James William Denver (1817-92) Denver Colorado, 1858- Philip Zang (1826-99) William Newton Byers (1831-1903) Robert Walter Speer of the U.S. (1855-1918) Molly Brown (1867-1932) Soapy Smith (1860-98) Denver Union Station Colo. State Capitol, 1890-4
Brown Palace Hotel, 1892 Mattie Silks (1846-1929) Elitch Gardens, 1890-2000 Denver Mint, 1906 Denver Public Library, 1955 Mile High Stadium, 1948 Rio Grande Zephyr Denver Art Museum, 1971 Gio Ponti (1891-1979)

TLW's Denverscope™ (Denver Historyscope)

By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Original Pub. Date: June 17, 2017. Last Update: Oct. 12, 2019.

Quigg Newton of the U.S. (1912-2006) Tom Currigan of the U.S. (1920-2014) Bill McNichols of the U.S. (1910-97) Federico Peña of the U.S. (1947-) Wellington E. Webb of the U.S. (1941-) John Hickenlooper of the U.S. (1952-) Michael Hancock of the U.S. (1969-) John Elway (1960-) Dan Reeves (1944-)
E. Stanley Kroenke (1947-) Marvin Davis (1925-2004) Joe Sakic (1969-) Andres Galarraga (1961-) Clint Hurdle (1957-) Darrent Williams (1982-2007) The Flobots The Fray Coors Field, 1995

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What Is A Historyscope?

Denver, Colo. in 1898 Denver Colo. Neighborhoods Denver Colo. Highways Denver Colo. Cultural Map

Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to Denver, Colo. and Denver history. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.

Denver is known as the Mile-High City and the Queen City of the Plains, enjoying a big blue sky and sunny dry climate most of the year, with the Rocky Mountains less than an hour away. Meanwhile Easterners usually fail to grasp that it's located on the Great Plains not the mountains, and think that it has a horrible snowy climate, which is often cultivated by Denverites to keep people from wanting to move in and crowd it up further; it's always been a boom-and-bust town, with masses of people moving in without a job and staying 6 mo. or so until their money runs out and they leave; sometimes those who lived there a few years are shocked by the sudden violence of the weather, which can dump 1-2 ft. of snow on them in 24 hours, or a nasty hailstorm, or a tornado on the plains, or a flash flood in the mountains, causing them to pack up and leave to escape more punishment.

On Aug. 24, 1857 the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Co. fails; after a decade of prosperity fueled by Calif. gold, the reduction in demand for U.S. grain caused by the end of the Crimean War combined with overspeculation in U.S. railroads, and the Dem. Tariff of 1857 of Mar. 3 (which sets rates at their lowest level since 1816), the Panic of 1857 hits the U.S. and Europe; the depression that follows (ends 1859) intensifies sectional differences as the South prospers with cotton while blocking tariff protection and free public lands wanted by the North; the South also gets an idea that King Cotton is Dick Almighty and that their slave labor system is superior to the up-and-down Northern free labor system; the panic makes the East ripe for the Colo. Gold Rush.

James William Denver of the U.S. (1817-92) William Larimer Jr. (1809-75) Denver Colorado, 1858-

On May 23, 1858 a party from Auraria, Ga. led by William Greeneberry "Green" Russell (1818-77) arrives at the head of Cherry Creek in Colo. near the South Platte River at the W edge of the Great Plains on the 150-mi. Front Range of the Rocky Mts., and come up empty, going on to prospect on all the streams N to the Cache la Poudre River, returning in early July to the Platte River and camping in Little Dry Creek S of modern-day Denver, discovering gold and taking 20 oz. (several hundred dollars' worth), after which old trader John Cantrell returns to Kansas City with the good news backed up by samples, causing newspapers to start the Colo. (Pike's Peak) Gold Rush, during which 50K migrate within a year and 100K+ migrate by the time of the creation of Colo. Territory on Feb. 28, 1861, with the motto "Pike's Peak or Bust", although no gold is discovered within 50 mi. of it; meanwhile in Oct.-Nov. a party from Lawrence, Kan. that arrived near Pueblo on July 4 settles on the Platte River N of Denver, building 20-30 log cabins, which they call Montana City; on Oct. 29 a large number of prospectors that heard of the Russell discovery begin settling on both sides of Cherry Creek; on Nov. 1 the town of Auraria SE of the confluence of Cherry Creek and the South Plate River is founded three weeks before Denver by the Russell party; on Nov. 6 an election is held, and H.J. Graham is selected to travel to Washington, D.C. to talk Congress into organizing a new territory in vain, while A.J. Smith is sent to the Kan. Territorial legislature to do ditto, and they bite, establishing Arapahoe County in the W part of Kan. Territory to the crest of the Rocky Mts.; next Apr. a convention is held there to create the provisional State of Jefferson, which is never recognized by the U.S. govt.; on Nov. 22 Leavenworth, Kan. settler "General" William H. Larimer Jr. (1809-75) arrives, settling on a hill across Cherry Creek from Auraria, laying cottonwood logs along a 1 sq. mi. parcel of land to stake his claim, which he calls the mile-high (5,280 ft. elev.) city of Denver, Colo. (modern. pop. 690K/2.8M), named after Winchester, Va.-born Kansas Territorial Gov. #5 (since Dec. 1857) James William "Jim" Denver (1817-92), opening the first store in Denver to service miners working in placer mines, founding the Denver Land Co. to sell tracts, calling Colo. "the most picturesque country in the world, with fine air, good water, and everything to make a man happy and live to a good old age" and trading tracts in Denver for grubstakes and gambling debts until the mines peter-out by 1860, causing tens of thousands to return home; the Denver streets are laid out parallel to the S bank of Cherry Creek near its confluence with the Platte River, ending up diagonal to the four cardinal directions, running from 13th St. N to 38th St., and E from Wawatta St. to Wazee St., Blake St., Market St., Larimer St., Lawrence St., Curtis St., Champa St., Stout St., California St., Walton St., Glenarm Pl., Tremont Pl., and Court Pl., ending at the intersection of W Colfax Ave. and Broadway, site of Civic Center Park and the Colo. State Capitol; on Apr. 6, 1860 Auraria is incorporated into Denver, becoming known as West Denver; Southern Arapaho chief Little Raven (Crow) (Hosa) (Oh-has-tee) (1810-89) welcomes the paleface settlers to the Denver gold camp, causing them to name Arapahoe St.; the Indian tribes are pushed S into the Arkansas River Valley; next year Larimer founds Mount Prospect (Prospect Hill) Cemetery in Denver on Arapaho land, which is converted to Cheesman Park in 1907; the real Denver visits Denver in 1875 and 1882 and receives little attention?

In Dec. 1858 Highland, Colo. is founded by William Larimer Jr. in North Denver on high ground on the W side of the South Platte River Valley overlooking Auraria and Denver, with a bridge built on 15th St. across the Platte River to connect it to them, permanently isolating it from Denver's wildlife-filled river, railroad yards, and smog; in 1875 Owen Le Fevre et al. petitions Arapahoe County to establish a village govt., and in 1885 after annexing Potter Highland and Highland Park the city of Highlands is incorporated, with most of the pop. consisting of Repub. Protestants, incl. many Freemasons, who build the beautiful Highlands Masonic Temple at 36th Ave. and Federal Blvd.; Highland is annexed by Denver in 1896; the streets running N from Federal Blvd. are named after U.S. Civil War Union gens., incl. Grove, Hooker, Irving, Julian, King, Lowell, Meade; TLW lives at 23rd Ave. and Hoooker St. in Highland in 1982-2010.

In spring 1859 South Golden Rd. from Denver, Colo. W through the bed of modern-day Sloan Lake to Golden, Colo. is founded for gold prospectors headed to the Rockies; in 1861-3 Sloan Lake mysteriopusly appears on dry land owned by homesteader Thomas F. Sloan, causing South Golden Rd. to be moved to 15th St., which later becomes Colfax Ave.

William Newton Byers (1831-1903) Rocky Mountain News, 1859

On Apr. 23, 1859 Ohio-born William Newton Byers (1831-1903), who arrived in Denver, Colo. from Omaha, Neb. (which he co-founded) with printing equipment from the defunct Bellevue Gazette pub. the first issue of the Rocky Mountain News (first newspaper in the territory) out of a room above Dick Wooten's Saloon on the banks of Cherry Creek; it comes out 20 min. ahead of the rival Cherry Creek Pioneer and is delivered by oxcart; in Aug. 1860 it goes from weekly to daily; in July 1870 it goes from an evening to a morning newspaper; in 1926 it is acquired by the E.W. Scripps Co., competing with the evening The Denver Post, and almost going bankrupt when new editor Jack Foster changes it from a broadsheet to tabloid format; Foster's wife Frances Foster founds Molly Mayfield, the first advice column in the U.S. in 2001 it merges with The Denver Post to form the Denver Newspaper Agency; on Jan. 23, 2007 it is redesigned into a smaller mag.-style format with more color; it pub. its last issue on Feb. 27, 2009.

On Aug. 13, 1859 Colorado Springs, Colo. (originally Colorado City) on the Colo. Front Range at the confluence of Fountain and Camp Creeks is formally organized, serving as the capital of Colo. Territory from Nov. 5, 1861 to Aug. 14, 1862, when the capital is moved 70 mi. N to Denver.

Philip Zang (1826-99) Zang's Brewery Tivoli Brewing Co. Logo Tivoli Brewing Co.

In Nov. 1859 Polish immigrant Frederick Z. Salomon (1830-), trader Joseph Doyle, dry goods merchant John Good (1835-1918), and Charles Tascher found Rocky Mountain Brewery in Auraria (near Denver), Colo., becoming the first brewery in Colo.; in 1871 it is acquired by Bavaria, Germany-born brewmaster Philip Zang (1826-99), who renames it Zang's Brewery (Philip Zang Brewing Co.), reaching 65K barrels/year and becoming one of 33 Denver millionaires in 1889, then retiring in favor of his son Adolph J. Zang (1856-1916); in 1882 Good opens the Tivoli Brewing Co. in Auraria, becoming the oldest brewery in Colo. and 2nd oldest in the U.S. (after Yuengling Brewery in Penn.) after Prohibition before closing in Apr. 1969, reopening in Aug. 2015 after the area turns into Auraria Campus.

John Long Routt of the U.S. (1826-1907)

And they shall remain faceless? In 1859 Pulaski, Tenn.-born John C. Moore (1832-1915) becomes mayor #1 of Denver, Colo. (until 1861), followed by Raleigh, N.C.-born Charles A. Cook (-1878) as mayor #2 in 1861-3, Lancaster, Ohio-born Amos Steck (1822-1908) as mayor #3 in 1863-4, New Hanover, Penn.-born Hiram J. Brendlinger (1825-94) as mayor #4 in 1864-5, Douglas, Mass.-born George T. Clark (1837-88) as mayor #5 in 1865-6 (owner of Denver's first piano), Allegheny County, N.Y.-born Milton M. DeLano (1827-94) as mayor #6 in 1866-8, Philly-born William M. Clayton (1824-92) as mayor #7 in 1868-9, Newbury, Vt.-born Baxter B. Stiles (1824-89) as mayor #8 in 1868-71, and mayor #14 in 1877-8, Glasgow, Scotland-born John Harper (1825-74) as mayor #9 in 1871-2. Chautauqua County, N.Y.-born Joseph E. Bates (1837-1900) (hardware store owner) (owner of the Denver Brewery, Denver Pacific Railroad, and Denver Smelting and Refining Works) as mayor #10 in 1872-3, Findlay, Ohio-born Francis M. Case (-1892) as mayor #11 in 1873-4, Watkins, N.Y.-born William J. Barker (1832-1900) as mayor #12 in 1874-6, Troy, N.Y.-born physician Richard G. Buckingham (1816-89) (co-founder of the Denver Medical Assoc. and Colo. Territorial Medical Society in 1871) as mayor #13 in 1876-7, Bucks County, Penn.-born Richard Sopris (1813-93) as mayor #15 in 1878-81, Athlone, Ireland-born Robert Morris (1838-1917) as mayor #16 in 1881-3, and Eddyville, Ky.-born John Long Rutt (1826-1907) as mayor #17 in 1883-5, who goes on to become Colo. gov. #1 in 1876-9, and Colo. gov. #7 in 1891-3; he is followed by William Scott Lee (1851-1916) as mayor #19 in 1887-9, New York City-born Wolfe Londoner (1842-1912) as mayor #20 in 1889-91, Newton, Mass.-born Platt Rogers (1850-1920) as mayor #21 in 1891-3, Delaware County, Ohio-born Marion DeKalb "M.D." Van Horn (1837-95) as mayor #22 in 1893-5, Philly-born Thomas S. McMurry (1855-1918) as mayor #23 in 1895-9 (the first nonpartisan mayor, who stands up to the Denver Tramway and the Denver Union Water Co., and becomes the victim of a ballot box-stuffing conspiracy, Scott County, Ky.-born Henry Viley Johnson (1852-1931) as mayor #24 in 1899-1901, and Wibraham, Mass.-born Robert R. Wright Jr. (1844-1927) as mayor #25 in 1901-4.

John Wesley Iliff Sr. (1831-78)

In 1859 blue-eyed Christian teetotaler John Wesley Iliff Sr. (1831-78) comes to Denver, Colo. from Ohio Wesleyan U. in Delaware, Ohio, opening a gen. store on Blake St. and trading supplies for livestock from new immigrants, then fattening them on the open range and using the profits to buy land in NE Colo., creating the largest ranch in Colo. history, raising as many as 35K head a year to sell to Union Pacific construction crews, becoming a millionaire known as "the Cattle King of the Plains" and leaving his fortune to found Iliff School of Theology in 1892, basis of the U. of Denver; on June 20, 1859 Polish-born Freemason Fred Z. Salomon (1830-) becomes the first Jewish merchant in Denver - get out of Denver, baby, go?

The ugly but useful butthole of the Colo. Front Range? In 1859 Commerce City, Colo. in Kansas Territory starts out as a trading post-hotel-ranch on Henderson Island in the South Plate River S of Denver, founded by Kan. Territory pro-slavery politician, Leavenworth Journal ed., and Bleeding Kansas col. John D. "Colonel Jack" Henderson, becoming the first permanent settlement in the South Plate River Valley between Fort St. Vrain in Neb. Territory and Cherry Creek in Kan. Territory; on Jan. 29, 1861 the E side of Kansas Territory becomes the state of Kansas, and on Feb. 28 the W side becomes part of Colo. Territory, which on Nov. 1 creates Arapahoe County, which stretches from modern-day Sheridan Blvd. 160 mi. E to the Kansas border, and from modern-day County Line Rd. 30 mi. N to Parallel 40 deg. North (168th Ave.), wich Denver as the county seat until 1902; in 1876 after Colo. becomes a state on Aug. 1, Riverside Cemetery (the metro Denver area's oldest cemetery) is founded in Commerce City, followed in 1892 by Rose Hill Cemetery, founded by the United Hebrew Cemetery Assoc.; the town of Derby is founded in 1889 along with Irondale, followed by Adams City in 1903; on Apr. 15, 1901 the Colo. legislature splits Arapahoe County into Adams County, a new consolidated City and County of Denver, and South Arapahoe County, which is renamed Arapahoe County on Apr. 11, 1903, with Littleton as the county seat; on Nov. 8, 1904 Brighton, Colo. (incorporated on Sept. 1887 and named for Brighton Beach, N.Y.) becomes the county seat of Adams County; in Dec. 1942 Rocky Mountain Arsenal is founded to the E of Commerce City (closed in 1992); on July 27, 1949 after Amendment 2 legalizing pari-mutuel betting on horses and greyhounds is approved in 1948, Mile High Kennel Club is founded in Commerce City for greyhound racing; on Dec. 18, 1952 Commerce City is incorporated as Commerce Town, changed in 1962 to Commerce City; in 1989 53 sq. mi. of Adams County is transferred to the City and County of Denver for the new Denver Internat. Airport (DIA); on Nov. 15, 2001 the NW corner is transferred to the City and County of Broomfield.

In 1859 the town of Georgetown on Clear Creek 45 mi. W of Denver is founded on small gold strikes, followed by major silver strikes, incl. the Pelican Mine (in Silver Plume) in 1868 and the Dives Mine in 1869.

On Mar. 7, 1860 Lucien W. Bliss, acting gov. of Colo. Territory duels with Judge Dr. Stone with shotguns over the slavery question in Denver at the Platte-Cherry Creek River junction near a gallows on the N shore, and the judge is shot in the hip, wasting away by early Sept.; meanwhile the town newspaper (Rocky Mt. News) moves to a bldg. on stilts in the middle of Cherry Creek to avoid showing favoritism to the rival town of Auraria on the other side, which is incorporated into Denver on Apr. 6; too bad, a flood in 1864 wipes it and most of the towns out, but they rebuild, and the paper moves in 1866 to one of the finest brick bldgs. in town, called the "News Block", then goes on to editorialize until Denver becomes the 4th city on Earth to install electric street lights.

In 1860 Denver Gen. Hospital is founded at 11th Ave. and Wazee St. in Denver, Colo., moving to 6th Ave. and Cherokee St. in the Lincoln Park neighborhood in 1873, founding the first nursing school W of the Mississippi River and pioneering the treatment of TB; on Jan. 1, 1997 it becomes a quasi-state agency called Denver Health Medical Center.

Richard Jordan Gatling (1818-1903) Gatling Gun, 1862

On Apr. 12, 1861-May 9, 1865 the horrific U.S. Civil War sees the invention of the first modern weapon when N.C.-born agricultural equipment maker Richard Jordan Gatling (1818-1903) patents the 10-barrel hand-cranked hundreds-of-rounds-per-min. Gatling Gun (the first practical machine gun) just in time for use on some Johnny Rebs; it is first used by the Union Army in 1864, but luckily never sees extensive use.

