TLW's Indiascope™ (India Historyscope)
By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™
© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.
Original Pub. Date: Sept. 7, 2016. Last Update: Apr. 16, 2017.
Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to India's history. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Master Historyscope.
In 3300 B.C.E. a Chalcolithic culture settlement in Harappa in Punjab, E Pakistan (Land of Five Rivers) (named after the Ravi River) in the Indus Valley contains evidence of connection between Indian and Sumerian cultures.
In 2600 B.C.E. the pop. in the Indus Valley and Sarasvati regions begins to mushroom due to farming (ends -2000), building a large city at Mohenjo-Daro in S Sind, Pakistan, with public bldgs. and sanitation.
The Day of the Aryans? About 1800 B.C.E. after the invention of the chariot, the white-is-right Aryan Migration (Invasion) of Indo-Iranian Medes, Persians, Parthians, Bactrians, and Arachosians from S Russia through Afghanistan into the Iranian Plateau begins (ends -850), while more Aryan tribes invade N India, setting up a white supremacist religious civilization based on several kingdoms run by rajahs, and hierarchical social classes of priests, warriors, farmers, traders, and Dravidians (dark skinned non-Aryans).
About 1500 B.C.E. the Vedic Period begins in India (ends -500), with major portions of the 1,028 Veda Hymns (Vedas) (Sans. "veda" = knowledge) being composed, incl. the Rig Veda (Royal Knowledge), Sama Veda (Chant Knowledge), Yajur Veda (Sacrificial Ritual Knowledge), Atharva Veda (Knowledge of Incarnations); the Universe was allegedly evolved by self-existent Brahma (Sans. "worship") (Prajapati) the Creator (part of the Hindu Trimurti or Triad) from a cosmic egg; he originally had five heads, until Siva (Sans. "auspicious") the Destroyer, god of destruction and reproduction, the 3rd member of the Hindu Trinity destroys four of them, and he becomes red and rides on a swan with his consort Saraswati ("eloquence personified"), who becomes the goddess of writing and the arts; meanwhile the 2nd member Vishnu (Sans. "all-pervader") the Preserver stabilizes everything, going on to have several human incarnations, incl. Krishna (Kistna) - where are the sex manuals?
About 1500 B.C.E. the Laws of Manu (Manu Smriti) are written in India by the Seventh Manu (ruler of the Earth for this age, which is the 7th Manvantara), institutionalizing the wonderful caste system; "Man is purer above the navel than below, hence the purest part is his mouth"; really written in the 2nd cent. B.C.E.? - a horse is a horse, of course, of course?
About 1000 B.C.E. Takshashila U. is founded in Taxila ("city of cut stone") in Rawalpindi, Punjab, India, becoming the world's first university, growing to 10.5K students from India, Greece, Babylon, China, Phoenicia, Arabia, and Syria studying 68 different courses; teachers incl. Kautilya, Panini, Jivak, and Vishnu Sharma; after invading Punjab, Alexander the Great takes several scholars back with him to Greece; the Hephthalites (Hunas) destroy it ca. 460 C.E.
About 1000 B.C.E. the Kingdom of Vanga (Banga) in NE India is founded.
About 1000 B.C.E. the Late Vedic Period in India ends; by this time the Vedas, by the seven Rishis (Shining Ones) (stars of the Great Bear) are written; Sanskrit as a spoken language begins to break down over the next two cents.
In 967 B.C.E. during King Solomon of Israel's reign the first Jews arrive in India in Solomon's merchant fleet, and some settle in Cochin in S India, later being joined by Jews from Spain et al.; meanwhile a group of 14 shipwrecked Jews settle on the Konkan coast of W Maharashtra, calling themselves Bene Israel.
About 900 B.C.E. Rishabha (Adinatha) (First Protector) AKA Adishvara or Adeshvara (Primal Lord), the 23rd Tirthankara (ford maker) allegedly founds Jainism (Sansk. "to conquer"), the religion of not hurting a fly (non-violence and self-control), which peaks in India in the 8th cent. B.C.E., and after all the carnage is now down to 4M followers, albeit 90+% literate.
About 900 B.C.E. the Sanskrit Mahabharata, the world's longest epic poem is written in India, about the struggle between the Pandava and Kaurava families - the original Dallas, Dynasty, and Falcon Crest?
In 800 B.C.E. the Axial (Axis) Age of Karl Jaspers (1883-1969) begins (ends -200), when "the great world traditions that have continued to nourish humanity came into being: Confucianism and Daoism in China; Hinduism and Buddhism in India; monotheism in Israel; and philosophical rationalism in Greece", and where "What mattered was not what you believed but how you behaved", and the concept of kenosis (Greek for emptying), "spirituality of self-surrender" is the goal.
About 600 B.C.E. the region of Bombay on the W coast of the Indian peninsula is overrun and controlled by the Persians (until -327).
