Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Max Planck (1858-1947) Marie Curie (1867-1934) Sir Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) Niels Bohr (1885-1962) William Butler Yeats (1839-1922) Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) Erwin Schrodinger (1887-1961) Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953)

TLW's Nobel Prizes Historyscope

By T.L. Winslow (TLW), the Historyscoper™

© Copyright by T.L. Winslow. All Rights Reserved.

Original Pub. Date: July 1, 2012. Last Update: Feb. 6, 2017.

Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) Hermann Hesse (1877-1962) Paul Hermann Mueller (1899-1965) Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) Rudolf Mossbauer (Mössbauer) (1929-) James D. Watson (1928-) and Francis H.C. Crick (1916-2004) Richard Phillips Feynman (1918-88) Arno Allan Penzias (1933-) Robert Woodrow Wilson (1936-)



Short url for this page: http://tinyurl.com/nobelprizeshistory


What Is A Historyscope?


Westerners are not only known as history ignoramuses, but double dumbass history ignoramuses when it comes to the Nobel Prizes. Since I'm the one-and-only Historyscoper (tm), let me quickly bring you up to speed before you dive into my Historyscopes.

I can't prove it in court, but it is a sign of Jewish influence when a field of thought or endeavor becomes dominated by a yearly prize, putting all the elements into the equation incl. financing, publicity, and politics. Spoiler: During the first 105 years, 14 million Jews won 180 Nobel Prizes, vs. only 3 won by 1.5 billion Muslims. Not that the Jews cheated, it's just that they like becoming kings and princes of every intellectual field, setting the bar for others, may they live long and prosper. Not that a lot of winners weren't areligious, agnostic, or atheist. As to the Christians, maybe they figure they've got Da Savior and don't need to rely on just being remembered for brain work.

Alfred Nobel (1833-96)

The Nobel Prizes owe their funding to a mass murderer, the original Rosemary's Baby of not 1966 but 1866. In 1866 non-Jewish Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel (1833-96) discovered dy-no-mite dynamite, which he called "Improved Explosive Compound", uttering the immortal soundbyte: "I should like to invent a substance or machine with such terrible power of mass destruction that war would thereby be made impossible forever"; he received a patent on Nov. 25, 1867, insuring vast riches as his prediction proved to work out the opposite, and in 1888 after reading his obituary he decided to create the Nobel Prizes in his will, sorry, you can't take it with you to Hell.

Nobel Medal, 1901- Jean Henri Dunant (1828-1910) Frederic Passy (1822-1912) Rene Sully Prudhomme (1839-1907) Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen (1854-1923) Jacobus H. van't Hoff (1852-1911) Emil Adolph von Behring (1854-1917) Erik Lindberg (1873-1966)

On Dec. 10, 1901 (St. Lucia's Day) (5th anniv. of Alfred Nobel's death) (4:30 p.m.) the first Nobel Prizes are awarded in the Stockholm Concert Hall after a rehearsal; Red Cross founder Jean Henri (Henry) Dunant (1828-1910) of Switzerland and Frederic Passy (1822-1912) of France win the first Nobel Peace Prize (done that, it's passe?); Rene Francois Armand Sully Prudhomme (1839-1907) of France wins for Literature; 6 of the first 9 lit. winners wear beards (Giosue Carducci's is the most bristly and pointy); Wilhelm Konrad (Conrad) Roentgen (Röntgen) (1845-1923) of Germany wins for Physics [X-rays]; Jacobus Henricus van't Hoff (1852-1911) of the Netherlands wins for Chemistry [stereochemistry], and Emil Adolph von Behring (1854-1917) of Germany wins for Medicine and Physiology (antitoxins); the first Nobel Prize Medals (23-carat, 2.5 in. diam., .25 kg), designed by Swedish artist Erik Lindberg (1873-1966) are minted next year, with a bas-relief of Alfred Nobel on the obverse, and Isis and the genius of Science (lifting a veil from her face) on the reverse; women only get 34 of the first 800?

Elie Ducommun (1833-1906) Charles Albert Gobat (1843-1914) Theodor Mommsen (1817-1903) Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943) Hermann Emil Fischer (1852-1919) Sir Ronald Ross (1857-1932)

1902: Peace: Elie Ducommun (1833-1906) and Charles Albert Gobat (1843-1914) (Switzerland); Lit.: Theodor Mommsen (1817-1903) (Germany); Physics: Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) and Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943) (Netherlands) [Zeeman Effect]; Chem.: Hermann Emil Louis Fischer (1852-1919) (Germany) [sugar chem.]; Med.: Sir Ronald Ross (1857-1932) (U.K.) [malaria].

Sir William Randal Cremer (1818-1908) Bjornstjerne Bjornson (1832-1910) Marie Curie (1867-1934) Pierre Curie (1859-1906) Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927)

1903: Peace: Sir William Randal Cremer (1828-1908) (U.K.); Lit.: Bjornstjerne Martinius Bjornson (1832-1910) (Norway); Physics: Marie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) and Pierre Curie (1859-1906) and Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) (France) [radioactivity]; Chem.: Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927) (Sweden) [electrochemistry]; Med.: Niels Ryberg Finsen (1860-1904) (Denmark) [phototherapy]; Marie Curie becomes the first female guest at the Nobel banquet at the Stockholm Stadhus, which in 1913-36 always serves turtle soup; she also becomes the first female to be granted a doctorate in France.

Frederic Mistral (1830-1914) Jose Echegaray (1932-1916) John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh (1841-1919) Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916) Ivan P. Pavlov (1849-1936)

1904: Peace: Inst. de Droit Internat. (Belgium); Lit.: Frederic Mistral (1830-1914) and Jose Echegaray y Eizaguirre (1832-1916) (Spain); Physics: John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh (1842-1919) (U.K.) [noble gases]; Chem.: Sir William Ramsay (1852-1916) (U.K.) [helium]; Med.: Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936) (Russia) [digestion not salivation] - the prize for the richest collection of surnames?

Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914) Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916) Philipp Lenard (1862-1947) Adolf von Baeyer (1835-1917) Robert Koch (1843-1910)

1905: Peace: Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914) (Austria) (first woman to win Nobel Peace Prize, 2nd woman to win a Nobel Prize); Lit.: Henryk Adam Aleksander Pius Sienkiewicz (1846-1916) (Poland); Physics: Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard (1862-1947) (Germany) [cathode rays]; Chem.: Adolf Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer (1835-1917) (Germany) [synthesis of organic dyes]; Medicine: Robert Heinrich Herman Koch (1843-1910) (Germany) [anthrax].

U.S. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) Giosue Carducci (1835-1907) Sir Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940) Henri Moissan (1852-1907) Camillo Golgi (1843-1926) Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934)

1906: Peace: Theodore "T.R." Roosevelt Jr. (1858-1919) (U.S.); Lit.: Giosue (Giosuè) Alessandro Giuseppe Carducci (1835-1907) (Italy); Physics: Sir Joseph John "J.J." Thomson (1856-1940) (U.K.); Chem.: Ferdinand Frederick Henri Moissan (1852-1907) (France) [electric arc furnace]; Med.: Camillo Golgi (1843-1926) (Italy) [Golgi Apparatus] and Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934) (Spain) [Cajal's Cells].

Ernesto Teodoro Moneta (1833-1918) Ernesto Teodoro Moneta (1833-1918) Louis Renault (1843-1918) Albert Abraham Michelson (1852-1931) Eduard Buchner (1860-1917) Charles Louise Alphonse Laveran (1845-1922)

1907: Peace: Ernesto Teodoro Moneta (1833-1918) (Italy) and Louis Renault (1843-1918) (France); Lit.: Joseph Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) (U.K.); Physics: Albert Abraham Michelson (1852-1931) (U.S.); Chem.: Eduard Buchner (1860-1917) (Germany) [enzymes]; Medicine: Charles Louise Alphonse Laveran (1845-1922) (France) [malaria].

Klas Pontus Arnoldson (1844-1916) Fredrik Bajer (1837-1920) Rudolf Christoph Eucken (1846-1926) Gabriel Jonas Lippmann (1845-1921) Sir Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) Elie Mechnikov (1845-1916)

1908: Peace: Klas Pontus Arnoldson (1844-1916) (Sweden) and Fredrik Bajer (1837-1920) (Denmark); Lit.: Rudolf Christoph Eucken (1846-1926) (Germany); Physics: Jonas Ferdinand Gabriel Lippmann (1845-1921) (France) [Lippmann Plate]; Chem.: Sir Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) (U.K.) [alpha rays]; Medicine: Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) (Germany) [antibodies] and Ilya Ilyich "Elie" Mechnikov (1845-1916) (Russia) [phagocytosis].

Auguste M.F. Beernaert (1829-1912) Paul H.B.B. d'Estournelles de Constant de Rebecque (1852-1924) Selma Lagerlöf (1858-1940) Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) Karl Ferdinand Braun (1850-1918) Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932) Emil Theodor Kocher (1841-1917)

1909: Peace: Auguste Marie Francois Beernaert (1829-1912) (Belgium) and Baron Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles, Baron de Constant de Rebecque (Rébecque) (1852-1924) (France); Lit.: Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlof (Lagerlöf) (1858-1940) (Sweden) (first woman); Physics: Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) (Italy) [radio] and Karl Ferdinand Braun (1850-1918) (Germany) [CRT]; Chem.: Wilhelm Ostwald (1853-1932) (Germany) [electrochemistry]; Med.: Emil Theodor Kocher (1841-1917) (Switzerland).

Paul von Heyse (1830-1914) Johannes Diderik van der Waals (1837-1923) Otto Wallach (1847-1931) Albrecht Kossel (1853-1927)

1910: Peace: Bureau Internat. Permanent de la Paix (Internat. Peace Bureau) (founded 1891) (Switzerland); Lit.: Paul Johann Ludwig von Heyse (1830-1914) (Germany); Physics: Johannes Diderik van der Waals (1837-1923) (Netherlands); Chem.: Otto Wallach (1847-1931) (Germany) [aromatic compounds]; Medicine: Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel (1853-1927) (Germany) [discovery of adenine and thymine in nucleic acid].

Tobias Michael Carel Asser (1838-1913) Alfred Hermann Fried (1864-1921) Maurice Maeterlinck (1862-1949) Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928) Marie Curie (1867-1934) Allvar Gullstrand (1862-1930)

1911: Peace: Tobias Michael Carel Asser (1838-1913) (Netherlands) [Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague] and Alfred Hermann Fried (1864-1921) (Austria) [League of Nations idea]; Lit.: Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck (1862-1949) (Belgium); Physics: Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien (1864-1928) (Germany) [Wien's Displacement Law]; Chem.: Marie Sklodowska Curie (1867-1934) (France); Med.: Allvar Gullstrand (1862-1930) (Sweden) [refraction of light in the eye]; Marie Curie wins for her isolation of the elements polonium and radium, becoming the first to win two Nobel Prizes (Physics in 1903); in the fall she attends the solve-away-brush-it-off First Solvay Physics Conference in Brussels, and is the only woman among 24 eminent world scientists, incl. Albert Einstein (youngest), taking up the merits of the classical vs. quantum approach; she and her hubby Pierre refused to patent radium because it "was not in the scientific spirit", letting others make millions instead - and proving what about the Stanford-Binet IQ Test?

Elihu Root (1845-1937) Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946) Nils Gustaf Dalen (1869-1937) Victor Grignard (1871-1935) Paul Sabatier (1854-1941) Alexis Carrel (1873-1944)

1912: Peace: Elihu Root (1845-1937) (U.S.); Lit.: Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946) (Germany); Physics: Nils Gustaf Dalen (1869-1937) (Sweden) [automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys]; Chem.: Francois Auguste Victor Grignard (1871-1935) (France) [Grignard Reaction] and Paul Sabatier (1854-1941) (France) [Sabatier Process]; Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) (France) [blood vessel suturing].

Henri La Fontaine (1854-1943) Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes (1853-1926) Alfred Werner (1866-1919) Charles Robert Richet (1850-1935)

1913: Peace: Henri La Fontaine (1854-1943) (Belgium); Lit.: Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) (India); Physics: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1926) (Netherlands) [superconductivity]; Chem.: Alfred Werner (1866-1919) (Switzerland) [octahedral configuration of transition metal complexes]; Charles Robert Richet (1850-1935) (France) [anaphylaxis].

Max von Laue (1879-1960) Theodore William Richards (1868-1928) Robert Barany (1876-1936)

1914: Peace: Satan AKA Beelzebub, Lord of the Flies (Hell) [WWI] :); Lit.: Jehovah (Heaven) [The Book of Revelation] :); Physics: Max Theodor Felix von Laue (1879-1960) (Germany) [X-ray diffraction]; Chem.: Theodore William Richards (1868-1928) (U.S.) [determination of atomic weights]; Medicine: Robert Barany (1876-1936) (Austria-Hungary) [physiology of the ear] (is in a Russian POW camp at the time, and receives his award in 1916 after being released, after which he stays in Sweden).

Romain Rolland (1866-1944) William Henry Bragg (1862-1942) and William Lawrence Bragg (1890-1971) Richard Willstatter (1872-1942)

1915: Peace: no award; Lit.: Romain Rolland (1866-1944) (France); Physics: Sir William Henry Bragg (1862-1942) and Sir William Lawrence Bragg (1890-1971) (U.K.) [X-ray analysis of crystal structure] [first father-son duo to share same prize; 25-y.-o. William Lawrence Bragg is the youngest laureate until ?]; Chem.: Richard Martin Willstatter (1872-1942) (Germany) [chlorophyll]; Med.: no award.

Verner von Heidenstam (1859-1940)

1916: Peace: no award; Lit.: Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam (1859-1940) (Sweden); Physics: no award; Chem.: no award; Med.: no award - take care of your own first?

