in his beer wasn't enough?

James Harvey Crawford (1845-1930)

In spring 1874 Sedalia, Mo.-born James Harvey Crawford (1845-1930) arrives in Steamboat Springs, Colo. in NW Colo. on the Upper Yampa River Valley just W of the Continental Divide and Rabbit Ears Pass named after the chugging sound of the natural hot springs throughout the area; in 1879 the U.S. Army begins forcibly removing the Yampatikas Utes to a rez in Utah; in 1900 the town is incorporated, and the railroad arrives in 1909; in 1913 Norwegian immigrant Carl Howelsen (Karl Frithjof Hovelsen) (1877-1955) introduces ski jumping to the town, building the Flying Norseman, the first ski jump on Howelsen Hill in 1914, which in 1931 becomes Howelsen Hill Ski Area, going on to found the town's annual Winter Carnival; in 1963 Jim Temple and John Fetcher establish the Steamboat Ski Resort on Mount Werner (originally Storm Mountain) E of the town; in 1974 The Industrial Co. (TIC) is founded in Steamboat Springs, becoming one of the largest construction cos. in the U.S. ($2B revenues in 2007); in 1993 the city council conducts a poll to name the bridge across the Yampa River on Shield Dr., and the name chosen is James Brown Soul Center of the Universe Bridge, with soul singer James Brown appearing at the dedication in Sept.

Alferd G. Packer (1842-1907)

In winter 1874-5 Alfred Griner "Alferd" Packer (1842-1907) becomes Colo.'s most famous epicure when his traveling party becomes snowbound in the Rockies and he dabbles in cannibalism; he is released in 1901 after gaining publicity by petitioning the Colo. gov.

Union Gen. William Jackson Palmer (1836-1909)

In 1874 Colorado College is founded in Colo. Springs, Colo. on land designated by Denver & Rio Grande Railroad founder Gen. William Jackson Palmer (1836-1909) to copy Oberlin College.

On Mar. 14, 1876 after the Colo. legislature passes legislation on Nov. 7, 1861 naming Boulder, Colo. (25 mi. NW of Denver) as the site, and the cornerstone for the Old Main Bldg. is laid on Sept. 20, 1875, the U. of Colo. (CU) (home of the Buffaloes) is founded via an amendment to the state constitution before formal admission to statehood, which later causes its regents to consider themselves equal to or above the state legislature; it officially opens on Sept. 5, 1877; in 1912 the U. of Colo. Denver is founded; in 1965 the U. of Colo. Colorado Springs is founded.

John Long Routt of the U.S. (1826-1907) Eliza Pickrell Routt of the U.S. (1839-1909)

On Aug. 1, 1876 the savage Indians all nicely pacified after 100 years of U.S. rule, "Centennial State", "the Switzerland of America" Colorado (Colo.) is admitted as the 36th U.S. state; after being appointed gov. of Colo. Territory on Mar. 29, 1875, Eddyville, Ky.-born Repub. John Long Rutt (1826-1907) becomes Colo. gov. #1 (until Jan. 14, 1879), followed by Denver mayor #17 in 1883-5, and Colo. gov. #7 on Jan. 13, 1891-Jan. 10, 1893, going on to campaign for women's suffrage with his wife Eliza Pickrell Rout (nee Eliza Franklin Pickrell) (1839-1907), personally escorting Susan B. Anthony on a statewide speaking tour; in 1893 when Colo. grants women the vote, his wife Eliza becomes the first woman registered to vote in Colo.; meanwhile the Colo. state legislature offers a bounty for wolf pelts ($0.50 to $2.00), resulting in their extinction in 1943 as the last one is killed by a govt. trapper in Conejos County; in 1995-6 federal officials reintroduce 31 wolves from Canada into Yellowstone Nat. Park and 35 more into C Idaho, growing into a herd of 1K by 2006 when the bounty is finally legally removed.

Soapy Smith (1860-98)

In 1876 after being ruined by the U.S. Civil War and moving to Round Rock, Tex. and Fort Worth, Tex., Coweta County, Ga.-born con man Jefferson Randolph "Jeff" "Soapy" Smith II (1860-98) (named for his prize soap racket) arrives in Denver, Colo., going on to run several crooked saloons, gambling halls, cigar stars, and auction houses and get into political fixing before setting up shop in Creede, Colo. (1892) and Skagway, Yukon Territory (1897), where he is killed in a shootout on Juneau Wharf on July 8, 1898.

In 1877 May Department Stores Co. is founded in Leadville, Colo. by Kaiserslautern, Germany-born David May (1848-1927), booming during the Colo. Silver Rush and moving to Denver, Colo. in 1889, followed by St. Louis, Mo. in 1905; in 1956 it acquires the Daniels & Fisher Co. of Denver, Colo., merging it with the local May stores to create the May D&F division; in 2004 it takes over the Marshall Field's chain; in 2005 it is acquired by Federated Dept. Stores for $11B; in 2006 400+ former May stores are consolidated and renamed Macy's.

Horace Tabor (1830-99)

On May 3, 1878 the $82M Colo. Silver Boom begins with a strike at Little Pittsburg Mine in Leadville, and lucky Vt.-born Denver, Colo. merchant Horace Austin Warner "Haw" Tabor (1830-99), who had grubstaked its two miners August Riche and George Hook with $17 worth of supplies in return for a one-third share in their future earnings, sells out next year for $1M in cash, using $117K of it to buy the profitable Matchless Mine, becoming a Colo. celeb known as "Silver Dollar Tabor" and "Bonanza King of Leadville", getting elected as Colo. Lt. gov. in 1878-84; too bad, the 1893 repeal of the U.S. Sherman Silver Purchase Act ruins him, but he lucks out with a job as postmaster from Jan. 4, 1898 until he croaks.

Nathan Meeker (1817-79) Chief Ouray (1833-80) and Chipeta (1843-1924)

On Sept. 29, 1879 the Meeker Massacre sees Nathanial "Nathan" Cook Meeker (1817-79), whose Union Colony (Greeley, Colo.) venture failed, causing him to go looking for a job, getting an appointment last year as U.S. Indian agent for the White River Ute Reservation (who knew nothing about Indians, pissing them off by trying to force them to give up buffalo hunting and become farmers, and really pissing them off by plowing their horseracing track under and killing some of their horses) killed by the White River Utes under Chief Douglas, who massacre his 10 male employees and capture the women and children and hold them hostage for 23 days until they are released at the intercession of Uncompaghre Ute Chief Ouray ("arrow") (b. 1833) and his wife Chipeta (White Singing Bird) (1843-1924), who sit it out and try to restore peace; meanwhile after a fistfight between Meeker and Ute medicine man Canalla caused him to call out the cavalry a little too late, on Sept. 21 four U.S. Army cos. (175 men) leave Fort Fred Steele near Rawlins in Wyo. Territory under Maj. Thomas Tipton Thornburgh, and on Sept. 29 they are ambushed 20 mi. to the NE at Milk Creek on the N border of the rez, and Thornburgh is KIA along with 13 men, and 28 are wounded, losing three-quarters of the horses and mules, after which the troops dig in and send a rider out for reinforcements, holding out for 35 days until 35 black Buffalo Soldiers from Ft. Lewis in S Colo. arrive, electrifying the U.S. with the news of Da Utes, causing another group of 550 reinforcements under Col. David Merritt to leave Ft. Steele and Ft. David A. Russell in Wyo. Territory, defeating the Utes on Sept. 29-Oct. 5 in the Battle of Milk Creek before rescuing the 30 starving survivors on Milk Creek on Oct. 8; the town of Meeker, Colo. is founded 17 mi. SW of the site of the massacre; the unrepenting farming-hating Utes hold on to the end of the 1880s before being forced to a new rez in, er, Utah.

In 1879 Aspen, Colo. (originally Ute City until 1880) is founded by a group of miners who ignore pleas by Colo. Gov. Frederick Pitkin to vacate to avoid a Ute uprising, going on to become the most productive silver mining district in Colo. in 1891-2, going bust after the Panic of 1893 and dwindling to 705 pop. in 1930, which is revitalized by the Aspen Skiing Corp., founded in 1946.

Baby Doe Tabor (1854-1935) Tabor Grand Opera House, 1879-81

In 1879 Matchless Mine tycoon Horace Tabor builds the Tabor Grand Opera House in Denver, Colo. (finished 1881); his wife Augusta snubs the opening ceremonies because he had recently hooked up with 26-y.-o. blonde never-outlive-your-money bimbo Elizabeth "Baby Doe" Tabor (nee McCourt) (1854-1935), whom he leaves her for, and marries on Mar. 1, 1883; too bad, when he goes bust in 1893 she goes nuts and spends the rest of her life living in the worthless Matchless Mine, and freezes to death in her shack in Mar. 1935 - boy does Augusta have the last laugh?

In Sept. 1880 after the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad drops negotiations with Animas City 2 mi. to the N, the town of Durango, Colo. on the Animas River in La Plata County in S Colo. (named after Durango, Mexico) is founded to serve the San Juan mining district.