Colo. Gov. John Evans (1814-97)

On Mar. 3, 1864 Colo. Seminary is founded in the mining camp of Denver, Colo. by Colo. Territory gov. (1862-5) John Evans (1814-97) for the Methodist Church; in 1880 it becomes the U. of Denver, becoming the oldest independent private univ. in the Rocky Mt. region.

In May 1864 a flood wipes out part of Denver, Colo., causing a movement of pop. W into Highland.

In 1864 developer Henry C. Brown lays out the E-W and N-W grid of streets of Denver, Colo. E of downtown Denver starting at Broadway, with N-S streets named after U.S. presidents, incl. Lincoln, Sherman, Grant, and Logan, and E-W avenues running from 11th to 20th; meanwhile Gov. John Evans lays out the grid SE of the intersection of Broadway and Colfax Ave.

Benjamin Holladay (1819-87)

On June 1, 1866 the rip-roaring cow town city of Denver renames McGaa St. to Holladay St. in honor of Nicholas, Ky.-born stagecoach tycoon Benjamin "Ben" Holladay (1819-87), becoming the center of Denver's "flesh market" (red-light district), known to visiting cowboys for Jenny Rogers' House of Mirrors, Mattie Silks' place, etc., gaining the rep of "the most sinful street in the West"; on June 1, 1889 after complaints by Holladay's relatives the city council renames it to tongue-in-cheek Market St., and in Sept. 1899 changes the section N of 23rd Ave. to Walnut St.; the street survives to modern times.

In 1867 after winning the fight with Colorado Springs, Denver, Colo. becomes the seat of the Colo. territorial govt.

In 1867 the Denver Horse Railroad Co. is incorporated in Denver, Colo., with a monopoly right for 35 years; in 1871 a horsecar line is built in West Denver from 7th Ave. and Larimer St. to the upscale Denver Five Points neighorhood (which goes on to turn into a black-Jewish ghetto); in 1872 it is renamed Denver City Railway Co., growing to 32 horses, 12 cars, 18 employees, and 392.4K passengers on 8 mi. of road by 1877; in 1883 a new owner expands the railway and replaces the track with heavy steel rails; in 1885 the Denver Electric and Cable Railway Co. is founded by land speculator, successfully petitioning for the right to use horse power and spinning off the Denver City Railway Co.; in 1886 the Denver Tramway streetcar system is incorporated in Denver; in 1924 it begins service between Englewood, Colo. and Fort Logan, Colo.; by 1950 trolley coaches and conventional buses replace streetcars; in May 1971 it is acquired by the City and County of Denver, which becomes Denver Metro Transit, changing to the Regional Transportation District (RTD) in July 1974, opening its first light rail line on Oct. 7, 1994 and growing to 170 light rail vehicles on 47 mi. of track by Apr. 2013.

In 1870 after the transcontinental railroad bypasses Denver, Colo. for Cheyenne, Wyo., a bond issue is passed to bring a 106-mi. (171km) rail spur from Cheyenne, which terminates in the Central Platte Valley adjacent to LoDo (Lower Downtown) in Denver, making it the first part of the city travelers see; in the 1870s it becomes Denver's Chinatown (Hop Alley) until race riots demolish it in 1880; by the 1950s it becomes Denver's Skid Row until the city demolishes many of the eyesore bldgs. in the 1960s-1970s then enacts a zoning ordinance on Mar. 1988 naming it the Lower Downtown Historic District, encouraging historic preservation of 127 structures.

Union Gen. William Jackson Palmer (1836-1909)

In 1870 the Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad is founded by U.S. Civil War Union Gen. William Jackson Palmer (1836-1909), pioneering narrow gauge tracks and coal-burning engines (based on his earlier trip to Britain), with the mottos "Through the Rockies, not around them" and "Main line through the Rockies", connecting Denver with Salt Lake City, Utah, becoming the highest mainline railway in the U.S. at 10,240-ft. Tennessee Pass in Colo., the mountain portion of the route known for breathtaking scenery, later going through the Moffatt Tunnel and the Royal Gorge; it goes on to operate the Rio Grande Zephyr in 1970-83 (last privately operated intercity passenger train in the U.S.); in 1988 it merges with the Southern Pacific.

On Jan. 9, 1875 the temp in Denver, Colo. reaches a record low of -29F (until ?).

John Long Routt of the U.S. (1826-1907) Eliza Pickrell Routt of the U.S. (1839-1909)

On Aug. 1, 1876 the savage Indians all nicely pacified after 100 years of U.S. rule, "Centennial State", "the Switzerland of America" Colorado (Colo.) is admitted as the 36th U.S. state; after being appointed gov. of Colo. Territory on Mar. 29, 1875, Eddyville, Ky.-born Repub. John Long Rutt (1826-1907) becomes Colo. gov. #1 (until Jan. 14, 1879), followed by Denver mayor #17 in 1883-5, and Colo. gov. #7 on Jan. 13, 1891-Jan. 10, 1893, going on to campaign for women's suffrage with his wife Eliza Pickrell Rout (nee Eliza Franklin Pickrell) (1839-1907), personally escorting Susan B. Anthony on a statewide speaking tour; in 1893 when Colo. grants women the vote, his wife Eliza becomes the first woman registered to vote in Colo.; meanwhile the Colo. state legislature offers a bounty for wolf pelts ($0.50 to $2.00), resulting in their extinction in 1943 as the last one is killed by a govt. trapper in Conejos County; in 1995-6 federal officials reintroduce 31 wolves from Canada into Yellowstone Nat. Park and 35 more into C Idaho, growing into a herd of 1K by 2006 when the bounty is finally legally removed.

In 1876 Denver East H.S. in the City Park neighborhood of Denver Colo. opens; in 1883 Denver North Side H.S. at 2960 N. Speer Blvd. in Highland, Denver, Colo. opens, along with Denver West H.S. in the Lincoln Park neighborhood of West Denver; in 1893 Denver South H.S. in the Washington Park neighbood of Denver. Colo opens; in 1959 Abraham Lincoln H.S. at 2285 S. Federal Blvd. in Denver, Colo. opens, followed in 1960 by Thomas Jefferson H.S. at 3950 S. Holly St. in Denver, Colo., and George Washington H.S. at 655 S. Monaco Pkwy. in Denver, Colo., and in 1964 by John F. Kennedy H.S. at 2855 W. Lamar St. in the Bear Valley neighborhood of SW Denver, Colo.; by 1974 East is packed with blacks, West and North with Hispanics, and the rest with whites, with the highest income whites concentrated at Jefferson and Washington, after which a federal court busing order causes massive white flight, leaving all of them packed with non-whites - are you acquainted with a TV show called Fear Factor?

Soapy Smith (1860-98)

In 1876 after being ruined by the U.S. Civil War and moving to Round Rock, Tex. and Fort Worth, Tex., Coweta County, Ga.-born con man Jefferson Randolph "Jeff" "Soapy" Smith II (1860-98) (named for his prize soap racket) arrives in Denver, Colo., going on to run several crooked saloons, gambling halls, cigar stars, and auction houses and get into political fixing before setting up shop in Creede, Colo. (1892) and Skagway, Yukon Territory (1897), where he is killed in a shootout on Juneau Wharf on July 8, 1898.

Mattie Silks (1845-1929)

On Aug. 24, 1877 (21?) Wild Bill Hickock's lady friend Mattie Silks (Martha A. Ready) (1845-1929), who moved to Colo. in 1875 then set up a fancy (still legal) whorehouse on Holladay (later Market) St. in dirty Denver holds a party with her beau, local stud Cortez Thomson (-1900), a married former member of Quantrill's Raiders who likes to wear pink tights and star-spangled blue trunks and run footraces; too bad, rival madame (his old flame) Katie Fulton crashes the party on Colfax Ave. at the Platte River (later Commons Park), causing the only recorded female-female gunfight in the Old West; both women miss, but one of them wounds Thompson; after his wife dies in 1884 he marries Silks.

In 1877 Roman Catholic Regis College is founded as Las Vegas College in Las Vegas, N.M., moving to Morrison, Colo. in 1884 as Sacred Heart College, then in 1887 to Denver, Colo.; in 1921 it becomes Regis College in honor of St. John Francis Regis; in 1991 it becomes Regis U.

Baby Doe Tabor (1854-1935) Tabor Grand Opera House, 1879-81

In 1879 Matchless Mine tycoon Horace Tabor builds the Tabor Grand Opera House at 16th and Curtis Sts. in downtown Denver, Colo. (finished 1881; demolished 1964); his wife Augusta snubs the opening ceremonies because he had recently hooked up with 26-y.-o. blonde never-outlive-your-money bimbo Elizabeth "Baby Doe" Tabor (nee McCourt) (1854-1935), whom he leaves her for, and marries on Mar. 1, 1883; too bad, when he goes bust in 1893 she goes nuts and spends the rest of her life living in the worthless Matchless Mine, and freezes to death in her shack in Mar. 1935 - boy does Augusta have the last laugh?

Windsor Hotel, Denver, Colo. 1880

On June 23, 1880 the 5-story 112'x125'x225' Gothic $750K Windsor Hotel at 1777 Larimer St. in downtown Denver, Colo. opens, modeled after Windsor Castle in England, constructed of Fort Collins sandstone and Colorado Springs rhyolite, becoming the city's first luxury hotel, flying the U.S. flag from its main turret, and the Union Jack and Windsor Castle flags from smaller turrets; a room costs $2/night, or $2.50 with a bath; the hotel has an elevator, and its own farm with imported cows, and hunters who bring in wild game; the bartender of the Bonanza Bar is Harry Tammen, who later co-founds The Denver Post with Fred Bonfils; the Cattleman's Room is used by state senators to conduct legislative work, and features a public gaming room; the Suicide Staircase is used by losing high-rollers, and features a stair post that casts a Devil's head shadow on the wall; co-owner Horace Tabor houses his babe Baby Doe in the luxury suite, which features a gold-leaf bathtub, a 1.5K lb. hand-carved walnut bed and matching dresser, marble fireplace from Italy; the grand ballroom features a $50K floating dance floor suspended by cables (first in the U.S.); guests incl. Mark Twain, Marie Dressler, Robert Louis Stevenson, John L. Sullivan, Sir Henry M. Stanley, Sarah Burnhart, Lillian Russell, and U.S. presidents Ulysses S. Grant, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, and William Howard Taft, who gets stuck in Baby Doe's bathtub; by the 1930s the area becomes Denver's Skid Row, and the Windsor Hotel becomes known as "the only flophouse in the world with a marble fireplace in every room"; it is demolished in 1960.

Denver Union Station

In May 1881 Union Station at the W end of downtown Denver Colo. at 17th and Wynkoop Sts. opens to service the Union Pacific, Denver & Rio Grande Western, Colo. Central, and Denver, South Park & Pacific Railroads; too bad, in 1894 a fire in the women's restroom destroys the central portion, and it is rebuilt in Romanesque Revival style on a larger scale incl. a tall central clock tower with four faces; on July 4, 1906 a large $22,50 arch in front of the station is dedicated, made of 70 tons of steel with 2K light bulbs and the word "Welcome".

On June 27, 1881 Manhattan Beach Amusement Park on Sloan Lake in Edgewater, W Denver, Colo. opens, calling itself "the First Amusement Park in the West", featuring a roller coaster, Ferris wheel, dance hall, opening a large theater on June 27, 1891 featuring light opera and vaudeville; the main attraction was Roger (Rajah) the Elephant, who gives rides to children until it is spooked by a hot air baloon and steps on the head of 6-y.-o. George W. Eaton, causing it to be killed and buried in a nearby swamp; it is followed in 1892 by Arlington Park on Cherry Creek in the Alamo Placita neighborhood, and in 1906 by Tuileries Park in Englewood, Colo.; in 1908 Manhattan Beach burns down and is reopened as Luna Park, featuring the steamboat Frolic; in 1908 Lakeside Amusement Park opens in NW Denver, becoming one of the only two amusement parks to survive along with Elitch's (1890).

Barclay Hotel, Denver, Colo., 1883

In 1883 the Barclay Hotel at 1755 Larimer St. across the street from the Windsor Hotel opens, becoming the last bldg. used by the state legislature before the State Capitol Bldg. is complete enough for legislative functions in 1894; by 1950 it becomes the Barclay Apts., going on to become the worst flophouse in LoDo, and in the 1970s it is demolished in favor of the Windsor Apts.

In 1883 the Denver City Hall at Larimer and Lawrence Streets in downtown Denver, Colo. is built, presiding over Denver's Gilded Age until it is demolished in 1940.

In June-July, 1885 the 1885 Denver-Colo. Springs Flood of the Arkansas and Cherry Creek Rivers in Colo. washes away bridges, also affecting Pueblo.

Sam Howe (1840-1930)

In 1885 after starting a file of 100K crime news clippings in 1873 (until 1921), Denver, Colo. police officer (since 1874) Sam Howe (Simeon H. Hunt) (1840-1930) starts the Denver Police Dept.'s rogues gallery, which reaches 2K mugshots by 1900.

Bat Masterson (1853-1921)

In 1886 Quebec, Canada-born famed gunslinger-lawman-gambler Bartholomew William Barclay "Bat" Masterson (1853-1921) leaves Dodge City, Kan. and settles in Denver, Colo., dealing faro for Big Ed Chase at the Arcade gambling house and going on to purchase the Palace Variety Theater in 1888, marrying Indian singer Emma Moulton on Nov. 21, 1893 after getting involved in a ballot stuffing scandal with Soapy Smith in 1889 after acting as timekeeper for the heavyweight championship between John L. Sullivan and Jake Kilrain in Richburg, Miss. on July 8, 1889; in 1892 he moves to Creede, Colo., losing his Denver Exchange gambling club to a fire on June 5, 1892 and attending the heavyweight championship fight between John L. Sullivan and James J. Corbett in New Orleans, La. on Sept. 7, 1892; on Jan. 24, 1894 he acts as a second for Charlie Mitchell during his heavyweight boxing fight with James J. Corbett in Jacksonville, Fla., seeing his man Mitchell KOd in three rounds; in 1895 he moves to New York City, becoming a bodyguard for millionaire George Gould and leading a cushy life; on Apr. 6, 1897 after becoming a deputy sheriff in Arapahoe County, Colo. he gets into an election-day dispute with Tim Connors, resulting in a scuffle that accidentally shoots C.C. Louderbaugh in the left wrist; on Apr. 9, 1899 he becomes a partner in the Colo. Athletic Assoc. boxing club, only to be expelled by his partners and set up the rival Olympic Athletic Club boxing club on Apr. 18, ending up leaving Denver for New York City in 1902, getting arrested on June 6 along with two other men for fleecing Mormon elder George H. Snow out of $17K, and again on June 15 for carrying a concealed weapon; in 1903 he begins writing the column "Masterson's Views on Timely Topics" for the New York Morning Telegraph, ed. by Alfred Henry Lewis, who in 1905 pub. The Sunset Trail, a fictionalized bio. of Masterson; in Jan 1905 after Lewis introduces him to Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, he is appointed deputy U.S. marshal for the Southern District of New York for $2K/year, becoming one of Roosevelt's White House Gunfighters along with Pat Garrett and Ben Daniels losing the job on Aug. 1, 1909 after new Pres. William Taft fires him; in 1907 he pub. bios. of Ben Thompson, Wyatt Earp, Luke Short, Doc Holliday, and Bill Tighman for Human Life mag., following with a last one on Buffalo Bill; he then begins traveling around the U.S. covering boxing matches for the New York Morning Telegraph, incl. the heavyweight bout between Jack Johnson and Jess Willard in Havana Cuba on Apr. 5, 1915; on July 2, 1921 Masterson attends his last heavyweight championship fight, the Million Dollar Gate, a defense of his title by Jack Dempsey promoted by his friend George "Tex" Rickard; on Oct. 7, 1921 silent film cowboy star William S. Hart visits him on the roof of the New York Telegraph bldg. before dying at his desk on Oct. 25 of a massive heart attack, his funeral service attended by 500 and honorary pallbearers incl. Lewis, Rickard, and Damon Runyon, who utters the eulogy: "He was a 100 percent, 22-karat real man. Bat was a good hater and a wonderful friend. He was always stretching out his hand to some down-and-outer. He had a great sense of humor and a marvelous fund of reminiscence, and was one of the most entertaining companions we have ever known. There are only too few men in the world like Bat Masterson and his death is a genuine loss."

Frederic Remington (1861-1909) 'Bronco Buster' by Frederic Remington (1861-1909), 1895

In 1886 Canton, N.Y.-born Western artist Frederic Sackrider Remington (1861-1909) is sent to Ariz. by Harper's Weekly to cover the govt. war against Geronimo, making photos and sketches for use in his work. In 1890 he holds his first 1-man show of 21 paintings at the Am. Art Galleries, making him a celeb. In 1895 he sculpts the bronz sculpture The Bucking Broncho (Bronco); in 2014 the Denver Art Museum loses its bet over the outcome of the Denver Broncos-Seattle Seahawks Super Bowl and has to loan the sculpture to the Seattle Art Museum for 3 mo.

On Jan. 12-13, 1888 (Thur.-Fri) a blizzard from Canada blows in suddenly, causing a trick of Nature on a beautifully warm 70 F day in the midst of miserably cold Jan. as the temp drops suddenly by 100 F and leads to the death of 500+ pioneers, incl. 100+ lightly-dressed children walking home from school in the plains of the Dakotas, Minn., and Nebraska in the Big Brash (School Children's) Blizzard; as far away as Denver, Colo. the temp drops to -18 F with 60 mph winds, but little snow.

On Mar. 11, 1889 the Congress Park (originally Capitol Heights) area of EC Denver is incorporated into Denver, Colo., built on Cemetery Hill, whose graves are removed starting in 1890 to make way for Congress Park, which features a large public outdoor swimming pool, picnic pavilion, children's playground, eight tennis courts, and several athletic fields; in 1951 the Denver Botanic Gardens are built across the street - young TLW's favorite summer spot?