Karl Gjellerup (1857-1919) Henrik Pontoppidan (1857-1943) Charles Glover Barkla (1877-1917)

1917: Peace: Internat. Red Cross; Lit.: Karl Gjellerup (1857-1919) (Denmark) and Henrik Pontoppidan (1857-1943) (Denmark) [safe for Swedes to award prize to fellow Scandinavians?]; Physics: Charles Glover Barkla (1877-1917) (U.K.) [X-ray spectroscopy]; Chem.: no award; Med.: no award.

Erik Axel Karlfeldt (1864-1931) Max Planck (1858-1947) Fritz Haber (1868-1934)

1918: Peace: no award; Lit.: none - refused by Swedish poet Erik Axel Karlfeldt (1864-1931), who is awarded one posth. in 1931; Physics: Max Planck (1858-1947) (Germany) [quantum theory]; Chem.: Fritz Haber (1868-1934) (Germany) [Haber-Bosch Process]; Med.: no award.

Thomas Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) Carl Spitteler (1845-1924) Johannes Stark (1874-1957) Jules Bordet (1870-1961)

1919: Peace: Thomas Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) (U.S.); Lit.: Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler (1845-1924) (Switzerland); Physics: Johannes Stark (1874-1957) (Germany) [Stark Effect]; Chem.: no award; Medicine: Jules Jean Baptiste Vincent Bordet (1870-1961) (Belgium) [immunology].

Leon Bourgeois (1851-1925) Knut Hamsun (1859-1952) Charles Edouard Guillaume (1861-1938) Walther Hermann Nernst (1864-1941) August Krogh (1874-1949)

1920: Peace: Leon Bourgeois (1851-1925) (France); Lit.: Knut Hamsun (1859-1952) (Norway); Physics: Charles Edouard Guillaume (1861-1938) (Switzerland); Chem.: Walther Hermann Nernst (1864-1941) (Germany) [Third Law of Thermodynamics]; Medicine: Schack August Steenberg Krogh (1874-1949) (Denmark) [capillary regulation in skeletal muscle].

Karl Hjalmar Branting of Sweden (1860-1925) Christian Louis Lange (1869-1938) Anatole France (1844-1924) Albert Einstein (1879-1955) Frederick Soddy (1877-1956)

1921: Peace: Karl Hjalmar Branting (1860-1925) (Sweden) and Christian Louis Lange (1869-1938) (Norway); Lit.: Anatole France (1844-1924) (France); Physics: Albert Einstein (1879-1955) (Germany) [photoelectric effect]; Chem.: Frederick Soddy (1877-1956) (U.K.) [isotopes]; Med.: no award; Einstein has by this time become a fossil in his field, clinging to the notion that "God doesn't roll dice with the Universe" and letting the fast-moving field of Quantum Physics pass him by?

Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930) Jacinto Benavente y Martinez (1866-1954) Niels Bohr (1885-1962) Francis William Aston (1877-1945) Archibald Vivian Hill (1886-1977) Otto Fritz Meyerhof (1884-1951)

1922: Peace: Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930) (Norway) [Nansen Passports]; Lit.: Jacinto Benavente y Martinez (1866-1954) (Spain); Physics: Niels Henrik David Bohr (1885-1962) (Denmark) [quantum physics]; Chem.: Francis William Aston (1877-1945) (U.K.) [mass spectrograph and isotopes]; Med.: Archibald Vivian Hill (1886-1977) (U.K.) and Otto Fritz Meyerhof (1884-1951) (Germany) [muscle metabolism].

William Butler Yeats (1839-1922) Robert A. Millikan (1868-1953) Fritz Pregl (1869-1930) Sir Frederick Grant Banting (1891-1941) James Bertram Collip (1892-1965) Charles Herbert Best (1899-1978) John James Rickard Macleod (1876-1935)

1923: Peace: no award; Lit.: William Butler Yeats (1839-1922) (Ireland); Physics: Robert Andrews Millikan (1868-1953) (U.S.) [measurement of electron charge]; Chem.: Fritz Pregl (1869-1930) (Austria); Medicine: Sir Frederick Grant Banting (1891-1941), James Bertram Collip (1892-1965) (Canada), Charles Herbert Best (1899-1978) (Canada), and John James Rickard Macleod (1876-1935) (U.K.) [insulin].

Wladyslaw Reymont (1868-1925) Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn (1886-1978) Willem Einthoven (1860-1927)

1924: Peace: no award; Lit.: Wladyslaw Stanislaw Reymont (1868-1925) (Poland); Physics: Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn (1886-1978) (Sweden) [X-ray spectroscopy]; Chem.: no award; Med.: Willem Einthoven (1860-1927) (Netherlands) [EKG].

Sir Austen Chamberlain (1863-1937) Charles Gates Dawes (1865-1951) George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) James Franck (1882-1964) Gustav Ludwig Hertz (1887-1975) Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (1865-1929)

1925: Peace: Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain (1863-1937) (U.K.) and Charles Gates Dawes (1865-1951) (U.S.) [Dawes Plan]; Lit.: George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) (U.K.); Physics: James Franck (1882-1964) and Gustav Ludwig Hertz (1887-1975) (Germany) [Franck-Hertz Experiment: inelastic electron collisions in gases]; Chem.: Richard Adolf Zsigmondy (1865-1929) (Germany) [colloids]; Med.: no award.

Aristide Briand (1862-1932) Gustav Stresemann (1878-1929) Grazia Deledda (1875-1936) Jean Baptiste Perrin (1870-1942) Theodor H.E. Svedberg (1884-1971) Johannes Fibiger (1867-1928)

1926: Peace: Aristide Briand (1862-1932) (France) and Gustav Stresemann (1878-1929) (Germany) [Franco-German Reconciliation]; Lit.: Grazia Deledda (1875-1936) (Italy); Physics: Jean Baptiste Perrin (1870-1942) (France) [cathode rays, Brownian motion]; Chem.: Theodor H.E. Svedberg (1884-1971) (Sweden) [analytical ultracentrifugation]; Med.: Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger (1867-1928) (Denmark) [theory that external stimuli can cause cancer; too bad, he traces it to Spiroptera carinoma, which is later disproven, but they don't take his prize back].

Ferdinand Edouard Buisson (1841-1932) Ludwig Quidde (1858-1941) Henri Bergson (France) (1859-1941) Arthur H. Compton (1892-1962) Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1869-1959) Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1957) Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940)

1927: Peace: Ferdinand Edouard Buisson (1841-1932) (France) and Ludwig Quidde (1858-1941) (Germany) [Franco-German rapprochement after the 1923 occupation of the Ruhr]; Lit.: Henri-Louis Bergson (1859-1941) (France); Physics: Arthur Holly Compton (1892-1962) (U.S.) [Compton Effect] and Charles Thomson Rees Wilson (1869-1959) (U.K.) [Cloud Chamber]; Chem.: Heinrich Otto Wieland (1877-1957) (Germany); Med.: Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940) (Austria) [injection of malaria parasites to treat syphilis].

Sigrid Undset (1882-1949) Sir Owen Willans Richardson (1879-1959) Adolf Windaus (1876-1959) Charles Nicolle (1866-1936)

1928: Peace: no award; Lit.: Sigrid Undset (1882-1949) (Norway); Physics: Sir Owen Willans Richardson (1879-1959) (U.K.); Chem.: Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus (1876-1959) (Germany) (for his life work since 1903 on the structure of steroids incl. cholesterol); Med.: Charles Nicolle (1866-1936) (France) [identification of lice as transmitter of typhus].

Frank Billings Kellogg of the U.S. (1856-1937) Thomas Mann (1875-1955) Louis de Broglie (1892-1987) Sir Arthur Harden (1865-1940) Hans K.A.S. von Euler-Chelpin (1873-1964) Christiaan Eijkman (1858-1930) Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861-1947)

1929: Peace: Frank Billings Kellogg (1856-1937) (U.S.) [Kellogg-Briand Pact]; Lit.: Paul Thomas Mann (1875-1955) (Germany); Physics: Prince Louis-Victor-Pierre-Raymond, 7th Duc de Broglie (1892-1987) (France) [wave theory of matter]; Chem.: Sir Arthur Harden (1865-1940) (U.K.) and Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin (1873-1964) (Sweden); Med.: Christiaan Eijkman (1858-1930) (Netherlands) and Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861-1947) (U.K.) [vitamins].

Nathan Soderblom (1866-1931) Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951) Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888-1970) Hans Fischer (1881-1945) Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943)

1930: Peace: Lutheran Archbishop Lars Olof Jonathan "Nathan" Soderblom (Söderblom) (1866-1931) (Sweden); Lit.: Harry Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951) (U.S.) (first American); Physics: Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (1888-1970) (India) [Raman Effect]; Chem.: Hans Fischer (1881-1945) (Germany); Med.: Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) (U.S.) [blood typing].

Jane Addams (1860-1935) Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947) Erik Axel Karlfeldt (1864-1931) Carl Bosch (1874-1940) Friedrich Bergius (1884-1949) Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883-1970)

1931: Peace: Jane Addams (1860-1935) and Nicholas Murray Butler (1862-1947) (U.S.); Lit.: Erik Axel Karlfeldt (1864-1931) (Sweden) (posth.) (he allegedly refused it in 1918 or 1919); Physics: no award; Chem.: Carl Bosch (1874-1940) and Friedrich Karl Rudolf Bergius (1884-1949) (Germany) [high pressure chem.]; Med.: Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883-1970) (Germany) [effect of oxygen on cancer].

John Galsworthy (1867-1933) Werner Heisenberg (1901-76 Irving Langmuir (1881-1957) Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (1857-1952) Edgar Douglas Adrian (1889-1977)

1932: Peace: no award; Lit.: John Galsworthy (1867-1933) (U.K.); Physics: Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901-76) (Germany) [Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle] (he later writes to Max Born and Pascual Jordan that they should have shared the prize); Chem.: Irving Langmuir (1881-1957) (U.S.) [surface chemistry] (first Nobel awarded to a scientist not affiliated with a university, Gen. Electric); Med.: Sir Charles Scott Sherrington (1857-1952) and Edgar Douglas Adrian (1889-1977) (U.K.) [functions of neurons].

Sir Norman Angell (1872-1967) Ivan Aleksandrovich Bunin (1870-1953) Erwin Schrodinger (1887-1961) Paul A.M. Dirac (1902-84) Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945)

1933: Starting this year the most Nobel laureates begin coming from the U.S. rather than Germany - our country's going to hell in a handbasket? Peace: Sir Ralph Norman Angell (1872-1967) (U.K.); Lit.: Ivan Alekeyevich Bunin (1870-1953) (Russia) (first Russian) (detained by the Nazis on his journey to Stockholm and forced to drink a bottle of castor oil to prove he wasn't smuggling jewels); Physics: Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schroedinger (Schrödinger) (1887-1961) (Austria) and Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902-84) (U.K.) [quantum physics]; Chem.: no award; Med.: Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945) (U.S.) [fruit fly chromosome map].

Arthur Henderson (1863-1935) Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936) Harold Clayton Urey (1893-1981) George Richards Minot (1885-1950) William Parry Murphy (1892-1987) George Hoyt Whipple (1878-1976)

1934: Peace: Arthur Henderson (1863-1935) (U.K.); Lit.: Luigi Pirandello (1867-1936) (Italy); Physics: no award; Chem.: Harold Clayton Urey (1893-1981) (U.S.) [deuterium]; Med.: George Richards Minot (1885-1950), William Parry Murphy (1892-1987), and George Hoyt Whipple (1878-1976) (U.S.) [B-12 liver treatment for pernicious anemia].

Carl von Ossietzky (1889-1938) Sir James Chadwick (1891-1974) Irene Joliot-Curie (1897-1956) and Frederic Joliot-Curie (1900-58) Hans Spemann (1869-1941) Ernst Ferdinand Sauerbruch (1875-1951)

1935: Peace: Carl (Karl) von Ossietzky (1889-1938) (Germany) [exposing clandestine German rearmament]; Lit.: no award; Physics: Sir James Chadwick (1891-1974) (U.K.) [neutrons]; Chem.: Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie (1900-58) and Irene Joliot-Curie (1897-1956) [along with her parents Marie and Pierre Curie in 1903, the first family to win husband-wife awards through two generations]; Med.: Hans Spemann (1869-1941) (Germany) [embryology]. In 1931 German radical pacifist Carl von Ossietzky (1889-1938) is convicted of high treason for a 1929 pub. giving details of Germany's violations of the Treaty of Verailles by rebuilding the Luftwaffe and training pilots in the Soviet Union, and ends up in Esterwegen Concentration Camp; when he is awarded the 1935 Nobel Peace Prize, the Nazis refuse to let him travel to Sweden to receive it, after which he soon dies of TB; angry over the award, in 1936 Adolf Hitler prohibits Germans from accepting all Nobel Prizes, and creates his own German prize, awarding the first one at the annual Nazi rally in 1937 to German surgeon Ernst Ferdinand Sauerbruch (1875-1951), pioneer of thoracic surgery; too bad, after WWII ends he goes senile, but has such prestige that he is allowed to continue operating on patients, injuring them while the authorities cover it up?

Carlos Saavedra Lamas (1878-1959) Eugene O'Neill (1888-1953) Victor Francis Hess (1883-1964) Carl David Anderson (1905-91) Peter J.W. Debye (1884-1966) Sir Henry Hallett Dale (1875-1968) Otto Loewi (1873-1961)

1936: Peace: Carlos Saavedra Lamas (1878-1959) (Argentina) (first Latin Am.); Lit.: Eugene Gladstone O'Neill (1888-1953) (U.S.); Physics: Victor Francis Hess (1883-1964) (Austria) [cosmic rays] and Carl David Anderson (1905-91) (U.S.) [positron discovery]; Chem.: Peter Josephus Wilhelmus (Joseph William) Debye (1884-1966) (Netherlands) [specific heat of solids]; Med.: Sir Henry Hallett Dale (1875-1968) (U.K.) and Otto Loewi (1873-1961) (Germany) [acetylcholine's role in transmission of nerve impulses].