Chief Ouray (1833-80) and Chipeta (1843-1924)

In 1880 Uncompahgre Ute chief Ouray ("arrow") (b. 1833) leads a delegation of Ute chiefs from W Colo. (incl. Chief Ignacio of the Southern Utes, and Woretsiz of the Tabeguache Utes) to Washington, D.C. to testify before Congress about the 1879 Ute Uprising in an attempt to secure a treaty for allowing them all to stay in Colo., meeting with Pres. Hayes, who calls him "the most intellectual man I've ever conversed with", and also with Pres. Grant; too bad, they want them cleared out to make way for white settlers, and the treaty agrees to removal of only the White River and Tabeguache Utes to Uintah Basin in Utah; and on Aug. 24 he dies near the Los Pinos Indian Agency in Colo., after which The Denver Tribune pub. an obituary containing the soundbyte: "In the death of Ouray, one of the historical characters passes away. He has figured for many years as the greatest Indian of his time, and during his life has figured quite prominently. Ouray is in many respects... a remarkable Indian... pure instincts and keen perception. A friend to the white man and protector to the Indians alike", and The Denver Post pub. a eulogy in 1928 containing the soundbyte: "He saw the shadow of doom on his people. He sought peace among tribes and whites, and a fair shake for his people, though Ouray was dealt a sad task of liquidating a once-mighty force that ruled nearly 23 million acres of the Rocky Mountains."

Denver Union Station

In May 1881 Union Station at the W end of downtown Denver Colo. at 17th and Wynkoop Sts. opens to service the Union Pacific, Denver & Rio Grande Western, Colo. Central, and Denver, South Park & Pacific Railroads; too bad, in 1894 a fire in the women's restroom destroys the central portion, and it is rebuilt in Romanesque Revival style on a larger scale incl. a tall central clock tower with four faces; on July 4, 1906 a large $22,50 arch in front of the station is dedicated, made of 70 tons of steel with 2K light bulbs and the word "Welcome".

George Addison Crawford (1827-91)

On Aug. 28, 1881 after Congress passes the U.S. Ute Removal Act, reneging on a guarantee of 12M acres in perpetuity, the former Ute Indian Territory is abolished and the Utes removed from their "Shining Mountains" to a rez in E Utah so that the U.S. govt. can open the area to white settlers, incl. Clinton County, Penn.-born George Addison Crawford (1827-91), who next July 22 incorporates the town of Grand Junction, Colo. (modern pop. 60K/147K) (AKA River City, Ol' Grandy, Capital of the Western Slope) in Grand Valley on the W slope of the Rockies at the confluence of the Grand (Upper Colorado) and Gunnison Rivers, and plants the first vineyard in Colo. near Palisade, after which the area becomes known as the Colo. Wine Country.

In May 1881 Union Station in downtown Denver Colo. at 17th and Wynkoop Sts. opens to service the Union Pacific Railroad, Denver & Rio Grande Western, the Colo. Central, and the Denver, South Park & Pacific Railroads; too bad, in 1894 a fire in the women's restroom destroys the central portion, and it is rebuilt in Romanesque Revival style on a larger scale incl. a tall central clock tower with four faces; on July 4, 1906 a large $22,50 arch in front of the station is dedicated, made of 70 tons of steel with 2K light bulbs and the word "Welcome".

In 1881 the 45.2-mi. 3-ft.-wide track Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad in San Juan County in S Colo. begins operation to transport silver and gold ire from the San Juan Mts., becoming a tourist attraction for its great scenery and cliff-hugging thrills.

In 1882 the town of Rifle, Colo. on Rifle Creek near its mouth on the Colorado River (40 mi. S of Meeker) is founded in former Ute country by Abram Maxfield, becoming a center for cattle ranching; it is incorporated on Aug. 18, 1905.

On Oct. 31, 1887 after prominent Denver citizens raise money and donate land to attract interest, Fort Logan (originally Fort Sheridan until Apr. 5, 1889) U.S. Army base is established 8 mi. SW of Denver, Colo., with the first soldiers from Kansas Territory camping in 26 tents; it closes in 1946 and becomes a mental health center and Fort Logan Nat. Cemetery.

Nicholas C. Creede (1843-97)

In 1889 silver is discovered in Willow Creek Canyon in SW Colo.; in June 1891 the Holy Moses silver (amethyst) vein is discovered by Fort Wayne, Ind.-born Nicholas C. Creede (nee William "Billy" Harvey) (1843-97) at Jimtown on East Willow Creek above its junction with West Willow Creek, which is renamed Creede, Colo., becoming the last 19th cent. Colo. silver boom town, growing to 10K pop. in Dec. 1891.

William Austin Hamilton Loveland (1826-94) Eddie Bohn (1902-90)

In 1889 the town of Lakewood, Colo. between Denver and Golden is founded by Ill.-born Golden, Colo. founder William Austin Hamilton Loveland (1826-94), who plats a 13-block area along W Colfax Ave. in E Jefferson County, retiring there for life; it is not incorporated until 1969 under the name Jefferson City; it becomes known for an orthodox Jewish community, motels, used car lots, biker bars, and shopping centers incl. JCRS Mall, Westland Mall, and Villa Italia on W Alameda Ave., never developing a central business district. In 1924 Denver, Colo. 6'4" boxer Eddie Bohn (1902-90) is crowned Rocky Mountain Heavyweight Champion, then works as Jack Dempsey's sparring partner at $100 a round, finally returning to Denver to found the Pig 'N Whistle restaurant on U.S. Highway 40 (West Colfax Ave. and Wolff St.), which until closure in 1991 hosts an endless stream of boxing-connected visitors incl. Dempsey, Gene Tunny, Max Baer, Primo Carnera, and other famous people incl. Roy Rogers, Babe Didrikson Zaharias, the Dorsey brothers, Wally Schirra, Billy Martin (manages the Denver Bears before going to the New York Yankees), even Clint Eastwood.

In 1889 municipal elections in Denver, Colo. are corrupted by crime boss Soapy Smith, who pays off the mayor, and the chief of police, causing them to be called "the firm of Londoner, Farley and Smith"; the mayor loses his job, but Soapy is untouched, but in 1892 anti-gambling and saloon reforms cause him to leave for the new silver-mining boom town of Creede, Colo., declaring himself boss in 1892, get his brother-in-law William Sidney "Cap" Light (1863-93) appointed as deputy marshal, opening the Orleans Club saloon and gambling hall, and exhibiting the fake petrified man McGinty for 10 cents admission; in 1892 after hearing that the reforms are being abolished, Soapy returns to Denver just before a business district fire on June 5, 1892 that destroys the Orleans Club.

John Brisben Walker (1847-1931)

In 1889 after donating 40 acres of land in Denver, Colo. in 1887 to the Jesuits, who found Regis U., John Brisben Walker (1847-1931) buys Cosmopolitan Mag., selling it to William Randolph Hearst in 1905 for $400K-$1M.

In 1889 the Wheeler Opera House opens in the booming mining town of Aspen, Colo.

In 1890 Denver, Colo. has a pop. of 106K, making it the 26th largest urban area in the U.S., and earning it the nickname of "Queen City of the Plains".

Elitch Gardens, 1890-2000 John Elitch (1852-91) and Mary Elitch

On May 1, 1890 Elitch's Zoological Gardens opens in no-longer-Wild-West Denver, Colo. at 38th Ave. and Sheridan Blvd. on an apple orchard site owned by John Elitch (1852-91) and Mary Elitch (nee Hauck), friends of P.T. Barnum, who winters his animals and equipment in the Sloan Lake area nearby (20th Ave. and Sheridan Blvd.), and who attends the opening with Tom Thumb; when John dies in 1891, Mary takes over, training an ostrich to pull her in a small sulky and gaining worldwide publicity; her own light opera stock co. opens on May 30, 1897, producing "Helene", with James O'Neill (father of playwright Eugene O'Neill) as one of the actors; later Sarah Bernhardt plays "Camille" and "La Sorcier", and Mary names a mountain lion kitten after her; young Douglas Fairbanks gets his first acting job there; young Grace Kelly gets her start there after she and her mother rent a basement apt. at 4020 Raleigh St.; the Trocadero Ballroom opens in 1917 under owner John Mulvlihill, featuring Lawrence Welk (1903-92), Benny Goodman, Guy Lombardo et al. (closes 1975); in 1927 the Herbert Schmeck-designed Wildcat wooden roller coaster, followed in by 1928 the Philadelphia Tobggan Co. Carousel, and in 1966 by the John Allen-designed Twister roller coaster; in 1930 it is purchsed by the Gurtler family; in 1994 it moves to to downtown Denver along the Platte River and I-25 near Mile High Stadium and Pepsi Center, with the Twister replaced by the Twister II; in 1996 it is acquired by Premier Parks, which purchases Six Flags in 1997, which sells Elitch's in 2007.

Colo. State Capitol, 1890-4

On July 4, 1890 the cornerstone of the Colo. State Capitol in Denver, designed by E.E. Myers is laid at the intersection of Broadway and 26-mi. Colfax Ave. (originally 15th Ave.) (longest blvd. in the U.S.), becoming the first royal road from the Great Plains to the Rocky Mts. (later known for its motels and hos and porno studios, called "the longest, wickedest street in America" by Playboy mag.), the center of a grid of N-S streets named for Indian tribes from Broadway W to Federal Blvd. (Acoma, Bannock, Cherokee, Delaware, Elati, Fox, Galapagos, Huron, Inca, Santa Fe/Jason, Kalamath, Lipan, Mariposa, Navajo, Osage, Pecos, Quivas, Raritan, Shoshone, Tejon, Umatilla, Vallejo, Wyandot, Zuni), followed by U.S. Civil War Union gens. on the W side of Federal (Grove, Hooker, Irving, Julian, King, Knox Ct., Lowell Blvd., Meade, Newton, Osceola, Perry), designed by E.E. Myers is laid; the Colo. white granite comes from Gunnison, the wainscoting is made of Colo. rose onyx from Beulah (near Pueblo), the foundations and walls from Fort Collins sandstone, and the basement of Colo. white marble; one of the steps is labelled "One Mile Above Sea Level 5,280 ft."; it opens in Nov. 1894; in 1908 a gold dome covered in 200 oz. of gold leaf is added to commemorate the Colo. Gold Rush.