Denver Public Library, 1955 Burnham Hoyt (1887-1960) Michael Graves (1934-2015)

In June 1889 the Denver Public Library in Denver, Colo. is established by city librarian John Cotton Dana in a wing of Denver. H.S., moving in 1910 to a Greek revival bldg. in Civic Center Park funded by Andrew Carnegie and establishing eight branches, becoming known for its Western history and gnealogy; in 1955 it moves into a new bldg. at West 14th Ave. and Broadway, designed by Burnham Hoyt (1887-1960); in 1995 an annex bldg. designed by Michael Graves (1934-2015) opens.

In 1889 municipal elections in Denver, Colo. are corrupted by crime boss Soapy Smith, who pays off the mayor, and the chief of police, causing them to be called "the firm of Londoner, Farley and Smith"; the mayor loses his job, but Soapy is untouched, but in 1892 anti-gambling and saloon reforms cause him to leave for the new silver-mining boom town of Creede, Colo., declaring himself boss in 1892, getting his brother-in-law William Sidney "Cap" Light (1863-93) appointed as deputy marshal, opening the Orleans Club saloon and gambling hall, and exhibiting the fake petrified man McGinty for 10 cents admission; in 1892 after hearing that the reforms are being abolished, Soapy returns to Denver just before a business district fire on June 5, 1892 that destroys the Orleans Club.

In 1890 Denver, Colo. has a pop. of 106K, making it the 26th largest urban area in the U.S., and earning it the nickname of "Queen City of the Plains".

Elitch Gardens, 1890-2000 John Elitch (1852-91) and Mary Elitch

On May 1, 1890 Elitch's Zoological Gardens opens in no-longer-Wild-West Denver, Colo. at 38th Ave. and Sheridan Blvd. on an apple orchard site owned by John Elitch (1852-91) and Mary Elitch (nee Hauck), friends of P.T. Barnum, who winters his animals and equipment in the Sloan Lake area nearby (20th Ave. and Sheridan Blvd.), and who attends the opening with Tom Thumb; when John dies in 1891, Mary takes over, training an ostrich to pull her in a small sulky and gaining worldwide publicity; her own light opera stock co. opens on May 30, 1897, producing "Helene", with James O'Neill (father of playwright Eugene O'Neill) as one of the actors; later Sarah Bernhardt plays "Camille" and "La Sorcier", and Mary names a mountain lion kitten after her; young Douglas Fairbanks gets his first acting job there; young Grace Kelly gets her start there after she and her mother rent a basement apt. at 4020 Raleigh St.; the Trocadero Ballroom opens in 1917 under owner John Mulvlihill, featuring Lawrence Welk (1903-92), Benny Goodman, Guy Lombardo et al. (closes 1975); in 1927 the Herbert Schmeck-designed Wildcat wooden roller coaster, followed in by 1928 the Philadelphia Tobggan Co. Carousel, and in 1966 by the John Allen-designed Twister roller coaster; in 1930 it is purchsed by the Gurtler family; in 1994 it moves to to downtown Denver along the Platte River and I-25 near Mile High Stadium and Pepsi Center, with the Twister replaced by the Twister II; in 1996 it is acquired by Premier Parks, which purchases Six Flags in 1997, which sells Elitch's in 2007.

Colo. State Capitol, 1890-4

On July 4, 1890 the cornerstone of the Colo. State Capitol in Denver, designed by E.E. Myers is laid at the intersection of Broadway and 26-mi. Colfax Ave. (originally 15th Ave.) (longest blvd. in the U.S.), becoming the first royal road from the Great Plains to the Rocky Mts. (later known for its motels and hos and porno studios, called "the longest, wickedest street in America" by Playboy mag.), the center of a grid of N-S streets named for Indian tribes from Broadway W to Federal Blvd. (Acoma, Bannock, Cherokee, Delaware, Elati, Fox, Galapagos, Huron, Inca, Santa Fe/Jason, Kalamath, Lipan, Mariposa, Navajo, Osage, Pecos, Quivas, Raritan, Shoshone, Tejon, Umatilla, Vallejo, Wyandot, Zuni), followed by U.S. Civil War Union gens. on the W side of Federal (Grove, Hooker, Irving, Julian, King, Knox Ct., Lowell Blvd., Meade, Newton, Osceola, Perry), designed by E.E. Myers is laid; the Colo. white granite comes from Gunnison, the wainscoting is made of Colo. rose onyx from Beulah (near Pueblo), the foundations and walls from Fort Collins sandstone, and the basement of Colo. white marble; one of the steps is labelled "One Mile Above Sea Level 5,280 ft."; it opens in Nov. 1894; in 1908 a gold dome covered in 200 oz. of gold leaf is added to commemorate the Colo. Gold Rush.

F.E. Edbrooke (1840-1921) Oxford Hotel, 1891

In 1891 the Oxford Hotel at 1612-17th St. in downtown Denver, Colo. is built, designed by Brown Palace architect Frank E. "F.E." Edbrooke (1840-1921); during Prohibition the Cruise Room (with an interior modeled after the lounge on RMS Queen Mary) operates as a speakeasy; by the 1950s it becomes a flophouse on Denver's Skid Row, but after it is listed on the Nat. Register of Historic Places in 1979, a new owner remodels it.

Donald George Fletcher (1849-1929)

In 1891 the town of Aurora, Colo. (modern-day pop. 361K), a 4 sq. mi. Great Plains area E of Denver, Colo. centered around Colfax Ave., founded last year by Cobourg, Ont., Canada-born wealthy Denver real estate developer and Presbyterian minister Donald George Fletcher (1849-1929) along with Thomas Hayden and Charles Dickenson is incorporated, with H.M. Miliken as mayor #1; in Oct. 1893 Fletcher sells out after the 1893 Silver Crash causes him to lose his fortune and move to Cripple Creek, Colo., leaving the town without a stable source of water and a large water bond debt, causing the remaining owners to petition Denver in vain for annexation, after which in 1902 part of the town becomes part of Adams County, the rest becoming part of South Arapahoe County; in 1907 the town is renamed Aurora, going on to see Fitzsimons Army Hospital open in 1918, Lowry Air Force Base in 1938, and Buckley Air Force Base in 1942; by the late 1970s it becomes the fastest-growing city in the U.S., fighting to gain recognition as co-equal with Denver, hampered by lack of a large central business district.

The Denver Post, 1892

In Aug. 1892 The Denver Post (originally The Evening Post) newspaper is founded by supporters of Grover Cleveland with $50K capital to promote Colo. Dems.; too bad, Cleveland opposes govt. purchase of silver, causing the newspaper to suspend pub. in Aug. 1893, after which in June 1894 it is refounded with $100K by a new group of investors, who boost sales via "flamboyant circus journalism", changing the name to Denver Evening Post on Nov. 3, 1893, and Denver Post on Jan. 1, 1901.

F.E. Edbrooke (1840-1921) Brown Palace Hotel, 1892

In 1892 the sandstone and red granite atrium-style Brown Palace Hotel at 17th St. and Tremont Place in the Capitol Hill area of Denver, Colo. is built, designed by architect Frank E. "F.E." Edbrooke (1840-1921) and named after owner Henry C. Brown, becoming one of the first fireproof bldgs. in the U.S., becoming Denver's tallest bldg. (until ); in 1959 22-story 231-room Brown Palace West is built directly across Tremont Pl.; famous guests incl. Molly Brown (1 week after the RMS Titanic disaster), Denver crime boss Jefferson "Soapy" Smith, Chinese pres. Dr. Sun Yat Sen, Queen Marie of Romania, U.S. presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Taft, Warren G. Harding, Harry S. Truman, Dwight D. Eisenhower, and Bill Clinton, and The Beatles.

Davis Hanson Waite of the U.S. (1825-1901) Soapy Smith (1860-98)

On Jan. 10, 1893 Populist Party candidate Davis Hanson Waite (1825-1901) becomes Colo. gov. #8 (until Jan. 8, 1895), going on to support bimetallism and federalized banking, declare war against Jefferson Randolph "Jeff" "Soapy" Smith II (1860-98) and his corruption machine in Dirty Denver, Colo., protect striking miners and railroad workers, and help get women's suffrage passed in Colo. (2nd U.S. state), giving the Bloody Bridles Speech in 1893, with the soundbyte: "It is better, infinitely better that blood should flow to the horses' bridles rather than our national liberties should be destroyed"; meanwhile Denver receives a new municipal charter from the state legislature that decentralizes the mayor's power into six admin. depts., two appointed by the mayor, two elected, and two appointed by the gov., giving him his tool to fight Soapy Smith.

On Nov. 17, 1893 the Buckhorn Exchange eating-drinking establishment at 1000 Osage St. in Denver, Colo, named after the Buckhorn Lodge across the street is founded by former Buffalo Bill Cody companion Henry H. "Shorty Scout" Zietz (1949), and is issued Colo. liquor license No. 1, becoming Denver's most famous restaurant, with patrons incl. U.S. presidents Teddy Roosevelt, Franklin Roosevelt, Dwight Eisenhower, Jimmy Carter, and Ronald Reagan, and celebs Princess Anne, Scott Carpenter, Jack Swigert, Will Rogers, Roy Rogers, Bob Hope, Jimmy Cagney, and Charleton Heston; in 1938 Chief Red Cloud, nephew of Sitting Bull leads a delegation of 30 Sioux and Blackfoot Indians down Osage St., handing Zietz Gen. George Custer's military saber from the 1876 Battle of Little Big Horn; the walls go on to display 575 pieces of taxidermy and 125 guns along with cool vintage photographs; in 1972 it is designated a historic landmark by the city.

J.J. Brown (1854-1922) Molly Brown (1867-1932)

In 1893 Waymart, Penn.-born James Joseph "J.J." Brown (1854-1922) of the Ibex Mining Co. discovers a substanial ore seam at the Little Jonny Mine in Leadville, Colo., which by Oct. 29 is shipping 135 tons of gold ore a day, making it known as the world's richest gold strike, and is rewarded with 12.5K shares of stock and a seat on the board, making him super-wealthy, along with his Hannibal, Mo.-born wife (since Sept. 1, 1886) Margaret "Maggie" "Molly" Brown (nee Tobin) (1867-1932), moving into a $30K Victorian mansion on Pennsylvania St. in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Denver, Colo. next year, and building a summer house in 1897 in SW Denver near Bear Creek called Avoca Lodge, allowing her to climb Denver's society ladder; they separate in 1909, leaving her $238K, after which she raises funds for the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception in Denver (1911), and helps establish the first juvenile court in the U.S.; after traveling in Egypt with millionaire John Jacob Astor IV, she becomes famous after surviving the RMS Titanic Disaster on Apr. 15, 1912 on Lifeboat No. 6, and talking the sailors into going back to pick up survivors with the help of an oar, becoming known as "the Unsinkable Molly Brown", going on to promote the rights of workers and women, education of children, historic preservation, and wounded French and Am. soldiers in WWI before dying of a brain tumor on Oct. 26, 1932 at the Barbizon Hotel in New York City; a 1960 Broadway musical and 1964 film titled "The Unsinkable Molly Brown" preserve her fame to modern times.

Denver Art Museum, 1971 Gio Ponti (1891-1979)

In 1893 the Denver Artists Club opens in Denver, Colo., renaming itself the Denver Art Assoc. in 1917, and opening the Denver Art Museum in 1919 in the Denver City and County Bldg., moving to its own bldg. at 14th Ave. and Acoma St. in 1948, opening the South (Bach) Wing in 1954, and the 7-story 2-towered 24-sided castle-like gray North Bldg. in 1971, complete with 1M reflective glass tiles by Dow Corning, designed by Italian modernist architect Giovanni "Gio" Ponti (1891-1979).

On Mar. 15, 1894 the Denver City Hall War begins after new (since Jan. 10, 1893) Colo. gov. Davis Hanson Waite attempts to dismantle Soapy Smith's corrupt machine in Denver, Colo., firing Jackson Orr and D.J. Martin from the Denver Fire and Police Board, who defy him and hole-up in city hall along with 300 other city officials, causing Waite to call out the state milia and federal troops, who are stopped from firing their two cannons and two Gatling guns by news that the Colo. Supreme Court has agreed to hear the case, ruling that the gov. has the power to remove the officials but can't use militia on them, after which the new officials begin passing laws ending his corruption permanently, and after Soapy and his bother Bascomb Smith are charged with attempted murder for the beating of a saloon mgr. they flee to Mexico, trying to swindle Porfirio Diaz by offering the services of a fake foreign legion headed by "Col." Smith before moving to the Klondike during the 1897 Kondike Gold Rush, getting chased out of Skagway and spending time in St. Louis, Mo. and Washington, D.C. before returning in Jan. 1898 to set up shop.

In early Oct. 1895 the first Festival of Mountain and Plain is held in the Civic Center of Denver, Colo. (until 1899, then 1901 and 1912), featuring a rodeo and parade.

In 1900 the Denver Museum of Natural History (later Denver Museum of Nature and Science) in Denver, Colo. is founded, later housing the Folsom Point, found in 1908 near Folsom, N.M. lodged between the ribs of a bison known to have been extinct for more than 10K years, proving the existence of humans in North Am. that far back - do I detect a little circular reasoning here?

Benjamin Barr Lindsey of the U.S. (1869-1943)

In 1901 Am. atty. Benjamin Barr Lindsey (1869-1943) becomes the first judge of a juvenile court in the U.S. after getting an act passed in Denver, Colo. with the help of Molly Brown, starting a nat. movement.

In 1902 the Jewish Consumptive Relief Society is founded in Mile-High Denver, Colo. for TB sufferers.

Curtis St. in Denver in the 1920s

In 1903 the Orpheum Theater at 1513 Welton St. in downtown Denver, Colo. opens as part of the Orpheum Circuit; in 1930 it is demolished and replaced with a new one, which is remodeled in 1955, closes in 1964, and is demolished in 1967; meanwhile the Novelty Theatre opens on Curtis St., owned by Harry Lubelski, who installs the first electric lights, causing Curtis St. to become known as Denver's Theater Row (Great White Way), which by 1925 has 13 theaters incl. the America, Colonial, Empress, Iris, Isis, Palace, Paris, Plaza, Rialto, Rivoli, State, Strand, and Tabor, with the lights so bright that street lamps are never used, causing Thomas Edison to allegedly call it "the best lighted of any street in the country".

Lorado Taft (1860-1936) 'Eternal Silence', by Lorado Taft (1860-1936), 1909 'Thatcher Memorial Fountain', by Lorado Taft (1860-1936), 1918 'Fountain of Time', by Lorado Taft (1860-1936), 1910-22 'The Recording Angel', by Lorado Taft (1860-1936), 1923 'Fountain of Creation', by Lorado Taft (1860-1936), 1923

In 1903 Elmwood, Ill.-born sculptor Lorado Zadok Taft (1860-1936) pub. The History of American Sculpture, first-ever; the 1925 rev. version becomes a std. reference until Wayne Craven's "Sculpture in America" (1968); he follows with Modern Tendencies in Sculpture (1921). In 1909 he sculpts Eternal Silence (Statue of Death) (Dexter Graves Monument) (Graceland Cemetery, Chicago, Ill.) (Dexter Graves (-1844), who led a group of 13 settlers from Ohio in 1831 to Chicago), followed by Thatcher Memorial Fountain (1918) (City Park, Denver, Colo.) (wealthy Denver businessman Joseph Addison Thatcher (-1918), showing the State of Colorado surrounded by three groups representing Loyalty, Love, and Learning, followed by Fountain of Time (1920-22) (Midway Plaisance, Chicago, Ill.), followed by The Recording Angel (1923), Fountain of Creation (unfinished) (1923) (U. of Ill. Library) (planned to complement "Fountain of Time"), Lincoln the Lawyer (1929), and The Patriots (1932) (La. State Capitol, Baton Rouge).

Robert Walter Speer of the U.S. (1855-1918) Mattie Silks (1846-1929)

Dirty Denver gets an Irish Boss Tweed? In 1904 Mount Union, Penn.-born Dem. politician Robert Walter Speer (1855-1918), who moved from Penn. in 1878 to help his TB becomes the first home-rule mayor (#26) of Denver, Colo. (until 1912, then #30 in 1916-18), becoming boss of a political machine known for extensive public improvements based on the 1893 Centennial Exhibition, incl. E-W town-crossing Speer Blvd. (1908), the City and County Bldg. (1932) and the Civic Center, the Denver Zoo (founded 1896), the Denver Museum of Nature and Science (founded 1900), the 12K-seat Denver City Auditorium (1908) (2nd in size to Madison Square Garden), city parks and 110K free shade trees donated to city residents, 56 mountain parks (14K acres), the world's highest automobile road (to the top of 14,264-ft. Mt. Evans), a public golf course, street lighting and paved residential streets, a welcome arch in front of Union Station with 1,294 lights, and the first city bathing beach (Smith Lake); nude sunbathing and "spooning" (but not forking) in public parks are decriminalized, while Speer backs the city's 400 saloonkeepers against the temperance movement, and is cosy with grandmotherly brothel keeper Mattie Silks (1845-1929); "More sunshine and sons of bitches than any place in the country."

On Aug. 28, 1905 hoping to pay off a $1.7K debt, Merritt Memorial Church (founded 1902) at W. 23rd Ave. and Irving St. in Denver, Colo. (1 diagonal block from TLW's future home in 1982-2010 at 22nd. and Hooker St.) hosts a lecture on the bright side of life at Libby Prison during the Civil War.

On Jan. 29-Feb. 3, 1906 the first annual Nat. Western Stock Show is held in the cow town of Denver, Colo. by the new Western Stock Show Assoc., devoted to "unabashed bovine boosterism" (Thomas J. Noel); attendance is 15K; the Grand Champion steer sells for 33 cents/lb. (23 cents over market price); it becomes so important to the city's economy that the elaborate Christmas lights on the Denver City and County Bldg. are left on for it.