Lord Cecil of Chelwood Roger Martin du Gard (1881-1958) Clinton Joseph Davisson (1881-1957) Sir George Paget Thomson (1892-1975) Sir Walter Norman Haworth (1883-1950) Paul Karrer (1889-1971) Albert Szent-Gyorgyi (1893-1986)

1937: Peace: Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood (1864-1958) (U.K.) [League of Nations]; Lit.: Roger Martin du Gard (1881-1958) (France); Physics: Clinton Joseph Davisson (1881-1957) (U.S.) and Sir George Paget Thomson (1892-1975) (U.K.) [electron diffraction]; Chem.: Sir Walter Norman Haworth (1883-1950) (U.K.) [carbohydrates and Vitamin C] and Paul Karrer (1889-1971) (Switzerland) [carotenoids, flavins, Vitamins A and B]; Medicine: Albert Szent-Gyorgyi von Nagyrapolt (Nagyrápolt) (1893-1986) (Hungary) [Vitamin C].

Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973) Enrico Fermi (1901-54) Richard Kuhn (1900-67) Corneille Heymans (1892-1968)

1938: Peace: Office Internat. Nansen pour les Refugies (Switzerland); Lit.: Pearl Sydenstricker Buck (1892-1973) (U.S.); Physics: Enrico Fermi (1901-54) (Italy); Chem.: Richard Kuhn (1900-67) (Germany) [carotenoids and vitamins] (not accepted until after WWII); Medicine: Corneille Jean Francois Heymans (1892-1968) (Belgium).

Frans Eemil Sillanpaa (1888-1964) Ernest Orlando Lawrence (1901-58) Adolf Butenandt (1903-95) Leopold Ruzicka (1887-1976) Gerhard Domagk (1895-1964)

1939: Peace: no award [Satan already won in 1914?]; Lit.: Frans Eemil Sillanpaa (1888-1964) (Finland) (first Finnish writer); Physics: Ernest Orlando Lawrence (1901-58) (U.S.) [cyclotron]; Chem.: Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt (1903-95) (Germany) [sex hormones] (declined on orders of Adolf Hitler) and Leopold Ruzicka (1887-1976) (Switzerland) [polymethylenes]; Medicine: Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk (1895-1964) (Germany) [sulfonamide Prontosil] (declined on orders of Adolf Hitler).

1940-1942: No awards.

Otto Stern (1888-1969) Walther Gerlach (1889-1979) Georg Charles de Hevesy (1885-1966) Carl Peter Henrik Dam (1895-1976) Edward Adelbert Doisy (1893-1986) Louis Frederick Fieser (1899-1977)

1943: Peace: no award; Lit.: no award; Physics: Otto Stern (1888-1969) (U.S.) [molecular beam theory] (first Physics prize since 1939); doesn't mention the Stern-Gerlach Experiment because Walther Gerlach (1889-1979) is a Nazi and is running the German fission project; Chem.: Georg Karl (George Charles) de Hevesy (1885-1966) (Hungary) [Vitamin K]; Napalm inventor Louis Frederick Fieser (1899-1977) is passed over; Med.: Carl Peter Henrik Dam (1895-1976) (Denmark) and Edward Adelbert Doisy (1893-1986) (U.S.) [Vitamin K].

Johannes Vilhelm Jensen (1873-1950) Isidor Isaac Rabi (1898-1988) Otto Hahn (1879-1968) Joseph Erlanger (1874-1965) Herbert Spencer Gasser (1888-1963) Lise Meitner (1878-1968)

1944: Peace: Internat. Red Cross (last time 1917, next 1963); Lit.: Johannes Vilhelm Jensen (1873-1950) (Denmark); Physics: Isidor Isaac Rabi (1898-1988) (U.S.) [nuclear magnetic resonance]; Chem.: Otto Hahn (1879-1968) (Germany) [nuclear fission]; Hahn refuses to recognize the contributions of his Jewish bitch, er, boss, er, asst. Lise Meitner (1878-1968)?; Medicine: Joseph Erlanger (1874-1965) and Herbert Spencer Gasser (1888-1963) (U.S.) [action potentials in nerve fibers] (don't say Gasser in Germany?).

Cordell Hull (1871-1955) Gabriela Mistral (1889-1957) Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (1900-58) Artturi Illmari Virtanen (1895-1973) Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) Sir Ernst Boris Chain (1906-79) Sir Howard Walter Florey (1898-1968)

1945: Peace: Cordell Hull (1871-1955) (U.S.); Lit.: Gabriela Mistral (1889-1957) (Chile) (first Latin-Am.); Physics: Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (1900-58) (Austria) [fission]; Chem.: Artturi Illmari Virtanen (1895-1973) (Finland) [AIM Method for conservation of fodder]; Medicine: Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955), Sir Ernst Boris Chain (1906-79), and Sir Howard Walter Florey (1898-1968) (U.K.) [penicillin].

Emily Greene Balch (1867-1961) John Raleigh Mott (1865-1955) Hermann Hesse (1877-1962) Percy Williams Bridgman (1882-1961) James Batcheller Sumner (1887-1955) John Howard Northrop (1891-1987) Wendell Meredith Stanley (1904-71) Hermann Joseph Muller (1890-1967)

1946: Peace: Emily Greene Balch (1867-1961) and John Raleigh Mott (1865-1955) (U.S.); Lit.: Hermann Hesse (1877-1962) (Switzerland); Physics: Percy Williams Bridgman (1882-1961) (U.S.) [high-pressure physics]; Chem.: James Batcheller Sumner (1887-1955), John Howard Northrop (1891-1987), and Wendell Meredith Stanley (1904-71) (U.S.) [crystallization of enzymes, proteins, and viruses incl. tobacco mosaic virus]; Med.: Hermann Joseph Muller (1890-1967) (U.S.) [X-ray mutations].

Andre Gide (1869-1951) Sir Edward Victor Appleton (1892-1965) Sir Robert Robinson (1886-1975) Carl Ferdinand Cori (1896-1984) and Gerty Theresa Cori (1896-1957) Bernardo Alberto Houssay (1887-1971)

1947: Peace: Am. Friends Service Committee (U.S.) and British Society of Friends' Service Council (U.K.); Lit.: Andre Paul Guillaume Gide (1869-1951) (France); Physics: Sir Edward Victor Appleton (1892-1965) (U.K.) [ionosphere]; Chem.: Sir Robert Robinson (1886-1975) (U.K.) [anthocyanins and alkaloids]; Med.: Carl Ferdinand Cori (1896-1984) and Gerty Theresa Cori (1896-1957) (U.S.) [Cori Cycle], and Bernardo Alberto Houssay (1887-1971) (Argentina) [role of pituitary in diabetes]; Houssay was forced to retire from the Nat. U. of Buenos Aires in 1946 for his political views.

Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888-1965) P.M.S. Blackett (1897-) Arne Tiselius (1902-71) Paul Hermann Mueller (1899-1965)

1948: Peace: no award (couldn't award it to Gandhi, or didn't want to award it to Israel?); Lit.: Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888-1965) (U.K.); Physics: Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett (1897-1974) (U.K.) [cloud chamber]; Chem.: Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius (1902-71) (Sweden) [electrophoresis]; Med.: Paul Hermann "Pauly" Mueller (Müller) (1899-1965) (Switzerland) [DDT].

John Boyd Orr (1880-1971) William Faulkner (1897-1962) Hideki Yukawa (1907-81) William Francis Giauque (1895-1982) Walter Rudolf Hess (1881-1973) Egas Moniz (1874-1955)

1949: Peace: Lord John Boyd Orr (1880-1971) (Scotland) [world nutrition]; Lit.: William Cuthberg "Will" Faulkner (1897-1962) (U.S.); Physics: Hideki Yukawa (1907-81) (Japan) [prediction of pion] (first Japanese to win a Nobel Prize); Chem.: William Francis Giauque (1895-1982) (U.S.) [chem. thermodynamics near absolute zero]; Med.: Walter Rudolf Hess (1881-1973) (Switzerland) [mapping of the diencephalon], Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz (1874-1955) (Portugal) [prefrontal lobotomies].

Ralph Johnson Bunche (1904-71) Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) Cecil Frank Powell (1903-69) Marietta Blau (1897-1970) Otto Paul Hermann Diels (1876-1954) Kurt Alder (1902-58) Philip Showalter Hench (1896-1965) Edward Calvin Kendall (1886-1972) Tadeusz Reichstein (1897-1996)

1950: Peace: Ralph Johnson Bunche (1904-71) (U.S.) [mediation in Palestine]; Lit.: Bertrand Arthur William Russell (1872-1970) (U.K.); Physics: Cecil Frank Powell (1903-69) (U.K.) [discovery of pion] via the photographic method, whose inventor Marietta Blau (1897-1970) is snubbed; Chem.: Otto Paul Hermann Diels (1876-1954) and Kurt Alder (1902-58) (Germany) [diene synthesis]; Medicine: Philip Showalter Hench (1896-1965) and Edward Calvin Kendall (1886-1972) (U.S.), and Tadeusz Reichstein (1897-1996) (Switzerland) [adrenal cortex hormones].

Leon Jouhaux (1879-1954) Par Lagerkvist (1891-74) Sir John Douglas Cockcroft (1897-1967) Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (1903-95) Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-99) Edwin Mattison McMillan (1907-91) John Boyd Orr (1880-1971)

1951: Peace: Leon Jouhaux (1879-1954) (France) [Internat. Labor Org. (ILO)]; Lit.: Par Fabian Lagerkvist (1891-74) (Sweden); Physics: Sir John Douglas Cockcroft (1897-1967) (U.K.) and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton (1903-95) (Ireland) [transmutation of atomic nuclei]; Chem.: Glenn Theodore Seaborg (1912-99) and Edwin Mattison McMillan (1907-91) (U.S.) [creation of transuranium elements]; Med.: Max Theiler (1899-1972) (South Africa) [yellow fever vaccine].

Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) Francois Mauriac (1885-1970) Edward Mills Purcell (1912-) Felix Bloch (1905-83) Archer John Porter Martin (1910-) Richard Laurence Millington Synge (1914-94) Selman Abraham Waksman (1888-1973)

1952: Peace: Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) (French Equatorial Africa) (Oct. 30) (uses the $33K prize money to expand his hospital in French Equatorial Africa and build a leper colony); Lit.: Francois Charles Mauriac (1885-1970) (France); Physics: Edward Mills Purcell (1912-) and Felix Bloch (1905-83) (U.S.) [nuclear magnetic resonance]; Chem.: Archer John Porter Martin (1910-) and Richard Laurence Millington Synge (1914-94) (England) [chromatography]; Medicine: Selman Abraham Waksman (1888-1973) (U.S.) [streptomycin].

George Catlett Marshall Jr. (1880-1959) Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965) Fritz Zernike (1888-1966) Hermann Staudinger (1881-1965) Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899-1986) Hans Adolf Krebs (1900-81)

1953: Peace: Gen. George Catlett Marshall Jr. (1880-1959) (U.S.) [Marshall Plan]; Lit.: Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill (1874-1965) (U.K.); Physics: Fritz Zernike 1888-1966) (Netherlands) [phase-contrast microscope]; Chem.: Hermann Staudinger (1881-1965) (Germany) [polymers]; Medicine: Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899-1986) (Germany-U.S.) [coenzyme A] and Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (1900-81) (U.K.) [citric acid cycle].

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) Max Born (1882-1970) Walter Bothe (1891-1957) Pascual Jordan (1902-80) Linus Carl Pauling (1901-94) John Franklin Enders (1897-1985) Thomas Huckle Weller (1915-2008) Frederick Chapman Robbins (1916-2003)

1954: Peace: Office of U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees (next in 1981); Lit.: Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899-1961) ("Writing is a lonely life"); Physics: Max Born (1882-1970) (U.K.) and Walter Bothe (1891-1957) (Germany) [statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics]; Born's collaborator Ernst Pascual Jordan (1902-80) is snubbed for his Nazi past?; Chem.: Linus Carl Pauling (1901-94) (U.S.); Med.: John Franklin Enders (1897-1985) (U.S.), Thomas Huckle Weller (1915-2008) (U.S.), and Frederick Chapman Robbins (1916-2003) (U.S.) [polio virus cultures].

Halldor Kiljan Laxness (1902-98) Polykarp Kusch (1911-93) Willis Eugene Lamb Jr. (1913-2008) Vincent du Vigneaud (1901-78) Hugo Theorell (1903-82)

1955: Peace: no award; Lit.: Halldor Kiljan Laxness (1902-98) (Iceland); Physics: Polykarp Kusch (1911-93) and Willis Eugene Lamb Jr. (1913-2008) (U.S.) [fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum]; Chem.: Vincent du Vigneaud (1901-78) (U.S.) [structure of oxytocin]; Med.: Axel Hugo Theorell (1903-82) (Sweden) [oxidation enzyme].

Juan Ramon Jimenez (1881-1958) William Bradford Shockley Jr. (1910-89) Walter Houser Brittain (1902-87) John Bardeen (1908-91) Sir Cyril Hinshelwood (1897-1967) Nikolay N. Semyonov (1896-1986) Dickinson Woodruff Richards Jr. (1895-1973) Andre Frederic Cournand (1895-1988) Werner Forssmann (1904-79)

1956: Peace: no award; Lit.: Juan Ramon Jimenez (1881-1958) (Spain); Physics: William Bradford Shockley Jr. (1910-89), Walter Houser Brittain (1902-87), and John Bardeen (1908-91) (U.S.) [the transistor]; Chem.: Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood (1897-1967) (U.K.) and Nikolai Nikolayevich Semyonov (1896-1986) (Soviet Union) [mechanism of chemical transformation]; Dickinson Woodruff Richards Jr. (1895-1973), Andre Frederic Cournand (1895-1988) (U.S.), and Werner Theodor Otto Forssmann (1904-79) (Germany) [cardiac catheterization and characterization of cardiac diseases].