On July 14, 1890 the U.S. Sherman Silver Purchase Act, sponsored by Ohio Sen. John Sherman (of Sherman Anti-Trust Act fame) is passed by the Harrison admin. in exchange for support of the McKinley Tariff, repealing the Bland-Allison Act of 1878 and requiring the U.S. govt. to purchase 4.5M oz. of silver (at a 20:1 ratio to gold) per mo. at market prices, issuing new legal tender Treasury certificates, which soon depletes U.S. gold reserves when everybody begins cashing them in for gold, esp. Euro investors concerned about the coup in Buenos Aires, leading to the Panic of 1893 - if they only new that Treasury silver is later used to produce the first atomic bomb?

Winfield Scott Stratton (1848-1902)

On Oct. 20, 1890 gold is discovered in Cripple Creek, Colo. (20 mi. W of Colorado Springs) in Teller County by Robert Miller "Bob" Womack (-1909), bringing in prospectors; on July 4, 1891 Jefferson, Ind.-born Winfield Scott Stratton (1848-1902) discovers the Independence Lode on the S slope of Battle Mountain in nearby Victor, Colo. ("the City of Mines"), launching the last great gold rush in Colo., causing the pop. to zoom from 500 to 10K by 1893 working 150+ mines while several smelters are built in Canon City; 200K oz. of gold worth $500M is dug from the Independence Lode by 1899, and 21M oz. in the Victor-Cripple Creek mining district; by 1900 Victor has a pop. of 18K, which begins to dwindle during WWI, bottoming at 397 in 2010; too bad, Womack dies penniless.

Donald George Fletcher (1849-1929)

In 1891 the town of Aurora, Colo., a 4 sq. mi. Great Plains area E of Denver, Colo. centered around Colfax Ave., founded last year by Cobourg, Ont., Canada-born wealthy Denver real estate developer and Presbyterian minister Donald George Fletcher (1849-1929) along with Thomas Hayden and Charles Dickenson is incorporated, with H.M. Miliken as mayor #1; in Oct. 1893 Fletcher sells out after the 1893 Silver Crash causes him to lose his fortune and move to Cripple Creek, Colo., leaving the town without a stable source of water and a large water bond debt, causing the remaining owners to petition Denver in vain for annexation, after which in 1902 part of the town becomes part of Adams County, the rest becoming part of South Arapahoe County; in 1907 the town is renamed Aurora, going on to see Fitzsimons Army Hospital open in 1918, Lowry Air Force Base in 1938, and Buckley Air Force Base in 1942; by the late 1970s it becomes the fastest-growing city in the U.S., fighting to gain recognition as co-equal with Denver, hampered by lack of a large central business district.

In 1892 1.1M-acre Pike Nat. Forest near Colorado Springs, Colo. is established, named after explorer Zebulon Pike, incl. Pikes Peak and the Garden of the Gods, filled with pink-orange Pikes Peak granite; rivers draining the forest incl. the South Platte River and Fountain Creek; Rampart Reservoir is located within the forest.

Brown Palace Hotel, 1892

In 1892 the sandstone and red granite atrium-style Brown Palace Hotel at 17th St. and Tremont Place in the Capitol Hill area of Denver, Colo. is built, designed by architect Frank E. "F.E." Edbrooke (1840-1921) and named after owner Henry C. Brown, becoming one of the first fireproof bldgs. in the U.S., becoming Denver's talest bldg. (until ); in 1959 22-story 231-room Brown Palace West is built directly across Tremont Pl.; famous guests incl. Molly Brown (1 week after the RMS Titanic disaster), Denver crime boss Jefferson "Soapy" Smith, Chinese pres. Dr. Sun Yat Sen, Queen Marie of Romania, U.S. presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, Warren G. Harding, Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, and Bill Clinton, and The Beatles.

Davis Hanson Waite of the U.S. (1825-1901) Soapy Smith (1860-98)

On Jan. 10, 1893 Populist Party candidate Davis Hanson Waite (1825-1901) becomes Colo. gov. #8 (until Jan. 8, 1895), going on to support bimetallism and federalized banking, declare war against Jefferson Randolph "Jeff" "Soapy" Smith II (1860-98) and his corruption machine in Dirty Denver, Colo., protect striking miners and railroad workers, and help get women's suffrage passed in Colo. (2nd U.S. state), giving the Bloody Bridles Speech in 1893, with the soundbyte: "It is better, infinitely better that blood should flow to the horses' bridles rather than our national liberties should be destroyed"; meanwhile Denver receives a new municipal charter from the state legislature that decentralizes the mayor's power into six admin. depts., two appointed by the mayor, two elected, and two appointed by the gov., giving him his tool to fight Soapy Smith.

Grover Cleveland of the U.S. (1837-1908) Adlai Ewing Stevenson of the U.S. (1835-1914) Walter Quintin Gresham of the U.S. (1832-95)

On Mar. 4, 1893 N.J.-born U.S. pres. #22 "Uncle Jumbo" Stephen Grover Cleveland (1837-1908) becomes the 24th U.S. pres. (until 1897) in the 31st U.S. Pres. Inauguration, making the man not from O-hi-O both the 22nd and 24th pres. (1885-9, 1893-7); Ky.-born Adlai Ewing Stevenson (1835-1914) becomes the 23rd U.S. vice-pres.; a ticket from Cleveland's 1st inaugration ceremony gets you into this one; former treasury secy. (under Pres. Arthur) Walter Quintin Gresham (1832-95) becomes secy. of state #33 (until 1895); after the appointment of receivers for the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad on Feb. 20, Cleveland convinces Congress to repeal the 1890 U.S. Sherman Silver Purchase Act, leading to the Panic of 1893, blamed by the Cleveland admin. on mismanagement of silver and decline of U.S. gold reserves, causing the U.S. to experience its most severe depression so far; the homeless become a problem for the first time; anti-Roman Catholic activity heats up.

Davis Hanson Waite of the U.S. (1825-1901)

On Nov. 7, 1893 after support by Populist gov. (since Jan. 10, 1893) Davis Hanson Waite (1825-1901), Colo. becomes the 2nd U.S. state after Wyo. to grant women the vote; too bad, after is voted out of office in 1894, Waite reverses his opinion of women's suffrage.

J.J. Brown (1854-1922) Molly Brown (1867-1932)

In 1893 Waymart, Penn.-born James Joseph "J.J." Brown (1854-1922) of the Ibex Mining Co. discovers a substanial ore seam at the Little Jonny Mine in Leadville, Colo., which by Oct. 29 is shipping 135 tons of gold ore a day, making it known as the world's richest gold strike, and is rewarded with 12.5K shares of stock and a seat on the board, making him super-wealthy, along with his Hannibal, Mo.-born wife (since Sept. 1, 1886) Margaret "Maggie" "Molly" Brown (nee Tobin) (1867-1932), moving into a $30K Victorian mansion on Pennsylvania St. in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Denver, Colo. next year, and building a summer house in 1897 in SW Denver near Bear Creek called Avoca Lodge, allowing her to climb Denver's society ladder; they separate in 1909, leaving her $238K, after which she raises funds for the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Denver (1911), and helps establish the first juvenile court in the U.S.; after traveling in Egypt with millionaire John Jacob Astor IV, she becomes famous after surviving the RMS Titanic Disaster on Apr. 15, 1912 on Lifeboat No. 6, and talking the sailors into going back to pick up survivors with the help of an oar, becoming known as "the Unsinkable Molly Brown", going on to promote the rights of workers and women, education of children, historic preservation, and wounded French and Am. soldiers in WWI before dying of a brain tumor on Oct. 26, 1932 at the Barbizon Hotel in New York City; a 1960 Broadway musical and 1964 film titled "The Unsinkable Molly Brown" preserve her fame to modern times.

On Feb. 7, 1894 after the Panic of 1893 frees silver miners to work in gold mines, and the owners lower the daily wage from $3 to $2.50/day and increase working hours from 8 to 10, the 5-mo. Cripple Creek Miner's Strike of 1894 by the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) (founded 1893) sees miners blow up the Strong Mine on Battle Mountain on May 24, after which the Colo. state militia is called out (first time for any state) in support of the workers to fight illegal state deputies on June 6, helping the strikers win a V over the owners; too bad, this only hardens the owners.

On June 19, 1896-Mar. 9, 1897 the Leadville Miners' Strike sees silver miners protesting low wages backed by the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) defeated by the owners, who almost get the union dissolved, turning its leaders radical and militant and leaving the Am. Federation of Labor (AFL).

On Oct. 13, 1896 amateurs George Law, Jim Shirley, and "The Kid" Pierce rob the Bank of Meeker in NW Colo. about 3 p.m., but it goes bad when they emerge to face armed citizens, causing them try and take hostages, backfiring in the killing of all three.

On July 4, 1901 the "largest pyrotechnical display ever to occur on the Fourth of July" is detonated from the top of Pikes Peak in Colo., as 15 barrels of oil donated by a Denver oil co. are rolled down the hill into a pile of burning embers, creating a 500-ft.-tall fireball visible from Cheyenne, Wyo.; on July 3 12 people fly 6-ft.-wide kites to pull a huge U.S. flag into the air, which is visible 50 mi. away.

Benjamin Barr Lindsey of the U.S. (1869-1943)

In 1901 Am. atty. Benjamin Barr Lindsey (1869-1943) becomes the first judge of a juvenile court in the U.S. after getting an act passed in Denver, Colo. with the help of Molly Brown, starting a nat. movement.

In 1902 the Denver Museum of Natural History (later Denver Museum of Nature and Science) in Denver, Colo. is founded, later housing the Folsom Point, found in 1927 near Folson, N.M. lodged between the ribs of a bison known to have been extinct for more than 10K years, proving the existence of humans in North Am. that far back - do I detect a little circular reasoning here?