Denver Mint, 1906

On Feb. 1, 1906 after its new machinery is displayed at the 1904 St. Louis Exposition, the Denver Branch Mint at Delaware St. and W Colfax Ave. in Denver, Colo. (begun 1897) strikes its first coins, producing 167M coins the first year and going on to become the largest coin producer in the world.

Lakeside Amusement Park, Colo., 1908

On Nov. 12, 1907 the town of Lakeside, Colo. immediately W of Denver at 44th Ave. and Sheridan Blvd. in Jefferson County is incorporated by Denver brewer Adolph J. Zang (1856-1916) (son of Zang Brewery founder Philip Zang), who next year opens Lakeside Amusement Park (AKA the White City in an attempt to clone the 1893 Chicago Exposition) 1/2-mi. from Elitch's Gardens on the E shore of 37-acre Lake Rhoda, allowing it to escape Dirty Denver liquor laws with its own laws and jail, featuring a glittering display of 100K lights and the 150-ft. Tower of Jewels on top of the park casino and casino theater, along with the Orient Express miniature train that circles the lake, pulled by steam locomotives Puffing Billy and Whistling Tom from the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair, along with the world's first miniature gauge diesel locomotive modeled after the Calif. Zephyr; in 1912 the Derby Racer wooden roller coaster opens; in 1935 longtime park employee Benjamin Krasner (-1965) (father of Rhoda of Lake Rhoda fame, who becomes a physician and succeeds him as owner) purchases it, adding the El Patio Ballroom which hosts stars incl. Duke Ellington and Glenn Miller, and hires Denver architect Richard Crowther to give it an Art-Deco style complete with rainbow neon lights; in 1938 Lakeside Speedway opens, closing in 1988; in 1938 the baseball field is turned into a 7K-car parking lot with free parking; in 1940 the Ed Vettel-designed Cyclone wooden roller coaster opens, followed in 1955 by the Wild Chipmunk, and in 1986 by a Zamperia dragon coaster (on the site of the old Funhouse, which featured Laughing Sal, a Fat Lady mannequin); in 1965 physician Rhoda Krasner becomes the owner; a total of eight persons live on the SE side, all employees; in 1956 Lakeside Mall opens, closing in 2010 and replaced by a Wal-Mart.

In 1907 the Empress Theater (originally the Majestic Theater until 1913 when Denver Post owners Frederick Bonfils and Harry Temmen acquire it) at 1625 Curtis St. in downtown Denver, Colo. opens, becoming known for doing anything to sell tickets, incl. hiring a flagpole sitter to set a record of 602 hours; in 1933 Bonfils dies, and in 1936 his estate sells it for $75K, becoming the Center Theater, changing to the New Victory Theatre in 1940, with a marquee saying only "Victory" to confuse customers?

On Mar. 10, 1910 Blackhawk, Colo.-born Bible-thumper Jesse Shwayder (1882-1970) founds Samsonite in Denver, Colo. to manufacture "strong enough to stand on" luggage, introducing a tapered vulcanized fiber suitcase in 1939, and trademarking the name Samsonite in 1941 after the Bible strongman, going on to name his son King David and require all co. execs to carry the Golden Rule engraved on a gold band; originally called Schwayder Trunk Manufacturing Co., he changes the name in 1965 to you know what; in 1961-72 it manufactures Lego toys under license from the Danish parent co.; in 1973 it is acquired by Beatrice Foods.

Victory Theater, Denver, Colo., 1923

In 1910 the Victory Theater (originally the Princess Theater until 1919) at 1660 Curtis St. in downtown Denver, Colo. opens, becoming known for elaborate promotional displays at the entrance, incl. Egyptian columns and Moses Parting the Red Sea for Cecil B. DeMille's "The Ten Commandments" (1923); it closes in 1940.

On Oct. 1, 1911 Charles Gates Sr. founds the Gates Rubber Co. on the banks of the South Platte River in Denver, Colo. via the acquisition of Colo. Tire and Leather Co. for $3,500; in 1917 Charles' brother John Gates invents the V-belt, helping it expand to Canada in 1954, Mexico in 1958, and Belgium in 1963; in 1980 it acquires Uniroyal Power Transmission Co., becoming the world's largest synchronous/timing belt manufacturer; in 1996 it is acquired by Tomkins Plc of Britain, changing its name in 2003 to the Gates Corp.

Dr. Sun Yat-Sen of China (1866-1925) Chinese Gen. Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975) Madame Chiang Kai-shek of China (1897-2003 Yuan Shikai of China (1859-1916) Chinese Gen. Li Yuanhong (1864-1928) Tang Shaoyi of China (1860-1938) Sheng Xuanhuai of China (1844-1916)

On Oct. 10, 1911 the 1911 Xinhai (Hsin-hai) (Chinese) Rev. (Rev. of the Young Chinese) against the Manchu Dynasty begins when the rev. HQ of the Wuchang org. is discovered plotting against the central railway admin. of Sheng Xuanhuai (1844-1916), and spreads rapidly and bloodily through the W and S; in early Oct. Dr. Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) (1866-1925) visits the U.S. to raise money from Chinese immigrants; on Oct. 10 he checks into Denver, Colo.'s Brown Palace Hotel, Rm. 321 (later the Coronet Room), raising $500; he returns to China the next day after reading newspaper headlines saying "Chinese Revolt is Menace to Manchu Dynasty" (Rocky Mt. News), and "Foreigners Throughout Empire in Deadly Peril" (Denver Post); ever after Chinese tourists stop by to see his signature in the guest register; the provinces begin seceding from the Qing Dynasty and join the rev., incl. Jiangsu on Nov. 3, Sichuan on Nov. 22, and Shandong on Dec. 12; on Oct. 14 former Korean resident Yuan Shikai (Shih-K'ai) (1859-1916) is recalled to military command by the Manchu court, and on Nov. 8 is elected PM of the provisional nat. assembly; on Dec. 4 he signs a truce with rebel gen. Li Yuanhong (1864-1928), and sends Tang Shaoyi (1862-1938) as his rep. to negotiations in Shanghai; on Dec. 30 Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, back from the U.S. and Europe is elected provisional pres. of the new Repub. of China (1912-49) by delegates from 16 provinces meeting in Nanking (Nanjing); the Manchu (Great Qing) Dynasty in China (in power since 1644) abdicates; Sun Yat-Sen appoints Gen. Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975) as his military adviser, with "Dragon Lady" Madame Chiang Kai-shek (Mayling Soong) (1897-2003) waiting in the wings; the calendar is reformed, pigtails are abolished, and (a little late, after 4.5B women's feet are ruined?) foot binding (the golden lotus) is finally outlawed; polygamy begins to decline as marriages for love become common - come all you young maidens and listen to me, never place your affections on a green willow tree?

Golda Meir (1898-1978)

In 1912 after emigrating to the U.S. in 1903 and moving to Milwaukee, Wisc. in 1905, 14-y.-o. Kiev, Ukraine-born Jewish Zionist (atheist) Golda Meir (nee Mabovich) (1898-1978) buys a train ticket to Denver, Colo. to live with her married sister Sheyna Korngold, whose family holds intellectual evenings at their home, exposing Meir to debates on Zionism, literature, women's suffrage, trade unionism et al., causing her to write in her autobio.: "To the extent that my own future convictions were shaped and given form... those talk-filled nights in Denver played a considerable role"; in Denver she meets sign painter Morris Meyerson (Myerson) (1893-1951), whom she marries back in Milwaukee on December 24, 1917, and after a cross-country fundraising tour leaves with him for a kibbutz in Palestine in 1921, rising to minister of labour in 1949-56, minister of foreign affairs in 1956-66, and PM #4 of Israel in 1969-74.

On Dec. 1-4, 1913 the Colo. Blizzard of 1913 dumps 4-6 ft. of snow along the Colo. Front Range incl. Denver, becoming the worst snowstorm (until ?).

In 1913 the Rialto Theater (originally the United States Theater) at 1540 Curtis St. in downtown Denver, Colo. opens.

Roland Garros of France (1888-1918) Anthony Fokker (1890-1939) Max Immelmann (1890-1916) Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1958) Roger Adams (1889-1971)

On Aug. 4, 1914 - Nov. 11, 1918 the horrific World War I causes 15M deaths and 39M military casualties. and destroys the Old Order of white formerly Christian Europe. On Feb. 26-28, 1915 the Germans first use a Flamethrower (Flame Projector) in the village of Douaumont, France near Verdun, becoming the first of 653 flamethrower attacks in the war. On Apr. 1, 1915 French aviator Roland Garros (1888-1918) becomes the first pilot to shoot down an aircraft using a deflector gear, which allows shooting through the propeller; after more Vs against German aircraft on Apr. 15 and Apr. 18, he is shot down and the Germans capture his plane, after which Dutch designer Anthony (Anton Herman Gerard) Fokker (1890-1939) clones then improves the deflector gear into the synchronization (interrupter) gear, mounting them on the new Fokker E.I. in Aug., beginning the Fokker Scourge (Scare) as they shoot down nearly every enemy aircraft they encounter and generate the first German aces, incl. Max Immelmann (1890-1916); next year the French counter with the Nieuport 11 Bebe (Bébé), in which the gun is mounted on the top wing clear of the prop, and the British with the Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2b and Airco DH.2 (Feb. 1916), which mount the engine backwards with the prop in back, causing them to be called "pushers", ending the Fokker Scourge by spring 1917. In 1915 arsenic-based vomiting-sneeze gas Adamsite (DM) (diphenylaminechlorarsine) is synthesized by German chemist Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1957); in 1918 Am chemist Roger Adams (1889-1971) duplicates it, and both sides stockpile it, but it is allegedly never used on the battlefield. On Mar. 22, 1916 the British have their first success with their new Depth Charge off the SW coast of Ireland, destroying a German U-boat. Are you used to Hell yet, try this? On Sept. 15, 1916 Winston Churchill's pet project the Tank (Russian Water Closet) (Char-Schneider) is first used by the Brits in the Somme.

On Dec. 24, 1914 (Xmas Eve) Denver electrician David Dwight "D.D." Sturgeon starts the Christmas holiday tradition of stringing up red-green lights on a tree for his sick 10-y.-o. son David Jonathan Sturgeon, causing a craze that results in the Denver Post sponsoring the first outdoor lighting contest, and the Denver Civic Center displaying its first lights in 1919, followed in 1935 by the Denver City and County Bldg.; in 1947 the public reacts against a too-restrained display.

Buffalo Bill Cody (1846-1917) Buffalo Bill (1846-1917) and Sitting Bull (1831-90)

On Jan. 10, 1917 Le Claire, Iowa-born showman William Frederick "Buffalo Bill" Cody (b. 1846) dies in Denver, Colo. of kidney failure at his sister's house one day after being baptized into the Roman Catholic Church by Father Christopher Walsh of Denver Cathedral; tributes are made by George V, Kaiser Wilhelm II, and Pres. Wilson; Wyo Gov. John B. Kendrick leads the funeral procession; leaves a $100K fortune; he is buried on June 3 on Lookout Mountain in Golden, Colo. overlooking Denver from the W 12 mi. away; in 1921 Johnny Baker (-1931) opens the Buffalo Bill Memorial Museum, which ends up being owned by the city and county of Denver, attracting 400K visitors/year; the tradition arises that throwing a bobby pin over his grave assures a trip to the altar: "Every Indian outbreak that I have ever known has resulted from broken promises and broken treaties by the government"; "What we want to do is give women even more liberty than they have. Let them do any kind of work they see fit, and if they do it as well as men, give them the same pay."

On Sept. 25, 1919 after delivering 40 speeches in support of the League of Nations in less than a week, Pres. Woodrow Wilson collapses in mile-high Pueblo, Colo., after which he is rushed to the White House sickroom, where he suffers a stroke on Oct. 2; he returns to work on Nov. 1 although partially paralyzed for the last 3.5 years of his life - the Colo. altitude is a real crippler?

Smalldone Family

In the 1920s the Denver, Colo. crime family, run by Joe "Little Caesar" Roma (-1933) and Pete Carlino and Sam Carlino control bootlegging from Denver S to Pueblo; in 1933 the Smalldone Brothers, incl. Eugene "Checkers" Smalldone (1911-92), Clyde (Gaetano) "Flip Flop" Smalldone (1906-98), and Clarence "Chauncey" Smalldone (1916-2006) assassinate Joe Roma in North Denver and take over, founding Gaetano's Italian Restaurant at W 38th Ave. and Tejon St. in North Denver in 1947 as their HQ and continuing their rise until Chauncey is found guilty of jury tampering in 1953, and Eugene is imprisoned for loan sharking in 1983.

Benjamin Franklin Stapleton of the U.S. (1869-1950)

In 1921 a muckraking campaign by the New York World causes the Ku Klux Klan to be investigated by the U.S. Congress; when no charges are brought against them, membership soars; the KKK in Denver, Colo., headed by physician John Galen Locke gets Paintsville, Ky.-born Dem. Denver mayor Benjamin Franklin Stapleton (1869-1950) elected in 1923-31 (#33) and 1935-47 (#35), along with police chief William "Coca-Cola" Candish (Koka-Kola Kandish), and terrorizes Jews, Catholics, blacks, and gays, selling Cyana (Catholics, you are not Americans) cigars, and boycotting Jewish fashion store owner Meyer Neusteter.

Eskimo Pie, 1921 Christian Kent Nelson (1893-1992) Russell Stover (1888-1954) Russell Stover Candies, 1925 Good Humor Truck, 1920

On Jan. 24, 1922 after inventing the idea in 1919 and launching sales last year, Danish-born Onawa, Iowa chemist Christian Kent Nelson (1893-1992) receives a patent for "I-Scream Bars", with a special chocolate shell that hardens in the cold and retains the ice cream inside, going into business with Alton, Kan.-born chocolate manufacturer Russell William Stover (1888-1954), who trademarks the name Eskimo Pie, a chocolate-dipped ice cream bar, which becomes a big hit until copycats nearly put them out of business in 1924, after which Stover and his wife Clara sell-out for $25K and move to Denver, Colo. in 1925, marketing chocolates under the name Russell Stover Candies (originally Mrs. Stover's Bungalow Candies), selling-out to box maker Louis Ward in 1969, who sells it to Lindt of Switzerland on July 14, 2014; meanwhile Nelson sells-out to U.S. Foil Co. (later Reynolds Metal Co.), rejoining in 1935 and inventing new manufacturing and shipping methods until his retirement in 1992, when Eskimo Pie Corp. is acquired by Nestle, followed in 2000 by CoolBrands Internat. of Markham, Ont., Canada; meanwhile in Jan. 1922 after hearing about the Eskimo Pie and sending 12 ice cream trucks out in 1920 selling his own version door-to-door under the name Good Humor Ice Cream Suckers, Harry B. Burt (1875-1926) of Youngstown, Ohio applies for a patent for the Good Humor Bar chocolate-coated ice cream on a stick, receiving it in Oct. 1923, and operating trucks until the 1970s; meanwhile in 1925 he files a patent violation lawsuit against Popsicle Corp., which is settled out of court.

On Dec. 18, 1922 (10:30 a.m.) a Federal Reserve truck parked at a loading dock of the Denver Mint near the State Capitol in Denver, Colo. (W. Colfax Ave. and Delaware St.) is robbed of $200K in $5 bills by five men in a black Buick touring car carrying shotguns, killing guard Charles Linton; on Jan. 14 their car is found in a garage nearby on Gilpin St. in Denver's Capitol Hill, complete with the frozen body of 36-y.-o. Nicholas "Chaw Jimmie" Trainor, who was shot in the jaw by mint guards; on Feb. 17 $80K of the loot is recovered near Minneapolis, Minn., but the case is never solved, although in 1934 police claim that five men and two women were conspirators, but do not release names, claiming they are all dead or in prison already; the case is officially closed on Dec. 1, 1934.

Dave Cook Sporting Goods, 1936 Gart Bros. Sports Castle

Jews don't play sports, they sell the equipment? In 1924 Jewish-Am. entrepreneurs Dave Cook and Max Cook open Dave Cook Sporting Goods in Denver, Colo., becoming the first major sports store in Colo., moving to a bigger bldg. at 1601 Larimer St. downtown in 1936; meanwhile in 1928 Gart Bros. Sporting Goods is founded at 1643 Larimer St. in downtown Denver by Jewish-Am. entrepreneur Nathan Gart (-1981), son of a Russian immigrant house painter; he is joined in 1932 by his brother George, in 1934 by his brother Kibby, and in 1946 by his brother Melvin; in 1954 they hold their first annual "Sniagrab" (Bargains spelled backwards) ski sale; in 1971 they open the 7-floor 100K sq. ft. Gart Bros. Sports Castle at 1000 Broadway in downtown Denver in a former Chrysler dealership modeled on a French castle, complete with indoor ski ramp, and basketball and tennis courts on the roof; in 1976 they open their first store outside Denver in Fort Collins, Colo.; in Dec. 1986 they are acquired by Los Angeles, Calif.-based Thrifty Corp. for $20M, who allow the Gart family to continue in mgt.; in Jan. 1988 they acquire longtime rival Dave Cook Sporting Goods for $20M; in Sept. 1992 Thrifty Corp. they are acquired for $275M by Leonard Green & Partners of Los Angeles, Calif., who won't a uthorize a mgt. buyout of Gart Bros., causing the the Gart family to resign; in 1997 Gart Sports expands to 61 stores in seven states; in Jan. 1998 Gart Sports merges with Sportmart, becoming #2 in U.S. sporting goods behind Sports Authority, with $1.7B annual sales from 120 stores in 16 states.