Lester Bowles Pearson (1897-1972) Albert Camus (1913-60) Chen-Ning Franklin Yang (1922-) and Tsung-Dao Lee (1926-) of the U.S. Sir Alexander Todd (1907-97) Daniel Bovet (1907-92)

1957: Peace: Lester Bowles "Mike" Pearson (1897-1972) (Canada) [organizing the U.N. Emergency Force in the 1956 Suez Canal crisis]; Lit.: Albert Camus (1913-60) (France); Physics: Tsung-Dao Lee (1926-) and Chen-Ning Franklin Yang (1922-) (U.S.) [parity non-conservation for weak force interactions] (they later get into a feud over who thought of the idea first); Chem.: Sir Alexander Robertus Todd (1907-97) (U.K.) [structure and synthesis of nucleotides, nucleosides, and nucleotide coenzymes]; Med.: Daniel Bovet (1907-92) (Italy) [curare].

Dominique Pire (1910-69) Boris Pasternak (1890-1960) Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov (1904-90) Ilya Mikhailovich Frank (1908-90) Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (1895-1971) Frederick Sanger (1918-) Joshua Lederberg (1925-2008) George Wells Beadle (1903-89) Edward Lawrie Tatum (1909-75)

1958: Peace: Dominican friar Dominique Pire (1910-69) (Belgium) [helping WWII refugees]; Lit.: Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (1890-1960) (Soviet Union) (declined after he first accepts, gets accused of being a traitor and threatened with exile, then changes his mind); Physics: Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov (1904-90), Ilya Mikhailovich Frank (1908-90), and Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (1895-1971) (Soviet Union) [Cherenkov-Vavilov Effect]; Chem.: Frederick Sanger (1918-) (U.K.) [insulin amino acid sequence]; Medicine: Joshua Lederberg (1925-2008) [bacterial mating with gene exchange], George Wells Beadle (1903-89) (U.S.) and Edward Lawrie Tatum (1909-75) (U.S.) [gene control of metabolism].

Philip Noel-Baker (1889-1982) Salvatore Quasimodo (1901-68) Emilio Gino Segre (Segrè) (1905-89) Owen Chamberlain (1920-) Jaroslav Heyrovsky (1890-1967) Severo Ochoa (1905-93) Arthur Kornberg (1918-2007)

1959: Peace: Philip Noel-Baker (1889-1982) (U.K.) [nuclear disarmament]; Lit.: Salvatore Quasimodo (1901-68) (Italy); Physics: Emilio Gino Segre (Segrè) (1905-89) and Owen Chamberlain (1920-) (U.S.) [antiprotons]; Chem.: Jaroslav Heyrovsky (1890-1967) (Czech.) [polarography]; Med.: Severo Ochoa de Albornoz (1905-93) and Arthur Kornberg (1918-2007) (U.S.) [RNA-DNA synthesis].

Albert John Luthuli (1898-1967) Saint-John Perse (Alexis Saint-Leger Leger) (1887-1975) Donald Arthur Glaser (1926-) Willard Frank Libby (1908-80) Sir Macfarlane Burnet (1899-1985) Sir Peter Brian Medawar (1915-87)

1960: Peace: Albert John "Mvumbi" Luthuli (Lutuli) (1898-1967) (South Africa) (Zulu) [nonviolent protest against apartheid]; Lit.: Saint-John Perse (Alexis Saint-Leger Leger) (1887-1975) (France); Physics: Donald Arthur Glaser (1926-) (U.S.) [bubble chamber]; Chem.: Willard Frank Libby (1908-80) (U.S.) [C-14 dating]; Medicine: Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet (1899-1985) (Australia) and Sir Peter Brian Medawar (1915-87) (U.K.) [acquired immunity].

Dag Hammarskjold (1905-61) Ivo Andric (1892-1975) Robert Hofstadter (1915-90) Rudolf Mossbauer (Mössbauer) (1929-) Melvin Ellis Calvin (1911-97) Georg von Bekesy (Békésy) (1899-1972)

1961: Peace: Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjold (1905-61) (Sweden) (posth.) (after this, posth. awards are prohibited); Lit.: Ivan "Ivo" Andric (1892-1975) (Yugoslavia); Physics: Robert Hofstadter (1915-90) (U.S.) [electron scattering in nuclei], Rudolf Ludwig Mossbauer (Mössbauer) (1929-) (Germany) [Mossbauer Effect]; Chem.: Melvin Ellis Calvin (1911-97) (U.S.) [Calvin Cycle for photosynthesis]; Med.: Georg von Bekesy (Békésy) (1899-1972) (U.S.) [cochlea].

Linus Carl Pauling (1901-94) John Steinbeck (1902-68) Lev Davidovich Landau (1908-68) Max Ferdinand Perutz (1914-2002) John Cowdery Kendrew (1917-97) James D. Watson (1928-) and Francis H.C. Crick (1916-2004) Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (1916-2004)

1962: Peace: Linus Carl Pauling (1901-94) (U.S.); Lit.: John Steinbeck (1902-68) (U.S.); Physics: Lev Davidovich Landau (1908-68) (Soviet Union) [liquid helium]; Chem.: Max Ferdinand Perutz (1914-2002) and John Cowdery Kendrew (1917-97) (U.K.) [myoglobin and hemoglobin structure]; Medicine: James Dewey Watson (1928-) (U.S.), Francis Harry Compton Crick (1916-2004) (U.S.), and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (1916-2004) (New Zealand) [DNA structure].

Giorgos Seferis (1900-71) Eugene Paul Wigner (1902-95) Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1906-72) Johannes Hans Daniel Jensen (1907-73) Karl Ziegler (1898-1973) Giulio Natta (1903-79) Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (1914-98) Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (1917-) Sir John Carew Eccles (1903-97)

1963: Peace: Internat. Comm. of Red Cross and League of Red Cross Societies (Switzerland); Lit.: Giorgos Seferis (Georgios Seferiades) (1900-71) (Greece) (first Greek to win a prize); Physics: Eugene Paul Wigner (1902-95) (U.S.) [fundamental symmetry principles], Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1906-72) (U.S.) (2nd woman to win), and Johannes Hans Daniel Jensen (1907-73) (Germany) [nuclear shell structure]; Chem.: Karl Waldemar Ziegler (1898-1973) (Germany) and Giulio Natta (1903-79) (Italy) [complex molecules from simple carbons]; Med.: Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin (1914-98), Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley (1917-) (U.K.), and Sir John Carew Eccles (1903-97) (Australia) [action potentials and proof of chemical synaptic transmission].

Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-68) Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80) Charles Hard Townes (1915-) Nikolai G. Basov (1922-2001) Alexander M. Prokhorov (1916-2002) Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin (1910-94) Konrad Emil Bloch (1912-2000) Feodor Lynen (1911-79)

1964: On Oct. 22, 1964 French novelist Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-80) refuses to accept the Nobel Lit. Prize, claiming that extraneous influences might affect the power of his words, with the soundbyte: "A writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution". Peace: Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-68) (U.S.); Lit.: Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (1905-80) (France) (declined); Physics: Charles Hard Townes (1915-) (U.S.), Nikolai Gennadiyevich Basov (1922-2001) (Soviet Union), and Alexander Mikhaylovich Prokhorov (1916-2002) (Soviet Union) [lasers and masers]; Chem.: Dorothy Mary Crowfoot Hodgkin (1910-94) (U.K.) [X-ray crystallography]; Med.: Konrad Emil Bloch (1912-2000) (U.S.) and Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen (1911-79) (Germany) [cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism].

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (1905-84) Richard Phillips Feynman (1918-88) Feodor Lynen (1911-79) Feodor Lynen (1911-79) Feodor Lynen (1911-79) Francois Jacob (1920-2013) Andre Michel Lwoff (1902-94) Jacques Lucien Monod (1910-76)

1965: Peace: UNICEF; Lit.: Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (1905-84) (Soviet Union); Physics: Richard Phillips Feynman (1918-88) (U.S.), Julian Seymour Schwinger (1918-94) (U.S.), and Shinichiro (Sin-Itiro) Tomonaga (1906-79) (Japan) [quantum electrodynamics]; Chem.: Robert Burns Woodward (1917-79) (U.S.) [synthesis of complex organic molecules, incl. the antibiotic cephalosporin, which he pushed the schedule on to be completed by the time of the Nobel ceremony); Medicine: Francois Jacob (1920-2013), Andre Michel Lwoff (1902-94), and Jacques Lucien Monod (1910-76) (France) [genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis].

Shmuel Yosef Agnon (1888-1970) Nelly Sachs (1891-1970) Alfred Kastler (1902-84) Robert Sanderson Mulliken (1896-1986) Charles Brenton Huggins (1901-97) Francis Peyton Rous (1879-1970)

1966: Peace: no award; Lit.: Shmuel Yosef Agnon (1888-1970) (Israel) and Nelly Sachs (1891-1970) (Sweden) [both Jews]; Physics: Alfred Kastler (1902-84) (France) [optical pumping]; Chem.: Robert Sanderson Mulliken (1896-1986) (U.S.) [molecular orbital theory]; Medicine: Charles Brenton Huggins (1901-97) (U.S.) [hormonal treatment of cancer] and Francis Peyton Rous (1879-1970) (U.S.) [role of viruses in cancer transmission].

Miguel Angel Asturias (1899-1974) Hans Albrecht Bethe (1906-2005) Manfred Eigen (1927-) Ronald George Wreyford Norrish (1897-1978) George Porter (1920-2002) Haldan Keffer Hartline (1903-83) George Wald (1906-97) Ragnar Arthur Granit (1900-91)

1967: Peace: no award; Lit.: Miguel Angel Asturias Rosales (1899-1974) (Guatemala); Physics: Hans Albrecht Bethe (1906-2005) (U.S.); Chem.: Manfred Eigen (1927-) (Germany), Ronald George Wreyford Norrish (1897-1978) (U.K.), and George Hornidge Porter (1920-2002) (U.K.) [fast chem. reactions]; Med.: Haldan Keffer Hartline (1903-83) (U.S.), George Wald (1906-97) (U.S.), and Ragnar Arthur Granit (1900-91) (Finland) [neurophysiological mechanisms of vision].

Rene Cassin (1887-1976) Yasunari Kawabata (1899-1972) Luis Walter Alvarez (1911-88) Lars Onsager (1903-76) Robert William Holley (1922-93) Har Gobind Khorana (1922-2011) Marshall Warren Nirenberg (1927-2010)

1968: Peace: Rene Samuel Cassin (1887-1976) (France); Lit.: Yasunari Kawabata (1899-1972) (Japan) (first Japanese and first E Asian to win the Nobel Lit. Prize); Physics: Luis Walter Alvarez (1911-88) (U.S.) [resonance particles]; Chem.: Lars Onsager (1903-76) (U.S.) [isotope diffusion]; Med.: Robert William Holley (1922-93) (U.S.), Har Gobind (Hargobind) Khorana (1922-2011) (U.S.), and Marshall Warren Nirenberg (1927-2010) (U.S.) ["breaking the genetic code" - codon sequences].

Samuel Beckett (1906-89) Murray Gell-Mann (1929-) Sir Derek Harold Richardson Barton (1918-98) Odd Hassel (1897-1981) Max Delbruck (1906-81) Alfred Day Hershey (1908-97) Salvador Edward Luria (1912-91) Ragnar Frisch (1895-1973) Jan Tinbergen (1903-94)

1969: Peace: Internat. Labor Org. (ILO); Lit.: Samuel Barclay Beckett (1906-89) (France); Physics: Murray Gell-Mann (1929-) (U.S.) [classification of elementary particles]; Chem.: Sir Derek Harold Richardson Barton (1918-98) (U.K.) and Odd Hassel (1897-1981) (Norway) [3-D shapes of organic compounds]; Medicine: Max Ludwig Henning Delbruck (Delbrück) (1906-81), Alfred Day Hershey (1908-97), and Salvador Edward Luria (1912-91) (U.S.) [genetic structure and reproduction of viruses]; Economics: Ragnar Anton Kittil Frisch (1895-1973) (Norway) and Jan Tinbergen (1903-94) (Netherlands) for "having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes" [econometrics]; first-ever prize for economics, funded by the Sveriges Riksbank (central bank of Sweden).

Norman Ernest Borlaug (1914-2009) Alexander Solzhenitsyn (1918-2008) Hannes Alfven (1908-95) Louis Neel (1904-2000) Luis Federico Leloir (1906-87) Julius Axelrod (1912-2004) Ulf Svante von Euler (1905-83) Sir Bernard Katz (1911-2003) Paul Anthony Samuelson (1915-2009)

On Oct. 8, 1970 Soviet dissident writer Alexander (Aleksandr) Solzhenitsyn (1918-2008) is named winner of the Nobel Lit. Prize "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"; too bad, he doesn't go to Oslo to receive the award due to fear they won't let him reenter the Soviet Union, which later proves to be correct when they expel him in 1974. 1970: Peace: Norman Ernest Borlaug (1914-2009) (U.S.); Lit.: Alexander (Aleksandr) Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (1918-2008) (Soviet Union); Physics: Hannes Olof Gosta Alfven (1908-95) (Sweden) [plasma physics] and Louis Eugene Felix Neel (1904-2000) (France) [antiferromagnetism]; Chem.: Luis Federico Leloir (1906-87) (Argentina) [lactose metabolism] (first Spanish-speaking winner); Med.: Julius Axelrod (1912-2004) (U.S.), Ulf Svante von Euler (1905-83) (Sweden), and Sir Bernard Katz (1911-2003) (U.K.) [catecholamine neurotransmitters]; Econ.: Paul Anthony Samuelson (1915-2009) (U.S.) for "the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science".