About 600 B.C.E. Sushruta (Sansk. "well-heard") of Varanasi, India becomes the first plastic surgeon and father of surgery, leaving a Compendium, containing descriptions of 1,120 illnesses, 700 medicinal plants, and detailed surgical techniques for incisions, probing, cauterization, prostate gland removal, hernia surgery, cataract surgery, Caesarian section et al.
On Apr. 12, 599 B.C.E. (13th day of the rising moon of Chaitra) Indian Lord Mahavira (Sans. "Great Hero") (Vardhamana) (d. -527), AKA Vardhamana (Sans. "increasing") (for bring prosperity to the kingdom while still in the womb) is born in Kundalpur, Vaishali (modern-day Bihar, India) as the son of King Siddartha and Queen Trishala, going on to found of Jainism, claiming to be the 24th and last Tirthankara ("fordmaker"), who founds a Jain Tirth (community) that acts as a ford across the river of human misery.
In 563 B.C.E. Indian sage Siddhartha (Sans. "siddha" + "artha" = achieved meaning), Prince Fo of the Sakya (Shakya) tribe of Kapilavastu and its Gautama (Gotama) clan (founded by Hindu philosopher Gautama is born in Lumbini, Shakya Repub. (Nepal), who goes on to write the Institutes of Gautama); he is later called the Buddha (Sans. "awake", "enlightened") (-563 to -483); before enlightenment under the Bodhi (Bo) Tree (a special old sacred fig tree of species ficus religiosa with heart-shaped leaves at the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya, 62 mi. from Patna, Bihar, India) he is called Bodhisattva (Sans. "one destined for enlightenment").
In 345 B.C.E. Mahapadma Nanda (-400 to -329) ("Destroyer of all the Kshatriyas") usurps the throne of Maghada in N India from Shishunaga, and founds the Nanda Dynasty (ends -321), which becomes known for its great wealth, building a 200K-man infantry with 20K-80K cavalry, 2K-8K war chariots, and 3K-6K war elephants, extending his rule from Bengal to Punjab, and S to the Vindhya Range and the Deccan Plateau, becoming the first great empire of N India.
In 327 B.C.E. Alexander III the Great's gen. Craterus (-370 to -321), known for going lion hunting with him in the nude is given the first independent command in the Macedonian army to take on the Tapurians of Hyrcania; meanwhile late in the year Alexander invades India at the invitation of Taxiles (King Ambhi of Taxila), who wants him to fight King Porus (Parvataka), and with Roxane at his side he crosses the Hindu Kush into N India, then over the Indus River, capturing Persian-held Bombay; too bad, upon seeing the 4K well trained and equipped war elephants of the Nanda Empire, his forces mutiny at the Beas River; his dog Peritas (Gr. "January"), of the Skilos tou Alexandrou (Molosser) Mastiff breed (which has been with him since age 11) dies on a pass in India, causing Alexander to later name a city after him - it's fun to get out and meet people?
In 322 B.C.E. the Greek Money Honey out of the way, Chandragupta Maurya (Sandrocottus) (-340 to -297) overthrows the Nanda throne in Magadha in modern-day Bihar, home of Buddhism and Jainism, and next year founds the Maurya Empire in India (ends -185), going on to extend his control over most of the subcontinental mainland in the next decade; Chanakya (-350 to -283), who engineers his rise to power becomes his PM, writing the Arthashastra, a treatise on statecraft, economic policy, and military policy; Greek control of India slips slides away, but leaves a lasting imprint in Indian art (esp. sculpture) and science.
In 301 B.C.E. Chandragupta (d. -297) abdicates to become a Jainist ascetic, going on to starve himself to death, and his son Bindusara ("the Spotted One") Maurya (d. -273) becomes king #2 of the Maurya Empire in Magadha, India (until -273).
In 273 B.C.E. Bindusara Maurya dies, and in 269 after killing 99 of 100 brothers, his son Ashoka (Asoka) (Sansk. "without grief") Maurya (the Great) (-304 to -232), grandson of Chandragupta becomes king #3 of the Maurya Dynasty in Magadha, India (until -232), going on to become "the greatest ruler the world has seen" (H.G. Wells), and a patron of Buddhism, producing the earliest known writings in the sacred language of Pali (Sans. "row", "line", "series") ("language of mankind's philosophy").
In 1336 the Vijayanagara ("city of victory") (Karnata) Empire (Kingdom of Bisnegar) (modern-day Hampi) (ends 1646) is founded on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in S India by two brothers from Warangal, who defeat the neighboring sultans N of Kistna and Tungabhadra and dominate S India by 1370, becoming a Brahman and Dravidian center, protecting India's S flank from Muslim invasion; temple patronage is expanded beyond the twice-born castes to Shudras, merchants, and women.