Eddie Bohn (1902-90) Pig 'N Whistle , 1924

In 1924 6'4" Denver, Colo. boxer Eddie Bohn (1902-90) is crowned Rocky Mountain Heavyweight Champion after working as Jack Dempsey's sparring partner at $100 a round, helping him to found the Pig 'N Whistle restaurant on U.S. Highway 40 (West Colfax Ave. and Wolff St.) in Denver on June 24 (Dempsey's birthday), which until closure in 1991 hosts an endless stream of boxing-connected visitors incl. Dempsey, Gene Tunney, Max Baer, Carmen Basilio, Primo Carnera, and other celebs incl. Roy Rogers, Babe Didrikson Zaharias, the Dorsey brothers, Wally Schirra, Billy Martin (manages the Denver Bears before going to the New York Yankees), even Clint Eastwood; meanwhile Bohn becomes Colo. boxing commissioner for 40 years under six governors.

On May 31, 1926 the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) marches down Larimer St. in downtown Denver, Colo., representing the zenith of KKK influence in city hall.

In 1927 the Denver Theater at 510-16th St. in downtown Denver, Colo. opens across the street from the future Paramount Theater; it is demolished in 1980.

Red Rocks Amphitheater, 1927

In 1927 the city of Denver, Colo. purchases Red Rocks in the foothills of the Rocky Mts. for $54,133, turning it into one of the top natural amphitheaters on Earth, with seating cap. of 9,525, later hosting the Beatles on Aug. 26, 1964, Jimi Hendrix in 1968, Jethro Tull on June 10, 1971, Bruce Springsteen in 1978, U2 on June 5, 1983 (Bloody Sunday), and Pearl Jam in 1995; in 2015 it becomes a U.S. nat. historic landmark; after the Jethro Tull performance, which involves the police, rock concerts are banned for five years.

David Halliday Moffat (1839-1911) Moffat Tunnel, 1928

In Feb. 1928 the Great Moffat Tunnel through the Rocky Mountain Continental Divide in NC Colo. opens, named after Colo. railroad financing pioneer David Halliday Moffat (1839-1911), who laid out the right-of-way in 1902, used by the Denver and Salt Lake Railway to give Denver its first W link through the Continental Divide; it incl. a water tunnel serving Denver.

On Oct. 17, 1929 Denver Municipal Airport in Denver, Colo. opens, becoming Stapleton Airport in 1944, named in honor of Denver mayor #33 (1923-31) Benjamin F. Stapleton.

Paramount Theater, Denver, Colo., 1930 Paramount Theater Wurlitzer

In 1930 the Art Deco Paramount Theater (Theatre) at 519-16th St. in downtown Denver, Colo. opens, becoming one of Denver's most popular theaters, housing a twin-console Wurlitzer theater organ, which becomes only one of two remaining by modern times after the one at Radio City Music Hall in New York City.

Auschwitz Camp Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise (1874-1949) Raphael Lemkin (1900-59)

On Sept. 1, 1939 - Sept. 2, 1945 the horrific $3.5T World War II resulted in 24M military and 49M civilian deaths, and featured the low point of the Jewish Holocaust (Shoah) by the German Nazis, I guess it was the Jews' fault for not ransoming themselves to go to Israel before they could round them up for the camps. The whole experience turned Jews from lovers into fighters, ramping up the Zionist movement with full world sympathy and support by new world superpower U.S., which had its own guilt trip because on Nov. 24, 1942 Budapest-born Am. Zionist leader Rabbi Stephen Samuel Wise (1874-1949) announced in a press conference in Washington, D.C. that he was authorized by the U.S. State Dept. to confirm that the Nazis had murdered 2M Jews as part of a plan to exterminate all Jews in Europe; too bad, the nat. newspapers didn't consider it front page news, and the U.S. govt. did nada. After the war ended and Americans toured the concentration camps in horror, Polish-born Jewish scholar Raphael Lemkin (1900-59), who single-handedly led an unsuccessful campaign to get the League of Nations to give internat. protections against genocide starting in 1933 finally got what he wanted after his own people got it, namely the Dec. 9, 1948 U.N. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Gen. Assembly Resolution 260), which didn't come in force until Jan. 12, 1951, and which the U.S. still didn't ratify until 1988.

Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright of the U.S. (1937-) Condoleezza Rice of the U.S. (1954-)

On July 19, 1945 Cherry Hills Village, Colo. in Arapahoe County SE of Denver is incorporated, becoming the Beverly Hills of Colo., filled with Beverly Hillbilly-style mansions; in 1953 top entertainer Ethel Merman marries Continental Airlines exec Robert Six and moves into his 26-room mansion there, giving a concert at Red Rocks Amphitheater in 1953; it later becomes a favorite residence for Denver Broncos NFL team coaches and players incl. coach Mike Shanahan, QB John Elway, and QB Peyton Manning; in 1922 Kent Denver School is founded in Denver, Colo. as the Kent School for Girls, moving in 1953 to the Blackmer Farm in Cherry Hills Village, and merging in 1974 with the all-male Denver Country Day School, becoming the alma mater of Prague, Czech.-born Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright (nee Marie Jana Korbelova) (1937-), whose father Josef Korbel teaches internat. relations at the U. of Denver; in 1967 Birmingham, Ala.-born Condoleeza "Condi" Rice (1954-) moves to Denver, Colo., attending St. Mary's Academy all-girls Roman Catholic h.s. in Cherry Hills Village, graduating in 1971 and enrolling in the U. of Denver, where she switches from music to internat. relations under Korbel, working her way up to U.S. nat. security advisor #20 in 2001-5, followed by U.S. secy. of state #66 in 2005-9.

On June 12, 1947 snow falls in Denver, Colo., setting a lateness record (until ?).

Quigg Newton of the U.S. (1912-2006) Henry A. Barnes (1906-68) Florence Rena Sabin (1871-1953) Helen Peterson (1915-2000)

In Nov. 1947 Dem. James Quigg Newton Jr. (1911-2003), son of James Quigg Newton Sr. (Denver's first public housing dir.) defeats mayor Ben Stapleton and becomes mayor #36 of Denver, Colo. (until 1955), going on to modernize the city, hiring Henry A. Barnes (1906-68) (inventor of the "Barnes Dance" 3-way pedestrian crossing street lights) as city traffic engineer, and retired medical researcher Florence Rena Sabin (1871-1953) (first full woman professor at a medical college in 1917, who in 1944 was appointed by Colo. Gov. John Vivian to chair a state subcommittee on health, getting the Sabin Health Laws passed modernizing the public health system) as dir. of the health care system in 1948, then passing the city's first sales tax and pledging to end segregation and discrimination, appointing Helen Peterson (1915-2000) (a Cheyenne-Lakota Indian named Wa-Cinn-Ya-Win-Pi-Mi) as the first dir. of the Denver Commission on Human Relations; too bad, Denver remains a highly segregated city while the whites flee to the suburbs. In 1947 traffic engineer Henry A. Barnes (1906-68) comes to Denver, Colo. from Flint, Mich. to unclog city streets, and soon invents (or adapts) the Barnes Dance, AKA the pedestrian scramble, a traffic light that stops all traffic at an intersection to allow pedestrians to cross; it is soon adopted worldwide.

Allen Ginsberg (1926-97) Jack Kerouac (1922-69) Neal Cassady (1926-68)

In summer 1947 after alcoholic pool hall hustler and mean streets vet Neal Leon Cassady (1926-68), who dropped out of East High School and lives with his alcoholic barber father in the Windsor Hotel on skid row on Grant St. marries 16-y.-o. LuAnne Henderson and travels to New York City with her, meeting Columbia U. student Irwin Allen Ginsberg (1926-97) and Jack (Jean-Louis) Kerouac (1922-69) (friends of William S. Burroughs) they arrive in Denver, Colo., and Ginsberg works as a shipping clerk at Daniels and Fisher and tries to get Cassady in the sack at the Colburn Hotel at 980 Grant St., after which Ginsberg eulogizes Denver in his famous poem "Howl!" (1955): "who journeyed to Denver, who died in Denver, who came back to Denver & waited in vain, who watched over Denver & brooded & loned in Denver and finally went away to find out the Time, & now Denver is lonesome for her heroes."

Mile High Stadium, 1948

On Aug. 14, 1948 the Denver Bears A-baseball team (later AAA) debuts in Bears Stadium in Denver, Colo., which becomes Mile High Stadium, home of the Denver Broncos in 1968-2001; the team is sold in 1985 and renamed the Denver Zephyrs, relocating to New Orleans, La.

Rio Grande Zephyr

On Mar. 20, 1949 the Calif. Zephyr, AKA the Silver Lady or CZ begins operation from Chicago, Ill. to Oakland, Calif. via Iowa, Neb., Colo., Utah, and Nev., designed to take the scenic route incl. the Upper Colo. River Valley and the Sierra Nevada, with special Vista Dome cars with wide-angle windows on the top row; in winter the mountain trip becomes a winter wonderland; in 1970 it ceases operation, and the Denver & Rio Grande Western takes over with its Rio Grande Zephyr between Denver, Colo. and Ogden, Utah, which is taken over in 1983 by Amtrak, which combines it with the route of the City of San Francisco; in 2016 it carries 410K passengers, with $51.4M total revenue; meanwhile in 1953 the Denver Zephyr begins operating, adding Colo. Springs to its route in Oct. 1956 until Jan. 1, 1967, when it is replaced by a bus connection; in May 1971 Amtrak takes over, running it daily between Denver and Chicago until it is merged with the San Francisco Zephyr on Oct. 26, 1973.

Bill Harmsen (1912-2006 Jolly Rancher, 1949

In 1949 Jolly Rancher Co. is founded in Golden, Colo. by St. Paul, Minn.-born Bill Harmsen (1912-2006) to sell hard candy, ice cream, and chocolate at seveal stores in the Denver Metro area; original candy flavors incl. grape, apple, watermelon, and Fire Stix; in 1966 it is acquired by Beatrice Foods, followed in 1983 by Leaf Brands, which in 1996 is acquired by Hershey Co.; in 2002 the Wheat Ridge, Colo. plant is moved out of the state.

In 1950 U.S. home builders begin building neighborhoods with numerous cul-de-sacs for the safety of children; by the year 2000 the problems of too-close neighbors trapped in a coal sack cause the concept to begin to be questioned; Highlands Ranch development S of Denver, Colo. (1981), with 600 cul-de-sacs is a case in point (see 2001); meanwhile water-hungry lawns containing fescue, bluegrass, and rye become fashionable, even though they originated in rainy Britain where artificial watering is seldom needed. Antihistamines become popular for treating colds and allergies.

In 1951 the 23-acre Denver Botanic Gardens on York St. on top of Prospect Hill Cemetery in EC Denver near Congress Park and Cheesman Park open, featuring a covered tropical greenhouse and six other gardens incl. the Shofu-en (Wind and Pines) Japanese Garden, and the largest collection of plants from cold temperate climates in North Am., along with a sunken amphitheater for summer concerts; in 1986 the Dryland Mesa is created, becoming the world's first xeriscape demonstration garden.

In 1954 KIMN AM rock & roll radio station in Denver, Colo. is founded, ruling the airwaves as "Boss Radio" with a 50% share of the audience in the 1950s, with DJ Roy "the Bell Boy" Gunderson and Pogo Poge, becoming TLW's favorite station; it starts to fall to the level of FM radio until it hires Scott Kelley (1955-) and the KIMN Chicken in 1977-86, then folds in 1988 after a last attempt at gaining an audience with Harry Paxton Mills (1950-2002) and Scott Cortelyou.

On Sept. 11, 1955 Pres. and Mrs. Eisenhower dedicate the new pulpit of the Corona Presbyterian Church at E. 8th Ave. and Downing St. in Denver, Colo.; on Sept. 24 Pres. Eisenhower suffers a massive heart attack two hours after midnight in his mother-in-law's home at 750 Lafayette St. in Denver after visiting banker Aksel Nielsen at the Byers Peak Ranch outside Denver, followed by Lowry AFB, then Cherry Hills Golf Course, where he had hamburgers with raw onions for lunch, which he claimed gave him chest pains; he is taken to Fitzsimons Hospital outside Denver, whre he is treated with the newly-approved drug Warfarin; on Sept. 26 (Mon.) the New York Stock Exchange suffers its worst decline since 1929 ($12B) (down to 444.56) when word is released concerning his condition, but news from his physician Dr. Paul Dudley White that he can return to work in two weeks causes the market to rebound on Sept. 27.

John Gilbert 'Jack' Graham (1932-57)

Colorado's 1950s Osama bin Laden? On Nov. 1, 1955 at 7:03 p.m., 11 min. after takeoff from Stapleton Airport in Denver, Colo. United Airlines Flight 629 en route to Portland, Ore. explodes and crashes into sugar beet fields N of Denver, killing all 39 passengers and five crew; John Gilbert "Jack" Graham (1932-57), son of passenger Daisie E. King (b. 1902), who bought a $37.5K insurance policy on her life shortly before takeoff is convicted after a televised trial (Colo.'s first big TV trial) of planting 25 sticks of dynamite with a timer in her luggage, and is executed in the Colo. gas chamber on Jan. 11, 1957, his heart taking 11 min. to stop beating; the first confirmed downing of a commercial airliner in the U.S. by a bomber; the plane left 35 min. late, foiling his scheme to have it blow up over the Rocky Mts. where the debris would be difficult to find; his mean mother dominated and messed up his life, putting him in an orphanage and never letting him out even after marrying a wealthy rancher; as an adult she financed a drive-thru restaurant, which failed; Denver Post reporter Zeke Scher breaks several stories, incl. finding the man who sold Graham the dynamite, that his wife Gloria no longer loves him, and that his sister Helen believes he's guilty and wants him to die; he is one of the first inmates transfered to the new Denver County Jail, whose cell windows look out upon Stapleton Airfield; his last words are "I don't mind getting the gas but I would like make my last request, and that is to have Zeke Scher sitting on my lap when I go."

Coretta Scott King (1927-2006) Wilma Webb (1944-)

In 1958 Martin Luther King Jr.'s wife Coretta Scott King (1927-2006) makes her first public speaking appearance at a Woman's Day celebration in Denver, Colo., meeting black teenie Wilma J. Webb (1944-), organist for the New Hope Baptist Church, who becomes a state lawmaker and wife of Denver's first African-Am. mayor (1991-2003) Wellington Webb, and leads the state fight to have MLK Jr.'s birthday become a nat. holiday.

Adolph Coors III (1916-60) Joseph Corbett Jr. (1928-)

Did he use a Silver Bullet? On Feb. 9, 1960 Coors beer magnate Adolph Coors III (b. 1916), grandson of the founder is kidnapped and murdered en route to work in Golden, Colo. by Seattle, Wash.-born Fulbright scholar and escaped murderer Joseph Corbett Jr. (1928-2009), who tries to get $500K in ransom before the remains are found on Sept. 14 in a garbage dump near Pikes Peak, after which Corbett is captured in Vancouver, Canada on Oct. 29 and sentenced to life, then paroled in 1978, ending up living in Denver, Colo.; too bad, the experience causes Coors to initiate polygraph tests for potential employees.

Joe Foss (1915-2003) Jack Kemp (1935-2009) Bob Howsam (1918-2008)

Big year for U.S. football, which is for real men, not that sissy rugby and soccer stuff? In 1960 the Am. Football League (AFL) is founded (until 1969) by Lamar Hunt et al.; WWII Marine fighter ace Joseph Jacob "Joe" Foss (1915-2003) becomes AFL commissioner #1 (until 1966); the Buffalo Bills, owned by Ohio-born Ralph C. Wilson Jr. (1918-) joins the AFL, with QB (until 1970) Jack French Kemp (1935-2009); the new (Aug. 14, 1959) Denver Broncos, owned by Robert Lee "Bob" Howsam (1918-2008) joins the AFL, and on Sept. 9 wins the first-ever AFL game over the Boston Patriots by 13-10, then compiles a lousy 39-97-4 record during the decade, becoming the only AFL never to play in a title game, having its first winning season in 1973; meanwhile future Super Bowl winning QB (1997-8) John Elway (1960-) (Denver Broncos #7) is born this year, and joins the team in 1983, fighting to turn around its born-loser image and finally doing it before retiring in 1999.

Celebrity Sports Center, 1960

In 1960 the $6M Celebrity Sports Center in Glendale, Colo. in S Denver at 888 S. Colo. Blvd. and E Kentucky Ave. opens, with investors incl. Walt Disney and his brother Roy, Jack Benny, Bing Crosby, George Burns, Burl Ives, Spike Jones, Jim and Marion Jordan (Fiber McGee and Molly), Charles Laughton, Art Linkletter, and John Payne; facilities incl. 80 bowling lanes, a 50m swimming pool with three water slides, three arcade rooms, three slot car tracks, the Hofbrau Bar restaurant, a shooting gallery, and bumper-car rides; in 1979 it is acquired for $1.9M by Bob Leavitt and Neil Griffin; in 1994 it is acquired by Acquisition Corp. of the Rockies for $10.8M, who closes it that year, and demolishes it in Mar. 1995.

'The Misfits', 1961 Jack A. Weil (1901-2008) Inge Morath (1923-2002)

On Feb. 1, 1961 John Huston's The Misfits, written by Arthur Miller for his wife Marilyn Monroe debuts on the birthday of dead star Clark Gable (as Gay Langland), who woos Marilyn Monroe (as Roslyn Taber) and tries to catch wild mustangs near Reno along with rodeo rider Montgomery Clift (as Perce Howland) while she pussy-whips them into letting them go so they won't end up as dog food; Eli Wallach plays Guido, and Thelma Ritter plays Isabelle Steers: Gable wears a snap-style Western shirt manufactured in Denver, Colo. by Rockmount Ranch Wear, founded by future centenarian Jack A. Weil (1901-2008), which has been marketing them since the 1950s; they are later worn by Elvis, Bob Dylan, Ronald Reagan, Nicolas Cage et al.; Monroe's drug and pill habit and cheating ways finally cause Miller to divorce her after the filming, and marry Austrian-born photographer Inge Morath (1923-2002) on Feb. 17, 1962.