Willy Brandt (1913-92) Pablo Neruda (1904-73) Dennis Gabor (1900-79) Gerhard Herzberg (1904-99) Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr. (1915-74) Simon Smith Kuznets (1901-85)

1971: Peace: Willy Brandt (1913-92) (West Germany) [reconciliation efforts with the Soviet bloc]; Lit.: Pablo Neruda (Neftali Ricardo Reyes Basoalto) (1904-73) (Chile); Physics: Dennis Gabor (1900-79) (U.K.) [holography]; Chem.: Gerhard Heinrich Friedrich Otto Julius Herzberg (1904-99) (Canada) [geometry of molecules in gases]; Medicine: Earl Wilbur Sutherland Jr. (1915-74) (U.S.) [cyclic AMP]; Economics: Simon Smith Kuznets (1901-85) (U.S.) [empirically-founded interpretation of economic growth].

Heinrich Theodor Boll (1917-85) John Bardeen (1908-91) Leon N. Cooper (1930-) John Robert Schrieffer (1931-) Christian Boehmer Anfinsen Jr. (1916-95) Stanford Moore (1913-82) William Howard Stein (1911-80) Gerald Maurice Edelman (1929-) Rodney Robert Porter (1917-85) Kenneth Joseph Arrow (1921-) Sir John Richard Hicks (1904-89)

1972: Peace: no award; Lit.: Heinrich Theodor Boll (1917-85) (West Germany); Physics: John Bardeen (1908-91) (U.S.) (1st Nobel in 1956), Leon N. Cooper (1930-) (U.S.), and John Robert Schrieffer (1931-) (U.S.) [BCS superconductivity theory]; Chem.: Christian Boehmer Anfinsen Jr. (1916-95), Stanford Moore (1913-82), and William Howard Stein (1911-80) (U.S.) [RNA structure and catalytic activity]; Medicine: Gerald Maurice Edelman (1929-) (U.S.) and Rodney Robert Porter (1917-85) (U.K.) [antibody structure]; Economics: Kenneth Joseph Arrow (1921-) (U.S.) (youngest to receive this award until ?) and Sir John Richard Hicks (1904-89) (U.K.) [gen. equilibrium and welfare theory].

Le Duc Tho (1911-90) of Vietnam and Henry Alfred Kissinger of the U.S. (1923-) Patrick White (1912-90) Ivar Giaever (1929-) Leo Esaki (1925-) Brian David Josephson (1940-) Ernst Otto Fischer (1918-2007) Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson (1921-96) Karl Ritter von Frisch (1886-1982) Nikolaas Tinbergen (1907-88) and Konrad Lorenz (1903-89) Wassily Wassilyovitch Leontief (1905-99)

1973: Peace: Henry Alfred Kissinger (1923-) (U.S.) and Le Duc Tho (1911-90) (North Vietnam) (declined); Lit.: Patrick Victor Martindale White (1912-90) (Australia) (first Australian); Physics: Ivar Giaever (1929-) (U.S.), Reona (Leo) Esaki (1925-) (Japan), and Brian David Josephson (1940-) (U.K.) [quantum tunneling in solids]; Chem.: Ernst Otto Fischer (1918-2007) (West Germany) and Sir Geoffrey Wilkinson (1921-96) (U.K.) [organometallic chemistry of ferrocene]; Med.: Karl Ritter von Frisch (1886-1982) (Austria), Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (1903-89) (Austria), and Nikolaas "Niko" Tinbergen (1907-88) (Netherlands) [animal behavior] (brother Jan Tinbergen won the 1969 Nobel Econ. Prize]; Econ.: Wassily Wassilyovitch Leontief (1905-99) (U.S.) [Input-Output Tables].

Eisaku Sato (1901-75) Sean MacBride (1904-88) Eyvind Johnson (1900-76) Harry Edmund Martinson (1904-78) Anthony Hewish (1924-) Sir Martin Ryle (1918-84) Paul John Flory (1910-85) George Emil Palade (1912-2008) Albert Claude (1899-1983) Christian Rene de Duve (1917-2013) Gunnar Myrdal (1898-1987) Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1922)

1974: Peace: Eisaku Sato (1901-75) (Japan) [Japan's entry into the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty] and Sean MacBride (1904-88) (Ireland) [for "mobilising the conscience of the world in the fight against injustice"]; Lit.: Eyvind Johnson (Olof Edvin Verner Jonsson) (1900-76) and Harry Edmund Martinson (1904-78) (Sweden) [controversial because both are on the Nobel panel]; Physics: Anthony Hewish (1924-) and Sir Martin Ryle (1918-84) (U.K.) [radioastronomy]; Chem.: Paul John Flory (1910-85) (U.S.) [polymers]; Med.: George Emil Palade (1912-2008) (Romania), Albert Claude (1899-1983) (Belgium), and Christian Rene de Duve (1917-2013) (Belgium) [structure and function of organelles]; Econ.: Karl Gunnar Myrdal (1898-1987) (Sweden) and Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1922) (U.K.) [theory of money].

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (1921-89) Eugenio Montale (1896-1981) Leo James Rainwater (1917-86) Ben Roy Mottelson (1926-) Aage Niels Bohr (1922-) John Warcup Cornforth (1917-2013) Vladimir Prelog (1906-98) David L. Baltimore (1938-) Howard Martin Temin (1934-) Renato Dulbecco (1914-2012) Leonid Kantorovich (1912-86) Tjalling Charles Koopmans (1910-85)

1975: Peace: Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (1921-89) (Soviet Union); Lit.: Eugenio Montale (1896-1981) (Italy); Physics: Leo James Rainwater (1917-86) (U.S.), Ben Roy Mottelson (1926-) and Aage Niels Bohr (1922-2009) (Denmark) (son of Niels Bohr) [assymetrical non-spherical shapes of atomic nuclei]; Chem.: Sir John Warcup "Kappa" Cornforth Jr. (1917-2013) (Australia) [structure of enzyme-catalyzed reactions] and Vladimir Prelog (1906-98) (Switzerland) [assymetric compounds]; Medicine: David L. Baltimore (1938-) (U.S.), Howard Martin Temin (1934-94) (U.S.), and Renato Dulbecco (1914-2012) (U.S.) [reverse transcriptase]; Economics: Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich (1912-86) (Soviet Union) (first and only winner) and Tjalling Charles Koopmans (1910-85) (U.S.) [optimal allocation of resources].

Mairead Corrigan (1944-) Betty Williams (1943-) Saul Bellow (1915-2005) Burton Richter (1931-) Samuel Chao Chung Ting (1936-) William Nunn Lipscomb Jr. (1919-) Baruch Samuel Blumberg (1925-) Daniel Carleton Gajdusek (1923-2008) Milton Friedman (1912-2006)

1976: Peace: Mairead Corrigan (1944-) (Northern Ireland) and Betty Williams (1943-) (Northern Ireland) [Community of Peace People]; Lit.: Saul Bellow (1915-2005) (U.S.); Physics: Burton Richter (1931-) (U.S.) and Samuel Chao Chung Ting (1936-) (U.S.) [J/psi particle); Chem.: William Nunn Lipscomb Jr. (1919-) (U.S.) [bonding in boranes]; Medicine: Baruch Samuel "Barry" Blumberg (1925-) [Hepatitis B virus vaccine] and Daniel Carleton Gajdusek (1923-2008) (U.S.) [prions]; Economics: Milton Friedman (1912-2006) (U.S.) [prediction of stagflation].

Vicente Aleixandre (1898-1984) Philip Warren Anderson (1923-) John Hasbrouck Van Vleck (1899-1980) Sir Nevill Francis Mott (1905-96) Ilya Prigogine (1917-2003) Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (1921-) Roger Charles Louis Guillemin (1924-) Andrew Victor Schally (1926-) Bertil Ohlin (1899-1979) James Edward Meade (1907-95)

1977: Peace: Amnesty Internat. (logo is a candle wrapped in barbed wire); Lit.: Vicente Pío Marcelino Cirilo Aleixandre y Merlo (1898-1984) (Spain); Physics: Philip Warren Anderson (1923-) (U.S.) and John Hasbrouck Van Vleck (1899-1980) (U.S.), and Sir Nevill Francis Mott (1905-96) (U.K.) [amorphous semiconductors and magnetic properties of atoms]; Chem.: Ilya Romanovich Prigogine (1917-2003) (Belgium); Med.: Rosalyn Sussman Yalow (1921-) (U.S.), Roger Charles Louis Guillemin (1924-) (U.S.), and Andrew Victor (Andrzej Viktor) Schally (1926-) (U.S.) [measurement and synthesis of hormones]; "The world cannot afford the loss of the talents of half its people if we are to solve the many problems which beset us" (Yalow); Econ.: Bertil Ohlin (1899-1979) (Sweden) and James Edward Meade (1907-95) (U.K.).

Menachem Begin (1913-92) Anwar el-Sadat (1918-81) Isaac Bashevis Singer (1902-91) Arno Allan Penzias (1933-) Robert Woodrow Wilson (1936-) Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (1894-1984) Peter Dennis Mitchell (1920-92) Daniel Nathans (1928-99) Hamilton Othanel Smith (1931-) Werner Arber (1929-) Herbert Alexander Simon (1916-2001)

1978: Peace: Menachem Begin (1913-92) (Israel) and Anwar El Sadat (1918-81) (Egypt) [1979 Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty]; Lit.: Isaac Bashevis Singer (1902-91) (U.S.); Physics: Arno Allan Penzias (1933-) and Robert Woodrow Wilson (1936-) (U.S.) [cosmic microwave background radiation], and Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (1894-1984) (Soviet Union) [superfluidity]; Chem.: Peter Dennis Mitchell (1920-92) (U.K.) [ATP synthesis]; Med.: Daniel Nathans (1928-99) (U.S.), Hamilton Othanel Smith (1931-) (U.S.), and Werner Arber (1929-) (Switzerland) [restriction enzymes]; Econ.: Herbert Alexander Simon (1916-2001) (U.S.) [organizational decision-making].

Mother Teresa of Calcutta (1910-97) Odysseas Elytis (1911-96) Werner Arber (1929-) Sheldon Lee Glashow (1932-) Abdus Salam (1926-96) Herbert Charles Brown (1912-2004) Georg Wittig (1897-1987) Allan McLeod Cormack (1924-98) Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield (1919-2004) Sir William Arthur Lewis (1915-91) Theodore William Schultz (1902-98)

1979: Peace: Mother Teresa of Calcutta (1910-97) (India); Lit.: Odysseas Elytis (1911-96) (Greece); Physics: Steven Weinberg (1933-) (U.S.), Sheldon Lee Glashow (1932-) (U.S.), and Mohammad Abdus Salam (1926-96) (Pakistan) [electroweak unification] (first Pakistani and first Muslim to win a Nobel science prize; too bad, he's a member of the Ahmadiyya sect, which is not recognized as Muslim by the Pakistan Constitution); Chem.: Herbert Charles Brown (1912-2004) (U.S.) [organoboranes] and Georg Wittig (1897-1987) (West Germany) [Wittig Reaction for organophosphates]; Med.: Allan McLeod Cormack (1924-98) (U.S.) and Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield (1919-2004) (U.K.) [X-ray computed tomography (CT)]; Econ.: Sir William Arthur Lewis (1915-91) (U.K.) (first black) and Theodore William Schultz (1902-98) (U.S.) [problems of developing nations].

Adolfo Perez Esquivel (1931-) Czeslaw Milosz (1911-2004) Georg Wittig (1897-1987) James Watson Cronin (1931-2016) Val Logsdon Fitch (1923-2015) Paul Berg (1926-) Walter Gilbert (1932-) Frederick Sanger (1918-) Baruj Benacerraf (1920-) George Davis Snell (1903-96) Jean Dausset (1916-2009) Lawrence R. Klein (1920-)

1980: Peace: Adolfo Perez Esquivel (1931-) (Argentina) [fight to expose the Dirty War]; Lit.: Czeslaw Milosz (1911-2004) (U.S.); Physics: James Watson Cronin (1931-2016) and Val Logsdon Fitch (1923-2015) (U.S.) [asymmetry of subatomic reactions]; Chem.: Paul Berg (1926-) (U.S.) [recombinant DNA], and Walter Gilbert (1932-) (U.S.) and Frederick Sanger (1918-) (U.K.) [DNA mapping] (his 2nd Chem. Nobel); Med.: Baruj Benacerraf (1920-) (Venezuela), George Davis Snell (1903-96) (U.S.), and Jean BaptisteGabriel Joachim (1916-2009) (France) [cell surface structures regulating immunologic reactions in organ transplants]; Econ.: Lawrence Robert Klein (1920-) (U.S.) [economic fluctuations and policies].

Elias Canetti (1905-94) Nicolaas Bloembergen (1920-) Charles Hard Townes (1915-) and Arthur Leonard Schawlow (1921-99) Kai M. Siegbahn (1918-2007) Roald Hoffmann (1937-) Kenichi Fukui (1918-98) Roger Wolcott Sperry (1913-94) David Hunter Hubel (1926-) Torsten Nils Wiesel (1924-) James Tobin (1918-2002)

1981: Peace: Office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees; Lit.: Elias Canetti (1905-94) (Bulgaria); Physics: Nicolaas Bloembergen (1920-) (U.S.), Arthur Leonard Schawlow (1921-99) (U.S.), and Kai Manne Borje (Börje) Siegbahn (1918-2007) (Sweden) [laser spectroscopy]; Chem.: Roald Hoffmann (1937-) (U.S.) and Kenichi Fukui (1918-98) (Japan) [quantum mechanics in chem. reactions]; Medicine: Roger Wolcott Sperry (1913-94) [split brain research] and David Hunter Hubel (1926-) (U.S.), and Torsten Nils Wiesel (1924-) (Sweden) [brain org.]; Economics: James Tobin (1918-2002) (U.S.) [financial markets].