In May 1903 after Colo. voters pass an 8-hour workday amendment for miners on Nov. 4 by 72%, but the Colo. legislature refuses to pass enabling legislation, and Gov. Peabody backs big business, the Colo. Labor Wars (end 1904) between gold-silver mineworkers represented by the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) and mine owners begin with a strike in Idaho Springs, followed by strikes in Colorado City, Cripple Creek, Telluride, Denver, and Durango, which are met with the state militia, vigilante groups, and the Pinkerton, Baldwin-Felts, and Thiel detective agencies, becoming one of the most violent episodes in U.S. labor history, hardening the WFM, which circulates a poster reading "Is Colorado in America?", helping launch the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) (Wobblies" in 1905.

On Aug. 7, 1904 a train derails on a bridge during a flash flood in Eden, Colo., killing 96 of 153 passengers.

In 1904 Ft. Peabody in SW Colo., the highest military fort in the U.S. (13,365 ft.) is built in the winter to stop labor union sympathizers from entering the mining town of Telluride via Imogene Pass.

On Jan. 29-Feb. 3, 1906 the first annual Nat. Western Stock Show is held in the cow town of Denver, Colo. by the new Western Stock Show Assoc., devoted to "unabashed bovine boosterism" (Thomas J. Noel); attendance is 15K; the Grand Champion steer sells for 33 cents/lb. (23 cents over market price); it becomes so important to the city's economy that the elaborate Christmas lights on the Denver City and County Bldg. are left on for it.

Lakeside Amusement Park, Colo., 1908

On Nov. 12, 1907 the town of Lakeside, Colo. immediately W of Denver at 44th Ave. and Sheridan Blvd. in Jefferson County is incorporated by Denver brewer Adolph J. Zang (1856-1916) (son of Zang Brewery founder Philip Zang), who next year opens Lakeside Amusement Park (AKA the White City in an attempt to clone the 1893 Chicago Exposition) 1/2-mi. from Elitch's Gardens on the E shore of 37-acre Lake Rhoda, allowing it to escape Dirty Denver liquor laws with its own laws and jail, featuring a glittering display of 100K lights and the 150-ft. Tower of Jewels on top of the park casino and casino theater, along with the Orient Express miniature train that circles the lake, pulled by steam locomotives Puffing Billy and Whistling Tom from the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair, along with the world's first miniature gauge diesel locomotive modeled after the Calif. Zephyr; in 1912 the Derby Racer wooden roller coaster opens; in 1935 longtime park employee Benjamin Krasner (-1965) (father of Rhoda of Lake Rhoda fame, who becomes a physician and succeeds him as owner) purchases it, adding the El Patio Ballroom which hosts stars incl. Duke Ellington and Glenn Miller, and hires Denver architect Richard Crowther to give it an Art-Deco style complete with rainbow neon lights; in 1938 Lakeside Speedway opens, closing in 1988; in 1938 the baseball field is turned into a 7K-car parking lot with free parking; in 1940 the Ed Vettel-designed Cyclone wooden roller coaster opens, followed in 1955 by the Wild Chipmunk, and in 1986 by a Zamperia dragon coaster (on the site of the old Funhouse, which featured Laughing Sal, a Fat Lady mannequin); in 1965 physician Rhoda Krasner becomes the owner; a total of eight persons live on the SE side, all employees; in 1956 Lakeside Mall opens, closing in 2010 and replaced by a Wal-Mart.

On Sept. 23, 1913 the Colo. Coalfield War begins (ends Dec. 1914) in S Colo., becoming the deadliest strike in U.S. history (until ?).

It doesn't get any bigger than that? On Apr. 20, 1914 after 10K miner employees of John D. Rockefeller's Colorado Fuel and Iron Co. strike in Nov. 1913, and the women join them, causing them all to be evicted from co.-owned houses and forced to set up tent colonies, Nat. Guard troops open fire on a tent colony of 1.2K striking miners in 200 tents in Ludlow, Colo., firing machine guns into a tent and killing 14 adults (2 women) and 11 children supposedly in an attempt to disarm the strikers, taking another two weeks and 40 deaths to protect the empty plain from Trinidad to Walsenburg until the union runs out of money in Dec., ending the Colo. Coalfield War (begun 1913); sympathetic Pres. Wilson appoints the U.S. (Presidential) Colo. Coal Commission to settle the strike, with Seth Low as chmn., only to see the miners unconditionally surrender to the mean mine owners; the Congressional Commission on Industrial Relations grills Rockefeller, giving his huge lily-white butt its true stink?; in 1915 Colo. passes the Colo. Industrial Relations Act, giving public sector employees the right to strike, and giving the Colo. dir. of labor authority over employer-employee disputes, with strikes while he/she is involved carrying a $50 fine and 6 mo. in prison per day.

Roland Garros of France (1888-1918) Anthony Fokker (1890-1939) Max Immelmann (1890-1916) Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1958) Roger Adams (1889-1971)

On Aug. 4, 1914 - Nov. 11, 1918 the horrific World War I causes 15M deaths and 39M military casualties. and destroys the Old Order of white formerly Christian Europe. On Feb. 26-28, 1915 the Germans first use a Flamethrower (Flame Projector) in the village of Douaumont, France near Verdun, becoming the first of 653 flamethrower attacks in the war. On Apr. 1, 1915 French aviator Roland Garros (1888-1918) becomes the first pilot to shoot down an aircraft using a deflector gear, which allows shooting through the propeller; after more Vs against German aircraft on Apr. 15 and Apr. 18, he is shot down and the Germans capture his plane, after which Dutch designer Anthony (Anton Herman Gerard) Fokker (1890-1939) clones then improves the deflector gear into the synchronization (interrupter) gear, mounting them on the new Fokker E.I. in Aug., beginning the Fokker Scourge (Scare) as they shoot down nearly every enemy aircraft they encounter and generate the first German aces, incl. Max Immelmann (1890-1916); next year the French counter with the Nieuport 11 Bebe (Bébé), in which the gun is mounted on the top wing clear of the prop, and the British with the Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2b and Airco DH.2 (Feb. 1916), which mount the engine backwards with the prop in back, causing them to be called "pushers", ending the Fokker Scourge by spring 1917. In 1915 arsenic-based vomiting-sneeze gas Adamsite (DM) (diphenylaminechlorarsine) is synthesized by German chemist Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1957); in 1918 Am chemist Roger Adams (1889-1971) duplicates it, and both sides stockpile it, but it is allegedly never used on the battlefield. On Mar. 22, 1916 the British have their first success with their new Depth Charge off the SW coast of Ireland, destroying a German U-boat. Are you used to Hell yet, try this? On Sept. 15, 1916 Winston Churchill's pet project the Tank (Russian Water Closet) (Char-Schneider) is first used by the Brits in the Somme.

Enos Mills (1879-1922)

On Jan. 26, 1915 265K-acre (352.5 sq. mi.) Rocky Mountain Nat. Park in NC Colo. 76 mi. NW of Denver Internat. Airport between the towns of Estes Park and Grand Lake on both sides of the Continental Divide is established by Pres. Woodrow Wilson after a 7-year fight by Colo. environmentalist Enos Abijah Mills (1870-1922), becoming U.S. nat. park #10; it contains the headwaters of the Colorado River; Mills Lake is named in his honor; in 1976 UNESCO designates it as a World Biosphere Reserve; in 2016 it has 4.5M visitors.

On Oct. 4, 1915 Dinosaur Nat. Monument on the Colo.-Utah border at the confluence of the Green and Yampa Rivers in Moffat County in NW Colo. is established; in 1966 the nearby town of Artesia is renamed Dinosaur, Colo.

Buffalo Bill Cody (1846-1917) Buffalo Bill (1846-1917) and Sitting Bull (1831-90)

On Jan. 10, 1917 Le Claire, Iowa-born showman William Frederick "Buffalo Bill" Cody (b. 1846) dies in Denver, Colo. of kidney failure at his sister's house one day after being baptized into the Roman Catholic Church by Father Christopher Walsh of Denver Cathedral; tributes are made by George V, Kaiser Wilhelm II, and Pres. Wilson; Wyo. Gov. John B. Kendrick leads the funeral procession; leaves a $100K fortune; he is buried on June 3 on Lookout Mountain in Golden, Colo. overlooking Denver from the W 12 mi. away; in 1921 Johnny Baker (-1931) opens the Buffalo Bill Memorial Museum, which ends up being owned by the city and county of Denver, attracting 400K visitors/year; the tradition arises that throwing a bobby pin over his grave assures a trip to the altar: "Every Indian outbreak that I have ever known has resulted from broken promises and broken treaties by the government"; "What we want to do is give women even more liberty than they have. Let them do any kind of work they see fit, and if they do it as well as men, give them the same pay."

Red Rocks Amphitheater, 1927

In 1927 the city of Denver, Colo. purchases Red Rocks in the foothills of the Rocky Mts. for $54,133, turning it into one of the top natural amphitheaters on Earth, with seating cap. of 9,525, later hosting the Beatles on Aug. 26, 1964, Jimi Hendrix in 1968, Jethro Tull on June 10, 1971, Bruce Springsteen in 1978, U2 on June 5, 1983 (Bloody Sunday), and Pearl Jam in 1995; in 2015 it becomes a U.S. nat. historic landmark; after the Jethro Tull performance, which involves the police, rock concerts are banned for five years.