In 1961 the largest police scandal in U.S. history (until ?) takes place in Denver, Colo. (the Queen City of Corruptorado, the Police State of Hate?), giving it its "Year of Shame" as 47 police officers in a dept. of 750 are arrested for participating in an organized burglary ring, along with a sheriff, two deputies, two private detectives, and three civilians; about 40 are convicted.

Thomas Starzl (1926-) Francis Daniels Moore (1913-2001)

In 1963 Am. physicians Thomas Earl Starzl (1926-) and Francis Daniels Moore (1913-2001) perform the first Liver Transplant in Denver, Colo.

Tom Currigan (1920-2014)

In 1963 Denver, Colo.-born city auditor Thomas Guida "Tom" Currigan (1920-2014) (Roman Catholic) becomes Dem. Denver mayor #39 (until Dec. 31, 1968), going on to lead the cleanup of the Denver police burglary ring by appointing new police chief Harold Dill, create a Commission on Community Relationships and a Committee on City-Citizen Relationships, expand Stapleton Internat. Airport, build the Currigan Convention Center and Denver General Hospital, push the Skyline urban-renewal project in downtown Denver, create neighborhood health centers, and join Gov. John Love in bidding for the 1976 Winter Olympic Games in Mar. 1968, leaving office after two terms after saying that he can't afford to send his children to college on his $14K/year salary, moving to Los Angeles, Calif. to take a job as exec vice-pres. of civic and community affairs with Continental Airlines at $30K/year; in 1987 after retiring he returns to Denver and unsuccesfully campaigns against mayor Federico Pena.

'The Unsinkable Molly Brown', 1964

On June 11, 1964 Charles Walters' The Unsinkable Molly Brown (MGM) debuts, written by Helen Deutsch based on the 1960 Meredith Willson and Richard Morris musical, starring Debbie Reynolds (after Shirley MacLaine pulls out) as Molly Brown, and Harve Presnell as her wealthy hubby Johnny Brown; exteriors are filmed in the Black Canyon of the Gunnison Nat. Park in Colo.; does $11M box office.

On June 14-20, 1965 the Great Colo. Flood of the Platte River floods Denver and Castle Rock, killing 21, causing $500M in damage and destroying many businesses, spurring the building of a dam; 12-y.-o. TLW lives uphill of the flood area in Denver and is untouched.

Starr Yelland (1915-94)

On Aug. 4, 1965 Sherman Starr Yelland (b. 1948), the son of super-popular veteran Denver, Colo. sportscaster Emory Starr Yelland (1915-94) unfastens his seat belt on the roller coaster at Elitch Gardens, and is violently thrown off, tearing off his face and ultimately killing him after Christian Scientist Star refuses to allow doctors to operate, although he allows them to sew the face back on.

In 1965 John and Dana Crawford found Larimer Square Associates to revitalize Larimer Square in Denver, Colo., founded in 1858 by William E. Larimer as Denver's main business district, which had turned into a skid row, transforming it into a chic area by the 1980s.

In 1965 the Auraria Campus (Higher Education Center) in downtown Denver, Colo. opens, starting with the Metropolitan State College of Denver, Community College of Denver (1967), and Auraria Library (1976).

On Oct. 15, 1966 spurred by the loss of the 1910 Penn Station in New York City in 1963, the U.S. Nat. Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is passed, creating the Nat. Register of Historic Places, the Nat. List of Historic Landmarks, and State Historic Preservation Offices, after which in 1967 the Denver Preservation Ordinance is passed in Denver, Colo., establishing the Denver Landmark Preservation Commission, which designations 300+ properties as landmarks.

In 1967 concert promoter Barry Fey opens the 2.5K-seat Family Dog at 1601 W. Evans Ave. in Denver, Colo., opening with Janis Joplin, Big Brother & the Holding Co., and going on to book The Doors (Sept. 30, 1967), Canned Heat, The Grateful Dead, The Byrds, Buffalo Springfield, Van Morrison, Jefferson Airplane, Frank Zappa, and Cream; the Doors show on New Year's Eve rates a record $4.50 admission ticket; too bad, it is closed in 1969 and becomes PT's Showclub.

On Dec. 26, 1968 the British rock group Led Zeppelin plays their first U.S. concert in the Denver Auditorium Arena in downtown Denver, Colo.

Bill McNichols of the U.S. (1910-97)

On Dec. 31, 1968 deputy mayor and mgr. of public works (since 1963) William Henry "Bill" McNichols Jr. (1910-97), brother of Colo. gov. (1957-63) Stephen McNichols becomes Dem. Denver mayor #40 (until July 1983), going on to supervise construction of Denver's 16th Street Mall, McNichols Sports Arena, Denver Center for the Performing Arts, and Auraria Campus, as well as additions to the Denver Art Museum and Mile High Stadium.

Rodolfo 'Corky' Gonzales (1928-2005)

On Mar. 27-31, 1969 (Palm Sun.) boxer-turned-activist Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales (1928-2005), leader of the Crusade for Justice convenes the first Nat. Chicano Liberation Youth Conference in his hometown of Denver, Colo., and later pub. El Plan Espiritual de Aztlan for the Chicanos (La Raza de Bronze), launching the Chicano Student Movement of Aztlan (M.E.Ch.A.) (Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlan), which gringo critics claim is a breeding ground for separatists wishing to stage a reconquista (reconquest) of the SW U.S. and set up the muscle-pump nation of Aztlan.

On May 11, 1969 a large fire rips through a plutonium processing plant at the Rocky Flats nuclear weapons plant NW of Denver, Colo., causing $26.5M in damage and spewing radioactivity into the air; within a year the first of many protests is organized outside the plant, and local residents worry about contamination of the creeks which flow through it.

Daddy Bruce Randolph (1900-94)

On Nov. 27, 1969 (Thanksgiving Day), Pine Bluff, Ark.-born "Daddy" Bruce Randolph (1900-94), owner of Daddy Bruce's BBQ at 1629 E. 34th Ave. in Denver, Colo. (founded 1964) begins giving out free Thanksgiving turkey meals in City Park (near Five Points black ghetto), growing to tens of thousands of customers by the mid-1980s and becoming a Denver icon, expanding to Easter, Christmas, and his birthday (Feb. 15), causing Bruce Randolph Ave. to be named in his honor.

In 1969 heavyweight boxing champ Joe Louis collapses from cocaine use, and is hospitalized in the the Denver VA Hospital and Colo. Psychiatric Hospital for paranoia.

Tim McKernan 'The Barrel Man' (1940-2009)

Starting with the 1970 season, every home game of the Denver Broncos football team is sold out (until ?), allowing local TV coverage and making the team's fortunes the main interest of the whole Colo. Front Range region, plus surrounding states; beginning with the 1977 season, superfan Tim McKernan (1940-2009) (a mechanic for United Airlines) gains fame as the Barrel Man, appearing at games in his shorts, shoes, hat, sunglasses, and a barrel with suspenders, even during snowstorms; he finally retires after the 2007 season.


In 1970 the Denver, Colo.-based rock band Sugarloaf (originally Chocolate Hair) (named after the mountain outside Boulder, Colo.), fronted by keyboardist Jerry Corbetta, incl. Bob Webber (formerly of the Moonrakers) (guitar), Veeder Van Dorn III (guitar), and Bob MacVittie (drums) releases Green-Eyed Woman (#3 in the U.S.). In 1975 they release Don't Call Us, We'll Call You (#9 in the U.S.)

'Vanishing Point', 1971

On Mar. 13, 1971 Richard C. Sarafian's Vanishing Point (20th Cent. Fox) debuts, starring Barry Newman as Vietnam Vet race car driver Kowalski, who tries to deliver a white 1970 Dodge Challenger R/T Magnum 440 from Denver, Colo. to San Francisco, Calif. a lot too fast, ending up being chased by police all the way while blind black disk jockey Super Soul (Cleavon Little) provides play-by-play commentary, calling him "the last American hero"; becomes a cult film; does $12.4M box office on a $1.58M budget; refilmed in 1997.

T.L. Winslow (TLW) (1953-), 1971

In May 1971 Denver, Colo.-born T.L. Winslow (1953-) graduates from Abraham Lincoln High School in S Denver, Colo. (class size 750); at the time it is 90%+ white, but by the end of the cent. it is 90%+ Hispanic; in Aug. he begins attending the U. of Colo. in Boulder, soon discovering software and computers, which he takes to like a duck to water, starting with a timeshared Nova minicomputer with BASIC, and a CDC-6400 mainframe with FORTRAN; meanwhile Winslow's Famous BBQ (originally City Market Barbecue) opens in Kansas City, Mo., owned by Don Winslow Jr. (1954-94), "the Sultan of Smokes", followed by his brother Dave Winslow, becoming a local legend until it closes in Oct. 2017 - no relation?

In Jan. 1972 the Big Mac Scandal rocks the Nat. Western Stock Show in Denver, Colo. when McDonald's pays $14,250 for a Black Angus Grand Champion steer which later turns out to be a white Charolais painted black.

On Apr. 7, 1972 Vietnam heli pilot Richard Floyd McCoy Jr. (1942-74) hijacks United Airlines Flight 855 (727) in Denver, Colo. with an unloaded pistol and toy grenade and extorts $500K; on Apr. 9 he is captured after he flies a heli for the Nat. Guard looking for the hijacker, and a driver who had picked him up earlier wearing a jumpsuit and carrying a duffel bag IDs him; after being given a 45-year sentence, he escapes on Aug. 10, 1974, then is killed in a shootout with police on Nov. 9, 1974 in Virginia Beach, Va.; in 1991 FBI agents Bernie Rhodes and Russell P. Calame pub. D.B. Cooper: The Real McCoy.

On June 15-18, 1972 the first Libertarian Party Nat. Convention in the U.S. is held in Denver, Colo.

In 1972 voters in Denver, Colo. reject by 62%-38% a $5M bond to pay for the 1976 XII Winter Olympics, and they are awarded to Innsbruck, Austria instead.

In 1972 the Denver Center for the Performing Arts (DCPA) is founded by Donald R. Seawell in a slummy part of downtown Denver, Colo. despite opposition from the Rocky Mt. News, and goes on to add the 2.7K-seat Boettcher Concert Hall (first concert hall in the round in the U.S.) in 1978, the 2,880-seat Buell Theatre in 1991, and the Seawell Ballroom in 1998.

Quebec Nordiques Logo Colorado Avalanche Logo

In 1972 the Quebec Nordiques of the World Hockey Assoc. (WHA) are founded in Quebec City, joining the NHL in 1979 as part of the NHL-WHA merger; after the 1994-95 season they move to Denver, Colo., becoming the Colorado Avalanche.

In 1972 the Denver Center for the Performing Arts (DCPA) is founded by Donald R. Seawell in a slummy part of downtown Denver, Colo. despite opposition from the Rocky Mt. News, and goes on to add the 2.7K-seat Boettcher Concert Hall (first concert hall in the round in the U.S.) in 1978, the 2,880-seat Buell Theatre in 1991, and the Seawell Ballroom in 1998.

On Feb. 13, 1973 the rock & roll club Ebbets Field is opened in downtown Denver, Colo., and features the Mark-Almond Band.

In June 1973 the Children's Museum of Denver is founded in Denver, Colo. in a traveling bus, moving in 1975 to Bannock St., then in 1984 to 2121 Children's Museum Dr. in downtown Denver, Colo. along the South Platte River, opening a $16.6M expansion on Nov. 20, 2015 and receiving 450K visitors/year.

On Apr. 24, 1974 the U.S. District Court for Colo. rules in Keyes v. School District No. 1, Denver, Colorado to order the school system of Denver, Colo. desegregated via busing, causing massive white flight to the suburbs, causing it to be more racially segregated than ever by Sept. 16, 1995, when it is allowed to drop the program by U.S. Judge Richard Matsch.

E. Stanley Kroenke (1947-) Ann Walton Kroenke (1948-)

In 1974 Columbia, Mo.-born Enos Stanley "Stan" Kroenke (1947-) marries fellow Missourian, Wal-Mart heiress Ann Walton Kroenke (1948-), then goes on to plow his real estate skills into building a multi-billion dollar empire, moving to Denver, Colo. and going on to buy the Denver Nuggets, Colo. Avalanche, Colo. Rapids, Colo. Mammoth, and Colo. Crush, and build the Pepsi Center in Denver and the Dick's Sporting Goods Park in Commerce City.

Rev. Charles E. Blair (1921-2009)

In 1976 Denver, Colo. pastor Charles E. Blair (1921-2009) of Calvary Temple, a pioneer in televangelism in Colo. is convicted of bilking investors, mainly church members of $17M in connection with his Blair Foundation and Life Center elderly care facility, which went bankrupt in 1974; no surprise, his adoring congregation continues to support him.

In 1976 the Colo. History Museum at 1300 Broadway in Denver, Colo. opens, closing on Mar. 28, 2010; on Apr. 28, 2012 the $111M History Colorado Center at 1200 Broadway opens 1 block to the S as its replacement.

Marvin Davis (1925-2004)

In 1977 Denver, Colo. billionaire Marvin Davis (1925-2004) attempts to buy the Oakland A's baseball team for $12.5M, but withdraws when the league refuses to let the team relocate to Denver.

On May 4, 1978 the first Denver Film Festival is held at the Tivoli Union on the Auraria Campus in Denver, Colo. (until ?).

Baby Doe's Matchless Mine Restaurant, Denver, Colo. 1978

In 1978 Baby Doe's Matchless Mine Restaurant opens at 2520 W. 23rd Ave. in Denver, Colo. overlooking I-25 and downtown Denver, owned by a group of former students of TLW's alma mater Abraham Lincoln H.S.; it is demolished on Oct. 23, 2007.

In 1979 concert promoter Barry Fey opens the Rainbow Music Hall at 6360 E. Evans Ave. in Denver, Colo., booking acts incl. Bob Dylan, Black Flag, R.E.M., and U before closing in 1989 and becoming a Walgreens Drug Store, which keeps the marquee until 2009.

'Dynasty', 1981-9

The Reagan Era begins on TV before he gets into the White House? On Jan. 12, 1981 (Mon.) the Esther and Richard Shapiro prime time soap opera Dynasty (their answer to "Dallas") debuts on ABC-TV for 220 episodes (until May 11, 1989), about the ever-warring Carrington and Colby clans (originally Parkhurst and Corby) of Denver, Colo., starring John Forsythe (John Lincoln Freund) (1918-2010) as Denver, Colo. oil baron Blake Carrington, Pamela Sue Martin (1953-) as his daughter Fallon Carrington Colby, Joan Collins (1933-) as his ex-wife Alexis Carrington, and Linda Evans (Evanstad) (1942-) as his fiancee Krystle Grant Jennings, who are ever at each other's throats, even getting into mud-wrestling; only some fixed shots are filmed in Denver, with the real action filmed in the Fioli Mansion in N Calif.; a 1983 episode features Pres. and Mrs. Gerald Ford, plus Henry Kissinger in a real-life Carousel Ball in Denver sponsored by Marvin and Barbara Davis, making it the only prime time soap to give onscreen roles to an ex-pres. and a secy. of state; the show goes on to run in parallel with the Reagan admin.

On Dec. 24, 1982 a blizzard hits TLW's town of Denver, Colo., dumping 2 ft. of snow in 24 hours; the inability of the city admin. to plow the streets in this town where deep snow rarely falls (despite its nat. image as a ski town, when it is actually not in the mountains but on the plains in front of the Front Range) causes longtime Denver mayor (since Dec. 1968) Bill McNichols to be ousted in the next election.

t-5-83, Or, Under a Blood Red Sky? On June 5, 1983 (Sun.) (eve.) the Irish rock band U2 gives a near-religious performance at Red Rocks Amphitheater outside Denver, Colo. to 4.4K rain-soaked fans, which is later released as U2 Live at Red Rocks: Under a Blood Red Sky, rocketing them to stardom; at the same time 16K fans watch Neil Diamond at McNichols Arena in Denver in his Heartlight tour.

Federico Peña of the U.S. (1947-)

The Hispanic pop. finally outvotes the Irish pop. in Dirty Denver? On July 2, 1983 after defeating Bill McNichols, Laredo, Tex.-born Federico Fabian Pena (Peña) (1947-) becomes mayor #41 of Denver, Colo. (until July 1, 1991), the first Hispanic, going on to help bring the Colorado Rockies ML baseball team to Denver in 1993.

John Elway (1960-) Jim Kelly (1960-) Tony Eason (1959-) Todd Alan Blackledge (1961-) Ken O'Brien (1960-) Dan Marino (1961-) Pat Bowlen (1984-)

On Apr. 26-27, 1983 the 1983 NFL Draft at the Sheraton Hotel in New York City becomes known as the Year of the Quarterback for the six QBs selected in round 1, incl. John Albert Elway Jr. (1960-) (pick #1) (Stanford U.) (Denver Broncos #7), James Edward "Jim" Kelly (1960-) (pick #14) (U. of Miami.) (Buffalo Bills #12), Charles Carroll "Tony" Eason IV (1959-) (pick #15) (U. of Ill.) (New England Patriots #11), Todd Alan Blackledge (1961-) (pick #17) (Penn State U.) (Kansas City Chiefs #14), Kenneth John "Ken" O'Brien (1960-) (pick #24) (UCD) (New York Jets #7), and Daniel Constantine "Dan" Marino (1961-) (pick #27) (U. of Pittsburgh) (Miami Dolphins #13); Elway balks at being drafted by the loser Baltimore Colts, and gets traded to the Mile-Hi Denver Broncos, saved from bankruptcy in 1984 by Prairie du Chien, Wisc.-born Patrick Dennis "Pat" Bowlen (1944-), which proves to be a good decision as he becomes the entire Colo. area's new sports god and wins two Super Bowls.