In 1370 with visions of Genthis Khan dancing in his head, Turkic Mongol warlord Tamerlane (Tamburlaine) (Timur-i Lang) (Timur Lenk) (Timur Leng) (Temur the Lame) (Tamerlano) (1336-1405) ("timur" = iron)gains control of the W Chagatai Khanate, going on to campaign across W, S, and C Asia, followed by Caucasus and S Russia, going on to becoming the most powerful ruler of the Muslim World and found the short-lived Timurid Empire. On Dec. 17, 1398 Tamerlane conqueres Delhi, India, sacking it and massacring the Hindu pop. in cold blood like er, cows, this is the ultimate Muslim religious experience. In his own words "In a short space of time all the people in the Delhi fort were put to the sword, and in the course of one hour the heads of 10,000 infidels were cut off, the sword of Islam was washed in the blood of the infidels, and all the goods and effects, the treasure and the grain which for many a long year had been stored in the fort became the spoil of my soldiers... Their women and children and their property and goods became the spoil of the victors. I proclaimed throughout the camp that every man who had infidel prisoners should put them to death, and whoever neglected to do so should himself be executed and his property given to the informer. When this order became known to the ghazis of Islam, they drew their swords and put their prisoners to death. One hundred thousand infidels, impious idolaters, were on that day slain. Maulana Nasiruddin Umar, a counselor and man of learning, who in all his life had never killed a sparrow, now, in execution of my order, slew with his sword fifteen idolatrous Hindus, who were his captives.... On the great day of battle these 100,000 prisoners could not be left with the baggage, and that it would be entirely opposed to the rules of war to set these idolaters and enemies of Islam at liberty... No other course remained but that of making them all food for the sword." What happened to Miranda rights and civilian trials with Jewish defense attorneys? And you thought Hitler was bad, or the Crusades or Inquisition. Imagine a Tamerlane Century 21 in America. After what Islam did to it, Delhi took a century to recover, and only after they realized that there were too many to slaughter did the Muslim clergy devise the fiction that Hindus are People of the Book.
Babar conquers North India and turns it into a Tower of Babel? In 1525 Muslim Turkish Mongol chief (5th-gen. descendant of Tamerlane) Babar (Babur) (Baber) ("Tiger") (Xahir-ud-Din Muhammad)(1483-1530), prince of Ferghana in Afghanistan marches through Afghanistan and Persia, headed for the Punjab. On Apr. 20-21, 1526 the First Battle of Panipat sees the Delhi Sultanate under Ibraham Lodi defeated by Turkic Muslim Babar (Babur) (Baber) ("Tiger") (Xahir-ud-Din Muhammad) (1483-1530), who occupies Delhi and Aghra and becomes emperor #1 of the Mughal (Mogul) Empire in N India (until Dec. 26, 1530), which peaks at 4M sq. km, making it the 2nd largest after the Maurya Empire (5M sq. km), founding a line that "builds like giants and finishes like jewelers", adopting Hindustani (derived from an obscure dialect of Western Hindi, which, along with Eastern Hindi is derived from Prakrit) as its official language; religious toleration is allowed, and the Muslims introduce Arabic and Persian words and form the subdialect of Urdu, written in a Persian script, pissing-off "patriotic" Hindus, causing them to create the artificial subdialect of Hindi (different than the Western Hindi language, parent of Hindustani), purging the Muslim words and substituting Sanskrit, and writing it with the Devanagari script, causing a Hindustani subdialect war in India.
On Oct. 28, 1627 Mughal emperor #4 (since Oct. 15, 1605) ("Conqueror of the World") ("Possessor of the Planets") ("Mirror of the Glories of God") ("King of Increasing Fortune") Jahangir (b. 1569) dies, leaving 2,235,600 carats of pearls, 931,500 carats of emeralds, 376,600 carats of rubies, 279,450 carats of diamonds, and 186,300 carats of jade, and next Jan. 19 his son Prince Khurram becomes Great Mogul (Mughal) #5 Shah Jahan (Jehan) (1592-1662) (Pers. "King of the World) (until July 31, 1658), going on to extend the empire S through the Deccan to the Maratha States.
On June 17, 1631 Arjumand Shah Begum (b. 1593) (AKA Mumtaz Mahal, or Jewel of the Palace), 2nd wife of Indian Mughal emperor #5 (1628-58) Shah Jahan dies in childbirth after bearing him 14 children; he dedicates the drop-dead-gorgeous Mughal-style white domed Taj Mahal (Pers. "best of buildings") on the banks of the Yamuna River in Agra (built in 1632-53) to her memory; the project costs $18M.
On July 31, 1658 Mughal) emperor (since Jan. 19, 1628) Shah Jahan (1592-1666) is deposed and imprisoned by his 3rd son Abul Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Mohammad Aurangzeb (great-grandson of Akbar the Great), who murders his two older brothers and becomes Aurangzeb (Aurungzeb) (1618-1707) (AKA Alamgir = "Universe-seizer"), Mughal emperor #6 of India (until Mar. 3, 1707), going on to extend the empire S again through the Maratha States almost to the S tip of India, becoming known for incorporating Hindus in his admin. in high places although he is a devout Muslim, reaching a yearly tribute of 38.6M British pounds in 1690; trying to top his daddy's Taj Mahal, he builds the Pearl Mosque in Delhi in 1659-60, and the Aurangzeb Mosque in Benares in 1674.