David Halliday Moffat (1839-1911) Moffat Tunnel, 1928

In Feb. 1928 the Great Moffat Tunnel through the Rocky Mountain Continental Divide in NC Colo. opens, named after Colo. railroad financing pioneer David Halliday Moffat (1839-1911), who laid out the right-of-way in 1902, used by the Denver and Salt Lake Railway to give Denver its first W link through the Continental Divide; it incl. a water tunnel serving Denver.

On Mar. 17, 1932 107K-acre Great Sand Dunes Monument in the San Luis Valley in E Alamosa County and Saguache County in S Colo. is estabished; on Sept. 24, 2004 41.7K more acres are added, becoming Great Sand Dunes Nat. Park and Preserve.

Auschwitz Camp Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise (1874-1949) Raphael Lemkin (1900-59)

On Sept. 1, 1939 - Sept. 2, 1945 the horrific $3.5T World War II resulted in 24M military and 49M civilian deaths, and featured the low point of the Jewish Holocaust (Shoah) by the German Nazis, I guess it was the Jews' fault for not ransoming themselves to go to Israel before they could round them up for the camps. The whole experience turned Jews from lovers into fighters, ramping up the Zionist movement with full world sympathy and support by new world superpower U.S., which had its own guilt trip because on Nov. 24, 1942 Budapest-born Am. Zionist leader Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise (1874-1949) announced in a press conference in Washington, D.C. that he was authorized by the U.S. State Dept. to confirm that the Nazis had murdered 2M Jews as part of a plan to exterminate all Jews in Europe; too bad, the nat. newspapers didn't consider it front page news, and the U.S. govt. did nada. After the war ended and Americans toured the concentration camps in horror, Polish-born Jewish scholar Raphael Lemkin (1900-59), who single-handedly led an unsuccessful campaign to get the League of Nations to give internat. protections against genocide starting in 1933 finally got what he wanted after his own people got it, namely the Dec. 9, 1948 U.N. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Gen. Assembly Resolution 260), which didn't come in force until Jan. 12, 1951, and which the U.S. still didn't ratify until 1988.

On July 19, 1945 Cherry Hills Village, Colo. in Arapahoe County SE of Denver is incorporated, becoming the Beverly Hills of Colo., filled with Beverly Hillbilly-style mansions; in 1953 top entertainer Ethel Merman marries Continental Airlines exec Robert Six and moves into his 26-room mansion there, giving a concert at Red Rocks Amphitheater in 1953; it later becomes a favorite residence for Denver Broncos NFL team coaches and players incl. coach Mike Shanahan, QB John Elway, and QB Peyton Manning; in 1922 Kent Denver School is founded in Denver, Colo. as the Kent School for Girls, moving in 1953 to the Blackmer Farm in Cherry Hills Village, and merging in 1974 with the all-male Denver Country Day School, becoming the alma mater of Madeleine Albright et al.

In 1946 as the U.S. 10th Mountain Div. breaks up, 2K of its vets head for Colo. to work the emerging U.S. Ski Industry and enjoy the "champagne powder snow" made possible by the dry inner continental air, and the shirtsleeve weather made possible by a latitude equal to the Straits of Messina between Italy and Sicily; Chicago industrialist Walter Paepcke (1896-1960) and Austrian skier Friedl Pfeifer (1911-95) build the first ski lift up Aspen Mt. near the deserted silver mining town of Aspen, Colo., opening next year; in 1956 Interstate 70 (I-70) in Colo. is begun, connecting the main ski towns and enhancing the Colo. ski industry, which by 2000 does $2.5B a year, with 25 ski resorts covering 37.8K acres.

In Jan. 1947 the town of Loveland, Colo. begins its Valentine Remailing Program, backed by the Loveland Chamber of Commerce; each letter is hand-stamped with a special cachet and verse, and cancelled with a special stamp; by 2016 an avg. of 160K cards are remailed from the U.S. and 110 countries each year.

In 1947 the Tulagi nightclub at 1129 13th St. in Boulder, Colo. is founded by Ray Imel and Rex Bailey, named after a South Pacific island involved in the WWII Battle of Guadalcanal, becoming a hip scene for local U. of Colo. students to drink 3.2 beer while watching rock bands incl. The Eagles, ZZ Top, Flying Burrito Brothers, Lina Ronstadt, John Lee Hooker, and Doobie Brothers; in 200 it becomes the Which Wich sandwich shop.

Rio Grande Zephyr

On Mar. 20, 1949 the Calif. Zephyr, AKA the Silver Lady or CZ begins operation from Chicago, Ill. to Oakland, Calif. via Iowa, Neb., Colo., Utah, and Nev., designed to take the scenic route incl. the Upper Colo. River Valley and the Sierra Nevada, with special Vista Dome cars with wide-angle windows on the top row; in winter the mountain trip becomes a winter wonderland; in 1970 it ceases operation, and the Denver & Rio Grande Western takes over with its Rio Grande Zephyr between Denver, Colo. and Ogden, Utah, which is taken over in 1983 by Amtrak, which combines it with the route of the City of San Francisco; in 2016 it carries 410K passengers, with $51.4M total revenue.

Dan Thornton of the U.S. (1911-76)

On Jan. 9, 1951 Hall County, Tex.-born Lubbock-raised Repub. Daniel Isaac J. "Dan" Thornton (1911-76) becomes Colo. gov. #33 (until Jan. 11, 1955), becoming known for wearing a Stetson hat and cowboy boots while smoking a pipe, going on to get Colorado Springs selected as the site of the U.S. Air Force Academy; in 1952 he is on the short list for Dwight Eisenhower's veep, aced-out by Richard Nixon; no surprise, he dies of a heart attack on Jan. 18, 1976 2 weeks before his 65th birthday; the N Denver suburb of Thornton, Colo. is named after him - Jan. is a big month for Dan?

On Sept. 11, 1955 Pres. and Mrs. Eisenhower dedicate the new pulpit of the Corona Presbyterian Church at E. 8th Ave. and Downing St. in Denver, Colo.; on Sept. 24 Pres. Eisenhower suffers a massive heart attack two hours after midnight in his mother-in-law's home at 750 Lafayette St. in Denver after visiting banker Aksel Nielsen at the Byers Peak Ranch outside Denver, followed by Lowry AFB, then Cherry Hills Golf Course, where he had hamburgers with raw onions for lunch, which he claimed gave him chest pains; he is taken to Fitzsimons Hospital outside Denver; on Sept. 26 (Mon.) the New York Stock Exchange suffers its worst decline since 1929 ($12B) (down to 444.56) when word is released concerning his condition, but news from his physician Dr. Paul Dudley White that he can return to work in two weeks causes the market to rebound on Sept. 27.

John Gilbert 'Jack' Graham (1932-57)

Colorado's 1950s Osama bin Laden? On Nov. 1, 1955 at 7:03 p.m., 11 min. after takeoff from Stapleton Airport in Denver, Colo. United Airlines Flight 629 en route to Portland, Ore. explodes and crashes into sugar beet fields N of Denver, killing all 39 passengers and five crew; John Gilbert "Jack" Graham (1932-57), son of passenger Daisie E. King (b. 1902), who bought a $37.5K insurance policy on her life shortly before takeoff is convicted after a televised trial (Colo.'s first big TV trial) of planting 25 sticks of dynamite with a timer in her luggage, and is executed in the Colo. gas chamber on Jan. 11, 1957, his heart taking 11 min. to stop beating; the first confirmed downing of a commercial airliner in the U.S. by a bomber; the plane left 35 min. late, foiling his scheme to have it blow up over the Rocky Mts. where the debris would be difficult to find; his mean mother dominated and messed up his life, putting him in an orphanage and never letting him out even after marrying a wealthy rancher; as an adult she financed a drive-thru restaurant, which failed; Denver Post reporter Zeke Scher breaks several stories, incl. finding the man who sold Graham the dynamite, that his wife Gloria no longer loves him, and that his sister Helen believes he's guilty and wants him to die; he is one of the first inmates transfered to the new Denver County Jail, whose cell windows look out upon Stapleton Airfield; his last words are "I don't mind getting the gas but I would like make my last request, and that is to have Zeke Scher sitting on my lap when I go."

On Dec. 24, 1955 NORAD (originally Continental Air Defense Command or CONAD) in Colorado Springs, Colo. begins an annual tradition of tracking Santa Claus on his flight from the North Pole after Sears in Colo. Springs places an ad telling kids to call Santa on the phone, and they mistakenly give NORAD's number, causing commanding officer Col. Harry Shoup to go along with it.

On Aug. 1, 1957 the U.S. and Canada reach an agreement to create the North Am. Air Defense Command (NORAD).

Stephen McNichols of the U.S. (1914-97)

On Jan. 11, 1957 after taking over the responsibilities of gov. Edwin Johnson when he becomes ill, Denver, Colo.-born Dem. lt. gov. #34 (since Jan. 11, 1955) Stephen McNichols (1914-97), brother of future Denver mayor Bill McNichols becomes Colo. gov. #35 (until Jan. 8, 1863), going on to fight corruption at the State Hospital in Pueblo and the State Penitentiary in Canon City, and push the Fryingpan-Arkansas water development project along with the Colo. State Archives, getting reelected for a 2-year term twice in 1958 and 1960 before pissing-off legislators by accepting a new Governor's Mansion from the Boettcher Foundation.

Cornelius Vanderbilt Wood (1920-92)

In 1957 Am. developer Cornelius Vanderbilt "C.V." "Woody" Wood (1920-92), who worked for Walt Disney in 1953 and selected Anaheim, Calif. as the site of Disneyland opens Magic Mountain amusement park in Golden, Colo.; it closes in 1960, then reopens in 1971, becoming Heritage Square.