On Oct. 15, 1984 Monday Night Football hosts a football game in Denver, Colo.'s Mile-High Stadium featuring the Denver Broncos vs. the Green Bay Packers in the middle of a major snowstorm, becoming known as the Slip 'n' Slide Game; although it hardly ever snows in dry Denver (on the plains in front of the Rocky Mts.) thousands book ski trips, boosting the ski industry.

In 1986 the Central Platte Valley Comprehensive Plan Amendment is passed by the City Council of Denver, Colo., calling for urban renewal of Denver's Platte Valley, the largest tract of undeveloped land near a major city's downtown area in the U.S.; in Jan. 1990 Mayor Pena appoints a Steering Committee, which produces a revised version on June 1, 1991.

In 1986 Donald Trump saves the dirt-poor Hill Family of Burke County, Ga. from losing their family farm, and tries to keep his involvement secret, but when it leaks, uses his publicity to arrange for the family to go on talk shows to raise more money; meanwhile Denver, Colo.-based billionaire Marvin Davis beats Donald Trump to buy the posh Beverly Hills Hotel (where the Davises had stayed on their honeymoon) for $135M; he sells it next year to the Sultan of Brunei for $200M; the Davises move from Denver, Colo. to Beverly Hills, Calif.

Patricia Schroeder of the U.S. (1940-)

On Sept. 28, 1987 Harvard-educated U.S. Rep. (D-Colo.) (1973-97) Patricia Nell Scott "Pat" Schroeder (1940-) stinks herself up by tearfully announcing in Denver that she will not run for the 1988 Dem. pres. nomination in a weepy squinty speech, causing critics of women's lib to jump on the change, er, chance to say that women are too emotional to handle the top rag, er, job.

Phillip L. Hutchinson (1963-88)

On Feb. 9, 1988 (11:20 a.m.) Arlington County, Va.-born career criminal and escaped Tex. convict Phillip L. Hutchinson (b. 1963) robs the Rio Grande Operating Credit Union in Denver, Colo. then flees in his brown Chevy K5 Blazer not knowing that Denver is a police state, soon being tracked by a KCNC-TV news heli, crashing into a police car and killing Det. Robert "Bob" Wallis before crashing into a tree and fleeing on foot, attempting to hijack a women in a car with a baby then invading the home of 72-y.-o. John Laurienti, making him drive him in his pickup truck, almost getting away, driving right past a police car, until heli pilot Mike Silva lands right in front of him, after which police arrive and shoot it out, killing him.

On July 19, 1989 (3:16 p.m.) United Flight 232 en route from Denver, Colo. to Chicago, Ill. makes headlines for the miraculous survival of most passengers after the crew under Capt. Alfred C. Haynes (1932-) lands it without power in a cornfield near Sioux City, Iowa, saving 185 of 296 aboard.

On June 23, 1990 the $7M Colo. Convention (and Expo) Center at 700-14th St. in downtown Denver, Colo. opens with the NBA Draft for the Denver Nuggets; in 2004 it is expanded at a cost of $340M.

On July 11, 1990 (2:48 p.m.) a clear sunny day suddenly ends with softball-sized hail in Denver, Colo., stripping most of the branches and all of the leaves off trees, and causing $625M in property damage to roofs and cars, incl. TLW's white Mitsubishi Galant, which is pockmarked like a golf ball; a power failure traps 47 in a Ferris wheel, causing them to be battered by the hail; the worst hailstorm in U.S. history until a worse hailstorm on July 20, 2009.

On Aug. 26, 1990 after an initial race on July 5, 1909 in Brighton, Colo., followed by two more races in 1951-2 at Centennial Park, the Grand Prix of Denver Champ Car race is held in Denver, Colo., skipping 1992-2001 before ending in 2002-6; the winner of the 1990-1 races is Al Unser Jr.

James W. King (1936-)

On June 16, 1991 (9:14 a.m.) (Sun.) the Father's Day Bank Massacre in Denver, Colo. takes place when a lone gunman talks and shoots his way into the vault area of the United Bank at 17th Ave. and Broadway, killing four unarmed guards and making off with $200K; police later arrest former Denver police sgt. and bank security guard James W. King (1936-), but he is acquitted after testifying in his own behalf; no one else is ever charged, as the police claim they had their man.

Wellington E. Webb of the U.S. (1941-) The Cat in the Hat

On June 18, 1991 6'5" Chicago, Ill.-born Wellington E. Webb (1941-) (whose portrait bears a striking resemblance to Dr. Seuss' Cat in the Hat?) is elected as the first African-Am. mayor of Denver, Colo., taking office as Denver mayor #42 on July 15 (until July 21, 2003).

In June 1991 Miami and Denver are selected to become the homes of two Nat. League baseball expansion teams, the Florida Marlins and the Colorado Rockies, to begin playing in the 1993 season; the 1991 season sets a record of 56.9M spectators at games; the Marlins become the Miami Marlins on Nov. 11, 2011.

On Apr. 9, 1993 Eric Young leads off the first inning of the first home game of the Colorado Rockies in Denver with a home run, bringing the record-setting crowd of 80,227 to its feet.

In summer 1993 Denver, Colo.'s Summer of Violence leads to increased public awareness and harsher penalties for crimes by juveniles; in 2003 Denver has 220 gangs with 14K total members.

On Aug. 12, 1993 Pope John Paul II lands in a heli to visit 90K in Denver, Colo.'s Mile High Stadium (home of the Broncos), touring the stadium in his popemobile to kick off World Youth Day VIII (first held in 1984) in Cherry Creek State Park near Denver (attendance 186K), meeting with Pres. Clinton and Vice-Pres. Gore; his heli flies right by TLW's house as he visits Denver's Regis College? (coulda been a decoy); on Aug. 13 he says a private Mass for 1.5K at the Basilica of the Immaculate Conception in downtown Denver (Archbishop Cardinal Francis James Stafford), then hikes and reads poetry at a Catholic retreat in Allenspark; on Aug. 14 he gives a speech at Denver's McNichols Arena (home of the Nuggets), denouncing child abuse among U.S. priests; the closing 3-hour Mass on Aug. 15 is attended by 500K, the largest public gathering in Colo. history; 14K are treated for heat exhaustion; the visit becomes known as "God's Woodstock" for inspiring Catholic youth - too bad there's that celibacy thing?

Andres Galarraga (1961-)

In 1993 Venezuelan-born first baseman Andres Jose Padovani "the Big Cat" "El Gato" Galarraga (1961-) joins the Colorado Rockies, batting .370 for the season, leading the NL and hitting the highest avg. by a right-handed hitter since Joe DiMaggio's .381 in 1939; on June 25, 1995 he ties the ML record with a homer in three consecutive innings.

When I was young, so much younger than today, Or, A black mayor gives O.J. no place to run with a billion dollar boondoggle in Mile-Hi Denver, the Baggage System from Hell? In May 1994 the opening of Mayor Wellington Webb's new Denver Internat. Airport (DIA), (replacing Stapleton Airport), originally scheduled for Oct. 31, 1993 is delayed for a 4th time because of problems with the automated baggage system, developed by BAE Automated Systems Inc. of Dallas, which rips luggage apart in front of TV cameras, mishandles numerous bags over the 1995 Christmas season, and becoming a nat. laughing stock ("Lookout for falling suitcases"), eventually ballooning from $250M to $700M, and being dropped by every airline except United, which finally gives up trying to make it work and scraps it in 2005 to save $1M/mo. and lower its mishandled bag rate from 12.4 per 1K passengers to the companywide avg. of 5.6; the baggage system causes the airport to open in Feb. 1995, 16 mo. behind schedule and $2B over budget; it features the longest runway in the world, 3-mi.-long; it ends up a financial success after all?; too bad, it becomes the target of OWG conspiracy theories over its weird murals and network of secret sub-basements.

Coors Field, 1995

On Apr. 26, 1995 $300M Coors Field in Mile-Hi Denver, Colo. opens as the home of the ML Colorado Rockies, becoming the first baseball-only NL park since Dodger Stadium in 1962.

'Things to Do in Denver When Youre Dead', 1995

On Dec. 1, 1995 Gary Fleder's Things to Do in Denver When You're Dead (Miramax Films) debuts, written by Scott Rosenberg, becoming the dir. debut of Gary Fleder (1962-), starring Andy Garcia, Christopher Walken, Christopher Lloyd, Treat Williams, Steve Buscemi, Fairuza Balk, and Gabrielle Anwar in a so-so Quentin Tarantino ripoff, reviving the career of Treat Williams; tht title is taken from a 1991 Warren Zevon song; does $530K box office on an $8M budget.

Joe Sakic (1969-)

On June 4-11, 1996 the 1996 Stanley Cup Finals see the Colorado Avalanche win their first Stanley Cup in a 4-game sweep of the Florida Panthers in Miami, Fla., becoming Colo.'s first ML pro sports championship and finally ending the entire region's loser image created by the Denver Broncos and Denver Nuggets; the first NHL to win the Cup in the season following a relocation; MVP is Avalanche center (#19) Joseph Steven "Joe" Sakic (1969).

Lisl Auman (1976-)

On Nov. 12, 1997 Denver, Colo. police officer Bruce VanderJagt (b. 1950) is killed after a break-in at the apt. of Matthaus Jaehnig, the boyfriend of Lisl Auman (1976-), who kills himself; although she is handcuffed in a police car at the time, the powerful Denver Police Dept. gets more than enough justice for itself by getting her charged by the puppet Denver DA and convicted of the class 1 felony of felony murder by a jury of Denver dopes, then sentenced to life without parole by a puppet Denver machine judge; after Hollywood A-list actors and prominent attys. (incl. Hunter S. Thompson) hammer the system for her, it still takes until Mar. 2005 to get her conviction overturned by the Colo. Supreme Court, after which she pleads guilty anyway on July 11 to avoid a retrial and is sentenced to 20 years in prison - I'm kidnapped in Tokyo and am on a Japanese game show?

Dan Reeves (1944-)

The coming Armageddon is delayed by blond big boy god John Yahweh? On Jan. 31, 1999 Super Bowl XXXIII (33) is played in Miami, Fla., featuring Cher singing the U.S. nat. anthem; the Denver Broncos (AFC) defeat the Atlanta Falcons (NFC) 34-19 (2nd straight win); Broncos defensive tackle (#97) Michael Timothy "Mike" Lodish (1967-) becomes the first player to play in six SBs (Buffalo 1991-4, Denver 1998); MVP QB John Elway gets both a passing and running TD, incl. an 80-yard TD pass to Rod Smith which beats Atlanta safety Eugene Robinson, who received the Bart Starr Award for "high moral character" only to be arrested for soliciting an undercover ho the night before the game; happy big Leave it to Beaver boy Elway retires after the game; the Falcons had been the laughing stock of the NFL since their inception in 1966; the Atlanta coach is Elway's former Broncos coach Daniel Edward "Dan" Reeves (1944-), whom Elway got fired after two Super Bowl blowout losses - keep it up, Danny boy?

India.Arie (1975-)

On Mar. 27, 2001 Denver, Colo.-born R&B singer-songwriter India.Arie (India Marie Simpson) (1975-) releases her debut album Acoustic Soul (album) (debut) (Mar. 27) (#10 in the U.S.), which sells 5M copies, and features the tracks Video, Brown Skin, Strength, Courage and Wisdom, and Ready for Love. Album #2 Voyage to India (Sept. 24, 2002) (#6 in the U.S., #82 in the U.K.) sell 2M copies, and features Little Things, Can I Walk With You, The Truth, and Get It Together. Album #3 Testimony: Vol. 1, Life & Relationship (June 26, 2006) (#1 in the U.S., #103 in the U.K.) sold 700K copies, and features I Am Not My Hair (w/Akon), The Heart of the Matter, and There's Hope. Album #4 Testimony: Vol. 2, Love & Politics (Feb. 10, 2009) (#3 in the U.S.) sell 325K copies, and features Therapy, and Chocolate High (w/Musiq Soulchild). She goes on to sell 3.3M records in the U.S. and 10M worldwide.

Ray Bourque (1960-)

On May 26-June 9, 2001 the 2001 Stanley Cup Finals sees the Colorado Avalanche defeat the New Jersey Devils 4-3, becoming their 2nd win; the first Finals since 1989 where #1 seeds meet; former Boston Bruins star (#77) (1979-2000) Raymond Jean "Ray" Bourque (1960-) of the Avalanche wins his only Stanley Cup in his final NHL game; MVP is Avalanche goalie Patrick Roy.

The start of the big breeders vs. retirees war of the 21st cent.? In 2001 the Zickert Case begins in the cul-de-sac development of Highlands Ranch, Colo. (S of Denver), where two retirees go nuts with all the kids playing roller hockey in their cul-de-sac, and install surveillance cameras in an effort to get the sheriff's dept. to prosecute them, causing pro-hockey residents to successfully counter by lobbying county commissioners to designate their block a "play street" in 2003.

Earnest James Ujaama (1966-)

On July 22, 2002 Denver, Colo.-born Muslim convert Earnest James Ujaama (James Thompson) (1966-) of Seattle, Wash. is arrested at his grandmother's home in Denver, Colo.; in Apr. 2003 he pleads guilty to conspiring to deliver computer software and cash to Taliban officials in Afghanistan, and receives two years in prison; he allegedly wanted to establish a terrorist training camp on a ranch near Bly, Oregon.

Omar Khadr (1986-)

On July 27, 2002 Canadian-born Pakistani descent Muslim Omar Ahmed Khadr (1986-) is captured after a 4-hour firefight in Ayub Kheyl, Afghanistan after killing U.S. soldiers, becoming the youngest inmate at Gitmo, and getting latched onto by the U.N. and Western liberals as a child soldier, resulting in the Obama admin. accepting a plea bargain in Oct. 2010 that lets him walk in as little as a year.

Duane 'Dog' Chapman (1953-) Andrew Stuart Luster (1963-)

On June 18, 2003 Denver, Colo. bounty hunter Duane "Dog" Chapman (1953-) captures Max Factor heir Andrew Stuart Luster (1963-) in Puerto Villarta, Mexico, after he was convicted of raping three women and fled the U.S., catapulting the Dog to fame and resulting in the cable TV series Dog the Bounty Hunter on Aug. 31, 2004 (until June 23, 2012) (246 episodes); on Sept. 14, 2006 he and two associates are arrested in Hawaii on Mexican charges from the incident.

John Hickenlooper of the U.S. (1952-)

On July 21, 2003 Narberth, Penn.-born Quaker geologist John Wright Hickenlooper Jr. (1952-), owner of Wynkoop Brewing Co. brewpub and cousin of filmmaker George Hickenlooper becomes Dem. mayor #43 of Denver, Colo. (until Jan. 11, 2011).

On Mar. 21, 2005 a real life "Dumb and Dumber" occurs as Australians Luke Carroll and Anthony Prince stick up the WestStar Bank in Vail, Colo. with a BB gun, escaping with $132K, then go to Denver Internat. Airport to make a getaway flight to Mexico, stopping to have their photos snapped displaying fistfuls of their loot, and are arrested by FBI agents at the airport, who use the photos to ID them?

Juan Marcos Gutierrez Gonzales of Mexico

On May 8, 2005 (Mother's Day) illegal Mexican immigrant Raul Gomez-Garcia kills off-duty sacred cow Denver cop John "Jack" Bishop and wounds his partner at a baptism party at the Salon Ocampo banquet hall, then flees to Mexico, where he is later captured after an intensive manhunt in Denver and L.A.; on June 6 U.S. Sen. Wayne Allard (R-Colo.) asks U.S. secy. of state Condoleezza Rice to intervene with Mexico, followed on June 7 by U.S. Sen. Ken Salazar (D-Colo.) asking Mexico's atty. gen to make an exception in their extradition laws, followed on June 8 by U.S. Rep. (R-Colo.) (1999-2009) Tom Tancredo (1945-), introducing an amendment to open negotiations with Mexico to change its extradition laws; on June 13 the Mexican govt. says it will take 1-3 years to make a decision on returning him, and only if prosecutors agree not to seek the death penalty; on June 14 U.S. Rep. Bob Beauprez (R-Colo.) proposes a bill to block foreign aid to Mexico if it won't hand over the accused "cop-killer", commenting to the press that "I've vacationed in Mexico before; I know exactly what 'Mexican time' is"; on June 15 Mexican consul gen. Juan Marcos Gutierrez Gonzalez quips "I don't think he should call it Mexican time, it's legal time"; the extradition finally is done in 2006 after promises not to seek the death penalty; on June 16, 2006 Jaime Arana del Angel receives a max. 12 years as accessory to murder of a cop for burying the murder weapon and giving G-G a ride out of town, the taxi service meriting the max because it had "extraordinary, almost mind-boggling repurcussions", according to the prosecutors, costing them the chance to get G-G a death penalty; on Sept. 16, 2006 Gomez-Garcia is convicted of 2nd degree murder, and gets the max of 80 years - they can just lock him up with the right psycho?

The Fray

On Sept. 15, 2005 the Denver, Colo.-based rock band The Fray, incl. Isaac Edward Slade (1981-) (vocals) and Joe King (1980-) releases their debut album How to Save a Life (#14 in the U.S., #4 in the U.K.), which features the tracks How to Save a Life (#1 in the U.S., #4 in the U.K.), and Over My Head (Cable Car) (#8 in the U.S., #19 in the U.K.). Album #2 The Fray (Feb. 3, 2009) (#1 in the U.S., #8 in the U.K.) features You Found Me (#7 in the U.S., #35 in the U.K.), and Never Say Never (#32 in the U.S., #87 in the U.K.).

Marc Cohn (1959-)

Things Not to Do in Denver When You're Dead? On Aug. 7, 2005 Grammy-winning musician Marc Cohn (1959-), husband (since July 20, 2002) of ABC News anchor Elizabeth Vargas is shot in the head in downtown Denver, Colo. while returning to his hotel after a concert by carjacker Joseph William Yacteen (1979-), who shoots through the windshield; a bullet is removed from Cohen's right temple, and Yacteen is captured after a police standoff.