Alva Myrdal (1902-86) Alfonso Garcia Robles (1911-91) Gabriel Garcia Marquez (1927-) Kenneth Geddes Wilson (1936-) Sir Aaron Klug (1926-) Sune Karl Bergstrom (1916-2004) Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson (1934-) Sir John Robert Vane (1927-2004) George Joseph Stigler (1911-91)

1982: Peace: Alva Myrdal (1902-86) (Sweden) [husband Gunnar Myrdal won the 1974 Nobel Econ. Prize] and Alfonso Garcia Robles (1911-91) (Mexico) [Treaty of Tlatelolco]; Lit.: Gabriel "Gabo" Jose de la Concordia García Marquez (1927-) (Colombia); Physics: Kenneth Geddes Wilson (1936-) (U.S.) [theory of phase transitions]; Chem.: Sir Aaron Klug (1926-) (U.K.) [crystallographic electron microscopy with tobacco mosaic virus]; Medicine: Karl Sune Detlof Bergstrom (1916-2004), Bengt Ingemar Samuelsson (1934-), and Sir John Robert Vane (1927-2004) (U.K.) [prostaglandins]; Economics: George Joseph Stigler (1911-91) (U.S.) [govt. regulation].

Lech Walesa (1943-) Sir William Golding (1911-93) Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910-95) William Alfred Fowler (1911-95) Henry Taube (1915-2005) Barbara McClintock (1902-92) Gerard Debreu (1921-2004)

1983: Peace: Lech Walesa (1943-) (Poland) (he is not permitted to leave the country, and his wife Danuta accepts it for him); Lit.: Sir William Gerald Golding (1911-93) (U.K.); Physics: Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (1910-95) and William Alfred "Willy" Fowler (1911-95) (U.S.) [aging and collapse of stars]; Chem.: Henry Taube (1915-2005) (U.S.) (Canada?) [basic mechanism of chemical reactions]; Medicine: Barbara McClintock (1902-92) (U.S.) [transposons]; Economics: Gerard Debreu (1921-2004) (U.S.) [gen. equilibrium theory].

Bishop Desmond Mpilo Tutu (1931-) Jaroslav Seifert (1901-86) Carlo Rubbia (1934-) Simon van der Meer (1925-2011) Robert Bruce Merrifield (1921-2006) Cesar Milstein (1927-2002) Georges Jean Franz Kohler (1946-95) Niels Kaj Jerne (1911-94) Sir Richard Stone (1913-91)

1984: Peace: Bishop Desmond Mpilo Tutu (1931-) (South Africa); Lit.: Jaroslav Seifert (1901-86) (Czech.); Physics: Carlo Rubbia (1934-) (Italy) and Simon van der Meer (1925-2011) (Netherlands) [discovery of W and Z particles]; Chem.: Robert Bruce Merrifield (1921-2006) (U.S.) [solid phase peptide and protein synthesis]; Medicine: Cesar Milstein (1927-2002) (U.K./Argentina) and Georges Jean Franz Kohler (1946-95) (West Germany) [monoclonal antibodies], and Niels Kaj Jerne (1911-94) (U.K./Denmark) [immune system]; Economics: Sir John Richard Nicholas Stone (1913-91) (U.K.) [MDM model for tracking internat. economic activities].

Claude Simon (1913-2005) Klaus von Klitzing (1943-) Herbert Aaron Hauptman (1917-2011) Jerome Karle (Karfunkel) (1918-) Michael S. Brown (1941-) and Joseph L. Goldstein (1940-) Franco Modigliani (1918-2003)

1985: Peace: Internat. Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (Boston); Lit.: Claude Simon (1913-2005) (France); Physics: Klaus von Klitzing (1943-) (Germany) [integer quantum Hall Effect]; Chem.: Herbert Aaron Hauptman (1917-2011) and Jerome Karle (Karfunkel) (1918-) (U.S.) [X-Ray crystallography]; Med.: Michael Stuart Brown (1941-) and Joseph L. Goldstein (1940-) (U.S.) [regulation of cholesterol metabolism]; Econ.: Franco Modigliani (1918-2003) (U.S.) [household savers].

Elie Wiesel (1928-) Wole Soyinka (1934-) Ernst August Friedrich Ruska (1906-88) Gerd Binnig (1947-) Heinrich Rohrer (1933-) Dudley Robert Herschbach (1932-) Yuan Tseh Lee (1936-) John Charles Polanyi (1929- Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909-) Stanley Cohen (1922-) James McGill Buchanan Jr. (1919-)

1986: Peace: Eliezer "Elie" Wiesel (1928-) (U.S.); Lit.: Akinwande Oluwole "Wole" Soyinka ( (1934-) (Nigeria); Physics: Ernst August Friedrich Ruska (1906-88) (West Germany) [electron microscope], and Gerd Binnig (1947-) (West Germany) and Heinrich Rohrer (1933-) (Switzerland) [scanning tunneling microscope]; Chemistry: Dudley Robert Herschbach (1932-) and Yuan Tseh Lee (1936-) (U.S.), and John Charles Polanyi (1929-) (Canada) [dynamics of chemical elementary processes]; Medicine: Rita Levi-Montalcini (1909-) (U.S.-Italy) and Stanley Cohen (1922-) (U.S.) [nerve growth factor]; Economics: James McGill Buchanan Jr. (1919-) (U.S.) [decision-making].

Oscar Arias Sanchez (1940-) Joseph Brodsky (1940-96) Karl Alex Muller (1927-) Johannes Georg Bednorz (1950-) Donald J. Cram (1919-2001) Charles J. Pederson (1904-89) Jean Marie Lehn Ernst August Friedrich Ruska (1906-88) Robert M. Solow (1924-)

1987: Peace: Oscar Arias Sanchez (1940-) (Costa Rica) [Esquipulas II Accords]; Lit.: Joseph (Iosif Alexandrovich) Brodsky (1940-96) (U.S.); Physics: Karl Alexander Muller (1927-) (Switzerland) and Johannes Georg Bednorz (1950-) (West Germany) [hi-temperature superconductivity in ceramics]; Chem.: Donald James Cram (1919-2001) (U.S.), Charles John Pederson (1904-89) (U.S.), and Jean-Marie Lehn (1939-) (France) [artificial molecules); Medicine: Susumu Tonegawa (1939-) (Japan) [genetic mechanism for antibody diversity]; Economics: Robert Merton Solow (1924-) (U.S.) [economic growth].

Naguib Mahfouz (1911-2006) Leon Max Lederman (1922-) Melvin Schwartz (1932-2006) Jack Steinberger (1921-) Johann Deisenhofer (1943-) Robert Huber (1937-) Gertrude Belle Elion (1918-99) George Herbert Hitchings (1905-98) Sir James Whyte Black (1924-2010) Maurice Allais (1911-)

1988: Peace: U.N. Peacekeeping Force; Lit.: Naguib Mahfouz (1911-2006) (Egypt); Physics: Leon Max Lederman (1922-) (U.S.), Melvin Schwartz (1932-2006) (U.S.), and Hans Jakob "Jack" Steinberger (1921-) (U.S.) [muon neutrino]; Chem.: Johann Deisenhofer (1943-), Robert Huber (1937-), and Hartmut Michel (1948-) (West Germany) [structure of photosynthetic reaction center]; Medicine: Gertrude Belle Elion (1918-99) (U.S.) [AZT], George Herbert Hitchings (1905-98) (U.S.) [chemotherapy], and Sir James Whyte Black (1924-2010) (U.K.) [beta-blocker drug treatment, Propranolol, Cimetidine]; Economics: Maurice Felix Charles Allais (1911-) (France) [theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources].

Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso (1935-) Camilo Jose Cela (1916-) Norman Foster Ramsey Jr. (1915-) Hans Georg Dehmelt (1922-) Wolfgang Paul (1913-93) Thomas Robert Cech (1947-) Sidney Altman (1939-) John Michael Bishop Jr. (1936-) Harold Elliot Varmus (1939-) Trygve Magnus Haavelmo (1911-99)

1989: Peace: Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso (1935-) (Tibet); Lit.: Camilo Jose Cela y Trulock (1916-) (Spain); Physics: Norman Foster Ramsey Jr. (1915-) (U.S.) [atomic clock], Hans Georg Dehmelt (1922-) (U.S.) and Wolfgang Paul (1913-93) (West Germany) [ion trap]; Chem.: Thomas Robert Cech (1947-) (U.S.) and Sidney Altman (1939-) (Canada) [catalytic properties of RNA]; Medicine: John Michael Bishop Jr. (1936-) and Harold Elliot Varmus (1939-) (U.S.) [cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes]; Economics: Trygve Magnus Haavelmo (1911-99) (Norway) [clarification of probability foundations of econometrics, and analysis of simultaneous economic structures].

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (1931-) Octavio Paz (1914-98) Richard Edward Taylor (1929-) Jerome Isaac Friedman (1930-) Henry Way Kendall (1926-99) Elias James Corey (1928-) Joseph Edward Murray (1919-2012) Edward Donnall Thomas (1920-) Harry Max Markowitz (1927-) William F. Sharpe (1934-) Merton H. Miller (1923-)

1990: Peace: Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (1931-) (Soviet Union) [Glasnost and Perestroika]; Lit.: Octavio Paz (1914-98) (Mexico); Physics: Richard Edward Taylor (1929-) (Canada), Jerome Isaac Friedman (1930-) (U.S.), and Henry Way Kendall (1926-99) (U.S.) [quark model]; Chem.: Elias James Corey (1928-) (U.S.) [retrosynthetic analysis]; Medicine: Joseph Edward Murray (1919-2012) (U.S.) and Edward Donnall "Don" Thomas (1920-) (U.S.) [organ transplantation]; Economics: Harry Max Markowitz (1927-) (U.S.), William Forsyth Sharpe (1934-) (U.S.), and Merton Howard Miller (1923-2000) (U.S.) [stock-bond valuation].

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi (1945-) Nadine Gordimer (1923-) Pierre-Gilles de Gennes (1932-2007) Richard R. Ernst (1933-) Erwin Neher (1944-) Bert Sakmann (1942-) Ronald Coase (1910-)

1991: Peace: Aung San Suu Kyi (1945-) (Burma); Lit.: Nadine Gordimer (1923-) (South Africa); Physics: Pierre-Gilles de Gennes (1932-1007) (France) [ordering of molecules]; Chem.: Richard Robert Ernst (1933-) (Switzerland) [NMR spectroscopy]; Med.: Erwin Neher (1944-) and Bert Sakmann (1942-) (Germany) [confirmation of ion channels via the patch clamp]; Econ.: Ronald Harry Coase (1910-) (U.S.) [transaction costs, externalities].

Rigoberta Menchu (1959-) Derek Alton Walcott (1930-) Georges Charpak (1924-) Rudolph A. Marcus (1923-) Edmond H. Fischer (1920-) Edwin Gerhard Krebs (1918-) Gary Stanley Becker (1930-)

1992: Peace: Rigoberta Menchu (1959-) (Guatemala) [indigenous rights]; Lit.: Derek Alton Walcott (1930-) (St. Lucia); Physics: Georges Charpak (1924-2010) (France) [particle detectors]; Chem.: Rudolph Arthur Marcus (1923-) (U.S.) [electron transfer]; Medicine: Edmond H. Fischer (1920-) and Edwin Gerhard Krebs (1918-) (U.S.) [reversible phosphorylation]; Economics: Gary Stanley Becker (1930-) (U.S.) [new home economics].

Frederik Willem de Klerk (1936-) Nelson Mandela (1918-) Toni Morrison (1931-) Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. (1941-) Russell Alan Hulse (1950-) Kary Banks Mullis (1944-) Michael Smith (1932-2000) Philip Allen Sharp (1944-) Sir Richard John Roberts (1943-) Robert William Fogel (1926-) Douglass Cecil North (1920-)

1993: Peace: Frederik Willem de Klerk (1936-) (South Africa) and Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (1918-2013) (South Africa) [ending apartheid]; Lit.: Toni Morrison (Chloe Ardelia Wofford) (1931-) (U.S.); Physics: Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr. (1941-) (U.S.) and Russell Alan Hulse (1950-) (U.S.) [binary pulsar]; Chem.: Kary Banks Mullis (1944-) (U.S.) [polymerase chain reaction] and Michael Smith (1932-2000) (Canada) [site-directed mutagenesis]; Philip Allen Sharp (1944-) (U.S.) and Sir Richard John "Rich" Roberts (1943-) (U.K.) [RNA splicing]; Robert William Fogel (1926-) (U.S.) and Douglass Cecil North (1920-) (U.S.) [economics-based economic history].

Yasser Arafat of Palestine (1929-2004) Shimon Peres of Israel (1923-2016) Yitzhak Rabin of Israel (1922-95) Kenzaburo Oe (1935-) Clifford Glenwood Shull (1915-2001) Bertram Neville Brockhouse (1918-2003) George Andrew Olah (1927-) Alfred Goodman Gilman (1941-) Martin Rodbell (1925-98) John Forbes Nash Jr. (1928-2015) John Charles Harsanyi (1920-2000) Reinhard Selten (1930-)

1994: Peace: Yasser Arafat (Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa) (1929-2004) (Palestine), Shimon Peres (Szymon Perski) (1923-2016) (Israel), and Yitzhak Rabin (1922-95) (Israel) [Oslo Accords]; Lit.: Kenzaburo Oe (1935-) (Japan); Physics: Clifford Glenwood Shull (1915-2001) (U.S.) and Bertram Neville Brockhouse (1918-2003) (Canada) [neutron scattering techniques]; George Andrew Olah (Olah Gyorgy) (1927-) (U.S.) [superacids]; Medicine: Alfred Goodman Gilman (1941-) and Martin Rodbell (1925-98) (U.S.) [G-proteins]; Economics: John Forbes Nash Jr. (1928-2015) and John Charles Harsanyi (1920-2000) (U.S.), and Reinhard Justus Reginald Selten (1930-) (Germany) [game theory]. In 1994 Schizophrenic Am. math nerd John Forbes Nash Jr. (1928-2015), one of the founders of Game Theory receives the Nobel Prize in Economics; nobody at the time cares, but when #1 movie hunk Russell Crowe plays him in the 2001 box office A-movie "A Beautiful Mind", everybody wants to look his bio up?