Coretta Scott King (1927-2006) Wilma Webb (1944-)

In 1958 Martin Luther King Jr.'s wife Coretta Scott King (1927-2006) makes her first public speaking appearance at a Woman's Day celebration in Denver, Colo., meeting black teenie Wilma J. Webb (1944-), organist for the New Hope Baptist Church, who becomes a state lawmaker and wife of Denver's first African-Am. mayor (1991-2003) Wellington Webb, and leads the state fight to have MLK Jr.'s birthday become a nat. holiday.

Adolph Coors III (1916-60) Joseph Corbett Jr. (1928-)

Did he use a Silver Bullet? On Feb. 9, 1960 Coors beer magnate Adolph Coors III (b. 1916), grandson of the founder is kidnapped and murdered en route to work in Golden, Colo. by Seattle, Wash.-born Fulbright scholar and escaped murderer Joseph Corbett Jr. (1928-2009), who tries to get $500K in ransom before the remains are found on Sept. 14 in a garbage dump near Pikes Peak, after which Corbett is captured in Vancouver, Canada on Oct. 29 and sentenced to life, then paroled in 1978, ending up living in Denver, Colo.; too bad, the experience causes Coors to initiate polygraph tests for potential employees.

Arnold Palmer (1929-2016)

In June 1960 Arnold Daniel Palmer (1929-2016) wins the U.S. Open (his only win) at Cherry Hills Country Club in Colo., shocking the golf world on June 19 with a monstrous drive, starting with a birdie on hole #1 en route to a 65 as he overcomes a 7-shot deficit to overtake 14 players.

On Dec. 15, 1962 Vail Ski Resort in Colo. at the base of Vail Mountain at Vail Pass opens, founded by U.S. Army 10th Mountan Div. veteran Peter Werner "Pete" Seibert (1924-2002), rancher Earl Eaton, and George Pack Caulkins Jr., named after highway engineer Charles Vail, who routed U.S Highway 6 through Eagle Valley in 1940 (which becomes Interstate 70), with two lifts (ticket price $5) and one gondola, expanding to five lifts and a lodge and becoming the most popular ski resort in Colo. by 1970; in 1968 Mich. Repub. rep. Gerald Ford brings his family there, and becomes a fan, and in 1970 he buys a condo there, eventually becoming known as "the First Citizen of the Vail Valley"; after the 1976 Winter Olympics are awarded to Denver, Seibert offers Vail and nearby Beaver Creek to host the skiing events until funding is rejected in Nov. 1972 and the games are returned to Innsbruck, Austria, home of the 1964 Winter Olympics.

Walter A. Netsch (1920-2008) U.S. Air Force Academy Chapel, 1962

In 1962 the cool space-age Air Force Academy Cadet Chapel (begun 1956), designed by Chicago architect Walter A. Netsch (1920-2008) is built on the campus of the new Air Force Academy in Colo. Springs, Colo., near Pikes Peak; on Sept. 22 $3.5M Falcon Stadium opens on the Air Force Academy campus, and the first football game is played with Colo. State U.; the authorities make the mistake of opening the whole campus to visitors, and 85K show up, creating the biggest traffic jam in Colo. history (until ?); USAF Gen. Jimmy Stewart gives a speech.

In 1962 the Wikiup mobile home park is built at 6500 E. 88th Ave. in Henderson, Colo. near I-76 and across from Mile High Flea Market (founded in 1976), largest flea market in Colo.; comedian Roseanne Barr lived in the Wikiup in the 1970s?

John Arthur Love of the U.S. (1916-2002)

On Jan. 8, 1963 Gibson City, Ill.-born Repub. John Arthur Love (1916-2002) bcomes Colo. gov. #36 (until July 16, 1973), resigning to become Pres. Nixon's first Energy Czar (dir. of the Office of Energy Policy), lasting 5 mo. before resigning during the Watergate scandal.

On Feb. 8, 1866 the North Am. Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) opens its binational (U.S.-Canadian) A-bomb-proof Cheyenne Mountain Complex near Colorado Springs, Colo., created by digging 700K tons of granite out of the Rocky Mts.; in 1975-6 it switches from copper wire to fiber optics to link its computers.

In 1966 after getting pissed-off at only 2% of 1.4K workers being Hispanic, the Denver, Colo.-based Crusade for Justice, Colo. chapter of the Am. GI Forum et al. organize a boycott of the Adolph Coors Co. of Golden, Colo.; in 1977 the AFL-CIO supports a strike by co. employees of Local 366, but after the co. hires non-union scabs the workers vote to decertify the union, and in 1987 after the co. changes some practices the AFL-CIO ends its boycott.

I.M. Pei (1917-) Mesa Lab, 1967 Louve Pyramid, 1988 La Pyramide Inversée, 1993

In 1967 the Nat. Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mesa Lab Bldg. in Boulder, Colo. (begun 1961) is completed, making a star of Guangzhou, China-born architect Ieoh Ming "I.M." Pei (1917-); situated in the foothills, you can walk out the door and greet deer. On Oct. 15, 1988 the Glass Pyramid over the new entrance in the main court of the Louvre in Paris, designed by architect I.M. Pei is inaugurated; in 1993 his La Pyramide Inversee (Inversée) (the Inverted Pyramid) in the Carrousel du Louvre shopping mall in front of the Louvre is completed, causing speculation by Dan Brown et al. that the two pyramids represent the body of Mary Magdalene, or the Rosicrucian motto VITRIOL (Visita Interiorem Terrae Rectificandoque Invenies Occultum Lapidem) (Visit the interior of the Earth and you will find the secret stone).

On Aug. 10, 1972 after their first orange curtain (made of 14 sq. m of cloth) hung on four steel cables is torn to shreds on Oct. 10, 1971 Christo and Jeanne-Claude unveil the 2nd Valley Curtain in Rifle Gap 6 mi. N of Rifle, Colo.; too bad, winds rip it apart after 28 hours.

John David Vanderhoof of the U.S. (1922-2013)

On July 16, 1973 after gov. (since Jan. 8, 1963) John A. Love resigns to become Pres. Nixon's Energy Czar, Rocky Ford, Colo.-born Repub. John David Vanderhoof (1922-2013) becomes Colo. gov. #37 (until Jan. 14, 1975).

'Sleeper', 1973 Sleeper House, 1963 Charles Utter Deaton (1921-96)

On Dec. 17, 1973 Woody Allen's Sleeper debuts, starring Woody Allen as Happy Carrot health food store owner Miles Monroe, who is hospitalized in St. Vincent's Hospital in Manhattan for an ulcer and ends up in liquid nitrogen tanks; after being revived in 2173, and finding that "Albert Shanker got hold of a nuclear device", he ends up living on the run from the govt. with Luna Schlosser (Diane Keaton), trying to stop the Hitler-like leader's nose from being used to clone him; robots are programmed to be Jewish tailors and gay butlers; Ph.D's are given in oral sex; the McDonald's sign has 51 zeroes (795 sexdecillion); does $18M office on a $2M budget; features the 1963 3-story 7K-sq.-ft. 5-bedroom 5-bathroom curvilinear clamshell Sleeper (Sculptured) House perched above I-70 in Genesee, Colo., housing the 5-level tubular elevator called the orgasmatron, designed by Clayton, N.M.-born architect Charles Utter Deaton (1921-96) (designer of Arrowhead Stadium in Kansas City, Mo.), which is purchased by Denver Johnson-Grace software entrepreneur John Huggins for $1.33M in 1999, which he puts on the market for $10M after adding 5K more sq. ft., and sells for $3.43M in 2006.

On Jan. 9, 1974 NASA astronaut Jack Lousma presents Colo. Repub. gov. (1973-5) John D. Vanderhoof (a WWII fighter pilot) with two sets of Moon rocks; in 2010 one set, the Apollo 17 Goodwill Moon Rock is found in his Grand Junction, Colo. home, worth $5M; it ends up on display at the Colo. School of Mines Geology Museum; "It's just memories of old stuff I had... I offered them to museums and college, nobody got excited about it."

Casa Bonita, Lakewood, Colo., 1974

In 1974 after opening similar restaurants in Oklahoma City, Okla. in 1968 and Tulsa, Okla. in 1971, the Casa Bonita theme restaurant is opened on W Colfax Ave. in Lakewood, Colo. by Bill Waugh, seating 1K in a simulated Mexican village complete with strolling mariachis, featuring a 30-ft. waterfall with cliff divers and all-you-can eat Mexican chow along with free sopapillas, becoming a tourist trap; in Mar. 2015 the city designates it a historic landmark.

Dick Lamm of the U.S. (1935-) John Denver (1943-97)

On Jan. 14, 1975 after leading the movement in the Colo. legislature to turn down the 1976 Winter Olympics, and walking the state to court voters, Madison, Wisc.-born Dem. Richard Douglas "Dick" Lamm (1935-) becomes Colo. gov. #38 (until Jan. 13, 1987), becoming known for being against growth, embracing Zero Population Growth and gaining the nickname "Governor Doom and Gloom", designating Roswell, N.M.-born musician John Denver (Henry John Deutschendorf Jr.) (1943-97) as Colo. poet laureate; in 1982 after becoming the first sitting state gov. to teach a political science course (Hard Choices Facing America at the U. of Colo. Denver) he wins 65% of the vote, then decides to quit politics; in 1984 he makes the talk show circuit as "Governor Gloom" after he is quoted as saying that the elderly "have a duty to die and get out of the way".

In 1975 Colo. Gov. Richard Lamm orders the Colo. Bureau of Investigation to examine Colo. livestock mutilations; the first strange livestock death was back in 1810; the first in Colo. was in Alamosa in 1967, a gelding named Lady AKA Snippy, after which 8K mutiliations were reported in the U.S.; next year they conclude that all but a few can be attributed to predators and/or natural causes.