'Blue Bear Statue', by Lawrence Argent, 2005

In 2005 the 40-ft.-high Blue Bear Statue, designed by Lawrence Argent is built on the E side of the Colo. Convention Center in Denver, Colo.; it is made of polymer concrete and weighs 5 tons, dwarfing the 26-ft. 1954 Smokey Bear Statue in International Falls, Minn.

On May 1, 2006 A Day Without Immigrants (Un Dia Sin Inmigrantes) is staged in the U.S as 1M+ Hispanic immigrants walk off their jobs for one day to show gringos how much they're needed, incl. 400K in Chicago, 400K in Los Angeles, 75K in Denver, 50K in San Jose, Calif. and 20K in New York City; former Denver mayor (1983-91) Federico Fabian Pena (1947-), who grew up in Brownsville, Tex. speaks at the Denver rally, calling for a solution for all immigrants, not just Hispanic, dissing border fences and calling for amnesty after certain conditions are fulfilled - then the next group of ten jillion sneaks in, and?

On Sept. 10, 2006 Jeff Ingram (1966-) turns up on the streets of Denver, Colo. with amnesia, and after being put on TV news programs is recognized by relatives in Olympia, Wash.

Darrent Williams (1982-2007)

On Jan. 1, 2007 Denver Broncos cornerback (#27) Darrent Demarcus Williams (b. 1982) (AKA D-Will) is killed in his limo in downtown Denver, Colo. by drive-by shooters in a SUV right after his team loses their final game and is eliminated from the playoffs; the SUV is traced to Brian Hicks, leader of a Denver gang called the Elite Eight, formed in a New Year's Eve, 2002 pact, resulting in over 100 people being arrested in Apr. 2007 in the largest gang-drug sweep in Denver history; on Mar. 11, 2009 Willie Clark is found guilty of the murder.

In an age of electronic money, the U.S. govt. tries to figure out a way to phase-out paper money by issuing tokens? On Feb. 15, 2007 the U.S. Mint in Denver, Colo. releases the gold-colored George Washington Dollar Coin under the U.S. Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005, hoping it won't go the way of the Susan B. Anthony and Sacagawea dollar coins, while trying to convince a skeptical public to abandon paper dollars, which only last 18-22 mo. compared to 30 years for coins, and they claim would save the U.S. $500M a year if phased out; in Mar. the Denver Mint makes a mistake and puts out a bunch of Washington dollars missing the "In God We Trust" inscription; in May the Pres. John Adams dollar coin is released, followed by the James Madison coin in Nov., followed by all U.S. presidents who have been dead at least two years; Grover Cleveland gets two coins since he served two nonconsecutive terms; in May the gold $10 Martha Washington Coin for collectors is released, costing more than $400.

On Feb. 24, 2007 a 140-lb. jaguar kills female zookeeper Ashlee Pfaff (b. 1979) at the Denver Zoo in Denver, Colo. after a door to his cage is left open.

On May 31, 2007 Atlanta, Ga. atty. Andrew Speaker (1981-), who suffers from extremely drug-resistant TB contracted during charity work in Vietnam is taken to the Nat. Jewish Hospital in Denver, Colo. and quarantined (first person under federal quarantine since 1963) after he causes an internat. scare by flying to Europe to get married to Sarah Cooksey on Santorini Island in Greece, becoming known as the "TB Man"; his father-in-law Dr. Robert Cooksey is a CDC researcher specializing in TB, causing rumors that he got infected at the CDC lab; it is later learned he was misdiagnosed with XDRTB, and only has multiple drug-resistant TB (MDRTB).

On June 22, 2007 Harvard Law School grad. Larry Manzanares (b. 1957), a former Colo. district judge, who resigned as city atty. of Denver, Colo. in Feb. commits suicide at the Mamie Dowd Eisenhower Park hours after appearing in court on a slew of trumped-up felony charges involving a petty offense case of a stolen state court laptop computer found in his possession, which he claims he bought from a man in a parking lot for $200 and didn't know was stolen; the case was sensationalized when typical Colo. drunk-with-power prosecutor Scott Story called a press conference to introduce allegations of porno discovered on the laptop's drive (like just about every computer drive connect

The Flobots

On Oct. 16, 2007 the Denver, Colo.-based rock/hip hop band The Flobots, fronted by James "Jamie" "Jonny 5" Laurie (1977-), incl. Stephen Brackett, Mackenzie Gault, Andy Guerrero, Jesse Walker, and Kenny Ortiz release their debut album Fight With Tools, which features their 1-hit wonder Handlebars (#15 in the U.S.), and Rise. Album #2 Survival Story (Mar. 16, 2010) features White Flag Warrior (w/Tim McIlrath).

Clint Hurdle (1957-)

On Oct. 24-28, 2007 the 103rd (2007) World Series sees the Colorado Rockies (first-ever appearance) skunked by the Boston Red Sox 4-0; Rockies mgr. Clint Hurdle (1957-) turned the team (one of the lowest paying in the ML) around in mid-season by recruiting three underpaid wetback, er, Latin Am. pitchers, Ubaldo Jimenez (Dominican Repub.), Manny Corpas (Panama), and Franklin Morales (Venezuela), winning 21 of 22 to get to the WS (proving that U.S boys are getting too lazy to practice, preferring video games?).

On Apr. 11, 2008 Denver, Colo.-based Frontier Airlines declares bankruptcy, becoming the 4th airline in two weeks to do so after hundred-buck-a-barrel oil cuts their profits to zilch; meanwhile Delta and Northwest Airlines attempt to merge, pissing-off consumer advocates.

On May 30, 2008 Jeff Peckman meets with the Denver, Colo. city council and proposes an 18-member Extraterrestrial Affairs Commission to greet them.

On Aug. 25-28, 2008 (Mon.-Fri.) after the Dem. Party pulls off a con game in certifying Obama's constitutional eligibility, the 2008 Dem. Nat. Convention in Denver, Colo. is kicked off with the first-ever interfaith prayer meeting on Aug. 24, which scarf-wearing Canadian-born Muslim convert (pres. of the Islamic Society of North Am. since 2006) Ingrid Mattson (1963-) is invited to, pissing many off; meanwhile the pitiful few protesters are outnumbered by the police; on Aug. 26 after United Farm Workers (UFW) leader Dolores Huerta (1930-) places her name into nomination, Hillary Clinton gives a speech, starting out with "I am... a proud supporter of Barack Obama. My friends, it is time to take back the country we love"; too bad, her endorsement of Obama comes off lame and forced, as the obvious fact that he slammed the glass ceiling in her face in order to pick a white man to back him up hurts and it shows; is it to her advantage that Obama lose the election, allowing McCain a chance to stink the country up for four years in order to set her up for the White House?; too bad, if McCain were smart he'd pick Condoleezza Rice as his running mate, to trump the Dems. and win the election by a landslide, since he's got more experience than Biden, and Rice has more experience than Obama, and is 100% not 50% black, and is a woman to boot, giving Hillary supporters someone to vote for, and since McCain is an old fart Rice would have a realistic chance of being pres.?; on Aug. 25 police arrest 106 protesters, a record for the convention; it is later revealed that some of them were undercover Denver cops; on Aug. 27 Barack Obama becomes the 3rd Dem. nominee to give an outdoor acceptance speech (JFK in 1960, FDR in 1936), addressing 75K in Denver's Mile-Hi Invesco Field (home of the Denver Broncos) on a dazzling hi-tech stage complete with fake Greek columns as if he's a god, with a TV audience of 40M+, filled with the same old walk-on-water platitudes he's been giving all along, strung end-to-end, with few if any specifics other than the empty "change" message repeated ad infinitum, mixed with soundbytes about blacks (him) finally cracking through the barrier, incl. "America, we cannot turn back", and "This moment, this election, is our chance to keep, in the 21st century, the American promise alive"; his big celeb backer Oprah Winfrey (1954-) later calls it one of the greatest speeches ever given, saying "Just seeing him on stage, I cried my eyelashes off"; too bad, the thud with which he slammed the glass ceiling on Hillary backfires, causing him to get no convention bounce.

On Sept. 11, 2008 the Center for Empowered Learning and Living (CELL) opens in Denver, Colo. as the first museum specifically devoted to the subject of terrorism.

On Oct. 4, 2008 after the polls showing Obama making inroads in key battleground states, Sarah Palin gives a speech in Englewood, Colo., saying the "gloves are off, the heels are on", and digging up Obama's past associations with Weather Underground Org. co-founder (hubby of Bernardine Dohrn) William Charles "Bill" Ayers (1944-), who once planned to bomb the Pentagon and U.S. Capitol; Obama responds that his associations were slight and the bad stuff all happened when he was eight years old.

On Dec. 4, 2008 Barack Obama uses his hi-tech Internet capability that helped him get elected to mobilize momentum for health reform; on Dec. 5 the Denver Health Care Summit in Denver, Colo. is held, and HHS nominee Sen. Tom Daschle says that the economic collapse is due to high health care costs - therefore he's recommending that more medical schools be built and medical salaries driven down by increasing the number of medical personnel, er, he's recommending that the all-powerful AMA monopoly be bolstered by putting doctors on the govt. dole ahead of other social services so the rich can get richer? On Dec. 6 pres.-elect Obama promises the largest public works construction program since the creation of the U.S. interstate highway system 50 years ago as a part of his economic recovery program; meanwhile he picks U.S. gen. Eric Shinseki (who was forced into retirement in 2003 for telling Congress that more troops are needed in Iraq) as the veteran affairs secy.

On Dec. 20, 2008 Continental Airlines Flight 1404 en route to Houston, Tex. runs off the runway in Denver, Colo. in a snowstorm on takeoff, catching fire and injuring 38 of 112 aboard.

On Feb. 10, 2009 the U.S. Senate passes a $838B stimulus plan, while treasury secy. Timothy Geither unveils a strategy to protect banks and clear a lending logjam using $350B of the fall 2008 bailout plus as much as $2T more; on Feb. 11 by a straight party-line 61-37 vote, the U.S. Congress agrees on a compromise $720B economic stimulus bill, of which more than one-third is a tax cut for middle-income families, but dropping a housing tax credit; on Feb. 17 Pres. Obama signs the stimulus bill in Denver, Colo., site of his pres. nomination.

On Feb. 16, 2009 Obama's Trillion Dollar Week in the U.S. sees Pres. Obama travel to Denver, Colo. on Feb. 17 to sign the $877B stimulus package, putting a whopping $13 a week in each worker's paycheck.

On Apr. 15, 2009 (Tax Day) neo-Boston Tea Party Rallies are held in several U.S. cities, incl. Denver, Colo. against Obama's bailout policies, with some carrying signs calling him a traitor; Tex. Repub. gov. (since 2000) James Richard "Rick" Perry (1950-) tells a cheering crowd in Austin that the Obama admin. has abandoned the founding U.S. principles of limited govt., and strangled Americans with spending, debt, and taxation, and that if it keeps up Texas might secede - who's had a Jimmy Dean breakfast this morning?

Nazibullah Zazi (1985-)

On Sept. 16, 2009 Afghan-born Muslim Denver, Colo. shuttle bus driver Najibullah Zazi (1985-) and his aunt Rabia Zazi of Aurora, Colo. are questioned by the FBI about terrorist ties, and their homes searched; after hours of questioning he admits "possible" al-Qaida links, and on Sept. 24 he is charged with a conspiracy to use bombs made from chemicals purchased at beauty supply stores; on Feb. 22 he pleads guilty; on Mar. 5 Afghan-born Queens, N.Y. imam Ahmad Wais Afazli (1970-) pleads guilty to lying to the FBI about tipping them off about police investigation, and is deported - the Al-Shampoo Bomber?

On Nov. 3, 2009 an anti-immigrant measure in Denver, Colo. to force police to automatically impound cars of unlicensed drivers is rejected by 70%.

On Apr. 7, 2010 attemped shoe bomber Mohammed al-Modadi is subdued by federal air marshals on United Airlines Flight 663 en route from Washington, D.C. to Denver, Colo. with 157 passengers and six crew; he turns out to be a diplomat in the Qatar embassy with full diplomatic immunity, and isn't charged.

On July 26, 2010 anti-Mexican-immigrant former Colo. rep. Tom Tancredo leaves the Repub. Party to run for Colo. gov. on the ticket of the Am. Constitution Party to run against Dem. John Hickenlooper, mayor of Denver, insuring the latter's big V?

On Aug. 21, 2010 the Third Annual Topless Sat., founded by Rael is held in nine U.S. cities incl. Denver, Chicago, and Miami to fight for equal rights for women.

Bill Vidal of the U.S. (1951-)

On Jan. 12, 2011 after John Hickenlooper resigns to become Colo. gov., Camaguey, Cuba-born Dem. deputy mayor Guillermo "Bill" Vidal (1951-) becomes mayor #44 of Denver, Colo. (until July 18).

Michael Hancock of the U.S. (1969-)

On July 18, 2011 Fort Hood, Tex.-born Dem. Michael Hancock (1969-) becomes mayor #45 of Denver, Colo. (until ?) (2nd African-Am.); on May 5, 2015 he is reelected with 80.16% of the vote.

On Nov. 6, 2012 (Tues.) the 2012 U.S. Pres. Election is a V for Pres. Barack Obama over wealthy Mormon Repub. challenger Willard Mitt Romney (1947-) (not officially backed by the LDS Church), with 332 vs. 206 electoral votes, and 26 vs. 24 states, plus Washington, D.C.; Obama wins 65.9M votes (51%) vs. 60.9M (47.2%) for Romney; $6B is spent by both sides on the election; Latinos comprise 10% of the electorate for the first time; Pat Buchanan utters the soundbyte: "White America died last night. Obama's reelection killed it. Our 200 plus year history as a Western nation is over. We're a Socialist Latin American country now. Venezuela without the oil"; Colo. and Wash. become the first U.S. states to legalize recreational marijuana use.

On Mar. 12, 2014 (a.m.) after hijacking a SUV with a 4-y.-o. boy inside in Longmont, Colo., wanted man Ryan Stone (1985-) leads police in the Denver, Colo. area on a wild car chase before being apprehended as viewers watch on TV from a heli cam.

On Apr. 19-20, 2014 the annual 420 Denver Weed Rally in the Denver, Colo. Civic Center celebrates state marijuana legalization and protests remaining restrictions.

Jacqueline Ros

In spring 2015 after her sister is assaulted, former schoolteacher Jacqueline Ros of Denver, Colo. and Andre Perdomo found Revolar to manufacture hand-held panic button devices, obtaining crowdfunding and venture capital; too bad, next June 28 Security5 of San Diego, Calif. files a patent infringement lawsuit, and the company ends up in bankruptcy by late 2017.

In Nov. 2016 Denver, Colo. becomes the first U.S. city to legalize social marijuana use.

On Apr. 20, 2017 the annual 420 Denver Weed Rally in the Denver, Colo. Civic Center leaves piles of trash.

On Apr. 22, 2017 1M protesters in 600 U.S. cities stage an anti-Trump March for Science, incl. the Scientists' March on Washington in Washington, D.C., attended by 100K concerned over climate change and Pres. Trump's stance on it; on Apr. 29 (100th day of the Trump admin.) another People's Climate March in Washington, D.C. is atttended by thousands in sweltering heat, while the U.S. EPA announces that its main climate change Web site is "undergoing changes" to better reflect its "new direction"; 300 sister marches are held in Boston, Chicago, San Francisco, Seattle et al.; the march in Denver is held in a spring snowstorm.

On Nov. 26, 2017 300 mainly black protesters assail the Ink! Coffee Shop at 28th Ave. and Larimer St. in the mainly black Five Points area of Denver, Colo. for displaying a sign reading "Helpingly gentrifying the area since 2014", complaining about poor residents losing their homes to rising prices while splattering graffiti across the front, forcing it to close for several days while gaining global publicity.

On Jan. 9, 2018 Pres. Trump holds an hour-long Conference on Immigration with Repub. and Dem. lawmakers, opening it to the press, calling for "a bill of life" that addresses DACA while ending chain migration, secures the border by building a wall, and cancels the visa lottery program; at the private meeting he allegedly utters the soundbyte: "Why are we having all these people from shithole countries come here?", referring to Haiti and Africa, adding that he prefers people from countries like Norway, pissing-off the PC police, who call him a racist and ignore the fact that he's right because that's what they are?; he really said shithouse?; several meeting attendees later deny hearing the s-word; speaking of shithole, Dirty Denver, Colo., known for being run by leftist Dems. makes the city a sanctuary city for illegal immigrants, and makes them feel welcome by reducing punishment for public shitting.

On Mar. 7, 2018 Denver for Psilocybin holds a rally on the steps of the City and County Bldg. of Denver, Colo. to legalize magic mushrooms.

On June 4, 2018 the U.S. Supreme (Roberts) Court rules 7-2 in Masterpiece Cakeshop v. Colo. Civil Rights Commission that a Denver, Colo. bakery owned by conservative Christians was within its rights in refusing to bake a wedding cake for a gay couple, but doesn't rule on the larger issue of whether all business may hide behind the First Amendment to discriminate against gays, limiting their decision to language used by the commissioners that showed hostility toward religion rather than neutrality; Ginsburg and Sotomayor dissent on the grounds that the gays were discriminated against for what they were, not for any offensive message on the cake - having to show one butt-fucking the other didn't matter?

On May 9, 2019 voters in Mile City Denver, Colo. narrowly (50.6%) approve Initiative 301 to decriminalize psychedelic "magic" mushrooms (psilocybin); actually possession remains illegal, but police will lower it to their lowest priority; they were only making about 50 busts/year anyway.

On June 4, 2019 (Tues.) radical Candi CdeBaca wins a runoff election for city council of Denver, Colo. against council pres. Albus Brooks, immediately promising to impose Communism "by any means necessary".

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