Sir Joseph Rotblat (1908-2005) Seamus Heaney (1939-) Martin Lewis Perl (1927-) Frederick Reines (1918-98) Clyde Lorrain Cowan Jr. (1919-74) Frank Sherwood Rowland (1927-2012) Mario J. Molina (1943-) Paul Jozef Crutzen (1933-) Eric Francis Wieschaus (1947-) Christiane Nusslein-Volhard (1942-) Robert E. Lucas Jr. (1937-)

1995: Peace: Sir Joseph (Jozef) Rotblat (1908-2005) and Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs (U.K.) [nuclear disarmament]; Lit.: Seamus Justin Heaney (1939-) (Ireland); Physics: Martin Lewis Perl (1927-) (U.S.) [tau lepton], and Frederick Reines (1918-98) (U.S.) [neutrino]; Reines shares credit with Clyde Lorrain Cowan Jr. (1919-74); Chem.: Frank Sherwood "Sherry" Rowland (1927-2012) (U.S.), Mario J. Molina (Mario Jose Molina-Pasquel Henríquez) (1943-) (U.S.), and Paul Jozef Crutzen (1933-) (Netherlands) [chlorofluorocarbon damage to ozone shield]; Med.: Edward B. Lewis (1918-2004) and Eric Francis Wieschaus (1947-) (U.S.), and Christiane Nusslein-Volhard (Nüsslein-Volhard) (1942-) (Germany) [genetic control of embryonic development]; Robert Emerson Lucas Jr. (1937-) (U.S.) [macroeconomics].

Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo (1948-) Jose Ramos-Horta (1949-) Wislawa Szymborska (1923-2012) David M. Lee (1931-) Robert C. Richardson (1937-) Douglas Dean Osheroff (1945-) Richard E. Smalley (1943-) Robert F. Curl Jr. (1933-) Sir Harold Walter Kroto (1939-) Peter C. Doherty (1940-) Rolf M. Zinkernagel (1944-) James A. Mirrlees (1936-) William Vickrey (1914-96)

1996: Peace: Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo (1948-) (East Timor) and Jose Ramos-Horta (1949-) (East Timor) [for "sustained efforts to hinder the oppression of a small people"]; Lit.: Wislawa Szymborska (Szymborska-Wlodek) (1923-2012) (Poland); Physics: David Morris Lee (1931-) (U.S.), Robert Coleman Richardson (1937-) (U.S.), and Douglas Dean Osheroff (1945-) (U.S.) [He-3 superfluidity]; Chem.: Richard Errett Smalley (1943-2005) (U.S.), Robert Floyd Curl Jr. (1933-) (U.S.) and Sir Harold Walter "Harry" Kroto (Krotoschiner) (1939-) (U.K.) [new carbon molecule class of fullerenes]; Medicine: Peter Charles Doherty (1940-) (Australia) and Rolf Martin Zinkernagel (1944-) (Switzerland) [immune system]; Economics: Sir James Alexander Mirrlees (1936-) (U.K.) and William Spencer Vickrey (1914-96) (U.S.) [incentives].

Jody Williams (1950-) Dario Fo (1926-) Steven Chu (1948-) William Daniel Phillips (1948-) Claude Cohen-Tannoudji (1933-) Paul Delos Boyer (1918-) Sir John E. Walker (1941-) Stanley Ben Prusiner (1942-) Robert Carhart Merton (1944-) Myron Samuel Scholes (1941-)

Peace: Jody Williams (1950-) (U.S.) and Internat. Coalition to Ban Landmines; Lit.: Dario Fo (1926-) (Italy); Physics: Steven Chu (1948-) (U.S.), William Daniel Phillips (1948-) (U.S.), and Claude Cohen-Tannoudji (1933-) (France) [laser cooling]; Chem.: Paul Delos Boyer (1918-) (U.S.), Jens Christian Skou (1918-) (Denmark) and Sir John Ernest Walker (1941-) (U.K.) [cell energy storage-transfer]; Medicine: Stanley Benjamin Prusiner (1942-) (U.S.) [prions]; Econ.: Robert Carhart Merton (1944-) and Myron Samuel Scholes (1941-) (U.S.) [stock option values].

John Hume (1937-) David Trimble (1944-) Jose de Sousa Saramago (1922-) Robert Betts Laughlin (1950-) Horst Ludwig Stormer (1949-) Daniel Chee Tsui (1939-) Walter Kohn (1923-) Sir John Anthony Pople (1925-2004) Robert F. Furchgott (1916-2009) Louis J. Ignarro (1941-) Ferid Murad (1936-) Amartya Sen (1933-)

1998: Peace: John Hume (1937-) (Northern Ireland) and William David Trimble (1944-) (Northern Ireland) [1998 Good Friday Agreement]; Lit.: Jose de Sousa Saramago (1922-) (Portugal); Physics: Robert Betts Laughlin (1950-) (U.S.), Horst Ludwig Stormer (1949-) (Germany) and Daniel Chee Tsui (1939-) (U.S.) [Fractional Quantum Hall Effect]; Chem.: Walter Kohn (1923-) (U.S.) and Sir John Anthony Pople (1925-2004) (U.K.) [electronic density functional theory]; Medicine: Robert Francis Furchgott (1916-2009), Louis J. Ignarro (1941-) and Ferid Murad (1936-) (U.S.) [nitric acid as a signal in the cardiovascular system]; Economics: Amartya Kumar Sen (1933-) (India) [welfare economics].

Gunter (Günter) Grass (1927-) Gerardus 't Hooft (1946-) Martinus J.G. Veltman (1931-) Ahmed Hassan Zewail (1946-) Gunter Blobel (1936-) Robert Alexander Mundell (1932-)

1999: Peace: Doctors Without Borders (Médecins Sans Frontières) (France); Lit.: Gunter (Günter) Wilhelm Grass (1927-) (Germany); Physics: Gerardus "Gerard" 't Hooft (1946-) and Martinus Justinus Godefriedus Veltman (1931-) (Netherlands) [electroweak interactions]; Chem.: Ahmed Hassan Zewail (1946-) (U.S.) (2nd Muslim Physics Nobel Prize winner) [femtochemistry]; Gunter (Günter) Blobel (1936-) (U.S.) [protein targeting]; Economics: Robert Alexander Mundell (1932-) (Canada) [monetary dynamics].

Kim Dae Jung (1925-) Gao Xingjian (1940-) Zhores Ivanovich Alferov (1930-) Herbert Kroemer (1928-) Jack St. Clair Kilby (1923-2005) Alan Jay Heeger (1936-) Alan Graham MacDiarmid (1927-2007) Hideki Shirakawa (1936-) Arvid Carlsson (1923-) Paul Greengard (1925-) Eric Richard Kandel (1929-) James Joseph Heckman (1944-) Daniel Little McFadden (1937-)

2000: Peace: Kim Dae-jung (1925-2009) (South Korea) [Sunshine Policy]; Lit.: Gao Xingjian (1940-) (China); Physics: Zhores Ivanovich Alferov (1930-) (Russia) and Herbert Kroemer (1928-) (U.S.) [heterostructures], and Jack St. Clair Kilby (1923-2005) (U.S.) [microchip tech.]; Chem: Alan Jay Heeger (1936-) (U.S.), Alan Graham MacDiarmid (1927-2007) (U.S.), and Hideki Shirakawa (1936-) (Japan) [conductive polymers]; Arvid Carlsson (1923-) (Sweden), Paul Greengard (1925-) (U.S.), and Eric Richard Kandel (1929-) (U.S.) [signal transduction in the nervous system]; Economics: James Joseph Heckman (1944-) (U.S.) [statistical analysis of household and individual behavior] and Daniel Little McFadden (1937-) (U.S.) [theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice].

Kofi Annan (1938-) V.S. Naipaul (1932-) Wolfgang Ketterle (1957-) Eric A. Cornell (1961-) Carl E. Wieman (1951-) William S. Knowles (1917-2012) Ryoji Noyori (1938-) K. Barry Sharpless (1941-) Leland H. Hartwell (1939-) Sir Tim Hunt (1943-) Sir Paul Nurse (1949-) Andrew Michael Spence (1943-) Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (1943-)

2001: Peace: United Nations (U.N.) and Kofi Atta Annan (1938-) (Ghana) ["for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"]; Lit.: Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul (1932-) (U.K.); Physics: Wolfgang Ketterle (1957-) (Germany), Eric Allin Cornell (1961-) and Carl Edwin Wieman (1951-) (U.S.) [Bose-Einstein condensate]; Chem.: William Standish Knowles (1917-2012) (U.S.) and Ryoji Noyori (1938-) (Japan) [chirally catalyzed hydrogenation reactions], and Karl Barry Sharpless (1941-) (U.S.) [chirally catalyzed oxidation reactions]; Medicine: Leland Harrison "Lee" Hartwell (1939-) (U.S.), Sir Richard Timothy "Tim" Hunt (1943-) (U.K.), and Sir Paul Maxime Nurse (1949-) (U.K.) [cell cycle]; Economics: George Arthur Akerlof (1940-) (U.S.), Andrew Michael Spence (1943-) (U.S.), and Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (1943-) (U.S.) [assymetric info.]; in 2009 Stiglitz calls for a new global currency.

James Earl 'Jimmy' Carter (1924-) Imre Kertesz (1929-) Raymond Davis Jr. (1914-2006) Masatoshi Koshiba (1926-) Riccardo Giacconi (1931-) John Bennett Fenn  (1917-2010) Koichi Tanaka (1959-) Kurt Wuthrich (1938-) Sydney Brenner (1927-) Sir John Edward Sulston (1942-) Howard Robert Horvitz (1947-) Daniel Kahneman (1934-) Vernon Lomax Smith (1927-)

2002: Peace: James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr. (1924-) (U.S.) [for his work "to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"]; Lit.: Imre Kertesz (Kertész) (1929-) (Hungary); Physics: Raymond Davis Jr. (1914-2006) (U.S.) and Masatoshi Koshiba (1926-) (Japan) [detection of cosmic neutrinos], and Riccardo Giacconi (1931-) (U.S.) [X-ray astronomy]; Chem.: John Bennett Fenn (1917-2010) (U.S.) [electrospray ionization technique] and Koichi Tanaka (1959-) (Japan) [mass spectrometry of biological macromolecules], Kurt Wuthrich (Wüthrich) (1938-) (Switzerland) [3-D structure of biological macromolecules]; Med.: Sydney Brenner (1927-) (South Africa), and Sir John Edward Sulston (1942-) (U.K.), and Howard Robert Horvitz (1947-) (U.S.) [use of roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans for genetic analysis]; Econ.: Daniel Kahneman (1934-) (Israel) [Prospect Theory], and Vernon Lomax Smith (1927-) (U.S.) [empirical economic analysis].

Shirin Ebadi (1947-) J.M. Coetzee (1940-) Alexei A. Abrikosov (1928-) Sir Anthony James Leggett (1938-) Vitaly L. Ginzburg (1916-2009) Peter Agre (1949-) Roderick MacKinnon (1956-) Paul Christian Lauterbur (1929-2007() Sir Peter Mansfield (1933-) Robert F. Engle III (1942-) Sir Clive W.J. Granger (1934-)

2003: Peace: Shirin Ebadi (1947-) (Iran) (first Muslim woman) [women's, children's, and refugee rights]; in 2009 Iranian authorities confiscate her medal for the first time in the history of the Nobel Prize; Lit.: John Maxwell Coetzee (1940-) (South Africa); Physics: Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov (1928-) (Russia, U.S.), Sir Anthony James Leggett (1938-) (U.K., U.S.), and Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg (1916-2009) (Russia) [superconductivity]; Chem.: Peter Agre (1949-) (U.S.) and Roderick MacKinnon (1956-) (U.S.) [aquaporins], and Paul Christian Lauterbur (1929-2007) (U.S.) and Sir Peter Mansfield (1933-) (U.K.) [MRI]; Economics: Robert Fry Engle III (1942-) (U.S.) and Sir Clive William John Granger (1934-2009) (U.K.) [ARCH statistical tools for stock market].

Wangari Muta Maathai (1940-) Elfriede Jelinek (1946-) David Jonathan Gross (1941-) Frank Anthony Wilczek (1951-) H. David Politzer Avram Hershko (1937-) Aaron Ciechanover (1947-) Irwin A. Rose (1926-) Richard Axel (1946-) Linda Brown Buck (1947-) Finn E. Kydland (1943-) Edward C. Prescott (1940-)

2004: Peace: Wangari Muta Maathai (1940-) (Kenya) [Green Belt Movement]; Lit.: Elfriede Jelinek (1946-) (Austria) (states that she considers Austrian writer Peter Handke to be more worthy and that she got the award just for being female, and sends a video message instead of attending, claiming agoraphobia); Physics: David Jonathan Gross (1941-) (U.S.), Frank Anthony Wilczek (1951-) (U.S.), and Hugh David Politzer (U.S.) [asymptotic freedom in the strong interaction]; Chem.: Avram Hershko (1937-) (Israel), Aaron Ciechanover (1947-) (Israel), and Irwin A. Rose (1926-) (U.S.) [ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation]; Medicine: Richard Axel (1946-) (U.S.) and Linda Brown Buck (1947-) (U.S.) [odorant receptors and org. of olfactory system]; Economics: Finn Erling Kydland (1943-) (Norway) and Edward Christian Prescott (1940-) (U.S.) [dynamic macroeconomics].