Roxborough State Park

In 1975 3,339-acre Roxborough State Park in Douglas County 20 mi. S of Denver, Colo. is established, becoming known for its dramatic red sandstone formations; in 1980 it is recognized as a nat. natural landmark; in ? the town of Roxborough Park, Colo. (modern pop. 9.1K) is founded E of Roxborough State Park and Pike Nat. Forest 25 mi. SW of Denver on the Dakota Hogback; in 1960 Charles Lamb discovers a Columbian mammoth in in Lamb Springs, becoming the first of many mammoth bone finds; Arrowhead Golf Club is founded in ?, becoming one of the most scenic golf courses on Earth.

Spider Sabich of the U.S. (1945-76) Claudine Longet (1942-)

On Mar. 21, 1976 Am. skier Vladimir Peter Spider Sabich Jr. (b. 1945) is accidentally shot in Aspen, Colo. by his Paris, France-born actress-singer girlfriend Claudine Georgette Longet (1942-) (wife of Andy Williams in 1961-75), who is convicted of misdemeanor criminally negligent homicide and spends 30 days in a jail cell painted pink on weekends, after which she never performs again.

On July 31, 1976 a flash flood of the Big Thompson River dumps 12 in. of rain in a few hours along Route 34 in the Big Thompson Canyon near Loveland, Colo., sweeping away the community of Drake, killing 143 and destroying 418 houses, 400 cars, and 52 businesses in Rocky Mountain High Country during Colo. centennial celebrations.

In 1976 the Colo. History Museum at 1300 Broadway in Denver, Colo. opens, closing on Mar. 28, 2010; on Apr. 28, 2012 the $111M History Colorado Center at 1200 Broadway opens 1 block to the S as its replacement.

Charlie Papazian (1950-)

On Oct. 14, 1978 Pres. Carter signs a law legalizing home beer brewing in the U.S.; it actually only reopens the market to small craft brewers, and home brewers slide through with an exemption from excise taxes and penal bonds as long as they brew no more than 100 gal./year per adult and 200 gal./year per household, and don't sell it; state laws still have to be changed; in response, the Am. Homebrewers Assoc. (AHA) is founded in Boulder, Colo. by Charles N. "Charlie" Papazian (1950-) and Charlie Matzen, going on to pub. the mag. Zymurgy and sponsor the AHA Nat. Homebrewing Competition; in 1979 Papazian founds the Assoc. of Brewers, which merges in 1983 with the Inst. for Brewing and Fermentation Studies to form the Assoc. of Brewers, which merges in 2005 with the Brewers Assoc. of Am. (founded 1942) to form the Brewers Assoc., with him as pres. #1 (until ?); Papazian goes on to found the Great Am. Beer Festival and the World Beer Cup, and pub. the bestseller (900K copies) The Complete Joy of Brewing in 1984 (4th ed. on Sept. 30, 2014), which becomes the Bible for home brewers in the U.S.

Boulder Beer Co. Boulder Beer Hazed and Infused

On Sept. 25, 1979 Boulder Beer Co. is founded in Boulder, Colo. by U. of Colo. physics profs. David Hummer and Randolf Ware, and Alvin Nelson, becoming the first microbrewery in Colo., going public in 1980 and going on to produce fine craft beers incl. Sweaty Betty Blonde, Hazed and Infused, Sundance Amber Ale, Buffalo Gold, Planet Porter, Mojo IPA, Hoopla Pale Ale, and Shake Chocolate Porter before going private again in 1990; the bottle labels feature colorful hippie or New Age designs.

Reagan Assassination Attempt, Mar. 30, 1981 John Hinckley Jr. (1955-) James Scott 'Jim' Brady of the U.S. (1940-2014)

It's Hinckley Day at the Washington Zoo? On Mar. 30, 1981 (Mon.) (2:30 p.m.) after attending a labor event, the Reagan Assassination Attempt sees 69-day U.S. pres. Ronald Reagan shot in the left lung along with three others outside the Washington, D.C. Hilton Hotel by Colo.-based Jodie Foster fetishist John Hinckley Jr. (1955-) using a Rohm RG-14 6-shot .22 blue steel revolver loaded with Devastator brand exploding cartridges (all shots fired); shot #1 hits Reagan's 6'1" 250 lb. White House press secy. ("the Bear") James Scott "Jim" Brady (1940-2014) in the head, causing permanent brain damage and partially paralyzing him, after which he becomes a er, half-wit, er lobbyist for gun control legislation, getting the 1993 U.S. Brady Handgun Control Act passed, providing for a 5-day waiting period before purchasing handguns to kill politicians with (expires 1998); D.C. police officer Thomas K. Delhanty (1934-) is hit with shot #2 in the back; shot #3 misses and hits a window; shot #4 hits Secret Service agent Timothy J. McCarthy (1949-) in the abdomen after he leaps in front of POTUS, after which he becomes police chief of Orlando Park, Ill.; shot #5 hits the window of the pres. limo; shot #6 hinkleys off the limo into Reagan's left underarm, stopping 1 in. from his heart; Nancy Reagan is at first told he wasn't hit, until Michael Deaver breaks it to her at the hospital, where the glib movie cowboy pres. tells his wife, "Honey, I forgot to duck"; White House campaign strategist Franklyn C. "Lyn" Nofziger (1924-2006) becomes the first to announce it to the press; all three major U.S. TV networks provide day-long coverage of the incident; U.S. Gen. Alexander Meigs Haig Jr. (1924-2010) stinks himself up by telling reporters "As for now I'm in control here in the White House" (Heil Haig?), then claims "There are absolutely no alert measures that are necessary at this time or contemplated", while in reality defense secy. Cap Weinberger is ordering an alert in case it's a Soviet plot?; Reagan leaves the hospital after 12 days, and addresses Congress to a rousing ovation, helping him get his economics program passed by 238-195 (like Zangara's bad shooting helped FDR in 1933?), with many Dem. defections, which he calls the greatest political win in half a cent.; he fires Haig for being "power-hungry", causing Haig to say that he "isn't a mean man, he's just stupid"; on Aug. 28 Hinckley pleads innocent to charges of attempting to kill Reagan, and on June 21, 1982 he is found not guilty by reason of insanity; Reagan loses half his blood and turns white before he arrives in the operating room, after which his mental decline begins?

In 1982 the Microbrewing (Craft Beer) Rev. begins, with six new microbreweries, growing to 4.2K by 2015; this year Hilton Harvest House in Boulder, Colo. hosts the first Great Am. Beer Festival, with 20 breweries serving 35 beers, growing to 3K beers by 2016.

Alan Berg (1934-84) Aryan Nations David Eden Lane (1938-2007) Norm Early of the U.S.

On June 18, 1984 (9:30 p.m.) outspoken Chicago, Ill.-born liberal Jewish radio talk show host Alan Harrison Berg (b. 1934) is shot 12x and killed by an automatic MAC-10 in the driveway of his Denver, Colo. home in front of his black VW Beetle by two white supremacists of The Order (Silent Brotherhood), connected with the Aryan Nations Church, and eerily similar to a scene in the 1978 white supremacist novel "The Turner Diaries"; Order founder David Eden Lane (1938-2007) (author of the white supremacist slogan known as the 14 Words: "We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children", and/or "Because the beauty of the White Aryan woman must not perish from the Earth") and several other white supremacists are railroaded by Denver's first African-Am. district atty. Norman S. "Norm" Early (normally up early to step and fetch it?) on federal RICO and other squishy charges to 190+-year sentences when he can't prove a state murder charge and decides to 'get' them.

Roy Romer of the U.S. (1928-)

On Jan. 13, 1987 Garden City, Kan.-born Dem. Colo. treasurer (since Mar. 23, 1977) Roy Rudolf Romer (1928-) becomes Colo. gov. #39 (until Jan. 12, 1999).

Odell Brewing Co.

In 1989 Odell Brewing Co. in Fort Collins, Colo. is founded in a 1915 grain elevator outside downtown by Doug, Wynne, and Corkie Odell, becoming the 2nd packaging craft brewery in Colo., and the first in Fort Collins, growing to 8.3K barrels/lyear in 1994, 45K barrels/year in 2013, and 100K barrels/year in 2014.

Left Hand Brewing Co.

On Sept. 21, 1993 Left Hand Brewing Co. (originally Indian Peaks Brewing Co., then renamed in honor of Arapahoe Chief Niwot, whose name means you know what) is founded near the St. Vrain River in Longmont (near Boulder), Colo. by Dick Doore and Eric Wallace, merging in Apr. 1998 with Tabernash Brewing, growing to 50K barrels/year in 2012, and 65.8K barrels/year in 2013; in 2011 they introduce Milk Stout Nitro, becoming the first craft brewery to bottle nitrogenated beer without a widget.

Nathan Dunlap (1974-)

On Dec. 14, 1993 (10:00 p.m. MST) 19-y.-o. Nathan Jerard Dunlap (1974-), a disgruntled former employee kills four employees and seriously injures a fifth at the Chuck E. Cheese Restaurant in Aurora, Colo.; after being found guilty four murders, he is sentenced to death in 1996, with the execution date set in mid-Aug. 2013 on May 1, 2013 by Judge William Sylvster; too bad, on May 22 liberal Dem. Colo. gov. John Hickenlooper grants him a temporary reprieve, while the ACLU tries to get him off death row because he's black?