Mohamed Mostafa ElBaradei (1942-) Harold Pinter (1930-2008) John Lewis Hall (1934-) Roy Jay Glauber (1925-) Theodor Wolfgang Hansch (1941-) Robert Howard Grubbs (1942-) Richard Royce Schrock (1945-) Barry James Marshall (1951-) John Robin Warren (1937-) Robert John Aumann (1930-) Thomas Crombie Schelling (1921-)

2005: Peace: Mohamed Mostafa ElBaradei (1942-) (Egypt) and Internat. Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Lit.: Harold Pinter (1930-2008) (U.K.) ("uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle"); Physics: John Lewis "Jan" Hall (1934-) (U.S.) [quantum theory of optical coherence], Roy Jay Glauber (1925-) (U.S.), and Theodor Wolfgang Hansch (1941-) (Germany) [laser spectroscopy and optical frequency comb technique]; Chem.: Yves Chauvin (1930-) (France), Robert Howard Grubbs (1942-) (U.S.) (born near Possum Trot, Ky.), and Richard Royce Schrock (1945-) (U.S.) [olefin metathesis method of organic synthesis]; Medicine: Barry James Marshall (1951-) (Australia) and John Robin Warren (1937-) (Australia) [Helicobacter pylori]; Economics: Robert John Aumann (1930-) (U.S.) and Thomas Crombie Schelling (1921-) (U.S.) [for "having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"].

Muhammad Yunus (1940-) Orhan Pamuk (1952-) George Fitzgerald Smoot III (1945-) John Cromwell Mather (1946-) Roger David Kornberg (1947-) Craig Cameron Mello (1960-) Andrew Zachary Fire (1959-) Edmund S. Phelps Jr. (1933-)

2006: Peace: Muhammad Yunus (1940-) (Bangladesh) [Grameen Bank]; Lit.: Orhan Pamuk (1952-) (Turkey); Physics: George Fitzgerald Smoot III (1945-) and John Cromwell Mather (1946-) (U.S.) [cosmic microwave background radiation]; Chem.: Roger David Kornberg (1947-) (U.S.) [eukaryotic transcription] (his father Arthur Kornberg won the Nobel Med. Prize when he was 12, and as a son of a Nobel laureate he got to conduct research for more than a decade before having to pub. any results); Med.: Craig Cameron Mello (1960-) (U.S.) and Andrew Zachary Fire (1959-) (U.S.) [RNA interference]; Econ.: Edmund Strother Phelps Jr. (1933-) (U.S.) [inter-temporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy].

Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (1948-) Doris May Lessing (1919-) Peter Gruenberg (1939-) Albert Fert (1938-) Gerhard Ertl (1936-) Mario Renato Capecchi (1937-) Sir Martin John Evans (1941-) Oliver Smithies (1925-) Leonid Hurwicz (1912-2008) Eric Maskin (1950-) Roger Myerson (1951-)

2007: Peace: Albert Arnold "Al" Gore Jr. (1948-) (U.S.) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [global warming]; Lit.: Doris May Lessing (1919-) (U.K.); Physics: Peter Andreas Gruenberg (Grünberg) (1939-) (Germany) and Albert Fert (1938-) (France) [giant magnetoresistance]; Chem.: Gerhard Ertl (1936-) (Germany) [surface chem.]; Med.: Mario Renato Capecchi (1937-) (Italy), Sir Martin John Evans (1941-) (U.K.), and Oliver Smithies (1925-) (U.S.) [homologous recombination and stem cell research]; Econ.: Leonid "Leo" Hurwicz (1912-2008) (oldest to receive a Nobel Prize until ?), Eric Stark Maskin (1950-) (U.S.), and Roger Bruce Myerson (1951-) [mechanism design theory].

Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtissari (1937-) Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio (1940-) Yoichiro Nambu (1921-) Makoto Kobayashi (1944-) Toshihide Maskawa (1940-) Osamu Shimomura (1928-) Martin Chalfie (1947-) Roger Yonchien Tsien (1952-) Francoise Barré-Sinoussi (1947-) Luc Montagnier (1932-) Harald zur Hausen (1936-) Robert Charles Gallo (1937-) Paul Robin Krugman (1953-)

2008: The year of Nobel snubs? Big year for Japan? Peace: Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtissari (1937-) (Finland); Lit.: Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clezio (Clézio) (1940-) (France); Physics: Yoichiro Nambu (1921-) (U.S.), Makoto Kobayashi (1944-) (U.S.), and Toshihide Maskawa (1940-) (U.S.) [spontaneous broken symmetry]; Chem.: Osamu Shimomura (1928-) (Japan), Martin Lee Chalfie (1947-) (U.S.), and Roger Yonchien Tsien (1952-) (U.S.) [discovery of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in jellyfish]; colleague Douglas Prasher (whom they owe it all to?) is snubbed, and is found working for $10 an hour in Huntsville, Ala. as a shuttle operator; Med.: Francoise Barre-Sinoussi (Barré-Sinoussi) (1947-) (France) and Luc Antoine Montagnier (1932-) (France) [discovery of HIV] and Harald zur Hausen (1936-) (Germany) [discovery of HPV]; U.S. virologist Robert Charles Gallo (1937-), who disputes credit with the French team is snubbed; Econ.: Paul Robin Krugman (1953-) [U.S.] [New Trade Theory, New Economic Geography].

Barack Hussein Obama II of the U.S. (1961-) Herta Müller (1953-) Charles Kuen Kao (1933-) William S. Boyle (1924-) George E. Smith (1930-) Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (1952-) Thomas A. Steitz (1940-) Ada E. Yonath (1939-) Elizabeth H. Blackburn (1948-) Jack W. Szostak (1952-) Carol W. Greider (1961-) Elinor Ostrom (1933-) Oliver Eaton Williamson (1932-)

2009: Peace: Barack Hussein Obama II (1961-) (U.S.); Literature: Herta Muller (Müller) (1953-) (Germany); Physics: Sir Charles Kuen Kao (1933-) (U.K.) (optical fibers), and Willard Sterling Boyle (1924-) (U.S.) and George Elwood Smith (1930-) (U.S.) (CCDs); Chem.: Venkatraman Ramakrishnan (1952-) (U.K.), Thomas Arthur Steitz (1940-) (U.S.), and Ada E. Yonath (1939-) (Israel) (first Israeli woman) [structure and function of the ribosome]; Med.: Elizabeth Helen Blackburn (1948-), Jack William Szostak (1952-), and Carolyn Widney "Carol" Greider (1961-) [telomerase]; Econ.: Elinor "Lin" Ostrom (1933-2012) (U.S.) (first woman) and Oliver Eaton Williamson (1932-) (U.S.) [economic governance, esp. the commons].

Liu Xiaobo (1955-) Jose Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa (1936-) Richard F. Heck (1931-) Ei-ichi Negishi (1935-) Akira Suzuki (1930-) Andre Geim (1958-) Konstantin Novoselov (1974-) Robert Geoffrey Edwards (1925-) Peter Diamond (1940-) Dale T. Mortensen (1939-) Christopher A. Pissarides (1948-)

2010: Peace: Liu Xiaobo (1955-) (China); Lit.: Jose Mario Pedro Vargas Llosa (1936-) (Peru); Chem.: Richard Fred Heck (1931-) (U.S.), Ei-ichi Negishi (1935-) (Japan), and Akira Suzuki (1930-) (Japan) [new ways of linking carbon atoms together]; Physics: Sir Andre Konstantin Geim (1958-) (U.K.) and Sir Konstantin Sergeevich "Kostya" Novoselov (1974-) (U.K.) (graphene); Med.: Robert Geoffrey "Bob" Edwards (1925-) (U.S.) (IVF); Econ.: Peter Arthur Diamond (1940-) (U.S.), Dale Thomas Mortensen (1939-) (U.S.), and Christopher Antoniou Pissarides (1948-) (Cyprus) [theory of search frictions in unemployment].

Tawakel Karman of Yemen (1979-) Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (1938-) Leymah Gbowee of Liberia (1972-) Tomas Tranströmer (1931-) Adam Riess (1969-) Saul Perlmutter (1959-) Brian P. Schmidt (1967-) Dan Schechtman (1941-) Bruce Alan Beutler (1957-) Jules A. Hoffmann (1941-) Ralph M. Steinman (1943-2011) Christopher A. Sims (1942-) Thomas J. Sargent (1943-)

2011: Peace: Tawakel (Tawakkol) Karman (1979-) (Yemen) (first Arab woman) (first Yemeni) (first Muslim Brotherhood member), Ellen Johnson Sirleaf (1938-) (Liberia), and Leymah Roberta Gbowee (1972-) (Liberia); Lit.: Tomas Gosta Transtromer (Gösta Tranströmer) (1931-) (Sweden); Lit.: ; Tomas Gosta Transtromer (Gösta Tranströmer) (1931-) (Sweden); Physics: ; Adam Guy Riess (1969-) (U.S.) and Saul Perlmutter (1959-) (U.S.), and Brian P. Schmidt (1967-) (Australia) [accelerating expansion of the Universe]; Chem.: Daniel "Dan" Schechtman (1941-) (Israel) [quasicrystals]; Med.: Bruce Alan Beutler (1957-) (U.S.) and Jules A. Hoffmann (1941-) (Luxembourg) [activation of innate immunity], and Ralph Marvin Steinman (1943-) (U.S.) (awarded three days after he dies) [the dendritic cell's role in adaptive immunity]; Econ.: Thomas John "Tom" Sargent (1943-) (U.S.) and Christopher Albert "Chris" Sims (1942-) (U.S.) [economy and policy instruments].

Mo Yan (1955-) Serge Haroche (1944-) David J. Wineland (1944-) Robert J. Lefkowitz (1943-) Brian Kent Kobilka (1955-) Sir John Bertrand Gurdon (1933-) Shinya Yamanaka (1962-) Alvin E. Roth (1951-) Lloyd Stowell Shapley (1923-2016)

2012: Peace: European Union (EU); Lit: Mo Yan (Guan Moye) (1955-) (China); Physics: Serge Haroche (1944-) (France) and David Jeffrey Wineland (1944-) (U.S.) [experimental methods for quantum systems]; Chem.: Robert Joseph Lefkowitz (1943-) (U.S.) and Brian Kent Kobilka (1955-) (U.S.) [G-protein-coupled receptors]; Med.: Sir John Bertrand Gurdon (1933-) (U.K.) and Shinya Yamanaka (1962-) (Japan) [pluripotent cells]; Econ.: Alvin Elliot Roth (1951-) (U.S.) and Lloyd Stowell Shapley (1923-2016) (U.S.) [theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design].

Alice Munro (1931-) Francois, Baron Englert (1932-) Peter Higgs (1929-) Martin Karplus (1930-) Michael Levitt (1947-) Ariel Warshel (1940-) James Edward Rothman (1950-) Randy Wayne Schekman (1948-) Thomas Christian Südhof (1955-) Eugene Fama (1939-) Lars Peter Hansen (1952-) Robert James Shiller (1946-)

2013: Peace: Org. for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW); Lit.: Alice Ann Munro (nee Laidlaw) (1931-) (Canada); Physics: Francois, Baron Englert (1932-) [Belgium}, and Peter Ware Higgs (1929-) (U.K.) [Higgs Mechanism]; Chem.: Martin Karplus (1930-), Michael Levitt (1947-) [U.S.-U.K.-Israel], and Ariel Warshel (1940-) [U.S.-Israel] [multiscale models for complex chemical systems]; Med.: James Edward Rothman (1950-) , Randy Wayne Schekman (1948-), and Thomas Christian Sudhof (Südhof) (1955-) (U.S.) [machinery regulating vesicle traffic]; Econ.: Eugene Francis "Gene" Fama (1939-), Lars Peter Hansen (1952-), and Robert James "Bob" Shiller (1946-) (U.S.) [asset pricing].

Kailash Satyarthi (1954-) Malala Yousafzai (1997-) Patrick Modiano (1945-) Isamu Akasaki (1929-) Hiroshi Amano (1960-) Shuji Nakamura (1954-) Eric Betzig (1960-) Stefan Hell (1962-) William E. Moerner (1953-) John O'Keefe (1939-) May-Britt Moser (1963-) and Edvard Moser (1962-) Jean Tirole (1953-)

2014: Peace: Kailash Satyarthi (Sharma) (1954-) (India), and Malala Yousafzai (1997-) (Pakistan); Lit.: Jean Patrick Modiano (1945-) (France); Physics: Isamu Akasaki (1929-), Hiroshi Amano (1960-), and Shuji Nakamura (1954-) (Japan) [blue LEDs]; Chem.: Robert Eric Betzig (1960-) (U.S.), Stefan Walter Hell (1962-) (Germany), and William Esco Moerner (1953-) (U.S.) [super-resolved fluorescence microscopy]; Med.: John O'Keefe (1939-) (U.S.), May-Britt Moser (1963-) (Norway), and Edvard Ingjald Moser (1962-) (Norway) [hippocampus place cells]; Econ.: Jean Tirole (1953-) (France) [market power and regulation].

Svetlana Alexievich (1948-) Takaaki Kajita (1959-) Arthur Bruce McDonald (1943-) Tomas Lindahl (1938-) Paul Lawrence Modrich (1946-) Aziz Sancar (1946-) William Cecil Campbell (1930-) Satosi Omura (1935-) Tu Youyou (1930-) Angus Stewart Deaton (1945-)

2015: Peace: Tunisian Nat. Dialogue Quartet; Lit: Svetlana Alexandrovna Alexievich (1948-) (Belarus) (first); Physics: Takaaki Kajita (1959-) (Japan) and Arthur Bruce McDonald (1943-) (Canada) (neutrino experiments); Chem.: Tomas Robert Lindahl (1938-) (Britain), Paul Lawrence Modrich (1946-)<;/a> (U.S.), and Aziz Sancar (1946-) (U.S.) (DNA mismatch repair); Med.: William Cecil Campbell (1930-) (U.S.) and Satoshi Omura (1935-) (Japan) (avermectins), and Tou Youyou (1930-) (China) (first Nobel Prize from PRC) (artemisinin); Econ.: Sir Angus Stewart Deaton (1945-) (Scotland) (analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare).

Too bad, still no woman winner of the Nobel Econ. Prize. Oh no, when will they begin the protest #NOBELSTOOWHITE?




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