JonBenet Ramsey (1990-6) John Ramsey (1943-) and Patsy Ramsey (1956-2006)

Daddy just loved his daughter so much he named him after himself? On Dec. 25/26, 1996 (Christmas night) the murder of 6-y.-o. white rich-kid beauty queen (1995 Little Miss Colo.) JonBenet Patricia Ramsey (b. 1990) in "perfect town" very-white Boulder, Colo. (home of the U. of Colo., the Bolder Boulder, the Naropa Inst., and Mork and Mindy) (the only murder in that town this year), followed by the focusing of suspicion on the well-to-do parents John Bennett Ramsey (1943-) (pres. of Access Graphics, which passed the $1B revenues mark in 1996, then gave autographed paperweights to his employees) and Patricia Ann "Patsy" Ramsey (nee Paugh) (1956-2006) (1977 Miss W. Va.), followed by the failure to charge a suspect captures the world's attention; the bungling police let daddy locate and carry the garrotted body away from the basement, and the mother to hug it, while calling on Jesus to raise her from the dead like he did Lazarus?; no signs of an intruder are found, and everything used in her murder are traced to the home; a long ransom note found in the home, purporting to be by "a group of individuals that represent a small foreign faction" demands $118K, the exact amount of a recent bonus received by daddy, and ends with the cryptic signature "S.B.T.C."; in Aug. 2006 after his arrest a high school yearbook from the early 1980s signed by John Mark Karr surfaces, containing the words "I shall be the conqueror", after which he is arrested in Thailand and confesses, but charges are later dropped; meanwhile local Santa Claus (ex-Univ. of Colo. journalism professor) Bill McReynolds is suspected by some - daddy really did it and mommy helped cover it up, allowing police to later suspect that she did it and he helped her cover it up?

In 1996 the first World Beer Cup, "the Olympics of Beer Competition" is held in Vail, Colo., featuring 600 beers from 250 breweries, growing to 2,864 beers from 644 breweries in 58 countries in 2008, when it is held in San Diego, Calif; there are 83 craft breweries in Colo.

Bill Owens of the U.S. (1950-)

On Jan. 12, 1999 after winning by 8.3K votes (1% of votes cast), Fort Worth, Tex.-born Repub. Colo. state treasurer (since 1994) William Forrester "Bill" Owens (1950-) becomes Colo. gov. #40 (until Jan. 9, 2007) (first Repub. Colo. gov. in 24 years), promising to cut taxes, repair the state's aging infrastructure, and continue school accountability reforms; in 2002 he is reelected by the largest majority in Colo. history (until ?).

Eric Harris (1981-99) and Dylan Klebold (1981-99) Eric Harris (1981-99) and Dylan Klebold (1981-99), Apr. 20, 1999

Happy 120th Birthday, Herr Hitler? On Apr. 20, 1999 (Tues.) starting at 11:21 a.m. the Columbine High School Massacre in Littleton, Colo. (less than 10 mi. from TLW's home) sees America's worst school rage shooting (until ?), with 13 killed (12 students and a teacher) and 23 injured by two disaffected white supremacist (closet gay?) students, 18-y.-o. Eric David Harris (b. 1981) and Dylan Bennet Klebold (b. 1982), who finish by killing themselves, leaving insane Web pages; later students are permitted to place memorial tiles in the school, and one reading "Jesus Wept" is banned for being religious?; families of victims sue to have historic statements by the killers and their parents sealed or destroyed, while the U.S. Nat. Archives and Records Admin. offers to store them, and in Apr. 2007 U.S. District Judge Lewis T. Babcock orders them sealed for 20 years - why weren't the Columbine shooters black, and when will they be?

The Texas Seven

On Dec. 13, 2000 the Texas Seven (Joseph Christopher Garcia, Randy Ethan Halprin, Larry James Harper, Patrick Henry Murphy Jr., Donald Keith Newbury, George Angel Rivas Jr., and Michael Anthony Rodriguez) escape from prison in Kenedy, Tex., and begin a crime spree, robbing a sports store in Irving, Tex. on Dec. 24 and killing rookie police officer Aubrey Hawkins (b. 1971); they are not apprehended until Jan. 21 in an RV park in Woodland, Colo. posing as Christian missionaries after a segment on the TV show "America's Most Wanted"; Larry James Harper commits suicide to avoid capture; on Apr. 23-24 the last two are apprehended at a Holiday Inn in Colorado Springs, Colo.; all are convicted of murder and sentenced to death in Tex.

On Feb. 7, 2001 to prevent the city of Greenwood Village from annexing it, the city of Centennial, Colo. is formed from portions of unincorporated Arapahoe County, with its 100K pop. making it the largest incorporation in U.S. history (until ?); incorporated on a promise to keep city taxes at 1%, it grows to 2.5% by 2017.

Pete Coors (1946-)

On Nov. 2, 2004 after defeating fellow Repub. Bob Shaffer in the primary by pointing to his support for same-sex civil unions, and his company's payment of benefits to same-sex partners and promotion of their beer in gay bars, Coors chmn.-CEO (since 1993) Peter Hanson "Pete" Coors (1946-) (great-grandson of Adolph Coors Sr., and son of Joseph Coors and Holly Coors) loses the election for U.S. Sen. for Colo. to Dem. Colo. atty. gen. Ken Salazar by 51%-47%; in 2005 Coors merges with Molson, and he stays on as a dir.

Bill Ritter of the U.S. (1956-)

On Jan. 9, 2007 Denver, Colo.-born Dem. Denver district atty. August William "Bill" Ritter (1956-) becomes Colo. gov. #41 (until Jan. 11, 2011).

Dick's Sporting Goods Park, 2007

On Apr. 7, 2007 $131M Dick's Sporting Goods Park (cap. 18K) at 6000 Victory Way in Commerce City, Colo. (begun Sept. 28, 2005) opens as the home of the Colorado Rapids men's prof. soccer team.

On July 16, 2007 Aaron Snyder (b. 1975), a tuxedoed engineer (high school valedictorian) with delusional problems brandishing a weapon and claiming to be "Emperor Aaron Aurelius Romanus Constantinus", appointed by God to take over the state govt. is shot and killed in the Colo. state capitol in Denver near the office of gov. Bill Ritter by Colo. secret service agent Jay Hemphill, becoming the first-ever fatal shooting in the bldg.

Matthew Murray (1983-2007)

On Dec. 9, 2007 (12:30 a.m.) after being refused an overnight stay at the Youth with a Mission Center, Matthew John Murray (b. 1983) shoots four people, killing two, then drives 100 mi. S and shoots five more, killing one at New Life Church in Colo. Springs, then committing suicide after being shot several times by security guard Jeanne Assam; he had posted on the Internet newsgroup alt.suicide.holiday under the name "dyingchild_65", saying "I'm going to make a stand for the weak and the defenseless... for all those young people still caught in the Nightmare of Christianity... for all those people who've been abused and mistreated and taken advantage of by this evil sick religion", explaining that his mother tries to keep him from popular music and video games, then posting Eric Harris' words "I'm coming for everyone soon and I will be armed to the teeth and I will shoot to kill" 11 hours after the first shooting and two hours before the 2nd.

John Hickenlooper of the U.S. (1952-)

On Jan. 11, 2011 after U.S. interior secy. Ken Salazar endorses him, Dem. Denver, Colo. mayor #41 (since July 21, 2003) John Wright Hickenlooper Jr. (1952-) becomes Colo. gov. #42 (until ?), waiting in the wings to succeed Pres. Obama.

On Nov. 6, 2012 (Tues.) the 2012 U.S. Pres. Election is a V for Pres. Barack Obama over wealthy Mormon Repub. challenger Willard Mitt Romney (1947-) (not officially backed by the LDS Church), with 332 vs. 206 electoral votes, and 26 vs. 24 states, plus Washington, D.C.; Obama wins 65.9M votes (51%) vs. 60.9M (47.2%) for Romney; $6B is spent by both sides on the election; Latinos comprise 10% of the electorate for the first time; Pat Buchanan utters the soundbyte: "White America died last night. Obama's reelection killed it. Our 200 plus year history as a Western nation is over. We're a Socialist Latin American country now. Venezuela without the oil"; Colo. and Wash. become the first U.S. states to legalize recreational marijuana use.

On Sept. 9, 2013 the 2013 Colo. Front Range Flood begin with heavy rain along the Colo. Front Range in 17 counties from Colorado Springs to Fort Collins, giving Boulder County 17 in. of rain by Sept. 15 (vs. the avg. annual precipitation of 20.7 in.), causing Colo. Gov. John Hickenlooper to declare a disaster emergency in 14 counties on Sept. 12, expanded to 14 on Sept. 15; the flood kills eight and causes 11K evacuations, with 19K homes damaged and 1.5K destroyed, along with 30 state highway bridges.

In Dec. 2013 there are 2,822 breweries in the U.S., incl. 2,768 craft breweries employing 43K in 1,237 brewpubs, 1,412 microbreweries, and 119 regional craft breweries; the state of Colo. leads in gross beer production with 23.4M barrels in 2006, with four of the top-50 U.S. brewing cos.

In 2015 there are 4,656 craft breweries in the U.S., with 21% of total beer sales; Rocky Mountain High marijuana-loving state Colo., "the Napa Valley of Craft Beer" has 358 craft breweries employing 7,776 (12,085 after economic impact), growing by almost 50% in one year to $1.7B sales.



Outline of Colorado

Geography of Colorado

Colorado drainage basins

List of rivers of Colorado

List of mountain peaks of Colorado

Prehistory of Colorado

Gold mining in Colorado

Government of Colorado

List of counties in Colorado

List of cities and towns in Colorado

List of ghost towns in Colorado

Colorado metropolitan areas

List of census-designated places in Colorado

List of city nicknames in Colorado

Colorado places ranked by per capita income

Front Range Urban Corridor

List of governors of Colorado

Politics of Colorado

Elections in Colorado

Law of Colorado

List of law enforcement agencies in Colorado

Gun laws in Colorado




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